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1

Drug-Induced Parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is the second-most-common etiology of parkinsonism in the elderly after Parkinson's disease (PD). Many patients with DIP may be misdiagnosed with PD because the clinical features of these two conditions are indistinguishable. Moreover, neurological deficits in patients with DIP may be severe enough to affect daily activities and may persist for long periods of time after the cessation of drug taking. In addition to typical antipsychotics, DIP may be caused by gastrointestinal prokinetics, calcium channel blockers, atypical antipsychotics, and antiepileptic drugs. The clinical manifestations of DIP are classically described as bilateral and symmetric parkinsonism without tremor at rest. However, about half of DIP patients show asymmetrical parkinsonism and tremor at rest, making it difficult to differentiate DIP from PD. The pathophysiology of DIP is related to drug-induced changes in the basal ganglia motor circuit secondary to dopaminergic receptor blockade. Since these effects are limited to postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors, it is expected that presynaptic dopaminergic neurons in the striatum will be intact. Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging is useful for diagnosing presynaptic parkinsonism. DAT uptake in the striatum is significantly decreased even in the early stage of PD, and this characteristic may help in differentiating PD from DIP. DIP may have a significant and longstanding effect on patients' daily lives, and so physicians should be cautious when prescribing dopaminergic receptor blockers and should monitor patients' neurological signs, especially for parkinsonism and other movement disorders. PMID:22523509

Shin, Hae-Won

2012-01-01

2

GPi pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease with drug-induced psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levodopa-induced psychosis may seriously threaten the ability of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to continue leading an independent life. A retrospective assessment of the therapeutic effects of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) pallidotomy on the activities of daily living (ADL) of seven PD patients presenting with mild or moderate degrees of psychosis was carried out. Their scores according to the

Kazumichi Yamada; Satoshi Goto; Yukitaka Ushio

2003-01-01

3

Parkinson's disease: the treatment of drug-induced hallucinations and psychosis.  

PubMed

Drug-induced psychosis is one of the most disabling complications of advancing Parkinson's disease. It has also been one of the most difficult to treat. Clozapine was the first medication shown to be safe and effective in this setting, and it remains the standard by which newer atypical antipsychotics are measured. However, due to the small but significant risk of agranulocytosis and the need for frequent blood testing, alternatives have been sought. Risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine are new atypical antipsychotics that have each been proposed as an alternative to clozapine, but the literature concerning their use in Parkinson's disease is conflicted and confusing. Although quetiapine appears to be the best current choice, none of these medications have equaled clozapine's ability to safely treat drug-induced psychosis without the risk of worsening parkinsonism. PMID:11898537

Molho, E S; Factor, S A

2001-07-01

4

Increased response to visual feedback of drug-induced dyskinetic movements in advanced Parkinson's disease  

E-print Network

movements during visually guided manual tracking? Two major types of involuntary movements in PD, action's disease during manual tracking with and without visual feedback. Six inpatients at the DepartmentIncreased response to visual feedback of drug-induced dyskinetic movements in advanced Parkinson

Miall, Chris

5

The interhemispheric connections of the striatum: implications for Parkinson’s disease and drug-induced dyskinesias  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of nigrostriatal neurons and depletion of dopamine. This pathological feature leads to alterations to basal ganglia circuitry and subsequent motor disability. Pharmacological dopamine replacement therapy with medications such as levodopa ameliorates the symptoms of PD but can lead to motor complications known as drug-induced dyskinesias. We have recently shown that clinically hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys do not develop levodopa-induced dyskinesias despite chronic intermittent exposure and significant unilateral loss of nigrostriatal neurons and dopamine. It is currently unclear what mechanisms prevent the onset of dyskinesias in these animals. However, based on our study and results from previous lesioning studies in both the rat and monkey models of PD, we hypothesize that one potential mechanism that may prevent the genesis of dyskinesias in these animals is interhemispheric inhibition. Two potential interhemispheric connections that may modulate dyskinesias are the interhemispheric nigrostriatal and corticostriatal pathways. Few investigators have examined the interhemispheric nigrostriatal and corticostriatal connections and the functional role they may play in drug-induced dyskinesias in PD. Therefore, in the following review, we assess the neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral properties of these interhemispheric connections. Future studies evaluating these interhemispheric striatal pathways and the pathophysiological changes that occur to these pathways in the dyskinetic state are warranted to further develop treatments that prevent or mitigate drug-induced dyskinesias in PD. PMID:21963946

Lieu, Christopher A.; Subramanian, Thyagarajan

2011-01-01

6

Drug-induced impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Dopamine replacement treatment with excessive or aberrant dopamine receptor stimulation can cause behavioral disturbances in Parkinson's disease, comprising dopamine dysregulation syndrome, punding, and impulse control disorders. Common impulse control disorders are compulsive buying, pathological gambling, binge eating, hypersexuality, and compulsive reckless driving. PMID:21560063

Reiff, J; Jost, W H

2011-05-01

7

Bifrontal ECT for drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Psychosis has been documented to occur during treatment for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). This case report describes an elderly male who developed psychosis during the course of treatment for idiopathic PD. He was treated with clozapine but experienced significant adverse effects without clinical improvement. He was prescribed bifrontal electroconvulsive therapy (BF-ECT). Here, we report the efficacy of BF-ECT in treating psychosis and motor symptoms in PD, without producing cognitive side effects in an elderly male. PMID:21772651

Muralidharan, K; Thimmaiah, R; Chakraborty, V; Jain, S

2011-04-01

8

Drug-induced impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine replacement treatment with excessive or aberrant dopamine receptor stimulation can cause behavioral disturbances\\u000a in Parkinson’s disease, comprising dopamine dysregulation syndrome, punding, and impulse control disorders. Common impulse\\u000a control disorders are compulsive buying, pathological gambling, binge eating, hypersexuality, and compulsive reckless driving.

J. Reiff; W. H. Jost

2011-01-01

9

Drug-induced psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Problems, management and dilemma.  

PubMed

Psychotic symptoms develop in 20-30% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving chronic anti-PD medications, and visual hallucinations with or without delirium and paranoid delusions are the most frequent symptoms. Psychotic symptoms disturb ADL and QOL of PD patients and tax caregivers far more than the motor disabilities do, and good management of drug-induced psychotic symptoms is potentially important. Withdrawal of anti-PD drugs relieves the patients from psychotic side effects, but worsens the parkinsonian motor symptoms. The first step of treatment is to eliminate triggering factors other than anti-PD drugs, such as infections, metabolic disorders, subdural hematoma, and hallucinogenic drugs. The second step is to eliminate anti-PD drugs in the following order; first anticholinergics, amantadine and selegiline, second dopamine agonists, and finally levodopa/carbidopa. Anti-PD medications should be reduced to the point of improving psychotic side effects without drastically worsening parkinsonian motor symptoms. When the above adjustments fail to sufficiently alleviate psychotic side effects, the third step is consideration of antipsychotic drugs although they have potential capacity to antagonize dopamine D2 receptors and worsen parkinsonism. Atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine are recommended, though the former is not available in Japan. PMID:11697685

Kuzuhara, S

2001-09-01

10

Manganese-induced Parkinsonism among ephedrone users and drug policy in Poland.  

PubMed

A recent government's prohibition policy in Poland was partially successful with a reduction of the synthetic drugs market and a decrease in drug-related poisoning mortality rates. However, a new threatening trend is observed. There are a growing number of individuals in Poland and other European countries using legal pharmaceuticals containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to produce stimulants. This case report describes a history of a male patient with polysubstance dependence who administered self-designed ephedrone derived from Sudafed using potassium permanganate. He revealed significant clinical symptoms of manganese-induced parkinsonism. No effective treatment could be recommended. Awareness of this severe neurological and social consequences should lead to prevention efforts including educational programs and initiatives reducing availability of the legal medications containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. More research is needed to enhance our knowledge about manganism and potential treatment regimens. PMID:23609215

Fudalej, Sylwia; Ko?odziejczyk, Iwona; Gajda, Tomasz; Majkowska-Zwoli?ska, Beata; Wojnar, Marcin

2013-01-01

11

Generic vs. Branded Drugs for Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... that manufacture a generic formulation of carbidopa/levodopa, dopamine agonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and anticholinergics. If you ... vs. Branded Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease Carbidopa/levodopa Dopamine Agonists Amantadine (Symmetrel®) Anticholinergic Drugs COMT-inhibitors MAO- ...

12

Treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease with ziprasidone can induce severe dose-dependent off-periods and pathological laughing.  

PubMed

"Atypical anti-psychotics" are substances of choice in treating drug-induced psychosis (DP) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We report on four patients with DP who received treatment with ziprasidone after previously applied clozapine and quetiapine had failed. Three patients showed a significant improvement of DP, without deterioration of motor function. In one case, ziprasidone considerably increased decline in off-periods. Two patients developed pathological laughing as a possible side-effect of ziprasidone. Ziprasidone may serve as an additional "atypical anti-psychotic" for the treatment of DP in PD but can also induce deterioration of motor function. PMID:16949733

Schindehütte, Jan; Trenkwalder, Claudia

2007-02-01

13

Clinical characteristics of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   In order to characterize the clinical spectrum of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism (NIP), we studied a population of consecutive\\u000a psychiatric in-patients treated with neuroleptics for at least two weeks, who were diagnosed by their psychiatrist as having\\u000a parkinsonism. Parkinsonism was confirmed by a movement disorders specialist who performed neurological assessment including\\u000a the motor examination and the activities of daily living (ADL)

S. Hassin-Baer; P. Sirota; A. D. Korczyn; T. A. Treves; B. Epstein; H. Shabtai; T. Martin; Y. Litvinjuk; N. Giladi

2001-01-01

14

Neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism is associated with olfactory dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective\\u000a   There is increasing evidence for olfactory deficits in patients with extrapyramidal disorders, but little is known about their\\u000a occurrence in patients with drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). The present study was performed to investigate olfactory\\u000a function in depressed patients with drug-induced parkinsonism under treatment with D2-blocking neuroleptic drugs compared\\u000a to depressed controls on similar neuroleptic dose without EPS (no-EPS), and

Stephanie Krüger; Antje Haehner; Claudia Thiem; Thomas Hummel

2008-01-01

15

Pharmacogenetics of Parkinson’s Disease – Through Mechanisms of Drug Actions  

PubMed Central

In the last years due to development of molecular methods a substantial progress in understanding of genetic associations with drug effects in many clinical disciplines has been observed. The efforts to define the role of genetic polymorphisms in optimizing pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease (PD) were also undertaken. So far, some promising genetic loci for PD treatment were determined. In the review pharmacogenetic aspects of levodopa, dopamine agonists and COMT inhibitors are discussed. PMID:24532988

Dro?dzik, Marek; Bia?ecka, Monika; Kurzawski, Mateusz

2013-01-01

16

?6?2* and ?4?2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors As Drug Targets for Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is a debilitating movement disorder characterized by a generalized dysfunction of the nervous system, with a particularly prominent decline in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Although there is currently no cure, drugs targeting the dopaminergic system provide major symptomatic relief. As well, agents directed to other neurotransmitter systems are of therapeutic benefit. Such drugs may act by directly improving functional deficits in these other systems, or they may restore aberrant motor activity that arises as a result of a dopaminergic imbalance. Recent research attention has focused on a role for drugs targeting the nicotinic cholinergic systems. The rationale for such work stems from basic research findings that there is an extensive overlap in the organization and function of the nicotinic cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in the basal ganglia. In addition, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) drugs could have clinical potential for Parkinson's disease. Evidence for this proposition stems from studies with experimental animal models showing that nicotine protects against neurotoxin-induced nigrostriatal damage and improves motor complications associated with l-DOPA, the “gold standard” for Parkinson's disease treatment. Nicotine interacts with multiple central nervous system receptors to generate therapeutic responses but also produces side effects. It is important therefore to identify the nAChR subtypes most beneficial for treating Parkinson's disease. Here we review nAChRs with particular emphasis on the subtypes that contribute to basal ganglia function. Accumulating evidence suggests that drugs targeting ?6?2* and ?4?2* nAChR may prove useful in the management of Parkinson's disease. PMID:21969327

Wonnacott, Susan

2011-01-01

17

Drug-induced hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

18

Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse, and Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as “dopamine based”. There are five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1 to M5). Due to their overlapping expression patterns and the lack of receptor subtype-specific ligands, the roles of the individual muscarinic receptors have long remained elusive. During the past decade, studies with knockout mice lacking specific muscarinic receptor subtypes have greatly advanced our knowledge of the physiological roles of the M1–M5 receptors. Recently, new ligands have been developed that can interact with allosteric sites on different muscarinic receptor subtypes, rather than the conventional (orthosteric) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse, and Parkinson’s disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knockout mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess the roles of M1, M4, and M5 receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:22389751

2011-01-01

19

Eye Movements in Ephedrone-Induced Parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

Patients with ephedrone parkinsonism (EP) show a complex, rapidly progressive, irreversible, and levodopa non-responsive parkinsonian and dystonic syndrome due to manganese intoxication. Eye movements may help to differentiate parkinsonian syndromes providing insights into which brain networks are affected in the underlying disease, but they have never been systematically studied in EP. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded in 28 EP and compared to 21 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects using standardized oculomotor tasks with infrared videooculography. EP patients showed slow and hypometric horizontal saccades, an increased occurrence of square wave jerks, long latencies of vertical antisaccades, a high error rate in the horizontal antisaccade task, and made more errors than controls when pro- and antisaccades were mixed. Based on oculomotor performance, a direct differentiation between EP and PD was possible only by the velocity of horizontal saccades. All remaining metrics were similar between both patient groups. EP patients present extensive oculomotor disturbances probably due to manganese-induced damage to the basal ganglia, reflecting their role in oculomotor system. PMID:25117825

Megrelishvili, Marika; Sieger, Tomáš; Matoušková, Olga; Okujava, Michael; Brožová, Hana; Nikolai, Tomáš; Hanuška, Jaromír; Kapianidze, Mariam; Mikeladze, Nina; Botchorishvili, Nazi; Khatiashvili, Irine; Janelidze, Marina; Serranová, Tereza; Fiala, Ond?ej; Roth, Jan; Bergquist, Jonas; Jech, Robert; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Gaymard, Bertrand; R?ži?ka, Evžen

2014-01-01

20

Eye movements in ephedrone-induced parkinsonism.  

PubMed

Patients with ephedrone parkinsonism (EP) show a complex, rapidly progressive, irreversible, and levodopa non-responsive parkinsonian and dystonic syndrome due to manganese intoxication. Eye movements may help to differentiate parkinsonian syndromes providing insights into which brain networks are affected in the underlying disease, but they have never been systematically studied in EP. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded in 28 EP and compared to 21 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects using standardized oculomotor tasks with infrared videooculography. EP patients showed slow and hypometric horizontal saccades, an increased occurrence of square wave jerks, long latencies of vertical antisaccades, a high error rate in the horizontal antisaccade task, and made more errors than controls when pro- and antisaccades were mixed. Based on oculomotor performance, a direct differentiation between EP and PD was possible only by the velocity of horizontal saccades. All remaining metrics were similar between both patient groups. EP patients present extensive oculomotor disturbances probably due to manganese-induced damage to the basal ganglia, reflecting their role in oculomotor system. PMID:25117825

Bonnet, Cecilia; Rusz, Jan; Megrelishvili, Marika; Sieger, Tomáš; Matoušková, Olga; Okujava, Michael; Brožová, Hana; Nikolai, Tomáš; Hanuška, Jaromír; Kapianidze, Mariam; Mikeladze, Nina; Botchorishvili, Nazi; Khatiashvili, Irine; Janelidze, Marina; Serranová, Tereza; Fiala, Ond?ej; Roth, Jan; Bergquist, Jonas; Jech, Robert; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Gaymard, Bertrand; R?ži?ka, Evžen

2014-01-01

21

[Drug treatment of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia--common features and differences].  

PubMed

Dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are no rare causes of dementia. Both have neuropathologically, clinically, and neurochemically much in common. In the course of both conditions frequently psychotic symptoms occur, often induced by antiparkinsonian medication. Treatment of psychotic features with conventional antipsychotics is not tolerated in many cases. Therefore low-dose clozapine treatment is acknowledged usual practise for psychosis in Parkinson's disease and a case report indicates efficacy for psychosis in DLB, too. All other atypical antipsychotics except risperidone are not licensed for dementia in Germany, but risperidone is contraindicated in DLB due to manufacturer's notice and usually not well tolerated in DLB and Parkinson's disease. Open trials indicate safety for treatment of psychosis in DLB and PDD with quetiapine. Randomized controlled trials indicate, that quetiapine is less effective than clozapine against psychotic symptoms in both conditions, although comparatively safe. Cholinesterase inhibitors, especially rivastigmine, are a therapeutic alternative for treating both psychotic and cognitive symptoms in both conditions. Parkinsonism in DLB-patients responds worse to levodopa compared to patient with Parkinson's disease. Anticholinergic drugs often induce delirium in demented patients and therefore should be avoided. The same problem is associated with dopamine agonists in PDD and DLB. Amantadine, a NMDA-receptor antagonist like memantine, potentially bears the same risk of worsening psychotic symptoms. The following preliminary recommendation for drug treatment of PDD and DLB can be given: Stop all anticholinergic medication and reduce levodopa and other antiparkinsonian medication to the tolerated minimum. Levodopa alone is preferred. Treat with cholinesterase inhibitors to the maximum tolerated dose. If there is no adequate response regarding psychotic symptoms, add quetiapine. If this approach fails, replace quetiapine by low-dose clozapine. If behavioural disturbances are due to depression, anxiety, or irritability, treatment with an antidepressant, preferably citalopram, is an option. PMID:21428015

Drach, Lutz M

2011-02-01

22

Neuropathy in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Intestinal Levodopa Infusion versus Oral Drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Severe polyneuropathy has been observed in a number of patients treated for Parkinson’s disease with Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel infusion. This may reflect a rare individual complication or a systematic side effect. Objective To investigate whether peripheral nerve function differed between patients with oral treatment versus Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel infusion. Methods In an observational design, data from median, tibial, and peroneal neurography were prospectively assessed and compared between patients with conventional drug treatment (n?=?15) and with Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel infusion (n?=?15). The groups were matched for age and disease duration. In view of the medical risk profile for polyneuropathy, comorbidity and basic serological parameters were assessed. Results Axonal neuropathy was common in both patient groups. However, although group differences in risk factors for polyneuropathy were not evident, neurographic abnormalities were more severe in the patients treated with Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel infusion than in the orally treated patients. In the group with Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel infusion, the degree of neuropathic change correlated with weight lost since therapy initiation and with the drug dose. In contrast to the axonal abnormalities, conduction velocity was found normal in both groups. Conclusion The results are compatible with the promotion of axonal neuropathy by Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel infusion. This could be due to the intrinsically high levodopa doses associated with the therapy and/or malnutritional effects from intestinal drug application. The results should be corroborated by a larger longitudinal and controlled trial. PMID:23818953

Jugel, Constanze; Ehlen, Felicitas; Taskin, Birol; Marzinzik, Frank; Müller, Thomas; Klostermann, Fabian

2013-01-01

23

Multimodal drugs and their future for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

This chapter discusses the rationale for developing multimodal or multifunctional drugs (also called designed multiple ligands or DMLs) aimed at disease-modifying treatment strategies for the most common neurodegenerative diseases Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (AD and PD). Both the prevalence and incidence of AD and PD have seen consistent and dramatic increases, a disconcerting phenomenon which, ironically, has been attributed to extended life expectancy brought about by better health care globally. In spite of these statistics, the development and introduction to the clinic of new therapies proven to prevent or delay the onset of AD and PD have been disappointing. Evidence has accumulated to suggest that the etiopathology of these diseases is extremely complex, with an array of potential drug targets located within a number of deleterious biochemical pathways. Therefore, in these diseases, it is unlikely that the complex pathoetiological cascade leading to disease initiation or progression will be mitigated by any one drug acting on a single pathway or target. The pursuit of novel DMLs may offer far better outcomes. Although certainly not the only, and perhaps not even the best, approach but farthest along the drug development pipeline in the DML paradigm are drugs that combine inhibition of monoamine oxidase with associated etiological targets unique to either AD or PD. These compounds will constitute the major focus of this chapter, which will also explore radically new paradigms that seek to combine cognitive enhancers with proneurogenesis compounds. PMID:21971005

Van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Geldenhuys, Werner J

2011-01-01

24

Targeting GTPases in Parkinson’s disease: comparison to the historic path of kinase drug discovery and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Neurological diseases have placed heavy social and financial burdens on modern society. As the life expectancy of humans is extended, neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, have become increasingly common among senior populations. Although the enigmas of Parkinson’s diseases await resolution, more vivid pictures on the cause, progression, and control of the illness are emerging after years of research. On the molecular level, GTPases are implicated in the etiology of Parkinson’s disease and are rational pharmaceutical targets for their control. However, targeting individual GTPases, which belong to a superfamily of proteins containing multiple members with a conserved guanine nucleotide binding domain, has proven to be challenging. In contrast, pharmaceutical pursuit of inhibition of kinases, which constitute another superfamily of proteins with more than 500 members, has been fairly successful. We reviewed the breakthroughs in the history of kinase drug discovery to provide guidance for the GTPase field. We summarize recent progress made in the regulation of GTPase activity. We also present an efficient and cost effective approach to drug screening, which uses multiplex flow cytometry and mixture-based positional scanning libraries. These methods allow simultaneous measurements of both the activity and the selectivity of the screened library. Several GTPase activator clusters were identified which showed selectivity against different GTPase subfamilies. While the clusters need to be further deconvoluted to identify individual active compounds, the method described here and the structure information gathered create a foundation for further developments to build upon. PMID:24926233

Hong, Lin; Sklar, Larry A.

2014-01-01

25

Drug-induced panniculitides.  

PubMed

A substantial number of all panniculitides fails to recognize a specific etiology, and that is true also for a relatively frequent type of panniculitis, such as erythema nodosum (EN). Between the recognized causative factors of panniculitides, infectious, physical agents, autoimmune mechanisms and neoplastic disorders are well known. On the contrary, the role of drugs as inducers of panniculitides is marginally considered, and their report limited to anecdotal observations, often without due histopathological support. Since the clinical and histopathological features of drug-induced panniculitides are indistinguishable from those caused by other agents, the causative relationship may be demonstrated by the history of previous drug intake and by clinical improvement after drug discontinuation. We reviewed the currently reported descriptions of drug-induced panniculitis, including a few exemplificative original observations. EN results as the most frequently reported drug-induced panniculitis. Among the causative drugs of EN a variety of medications, with disparate, or even opposite, mechanisms of action are reported, thus limiting the understanding of the pathogenesis. Common causative drugs include oral contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiobiotics and leukotriene-modifying agents. Unfortunately, in several cases, the diagnosis of drug-induced EN is done on clinical findings alone. In those cases, the lack of histopathological support does not allow to define a precise clinicopathological correlation on etiologic grounds. Drug-induced lobular and mixed panniculitides, including eosinophilic panniculitis, are even more rarely described. Reported causative agents are glatiramer acetate, interferon beta and heparin (at sites of injections), and systemic steroids, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and BRAF with subcutaneous fat involvement at distance. In view of the recent introduction of new classes of drugs, attention should be paid to disclose their possible etiologic role in inducing among other side effects, also panniculitides. PMID:24819647

Borroni, G; Torti, S; D'Ospina, R M; Pezzini, C

2014-04-01

26

Drug-induced hyperkalemia.  

PubMed

Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia. PMID:25047526

Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

2014-09-01

27

New drug delivery strategies for improved Parkinson's disease therapy.  

PubMed

Increasing interest has been addressed toward the introduction of new therapeutic approaches to obtaining continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS). The goal of this therapeutic strategy is to reduce the occurrence and severity of L-DOPA (LD)-associated motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, and provide good long-term safety and tolerability. CDS can be achieved by the administration of oral dopamine (DA) agonists with a long half-life, transdermal or subcutaneous delivery of DA agonists, or intestinal LD infusion. To allow higher concentrations of LD to reach the brain and to reduce peripheral side effects, the therapeutic approach provides the concomitant administration of LD, carbidopa and entacapone that have been developed in tablet form, standard LD/carbidopa, LD/benserazide, LD/entacapone, LD/tolcapone associations or long-acting controlled release formulations, LD/carbidopa and LD/benserazide. Alternatively to solid formulations, LD/carbidopa liquid forms have been developed. Furthermore, the authors examine a series of new LD codrugs and non-dopaminergic drugs for Parkinson's disease treatment, together with a variety of experimental delivery strategies including transdermal therapeutic systems, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and biocompatible microparticles. This review provides an overview of progress in anti-Parkinson therapy, mainly focused on delivery strategies and codrug approach for treatment of this neurological disorder. PMID:19382882

Di Stefano, Antonio; Sozio, Piera; Iannitelli, Antonio; Cerasa, Laura Serafina

2009-04-01

28

Exacerbation of postural tremor with emergence of parkinsonism after treatment with neuroleptic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroleptic medication in three patients with prior isolated postural arm tremor led to a conspicuous deterioration; the postural tremor increased in amplitude, tremor appeared at rest, and other signs of mild parkinsonism developed. Withdrawal of neuroleptic drugs led to improvement in tremor and disappearance of parkinsonism. Positron emission tomography showed no reduction in uptake of [18F]dopa into nigrostriatal terminals suggesting

E D Playford; T C Britton; P D Thompson; D J Brooks; L J Findley; C D Marsden

1995-01-01

29

Vitiligo, drug induced (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat (macular) and depigmented, but maintains ...

30

Thrombocytopenia - drug induced  

MedlinePLUS

... the condition is called drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Heparin, a blood thinner, is the most common cause ... include: Immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) given through a vein Plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) Platelet transfusions Corticosteroids

31

Tetrabenazine improves levodopa-induced peak-dose dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Since levodopa-induced peak dyskinesias (LIDs) may reflect, in part, a disproportionate phasic release of dopamine from synaptic vesicles, we examined the ability of the vesicular depletor tetrabenazine (TBZ) to reduce LIDs in 10 dyskinetic advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. After basal evaluation, the patients received, through a slow titration, oral TBZ twice a day for six weeks (up to 50 mg daily) before being re-assessed after a challenge with levodopa. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) dyskinesia score (items 32 to 34). TBZ was well tolerated. A clear treatment effect on LIDs emerged (up to 45%, p<0.05). In two patients a little worsening of motor performance necessitated an increase of the antiparkinsonian therapy, which did not worsen peak-dose LIDs. The patients experienced a clear benefit in terms of their quality of life. In this open-label pilot study, orally administered TBZ resulted in objective and subjective improvements in LIDs. Larger pharmacological studies are in progress. PMID:24125559

Brusa, Livia; Orlacchio, Antonio; Stefani, Alessandro; Galati, Salvatore; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Iani, Cesare; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

2013-01-01

32

Drug-Induced Cholestasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medications and herbal supplements can induce a variety of hepatic, acute, and chronic cholestatic syndromes including bland\\u000a cholestasis, cholestasis with concurrent hepatitis, bile duct injury, and extrahepatic biliary strictures and stones. Most\\u000a cases of drug- and herbal-induced cholestasis are benign, but progression to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and death is\\u000a well described. We discuss the different types of cholestasis that

James P. Hamilton; Jacqueline M. Laurin

33

Atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often develop psychotic symptoms that severely affect quality of life and limit the use of medications to ameliorate motor symptoms. Psychotic symptoms are a major cause for nursing home placement. While these symptoms do not always require treatment, they often do but antipsychotic drugs all share the common pharmacological mechanism of blocking dopamine D2 receptors which may worsen motor problems in this very vulnerable population. Double blind, placebo controlled trials (DBPCT) have shown that clozapine is effective at controlling the psychotic symptoms at doses far below those used in schizophrenia, without worsening motor function, even improving tremor. DBPCT have demonstrated that olanzapine worsens motor function without improving psychosis. Quetiapine has been shown in DBPCT to be free of motor side effects in PD patients but not effective, whereas many open label studies have indicated that quetiapine is effective. The other atypical have been the subjects of conflicting open label reports. The effects of the atypicals in PD psychosis is reviewed. PMID:22095576

Friedman, Joseph H

2011-12-01

34

Drug-induced uveitis.  

PubMed

A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates. PMID:23522744

London, Nikolas Js; Garg, Sunir J; Moorthy, Ramana S; Cunningham, Emmett T

2013-01-01

35

Drug-induced uveitis  

PubMed Central

A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates. PMID:23522744

2013-01-01

36

Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

2009-01-01

37

Drug-induced pulmonary disease  

MedlinePLUS

Drug-induced pulmonary disease is lung disease brought on by a bad reaction to a medicine. ... Maldonado F, Limper AH. Drug-induced pulmonary disease. In: Mason RJ, ... of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

38

Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that can cause significant disability and decreased quality of life. The cardinal physical signs of the disease are distal resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and asym- metric onset. Levodopa is the primary treatment for Parkinson's disease; however, its long-term use is limited by motor complications and drug-induced dyskinesia. Dopamine agonists are options for initial

SHOBHA S. RAO; LAURA A. HOFMANN; AMER SHAKIL

2006-01-01

39

Modes of drug delivery used to manage Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative condition after Alzheimer's disease and with an ageing population, the burden of care will only increase. This article presents an overview of the condition, its pharmacological and care management, and novel treatment approaches. PMID:16922099

Noble, Carolyn

40

Peripheral catecholamine output in Parkinson's disease: Effects of drug treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports have indicated depressed levels of catecholamines in the adrenal medulla of advanced Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients undergoing autologous transplant and at autopsy. Such an adrenal defect might have compromised the efficacy of autologous transplants in PD patients. The question arose whether these findings were the result of a generalized defect in catecholamine metabolism in both central and peripheral

Stewart A. Factor; Allan S. Schneider

1995-01-01

41

Classic toxin-induced animal models of Parkinson’s disease: 6-OHDA and MPTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological disorders in humans can be modeled in animals using standardized procedures that recreate specific pathogenic events and their behavioral outcomes. The development of animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is important to test new neuroprotective agents and strategies. Such animal models of PD have to mimic, at least partially, a Parkinson-like pathology and should reproduce specific features of the

Andreas Schober

2004-01-01

42

Excessive levels of nitric oxide in rat model of Parkinson’s disease induced by rotenone  

PubMed Central

Systemic rotenone models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are highly reproducible and may provide evidence on the pathogenesis of PD. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats (1-year-old) were subcutaneously administered with rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day) for six days and observed for the following three weeks. Compared with the control rats, a significant decrease was observed in the body weight and a marked increase was observed in the areas under the behavioral scoring curves in the rotenone-treated rats. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the abundance of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons was markedly reduced following rotenone treatment. ELISA and neurochemical assays demonstrated a significant increase in the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase, whereas a marked decrease was observed in the thiol levels in the brains of the rotenone-treated rats. Thus, subacute rotenone treatment was found to induce behavioral deficits and the loss of nigral TH-positive neurons which may be associated with the excessive levels of NO in the rat brains.

XIONG, ZHONG-KUI; LANG, JUAN; XU, GANG; LI, HAI-YU; ZHANG, YUN; WANG, LEI; SU, YAO; SUN, AI-JING

2015-01-01

43

Chronic Dopamimetic Drug Addiction and Pathologic Gambling in Patients with Parkinson's Disease - Presentation of Four Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor and neuropsychiatric features. Within the latter, conditions such as psychosis, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), levodopa addiction and pathologic gambling are con- sidered as secondary to the use of dopamimetic drugs. We present four patients with PD who developed clini- cal criteria for levodopa and pathologic gambling addiction, generalized anxiety disorder and OCD. They

Marcos Serrano-Dueńas

44

Ranitidine reduced levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic administration of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease leads to debilitating involuntary movements, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). The pathogenesis of LID is poorly understood. Previous research has shown that histamine H2 receptors are highly expressed in the input (striatum) and output (globus pallidus, substantia nigra) regions of the basal ganglia, particularly in the GABAergic striatopallidal and striatonigral pathways. Therefore, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist could be used to reduce LID. In the present work, we investigated whether ranitidine has the potential to diminish LID in rats with dyskinesia and explored the underlying mechanisms involved. Methods A rat model of PD was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Valid PD rats were then treated with levodopa (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and benserazide (12.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 21 days to induce a rat model of LID. The acute and chronic effects of administration of ranitidine at different doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg) on abnormal involuntary movements, levodopa-induced rotations, and the forelimb adjusting steps test were investigated in LID rats. The chronic effect of ranitidine (10 mg/kg) on the expression of Arc and proenkephalin was also evaluated. Results Levodopa elicited increased dyskinesia in PD rats. Acute ranitidine treatment had no effect on LID, but chronic ranitidine administration (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg) reduced LID in rats with dyskinesia. Importantly, levodopa-induced rotations were not affected by chronic treatment with ranitidine. In addition, chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg) significantly improved stepping of the lesioned forepaw. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that Arc and proenkephalin levels were reduced by chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg) in dyskinetic rats. Conclusion These data indicate that ranitidine is a good adjunct for reducing LID in rats with dyskinesia. Inhibition of dopamine D1-mediated activation in the medium spiny neurons may account for the antidyskinetic effects of ranitidine in rats with dyskinesia. PMID:24379672

Cui, Guiyun; Yang, Xinxin; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zunsheng; Yue, Xuanye; Shi, Hongjuan; Shen, Xia

2014-01-01

45

Severe drug-induced dermatoses.  

PubMed

A variety of common dermatoses are known to have drug-induced variants. This article discusses the clinical presentation, time frames, reported culprit medications, pathophysiology and management of drug-induced lupus, cutaneous vasculitis, pemphigus, pemphigoid, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, Sweet's syndrome, erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum, pseudolymphoma, lichen planus, and psoriasis. PMID:25037258

Ahronowitz, Iris; Fox, Lindy

2014-03-01

46

Nobiletin treatment improves motor and cognitive deficits seen in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice.  

PubMed

Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid found in citrus fruit peel, reportedly improves memory impairment in rodent models. Here we report its effect on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced motor and cognitive deficits. Nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.) for 2 consecutive weeks improved motor deficits seen in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice by 2weeks, an effect that continued until 2weeks after drug withdrawal. Drug treatment promoted similar rescue of MPTP-induced cognitive impairment at equivalent time points. Nonetheless, nobiletin treatment did not block loss of dopaminergic neurons seen in the MPTP-treated mouse midbrain, nor did it rescue decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels seen in the striatum or hippocampal CA1 region of these mice. Interestingly, nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.) rescued reduced levels of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and phosphorylation at Thr-34 of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32) in striatum and hippocampal CA1 to levels seen in sham-operated mice. Likewise, CaMKII- and cAMP kinase-dependent TH phosphorylation was significantly restored by nobiletin treatment. MPTP-induced reduction of dopamine contents in the striatum and hippocampal CA1 region was improved by nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.). Acute intraperitoneal administration of nobiletin also enhanced dopamine release in striatum and hippocampal CA1, an effect partially inhibited by treatment with nifedipine (a L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor) or NNC 55-0396 (a T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor) and completely abolished by combined treatment with both. Overall, our study describes a novel nobiletin activity in brain and suggests that nobiletin rescues motor and cognitive dysfunction in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice, in part by enhancing dopamine release. PMID:24316474

Yabuki, Y; Ohizumi, Y; Yokosuka, A; Mimaki, Y; Fukunaga, K

2014-02-14

47

Calcium entry induces mitochondrial oxidant stress in vagal neurons at risk in Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial oxidant stress is widely viewed as critical to pathogenesis in Parkinson’s disease. But the origins of this stress are poorly defined. One possibility is that it arises from the metabolic demands associated with regenerative activity. To test this hypothesis, neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), a population cholinergic neurons that shows signs of pathology in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease, were characterized in mouse brain slices. DMV neurons were slow, autonomous pacemakers with broad spikes, leading to calcium entry that was weakly buffered. Using a novel transgenic mouse expressing a redox-sensitive optical probe targeted to the mitochondrial matrix, it was found that calcium entry during pacemaking created a basal mitochondrial oxidant stress. Knocking out DJ-1 – a gene associated with early-onset Parkinson’s disease – exacerbated this stress. These results point to a common mechanism underlying mitochondrial oxidant stress in Parkinson’s disease and a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate it. PMID:22941107

Goldberg, Joshua A.; Guzman, Jaime N.; Estep, Chad M.; Ilijic, Ema; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Sanchez-Padilla, Javier; Surmeier, D. James

2012-01-01

48

Oncoprotein Akt/PKB induces trophic effects in murine models of Parkinson's disease  

E-print Network

Oncoprotein Akt/PKB induces trophic effects in murine models of Parkinson's disease Vincent Ries an established role in the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases. One impediment has been the diffi, neurons affected in Parkinson's disease, by adeno-associated virus 1 trans- duction with a gene encoding

Burke, Robert E

49

Drug-Induced Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uveitis has been reported in association with a variety of topical, intraocular, periocular, and systemic medications. To establish causality of adverse events by drugs, in 1981, Naranjo and associates proposed seven criteria, which are related to the frequency and documentation of the event; circumstances of occurrence, recovery, and recurrence; and coexistence of other factors or medications. Rarely does a drug

Ramana S. Moorthy; Shailaja Valluri; Lee M. Jampol

1998-01-01

50

Non-drug-induced nephrotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several drugs and other compounds can induce acute and\\/or chronic nephrotoxicity. The goal of this study was to review clinical\\u000a features of nephrotoxicity induced by ‘atypical’ or ‘unconventional’ agents, such as environmental agents (metals, minerals,\\u000a animals), food agents (mushrooms, aristolochic acid, medicinal traditional herbals, dietary supplements, melamine), drugs,\\u000a and other products (ethylene glycol). Nephrotoxicity varies according to local background, dependent

Justine Bacchetta; Laurence Dubourg; Laurent Juillard; Pierre Cochat

2009-01-01

51

Rotigotine is safe and efficacious in Atypical Parkinsonism Syndromes induced by both ?-synucleinopathy and tauopathy  

PubMed Central

Transdermal rotigotine (RTG) is a non-ergot dopamine agonist (D3>D2>D1), and is indicated for use in early and advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). RTG patch has many potential advantages due to the immediacy of onset of the therapeutic effect. Of note, intestinal absorption is not necessary and drug delivery is constant, thereby avoiding drug peaks and helping patient compliance. In turn, transdermal RTG seems a suitable candidate in the treatment of atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APS). Fifty-one subjects with a diagnosis of APS were treated with transdermal RTG. The diagnoses were: Parkinson’s disease with dementia, multiple system atrophy Parkinsonian type, multiple system atrophy cerebellar type, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism. Patients were evaluated by the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS; part III), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and mini–mental state examination (MMSE) and all adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Patients treated with RTG showed an overall decrease of UPDRS III scores without increasing behavioral disturbances. Main AEs were hypotension, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, tachycardia, and dystonia. On the whole, 15 patients were affected by AEs and seven patients suspended RTG treatment due to AEs. The results show that transdermal RTG is effective with a good tolerability profile. RTG patch could be a good therapeutic tool in patients with APS. PMID:24940065

Moretti, Davide Vito; Binetti, Giuliano; Zanetti, Orazio; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista

2014-01-01

52

Drug-induced diarrhea  

MedlinePLUS

Diarrhea associated with medications ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...

53

[Drug-induced liver injury].  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver injury represents the principal cause of acute liver failure and orthotopic liver transplantation in western country. A very large number of different drugs and medicinal herbs has been associated with liver injury but just for few of them we know the process that causes liver disease. All the people which ingest a large number of drugs present a risk of developing liver injury. Diagnosis is very difficult because a specific biomarker of damage is absent and the clinical picture is common to other liver diseases. A therapeutic approach is efficacy only in few cases. When a drug-induced liver injury is suspected, cessation of the drug is the first step in their management. PMID:22430754

Abenavoli, Ludovico; Libri, Emanuela; Bosco, Domenico; Gallo, Dionisio; Luzza, Francesco

2012-02-01

54

Chemotherapy-induced parkinsonism responsive to levodopa: an underrecognized entity.  

PubMed

Parkinsonism is a rare neurological complication of cancer treatment. Although individual case reports of this syndrome have been reported, the clinical features and prevalence of this syndrome are unknown. We present 3 patients, encountered over 6 months at one institution, who developed parkinsonism after treatment with various chemotherapeutic agents. Parkinsonism was severe in 2 patients, affecting postural reflexes, speech, and swallowing. All 3 patients responded dramatically to treatment with levodopa, and parkinsonism spontaneously improved or remitted over months. This unusual complication of cancer therapy is treatable and may be underappreciated. PMID:12621638

Chuang, Cathy; Constantino, Anne; Balmaceda, Casilda; Eidelberg, David; Frucht, Steven J

2003-03-01

55

Drug-induced nail disorders.  

PubMed

Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects. PMID:25162091

2014-07-01

56

A novel compound PTIQ protects the nigral dopaminergic neurones in an animal model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In Parkinson's disease, the dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra undergo degeneration. While the exact mechanism for the degeneration is not completely understood, neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation are thought to be key contributors. We have recently established that MMP-3 plays crucial roles in dopaminergic cell death and microglial activation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We tested the effects of 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-propionyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (PTIQ) on expression of MMP-3 and inflammatory molecules and dopaminergic cell death in vitro and in an animal model of Parkinson's disease, and Parkinson's disease-related motor deficits. The pharmacokinetic profile of PTIQ was also evaluated. KEY RESULTS PTIQ effectively suppressed the production of MMP-3 induced in response to cellular stress in the dopaminergic CATH.a cell line and prevented the resulting cell death. In BV-2 microglial cells activated with lipopolysaccharide, PTIQ down-regulated expression of MMP-3 along with IL-1?, TNF-? and cyclooxygenase-2 and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-?B. In the mouse model of Parkinson's disease, induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), PTIQ attenuated the associated motor deficits, prevented neurodegeneration and suppressed microglial activation in the substantia nigra. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed it was relatively stable against liver microsomal enzymes, did not inhibit the cytochrome p450 isozymes or the hERG ion channel, exhibited no cytotoxicity on liver cells or lethality when administered at 1000 mg kg?1 and entered the brain rather rapidly yielding a 28% brain:plasma ratio after i.p. injection. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest PTIQ has potential as a candidate drug for disease-modifying therapy for Parkinson's disease. PMID:21951056

Son, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Ae; Shin, Nari; Choi, Ji Hyun; Seo, Jai Woong; Chi, Dae Yoon; Lee, Cheol Soon; Kim, Eun-Mee; Choe, Han; Hwang, Onyou

2012-01-01

57

Drug-Induced Blood Dyscrasias  

PubMed Central

Categories of undesirable effects of drugs are described. Recent experiments on the production of hypersensitization (1) by the use of ECT solution to enhance skin sensitization to penicillin, (2) through the activity of common metabolites of different drugs, and (3) to a non-sensitizing drug by pretreatment with a sensitizing agent are reviewed. The mechanism of hemolytic anemia due to an inherited enzymatic defect and that of drug-induced purpura and the agranulocytic agents is discussed. The three groups of drugs—(1) rarely toxic, e.g. quinine; (2) always toxic in sufficient amounts, e.g. nitrogen mustard; (3) intermediate, e.g. chloramphenicol—are presented, with special consideration of chloramphenicol. It is the responsibility of the pharmacologist to develop and adopt newer methods for toxicity detection, and of the clinician to practise caution in prescribing drugs and to attempt the early recognition of any disorder they may induce. The incidence, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and prognosis of the drug-induced dyscrasias are discussed. PMID:14005657

Weil, Paul G.

1962-01-01

58

Gastrodia elata Blume alleviates L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia by normalizing FosB and ERK activation in a 6-OHDA-lesioned Parkinson’s disease mouse model  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB), commonly used medicinal herb, has been reported as a promising candidate for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. The dopamine precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), is the gold-standard drug for Parkinson’s disease, but long-term treatment results in the L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). This study was undertaken to examine the beneficial effects of GEB on L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced experimental Parkinsonism. Methods We tested the effects of GEB on LID in 6-hydroxydopamine hydrochloride-hemiparkinsonian mice. To analyze the dyskinetic anomalies, we measured abnormal involuntary movement (AIM). Immunohistological analyses of pERK and FosB expressions in the striatum are performed to explore the mechanism of GEB on LID. Results The finding of this study demonstrated that GEB (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) alleviated L-dopa induced AIMs in a dose-dependent manner. In each integrative AIM subtype analysis, we also found that the GEB (400 and 800 mg/kg) treatment decreased L-DOPA-induced axial, limb, orolingual, and locomotive AIMs compared to the LID group. In addition, GEB normalized the abnormal LID-induced increase of pERK1/2 and FosB, the immediate early genes of LID in the striatum. Conclusions In conclusion, our results provide a novel insight into the pharmacological actions of GEB that could have a benefit for PD patients through the reduction of LID. PMID:24650244

2014-01-01

59

Reversible parkinsonism induced by prolonged treatment with valproate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two patients who developed levodopa-responsive parkinsonism without dementia at least 4 years after beginning\\u000a chronic valproate (VPA) treatment for seizures. Parkinsonism disappeared in less than 3 months after VPA substitution with\\u000a carbamazepine.

Marco Onofrj; Astrid Thomas; Cristina Paci

1998-01-01

60

Urinary Homovanillic Acid and c-AMP in Drug-Free Parkinson Patients: Effect of L-Dopa Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homovanillic acid (HVA) and adenosine-3´5´-monophosphate (c-AMP) were estimated in the morning urine of 33 drug-free Parkinson patients and 25 hospitalized controls. 21 of the patients had never been treated; the mean duration of the illness was 2.6 years. Parkinson patients excreted more HVA and less c-AMP compared to the controls; it was the subgroup with tremor as the main symptom

Manolis Markianos; Maria Hadjikonstantinou

1981-01-01

61

Drug induced rhabdomyolysis  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition of potential life threatening destruction of skeletal muscle caused by diverse mechanisms including drugs and toxins. Given the fact that structurally not related compounds cause an identical phenotype pinpoints to common targets or pathways, responsible for executing rhabdomyolysis. A drop in myoplasmic ATP paralleled with sustained elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration represents a common signature of rhabdomyolysis. Interestingly, cardiac tissue is hardly affected or only secondary, as a consequence of imbalance in electrolytes or acid–base equilibrium. This dogma is now impaired by compounds, which show up with combined toxicity in heart and skeletal muscle. In this review, cases of rhabdomyolysis with novel recently approved drugs will be explored for new target mechanisms in the light of previously described pathomechanisms. PMID:22560920

Hohenegger, Martin

2012-01-01

62

Drug-induced Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

2011-01-01

63

Drug-induced corneal damage.  

PubMed

Corneal damage can have a variety of causes, including infections, chemical splashes, environmental factors (radiation, trauma, contact lenses, etc.), and systemic diseases (genetic, autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic, etc.). A wide range of drugs can also damage the cornea. The severity of drug-induced corneal changes can range from simple asymptomatic deposits to irreversible, sight-threatening damage. Several factors can influence the onset of corneal lesions. Some factors, such as the dose, are treatment-related, while others such as contact lenses, are patient-related. A variety of mechanisms may be involved, including corneal dryness, changes in the corneal epithelium, impaired wound healing and deposits. Many drugs can damage the cornea through direct contact, after intraocular injection or instillation, including VEGF inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, local anaesthetics, glaucoma drugs, fluoroquinolones, and preservatives. Some systemically administered drugs can also damage the cornea, notably cancer drugs, amiodarone and isotretinoin. Vulnerable patients should be informed of this risk if they are prescribed a drug with the potential to damage the cornea so that they can identify problems in a timely manner. It may be necessary to discontinue the suspect drug when signs and symptoms of corneal damage occur. PMID:24860895

2014-04-01

64

Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

2012-01-01

65

Repeated occurrence of clozapine-induced myocarditis in a patient with schizoaffective disorder and comorbid Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Myocarditis is a rare but life threatening adverse effect of clozapine. Some symptoms of myocarditis--elevated temperature, tachycardia and fatigue--appear commonly during the onset of treatment with clozapine and during the dose titration. We present a case of a patient with concurrent schizoaffective disorder and Parkinson's disease, who twice developed clozapine-induced myocarditis. All symptoms disappeared after the discontinuation of the drug. Early diagnosis, discontinuation of clozapine and supportive therapy of myocarditis lower the risk of a fatal outcome. PMID:19300384

Masopust, Jiri; Urban, Ales; Valis, Martin; Malý, Radovan; T?ma, Ivan; Hosák, Ladislav

2009-03-01

66

Mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), shows multiple pharmacological actions such as inhibiting presynaptic ?2 noradrenaline receptor (NAR) and selectively activating 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) 1A receptor (5-HT1AR). Mirtazapine was also reported to increase dopamine release in the cortical neurons with 5-HT dependent manner. To examine whether mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in Parkinson’s disease (PD), we examined this compound in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice model of PD. Results Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to MPTP treatment to establish a PD model. Mirtazapine was administered once a day for 3 days after MPTP treatment. MPTP-induced motor dysfunction, assessed by beam-walking and rota-rod tests, was significantly improved by administration of mirtazapine. Biochemical examinations by high performance liquid chromatography and western blot analysis suggested mirtazapine facilitated utilization of dopamine by increasing turnover and protein expression of transporters, without affecting on neurodegenerative process by MPTP. These therapeutic effects of mirtazapine were reduced by administration of WAY100635, an inhibitor for 5HT1AR, or of clonidine, a selective agonist for ?2-NAR, or of prazosin, an inhibitor for ?1-NAR, respectively. Conclusion Our results showed mirtazapine had a therapeutic potency against PD in a mouse model. Because PD patients sometimes show depression together, it will be a useful drug for a future PD treatment. PMID:24965042

2014-01-01

67

Investigation into the dosage form attributes of currently UK licensed cardiovascular and Parkinson's disease drug products.  

PubMed

Globally, there is a continuous rise in the older population (over 65 years), particularly in developed countries. As many diseases are age-related, older adults represent a highly heterogeneous cohort. This presents a major challenge for both the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this research was to attract attention towards the appropriateness of geriatric formulations by investigating the dosage form attributes of currently UK licensed cardiovascular and Parkinson's disease drug products. Medication available in the UK for cardiovascular disorders and Parkinson's disease were screened and the available formulations, packaging and patient information leaflets of these medicines were analysed, with the goal of raising awareness of the need to cater for elderly patients with increasing difficulty in managing their medication. It emerged that although cardiovascular disorders and Parkinson's disease are more prevalent in older people, many treatment options have not been optimised for this cohort. In particular, older patient centred dosage forms, specific dosing requirements, excipients, patient-friendly packaging and easy-to-follow patient information were highlighted as areas to be considered in order to optimise health outcomes in the ageing population. PMID:25556052

Hanning, S M; Muhamed, J; Orlu-Gul, M

2015-02-01

68

Drugs induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification, PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly appetite suppressant drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used but are also considered as possible risk factors for PAH. Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, in part reversible after its withdrawal. Recently several studies raised the potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. Other possible risk factors for PAH include: nasal decongestants, like phenylpropanolamine, dietary supplement - L-Tryptophan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, pergolide and other drugs that could act on 5HT2B receptors. Interestingly, PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drugs induced PAH. PMID:23972547

Seferian, Andrei; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Savale, Laurent; Günther, Sven; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David

2013-09-01

69

Molecular Mechanisms of Pesticide-induced Neurotoxicity: Relevance to Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural and other settings, resulting in continued human exposure. Pesticide toxicity has been clearly demonstrated to alter a variety of neurological functions. Particularly, there is strong evidence suggesting that pesticide exposure predisposes to neurodegenerative diseases. Epidemiological data has suggested a relationship between pesticide exposure and brain neurodegeneration. However, an increasing debate has aroused regarding this issue. Paraquat is a highly toxic quaternary nitrogen herbicide which has been largely studied as a model for Parkinson’s disease providing valuable insight into the possible mechanisms involved in the toxic effects of pesticides and their role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we review the molecular mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic actions of pesticides, with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms associated with the induction neuronal cell death by paraquat as a model for Parkinsonian neurodegeneration. PMID:20542017

Franco, Rodrigo; Li, Sumin; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Burns, Michaela; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.

2010-01-01

70

Neuroprotective effect of metformin in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease in mice.  

PubMed

Metformin a well known antidiabetic drug has been recently investigated and proposed to promote neurogenesis and enhance the spatial memory formation. In the present study, we aim to investigate the neuroprotective effect of metformin with respect to Parkinson's disease (PD). MPTP (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) (25mg/kg) along with Probenecid (250 mg/kg) was administrated for five consecutive days to induce Parkinsonism in mice. Metformin 500 mg/kg was administrated orally for 21 days. Motor co-ordination and locomotor activities were evaluated by rotarod and open-field tests. The oxidative stress levels were assessed by estimating the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) specifically in the midbrain. Dopaminergic degeneration was evaluated by analyzing the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by immunostaining and nissl staining of the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. In addition brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was also estimated. Our findings demonstrated that long-term metformin treatment resulted in significant improvement of the locomotor and muscular activities in MPTP-treated mice than acute treatment. Metformin treatment significantly improved the antioxidant activity as compared to MPTP-treated group. TH-positive cells decreased up to 16% in MPTP-treated mice as compared to normal mice (P<0.001) and were found to be protected from degeneration in metformin-treated mice (47%, P<0.01). Interestingly, BDNF levels were found to be significantly elevated in metformin treatment group as compared to MPTP treatment mice (P<0.001). In conclusion, metformin possesses neuroprotective activity and provides preclinical support for therapeutic prospective of this compound in the treatment of PD. PMID:25108167

Patil, S P; Jain, P D; Ghumatkar, P J; Tambe, R; Sathaye, S

2014-09-26

71

Drug-induced esophageal strictures.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of 55 patients with a benign esophageal stricture showed that in 11 patients (20%) the cause was a drug-induced lesion due to potassium chloride (3), tetracyclines (3), aspirin (2), vitamin C (1), phenytoin (1), and quinidine (1). Five of the 11 patients would have been diagnosed as having a reflux etiology of their stricture if 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring was not performed. Six patients responded to dilatation and five patients required resection or bypass. A prospective study of 18 asymptomatic volunteers showed a high incidence of esophageal lodgment of a radiolabeled medicinal capsule, with subsequent dissolution and release of the isotope. This occurred most frequently in elderly subjects and was reduced by increasing the volume of water chaser. The sites of lodgment correspond to the location of the observed strictures in the patient population. An in vitro study showed that, when the causative drugs were mixed with saliva, dissolution occurred within 60 minutes and was associated with significant changes in pH. These investigations show that drug-induced esophageal strictures are more common than previously appreciated, and can be confused with a reflux etiology. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of drug ingestion, location of the stricture, and a normal esophageal acid exposure on 24-hour pH monitoring. The severity of the esophageal injury is variable and requires dilatation to resection for therapy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3606243

Bonavina, L; DeMeester, T R; McChesney, L; Schwizer, W; Albertucci, M; Bailey, R T

1987-01-01

72

Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Dyskinetic disorders are characterized by excess of motor activity that may interfere with normal movement control. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the chronic levodopa treatment induces dyskinetic movements known as levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). This paper analyzed the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, pharmacological treatments, and surgical procedures to treat hyperkinetic disorders. Surgery is currently the only treatment available for Parkinson's disease that may improve both parkinsonian motor syndrome and LID. However, this paper shows the different mechanisms involved are not well understood. PMID:23125942

Guridi, J.; González-Redondo, R.; Obeso, J. A.

2012-01-01

73

[Mania with psychotic feature induced by the use of pramipexole in Parkinson's disease: a case report].  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by movement abnormalities, is frequently complicated by psychiatric syndromes. Psychiatric symptoms may be the direct result of PD, its co-morbid pathologies, or occur as a side effect of its pharmacotherapy. Pramipexole, like other dopamine agonists for treating Parkinson's disease , has a tendency to induce psychotic and manic symptoms due to central dopaminergic stimulation. In this article, mania with psychotic feature induced by the use of dopamine agonists which is not observed frequently in the literature will be discussed. PMID:25219695

Meriç, Ceren; Pirdo?an, Efruz; Günday Toker, Ömür; Tekin, Atilla; Bak?m, Bahad?r; Çelik, Selime

2014-01-01

74

TOM40 Mediates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by ?-Synuclein Accumulation in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Alpha-synuclein (?-Syn) accumulation/aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction play prominent roles in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that postmortem human dopaminergic neurons from PD brains accumulate high levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We now addressed the question, whether alterations in a component of the mitochondrial import machinery -TOM40- might contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction and damage in PD. For this purpose, we studied levels of TOM40, mtDNA deletions, oxidative damage, energy production, and complexes of the respiratory chain in brain homogenates as well as in single neurons, using laser-capture-microdissection in transgenic mice overexpressing human wildtype ?-Syn. Additionally, we used lentivirus-mediated stereotactic delivery of a component of this import machinery into mouse brain as a novel therapeutic strategy. We report here that TOM40 is significantly reduced in the brain of PD patients and in ?-Syn transgenic mice. TOM40 deficits were associated with increased mtDNA deletions and oxidative DNA damage, and with decreased energy production and altered levels of complex I proteins in ?-Syn transgenic mice. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of Tom40 in ?-Syn-transgenic mice brains ameliorated energy deficits as well as oxidative burden. Our results suggest that alterations in the mitochondrial protein transport machinery might contribute to mitochondrial impairment in ?-Synucleinopathies. PMID:23626796

Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Elstner, Matthias; Laub, Christoph; Mueller, Sarina; Koob, Andrew O.; Mante, Michael; Pham, Emily; Klopstock, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer

2013-01-01

75

Parkinson's Disease Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... TM for Treatment of Motor Fluctuations in Advanced Parkinson’s Disease January 12, 2015 PDF alerts the community that ... for the treatment of motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease. The drug’s manufacturer, AbbVie, Inc., announced the approval ...

76

On the discovery and development of pimavanserin: a novel drug candidate for Parkinson's psychosis.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) is a condition that may develop in up to 60 % of Parkinson's patients, and is a major reason for nursing home placement for those affected. There are no FDA approved drugs for PDP but low doses of atypical anti-psychotic drugs (APDs) are commonly prescribed off-label. Only low-dose clozapine has shown efficacy in randomized controlled trials, but all APDs have black box warnings related to the increased mortality and morbidity when used in elderly demented patients. Using molecular pharmacological profiling of a large collection of marketed drugs, we discovered that potent inverse agonist activity against 5-HT2A serotonin receptors was a common feature of atypical APDs, especially the atypical APDs used to treat PDP. Since low-dose clozapine therapy selectively blocks this receptor, it was hypothesized that a highly selective 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist might provide good symptom control in patients suffering from PDP, with a greatly improved safety and tolerability profile. A high throughput screening and subsequent chemical lead optimization campaign to develop potent, selective 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonists was launched, eventually resulting in the discovery of pimavanserin. Pimavanserin displays nanomolar potency as a 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist, selectivity for 5-HT2A over 5-HT2C receptors, and no meaningful activity at any other G-protein coupled receptor. It demonstrated robust activity in preclinical models of schizophrenia and PDP, and did not worsen motoric symptoms, in contrast to the APDs tested. In a Phase III clinical trial, pimavanserin showed highly significant benefits in the primary endpoint, the scale for assessment of positive symptoms-PD, a scale adapted for use in PDP. In addition, improvements in all other efficacy endpoints, including physician's clinical global impression, caregiver burden, night-time sleep quality and daytime wakefulness, were seen. Pimavanserin demonstrated good safety and tolerability and did not worsen motoric symptoms as assessed by the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale parts II and III. An open-label extension study has further demonstrated that pimavanserin is safe and well-tolerated with long-term use. Pimavanserin may therefore offer a viable treatment option for patients suffering from PDP. PMID:24682754

Hacksell, Uli; Burstein, Ethan S; McFarland, Krista; Mills, Roger G; Williams, Hilde

2014-10-01

77

Cue-induced striatal dopamine release in Parkinson's disease-associated impulsive-compulsive behaviours.  

PubMed

Impulsive-compulsive behaviours are a significant source of morbidity for patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopaminergic therapy. The development of these behaviours may reflect sensitization of the neural response to non-drug rewards, similar to that proposed for sensitization to drug rewards in addiction. Here, by using (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography imaging, we investigated the effects of reward-related cues and L-dopa challenge in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulsive-compulsive behaviours on striatal levels of synaptic dopamine. Eighteen patients (11 with and seven without impulsive-compulsive behaviours) underwent three (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography scans. The impulsive-compulsive behaviours included hypersexuality, binge eating, punding, compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, compulsive buying and pathological gambling, with eight patients exhibiting more than one impulsive-compulsive behaviour. There were no significant differences in baseline dopamine D2 receptor availability between the Parkinson's disease groups. No differences were found when comparing the percentage change of raclopride binding potential between the two Parkinson's disease groups following L-dopa challenge with neutral cues. The group with Parkinson's disease with impulsive-compulsive behaviours had a greater reduction of ventral striatum (11)C-raclopride binding potential following reward-related cue exposure, relative to neutral cue exposure, following L-dopa challenge (16.3% compared with 5.8% in Parkinson's disease controls, P?=?0.016). The heightened response of striatal reward circuitry to heterogeneous reward-related visual cues among a group of patients with different impulsive-compulsive behaviours is consistent with a global sensitization to appetitive behaviours with dopaminergic therapy in vulnerable individuals. Our findings are relevant for the broader debate on the relation between impulsive-compulsive behaviours and addictions and may have important implications with regards to advertisement legislation in an effort to prevent the onset of behavioural addictions. PMID:21349901

O'Sullivan, Sean S; Wu, Kit; Politis, Marios; Lawrence, Andrew D; Evans, Andrew H; Bose, Subrata K; Djamshidian, Atbin; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola

2011-04-01

78

Drug-induced bone loss.  

PubMed

Bone loss leading to osteoporosis is common after the menopause and in the elderly but uncommon in normal young adults without predisposing factors. The risk factors usually associated with osteoporosis include a family history of osteoporosis or fractures, aging, prior diseases, sedentary lifestyle, low calcium intake, hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption. However, the issue of drugs has to be considered in 'normal' individuals who present with osteoporosis or bone loss without predisposing genetic or other environmental factors. The list of drugs is extensive and includes, amongst others, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone (excess), alcohol, medroxyprogesterone acetate, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists, anti-seizure medications, cyclosporine A, aluminium, lithium, and exchange resins. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and mechanisms of drug-induced bone loss, which includes osteoporosis and osteomalacia, and treatment concepts. Undoubtedly, physician awareness, appropriate investigation, careful prescribing, monitoring, and proper therapy for this eminently preventable side effect can preserve bone in the patients receiving bone-losing drugs. PMID:11095167

Tannirandorn, P; Epstein, S

2000-01-01

79

Oxidative stress-induced signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative movement disorder; however, its etiology remains elusive. Nevertheless, in vivo observations have concluded that oxidative stress is one of the most common causes in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. It is known that mitochondria play a crucial role in reactive oxygen species-mediated pathways, and several gene products that associate with mitochondrial function are the subject of Parkinson's disease research. The PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) protects cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and is linked to the autosomal recessive familial form of the disease. PINK1 is a key player in many signaling pathways engaged in mitophagy, apoptosis, or microglial inflammatory response and is induced by oxidative stress. Several proteins participate in mitochondrial networks, and they are associated with PINK1. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin, the protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like serine protease, the tyrosine kinase c-Abl, the protein kinase MARK2, the protease HtrA2, and the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) provide different steps of control in protection against oxidative stress. Furthermore, environmental toxins, such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, have been identified as contributors to parkinsonism by increasing oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons. The present review discusses the mechanisms and effects of oxidative stress, the emerging concept of the impact of environmental toxins, and a possible neuroprotective role of the antioxidant astaxanthin in various neurodegenerative disorders with particular emphasis in Parkinson's disease. PMID:24522549

Gaki, Georgia S; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

2014-06-01

80

Expression of multi-drug resistance 1 mRNA in human and rodent tissues: reduced levels in Parkinson patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane transporter multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1, P-gp) regulates the bioavailability of endogenous and exogenous compounds\\u000a and has been implicated in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, cancer, epilepsy, human immunodeficiency virus disease,\\u000a and inflammatory bowel disease. To promote further understanding of the role of MDR1 in disease, we have characterized cellular\\u000a MDR1 mRNA expression in post-mortem human and fresh-frozen Sprague-Dawley

Marie Westerlund; Andrea Carmine Belin; Lars Olson; Dagmar Galter

2008-01-01

81

Differentiation between the contributions of shortening reaction and stretch-induced inhibition to rigidity in Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinsonian rigidity is characterized by an increased resistance of a joint to externally imposed motion that remains uniform with changing joint angle. Two candidate mechanisms are proposed for the uniformity of rigidity, involving neural-mediated excitation of shortening muscles, i.e., shortening reaction (SR), or inhibition of stretched muscles, i.e., stretch-induced inhibition (SII). To date, no study has addressed the roles of these two phenomena in rigidity. The purpose of this study was to differentiate these two phenomena, and to quantify the potential contribution of each to wrist joint moment in 17 patients with parkinsonian rigidity, in both Off- and On-medication states. Joint position, torque, and EMGs of selected muscles were collected during externally imposed flexion and extension motions. Moments of shortened and stretched muscles were estimated using a biomechanical model. Slopes of the estimated torque–angle curve were calculated for shortened and stretched muscles, separately. A mixed model ANOVA was performed to compare the contribution between the two mechanisms. During flexion, slopes were significantly (P = 0.003) smaller for SR than for SII, whereas during extension, slopes for SII were significantly (P = 0.003) smaller. Results showed that both SR and SII contributed to rigidity. Which mechanism predominates appeared to be associated with the direction of movement. The findings provide new insights into the biomechanical underpinnings of this common symptom in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:21347660

Powell, Douglas; Rymer, W. Zev; Hanson, Nicholas; Fang, Xiang; Threlkeld, A. Joseph

2011-01-01

82

Analysis of l-dopa induced dyskinesias in 51 patients with Parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of 51 patients with Parkinsonism who have developed L-dopa induced dyskinesias is presented. The cause has not been proven, although various hypotheses are discussed. One third of the total number of patients treated developed dyskinesia. These patients tend to respond better to L-dopa than the other group. There is a tendency for the older patient or the patient

R. J. Mones; T. S. Elizan; G. J. Siegel

1971-01-01

83

The Parkinson’s disease death rate: carbidopa and vitamin B6  

PubMed Central

The only indication for carbidopa and benserazide is the management of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa)-induced nausea. Both drugs irreversibly bind to and permanently deactivate pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, and PLP-dependent enzymes. PLP is required for the function of over 300 enzymes and proteins. Virtually every major system in the body is impacted directly or indirectly by PLP. The administration of carbidopa and benserazide potentially induces a nutritional catastrophe. During the first 15 years of prescribing L-dopa, a decreasing Parkinson’s disease death rate was observed. Then, in 1976, 1 year after US Food and Drug Administration approved the original L-dopa/carbidopa combination drug, the Parkinson’s disease death rate started increasing. This trend has continued to the present, for 38 years and counting. The previous literature documents this increasing death rate, but no hypothesis has been offered concerning this trend. Carbidopa is postulated to contribute to the increasing Parkinson’s disease death rate and to the classification of Parkinson’s as a progressive neurodegenerative disease. It may contribute to L-dopa tachyphylaxis. PMID:25364278

Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Cole, Ted

2014-01-01

84

Dementia in Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Dementia in Parkinson’s disease encompasses a spectrum relating to motor, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms that are classified\\u000a as either Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) (initial cognitive symptoms) or Parkinson’s Disease Dementia (PDD) (initial motor\\u000a signs preceding cognitive symptoms by at least a year). Anticholinergic and antipsychotic drugs have a high risk of adverse\\u000a cognitive and\\/or motor effects, so their

Avrom L. Kurtz; Daniel I. Kaufer

2011-01-01

85

New drug treatments show neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Insulin signaling in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease is impaired. Preclinical studies of growth factors showed impressive neuroprotective effects. In animal models of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, insulin, glia-derived neurotrophic factor, or analogues of the incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 prevented neurodegenerative processes and improved neuronal and synaptic functionality in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. On the basis of these promising findings, several clinical trials are ongoing with the first encouraging clinical results published. This gives hope for developing effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease that are currently unavailable.

Hölscher, Christian

2014-01-01

86

Mapping of brain function after MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in a primate Parkinson's disease model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurophysiological studies of the brain in normal and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have indicated intricate connections for basal ganglia-induced control of signaling into the motor cortex. To investigate if similar mechanisms are controlling function in the primate brain (Macaca fascicularis) after MPTP-induced neurotoxicity, we conducted PET studies of cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism, dopamine transporter, and D2 receptor

Anna-Liisa Brownell; Kelly Canales; Y. Iris Chen; Bruce G Jenkins; Christopher Owen; Elijahu Livni; Meixiang Yu; Francesca Cicchetti; Rosario Sanchez-Pernaute; Ole Isacson

2003-01-01

87

Generalized mathematical-computational-electronic model of MPTP- induced Parkinsonism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The substance 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 tetrahy dropyridine (MPTP) has been studied as a major cause of neurodegeneration dopaminica, which is specifically related to Parkinson's disease. The analysis is in terms of the diffusion of the substance to the mammalian brain, by evaluating the diffusion equation in a spherical coordinate system, being ? (collective diffusion term) spatially modulated. Although the progress of the disease with respect to time has not been established with certainty, an attempt to find a stable pattern of the concentration of MPTP and its effects has been made.

Jaramillo Raquejo, Daniela

2013-05-01

88

Safinamide: from molecular targets to a new anti-Parkinson drug.  

PubMed

Ideal treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) aims at relieving symptoms and slowing disease progression. Of all remedies, levodopa remains the most effective for symptomatic relief, but the medical need for neuroprotectant drugs is still unfulfilled. Safinamide, currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of PD, is a unique molecule with multiple mechanisms of action and a very high therapeutic index. It combines potent, selective, and reversible inhibition of MAO-B with blockade of voltage-dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels and inhibition of glutamate release. Safinamide has neuroprotective and neurorescuing effects in MPTP-treated mice, in the rat kainic acid, and in the gerbil ischemia model. Safinamide potentiates levodopa-mediated increase of DA levels in DA-depleted mice and reverses the waning motor response after prolonged levodopa treatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Safinamide has excellent bioavailability, linear kinetics, and is suitable for once-a-day administration. Therefore, safinamide may be used in PD to reduce l-dopa dosage and also represents a valuable therapeutic drug to test disease-modifying potential. PMID:17030736

Caccia, C; Maj, R; Calabresi, M; Maestroni, S; Faravelli, L; Curatolo, L; Salvati, P; Fariello, R G

2006-10-10

89

Pharmacological strategies for the management of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

L-Dopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) are the most common adverse effects of long-term dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact mechanisms underlying dyskinesia are still unclear. For a long time, nigrostriatal degeneration and pulsatile stimulation of striatal postsynaptic receptors have been highlighted as the key factors for the development of LID. In recent years, PD models have revealed a wide range of non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems involved in pre- and postsynaptic changes and thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of LID. In the current review, we focus on therapeutic LID targets, mainly based on agents acting on dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotoninergic, adrenergic, and cholinergic systems. Despite a large number of clinical trials, currently only amantadine and, to a lesser extent, clozapine are being used as effective strategies in the treatment of LID in clinical settings. Thus, in the second part of the article, we review the placebo-controlled trials on LID treatment in order to disentangle the changing scenario of drug development. Promising results include the extension of L-dopa action without inducing LID of the novel monoamine oxidase B- and glutamate-release inhibitor safinamide; however, this had no obvious effect on existing LID. Others, like the metabotropic glutamate-receptor antagonist AFQ056, showed promising results in some of the studies; however, confirmation is still lacking. Thus, to date, strategies of continuous dopaminergic stimulation seem the most promising to prevent or ameliorate LID. The success of future therapeutic strategies once moderate to severe LID occur will depend on the translation from preclinical experimental models into clinical practice in a bidirectional process. PMID:25342080

Schaeffer, Eva; Pilotto, Andrea; Berg, Daniela

2014-12-01

90

Therapeutic Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide-Releasing L-Dopa Derivative ACS84 on 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD), characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, is a neurodegenerative disorder of central nervous system. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect of ACS84, a hydrogen sulfide-releasing-L-Dopa derivative compound, in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD model. ACS84 protected the SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cell injury and oxidative stress. The protective effect resulted from stimulation of Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and promotion of anti-oxidant enzymes expression. In the 6-OHDA-induced PD rat model, intragastric administration of ACS84 relieved the movement dysfunction of the model animals. Immunofluorescence staining and High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that ACS84 alleviated the loss of tyrosine-hydroxylase positive neurons in the substantia nigra and the declined dopamine concentration in the injured striatums of the 6-OHDA-induced PD model. Moreover, ACS84 reversed the elevated malondialdehyde level and the decreased glutathione level in vivo. In conclusion, ACS84 may prevent neurodegeneration via the anti-oxidative mechanism and has potential therapeutic values for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23573240

Teo, Xing Qi; Tiong, Chi Xin; Tazzari, Valerio; Sparatore, Anna; Soldato, Piero Del; Dawe, Gavin Stewart; Bian, Jin-Song

2013-01-01

91

Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-? pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of proteome changes underlying both nigrostriatal pathways and other brain regions potentially involved in MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. The observed molecular changes provide a valuable reference resource for future hypothesis-driven functional studies of PD. PMID:20155936

Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Weitz, Karl K.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Wood, Stephen A.; Melega, William P.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Desmond J.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

2010-01-01

92

Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model  

SciTech Connect

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-? pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of proteome changes underlying both nigrostriatal pathways and other brain regions potentially involved in MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. The observed molecular changes provide a valuable reference resource for future hypothesis-driven functional studies of PD.

Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Weitz, Karl K.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Wood, Stephen A.; Melega, William P.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Desmond J.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

2010-02-15

93

Management of psychosis in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Psychosis is quite common in Parkinson's disease (approximately 25% of patients) and therefore constitutes a serious public health problem. All patients suffering from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, and especially elderly and demented patients, are at risk of developing delusions or hallucinations. The most prominent psychotogenic factors are dopaminomimetic agents, which may induce dopamine hypersensitivity in the frontal and limbic dopamine projection regions, and consequently, either directly or indirectly, elicit psychotic signs and symptoms. A Parkinson's disease-related cholinergic deficit in combination with an age-related further loss of cholinergic integrity also plays a prominent role. Psychosis in Parkinson's disease patients appears to be a more important contributor to caregiver distress than motor parkinsonism. Psychosis therefore probably represents the single greatest risk factor for nursing home placement. Typical antipsychotic drugs, because of their selective dopamine receptor antagonistic effects, can reduce psychotic signs but at the cost of an increase in parkinsonism. As a consequence of a non-selective antagonism at both serotonergic and dopaminergic receptors, atypical antipsychotic drugs are associated with fewer extrapyramidal side-effects. On the other hand, hypersensitivity to these agents may induce delirium or a malignant neuroleptic syndrome. Atypical antipsychotic agents such as clozapine, quetiapine and olanzapine should therefore be started at very low doses that are increased gradually. Cholinomimetic therapy may prove to be helpful in the prevention and treatment of psychotic manifestations in Parkinson's disease patients, given the effects observed in patients suffering from dementia with Lewy bodies. PMID:11470967

Wolters, E C; Berendse, H W

2001-08-01

94

[Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].  

PubMed

The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

Vasilescu, Raluca

2014-01-01

95

Effect of complex phytoadaptogen on MPTP-induced parkinson's syndrome in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral administration of 10% solution of Phytomix-40 (multicomponent plant phytoadaptogen) to C57Bl\\/6 mice with MPTP-induced\\u000a Parkinson's syndrome alleviated symptoms (oligokinesia and muscle rigidity), compensated for the deficiency of dopamine and\\u000a its metabolites (DOPAC and homovanillic acid), and reduced the level of lipid peroxides in the striatum. In vitro Phytomix-40 in a concentration of 3.310?2 g\\/liter exhibited a pronounced antioxidant effect

E. V. Bocharov; V. G. Kucheryanu; G. N. Kryzhanovskii; O. A. Bocharova; V. S. Kudrin; S. A. Belorustseva

2006-01-01

96

Neuroprotective activity of Stereospermum suaveolens DC against 6-OHDA induced Parkinson's disease model  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Stereospermum suaveolens DC on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinson's disease model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats where parkinson's disease was induced by producing the striatal 6-hydroxy dopamine lesions. The test animals received methanolic extract of Stereospermum suaveolens at dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg for 42 days. Behavioral assessment, spontaneous locomotor activity and muscular coordination were studied. Antioxidant levels, striatal infraction area were assessed and histopathological studies were carried out. Results: The Stereospermum suaveolens DC methanolic extract showed significant dose dependent increase in behavioral activity, improved muscular coordination. Significant reduction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), increased antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and non-enzymatic activity of glutathione (GSH) and total thiol levels in extract treated groups was observed in test groups as compared to control group. Striatal infarction area was significantly reduced in extract treated groups as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of Stereospermum suaveolens DC showed neuroprotective activity against 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinson's disease in rats. PMID:23248404

Shalavadi, M. H.; Chandrashekhar, V. M.; Avinash, S. P.; Sowmya, C.; Ramkishan, A.

2012-01-01

97

Tolcapone: new drug. In Parkinson's disease: unacceptable risk of severe hepatitis.  

PubMed

(1) When patients with Parkinson's disease who are taking levodopa develop motor fluctuations that do not respond to dose adjustments, the standard treatment is the addition of bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agonist. Evaluation of entacapone fails to show whether the risk-benefit balance of this catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor is at least as favourable as that of bromocriptine. (2) Tolcapone, another COMT inhibitor, is back on the French market after being withdrawn because of serious hepatic effects. The summary of product characteristics (SPC) specifies that tolcapone must only be used when entacapone treatment fails or is poorly tolerated. (3) Renewal of marketing authorisation was based on one clinical trial in which about half the patients were probably not resistant to entacapone. No difference in efficacy was found between tolcapone and entacapone. There is no firm evidence that tolcapone is effective in a significant number of patients in whom entacapone fails. (4) Placebo-controlled trials show that first-line treatment with tolcapone 100 mg to 200 mg 3 times a day reduces the duration of motor freezing ("off") periods, but the global impact of tolcapone on parkinsonism appears to be limited. (5) Unblinded randomised controlled trials have failed to show that tolcapone is more effective than bromocriptine or pergolide. There are no trials assessing the use of tolcapone in combination with dopamine agonists. (6) Adverse effects were frequent during clinical trials. They were mainly neurological and gastrointestinal, and differed from those associated with bromocriptine. In 1988, shortly after worldwide marketing of tolcapone, 3 cases of fatal fulminant hepatitis were reported among about 60 000 patients who had taken this drug. Some countries, including European Union member states, withdrew marketing authorisation. Other countries, including the United States, left tolcapone on the market but required stringent monitoring of liver function. Due to a lack of transparency on the part of both the manufacturer and the health authorities, we do not know if these measures reduced the risk of severe hepatitis. In the trial versus entacapone, one of the 75 patients treated with tolcapone 300 mg/day had an abnormal increase in serum transaminase activity. (7) In practice, tolcapone has a negative risk-benefit balance. PMID:16604736

2006-04-01

98

Dopamine-Induced Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) may emerge secondary to the underlying pathogenesis of the disease, while others are recognized side effects of treatment. Inevitably, there is an overlap as the disease advances and patients require higher dosages and more complex medical regimens. The non-motor symptoms that emerge secondary to dopaminergic therapy encompass several domains, including neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sleep. These are detailed in the paper. Neuropsychiatric complications include hallucinations and psychosis. In addition, compulsive behaviors, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, shopping, binge eating, and punding, have been shown to have a clear association with dopaminergic medications. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a compulsive behavior that is typically viewed through the lens of addiction, with patients needing escalating dosages of dopamine replacement therapy. Treatment side effects on the autonomic system include nausea, orthostatic hypotension, and constipation. Sleep disturbances include fragmented sleep, nighttime sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. Recognizing the non-motor symptoms that can arise specifically from dopamine therapy is useful to help optimize treatment regimens for this complex disease. PMID:21603184

Park, Ariane; Stacy, Mark

2011-01-01

99

Dopamine-induced nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) may emerge secondary to the underlying pathogenesis of the disease, while others are recognized side effects of treatment. Inevitably, there is an overlap as the disease advances and patients require higher dosages and more complex medical regimens. The non-motor symptoms that emerge secondary to dopaminergic therapy encompass several domains, including neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sleep. These are detailed in the paper. Neuropsychiatric complications include hallucinations and psychosis. In addition, compulsive behaviors, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, shopping, binge eating, and punding, have been shown to have a clear association with dopaminergic medications. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a compulsive behavior that is typically viewed through the lens of addiction, with patients needing escalating dosages of dopamine replacement therapy. Treatment side effects on the autonomic system include nausea, orthostatic hypotension, and constipation. Sleep disturbances include fragmented sleep, nighttime sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. Recognizing the non-motor symptoms that can arise specifically from dopamine therapy is useful to help optimize treatment regimens for this complex disease. PMID:21603184

Park, Ariane; Stacy, Mark

2011-01-01

100

Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Parkinson’s disease was first described by the London physician, James Parkinson, in 1817 and later named after him by Charcot.\\u000a Parkinson’s disease is one of the most important disabling illnesses of later life. The characteristic tremor, posture and\\u000a clinical course were first depicted by James Parkinson in his essay The Shaking Palsy in 1817; our description today has added\\u000a rigidity

Kartik Logishetty; K Ray Chaudhuri

101

Metabolomic Analysis Provides Insights on Paraquat-Induced Parkinson-Like Symptoms in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ) exposure causes degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in an exposed organism while altered metabolism has a role in various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the study presented here was conceived to depict the role of altered metabolism in PQ-induced Parkinson-like symptoms and to explore Drosophila as a potential model organism for such studies. Metabolic profile was generated in control and in flies that were fed PQ (5, 10, and 20 mM) in the diet for 12 and 24 h concurrent with assessment of indices of oxidative stress, dopaminergic neurodegeneration, and behavioral alteration. PQ was found to significantly alter 24 metabolites belonging to different biological pathways along with significant alterations in the above indices. In addition, PQ attenuated brain dopamine content in the exposed organism. The study demonstrates that PQ-induced alteration in the metabolites leads to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the exposed organism along with movement disorder, a phenotype typical of Parkinson-like symptoms. The study is relevant in the context of Drosophila and humans because similar alteration in the metabolic pathways has been observed in both PQ-exposed Drosophila and in postmortem samples of patients with Parkinsonism. Furthermore, this study provides advocacy towards the applicability of Drosophila as an alternate model organism for pre-screening of environmental chemicals for their neurodegenerative potential with altered metabolism. PMID:25428622

Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Ratnasekhar, Ch; Pragya, Prakash; Chaouhan, Hitesh Singh; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy

2014-11-27

102

Coenzyme Q Induces Nigral Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Prevents Dopamine Cell Loss in a Primate Model of Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine cell loss of the substantia nigra. Parkinson's disease and the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6 tetrahydropyridine may destroy do- pamine neurons through oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q is a cofactor of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins that enhances state-4 respiration and eliminate superoxides. Here we report that short-term oral administration of coenzyme Q induces nigral mitochondrial uncoupling and prevents dopamine

TAMAS L. HORVATH; SABRINA DIANO; CSABA LERANTH; LUIS MIGUEL GARCIA-SEGURA; MICHAEL A. COWLEY; MARYA SHANABROUGH; JOHN D. ELSWORTH; PETER SOTONYI; ROBERT H. ROTH; EDWIN H. DIETRICH; RUSSEL T. MATTHEWS; COLIN J. BARNSTABLE; D. EUGENE REDMOND

2003-01-01

103

Non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Numerous systemically used drugs are involved in drug-induced glaucoma. Most reported cases of non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma are closed-angle glaucoma (CAG). Indeed, many routinely used drugs that have sympathomimetic or parasympatholytic properties can cause pupillary block CAG in individuals with narrow iridocorneal angle. The resulting acute glaucoma occurs much more commonly unilaterally and only rarely bilaterally. CAG secondary to sulfa drugs is a bilateral non-pupillary block type and is due to forward movement of iris–lens diaphragm, which occurs in individuals with narrow or open iridocorneal angle. A few agents, including antineoplastics, may induce open-angle glaucoma. In conclusion, the majority of cases with glaucoma secondary to non-steroidal medications are of the pupillary block closed-angle type and preventable if the at-risk patients are recognized and treated prophylactically. PMID:21637303

Razeghinejad, M R; Pro, M J; Katz, L J

2011-01-01

104

Current status of safinamide for the drug portfolio of Parkinson's disease therapy.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a slowly ongoing neuronal death. This alters dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission and causes a wide variety of motor and non-motor features. Safinamide has a unique pharmacological profile, which combines modulation of dopamine metabolism by reversible, highly specific monoamine oxidase-B inhibition, blockage of voltage-dependent sodium channels, modulation of calcium channels and of glutamate release induced by abnormal neuronal activity. Therefore, safinamide represents an ideal candidate for the treatment of PD. This compound asks for one time daily intake only within an optimum dose range between 50 and 100 mg. In clinical trials, safinamide was well tolerated and safe, improved motor behavior even in combination with dopamine agonist only, ameliorated levodopa-associated motor complications. Safinamide has the potential to become an important compound for the therapy of PD, since its symptomatic efficacy appears to be superior to available monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists like amantadine, according to available trial outcomes. PMID:24053341

Müller, Thomas

2013-09-01

105

Antipsychotic drugs which elicit little or no Parkinsonism bind more loosely than dopamine to brain D2 receptors, yet occupy high levels of these receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses two questions. First, why does clozapine apparently occupy low levels of dopamine D2 receptors in patients, in contrast to all other antipsychotic drugs which occupy 70–80% of brain dopamine D2 receptors? Second, what is the receptor basis of action of antipsychotic drugs which elicit low levels of Parkinsonism? Antipsychotic doses of clozapine occupy between 0% and 50%

P Seeman; T Tallerico

1998-01-01

106

[Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases].  

PubMed

Drug-induced infiltrative lung disease may manifest as variable clinical radiological patterns, including subacute or chronic interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, eosinophilic pneumonia, organising pneumonia, pulmonary edema, or sarcoidosis. A large amount of drugs have been incriminated, including those used in cardiovascular diseases (amiodarone, statins and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors), antibiotics (minocycline, nitrofurantoin), most of anticancer drugs (and especially chemotherapy and chest radiation), treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, as well as more recent drugs. A high index of suspicion is therefore required in any patient with infiltrative lung disease and the web-based tool www.pneumotox.com will help to list possible causative drugs. The following steps are necessary: history and timing of drug exposure, clinical and imaging pattern, exclusion of other causes of infiltrative lung disease, improvement following drug discontinuation. Rechallenge, dangerous, is not recommended. PMID:25362778

Bonniaud, Philippe; Georges, Marjolaine; Favrolt, Nicolas; Camus, Philippe

2014-09-01

107

Static Magnetic Field Exposure Reproduces Cellular Effects of the Parkinson's Disease Drug Candidate ZM241385  

PubMed Central

Background This study was inspired by coalescing evidence that magnetic therapy may be a viable treatment option for certain diseases. This premise is based on the ability of moderate strength fields (i.e., 0.1 to 1 Tesla) to alter the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers and in turn modulate cellular signaling pathways. In particular, previous results from our laboratory (Wang et al., BMC Genomics, 10, 356 (2009)) established that moderate strength static magnetic field (SMF) exposure altered cellular endpoints associated with neuronal function and differentiation. Building on this background, the current paper investigated SMF by focusing on the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in the PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line that displays metabolic features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methodology and Principal Findings SMF reproduced several responses elicited by ZM241385, a selective A2AR antagonist, in PC12 cells including altered calcium flux, increased ATP levels, reduced cAMP levels, reduced nitric oxide production, reduced p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, inhibited proliferation, and reduced iron uptake. SMF also counteracted several PD-relevant endpoints exacerbated by A2AR agonist CGS21680 in a manner similar to ZM241385; these include reduction of increased expression of A2AR, reversal of altered calcium efflux, dampening of increased adenosine production, reduction of enhanced proliferation and associated p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Conclusions and Significance When measured against multiple endpoints, SMF elicited qualitatively similar responses as ZM241385, a PD drug candidate. Provided that the in vitro results presented in this paper apply in vivo, SMF holds promise as an intriguing non-invasive approach to treat PD and potentially other neurological disorders. PMID:21079735

Wang, Zhiyun; Che, Pao-Lin; Du, Jian; Ha, Barbara; Yarema, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

108

Effects of ceftriaxone on the behavioral and neuronal changes in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease rat model.  

PubMed

Hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and treatment with drugs modulating glutamatergic activity may have beneficial effects. Ceftriaxone has been reported to increase glutamate uptake by increasing glutamate transporter expression. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ceftriaxone on working memory, object recognition, and neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat model. MPTP was stereotaxically injected into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of male Wistar rats. Then, starting the next day (day 1), the rats were injected daily with either ceftriaxone (200 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or saline for 14 days and underwent a T-maze test on days 8-10 and an object recognition test on days 12-14. MPTP-lesioned rats showed impairments of working memory in the T-maze test and of recognition function in the object recognition test. The treatment of ceftriaxone decreased the above MPTP-induced cognitive deficits. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that ceftriaxone inhibits MPTP lesion-induced dopaminergic degeneration in the nigrostriatal system, microglial activation in the SNc, and cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 area. In conclusion, these data support the idea that hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in the pathophysiology of PD and suggest that ceftriaxone may be a promising pharmacological tool for the development of new treatments for the dementia associated with PD. PMID:24755306

Ho, Shih-Chun; Hsu, Chih-Chuan; Pawlak, Cornelius Rainer; Tikhonova, Maria A; Lai, Te-Jen; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Ho, Ying-Jui

2014-07-15

109

Treatment of Parkinson’s disease: nanostructured sol–gel silica–dopamine reservoirs for controlled drug release in the central nervous system  

PubMed Central

Introduction We have evaluated the use of silica–dopamine reservoirs synthesized by the sol–gel approach with the aim of using them in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, specifically as a device for the controlled release of dopamine in the striatum. Theoretical calculations illustrate that dopamine is expected to assume a planar structure and exhibit weak interactions with the silica surface. Methods Several samples were prepared by varying the wt% of dopamine added during the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The silica–dopamine reservoirs were characterized by N2 adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro release profiles were determined using ultraviolet visible absorbance spectroscopy. The textural analyses showed a maximum value for the surface area of 620 m2/g nanostructured silica materials. The stability of dopamine in the silica network was confirmed by infrared and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The reservoirs were evaluated by means of apomorphine-induced rotation behavior in hemiparkisonian rats. Results The in vitro dopamine delivery profiles indicate two regimes of release, a fast and sustained dopamine delivery was observed up to 24 hours, and after this time the rate of delivery became constant. Histologic analysis of formalin-fixed brains performed 24–32 weeks after reservoir implantation revealed that silica–dopamine implants had a reddish-brown color, suggesting the presence of oxidized dopamine, likely caused by the fixation procedure, while implants without dopamine were always translucent. Conclusion The major finding of the study was that intrastriatal silica–dopamine implants reversed the rotational asymmetry induced by apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, in hemiparkinsonian rats. No dyskinesias or other motor abnormalities were observed in animals implanted with silica or silica–dopamine. PMID:21289978

López, Tessy; Bata-García, José L; Esquivel, Dulce; Ortiz-Islas, Emma; Gonzalez, Richard; Ascencio, Jorge; Quintana, Patricia; Oskam, Gerko; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando J; Heredia-López, Francisco J; Góngora-Alfaro, José L

2011-01-01

110

Drug hypersensitivity syndrome induced by meglumine antimoniate.  

PubMed

We report a case of drug hypersensitivity syndrome (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms [DRESS]) induced by parenteral meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) in a 40-year-old man who traveled to Bolivia and was treated for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Two weeks after starting therapy, the patient had fever, joint pain, a cutaneous eruption, and hypereosinophilia (1,358 cells/mm(3)). These symptoms resolved after drug withdrawal but reappeared upon reintroduction of the drug. Pentavalent antimonials should be definitively withdrawn in patients with hypereosinophilia > 1,000 cells/mm(3) accompanied by systemic manifestations consistent with DRESS. PMID:19478253

Jeddi, Fakhri; Caumes, Eric; Thellier, Marc; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Mazier, Dominique; Buffet, Pierre A

2009-06-01

111

Treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease: safety considerations.  

PubMed

Psychosis only rarely occurs in patients with untreated Parkinson's disease. Much more commonly, psychosis is induced by drug therapy for Parkinson's disease and is the strongest known risk factor for nursing home placement. Delusions are less frequent than hallucinations, but are more concerning as they are often paranoid in nature. Treatment begins with a search for correctable infectious, toxic, and metabolic aetiologies. If symptoms persist, anti-Parkinson's disease medications are slowly reduced. However, withdrawal of these drugs usually worsens parkinsonism and is often not tolerated. Certain atypical antipsychotics can be used to treat psychosis without compromising motor function. The choice of atypical antipsychotic is largely based on ease of use and adverse effect profile as most have comparable efficacy in improving psychosis. Currently, there are five marketed atypical drugs - clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone. Ziprasidone is the only agent whose adverse effect profile has not been reported in Parkinson's disease. The most common adverse effects of clozapine in Parkinson's disease are sedation, orthostatic hypotension and sialorrhoea. Sedation is generally helpful since these patients are frequently awake at night and tend to have worse behavioural problems then. Clozapine does not induce deterioration of motor function, but it has the potential to cause agranulocytosis, which is idiosyncratic and not dose-related. In risperidone-treated Parkinson's disease patients, reported adverse effects include somnolence, sialorrhoea, dizziness, palpitations, constipation, delirium, fatigue, leg cramps, depression, urinary incontinence and hypotension. Although in some Parkinson's disease studies, risperidone has been well tolerated, others have shown that many patients are unable to tolerate the drug due to deterioration of motor function. While an initial study of olanzapine in Parkinson's disease psychosis showed the drug to be effective without deterioration of motor function, succeeding reports demonstrated a deleterious effect of the drug on motor functioning. The most common adverse effects of quetiapine in Parkinson's disease patients are sedation and orthostatic hypotension. There is a lack of double-blind trials; however, cumulative reports involving >200 Parkinson's disease patients strongly suggest that quetiapine is well tolerated and effective. Unlike clozapine, it does not improve tremor and may induce mild deterioration of motor function. Recently, cholinesterase inhibitors have been reported to alleviate psychosis in Parkinson's disease. Although ondansetron, an antiemetic with antiserotonergic properties, has been reported to relieve psychosis in Parkinson's disease, its prohibitive cost has prevented further study in this population. Electroconvulsive treatment is generally reserved for the patient with psychotic depression who is unable to tolerate any pharmacological therapy. PMID:12814332

Fernandez, Hubert H; Trieschmann, Martha E; Friedman, Joseph H

2003-01-01

112

Psychotic symptoms in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotic symptoms are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and occur in at least 20% of medication-treated patients. Benign visual hallucinations usually appear earlier, while malignant hallucinations, confusional states, delusions, paranoid beliefs, agitation, and delirium become more frequent with disease progression. Virtually all antiparkinsonian drugs may produce psychotic symptoms. Cognitive impairment, increased age, disease duration and severity, depression, and sleep disorders

Spiridon Papapetropoulos; D. C. Mash

2005-01-01

113

Therapy of Morbus Parkinson and radical-induced neurotoxicity in the rat--in vivo voltammetric studies.  

PubMed

In vivo pulse voltammetry was used to study the effect of anti-parkinsonian drugs and of neurotoxins in rat striatum. It could be demonstrated that besides the well-known changes of total dopamine (DA) concentrations the applied drugs affected also the extraneuronal DA metabolism in the living rat. In addition, neurotoxin-treated rats can be used as a model to study some aspects of the Parkinson syndrome. PMID:1283403

Wesemann, W

1992-01-01

114

[Therapeutic effect of a natural squamosamide derivative FLZ on Parkinson's disease model mice induced by LPS plus MPTP].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2-(2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide (FLZ), a novel synthetic squamosamide cyclic derivative, against Parkinson's disease (PD) model mice induced by the inflammatory bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the neurotoxin 1-methy-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). C57/BL mice were ip injected LPS (5 mg x kg(-1)) once. One week following the LPS injection, mice received a subcutaneous injection of MPTP (25 mg x kg(-1)) once daily for 2 days. Eight weeks later, FLZ (25, 50 and 75 mg x kg(-1)) was orally administered to mice once daily for 60 days. The motor ability of the mice was evaluated by rod climbing test and footprint test. The dopamine (DA) levels in mouse striatum were determined by high performance liquid chromatography system. The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells were showed by immunohistochemical analysis. FLZ treatment significantly improved motor dysfunction of mice challenged by LPS plus MPTP. The increase of TH-positive cell numbers and elevation of DA levels may be contributed to the beneficial effects of FLZ on motor behavior. This study showed FLZ has significant therapeutic effect on LPS plus MPTP induced chronic PD model, which indicates its potential as a new candidate drug to treat PD. PMID:24417082

Yu, Ling-Hong; Wei, Huai-Ling; Bao, Xiu-Qi; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Hua

2013-10-01

115

Drug-induced immune neutropenia/agranulocytosis.  

PubMed

Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell in blood and play a critical role in preventing infections as part of the innate immune system. Reduction in neutrophils below an absolute count of 500 cells/pL is termed severe neutropenia or agranulocytosis. Drug-induced immune neutropenia (DIIN) occurs when drug-dependent antibodies form against neutrophil membrane glycoproteins and cause neutrophil destruction. Affected patients have fever, chills, and infections; severe infections left untreated can result in death. Treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor can hasten neutrophil recovery. Cumulative data show that severe neutropenia or agranulocytosis associated with exposure to nonchemotherapy drugs ranges from approximately 1.6 to 15.4 cases per million population per year. Drugs most often associated with neutropenia or agranulocytosis include dipyrone, diclofenac, ticlopidine, calcium dobesilate, spironolactone, antithyroid drugs (e.g., propylthiouracil), carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim, [3-lactam antibiotics, clozapine, levamisole, and vancomycin. Assays used for detection of neutrophil drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) include flow cytometry, monoclonal antibody immobilization of granulocyte antigens, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, granulocyte agglutination, and granulocytotoxicity. However, testing for neutrophil DDAbs is rarely performed owing to its complexity and lack of availability. Mechanisms proposed for DIIN have not been rigorously studied, but those that have been studied include drug- or hapten-induced antibody formation and autoantibody production against drug metabolite or protein adducts covalently attached to neutrophil membrane proteins. This review will address acute, severe neutropenia caused by neutrophil-reactive antibodies induced by nonchemotherapy drugs-DIIN PMID:25247619

Curtis, Brian R

2014-01-01

116

Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The drug-induced long QT syndrome is a distinct clinical entity that has evolved from an electrophysiologic curiosity to a centerpiece in drug regulation and development. This evolution reflects an increasing recognition that a rare adverse drug effect can profoundly upset the balance between benefit and risk that goes into the prescription of a drug by an individual practitioner as well as the approval of a new drug entity by a regulatory agency. This review will outline how defining the central mechanism, block of the cardiac delayed-rectifier potassium current IKr, has contributed to defining risk in patients and in populations. Models for studying risk, and understanding the way in which clinical risk factors modulate cardiac repolarization at the molecular level are discussed. Finally, the role of genetic variants in modulating risk is described. PMID:21079043

Kannankeril, Prince; Darbar, Dawood

2010-01-01

117

Drug-induced Sweet's syndrome by aceclofenac.  

PubMed

Sweet's syndrome (SS) or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis is a reactive process that presents in different clinical settings and ranges from classical (idiopathic), malignancy associated or drug induced. The authors describe a 51-year-old Caucasian woman referred to our department with a 3-day history of pseudovesicular reddish papules on her neck, upper trunk and limbs. Two days prior to the eruption, aceclofenac 100 mg every 8 h was initiated for lower back pain. She also complained of high fever (39°C), arthralgias and general malaise. Laboratory evaluation showed an elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein. A biopsy specimen of skin lesions showed throughout the upper reticular dermis a dense infiltrate of mature neutrophils. Aceclofenac was discontinued and oral prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg) was started. Fever resolved within 48 h, whereas cutaneous lesions cleared within the first week. No relapse was noted after a 6-month follow-up period. Drug-induced SS by aceclofenac diagnosis was sustained by the presence of all the five diagnostic criteria for drug-induced SS presented by Walker and Cohen in 1996. Several hundred cases of SS have been reported in the literature. However, drug-induced SS represent overall less than 5% of all cases, mostly as isolated clinical cases. Reports of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced SS include diclofenac, celecoxib and rofecoxib. Our patient represents the first case of aceclofenac-induced SS and illustrates the need to enquire about recent drugs in a patient with suspicion of SS. PMID:21506881

Carvalho, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Cândida; Afonso, Ana; Cardoso, Jorge

2011-12-01

118

Antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism is associated with working memory deficits in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

In view of the significant cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and their impact on patients' social and occupational functioning, and considering that the influence potential influence of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms on cognition in schizophrenia remains poorly understood, the current study sought to identify the clinical, socio-demographic and neurologic predictors of the cognitive performance of schizophrenia patients. Eighty-two schizophrenia-spectrum (DSM-IV criteria) outpatients were recruited. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Extrapyramidal symptoms were evaluated with the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale, while spatial working, planning abilities and visual paired associates learning were evaluated with the CAmbridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop test was also administered. Multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses were performed. We found that negative symptoms were associated with cognitive flexibility, planning, visual learning and working memory performance in schizophrenia. Age, sex, number of hospitalizations and antipsychotic type also emerged as significant predictors. More importantly, we found a significant association between antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism and working memory performance. The fact that negative symptoms and socio-demographic variables predicted cognitive performance in schizophrenia is consistent with the previous literature on the topic. The finding of an association between parkinsonism and working memory may have clinical implications, since working memory deficits are considered putative endophenotypes of schizophrenia and are known to impair patients' social and occupational functioning. Our results will need to be replicated in longitudinal studies involving larger samples of patients. PMID:24925606

Potvin, Stéphane; Aubin, Ginette; Stip, Emmanuel

2014-06-13

119

Pharmacogenetics of antiepileptic drug-induced hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

Antiepileptic drugs can induce potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome at a frequency of one in 10,000 to one in 1000 treated patients. There is a considerable cross-reactivity among different antiepileptic drugs but the mechanisms are not known. In this review we have summarized current evidence on antiepileptic drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions and performed meta-analyses of published case-control studies that investigated associations between HLA alleles and several antiepileptic drugs in diverse populations. As the heterogeneity between studies was high, we conducted subsequent subgroup analyses and showed that HLA-B*15:02 was associated with carbamazepine, lamotrigine and phenytoin-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in Asian populations indicating that pretreatment testing may prevent cross-reactivity. Additionally, we explored the potential of new, high-throughput technologies that may help to understand the mechanisms and predict the risk of adverse drug reactions in the future. PMID:24897291

Bloch, Katarzyna M; Sills, Graeme J; Pirmohamed, Munir; Alfirevic, Ana

2014-04-01

120

Drug-induced acid-base disorders.  

PubMed

The incidence of acid-base disorders (ABDs) is high, especially in hospitalized patients. ABDs are often indicators for severe systemic disorders. In everyday clinical practice, analysis of ABDs must be performed in a standardized manner. Highly sensitive diagnostic tools to distinguish the various ABDs include the anion gap and the serum osmolar gap. Drug-induced ABDs can be classified into five different categories in terms of their pathophysiology: (1) metabolic acidosis caused by acid overload, which may occur through accumulation of acids by endogenous (e.g., lactic acidosis by biguanides, propofol-related syndrome) or exogenous (e.g., glycol-dependant drugs, such as diazepam or salicylates) mechanisms or by decreased renal acid excretion (e.g., distal renal tubular acidosis by amphotericin B, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin D); (2) base loss: proximal renal tubular acidosis by drugs (e.g., ifosfamide, aminoglycosides, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, antiretrovirals, oxaliplatin or cisplatin) in the context of Fanconi syndrome; (3) alkalosis resulting from acid and/or chloride loss by renal (e.g., diuretics, penicillins, aminoglycosides) or extrarenal (e.g., laxative drugs) mechanisms; (4) exogenous bicarbonate loads: milk-alkali syndrome, overshoot alkalosis after bicarbonate therapy or citrate administration; and (5) respiratory acidosis or alkalosis resulting from drug-induced depression of the respiratory center or neuromuscular impairment (e.g., anesthetics, sedatives) or hyperventilation (e.g., salicylates, epinephrine, nicotine). PMID:25370778

Kitterer, Daniel; Schwab, Matthias; Alscher, M Dominik; Braun, Niko; Latus, Joerg

2014-11-01

121

Ventricular Bigeminy after Subcutaneous Administration of Apomorphine in a Patient with Refractory Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Apomorphine is a well established treatment for the management of sudden, unexpected and refractory levodopa-induced “off” states in fluctuating Parkinson’s disease either as bolus injections or as continuous infusions. Incidents of atrial fibrillation associated with the administration of the drug have been reported in the past but no incidents of ventricular arrhythmias. We report a case of ventricular bigeminy recorded in a female patient after the administration of apomorphine. PMID:24868418

Kaminioti, Anastasia N.; Nikitas, Georgios T.; Terlis, Apostolos K.; Manolis, Athanasios G.; Thomaides, Thomas; Panousopoulou, Aggeliki N.

2013-01-01

122

A single-center, cross-sectional prevalence study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: association with dopaminergic drugs.  

PubMed

The current study aimed at establishing the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and their association with demographic, drug-related, and disease-related characteristics. We performed a single-center cross-sectional study of 805 PD patients. Impulse control disorders were investigated with the Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; also comorbid neuropsychiatric complications (dementia, delusions, visual hallucinations) were investigated with clinical interviews and ad hoc instruments (Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire and Neuropsychiatry Inventory). Impulse control disorders were identified in 65 patients (prevalence, 8.1%), with pathological gambling and hypersexuality the most frequent. Impulse control disorders were present in 57 of 593 cognitively preserved patients (prevalence, 9.6%) and in 8 of 212 demented patients (prevalence, 3.8%). Impulse control disorders were significantly associated with dopamine agonists (odds ratio [OR], 5.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.60-12.46; P < 0.0001) and levodopa (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.06-6.35; P = 0.034). Impulse control disorders frequency was similar for pramipexole and ropinirole (16.6% vs 12.5%; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.79-2.74; P = 0.227). Additional variables associated with ICDs were male sex and younger age. These findings suggested that dopaminergic treatments in PD are associated with increased odds of having an ICD, but also other demographic and clinical variables are associated with ICDs, suggesting the multifactorial nature of the ICD phenomenon in PD. PMID:23857310

Poletti, Michele; Logi, Chiara; Lucetti, Claudio; Del Dotto, Paolo; Baldacci, Filippo; Vergallo, Andrea; Ulivi, Martina; Del Sarto, Simone; Rossi, Giuseppe; Ceravolo, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

2013-10-01

123

Dopaminergic Neurotoxicant 6-OHDA Induces Oxidative Damage through Proteolytic Activation of PKC? in Cell Culture and Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 ?M) for 24h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the free radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 ?M) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC?) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 ?M). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKC?D327A and kinase dead PKC?K376R or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC? protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKC? promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKC? expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKC? cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKC?D327A protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKC? activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKC? is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value for development of novel treatment strategies for PD. PMID:21846476

Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Kanthasamy, Arthi

2011-01-01

124

Retinopathy induced by drugs and herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Retina is the part of the eye suffering most damage from drugs. It is made up of a thin nervous membrane that covers the eye-ball internally, within the thickness of which three types of cells are ordered. In this paper we describe the drugs that are responsible for retinal side effects. Most commonly recognized drugs-induced retinopathy have a particular affinity for the retinal pigmented epithelium: antimalarials (quinine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine), phenothiazines, indomethacin, ethambutol, and desferrioxamine. Attention is especially focused on drugs more recently suspected of adverse reactions in the retina: vigabatrin, gabapentin, sildenafil, tamoxifen, isotretinoin, interferon, and omeprazole. Moreover, we referred some reports of retinopathy by herbal medicines and nutritional supplements (canthaxanthine, Gingko biloba L. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) This review is based on data published in scientific journals indexed by the PubMed and Medline databases. The last search of the literature was conducted in April 2008. PMID:19024212

Nencini, C; Barberi, L; Runci, F M; Micheli, L

2008-01-01

125

PET Imaging a MPTP-Induced Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease Using the Fluoropropyl-Dihydrotetrabenazine Analog [18F]-DTBZ (AV-133)  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the nigrostriatal system. Numerous researchers in the past have attempted to track the progression of dopaminergic depletion in PD. We applied a quantitative non-invasive PET imaging technique to follow this degeneration process in an MPTP-induced mouse model of PD. The VMAT2 ligand 18F-DTBZ (AV-133) was used as a radioactive tracer in our imaging experiments to monitor the changes of the dopaminergic system. Intraperitoneal administrations of MPTP (a neurotoxin) were delivered to mice at regular intervals to induce lesions consistent with PD. Our results indicate a significant decline in the levels of striatal dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) following MPTP treatment as determined by HPLC method. Images obtained by positron emission tomography revealed uptake of 18F-DTBZ analog in the mouse striatum. However, reduction in radioligand binding was evident in the striatum of MPTP lesioned animals as compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical analysis further confirmed PET imaging results and indicated the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in treated animals compared with the control counterparts. In conclusion, our findings suggest that MPTP induced PD in mouse model is appropriate to follow the degeneration of dopaminergic system and that 18F-DTBZ analog is a potentially sensitive radiotracer that can used to diagnose changes associated with PD by PET imaging modality. PMID:22723923

Toomey, James S.; Bhatia, Shilpa; Moon, La’Wanda T.; Orchard, Elysse A.; Tainter, Kerrie H.; Lokitz, Stephen J.; Terry, Tracee; Mathis, J. Michael; Penman, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

126

Neuroprotection by a mitochondria-targeted drug in a Parkinson's disease model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the neuroprotective effects of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, Mito-Q10, the coenzyme-Q analog attached to a triphenylphosphonium cation that targets the antioxidant to mitochondria, in experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Primary mesencephalic neuronal cells and cultured dopaminergic cells were treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an active metabolite of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and mice

Anamitra Ghosh; Karunakaran Chandran; Shasi V. Kalivendi; Joy Joseph; William E. Antholine; Cecilia J. Hillard; Arthi Kanthasamy; Anumantha Kanthasamy; Balaraman Kalyanaraman

2010-01-01

127

Coenzyme Q induces nigral mitochondrial uncoupling and prevents dopamine cell loss in a primate model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine cell loss of the substantia nigra. Parkinson's disease and the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6 tetrahydropyridine may destroy dopamine neurons through oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q is a cofactor of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins that enhances state-4 respiration and eliminate superoxides. Here we report that short-term oral administration of coenzyme Q induces nigral mitochondrial uncoupling and prevents dopamine cell loss after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6 tetrahydropyridine administration in monkeys. PMID:12810526

Horvath, Tamas L; Diano, Sabrina; Leranth, Csaba; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Cowley, Michael A; Shanabrough, Marya; Elsworth, John D; Sotonyi, Peter; Roth, Robert H; Dietrich, Edwin H; Matthews, Russel T; Barnstable, Colin J; Redmond, D Eugene

2003-07-01

128

Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?  

PubMed

As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

Tenner, Scott

2014-11-28

129

Atypical antipsychotics in Parkinson-sensitive populations.  

PubMed

Drug-induced iatrogenic hallucinations and psychosis occur in about 30% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and are the single most important precipitant for nursing home placement, which carries a grave prognosis. In addition, parkinsonism is a frequent accompaniment to the more common dementing syndromes, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The five most recent antipsychotic drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States have been marketed as "atypical" antipsychotics (AA) due to their relative freedom from extrapyramidal symptoms when used in schizophrenia patients. The use of these newer antipsychotic drugs in PD and other parkinson-sensitive populations represents the most stringent test to their freedom from motor side effects. To date, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine have been studied in parkinson-vulnerable populations. This article reviews the data and highlights the differences that these four drugs have on motor function. It also emphasizes the challenges in evaluating the available data on the motor effects of AA, especially on the non-PD elderly and cognitively impaired population. Suggestions are made for future research to improve the interpretability of these studies. PMID:12230086

Friedman, Joseph H; Fernandez, Hubert H

2002-01-01

130

Pink1 suppresses alpha-synuclein-induced phenotypes in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent human neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized by a selective and progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons. Mutations in the genes parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) result in autosomal recessive forms of PD. It has been suggested that parkin and Pink1 function in the same pathway in Drosophila, with Pink1 acting upstream of parkin. Previous work in our laboratory has shown the ability of parkin to rescue an alpha-synuclein-induced PD-like phenotype in Drosophila. To investigate the ability of Pink1 to protect against alpha-synuclein-induced toxicity, we have performed longevity, mobility, and histological studies to determine whether Drosophila Pink1 can rescue the alpha-synuclein phenotypes. We have found that overexpression of Pink1 results in the rescue of the alpha-synuclein-induced phenotype of premature loss of climbing ability, suppression of degeneration of the ommatidial array, and the suppression of alpha-synuclein-induced developmental defects in the Drosophila eye. These results mark the first demonstration of Pink1 counteracting PD phenotypes in a protein toxicity animal model, and they show that Pink1 is able to impart protection against potentially harmful proteins such as alpha-synuclein that would otherwise result in cellular stress. PMID:19088817

Todd, Amy M; Staveley, Brian E

2008-12-01

131

Blood dyscrasias induced by psychotropic drugs.  

PubMed

Drugs can cause a variety of blood dyscrasias, e. g., by interfering with hematopoiesis in the bone marrow or damaging mature blood cells by antibodies. Although numerous reports on the risks of adverse hematological effects associated with psychotropic drugs have led to stringent monitoring requirements for some compounds, particularly neuroleptics, it is still difficult to estimate the true prevalence of such risks. Sixteen episodes of thrombocytopenia, 63 of neutropenia, 22 of agranulocytosis, 4 episodes of severe neutro- and thrombocytopenia, and 2 of pancytopenia were documented by the drug safety program in psychiatry AMSP (Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie) in a population of 122,562 patients between 1993 and 2000. All cases were related to the epidemiological data provided for this population and systematically analyzed as regards history of medication, co-medication, and the clinical course. Putative risk rates for the main groups of medications and a number of drugs could be estimated with this database. Most changes in the white blood cell counts, which were rated as probably or definitely drug-induced, were attributed to clozapine (0.18 % of patients exposed), carbamazepine (0.14 %) and perazine (0.09 %). In patients on newer atypical neuroleptics, we documented neutropenia assumed to be probably or definitely drug-related in five patients during treatment with olanzapine and in one case with risperidone. In all five olanzapine-related cases, the drugs were the sole cause of the adverse drug reactions. All surveyed patients who received clozapine showed no difference in age and gender distribution from those who developed hematological changes. Incidences of hematological changes for antidepressants were much lower (about 0.01 %). Although the methodological accuracy of these findings has to be critically discussed these data could be of considerable clinical relevance and should be helpful in making clinical treatment decisions. PMID:15052517

Stübner, S; Grohmann, R; Engel, R; Bandelow, B; Ludwig, W-D; Wagner, G; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B; Möller, H-J; Hippius, H; Rüther, E

2004-03-01

132

Tat-Fused Recombinant Human SAG Prevents Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a MPTP-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Model  

PubMed Central

Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from abnormal cellular process lead to various human diseases such as inflammation, ischemia, and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), a RING-FINGER protein, has anti-apoptotic activity and anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigate whether Tat-SAG, fused with a Tat domain, could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that, unlike SAG, Tat-SAG transduced efficiently into SH-SY5Y cells and into the brain, respectively. Tat-SAG remarkably suppressed ROS generation, DNA damage, and the progression of apoptosis, caused by MPP+ in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, immunohistochemical data using a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and cresyl violet staining demonstrated that Tat-SAG obviously protected DA neurons in the SN against MPTP toxicity in a PD mouse model. Tat-SAG-treated mice showed significant enhanced motor activities, compared to SAG- or Tat-treated mice. Therefore, our results suggest that Tat-SAG has potential as a therapeutic agent against ROS-related diseases such as PD. PMID:24625574

Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Kim, Dae Won; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

2014-01-01

133

Effects of MK-801 on recognition and neurodegeneration in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's rat model.  

PubMed

Several years after the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD), 20-30% of PD patients develop dementia, known as Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), the features of which include impairment of short-term memory and recognition function. Hyperactivation of the glutamatergic system is implicated in the neurodegeneration seen in PD. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on short-term memory and object recognition in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat animal model. MPTP was injected stereotaxically into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of male Wistar rats, then, starting 1 day later (day 1), the rats were injected daily with MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and rats underwent a bar test on days 1-7, a T-maze test on days 8-10, and object recognition test on days 12-14. On day 1, the animals showed motor dysfunction, which recovered to control levels on day 7. MPTP-lesioned rats showed impairment of working memory in the T-maze test and of recognition in the object recognition test, both of which were prevented by MK-801 treatment. Furthermore, MPTP lesion-induced dopaminergic degeneration in the nigrostriatal system, microglial activation in the SNc, and cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 area were all improved by MK-801 treatment. These results suggest that NMDA receptors are involved in PD-related neuronal and behavioral dysfunction. PMID:22227506

Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Gu, Siao-Lin; Ho, Shih-Chun; Pawlak, Cornelius Rainer; Lin, Chih-Li; Ho, Ying-Jui; Lai, Te-Jen; Wu, Fu-Ying

2012-04-01

134

Initiatives to improve prescribing efficiency for drugs to treat Parkinson's disease in Croatia: influence and future directions.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disease affecting older adults. Consequently, this disease should be a focus among payers, with increasing utilization of newer premium-priced patent-protected add-on therapies to stabilize or even improve motor function over time. However, expenditure can be moderated by reforms. Consequently, there is a need to assess the influence of these reforms on the prescribing efficiency for drugs to treat PD in Croatia before proposing additional measures. Prescribing efficiency is defined as increasing the use of add-on therapies for similar expenditure. An observational retrospective study of the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance database of drugs to treat patients with PD in Croatia from 2000 to 2010 was carried out, with utilization measured in defined daily doses (defined as the average maintenance dose of a drug when used in its major indication in adults). The study years were chosen to reflect recent reforms. Only reimbursed expenditure is measured from a health insurance perspective. Utilization of drugs to treat PD increased by 218% between 2000 and 2010. Reimbursed expenditure increased by 360%, principally driven by increasing utilization of premium-priced patent-protected add-on therapies, including ropinirole and pramipexole. However, following recent reforms, reducing expenditure/defined daily dose for the different drugs, as well as overall expenditure, stabilized reimbursed expenditure between 2005 and 2010. Treatment of PD is complex, and add-on therapies are needed to improve care. Reimbursed expenditure should now fall following stabilization, despite increasing volumes, as successive add-on therapies lose their patents, further increasing prescribing efficiency. PMID:22812560

Brkicic, Ljiljana Sovic; Godman, Brian; Voncina, Luka; Sovic, Slavica; Relja, Maja

2012-06-01

135

Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Toxin-Induced Neuronal Damage via Nrf2-Dependent Glial Cells-Mediated Protective Activity in Parkinson’s Disease Models  

PubMed Central

Salvianolic acid B (SalB), a bioactive compound isolated from the plant-derived medicinal herb Danshen, has been shown to exert various anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in several neurological disorders. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential protective effects and associated molecular mechanisms of SalB in Parkinson’s disease (PD) models. To determine the neuroprotective effects of SalB in vitro, MPP+- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuronal injury was achieved using primary cultures with different compositions of neurons, microglia and astrocytes. Our results showed that SalB reduced both LPS- and MPP+-induced toxicity of dopamine neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, SalB treatment inhibited the release of microglial pro-inflammatory cytokines and resulted in an increase in the expression and release of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) from astrocytes. Western blot analysis illustrated that SalB increased the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). The knockdown of Nrf2 using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) partially reversed the SalB-induced GDNF expression and anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, SalB treatment significantly attenuated dopaminergic (DA) neuronal loss, inhibited neuroinflammation, increased GDNF expression and improved the neurological function in MPTP-treated mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that SalB protects DA neurons by an Nrf-2 -mediated dual action: reducing microglia activation-mediated neuroinflammation and inducing astrocyte activation-dependent GDNF expression. Importantly the present study also highlights critical roles of glial cells as targets for developing new strategies to alter the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24991814

Li, Zhi-Yun; Wei-Ji; Liu, Qi; Ma, Yi-Hui; He, Jiao-Jiang

2014-01-01

136

Blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits cognition and neurodegeneration in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease rat model.  

PubMed

Hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) modulates glutamatergic transmission and thus has been proposed as a potential target for neuroprotective drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), an mGluR5 antagonist, on working memory, object recognition, and neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat model. Male Wistar rats were stereotaxically injected with MPTP into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Starting 1 day after lesioning (day 1), the rats were treated daily with MPEP (2mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 14 days and rats underwent a T-maze test on days 8-10 and an object recognition test on days 12-14. MPTP-lesioned rats showed impairments of working memory in the T-maze test and of recognition function in the object recognition test and both effects were prevented by MPEP treatment. Furthermore, MPTP lesion-induced dopaminergic degeneration in the nigrostriatal system, microglial activation in the SNc, and cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 area were all inhibited by MPEP treatment. These data provide support for a role of mGluR5s in the pathophysiology of PD and suggest that MPEP is a promising pharmacological tool for the development of new treatments for dementia associated with PD. PMID:22487770

Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Ho, Shih-Chun; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Pawlak, Cornelius Rainer; Chang, Hung-Ming; Ho, Ying-Jui; Lai, Te-Jen; Wu, Fu-Ying

2012-07-01

137

Parkinson's: treating the symptoms.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is frequently encountered in general nursing environments and particularly those dealing with older adults. There are a range of drug treatments and other therapies available that can be used to enhance the quality of life and social engagement of people who have the condition. The drugs need careful administration and attention to detail in terms of dose and timing. This is where nurses, especially Parkinson's disease nurse specialists, have an important role to play. PMID:21841671

Lindahl, Dr Andrea J

138

Adjunctive therapy in Parkinson’s disease: the role of rasagiline  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, currently affecting 1.5 million people in the US. In this review, we describe the diagnostic and pathological features of Parkinson’s disease, as well as its clinical course. We then review pharmacologic treatments for the disease, with a particular focus on therapies adjunctive to levodopa and specifically the role of rasagiline. We review the four pivotal rasagiline trials, and discuss rasagiline and its use as adjunctive therapy for Parkinson’s disease. Finally, we discuss potential side effects, drug interactions, and other practical aspects concerning the use of rasagiline in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22802692

Gaines, Kathryn D; Hinson, Vanessa K

2012-01-01

139

Neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of Apigenin and Luteolin in MPTP induced parkinsonism in mice.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aim to investigate the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of naturally occurring polyphenols like apigenin and luteolin and also to explore the underlying mechanisms with respect to Parkinson's disease (PD). MPTP (25 mg/kg) along with Probenecid (250 mg/kg) was administrated for five consecutive days to induce parkinsonism in mice. Apigenin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), luteolin (10 and 20 mg/kg) and Bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally for 26 days including 5 days of pretreatment. Behavioural analysis and biochemical estimation of oxidative stress biomarkers were conducted. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated in substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain by immunostaining. TNF-? was estimated using ELISA technique. Our results demonstrate that apigenin and luteolin treatment improved the locomotor and muscular activities in MPTP treated mice. TH-positive cells decreased up to 7% in MPTP treated mice compared to normal mice (P < 0.001) and were found to be protected from degeneration in apigenin (69%) and luteolin (63%) treated mice (P < 0.001). Levels of GFAP were found to be decreased in the SN of the brain due to apigenin and luteolin treatment as compared to MPTP mice. BDNF levels were elevated significantly in apigenin and luteolin treatment groups when compared to MPTP treatment mice. In conclusion, apigenin and luteolin protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing oxidative damage, neuroinflammation and microglial activation along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results propose both these flavonoids as promising molecules in the therapeutics of PD. PMID:25087727

Patil, Sachin P; Jain, Pankaj D; Sancheti, Jayant S; Ghumatkar, Priya J; Tambe, Rufi; Sathaye, Sadhana

2014-11-01

140

Effective Treatment of Manganese-Induced Occupational Parkinsonism With p-Aminosalicylic Acid: A Case of 17-Year Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Chronic manganese (Mn) intoxication induces syndromes resembling Parkinson disease. The clinical intervention has largely been unsuccessful. We report a 17-year follow-up study of effective treatment of occupational Mn parkinsonism with sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). Methods The patient, female and aged 50 at the time of treatment, was exposed to airborne Mn for 21 years (1963–1984). The patient had palpitations, hand tremor, lower limb myalgia, hypermyotonia, and a distinct festinating gait. She received 6 g PAS per day through an intravenous drip infusion for 4 days and rested for 3 days as one therapeutic course. Fifteen such courses were carried out between March and June 1987. Results At the end of PAS treatment, her symptoms were significantly alleviated, and handwriting recovered to normal. Recent follow-up examination at age 67 years (in 2004) showed a general normal presentation in clinical, neurologic, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and handwriting examinations with a minor yet passable gait. Conclusions This case study suggests that PAS appears to be an effective drug for treatment of severe chronic Mn poisoning with a promising prognosis. PMID:16766929

Jiang, Yue-Ming; Mo, Xue-An; Du, Feng-Qi; Fu, Xue; Zhu, Xia-Yan; Gao, Hong-Yu; Xie, Jin-Lan; Liao, Feng-Ling; Pira, Enrico; Zheng, Wei

2014-01-01

141

A validated chiral liquid chromatographic method for the enantiomeric separation of safinamide mesilate, a new anti-Parkinson drug.  

PubMed

A enantioselective reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the enantiomeric resolution of safinamide mesilate, 2(S)-[4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino] propionamide methanesulfonate, a neuroprotectant with antiparkinsonian and anticonvulsant activity for the treatment of Parkinson disease. The enantiomers of safinamide mesilate were baseline resolved on a Chiralcel OD-RH (150mm×4.6mm, 5?m) column using a mobile phase system containing 300mM sodium di-hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.0):methanol:acetonitrile (65:25:10, v/v/v). The resolution between the enantiomers was not less than 3.0. The pH value of buffer solution in the mobile phase has played a key role in enhancing chromatographic efficiency and resolution between the enantiomers. The developed method was validated and proved to be robust. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of (R)-enantiomer were found to be 15 and 50ng/mL, respectively, for 20?L injection volume. The percentage recovery of (R)-enantiomer was ranged from 94.2 to 103.7 in bulk drug samples of safinamide mesilate. The sample solution and mobile phase were found to be stable at least for 48h. The final optimized method was successfully applied to separate (R)-enantiomer from safinamide mesilate and was proven to be reproducible and accurate for the quantitative determination of (R)-enantiomer in bulk drugs. PMID:21277726

Zhang, Kai; Xue, Na; Shi, Xiaowei; Liu, Weina; Meng, Jing; Du, Yumin

2011-04-28

142

Current approaches to the treatment of Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Enormous progress has been made in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). As a result of advances in experimental therapeutics, many promising therapies for PD are emerging. Levodopa remains the most potent drug for controlling PD symptoms, yet is associated with significant complications such as the “wearing off” effect, levodopa-induced dyskinesias and other motor complications. Catechol-o-methyl-transferase inhibitors, dopamine agonists and nondopaminergic therapy are alternative modalities in the management of PD and may be used concomitantly with levodopa or one another. The neurosurgical treatment, focusing on deep brain stimulation, is reviewed briefly. Although this review has attempted to highlight the most recent advances in the treatment of PD, it is important to note that new treatments are not necessarily better than the established conventional therapy and that the treatment options must be individualized and tailored to the needs of each individual patient. PMID:19043519

Jankovic, Joseph; Aguilar, L Giselle

2008-01-01

143

Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels. PMID:21403664

Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin; Brocks, Vibeke; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

2011-07-01

144

The high-affinity D2/D3 agonist D512 protects PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death and rescues dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

In this study, in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out with the high-affinity multifunctional D2/D3 agonist D-512 to explore its potential neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease and the potential mechanism(s) underlying such properties. Pre-treatment with D-512 in vitro was found to rescue rat adrenal Pheochromocytoma PC12 cells from toxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine administration in a dose-dependent manner. Neuroprotection was found to coincide with reductions in intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. In vivo, pre-treatment with 0.5 mg/kg D-512 was protective against neurodegenerative phenotypes associated with systemic administration of MPTP, including losses in striatal dopamine, reductions in numbers of DAergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), and locomotor dysfunction. These observations strongly suggest that the multifunctional drug D-512 may constitute a novel viable therapy for Parkinson's disease. PMID:24848702

Shah, Mrudang; Rajagopalan, Subramanian; Xu, Liping; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Shurubor, Yevgeniya; Beal, Flint; Andersen, Julie K; Dutta, Aloke K

2014-10-01

145

Symptomatic Models of Parkinson's Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Non-human Primates.  

PubMed

Models of Parkinson's disease (PD) can be produced in several non-human primate (NHP) species by applying neurotoxic lesions to the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. The most commonly used neurotoxin is MPTP, a compound accidentally discovered as a contaminant of street drugs. Compared to other neurotoxins, MPTP has the advantage of crossing the blood-brain barrier and can thus be administered systemically. MPTP-lesioned NHPs exhibit the main core clinical features of PD. When treated with L-DOPA, these NHP models develop involuntary movements resembling the phenomenology of human dyskinesias. In old-world NHP species (macaques, baboons), choreic and dystonic dyskinesias can be readily distinguished and quantified with specific rating scales. More recently, certain non-motor symptoms relevant to human PD have been described in L-DOPA-treated MPTP-NHPs, including a range of neuropsychiatric abnormalities and sleep disturbances. The main shortcomings of MPTP-NHP models consist in a lack of progression of the underlying neurodegenerative lesion, along with an inability to model the intracellular protein-inclusion pathology typical of PD. The strength of MPTP-NHP models lies in their face and predictive validity for symptomatic treatments of parkinsonian motor features. Indeed, these models have been instrumental to the development of several medical and surgical approaches that are currently applied to treat PD. PMID:25158623

Johnston, Tom M; Fox, Susan H

2014-08-27

146

Possible role of GABA-B receptor modulation in MPTP induced Parkinson's disease in rats.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of GABA-B receptor modulation in experimental models of MPTP-induced PD. MPTP was administered repeatedly on 1st, 7th and 14th day intranigrally for the induction of PD in Male Wistar rats. Baclofen (10 and 20mg/kg) and GABA-B antagonist CGP35348 (10mg/kg) were given after induction of PD for 14 days. Different behavioural tasks were performed during 1st, 14th, 21st, 28th days after MPTP injection and biochemical parameters were estimated on day 28th. Central administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor behaviour and marked increase of oxidative damage LPO and GSH in striatum and cortex. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-? and IL-? were significantly increased in striatum region of MPTP treated rats. However, post treatment with baclofen significantly improved the motor abnormalities and attenuated the oxidative damage and neuro-inflammation in MPTP treated rats. CGP35348, GABA-B receptor antagonist, reversed the protective effect of baclofen GABA-B receptor play role in the neuroprotection. The present study concluded that baclofen produce beneficial effect against MPTP induced PD like symptoms rats through GABAergic mechanism. PMID:25547370

Tyagi, Ravi Kant; Bisht, Rohit; Pant, Jatin; Kumar, Puneet; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul; Prakash, Atish

2015-02-01

147

MPTP-induced model of Parkinson's disease in heat shock protein 70.1 knockout mice.  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins (HSPs), molecular chaperones that assist in protein folding, have become a research focus in Parkinson's disease (PD) since the pathogenesis of PD is characterized by intracellular protein misfolding and inclusion body formation. This study investigated the effect of the knockout (KO) of the Hsp70.1 (approved gene symbol Hspa1b) gene on the sensitivity of murine nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced toxicity. We confirmed changes in motor coordination and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra following MPTP treatment of C57BL/6 normal mice and Hspa1b KO mice. MPTP treatment led to motor control impairment and induced TH-positive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in normal mice. Compared to untreated normal mice, rotarod duration and the density of TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra were also significantly lower in untreated KO mice (p<0.01). MPTP-treated KO mice had markedly decreased rotarod duration and reduced density of TH-positive neurons, compared to MPTP-treated normal mice. These results indicate that Hspa1b KO mice are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of MPTP and are consistent with the hypothesis that HSPs represent an important molecular target for neuroprotective strategies in the treatment of PD. PMID:22446746

Park, Hyun Kyung; Cho, Ah Rang; Lee, Seung Chul; Ban, Ju Yeon

2012-06-01

148

Follow-up of patients affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism after treatment with CaNa 2EDTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the period of 1998–2004, seven workers affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism were diagnosed, studied and treated with CaNa2EDTA at our Occupational Health Ward. Biological markers, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examinations, were used to assess the disease trend. Those workers still employed were immediately removed from exposure. Our results seem to confirm that very good clinical, biological

Elena Herrero Hernandez; Gianluigi Discalzi; Consuelo Valentini; Fabrizio Venturi; Adriano Chiň; Caterina Carmellino; Luigi Rossi; Anna Sacchetti; Enrico Pira

2006-01-01

149

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents MPTP-induced dopaminergic cell death in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are implicated in the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role in dopaminergic neuronal death in substantia nigra pars compacta. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) acts as a mitochondrial stabilizer and anti-apoptotic agent in several models of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the role of TUDCA in preventing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurodegeneration in a mouse model of PD. We evaluated whether TUDCA modulates MPTP-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal axis, and if that can be explained by regulation of JNK phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione S-transferase (GST) catalytic activation, and Akt signaling, using C57BL/6 glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP) null mice. TUDCA efficiently protected against MPTP-induced dopaminergic degeneration. We have previously demonstrated that exacerbated JNK activation in GSTP null mice resulted in increased susceptibility to MPTP neurotoxicity. Interestingly, pre-treatment with TUDCA prevented MPTP-induced JNK phosphorylation in mouse midbrain and striatum. Moreover, the anti-oxidative role of TUDCA was demonstrated in vivo by impairment of ROS production in the presence of MPTP. Finally, results herein suggest that the survival pathway activated by TUDCA involves Akt signaling, including downstream Bad phosphorylation and NF-?B activation. We conclude that TUDCA is neuroprotective in an in vivo model of PD, acting mainly by modulation of JNK activity and cellular redox thresholds, together with activation of the Akt pro-survival pathway. These results open new perspectives for the pharmacological use of TUDCA, as a modulator of neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:22773138

Castro-Caldas, M; Carvalho, A Neves; Rodrigues, E; Henderson, C J; Wolf, C R; Rodrigues, C M P; Gama, M J

2012-10-01

150

Reduced information transmission in the internal segment of the globus pallidus of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced rhesus monkey models of Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed Central

Rhesus monkey models of Parkinson’s disease were induced by injection of N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Neural firings were recorded using microelectrodes placed in the internal segment of the globus pallidus. The wavelets and power spectra show gradual power reduction during the disease process along with increased firing rates in the Parkinson’s disease state. Singular values of coefficients decreased considerably during tremor-related activity as well as in the Parkinson’s disease state compared with normal signals, revealing that higher-frequency components weaken when Parkinson’s disease occurs. We speculate that the death of neurons could be reflected by irregular frequency spike trains, and that wavelet packet decomposition can effectively detect the degradation of neurons and the loss of information transmission in the neural circuitry.

He, Yan; Wang, Jue; Gao, Guodong; Zhang, Guangjun

2012-01-01

151

Cyclosporine A and MnTMPyP Alleviate ?-Synuclein Expression and Aggregation in Cypermethrin-Induced Parkinsonism.  

PubMed

Cypermethrin induces the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons leading to Parkinsonism in rats. Despite ?-synuclein aggregation is reported to be critical in Parkinson's disease, its role and alliance with the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage leading to cypermethrin-induced Parkinsonism have not yet been deciphered. The present study aimed to examine the effect of cypermethrin on the expression and aggregation of ?-synuclein and its subsequent connection with oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the presence or absence of a mitochondrial membrane transition pore opening inhibitor, cyclosporine A and a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, manganese (III) tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin pentachloride (MnTMPyP). The expression of ?-synuclein, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-modified proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent apoptotic proteins, nitrite content, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons were estimated in the substantia nigra and dopamine content in the striatum of control and treated rats employing standard procedures. Cypermethrin augmented the expression of ?-synuclein, 3-NT, 4-HNE-modified proteins, caspase-3, mitochondrial Bax and cytosolic cytochrome-c along with nitrite and LPO and reduced the expression of cytosolic Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome-c, dopamine and number of TH-positive neurons. Cyclosporine A or MnTMPyP alleviated the expression and aggregation of ?-synuclein along with indicators of the mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The results demonstrate that cypermethrin induces ?-synuclein expression and aggregation while cyclosporine A or MnTMPyP rescues from ?-synuclein over-expression and aggregation along with the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage leading to Parkinsonism in rats. PMID:25370934

Agrawal, Sonal; Dixit, Anubhuti; Singh, Ashish; Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Dhirendra; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

2014-11-01

152

Quantitative electromyographic analysis of reaction time to external auditory stimuli in drug-naďve Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Evaluation of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on clinical rating scales by clinicians. Reaction time (RT) is the time interval between a specific stimulus and the start of muscle response. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of RT responses in PD patients using electromyography (EMG) and to elucidate the relationship between RT and clinical features of PD. The EMG activity of 31 PD patients was recorded during isometric muscle contraction. RT was defined as the time latency between an auditory beep and responsive EMG activity. PD patients demonstrated significant delays in both initiation and termination of muscle contraction compared with controls. Cardinal motor symptoms of PD were closely correlated with RT. RT was longer in more-affected side and in more-advanced PD stages. Frontal cognitive function, which is indicative of motor programming and movement regulation and perseveration, was also closely related with RT. In conclusion, greater RT is the characteristic motor features of PD and it could be used as a sensitive tool for motor function assessment in PD patients. Further investigations are required to clarify the clinical impact of the RT on the activity of daily living of patients with PD. PMID:24724037

Kwon, Do-Young; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Ji Won; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Hong, Junghwa; Koh, Seong-Beom; Park, Kun-Woo

2014-01-01

153

NMR Fingerprints of the Drug-like Natural-Product Space Identify Iotrochotazine A: A Chemical Probe to Study Parkinson’s Disease**  

PubMed Central

The NMR spectrum of a mixture of small molecules is a fingerprint of all of its components. Herein, we present an NMR fingerprint method that takes advantage of the fact that fractions contain simplified NMR profiles, with minimal signal overlap, to allow the identification of unique spectral patterns. The approach is exemplified in the identification of a novel natural product, iotrochotazine A (1), sourced from an Australian marine sponge Iotrochota sp. Compound 1 was used as a chemical probe in a phenotypic assay panel based on human olfactory neurosphere-derived cells (hONS) from idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients. Compound 1 at 1 ?m was not cytotoxic but specifically affected the morphology and cellular distribution of lysosomes and early endosomes. PMID:24737726

Grkovic, Tanja; Pouwer, Rebecca H; Vial, Marie-Laure; Gambini, Luca; Noël, Alba; Hooper, John N A; Wood, Stephen A; Mellick, George D; Quinn, Ronald J

2014-01-01

154

What is the best treatment for fluctuating Parkinson's disease: continuous drug delivery or deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus?  

PubMed

Motor complications impair quality of life and cause severe disability in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Since they are often refractory to medical therapy, interventional therapies have been developed, which can provide a considerable reduction of daily off-time and dopaminergic dyskinesias. Continuous dopaminergic drug delivery (CDD) is based on the steady stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors by subcutaneous apomorphine or duodenal L: -DOPA infusions via portable minipumps. Advances in the understanding of basal ganglia functioning and in neurosurgical, electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques have led to a renaissance of neurosurgery for advanced PD. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is the most invasive procedure promising great benefit and the highest level of independency for suitable patients, but is definitely associated with surgical risks and DBS-related side effects. Each of these more or less invasive therapy options has its own profile, and a thorough consideration of its advantages and drawbacks for the individual situation is mandatory. In this paper, we summarize relevant facts for this decision and provide some guidelines for a responsible counseling of eligible patients. PMID:21188435

Hilker, Rüdiger; Antonini, Angelo; Odin, Per

2011-06-01

155

Mechanism of copper(II)-induced misfolding of Parkinson's disease protein  

PubMed Central

?-synuclein (aS) is a natively unfolded pre-synaptic protein found in all Parkinson's disease patients as the major component of fibrillar plaques. Metal ions, and especially Cu(II), have been demonstrated to accelerate aggregation of aS into fibrillar plaques, the precursors to Lewy bodies. In this work, copper binding to aS is investigated by a combination of quantum and molecular mechanics simulations. Starting from the experimentally observed attachment site, several optimized structures of Cu-binding geometries are examined. The most energetically favorable attachment results in significant allosteric changes, making aS more susceptible to misfolding. Indeed, an inverse kinematics investigation of the configuration space uncovers a dynamically stable ?-sheet conformation of Cu-aS that serves as a nucleation point for a second ?-strand. Based on these findings, we propose an atomistic mechanism of copper-induced misfolding of aS as an initial event in the formation of Lewy bodies and thus in PD pathogenesis. PMID:22355530

Rose, Frisco; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerzy

2011-01-01

156

Gastrodin Protects Apoptotic Dopaminergic Neurons in a Toxin-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model  

PubMed Central

Gastrodia elata (GE) Blume is one of the most important traditional plants in Oriental countries and has been used for centuries to improve various conditions. The phenolic glucoside gastrodin is an active constituent of GE. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of gastrodin in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP) induced human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively. Gastrodin significantly and dose dependently protected dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxicity through regulating free radicals, Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA, caspase-3, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in SH-SY5Y cells stressed with MPP+. Gastrodin also showed neuroprotective effects in the subchronic MPTP mouse PD model by ameliorating bradykinesia and motor impairment in the pole and rotarod tests, respectively. Consistent with this finding, gastrodin prevented dopamine depletion and reduced reactive astrogliosis caused by MPTP as assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in the substantiae nigrae and striatata of mice. Moreover, gastrodin was also effective in preventing neuronal apoptosis by attenuating antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities in these brain areas. These results strongly suggest that gastrodin has protective effects in experimental PD models and that it may be developed as a clinical candidate to ameliorate PD symptoms. PMID:23533492

Kumar, Hemant; Kim, In-Su; More, Sandeep Vasant; Kim, Byung-Wook; Bahk, Young-Yil; Choi, Dong-Kug

2013-01-01

157

Gastrodin protects apoptotic dopaminergic neurons in a toxin-induced Parkinson's disease model.  

PubMed

Gastrodia elata (GE) Blume is one of the most important traditional plants in Oriental countries and has been used for centuries to improve various conditions. The phenolic glucoside gastrodin is an active constituent of GE. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of gastrodin in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP) induced human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively. Gastrodin significantly and dose dependently protected dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxicity through regulating free radicals, Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA, caspase-3, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in SH-SY5Y cells stressed with MPP(+). Gastrodin also showed neuroprotective effects in the subchronic MPTP mouse PD model by ameliorating bradykinesia and motor impairment in the pole and rotarod tests, respectively. Consistent with this finding, gastrodin prevented dopamine depletion and reduced reactive astrogliosis caused by MPTP as assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in the substantiae nigrae and striatata of mice. Moreover, gastrodin was also effective in preventing neuronal apoptosis by attenuating antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities in these brain areas. These results strongly suggest that gastrodin has protective effects in experimental PD models and that it may be developed as a clinical candidate to ameliorate PD symptoms. PMID:23533492

Kumar, Hemant; Kim, In-Su; More, Sandeep Vasant; Kim, Byung-Wook; Bahk, Young-Yil; Choi, Dong-Kug

2013-01-01

158

Parkinson's disease-linked mutations in VPS35 induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Mutations in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 homolog (VPS35) gene at the PARK17 locus, encoding a key component of the retromer complex, were recently identified as a new cause of late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we explore the pathogenic consequences of PD-associated mutations in VPS35 using a number of model systems. VPS35 exhibits a broad neuronal distribution throughout the rodent brain, including within the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. In the human brain, VPS35 protein levels and distribution are similar in tissues from control and PD subjects, and VPS35 is not associated with Lewy body pathology. The common D620N missense mutation in VPS35 does not compromise its protein stability or localization to endosomal and lysosomal vesicles, or the vesicular sorting of the retromer cargo, sortilin, SorLA and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, in rodent primary neurons or patient-derived human fibroblasts. In yeast we show that PD-linked VPS35 mutations are functional and can normally complement VPS35 null phenotypes suggesting that they do not result in a loss-of-function. In rat primary cortical cultures the overexpression of human VPS35 induces neuronal cell death and increases neuronal vulnerability to PD-relevant cellular stress. In a novel viral-mediated gene transfer rat model, the expression of D620N VPS35 induces the marked degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and axonal pathology, a cardinal pathological hallmark of PD. Collectively, these studies establish that dominant VPS35 mutations lead to neurodegeneration in PD consistent with a gain-of-function mechanism, and support a key role for VPS35 in the development of PD. PMID:24740878

Tsika, Elpida; Glauser, Liliane; Moser, Roger; Fiser, Aris; Daniel, Guillaume; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Lees, Andrew; Troncoso, Juan C; Lewis, Patrick A; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Schneider, Bernard L; Moore, Darren J

2014-09-01

159

Pramipexole-Induced Increased Probabilistic Discounting: Comparison Between a Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease and Controls  

PubMed Central

The dopamine agonist pramipexole (PPX) can increase impulsiveness, and PPX therapy for neurological diseases (Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless leg syndrome) is associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs) in subpopulations of treated patients. A commonly reported ICD is pathological gambling of which risk taking is a prominent feature. Probability discounting is a measurable aspect of risk taking. We recently developed a probability discounting paradigm wherein intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) serves as the positive reinforcer. Here we used this paradigm to determine the effects of PPX on discounting. We included assessments of a rodent model of PD, wherein 6-OHDA was injected into the dorsolateral striatum of both hemispheres, which produced persistent PD-like deficits in posture adjustment. Rats were trained to perform ICSS-mediated probability discounting, in which PD-like and control groups exhibited similar profiles. Rats were treated twice daily for 2 weeks with 2?mg/kg (±)PPX (ie, 1?mg/kg of the active form), a dose that improved lesion-induced motor deficits. In both groups, (±)PPX increased discounting; preference for the large reinforcer was enhanced 30–45% at the most uncertain probabilities. Tolerance did not develop with repeated treatments. Increased discounting subsided within 2 weeks of (±)PPX cessation, and re-exposure to (±)PPX reinstated heightened discounting. Such findings emulate the clinical scenario; therefore, ICSS for discounting assessments in rats exhibited high face validity. This model should prove useful in medication development where assessment of the propensity of a putative therapy to induce risk-taking behaviors is of interest. PMID:22257895

Rokosik, Sandra L; Napier, T Celeste

2012-01-01

160

Clinical and endoscopic characteristics of drug-induced esophagitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate clinical, endoscopic and pathological characteristics of drug-induced esophagitis. METHODS: Data for patients diagnosed with drug-induced esophagitis from April 2002 to May 2013 was reviewed. Patients diagnosed with malignancy, viral or fungal esophagitis were excluded. Clinical, endoscopic and pathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with drug-induced esophagitis were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were diagnosed with drug-induced esophagitis. Their mean age was 43.9 ± 18.9 years and 35.9% were male. Common symptoms were chest pain (71.8%), odynophagia (38.5%) and dysphagia (29.5%). The endoscopic location was in the middle third of esophagus in 78.2%. Endoscopic findings were ulcer (82.1%), erosion (17.9%), ulcer with bleeding (24.4%), coating with drug material (5.1%), impacted pill fragments (3.8%) and stricture (2.6%). Kissing ulcers were observed in 43.6%. The main causative agents were antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. All the patients were treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or sucralfate, and the causative drugs were discontinued. Nineteen patients with drug-induced esophagitis were followed up with endoscopy and revealed normal findings, scars or healing ulcers. CONCLUSION: Drug-induced esophagitis mainly presents as chest pain, odynophagia and dysphagia, and may be successfully treated with PPIs and discontinuation of the causative drug. Kissing ulcers were observed in 43.6%. PMID:25152603

Kim, Su Hwan; Jeong, Ji Bong; Kim, Ji Won; Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Chang, Mee Soo; Im, Jong Pil; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Shin, Cheol Min

2014-01-01

161

Drug-induced states of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-induced polyuria and polydipsia have been recognized with increasing frequency during the past five years. Several drugs, such as lithium, had been in use for many years without recognition of these toxic side effects, although clinical symptoms appear in almost one out of every ten patients treated with lithium for manic-depressive disorders [1], Other drugs, such as demeclocycline, cause symptoms

Irwin Singer; John N Forrest

1976-01-01

162

Drug-Induced Impulse Control Disorders: A Prospectus for Neuroethical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) used to treat Parkinson’s Disease can cause compulsive behaviours\\u000a and impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, compulsive buying and hypersexuality. Like more familiar\\u000a drug-based forms of addiction, these iatrogenic disorders can cause significant harm and distress for sufferers and their\\u000a families. In some cases, people treated with DRT have

Adrian Carter; Polly Ambermoon; Wayne D. Hall

2011-01-01

163

Mechanisms of drug-induced proarrhythmia in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Drug-induced proarrhythmia represents a great challenge for those involved in the development of novel pharmaceuticals and in the regulatory bodies for drug approval as well as for the prescribing clinicians. Our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie drug-induced proarrhythmia has grown dramatically over the last two decades. A growing number of cardiac and non-cardiac agents have been shown to alter cardiac repolarization predisposing to fatal cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. These agents may induce the phenotype of long QT syndrome and less commonly of short QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome (BS). Although, genetic susceptibility underlie drug-induced proarrhythmia in certain cases, current data are limited regarding this topic. The present review surveys the current published literature on the mechanisms and the offending medical agents that predispose to drug-induced long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome and BS. Drug-induced proarrhythmia should be considered as a predictor of sudden cardiac death and should prompt critical re-evaluation of the risks and benefits of the suspicious medication. Survivors of drug-induced proarrhythmia and family members require careful examination and possibly genetic testing for the presence of a channelopathy. Treating physicians are advised to follow the lists of agents implicated in drug-induced proarrhythmia in order to minimize the risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. PMID:23847724

Konstantopoulou, Arkadia; Tsikrikas, Spyros; Asvestas, Dimitrios; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Letsas, Konstantinos P

2013-06-26

164

Mechanisms of drug-induced proarrhythmia in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced proarrhythmia represents a great challenge for those involved in the development of novel pharmaceuticals and in the regulatory bodies for drug approval as well as for the prescribing clinicians. Our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie drug-induced proarrhythmia has grown dramatically over the last two decades. A growing number of cardiac and non-cardiac agents have been shown to alter cardiac repolarization predisposing to fatal cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. These agents may induce the phenotype of long QT syndrome and less commonly of short QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome (BS). Although, genetic susceptibility underlie drug-induced proarrhythmia in certain cases, current data are limited regarding this topic. The present review surveys the current published literature on the mechanisms and the offending medical agents that predispose to drug-induced long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome and BS. Drug-induced proarrhythmia should be considered as a predictor of sudden cardiac death and should prompt critical re-evaluation of the risks and benefits of the suspicious medication. Survivors of drug-induced proarrhythmia and family members require careful examination and possibly genetic testing for the presence of a channelopathy. Treating physicians are advised to follow the lists of agents implicated in drug-induced proarrhythmia in order to minimize the risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. PMID:23847724

Konstantopoulou, Arkadia; Tsikrikas, Spyros; Asvestas, Dimitrios; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Letsas, Konstantinos P

2013-01-01

165

The rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease: Behavioral and electrophysiological findings.  

PubMed

Exposure to rotenone leads to parkinsonian features, such as loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and motor impairment, however, the validity of this model has recently been questioned. In rodent and monkey models of Parkinson's disease (PD) abnormal neuronal activity in the basal ganglia motor loop has been described, with hyperactivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) similar to that found in PD. The present study aims at providing new and more specific evidence for the validity of the rotenone rat model of PD by examining whether neuronal activity in the STN is altered. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with rotenone injections (2.5mg/kg bodyweight intraperitoneally) for 60 days. Behavioral analysis showed an impairment in the rotarod and hanging wire test in the rotenone group (p<0.05), accompanied by a decline in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the nigro-striatal region (p<0.001). Thereafter, single unit (SU) activities and local field potentials were recorded in the STN in urethane anesthetized rats. The SU analysis revealed a higher neuronal discharge rate (p<0.001), more bursts per minute (p=0.006) and a higher oscillatory activity (p=0.008) in the STN of rotenone treated rats. Spectral analysis showed an increase of relative beta power in the STN as well as in the motor cortex. We found electrophysiological key features of PD pathology and pathophysiology in the STN of rotenone treated rats. Therefore, the rotenone-induced rat model of PD deserves further attention since it covers more aspects than dopamine depletion and implies the reproducibility of PD specific features. PMID:25446762

Wrangel, Christof von; Schwabe, Kerstin; John, Nadine; Krauss, Joachim K; Alam, Mesbah

2015-02-15

166

Geraniol ameliorates the motor behavior and neurotrophic factors inadequacy in MPTP-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Many experiments affirm the notion that augmentation of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) activity, especially brain-derived neurotrophic factors and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factors, could prevent or halt the progress of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutic accomplishment of geraniol (GE 100 mg/kg) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of PD. Current investigation proved that pretreatment with GE ameliorates the MPTP-induced alterations in behavioral, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and immunoblotting manifestations in mice. Systematically, the loss of dopaminergic neurons and reduced NTFs mRNA expressions induced by MPTP was ameliorated to a significant extent by pretreatment with GE. We found that GE confers a potent neuroprotective agent against MPTP-induced dopaminergic denervation and may become a potential therapeutic agent for PD and/or its progression. PMID:23943375

Rekha, Karamkolly R; Selvakumar, Govindasamy P; Sethupathy, Subramaniam; Santha, Karunanidhi; Sivakamasundari, Ramu Inmozhi

2013-11-01

167

When a Parkinson's disease patient starts to hallucinate.  

PubMed

Visual hallucinations are a typical feature of Lewy body parkinsonism and occur in some 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease. Age and cognitive decline are the most important intrinsic risk factors, but hallucinosis is often triggered by comorbid conditions such as infection and dehydration. The single most important trigger, however, is exposure to CNS drugs, in particular antiparkinsonian agents. While hallucinosis and psychosis can be triggered by amantadine and anticholinergics, they are more commonly experienced after changes in dopaminergic medication. Dopamine agonists have greater potential to induce hallucinosis compared with L-dopa. Attempting to reduce antiparkinsonian drugs is an important part in the management of these patients, but atypical neuroleptics like clozapine or quetiapine are frequently necessary. Visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease patients with dementia can also be improved by treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. PMID:18644910

Poewe, Werner

2008-08-01

168

Pharmacodynamic modelling of drug-induced ventilatory depression and automatic drug dosing in conscious sedation.  

PubMed

In conscious sedation (CS) procedures, the patient is sedated but retains the ability to breathe spontaneously. Drug-induced ventilatory depression represents a dangerous side effect of CS, possibly leading to hypoventilation and subsequent hypoxia. In this work, we propose a new pharmacodynamic model for drug-induced ventilatory depression. The model presents a parsimonious structure and shows good agreement with experimental data for different drugs. In addition, we explore the innovative idea of regulating drug infusion during CS by means of a feedback control system based on measurements of transcutaneous partial pressure of CO(2). In simulations, the controller proves able to maintain a predefined target of CO(2) despite pain, external disturbances and inter-patient variability in the sensibility to the drug. The implementation of the controller during CS procedures would improve clinical practice minimizing the occurrence of drug-induced ventilatory depression by tailoring drug infusion to patient's needs. PMID:17945873

Zanderigo, Eleonora; Caruso, Antonello; Bouillon, Thomas; Luginbuhl, Martin; Morari, Manfred

2006-01-01

169

Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Drugs and Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ever-increasing number of drugs can reproduce variegated patterns of naturally occurring interstitial lung disease (ILD), including most forms of interstitial pneumonias, alveolar involvement and, rarely, vasculitis. Drugs in one therapeutic class may collectively produce the same pattern of involvement. A few drugs can produce more than one pattern of ILD. The diagnosis of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) essentially rests on

Philippe Camus; Annlyse Fanton; Philippe Bonniaud; Clio Camus; Pascal Foucher

2004-01-01

170

Progression of Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Order Free Materials Today Progression The progression of Parkinson’s disease varies among different individuals. Parkinson's is chronic and ... assess the progression of Parkinson's is the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). It is more comprehensive than ...

171

Tremorolytic effects of safinamide in animal models of drug-induced parkinsonian tremor.  

PubMed

Safinamide is an ?-aminoamide derivative that is currently in Phase III clinical trial development as an add-on therapy to levodopa or dopamine agonists for patients with Parkinson's disease. Safinamide is a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor with additional non-dopaminergic actions. The present experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of safinamide to attenuate parkinsonian motor impairments using the tremulous jaw movement model, an animal model of parkinsonian tremor. In rats, tremulous jaw movements can be induced with dopamine (DA) antagonists, DA depletion, and cholinomimetics, and can be reversed by various antiparkinsonian drugs, including L-DOPA, DA agonists, anticholinergics and adenosine A2A antagonists. In these present experiments, tremulous jaw movements were induced with the anticholinesterase galantamine (3.0mg/kg IP), the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (0.5mg/kg IP), and the dopamine D2 antagonist pimozide (1.0mg/kg IP). Safinamide significantly reduced the number of tremulous jaw movements induced by galantamine, pilocarpine, and pimozide, with consistent effects across all three drugs at a dose range of 5.0-10.0mg/kg. The results of this study support the use of safinamide as a treatment for parkinsonian tremor. PMID:23360954

Podurgiel, Samantha; Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Yohn, Samantha; Randall, Patrick A; Roach, Arthur; Lobianco, Christophe; Salamone, John D

2013-04-01

172

Subthalamic 6-OHDA-induced lesion attenuates levodopa-induced dyskinesias in the rat model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives direct dopaminergic innervation from the substantia nigra pars compacta that degenerates in Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the role of dopaminergic denervation of STN in the origin of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Rats were distributed in four groups which were concomitantly lesioned with 6-OHDA or vehicle (sham) in the STN and in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) as follows: a) MFB-sham plus STN-sham, b) MFB-sham plus STN-lesion, c) MFB-lesion plus STN-sham, and d) MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion. Four weeks after lesions, animals were treated with levodopa (6mg/kg with 15mg/kg benserazide i.p.) twice daily for 22 consecutive days. Abnormal involuntary movements were measured. In situ hybridization was performed measuring the expression of striatal preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin, STN cytochrome oxidase (CO) and nigral GAD67 mRNAs. STN 6-OHDA denervation did not induce dyskinesias in levodopa-treated MFB-sham animals but attenuated axial (p<0.05), limb (p<0.05) and orolingual (p<0.01) dyskinesias in rats with a concomitant lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. The attenuation of dyskinesias was associated with a decrease in the ipsilateral STN CO mRNA levels (p<0.05). No significant differences between MFB-lesion plus STN-sham and MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion groups in the extent of STN dopaminergic denervation were observed. Moreover, intrasubthalamic microinfusion of dopamine in the MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion group triggered orolingual (p<0.01), but not axial or limb, dyskinesias. These results suggest that dopaminergic STN innervation influences the expression of levodopa-induced dyskinesias but also the existence of non dopaminergic-mediated mechanisms. STN noradrenergic depletion induced by 6-OHDA in the STN needs to be taken in account as a possible mechanism explaining the attenuation of dyskinesias in the combined lesion group. PMID:24140562

Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Rodríguez-Oroz, M C; Obeso, J A

2013-12-01

173

Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in children  

PubMed Central

Recent increases in the dosages of the essential antituberculosis agents isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), pyrazinamide (PZA) for use in children recommended by World Health Organization have raised concerns regarding the risk of hepatotoxicity. Published data relating to the incidence and pathogenesis of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ADIH), particularly in children, is reviewed. Amongst 12,708 children receiving chemoprophylaxis, mainly with INH, but also other combinations of INH, RMP and PZA only 1 case (0.06%) of jaundice was recorded and abnormal liver functions documented in 110 (8%) of the 1225 children studied. Excluding tuberculous meningitis (TBM) 8984 were children treated for tuberculosis disease and jaundice documented in 75 (0.83%) and abnormal liver function tests in 380 (9.9%) of the 3855 children evaluated. Amongst 717 children treated for TBM, however, jaundice occurred in 72 (10.8%) and abnormal LFT were recorded in 174 (52.9%) of those studied. Case reports document the occurrence of ADIH in at least 63 children. Signs and symptoms of ADIH were frequently ignored in the recorded cases. ADIH can occur in children at any age or at any dosage of INH, RMP or PZA, but the incidence of.ADIH is is considerably lower in children than in adults. Children with disseminated forms of disease are at greater risk of ADIH. The use of the higher dosages of INH, RMP and PZA recently recommended by WHO is unlikely to result in a greater risk of ADIH in children. PMID:21772953

Donald, Peter R

2011-01-01

174

Identification of Drugs Inducing Phospholipidosis by Novel in vitro Data  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the accumulation of phospholipids within the lysosome. This adverse drug effect can occur in various tissues and is suspected to impact cellular viability. Therefore, it is important to test chemical compounds for their potential to induce PLD during the drug design process. PLD has been reported to be a side effect of many commonly used drugs, especially those with cationic amphiphilic properties. To predict drug-induced PLD in silico, we established a high-throughput cell-culture-based method to quantitatively determine the induction of PLD by chemical compounds. Using this assay, we tested 297 drug-like compounds at two different concentrations (2.5 ?m and 5.0 ?m). We were able to identify 28 previously unknown PLD-inducing agents. Furthermore, our experimental results enabled the development of a binary classification model to predict PLD-inducing agents based on their molecular properties. This random forest prediction system yields a bootstrapped validated accuracy of 86 %. PLD-inducing agents overlap with those that target similar biological processes; a high degree of concordance with PLD-inducing agents was identified for cationic amphiphilic compounds, small molecules that inhibit acid sphingomyelinase, compounds that cross the blood–brain barrier, and compounds that violate Lipinski’s rule of five. Furthermore, we were able to show that PLD-inducing compounds applied in combination additively induce PLD. PMID:22945602

Muehlbacher, Markus; Tripal, Philipp; Roas, Florian; Kornhuber, Johannes

2012-01-01

175

Drug-induced QT interval prolongation: mechanisms and clinical management  

PubMed Central

The prolonged QT interval is both widely seen and associated with the potentially deadly rhythm, Torsades de Pointes (TdP). While it can occur spontaneously in the congenital form, there is a wide array of drugs that have been implicated in the prolongation of the QT interval. Some of these drugs have either been restricted or withdrawn from the market due to the increased incidence of fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The list of drugs that cause QT prolongation continues to grow, and an updated list of specific drugs that prolong the QT interval can be found at www.qtdrugs.org. This review focuses on the mechanism of drug-induced QT prolongation, risk factors for TdP, culprit drugs, prevention and monitoring of prolonged drug-induced QT prolongation and treatment strategies. PMID:25083239

Nachimuthu, Senthil; Assar, Manish D.

2012-01-01

176

Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of movements, and gait problems. DBS requires careful programming of the stimulator device in order to work ... Depression in Parkinson's Disease An NIH disease specific web site to facilitate research on Parkinson's Disease. NINDS, ...

177

Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... You may have seen the actor Michael J. Fox on TV talking about Parkinson's disease. He has ... and help find a cure. Mostly adults (like Fox and boxer Muhammad Ali) get Parkinson's disease. It's ...

178

Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Cognitive impairment Fatigue What are some of the environmental factors researchers believe may be associated with PD? ... PD or slow its progression. Stories from the Environmental Factor (the official newsletter of NIEHS) Parkinson’s disease ...

179

Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... some have been linked to specific gene mutations. Juvenile Parkinsonism In very rare cases, parkinsonian symptoms may ... the age of 20. This condition is called juvenile parkinsonism. It is most commonly seen in Japan ...

180

Parkinson disease  

MedlinePLUS

Parkinson disease causes certain brain cells to die. These are the cells that help control movement and coordination. ... called dopamine to help control muscle movement. With Parkinson disease, the brain cells that make dopamine slowly die. ...

181

Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... to make dopamine. Chemicals in the blood called enzymes destroy L-dopa quickly. L-dopa is mixed ... medication called Sinemet™ to treat Parkinson’s. Carbidopa prevents enzymes from destroying the L-dopa. Medications that do ...

182

Hallucinations and sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Visual hallucinations (VHs) occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD). VHs occur more frequently in elderly patients with longer duration of illness, cognitive impairment, and sleep disturbances. The relationship between the use of antiparkinsonian drugs and VHs is complicated, but most drugs used to treat parkinsonian motor symptoms induce VHs and psychosis in some PD patients. The "continuum hypothesis" proposing that medication-induced psychiatric symptoms in PD begin with drug-induced sleep disturbances, followed by vivid dreams, with progression to hallucinatory and delusional experiences has been challenged. In some patients, VHs may represent intrusion of REM sleep-related imagery into wakefulness. Improving REM sleep abnormalities in PD (e.g., stimulants, anticholinesterase inhibitors) is one strategy now being tested to improve VHs in PD. PMID:15505140

Kulisevsky, Jaime; Roldan, Eliana

2004-10-26

183

Surgical Treatment of Dyskinesia in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

One of the main indications for stereotactic surgery in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the control of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. This can be achieved by pallidotomy and globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) or by subthalamotomy and subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS, which usually allow for a cut down in the dosage of levodopa. DBS has assumed a pivotal role in stereotactic surgical treatment of PD and, in fact, ablative procedures are currently considered surrogates, particularly when bilateral procedures are required, as DBS does not produce a brain lesion and the stimulator can be programed to induce better therapeutic effects while minimizing adverse effects. Interventions in either the STN and the GPi seem to be similar in controlling most of the other motor aspects of PD, nonetheless, GPi surgery seems to induce a more particular and direct effect on dyskinesia, while the anti-dyskinetic effect of STN interventions is mostly dependent on a reduction of dopaminergic drug dosages. Hence, the si ne qua non-condition for a reduction of dyskinesia when STN interventions are intended is their ability to allow for a reduction of levodopa dosage. Pallidal surgery is indicated when dyskinesia is a dose-limiting factor for maintaining or introducing higher adequate levels of dopaminergic therapy. Also medications used for the treatment of PD may be useful for the improvement of several non-motor aspects of the disease, including sleep, psychiatric, and cognitive domains, therefore, dose reduction of medication withdrawal are not always a fruitful objective. PMID:24808889

Munhoz, Renato P.; Cerasa, Antonio; Okun, Michael S.

2014-01-01

184

Factors affecting drug-induced liver injury: antithyroid drugs as instances.  

PubMed

Methimazole and propylthiouracil have been used in the management of hyperthyroidism for more than half a century. However, hepatotoxicity is one of the most deleterious side effects associated with these medications. The mechanism(s) of hepatic injury induced by antithyroid agents is not fully recognized yet. Furthermore, there are no specific tools for predicting the occurrence of hepatotoxicity induced by these drugs. The purpose of this article is to give an overview on possible susceptibility factors in liver injury induced by antithyroid agents. Age, gender, metabolism characteristics, alcohol consumption, underlying diseases, immunologic mechanisms, and drug interactions are involved in enhancing antithyroid drugs-induced hepatic damage. An outline on the clinically used treatments for antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity and the potential therapeutic strategies found to be effective against this complication are also discussed. PMID:25320726

Heidari, Reza; Niknahad, Hossein; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Abdoli, Narges

2014-09-01

185

Treatment dilemma in comorbidity of schizophrenia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Extrapyramidal symptoms are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia. Most are attributed as drug-induced parkinsonism, but comorbidity of idiopathic Parkinson's disease is also possible. We report a 59-year-old male with a diagnosis of schizophrenia for 32 years. Progressive hand tremor was noted from age 53; and then masked face, bradykinesia, dysphagia, sialorrhea; and unsteady shuffling gait became markedly exacerbated, even after discontinuing all antipsychotics for 6 months. The diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease was confirmed by Tc99m TRODAT SPECT. The dilemma of psychopharmacological treatment to control both disorders was encountered. Based on the review of treatment for Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP), the recommended treatments suggest the utilization of quetiapine, clozapine, or aripiprazole. However, monotherapy with each of the three atypical antipsychotics failed due to poor efficacy or worsening of parkinsonism symptoms. After a 2-month cautious titration, a combination of quetiapine 50 mg/day and clozapine 37.5 mg/day finally achieved satisfactory efficacy. This case report illustrates the dilemma of treating a patient with schizophrenia and comorbid idiopathic Parkinson's disease, which differed from PDP and required more clinical data for a proper treatment recommendation. PMID:21762841

Lan, Chen-Chia; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying Sheue; Bai, Ya Mei

2011-01-01

186

Neuroprotective Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine against Dopaminergic Neuron Injury in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by MPTP  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of PD, apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress are the most prevalent mechanisms. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a biological component that has been extracted from Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (ChuanXiong), which exhibits anti-apoptotic and antioxidant roles. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of TMP against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP and to elucidate probable molecular mechanisms. The results showed that TMP could notably prevent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurons damage, reflected by improvement of motor deficits, enhancement of TH expression and the content of dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC. We observed MPTP-induced activation of mitochondrial apoptotic death pathway, evidenced by up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase 3, which was significantly inhibited by TMP. Moreover, TMP could prevent MPTP-increased TBARS level and MPTP-decreased GSH level, indicating the antioxidant role of TMP in PD model. And the antioxidant role of TMP attributes to the prevention of MPTP-induced reduction of Nrf2 and GCLc expression. In conclusion, in MPTP-induced PD model, TMP prevents the down-regulation of Nrf2 and GCLc, maintaining redox balance and inhibiting apoptosis, leading to the attenuation of dopaminergic neuron damage. The effectiveness of TMP in treating PD potentially leads to interesting therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24719552

Lu, Chen; Zhang, Jin; Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Shan; Bi, Linlin; Zhang, Song; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Xie, Yanhua; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

2014-01-01

187

Neuroprotective effects of tetramethylpyrazine against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of PD, apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress are the most prevalent mechanisms. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a biological component that has been extracted from Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (ChuanXiong), which exhibits anti-apoptotic and antioxidant roles. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of TMP against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP and to elucidate probable molecular mechanisms. The results showed that TMP could notably prevent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurons damage, reflected by improvement of motor deficits, enhancement of TH expression and the content of dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC. We observed MPTP-induced activation of mitochondrial apoptotic death pathway, evidenced by up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase 3, which was significantly inhibited by TMP. Moreover, TMP could prevent MPTP-increased TBARS level and MPTP-decreased GSH level, indicating the antioxidant role of TMP in PD model. And the antioxidant role of TMP attributes to the prevention of MPTP-induced reduction of Nrf2 and GCLc expression. In conclusion, in MPTP-induced PD model, TMP prevents the down-regulation of Nrf2 and GCLc, maintaining redox balance and inhibiting apoptosis, leading to the attenuation of dopaminergic neuron damage. The effectiveness of TMP in treating PD potentially leads to interesting therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24719552

Lu, Chen; Zhang, Jin; Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Shan; Bi, Linlin; Zhang, Song; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Xie, Yanhua; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

2014-01-01

188

The Effect of Parkinson Drug Timing on Cardiovascular Response during Treadmill Exercise in a Person with Parkinson Disease and Freezing of Gait  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine the response of cerebral oxygenation during treadmill walking in a person with Parkinson disease (PD) who experiences freezing of gait (FOG) and to determine whether the oxygen response was related to the timing of his PD medication. Client Description: A 61-year-old man with PD performed two bouts of treadmill testing on the same day, during the on- and off-phases of his PD medication. Measures and Outcome: The client experienced two FOG episodes during the first testing session (on-phase with hypokinetic movement session). Cerebral oxygen response (measured by near-infrared spectroscopy) was stable until the FOG episodes occurred, at which point it decreased until the FOG episode was over. No electrocardiogram (ECG) changes or lightheadedness were noted; blood pressure (BP) remained stable. During the second exercise testing session (off-phase with dyskinetic movement session), the client did not experience any FOG episodes, and his cerebral oxygen response remained stable. Toward the end of the second testing session, he experienced lightheadedness and a drop in BP of approximately 30 mmHg, along with significant ST segment depression on his ECG. Implications: Haemodynamic and cerebral oxygen changes occurred that were specific to the timing of the client's PD medication and to his FOG episodes. This case study shows a person with PD demonstrating decreased cerebral oxygenation during FOG, which may be based on his variable response to levodopa medication or may be attributable to as yet unidentified physiologic mechanisms. PMID:24403689

Nelson, Reid; Steffen, Teresa M.

2013-01-01

189

Drug-induced impairment of renal function  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical agents provide diagnostic and therapeutic utility that are central to patient care. However, all agents also carry adverse drug effect profiles. While most of these are clinically insignificant, some drugs may cause unacceptable toxicity that impacts negatively on patient morbidity and mortality. Recognizing adverse effects is important for administering appropriate drug doses, instituting preventive strategies, and withdrawing the offending agent due to toxicity. In the present article, we will review those drugs that are associated with impaired renal function. By focusing on pharmaceutical agents that are currently in clinical practice, we will provide an overview of nephrotoxic drugs that a treating physician is most likely to encounter. In doing so, we will summarize risk factors for nephrotoxicity, describe clinical manifestations, and address preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:25540591

Pazhayattil, George Sunny; Shirali, Anushree C

2014-01-01

190

Drug induced lung disease--amiodarone in focus.  

PubMed

More than 380 medications are known to cause pulmonary toxicity. Selected drugs that are important causes of pulmonary toxicity fall into the following classes: cytotoxic, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, illicit drugs, miscellaneous. The adverse reactions can involve the pulmonary parenchyma, pleura, the airways, pulmonary vascular system, and mediastinum. Drug-induced lung diseases have no pathognomonic clinical, laboratory, physical, radiographic or histological findings. A drug-induced lung disease is usually considered a diagnosis of exclusion of other diseases. The diagnosis of drug-mediated pulmonary toxicity is usually made based on clinical findings. In general, laboratory analyses do not help in establishing the diagnosis. High-resolution computed tomography scanning is more sensitive than chest radiography for defining radiographic abnormalities. The treatment of drug-induced lung disease consists of immediate discontinuation of the offending drug and appropriate management of the pulmonary symptoms. Glucocorticoids have been associated with rapid improvement in gas exchange and reversal of radiographic abnormalities. Before starting any medication, patients should be educated about the potential adverse effects of the drug. Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent used in the treatment of many types of tachyarrhythmia. Amiodarone-caused pulmonary toxicity is a well-known side effect (complication) of this medication. The incidence of amiodarone-induced lung disease is approximately 5-7%. PMID:25546981

Vasi?, Nada R; Milenkovi?, Branislava A; Pešut, Dragica P; Stevi?, Ruža S; Jovanovi?, Dragana M

2014-01-01

191

Mechanisms in cancer-chemotherapeutic drugs-induced peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-cancer drugs such as vincristine, paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, cisplatin and bortezomib are well reported to exert direct and indirect effects on sensory nerves to alter the amplitude of action potential, conduction velocity and induce pain. It results in patient suffering and also limits the treatment with potentially useful anticancer drugs. The different scientists have worked in this area to explore the

Amteshwar Singh Jaggi; Nirmal Singh

192

Mechanism of laser-induced drug delivery in tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penetration of anti-cancer drugs (especially macromolecular agents) from blood in tumor cells is limited due to the presence of physiological barriers: tumor capillary wall, slow diffusion in the interstitium, and cancer cell membrane. Interaction of exogenous nano- or microparticles with laser or ultrasonic radiation may enhance drug delivery in tumor cells due to laser- or ultrasound-induced cavitation. Our previous studies

Rinat O. Esenaliev; Irina V. Larina; Kirill V. Larin; Massoud Motamedi; B. M. Evers

2000-01-01

193

In silico modeling to predict drug-induced phospholipidosis  

SciTech Connect

Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is a preclinical finding during pharmaceutical drug development that has implications on the course of drug development and regulatory safety review. A principal characteristic of drugs inducing DIPL is known to be a cationic amphiphilic structure. This provides evidence for a structure-based explanation and opportunity to analyze properties and structures of drugs with the histopathologic findings for DIPL. In previous work from the FDA, in silico quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modeling using machine learning approaches has shown promise with a large dataset of drugs but included unconfirmed data as well. In this study, we report the construction and validation of a battery of complementary in silico QSAR models using the FDA's updated database on phospholipidosis, new algorithms and predictive technologies, and in particular, we address high performance with a high-confidence dataset. The results of our modeling for DIPL include rigorous external validation tests showing 80–81% concordance. Furthermore, the predictive performance characteristics include models with high sensitivity and specificity, in most cases above ? 80% leading to desired high negative and positive predictivity. These models are intended to be utilized for regulatory toxicology applied science needs in screening new drugs for DIPL. - Highlights: • New in silico models for predicting drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) are described. • The training set data in the models is derived from the FDA's phospholipidosis database. • We find excellent predictivity values of the models based on external validation. • The models can support drug screening and regulatory decision-making on DIPL.

Choi, Sydney S.; Kim, Jae S.; Valerio, Luis G., E-mail: luis.valerio@fda.hhs.gov; Sadrieh, Nakissa

2013-06-01

194

Neuroprotective effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation in rotenone-induced cellular and animal models of parkinsonism.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown that mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) functions as a cellular protector against oxidative stress by detoxification of cytotoxic aldehydes. Within dopaminergic neurons, dopamine is metabolized by monoamine oxidase to yield 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) then converts to a less toxic acid product by ALDH. The highly toxic and reactive DOPAL has been hypothesized to contribute to the selective neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective mechanism and therapeutic effect of ALDH2 in rotenone models for parkinsonism. Overexpression of wild-type ALDH2 gene, but not the enzymatically deficient mutant ALDH2*2 (E504K), reduced rotenone-induced cell death. Application of a potent activator of ALDH2, Alda-1, was effective in protecting against rotenone-induced apoptotic cell death in both SH-SY5Y cells and primary cultured substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons. In addition, intraperitoneal administration of Alda-1 significantly reduced rotenone- or MPTP-induced death of SN tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons. The attenuation of rotenone-induced apoptosis by Alda-1 resulted from decreasing ROS accumulation, reversal of mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, and inhibition of activation of proteins related to mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The present study demonstrates that ALDH2 plays a crucial role in maintaining normal mitochondrial function to protect against neurotoxicity and that Alda-1 is effective in ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. These results indicate that ALDH2 activation could be a neuroprotective therapy for PD. PMID:25263579

Chiu, Ching-Chi; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh; Lai, Szu-Chia; Wu-Chou, Yah-Huei; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Jie; Chen, Chao-Lang; Chang, Ya-Ming; Wang, Hung-Li; Lu, Chin-Song

2015-01-01

195

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor blockade attenuates MPTP-induced parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

Endogenous nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) inhibits the activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and affects motor behavior. In this study we investigated whether a N/OFQ receptor (NOP) antagonist, J-113397, can modify movement in naive mice and nonhuman primates and attenuate motor deficits in MPTP-treated parkinsonian animals. J-113397 facilitated motor activity in naďve mice at low doses (0.1–1 mg/kg) and inhibited it at higher ones (10 mg/kg). Likewise, in MPTP-treated mice, J-113397 reversed motor deficit at 0.01 mg/kg but worsened hypokinesia at higher doses (1 mg/kg). In naďve nonhuman primates, J-113397, ineffective up to 1 mg/kg, produced inconsistent motor improvementsat 3 mg/kg. Conversely, in parkinsonian primates J-113397 (0.01 mg/kg) reversed parkinsonism, being most effective against hypokinesia. We conclude that endogenous N/OFQ modulates motor activity in mice and nonhuman primates and contributes to parkinsonian symptoms in MPTP-treated animals. NOP receptor antagonists may represent a novel approach to Parkinson’s disease. PMID:18413287

Viaro, Riccardo; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Marti, Matteo; Trapella, Claudio; Isacson, Ole; Morari, Michele

2008-01-01

196

An In Vivo Microdialysis Study of FLZ Penetration through the Blood-Brain Barrier in Normal and 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Parkinson's Disease Model Rats  

PubMed Central

FLZ (N-[2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative and a potential anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) agent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the penetration of free FLZ across the BBB and the effects of P-gp inhibition on FLZ transport in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced PD model rats. In vivo microdialysis was used to collect FLZ containing brain and blood dialysates following intravenous (i.v.) drug administration either with or without pretreatment with the specific P-gp inhibitor, zosuquidar trihydrochloride (zosuquidar·3HCl). A sensitive, rapid, and reliable ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) technique was developed and validated to quantitate free FLZ levels in the dialysates. No significant differences were observed in the brain/blood FLZ area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio between normal and PD model rats. However, pretreatment with zosuquidar·3HCl markedly increased the AUC ratio in both rat models. In addition, FLZ penetration was similar in zosuquidar·3HCl-pretreated normal and PD rats. These results suggest that P-gp inhibition increases BBB permeability to FLZ, thereby supporting the hypothesis that P-gp normally restricts FLZ transfer to the brain. These findings could provide reference data for future clinical trials and may aid investigation of the BBB permeability of other CNS-active substances. PMID:25045708

Hou, Jinfeng; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingfei; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

2014-01-01

197

Ursodeoxycholic acid induced generalized fixed drug eruption.  

PubMed

Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a rare form of drug allergies that recur at the same cutaneous or mucosal site in every usage of drug. Single or multiple round, sharply demarcated and dusky red plaques appear soon after drug exposure. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA: 3?,7?-dihydroxy-5?-cholanic acid) is used for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. Some side effects may be observed, such as diarrhea, dyspepsia, pruritus and headaches. We encountered only three cases of lichenoid reaction regarding the use of UDCA among previous studies. In this article, we reported a generalized FDE case related to UDCA intake in a 59-year-old male patient with cholestasis for the first time in the literature. PMID:24147950

Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Calka, Omer; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Bulut, Gulay

2014-09-01

198

Proposed Motor Scoring System in a Porcine Model of Parkinson's Disease induced by Chronic Subcutaneous Injection of MPTP  

PubMed Central

Destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) is a common pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Characteristics of PD patients include bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, tremor at rest and disturbances in balance. For about four decades, PD animal models have been produced by toxin-induced or gene-modified techniques. However, in mice, none of the gene-modified models showed all 4 major criteria of PD. Moreover, distinguishing between PD model pigs and normal pigs has not been well established. Therefore, we planned to produce a pig model for PD by chronic subcutaneous administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), neurotoxin. Changes in behavioral patterns of pigs were thoroughly evaluated and a new motor scoring system was established for this porcine model that was based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in human PD patients. In summary, this motor scoring system could be helpful to analyze the porcine PD model and to confirm the pathology prior to further examinations, such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which is expensive, and invasive immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the brain. PMID:25258574

Moon, Joon Ho; Kim, Ji Ho; Im, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Park, Eun Jung; Song, Kilyoung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hyun, Su Bin; Kang, Sang Chul; Kim, Hyunil; Moon, Hyo Eun; Park, Hyung Woo; Lee, Hong Jae; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Seokjoong

2014-01-01

199

Proposed Motor Scoring System in a Porcine Model of Parkinson's Disease induced by Chronic Subcutaneous Injection of MPTP.  

PubMed

Destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) is a common pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Characteristics of PD patients include bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, tremor at rest and disturbances in balance. For about four decades, PD animal models have been produced by toxin-induced or gene-modified techniques. However, in mice, none of the gene-modified models showed all 4 major criteria of PD. Moreover, distinguishing between PD model pigs and normal pigs has not been well established. Therefore, we planned to produce a pig model for PD by chronic subcutaneous administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), neurotoxin. Changes in behavioral patterns of pigs were thoroughly evaluated and a new motor scoring system was established for this porcine model that was based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in human PD patients. In summary, this motor scoring system could be helpful to analyze the porcine PD model and to confirm the pathology prior to further examinations, such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which is expensive, and invasive immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the brain. PMID:25258574

Moon, Joon Ho; Kim, Ji Ho; Im, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Park, Eun Jung; Song, Kilyoung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hyun, Su Bin; Kang, Sang Chul; Kim, Hyunil; Moon, Hyo Eun; Park, Hyung Woo; Lee, Hong Jae; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Seokjoong; Lee, Byeong Chun; Paek, Sun Ha

2014-09-01

200

Contemporary review of drug-induced pancreatitis: A different perspective  

PubMed Central

Although gallstone and alcohol use have been considered the most common causes of acute pancreatitis, hundreds of frequently prescribed medications are associated with this disease state. The true incidence is unknown since there are few population based studies available. The knowledge of drug induced acute pancreatitis is limited by the availability and the quality of the evidence as the majority of data is extrapolated from case reports. Establishing a definitive causal relationship between a drug and acute pancreatitis poses a challenge to clinicians. Several causative agent classification systems are often used to identify the suspected agents. They require regular updates since new drug induced acute pancreatitis cases are reported continuously. In addition, infrequently prescribed medications and herbal medications are often omitted. Furthermore, identification of drug induced acute pancreatitis with new medications often requires accumulation of post market case reports. The unrealistic expectation for a comprehensive list of medications and the multifactorial nature of acute pancreatitis call for a different approach. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms of drug induced acute pancreatitis and provide the perspective of deductive reasoning in order to allow clinicians to identify potential drug induced acute pancreatitis with limited data. PMID:25400984

Hung, Whitney Y; Abreu Lanfranco, Odaliz

2014-01-01

201

Pulmonary and generalized lysosomal storage induced by amphiphilic drugs.  

PubMed Central

Administration of amphiphilic drugs to experimental animals causes formation of myelinoid bodies in many cell types, accumulation of foamy macrophages in pulmonary alveoli and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. These changes are the result of an interaction between the drugs and phospholipids which leads to an alteration in physicochemical properties of the phospholipids. Impairment of the digestion of altered pulmonary secretions in phagosomes of macrophages results in accumulation of foam cells in pulmonary alveoli. Impairment of the metabolism of altered phospholipids removed by autophagy induces an accumulation of myelinoid bodies. The administration of amphiphilic compounds thus causes pulmonary intra-alveolar histiocytosis which is a part of a drug-induced lysosomal storage or generalized lipidosis. The accumulation of drug-lipid complexes in myelinoid bodies and in pulmonary foam cells may lead to alteration of cellular functioning and to clinical disease. Currently over 50 amphiphilic drugs are known. Unique pharmacological properties necessitate clinical use of some of these drugs. The occurrence and severity of potential clinical side effects depend on the nature of each drug, dosage and duration of treatment, simultaneous administration of other drugs and foods, individual metabolic pattern of the patient and other factors. Further studies on factors preventing and potentiating adverse effects of amphiphilic drugs are indicated. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6376111

Hruban, Z

1984-01-01

202

Drug-induced esophageal injury with an occult vascular ring.  

PubMed

Drug-induced esophageal injury is an under-recognized clinical problem, and is associated with antibiotic use in more than 50% of cases. The current report describes a teenage girl who presented with symptoms of pill-induced esophagitis following doxycycline use. Subsequent investigations identified a previously undiagnosed vascular ring. Although most patients who experience drug-induced esophageal injury have no underlying anatomical or functional disorder of the esophagus, the condition is more common in areas of esophageal narrowing. The present case illustrates the possibility of an occult esophageal obstruction representing a risk factor for pill esophagitis. The etiologies, mechanisms and management of drug-induced esophageal injury are reviewed, and aspects of vascular rings that are relevant to paediatricians are discussed. PMID:23115494

Guttman, Orlee R; Zachos, Mary

2011-11-01

203

Drug-induced esophageal injury with an occult vascular ring  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced esophageal injury is an under-recognized clinical problem, and is associated with antibiotic use in more than 50% of cases. The current report describes a teenage girl who presented with symptoms of pill-induced esophagitis following doxycycline use. Subsequent investigations identified a previously undiagnosed vascular ring. Although most patients who experience drug-induced esophageal injury have no underlying anatomical or functional disorder of the esophagus, the condition is more common in areas of esophageal narrowing. The present case illustrates the possibility of an occult esophageal obstruction representing a risk factor for pill esophagitis. The etiologies, mechanisms and management of drug-induced esophageal injury are reviewed, and aspects of vascular rings that are relevant to paediatricians are discussed. PMID:23115494

Guttman, Orlee R; Zachos, Mary

2011-01-01

204

The use of nanopore analysis for discovering drugs which bind to ?-synuclein for treatment of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

A major feature of Parkinson's disease is the formation of Lewy bodies in dopaminergic neurons which consist of misfolded ?-synuclein. The binding of natural products to ?-synuclein was evaluated by nanopore analysis and caffeine, curcumin, and nicotine all caused large conformational changes which may be related to their known neuroprotective effect in Parkinson's disease. The binding of the stereoisomers of nicotine were also studied by ITC, CD and NMR. It is proposed that (-)-nicotine causes the folding of ?-synuclein into a loop with interaction between the N- and C-termini. For (+)-nicotine the binding is weaker and mainly involves residues in the N-terminus. Caffeine and nicotine can bind to ?-synuclein simultaneously and may provide lead structures for the development of other compounds for the treatment of PD. PMID:25081642

Tavassoly, Omid; Kakish, Joe; Nokhrin, Sergiy; Dmitriev, Oleg; Lee, Jeremy S

2014-12-17

205

Rebound psychosis: effect of discontinuation of antipsychotics in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

To determine whether psychiatrically stable patients with a history of drug-induced psychosis could be successfully weaned off their antipsychotic drug, we offered consecutive Parkinson disease (PD) patients on quetiapine or clozapine, who were free of any on-going psychosis, to be slowly weaned off their antipsychotic drug. Before the study was aborted 6 PD patients (mean age, 78 years) with an average antipsychotic exposure of 20 months (5 on quetiapine, 1 on clozapine) were enrolled. After the antipsychotic agent was discontinued, psychosis recurred in 5 of 6 patients. In 3 patients the "rebound psychosis" was worse than the original psychotic episode and required subsequent higher antipsychotic medication doses. PMID:15390047

Fernandez, Hubert H; Trieschmann, Martha E; Okun, Michael S

2005-01-01

206

Secondary parkinsonism  

MedlinePLUS

Secondary parkinsonism may be caused by health problems, including: Brain injury Diffuse Lewy body disease (a type of dementia ) Encephalitis HIV/AIDS Meningitis Multiple system atrophy Progressive ...

207

Systems biology analysis of the proteomic alterations induced by MPP+, a Parkinson's disease-related mitochondrial toxin  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease whose etiology has not been completely characterized. Many cellular processes have been proposed to play a role in the neuronal damage and loss: defects in the proteosomal activity, altered protein processing, increased reactive oxygen species burden. Among them, the involvement of a decreased activity and an altered disposal of mitochondria is becoming more and more evident. The mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an inhibitor of complex I, has been widely used to reproduce biochemical alterations linked to PD in vitro and its precursor, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP), to induce a Parkinson-like syndrome in vivo. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature of all the proteomic investigations of neuronal alterations due to MPP+ treatment and compared it with our results obtained with a mitochondrial proteomic analysis of SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+. By using open-source bioinformatics tools, we identified the biochemical pathways and the molecular functions mostly affected by MPP+, i.e., ATP production, the mitochondrial unfolded stress response, apoptosis, autophagy, and, most importantly, the synapse funcionality. Eventually, we generated protein networks, based on physical or functional interactions, to highlight the relationships among the molecular actors involved. In particular, we identified the mitochondrial protein HSP60 as the central hub in the protein-protein interaction network. As a whole, this analysis clarified the cellular responses to MPP+, the specific mitochondrial proteome alterations induced and how this toxic model can recapitulate some pathogenetic events of PD.

Monti, Chiara; Bondi, Heather; Urbani, Andrea; Fasano, Mauro; Alberio, Tiziana

2015-01-01

208

Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase type 5 prevents L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The dopamine precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is widely used as a therapeutic choice for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the long-term use of L-DOPA leads to the development of debilitating involuntary movements, called L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). The cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in the striatum is known to play a role in LID. However, from among the nine known adenylyl cyclases (ACs) present in the striatum, the AC that mediates LID remains unknown. To address this issue, we prepared an animal model with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in the substantia nigra in wild-type and AC5-knock-out (KO) mice, and examined behavioral responses to short-term or long-term treatment with L-DOPA. Compared with the behavioral responses of wild-type mice, LID was profoundly reduced in AC5-KO mice. The behavioral protection of long-term treatment with L-DOPA in AC5-KO mice was preceded by a decrease in the phosphorylation levels of PKA substrates ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) 1/2, MSK1 (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1), and histone H3, levels of which were all increased in the lesioned striatum of wild-type mice. Consistently, FosB/?FosB expression, which was induced by long-term L-DOPA treatment in the lesioned striatum, was also decreased in AC5-KO mice. Moreover, suppression of AC5 in the dorsal striatum with lentivirus-shRNA-AC5 was sufficient to attenuate LID, suggesting that the AC5-regulated signaling cascade in the striatum mediates LID. These results identify the AC5/cAMP system in the dorsal striatum as a therapeutic target for the treatment of LID in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:25164669

Park, Hye-Yeon; Kang, Young-Mi; Kang, Young; Park, Tae-Shin; Ryu, Young-Kyoung; Hwang, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Chung, Bong-Hyun; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Chul-Ho; Han, Pyung-Lim; Kim, Kyoung-Shim

2014-08-27

209

No Association between Akathisia or Parkinsonism and Suicidality in treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Akathisia and drug-induced Parkinsonism have traditionally beenassociated with depression and suicidality based on case study evidence. In this subanalysis, patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia were rated on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale and Simpson–Angus extrapyramidal side-effect scale at two time points (n = 86 at first assessment; n = 67 at secondassessment). At no time point was

Lars Hansen; Roland Morgan Jones; David Kingdon

2004-01-01

210

Aggravation of arrhythmia induced with antiarrhythmic drugs during electrophysiologic testing.  

PubMed

There is evidence that antiarrhythmic drugs can worsen ventricular arrhythmias in patients. In a previous study ventricular arrhythmias worsened 11% when noninvasive monitoring and exercise tests were performed to evaluate drug effect. How frequently this complication occurs when patients undergo electrophysiologic studies is not known. Electrophysiologic (EP) tests were carried out in 63 patients who had a history of malignant, sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Monitoring and exercise tests showed low-frequency or nonreproducible ventricular arrhythmia. Criteria for definite drug-induced aggravation of arrhythmia included conversion of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia to a sustained ventricular arrhythmia and provocation of the end point with one extrastimulus when three were required during control. Aggravation was deemed possible when, as compared to a control group, the end point resulted with the use of one less extrastimulus and sustained tachycardia with a more rapid rate was provoked. A total of 216 single drug studies were performed (3.4/patient). In general, definite or possible aggravation occurred in 35 tests (16%). In 28 cases (12.9%) aggravation was categorized as definite, while in 7 cases (3.2%) the induced arrhythmia was deemed as possibly related to the use of the antiarrhythmic drugs. Drug tests with multiple agents caused aggravation of arrhythmia in 19 patients (30%). Therefore, exacerbation of arrhythmia by antiarrhythmic drugs also occurs during electrophysiologic study. The incidence approximates that reported when monitoring and exercise tests are used for evaluating drug efficacy. PMID:4013993

Poser, R F; Podrid, P J; Lombardi, F; Lown, B

1985-07-01

211

Characterization of drug-induced transcriptional modules: towards drug repositioning and functional understanding  

PubMed Central

In pharmacology, it is crucial to understand the complex biological responses that drugs elicit in the human organism and how well they can be inferred from model organisms. We therefore identified a large set of drug-induced transcriptional modules from genome-wide microarray data of drug-treated human cell lines and rat liver, and first characterized their conservation. Over 70% of these modules were common for multiple cell lines and 15% were conserved between the human in vitro and the rat in vivo system. We then illustrate the utility of conserved and cell-type-specific drug-induced modules by predicting and experimentally validating (i) gene functions, e.g., 10 novel regulators of cellular cholesterol homeostasis and (ii) new mechanisms of action for existing drugs, thereby providing a starting point for drug repositioning, e.g., novel cell cycle inhibitors and new modulators of ?-adrenergic receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and estrogen receptor. Taken together, the identified modules reveal the conservation of transcriptional responses towards drugs across cell types and organisms, and improve our understanding of both the molecular basis of drug action and human biology. PMID:23632384

Iskar, Murat; Zeller, Georg; Blattmann, Peter; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Kaminska, Katarzyna H; Runz, Heiko; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Pepperkok, Rainer; van Noort, Vera; Bork, Peer

2013-01-01

212

Decision-making, impulsivity and addictions: Do Parkinson’s disease patients jump to conclusions?  

PubMed Central

Links between impulsive compulsive behaviors in treated Parkinson’s disease, behavioral addictions and substance abuse have been postulated, but no direct comparisons have been carried out so far. We directly compared patients with Parkinson’s disease with and without impulsive compulsive behaviors with illicit drug abusers, pathological gamblers and age-matched healthy controls using the beads task, a test of reflection impulsivity and a working memory task. We found that all patients with Parkinson’s disease made more impulsive and irrational choices than the control group. Parkinson’s disease patients who had an impulsive compulsive behavior showed similar behavior to illicit substance abusers whereas patients without impulsive compulsive behaviors more closely resembled pathological gamblers. In contrast we found no difference in working memory performance within the Parkinson’s disease groups. However Parkinson’s disease patients without impulsive compulsive behaviors remembered distractors significantly less than all other patients during working memory tests. We were able to correctly classify 96% of the Parkinson’s disease patients with respect to whether or not they had an impulsive compulsive behavior by analyzing 3 trials of the 80/20 loss condition of the beads task with a negative prediction value of 92.3% and we propose that this task may prove to be a powerful screening tool to detect an impulsive compulsive behavior in Parkinson’s disease. Our results also suggest that intact cortical processing and less distractibility in Parkinson’s disease patients without impulsive compulsive behaviors may protect them from developing behavioral addictions. PMID:22821557

Djamshidian, Atbin; O’Sullivan, Sean S.; Sanotsky, Yanosh; Sharman, Stephen; Matviyenko, Yuriy; Foltynie, Thomas; Michalczuk, Rosanna; Aviles-Olmos, Iciar; Fedoryshyn, Ludmyla; Doherty, Karen M.; Filts, Yuriy; Selikhova, Marianna; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Joyce, Eileen; Lees, Andrew J.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

2012-01-01

213

Drug-induced renal Fanconi syndrome.  

PubMed

A number of therapeutic drugs are toxic to the kidney proximal tubule (PT) and can cause the renal Fanconi syndrome (FS). The most frequently implicated drugs are cisplatin, ifosfamide, tenofovir, sodium valproate and aminoglycoside antibiotics, and the new oral iron chelator deferasirox has also recently been associated with FS. The incidence of full or partial FS is almost certainly under-estimated due to a lack of appropriate systematic studies, variations in definitions of tubular dysfunction and under-reporting of adverse events. The clinical features of FS are amino aciduria, low molecular weight proteinuria, hypophosphataemia, metabolic acidosis and glycosuria. The most serious complications are bone demineralization from urinary phosphate wasting and progressive decline in kidney function. Commonly used tests for kidney function such as estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine albumin/creatinine ratio are not sensitive markers of PT toxicity; patients at risk should thus be monitored with more appropriate tests, and drugs should be stopped or reduced in dose if toxicity occurs. Substantial recovery of PT function can occur after withdrawal of therapy, but this can take months and chronic damage may persist in some cases. PMID:24368854

Hall, A M; Bass, P; Unwin, R J

2014-04-01

214

Cardiac lesions induced by neuroleptic drugs in the rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden death seems to be more frequent following treatment with neuroleptic drugs in patients with pre-existing cardiac lesions, especially dilated and hypertrophic myocardiopathy. The present study was undertaken to confirm the hypothesis that myocardial lesions can be induced by neuroleptic drugs. Eight groups of 6 New-Zealand White rabbits were treated for 3 months: group I: controls (saline); group II: 15mg\\/kg\\/day

D. Belhani; D. Frassati; R. Mégard; P. Tsibiribi; B. Bui-Xuan; A. Tabib; L. Fanton; D. Malicier; J. Descotes; Q. Timour

2006-01-01

215

Translating Clinical Findings into Knowledge in Drug Safety Evaluation - Drug Induced Liver Injury Prediction System (DILIps)  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant concern in drug development due to the poor concordance between preclinical and clinical findings of liver toxicity. We hypothesized that the DILI types (hepatotoxic side effects) seen in the clinic can be translated into the development of predictive in silico models for use in the drug discovery phase. We identified 13 hepatotoxic side effects with high accuracy for classifying marketed drugs for their DILI potential. We then developed in silico predictive models for each of these 13 side effects, which were further combined to construct a DILI prediction system (DILIps). The DILIps yielded 60–70% prediction accuracy for three independent validation sets. To enhance the confidence for identification of drugs that cause severe DILI in humans, the “Rule of Three” was developed in DILIps by using a consensus strategy based on 13 models. This gave high positive predictive value (91%) when applied to an external dataset containing 206 drugs from three independent literature datasets. Using the DILIps, we screened all the drugs in DrugBank and investigated their DILI potential in terms of protein targets and therapeutic categories through network modeling. We demonstrated that two therapeutic categories, anti-infectives for systemic use and musculoskeletal system drugs, were enriched for DILI, which is consistent with current knowledge. We also identified protein targets and pathways that are related to drugs that cause DILI by using pathway analysis and co-occurrence text mining. While marketed drugs were the focus of this study, the DILIps has a potential as an evaluation tool to screen and prioritize new drug candidates or chemicals, such as environmental chemicals, to avoid those that might cause liver toxicity. We expect that the methodology can be also applied to other drug safety endpoints, such as renal or cardiovascular toxicity. PMID:22194678

Liu, Zhichao; Shi, Qiang; Ding, Don; Kelly, Reagan; Fang, Hong; Tong, Weida

2011-01-01

216

Subthalamic nucleus stimulation-induced regional blood flow responses correlate with improvement of motor signs in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, yet the mechanism of action remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that STN DBS increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in immediate downstream targets but does not reveal which brain regions may have functional changes associated with improved motor manifestations. We studied 48 patients with STN DBS who withheld medication overnight and underwent PET scans to measure rCBF responses to bilateral STN DBS. PET scans were performed with bilateral DBS OFF and ON in a counterbalanced order followed by clinical ratings of motor manifestations using Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale 3 (UPDRS 3). We investigated whether improvement in UPDRS 3 scores in rigidity, bradykinesia, postural stability and gait correlate with rCBF responses in a priori determined regions. These regions were selected based on a previous study showing significant STN DBS-induced rCBF change in the thalamus, midbrain and supplementary motor area (SMA). We also chose the pedunculopontine nucleus region (PPN) due to mounting evidence of its involvement in locomotion. In the current study, bilateral STN DBS improved rigidity (62%), bradykinesia (44%), gait (49%) and postural stability (56%) (paired t-tests: P < 0.001). As expected, bilateral STN DBS also increased rCBF in the bilateral thalami, right midbrain, and decreased rCBF in the right premotor cortex (P < 0.05, corrected). There were significant correlations between improvement of rigidity and decreased rCBF in the SMA (rs = –0.4, P < 0.02) and between improvement in bradykinesia and increased rCBF in the thalamus (rs = 0.31, P < 0.05). In addition, improved postural reflexes correlated with decreased rCBF in the PPN (rs = –0.38, P < 0.03). These modest correlations between selective motor manifestations and rCBF in specific regions suggest possible regional selectivity for improvement of different motor signs of Parkinson's disease. PMID:18697909

Karimi, M.; Golchin, N.; Tabbal, S. D.; Hershey, T.; Videen, T. O.; Wu, J.; Usche, J. W. M.; Revilla, F. J.; Hartlein, J. M.; Wernle, A. R.; Mink, J. W.

2008-01-01

217

Low Dosage of Rasagiline and Epigallocatechin Gallate Synergistically Restored the Nigrostriatal Axis in MPTP-Induced Parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The anti-Parkinson monoamine oxidase B inhibitor rasagiline appears to be the first neuroprotective disease-modifying therapy in early-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objective: Using a polypharmacy paradigm, we tested whether the distinct neuroprotective pharmacological profile of rasagiline would complement that of (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main antioxidant\\/iron chelator polyphenol constituent of green tea, and restore the neuronal loss and molecular targets damaged

Lydia Reznichenko; Limor Kalfon; Tamar Amit; Moussa B. H. Youdim; Silvia A. Mandel

2010-01-01

218

Periodic paralysis: An unusual presentation of drug-induced hyperkalemia.  

PubMed

Hyperkalemia is a life-threatening electrolyte abnormality. The most common cause of hyperkalemia includes renal disease and ingestion of medications. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may develop in patients with underlying renal impairment, disturbed cellular uptake of potassium load, excessive ingestion or infusion of potassium-containing substances. We report a case of "drug-induced severe hyperkalemia" presenting as periodic paralysis. A 67-year-old diabetic and hypertensive woman presented to emergency department with the complaint of intermittent episode of inability to walk for the past 5 days. Each episode lasted for 15-20 minutes and was associated with breathlessness and restlessness. There was no family history of periodic paralysis and drug history revealed that the patient was onolmesartan 20 mg per day (for past 2 years), perindopril 4 mg per day (for past 16 months), and torsemide 10 mg/day. On examination patient was found to be conscious, alert, and afebrile. Vitals were normal. Examination of cardiovascular and respiratory system did not reveal any significant finding. Blood report of the patient showed serum K+ level 8.6 mmol/l. All other investigations were within normal limits. A diagnosis of drug-induced hyperkalemia was made. Patient responded well to the symptomatic treatment. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first case report of drug-induced hyperkalemia presenting as periodic paralysis. PMID:24554915

Agrawal, Poonam; Chopra, Deepti; Patra, Surajeet K; Madaan, Himanshu

2014-01-01

219

PEP-1-ribosomal protein S3 protects dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of the brain. Ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3) has multiple functions related to protein synthesis, antioxidative activity, and UV endonuclease III activity. We have previously shown that PEP-1-rpS3 inhibits skin inflammation and provides neuroprotection against experimental cerebral ischemic damage. In this study, we examined whether PEP-1-rpS3 can protect DA neurons against oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. PEP-1-rpS3 was efficiently delivered to SH-SY5Y cells and the SN of the brain as confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. PEP-1-rpS3 significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species generation and DNA fragmentation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, consequently leading to the survival of SH-SY5Y cells. The neuroprotection was related to the antiapoptotic activity of PEP-1-rpS3 that affected the levels of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic mediators. In addition, immunohistochemical data collected using a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and cresyl violet staining demonstrated that PEP-1-rpS3 markedly protected DA cells in the SN against MPTP-induced oxidative stress. Therefore, our results suggest that PEP-1-rpS3 may be a potential therapy for PD. PMID:23178948

Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Hye Ri; Woo, Su Jung; Kim, So Mi; Kim, Duk-Soo; Kim, Joon; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

2013-02-01

220

Activation of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors protects astrocytes against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis: Implications for Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Astrocytes have been implicated in the immune responses associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Inhibition of astrocyte apoptosis is a novel strategy for the treatment of PD. Recent studies suggest that ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7-nAChRs) expressed in glial cells are critical links between inflammation and neurodegeneration in PD. However, little is known about their contribution to astrocyte apoptosis during the development of this disorder. In the present study, we showed that nicotine exerts a protective effect on H2O2-induced astrocyte apoptosis and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) downregulation, and this effect was abolished by an ?7-nAChR-selective antagonist. The underlying mechanisms might involve alleviation of mitochondrial membrane potential loss, stabilization of the Bax/Bcl-2 balance, and inhibition of cleaved caspase-9 activity through ?7-nAChR activation. Systemic administration of nicotine dramatically alleviated MPTP-induced symptoms, protected dopaminergic neurons against degeneration, inhibited astrocytes and microglia activation in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and blocked the decrease of GDNF in the striatum by activating ?7-nAChRs. Taken together these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that nicotine suppresses H2O2-induced astrocyte apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway through the stimulation of ?7-nAChRs. Targeting ?7-nAChRs expressed in astrocytes may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25486621

Liu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiaoning; Hui, Yujian; Zhu, Chenlei; Wu, Jie; Taylor, Devin H; Ji, Juan; Fan, Weimin; Huang, Zuhu; Hu, Jun

2015-04-01

221

Protective role of SIRT5 against motor deficit and dopaminergic degeneration in MPTP-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons that results in motor deficits including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Despite decades of intensive study, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to neuronal death, which is the key feature of neurodegeneration. Mitochondria are pivotal organelles that host essential functions in neuronal viability including energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, calcium buffering, redox homeostasis and apoptosis. SIRT5, which localizes in the mitochondrial matrix, is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent histone deacetylase. The physiological and pathophysiological functions of SIRT5 in vivo remain elusive although it is known to be an important energy sensor. Here, we investigated the role of SIRT5 in the pathogenesis of PD mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We present evidence that SIRT5 deficiency, by itself, does not affect motor and non-motor functions; however, lack of SIRT5 exacerbates MPTP-induced motor deficits. Consistently, MPTP-exposed SIRT5 knockout mice exhibited more severe nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration than that observed in wild-type controls. Furthermore, deletion of SIRT5 leads to a larger decrease, relative to control, in the expression level of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), a mitochondria-specific antioxidant enzyme, after MPTP induction. These findings indicate that SIRT5 ameliorates MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration via preserving mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. PMID:25541039

Liu, Lei; Peritore, Carina; Ginsberg, Jessica; Shih, Jennifer; Arun, Siddharth; Donmez, Gizem

2015-03-15

222

Molecular Docking and Prediction of Pharmacokinetic Properties of Dual Mechanism Drugs that Block MAO-B and Adenosine A2A Receptors for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitory potential of adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR) antagonists has raised the possibility of designing dual-target–directed drugs that may provide enhanced symptomatic relief and that may also slow the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) by protecting against further neurodegeneration. To explain the dual inhibition of MAO-B and AA2AR at the molecular level, molecular docking technique was employed. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was used for flexible ligand docking studies. A good correlation (R2= 0.524 and 0.627 for MAO-B and AA2AR, respectively) was established between docking predicted and experimental Ki values, which confirms that the molecular docking approach is reliable to study the mechanism of dual interaction of caffeinyl analogs with MAO-B and AA2AR. Parameters for Lipinski's “Rule-of-Five” were also calculated to estimate the pharmacokinetic properties of dual-target–directed drugs where both MAO-B inhibition and AA2AR antagonism exhibited a positive correlation with calculated LogP having a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.535 and 0.607, respectively. These results provide some beneficial clues in structural modification for designing new inhibitors as dual-target–directed drugs with desired pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of PD. PMID:23112538

Azam, Faizul; Madi, Arwa M.; Ali, Hamed I.

2012-01-01

223

Hypoxia-induced drug resistance: comparison to P-glycoprotein-associated drug resistance.  

PubMed

In this report, we investigate several examples of hypoxia-induced drug resistance and compare them with P-glycoprotein associated multidrug resistance (MDR). EMT6/Ro cells exposed to drugs in air immediately after hypoxic treatment developed resistance to adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil, and actinomycin D. However, these cells did not develop resistance to colchicine, vincristine or cisplatin. When the cells were returned to a normal oxygen environment, they lost resistance. There was no correlation between the content of adriamycin and the development of adriamycin resistance induced by hypoxia. There was no difference between the efflux of adriamycin from aerobic cells and that from hypoxia-treated cells. The mRNA for P-glycoprotein was not detected in the hypoxia-treated cells. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced drug resistance is different from P-glycoprotein associated multidrug resistance. PMID:1681885

Sakata, K; Kwok, T T; Murphy, B J; Laderoute, K R; Gordon, G R; Sutherland, R M

1991-11-01

224

Vanadium induces dopaminergic neurotoxicity via protein kinase Cdelta dependent oxidative signaling mechanisms: Relevance to etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease  

SciTech Connect

Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC{sub 50} was determined to be 37 {mu}M in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (> fourfold) and caspase-3 (> ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKC{delta}, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKC{delta} kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKC{delta} proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKC{delta} cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKC{delta} knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration.

Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Witte, Travis; Houk, Robert [Ames Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Kanthasamy, Anumantha G. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)], E-mail: akanthas@iastate.edu

2009-10-15

225

Neuroprotective effect of the chemical chaperone, trehalose in a chronic MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive motor disease of unknown etiology in the majority of cases. The clinical features of PD emerge due to selective degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), which project to the caudate putamen (CPu) where they release DA. In the current in vivo mouse model study, we tested trehalose for its ability to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced damage to DA neurons. Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide present in plants and animals and appears capable of protecting cells against various environmental stresses. The effect of trehalose is likely due to its action as a pharmacological chaperone which promotes protein stability. In the present study, there were four treatment groups: saline only (control); probenecid only; MPTP+probenecid; and trehalose+MPTP+probenecid. MPTP-induced losses in tyrosine hydroxylase and DA transporter immunoreactivity in the ventral midbrain SNc and CPu were significantly reduced by trehalose. Decreases in CPu dopamine levels produced by MPTP were also blocked by trehalose. Microglial activation and astrocytic hypertrophy induced by MPTP were greatly reduced by trehalose, indicating protection against neuroinflammation. These effects are commensurate with the observed trehalose sparing of motor deficits produced by MPTP in this mouse model. Two tight junctional proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, are downregulated following MPTP treatment and trehalose blocks this effect. Likewise, the glucose transporter-1 that is expressed in brain endothelial cells is also protected by trehalose from MPTP-induced down-regulation. This study is the first to demonstrate using fluoro-turoquoise FT gel perfusion techniques, the protection afforded by trehalose from MPTP-induced damage to microvessels and endothelial and suggests that trehalose therapy may have the potential to slow or ameliorate PD pathology. PMID:25064079

Sarkar, Sumit; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu; Raymick, James; Mann, Dushyant; Bowyer, John F; Schmitt, Tom; Beger, Richard D; Hanig, Joseph P; Schmued, Larry C; Paule, Merle G

2014-09-01

226

Vanadium Induces Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity Via Protein Kinase C-Delta Dependent Oxidative Signaling Mechanisms: Relevance to Etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V2O5 was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC50 was determined to be 37 ?M in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (>fourfold) and caspase-3 (>ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKC?, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKC? kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKC? proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKC? cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V2O5-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKC? knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V2O5-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKC? cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration. PMID:19646462

Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan; Witte, Travis; Houk, R. S.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

2009-01-01

227

Drug-induced tendinopathy: from physiology to clinical applications.  

PubMed

Drug-induced tendon toxicity is rare but often underestimated. To date, four main drug classes have been incriminated in tendinopathies. Quinolones and long-term glucocorticoids are the most widely known, but statins and aromatase inhibitors can also induce tendon damage. The specific pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for drug-induced tendinopathies remain unknown. Proven risk factors have been identified, such as age older than 60 years, pre-existing tendinopathy, and potentiation of toxic effects when several drug classes are used in combination. Mean time to symptom onset varies from a few days with quinolones to several months with statins and several years for long-term glucocorticoid therapy. The most common sites of involvement are the lower limb tendons, most notably the body of the Achilles tendon. The first part of this review discusses tendon anatomy and the pathophysiology and radiological manifestations of tendinopathies. The second part provides details on the main characteristics of each of the drugs classes associated with tendon toxicity. PMID:24962977

Kirchgesner, Thomas; Larbi, Ahmed; Omoumi, Patrick; Malghem, Jacques; Zamali, Nadia; Manelfe, Julien; Lecouvet, Frédéric; Vande Berg, Bruno; Djebbar, Sahlya; Dallaudičre, Benjamin

2014-12-01

228

Anti-fibrillation potency of caffeic acid against an antidepressant induced fibrillogenesis of human ?-synuclein: Implications for Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Alpha synuclein is a 14 kDa intrinsically disordered, presynaptic protein whose fibrillation is a critical step in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A structural investigation of the effect of escitalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on ?-synuclein was performed using ANS and ThT assays, CD, turbidity and Rayleigh scattering measurements as well as atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. Analysing the mechanism of ?-synuclein fibril formation, helped us in elucidating the passage of an intermediate at 75 ?M concentration of escitalopram. Fibrils of ?-synuclein were obtained at 100 ?M concentration of escitalopram. Inhibition of ?-synuclein fibrillation was brought about by a polyphenolic acid known as caffeic acid which acted in a concentration dependent manner ranging from 10 to 60 ?M. Maximum inhibition was achieved at a concentration of 60 ?M. Fibrillation of ?-synuclein in presence of escitalopram gives us clue for the negative effects of antidepressant. Inhibitory activity of caffeic acid against ?-synuclein fibrillation may guide us in designing novel therapeutic drugs for PD. PMID:25461276

Fazili, Naveed Ahmad; Naeem, Aabgeena

2015-01-01

229

Tat-Frataxin protects dopaminergic neuronal cells against MPTP-induced toxicity in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by various factors such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), dysfunction of mitochondria, and aggregation of misfolded proteins, thereby leading to loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of the brain. Frataxin (FXN) is associated with iron homeostasis and biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters in the electron transport chain complex. In this study, we investigated the potential of Tat-FXN to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and protect DA neurons against oxidative stress in a mouse model of PD. Tat-FXN was effectively transduced into SH-SY5Y cells and blocked production of ROS and cleavage of DNA, significantly improving cell survival against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium induced toxicity. In addition, Tat-FXN efficiently penetrated the BBB and exhibited a clear neuroprotective effect on tyrosine hydroxylase-specific DA neurons in the SN in a mice model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine-induced PD. Therefore, these results suggest that Tat-FXN may provide neuroprotective therapy for ROS related diseases including PD. PMID:22809528

Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Dae Won; Jeong, Hoon Jae; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Ahn, Eun Hee; Kwon, Soon Won; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Duk-Soo; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

2012-11-01

230

Effect of Histamine H-2 Receptor Antagonism on Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in the MPTP-Macaque Model of Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levodopa-induced motor complications, including dyskinesia and wearing off, are troublesome side effects of treatment and impair quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The use of nondopaminergic agents as adjuncts to levodopa are potential options for managing these problems. Here, we asses the ability of the clinically available, selective histamine H-2 antagonist, famotidine (1, 3, and 30 mg\\/kg) to

T. H. Johnston; Meij van der A; J. M. Brotchie; S. H. Fox

2010-01-01

231

P-Glycoprotein Mediated Efflux Limits the Transport of the Novel Anti-Parkinson's Disease Candidate Drug FLZ across the Physiological and PD Pathological In Vitro BBB Models  

PubMed Central

FLZ, a novel anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) candidate drug, has shown poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration based on the pharmacokinetic study using rat brain. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two important transporters obstructing substrates entry into the CNS as well as in relation to PD neuropathology. However, it is unclear whether P-gp and BCRP are involved in low BBB permeability of FLZ and what the differences of FLZ brain penetration are between normal and Parkinson's conditions. For this purpose, in vitro BBB models mimicking physiological and PD pathological-related BBB properties were constructed by C6 astroglial cells co-cultured with primary normal or PD rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (rCMECs) and in vitro permeability experiments of FLZ were carried out. High transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and low permeability for sodium fluorescein (NaF) confirmed the BBB functionality of the two models. Significantly greater expressions of P-gp and BCRP were detected in PD rCMECs associated with the lower in vitro BBB permeability of FLZ in pathological BBB model compared with physiological model. In transport studies only P-gp blocker effectively inhibited the efflux of FLZ, which was consistent with the in vivo permeability data. This result was also confirmed by ATPase assays, suggesting FLZ is a substrate for P-gp but not BCRP. The present study first established in vitro BBB models reproducing PD-related changes of BBB functions in vivo and demonstrated that poor brain penetration of FLZ and low BBB permeability were due to the P-gp transport. PMID:25036090

Liu, Qian; Hou, Jinfeng; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Gengtao; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

2014-01-01

232

Effects of intravenous human umbilical cord blood CD34+ stem cell therapy versus levodopa in experimentally induced Parkinsonism in mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease with impaired motor function. The current research was directed to investigate the effect of CD34+ stem cells versus levodopa in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonism. Material and methods Mice were divided into 4 groups; saline-injected, MPTP: received four MPTP injections (20 mg/kg, i.p.) at 2 h intervals, MPTP groups treated with levodopa/carbidopa (100/10 mg/kg/twice/day for 28 days) or single intravenous injection of 106 CD34+ stem cells/mouse at day 7 and allowed to survive until the end of week 5. Results Levodopa and stem cells improved MPTP-induced motor deficits; they abolished the difference in stride length, decreased percentage of foot slip errors and increased ambulation, activity factor and mobility duration in parkinsonian mice (p < 0.05). Further, they significantly (p < 0.05) increased striatal dopamine (85.3 ±4.3 and 110.6 ±5.3) and ATP levels (10.6 ±1.1 and 15.5 ±1.14) compared to MPTP (60.1 ±3.9 pmol/g and 3.6 ±0.09 mmol/g, respectively) (p < 0.05). Moreover, mitochondrial DNA from mice treated with levodopa or stem cells was in intact form; average concentration was (52.8 ±3.01 and 107.8 ±8.6) and no appreciable fragmentation of nuclear DNA was found compared to MPTP group. Regarding tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining, stem cell group showed a marked increase of percentage of TH-immunopositive neurons (63.55 ±5.2) compared to both MPTP (37.6 ±3.1) and levodopa groups (41.6 ±3.5). Conclusions CD34+ cells ameliorated motor, biochemical and histological deficits in MPTP-parkinsonian mice, these effects were superior to those produced by levodopa that would be promising for the treatment of PD. PMID:24482663

Abo-Grisha, Noha; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M.; Abdel-Hady, Zenab

2013-01-01

233

The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

2000-01-01

234

Fibroblast growth factor 1attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity: an in vitro and in vivo investigation in experimental models of parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system and is characterized by motor system disorders resulting in loss of dopamine producing brain cells. Acidic fibroblast growth factor, also called FGF1, promotes the survival of neurons. The aims of the present study were to confirm FGF1 could protect neurons cultures from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated FGF1 administration improved the motor function recovery, increased the TH-positive neurons survival and up-regulated the levels of neurotransmitters in PD rats. Meanwhile, FGF1 prevents the death of DA neuron at least in part by reducing the levels of ?-synuclein and ER stress. The administration of FGF1 activated downstream signals PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2. In conclusion, FGF1 diminished ?-synuclein neurotoxicity by down regulating ER stress mediators and the level of apoptosis, and these effects may underlying the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signal pathway. PMID:25628778

Wei, Xiaojie; He, Songbin; Wang, Zhouguang; Wu, Jiamin; Zhang, Jinjing; Cheng, Yi; Yang, Jie; Xu, Xinlong; Chen, Zaifeng; Ye, Junmin; Chen, Li; Lin, Li; Xiao, Jian

2014-01-01

235

Depletion of canonical Wnt signaling components has a neuroprotective effect on midbrain dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is critical for the development of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and recent studies have suggested that disruption of this signaling cascade may underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the exact role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) and ?-catenin components, in a mouse model of PD remains unclear. In the present study, the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre transgenic mouse line was used to generate mice with the specific knockout of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin in DA neurons. Following inactivation of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin, TH-immunohistochemical staining was performed. The results indicated that ?-catenin is required for the development or maintenance of these neurons; however, LRP5 and LRP6 were found to be dispensable. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, the depletion of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin was found to be protective for the midbrain DA neurons to a certain extent. These in vivo results provide a novel perspective for the function of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in a mouse model of PD. PMID:25009587

DAI, TING-LI; ZHANG, CHAN; PENG, FANG; NIU, XUE-YUAN; HU, LING; ZHANG, QIONG; HUANG, YING; CHEN, LING; ZHANG, LEI; ZHU, WEIDONG; DING, YU-QIANG; SONG, NING-NING; LIAO, MIN

2014-01-01

236

The Sirtuin-2 Inhibitor AK7 Is Neuroprotective in Models of Parkinson’s Disease but Not Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Cerebral Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Sirtuin deacetylases regulate diverse cellular pathways and influence disease processes. Our previous studies identified the brain-enriched sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) deacetylase as a potential drug target to counteract neurodegeneration. In the present study, we characterize SIRT2 inhibition activity of the brain-permeable compound AK7 and examine the efficacy of this small molecule in models of Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral ischemia. Our results demonstrate that AK7 is neuroprotective in models of Parkinson’s disease; it ameliorates alpha-synuclein toxicity in vitro and prevents 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopamine depletion and dopaminergic neuron loss in vivo. The compound does not show beneficial effects in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral ischemia. These findings underscore the specificity of protective effects observed here in models of Parkinson’s disease, and previously in Huntington’s disease, and support the development of SIRT2 inhibitors as potential therapeutics for the two neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25608039

Chen, Xiqun; Wales, Pauline; Quinti, Luisa; Zuo, Fuxing; Moniot, Sébastien; Herisson, Fanny; Rauf, Nazifa Abdul; Wang, Hua; Silverman, Richard B.; Ayata, Cenk; Maxwell, Michelle M.; Steegborn, Clemens; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Kazantsev, Aleksey G.

2015-01-01

237

Targeting the Intrinsically Disordered Structural Ensemble of ?-Synuclein by Small Molecules as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy for Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The misfolding of intrinsically disordered proteins such as ?-synuclein, tau and the A? peptide has been associated with many highly debilitating neurodegenerative syndromes including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Therapeutic targeting of the monomeric state of such intrinsically disordered proteins by small molecules has, however, been a major challenge because of their heterogeneous conformational properties. We show here that a combination of computational and experimental techniques has led to the identification of a drug-like phenyl-sulfonamide compound (ELN484228), that targets ?-synuclein, a key protein in Parkinson’s disease. We found that this compound has substantial biological activity in cellular models of ?-synuclein-mediated dysfunction, including rescue of ?-synuclein-induced disruption of vesicle trafficking and dopaminergic neuronal loss and neurite retraction most likely by reducing the amount of ?-synuclein targeted to sites of vesicle mobilization such as the synapse in neurons or the site of bead engulfment in microglial cells. These results indicate that targeting ?-synuclein by small molecules represents a promising approach to the development of therapeutic treatments of Parkinson’s disease and related conditions. PMID:24551051

Tóth, Gergely; Gardai, Shyra J.; Zago, Wagner; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Cremades, Nunilo; Roy, Susan L.; Tambe, Mitali A.; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Galvagnion, Celine; Skibinski, Gaia; Finkbeiner, Steven; Bova, Michael; Regnstrom, Karin; Chiou, San-San; Johnston, Jennifer; Callaway, Kari; Anderson, John P.; Jobling, Michael F.; Buell, Alexander K.; Yednock, Ted A.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Vendruscolo, Michele; Christodoulou, John; Dobson, Christopher M.; Schenk, Dale; McConlogue, Lisa

2014-01-01

238

Brain iron accumulation exacerbates the pathogenesis of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Brain iron levels are significantly increased in Parkinson's disease (PD) and iron deposition is observed in the substantia nigra (SN) of PD patients. It is unclear whether iron overload is an initial cause of dopaminergic neuronal death or merely a byproduct that occurs in the SN of PD patients. In this study, ceruloplasmin knockout (CP(-/-)) mice and mice receiving an intracerebroventricular injection of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) were selected as mouse models with high levels of brain iron. These mice were administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) by intraperitoneal injection. Their behavior and the dopaminergic neuron damage to their substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were assessed. These findings suggest that the injection of FAC or the absence of the CP gene may exacerbate both the observed apoptosis of TH-positive neurons and the behavioral symptoms of the MPTP-treated mice. The intracerebroventricular injection of deferoxamine (DFO) significantly alleviated the neuronal damage caused by MPTP in CP(-/-) mice. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the increased nigral iron content exacerbates the oxidative stress levels, promoting apoptosis through the Bcl-2/Bax pathway and the activated caspase-3 pathway in the brain. Therefore, iron overload in the brain exacerbates dopaminergic neuronal death in SNpc and leads to the onset of PD. PMID:25301748

You, L-H; Li, F; Wang, L; Zhao, S-E; Wang, S-M; Zhang, L-L; Zhang, L-H; Duan, X-L; Yu, P; Chang, Y-Z

2015-01-22

239

The specialist nurse role in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The growing elderly population will result in a higher incidence of Parkinson's disease. People with Parkinson's disease experience adverse effects from both the condition and the drugs used to treat it. Nurse specialists can play a key part in improving patients' everyday life and educating other nurses. PMID:10481706

Hayes, C

1999-08-01

240

Living with Parkinson's  

MedlinePLUS

Living with Parkinson’sParkinson’s is a part of my life, but it is not life itself.” --David, 56, three years after diagnosis While your journey with Parkinson’s is different from anyone else's, from age of ...

241

Postural Abnormality as a Risk Marker for Leg Deep Venous Thrombosis in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary thromboembolism is a common cause of death in patients with autopsy-confirmed Parkinsonism. This study investigated the incidence of leg deep vein thrombosis in Parkinson’s disease and relationships between deep vein thrombosis and clinical/laboratory findings, including postural abnormalities as assessed by photographic measurements. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed the presence of deep vein thrombosis using bilateral leg Doppler ultrasonography in 114 asymptomatic outpatients with Parkinson’s disease. Results Deep vein thrombosis was detected in 23 patients (20%) with Parkinson’s disease. Deep vein thrombosis was located in the distal portion in 18 patients and in the proximal portion in 5 patients. No significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, disease duration, Hoehn-Yahr stage, anti-Parkinson’s drugs, or daily levodopa-equivalent dose were seen between deep vein thrombosis-positive and -negative groups. Univariate analysis for developing deep vein thrombosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease identified the following markers: long-term wheelchair use, bent knee, bent spine, and D-dimer elevation. Bending angles were significantly greater in the deep vein thrombosis-positive group at the knee and spine than in the deep vein thrombosis-negative group. Half of Parkinson’s disease patients with camptocormia had deep vein thrombosis. Among diabetes mellitus cases, long-term wheelchair use, bent knee over 15°, camptocormia, D-dimer elevation, the more risk markers were associated with a higher incidence of DVT. The presence of risk markers contributed to the development of deep vein thrombosis. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, a bent knee posture was strongly associated with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. Conclusion Presence of leg deep vein thrombosis correlated with postural abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease. We recommend non-invasive ultrasonographic screening for leg deep vein thrombosis in these high-risk patients with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23843975

Yamane, Kazushi; Kimura, Fumiharu; Unoda, Kiichi; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Hirose, Takahiko; Tani, Hiroki; Doi, Yoshimitsu; Ishida, Simon; Nakajima, Hideto; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

242

Risk factors for drug-induced long-QT syndrome  

PubMed Central

Congenital long-QT syndrome (cLQTS) is a ventricular arrhythmia that is characterised by a prolonged QT interval on the surface electro-cardiogram (ECG). Clinical symptoms include sudden loss of consciousness (syncopes), seizures, cardiac arrest and sudden death. The prevalence of this inherited disease is approximately one in 10,000 in Caucasians. Over the last decade, more than 200 different diseases causing mutations have been identified in five genes that encode ion channels involved in the delicate balance of inward and outward K/Ca currents during the cardiac action potential. A prolonged QT interval accompanied by very similar clinical symptoms as in cLQTS can also occur in otherwise healthy individuals after the intake of specific drug(s). This phenomenon is known as 'acquired' or 'drug-induced' long-QT syndrome. Because the clinical symptoms of the two forms are very similar, the question arises whether a common underlying genetic basis also exists. Several studies indicate that only a minority (approximately 10%) of the drug-induced LQTS cases can be explained by a mutation or polymorphism in one of the known LQTS genes. Even though the disease can often at least partially be explained by environmental factors, mutations or polymorphisms in other genes are also expected to be involved, including genes encoding drug-metabolising enzymes, adrenergic receptors, hormone-related genes and mitochondrial genes. This article reviews the current knowledge on risk factors for drug-induced LQTS, with a special emphasis on the role of genetic determinants. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 2Figure 3

Paulussen, A.D.C.; Aerssens, J.

2005-01-01

243

Ceftriaxone prevents and reverses behavioral and neuronal deficits in an MPTP-induced animal model of Parkinson's disease dementia.  

PubMed

Glutamatergic hyperactivity plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ceftriaxone increases expression of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and affords neuroprotection. This study was aimed at clarifying whether ceftriaxone prevented, or reversed, behavioral and neuronal deficits in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat model. Male Wistar rats were injected daily with either ceftriaxone starting 5 days before or 3 days after MPTP lesioning (day 0) or saline and underwent a bar-test on days 1-7, a T-maze test on days 9-11, and an object recognition test on days 12-14, then the brains were taken for histological evaluation on day 15. Dopaminergic degeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum was observed on days 3 and 15. Motor dysfunction in the bar test was observed on day 1, but disappeared by day 7. In addition, lesioning resulted in deficits in working memory in the T-maze test and in object recognition in the object recognition task, but these were not observed in rats treated pre- or post-lesioning with ceftriaxone. Lesioning also caused neurodegeneration in the hippocampal CA1 area and induced glutamatergic hyperactivity in the subthalamic nucleus, and both changes were suppressed by ceftriaxone. Increased GLT-1 expression and its co-localization with astrocytes were observed in the striatum and hippocampus in the ceftriaxone-treated animals. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a relationship between ceftriaxone-induced GLT-1 expression, neuroprotection, and improved cognition in a PD rat model. Ceftriaxone may have clinical potential for the prevention and treatment of dementia associated with PD. PMID:25499022

Hsu, Chao-Yu; Hung, Ching-Sui; Chang, Hung-Ming; Liao, Wen-Chieh; Ho, Shih-Chun; Ho, Ying-Jui

2015-04-01

244

[Drug induced interstitial lung disease in systemic diseases].  

PubMed

Immunosuppressants and immunomodulators are designed to regulate excessive immune response responsible for inflammatory lesions and are prescribed more and more in internal medicine. These drugs are known for their efficiency but with a significant toxicity including interstitial lung disease (ILD). Some factors liable to pulmonary toxicity include advanced age, genetic polymorphism and the existence of prior pulmonary disease. Cytotoxicity and hypersensitivity are the main mechanisms of pulmonary toxicity. There is no universal classification of drug induced-lung disease. Theoretically, drugs may be responsible for all histological aspects of ILD. Methotrexate is the most well-known drug as a provider of ILD with a prevalence of 0.3 to 11.6%. Some cases of ILD have also been reported with the new biologics used in systemic diseases. The diagnostic approach to the suspicion of drug ILD is to eliminate non-medicinal causes of pneumonia including infections and tumors before exploring the clinical symptomatology and the results of imaging and bronchoalveolar lavage cell profile. The analysis of the clinical symptomatology check the compatibility of the chronology of clinical and/or radiological pneumonia with the medication suspected. Subsequently, data from the clinical case are compared with those of the literature. Treatment involves stopping the suspected drug. The use of corticosteroids may be required in case of signs of severity or a lingering evolution. PMID:24183295

Essaadouni, L; Benjilali, L

2013-12-01

245

Drug-induced hypertension: an unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension.  

PubMed

A myriad variety of therapeutic agents or chemical substances can induce either a transient or persistent increase in blood pressure, or interfere with the blood pressure-lowering effects of antihypertensive drugs. Some agents cause either sodium retention or extracellular volume expansion, or activate directly or indirectly the sympathetic nervous system. Other substances act directly on arteriolar smooth muscle or do not have a defined mechanism of action. Some medications that usually lower blood pressure may paradoxically increase blood pressure, or an increase in pressure may be encountered after their discontinuation. In general, drug-induced pressure increases are small and transient: however, severe hypertension involving encephalopathy, stroke, and irreversible renal failure have been reported. The deleterious effect of therapeutic agents is more pronounced in patients with preexisting hypertension, in those with renal failure, and in the elderly. Careful evaluation of a patient's drug regimen may identify chemically induced hypertension and obviate unnecessary evaluation and facilitate antihypertensive therapy. Once chemical-induced hypertension has been identified, discontinuation of the causative agent is recommended, although hypertension can often be managed by specific therapy and dose adjustment if continued use of the offending agent is mandatory. The present review summarizes the therapeutic agents or chemical substances that elevate blood pressure and their mechanisms of action. PMID:22195528

Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

2012-01-01

246

Protective effect of chinonin in MPTP-induced C57BL/6 mouse model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of chinonin in preventing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurodegeneration in C57BL/6 mice and to examine the possible mechanisms. The neurotoxin MPTP was employed to create a subacute Parkinson's disease (PD)-like model in C57BL/6 mice. Chinonin (10, 20, 40 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered 0.5 h after MPTP (30 mg/kg) injection for 7 d consecutively. Chinonin showed neuroprotective effects in the MPTP-treated mice PD model by ameliorating motor impairment in the catwalk and open-field tests. Consistently, chinonin reduced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and prevented depletion of dopamine and its metabolites 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the striatum of mice. Compared with the MPTP group, in the chinonin plus MPTP groups significant increases of superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were observed as well as a distinct reduction of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in the striatum. Taken together, we propose that chinonin exerts neuroprotective effects in C57BL/6 mouse model of PD and these effects may be due to chinonin's antioxidative property. PMID:24871044

Feng, Guoshuai; Zhang, Zhijian; Bao, Qingqing; Zhang, Zaijun; Zhou, Libing; Jiang, Jie; Li, Sha

2014-01-01

247

Familial Parkinson's Disease Mutant E46K ?-Synuclein Localizes to Membranous Structures, Forms Aggregates, and Induces Toxicity in Yeast Models  

PubMed Central

In Parkinson's disease (PD), midbrain dopaminergic neuronal death is linked to the accumulation of aggregated ?-synuclein. The familial PD mutant form of ?-synuclein, E46K, has not been thoroughly evaluated yet in an organismal model system. Here, we report that E46K resembled wild-type (WT) ?-synuclein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in that it predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, and it did not induce significant toxicity or accumulation. In contrast, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, E46K did not associate with the plasma membrane. Instead, in one strain, it extensively aggregated in the cytoplasm and was as toxic as WT. Remarkably, in another strain, E46K extensively associated with the endomembrane system and was more toxic than WT. Our studies recapitulate and extend aggregation and phospholipid membrane association properties of E46K previously observed in vitro and cell culture. Furthermore, it supports the notion that E46K generates toxicity partly due to increased association with endomembrane systems within cells. PMID:22389823

Fiske, Michael; White, Michael; Valtierra, Stephanie; Herrera, Sara; Solvang, Keith; Konnikova, Alina; DebBurman, Shubhik

2011-01-01

248

Neuroprotective Effects of ?-Asarone Against 6-Hydroxy Dopamine-Induced Parkinsonism via JNK/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 Pathway.  

PubMed

?-asarone, a major component of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, has positive effects in neurodegeneration disease, however, its effect on the Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. In this study, the effects of ?-asarone on behavioral tests, neurotransmitters, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and ?-synuclein (?-syn) were investigated in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced rats. Furthermore, the JNK/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 autophagy pathway was also studied. The results showed that ?-asarone improved the behavioral symptoms of rats in the open field, rotarod test, initiation time, and stepping time. And it increased the HVA, Dopacl, and 5-HIAA levels in striatum but not the DA and 5-HT levels. After administration of ?-asarone, the TH level was elevated but the ?-syn was declined in rats. It inhibited the expressions of LC3-II, but increased the p62 expression in SN4741 cells. Moreover, it affected the expressions of Beclin-1, Bcl-2, JNK, and p-JNK in vivo. We deduced that ?-asarone may firstly downregulate expressions of JNK and p-JNK, and then indirectly increase the expression of Bcl-2. And the function of Beclin-1 could be inhibited, which could inhibit autophagy activation. Collectively, all data indicated that ?-asarone may be explored as a potential therapeutic agent in PD therapy. PMID:25404088

Zhang, Sheng; Gui, Xue-Hong; Huang, Li-Ping; Deng, Min-Zhen; Fang, Ruo-Ming; Ke, Xue-Hong; He, Yu-Ping; Li, Ling; Fang, Yong-Qi

2014-11-18

249

LC/MS characterization of rotenone induced cardiolipin oxidation in human lymphocytes: Implications for mitochondrial dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Scope Rotenone is a toxicant believed to contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. Methods and results Using human peripheral blood lymphocytes we demonstrated that exposure to rotenone resulted in disruption of electron transport accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen species, development of apoptosis and elevation of peroxidase activity of mitochondria. Employing LC/MS based lipidomics/oxidative lipidomics we characterized molecular species of cardiolipin (CL) and its oxidation/hydrolysis products formed early in apoptosis and associated with the rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusions The major oxidized CL species - tetra-linoleoyl-CL – underwent oxidation to yield epoxy-C18:2 and dihydroxy-C18:2 derivatives predominantly localized in sn-1 and sn-2 positions, respectively. In addition, accumulation of mono-lyso-CL species and oxygenated free C18:2 were detected in rotenone-treated lymphocytes. These oxidation/hydrolysis products may be useful for the development of new biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23650208

Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Winnica, Daniel E.; Kapralova, Valentina I.; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Kagan, Valerian E.

2013-01-01

250

Differentiation between the contributions of shortening reaction and stretch-induced inhibition to rigidity in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinsonian rigidity is characterized by an increased resistance of a joint to externally imposed motion that remains uniform with changing joint angle. Two candidate mechanisms are proposed for the uniformity of rigidity, involving neural-mediated excitation of shortening muscles, i.e., shortening reaction (SR), or inhibition of stretched muscles, i.e., stretch-induced inhibition (SII). To date, no study has addressed the roles of these two phenomena in rigidity. The purpose of this study was to differentiate these two phenomena, and to quantify the potential contribution of each to wrist joint moment in 17 patients with parkinsonian rigidity, in both Off- and On-medication states. Joint position, torque, and EMGs of selected muscles were collected during externally imposed flexion and extension motions. Moments of shortened and stretched muscles were estimated using a biomechanical model. Slopes of the estimated torque-angle curve were calculated for shortened and stretched muscles, separately. A mixed model ANOVA was performed to compare the contribution between the two mechanisms. During flexion, slopes were significantly (P = 0.003) smaller for SR than for SII, whereas during extension, slopes for SII were significantly (P = 0.003) smaller. Results showed that both SR and SII contributed to rigidity. Which mechanism predominates appeared to be associated with the direction of movement. The findings provide new insights into the biomechanical underpinnings of this common symptom in Parkinson's disease. PMID:21347660

Xia, Ruiping; Powell, Douglas; Rymer, W Zev; Hanson, Nicholas; Fang, Xiang; Threlkeld, A Joseph

2011-04-01

251

A case of severe psychosis induced by novel recreational drugs  

PubMed Central

Introduction:  The use of novel recreational drugs is becoming of public interest, especially after recent international alerts about their cardiovascular and neurological toxicity. Additionally, little is known about the psychiatric consequences of the long-term use of these compounds. Case presentation: We describe a case of severe psychotic episode likely induced by chronic use of a combination of new recreational drugs (methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone, butylone and alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone). The patient had no psychiatric history and showed poor response to conventional antipsychotic treatment (haloperidol). Conclusions: This case illustrates the potential negative effects of recreational drugs that cannot be limited to an acute psychotic episode but might determine a condition of prolonged paranoid psychosis. Although the use of these compounds is currently increasing, such molecules might often pass undetected in patients accessing the emergency room, leading to misdiagnosis (e.g. schizophrenic episode) and lack of appropriate treatment. PMID:25352977

Dragogna, Filippo; Oldani, Lucio; Buoli, Massimiliano; Altamura, A. Carlo

2014-01-01

252

EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG-INDUCED PARKINSONISM AND TARDIVE DYSKINESIAS  

E-print Network

patients were under treatment for more than one diagnosis (e.g. GI symptoms and depression). Of the 13 Recognized Cause of Tardive Dyskinesia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;48:379-84 4. Hadad PM and Dursun SM for treatment with a potentially offending agent were bipolar disorder in 18 (32.7%), gastrointestinal symptoms

Lichtarge, Olivier

253

Novel action of metformin in the prevention of haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice: Potential in the treatment of Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed

Metformin is widely used to treat type II diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. In addition, it has been shown to increase neurogenesis, spatial memory formation and reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease. On this basis, the aim of the present study was the investigation of the protective potential of metformin in the haloperidol-induced catalepsy model of Parkinson's disease in mice. The effect of metformin (20 - 100mg/kg, p.o) on motor coordination was assessed using rotarod and forced swimming tests (FST), while the effect on memory function was evaluated using the Y-maze test. The neuroprotective activity was investigated in acute/chronic (21days) haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice. On the 21st day, biochemical estimation of nitrosative and oxidative stress parameters was carried out. Metformin (50 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) did not affect motor coordination in rotarod test and FST but significantly reversed haloperidol-induced memory deficit (+35.50%) at 100mg/kg. Importantly, metformin significantly reduced the duration of catalepsy score during acute and chronic catalepsy tests as compared to trihexylphenidyl (reference standard). Intraperitoneal chronic injection of haloperidol (1mg/kg) significantly increased malondialdehyde and nitrite levels, while it significantly attenuated the activity of reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, oral chronic administration of metformin significantly attenuated the haloperidol-induced increase of malondialdehyde and nitrite, as well as the deficit of glutathione and catalase. These findings suggest that metformin protects against haloperidol-induced catalepsy through inhibition of oxidative/nitrosative stress and has the potential for adjuvant action in the management of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24513020

Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Ishola, Ismail O; Adedeji, Halimah A

2013-10-24

254

Altered Brain Activation in Early Drug-Naive Parkinson's Disease during Heat Pain Stimuli: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor signs and symptoms. To date, many studies of PD have focused on its cardinal motor symptoms. To study the nonmotor signs of early PD, we investigated the reactions solicited by heat pain stimuli in early untreated PD patients without pain using fMRI. The activation patterns of contact heat stimuli (51°C) were assessed in 14 patients and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Patients with PD showed significant decreases in activation of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula compared with controls. In addition, a significant relationship between activation of the insula and STG and the pain scores was observed in healthy controls but not in PD. This study provided further support that the insula and STG are important parts of the somatosensory circuitry recruited during the period of pain. The hypoactivity of the STG and insula in PD implied that functions including affective, cognitive, and sensory-discriminative processes, which are associated with the insula and STG, were disturbed. This finding supports the view that leaving early PD untreated could be tied directly to central nervous system dysfunction. PMID:25628915

Tan, Ying; Tan, Juan; Cui, Wenjuan; He, Hui; Bin, Yi; Deng, Jiayan; Tan, Rui; Tan, Wenrong; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Nanlin; Xiao, Ruhui; Yao, Dezhong; Wang, Xiaoming

2015-01-01

255

Heat shock protein 60: an endogenous inducer of dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation associated with microglial cell activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) is not only a consequence of neuronal degeneration, but may actively sustain dopaminergic (DA) cell loss over time. We aimed to study whether the intracellular chaperone heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) could serve as a signal of CNS injury for activation of microglial cells. Methods Hsp60 mRNA expression in the mesencephalon and the striatum of C57/BL6 mice treated with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and the Hsp60/TH mRNA ratios in the SN of PD patients and aged-matched subjects were measured. To further investigate a possible link between the neuronal Hsp60 response and PD-related cellular stress, Hsp60 immunoblot analysis and quantification in cell lysates from SH-SY5Y after treatment with 100 ?M MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) at different time points (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) compared to control cells were performed. Additional MTT and LDH assay were used. We next addressed the question as to whether Hsp60 influences the survival of TH+ neurons in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures treated either with MPP+ (1 ?M), hHsp60 (10 ?g/ml) or a combination of both. Finally, we measured IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and NO-release by ELISA in primary microglial cell cultures following treatment with different hHsp60 preparations. Control cultures were exposed to LPS. Results In the mesencephalon and striatum of mice treated with MPTP and also in the SN of PD patients, we found that Hsp60 mRNA was up-regulated. MPP+, the active metabolite of MPTP, also caused an increased expression and release of Hsp60 in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y. Interestingly, in addition to being toxic to DA neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures, exogenous Hsp60 aggravated the effects of MPP+. Yet, although we demonstrated that Hsp60 specifically binds to microglial cells, it failed to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or NO by these cells. Conclusions Overall, our data suggest that Hsp60 is likely to participate in DA cell death in PD but via a mechanism unrelated to cytokine release. PMID:24886419

2014-01-01

256

Gamma-sterilization-induced radicals in biodegradable drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (1.2 and 9.25 GHz, 25 degrees C) was used to characterize free radicals in gamma-ray sterilized biodegradable polymers of the type which are in clinical use. Free radicals were detected in all irradiated polymer samples. The temperature of irradiation (25 degrees C vs dry ice temperature) had only a minor influence on the yield of radicals and the shape of the EPR spectra. In contrast, the composition of the polymers and the drugs incorporated in them did strongly influence the amount of radiation-induced free radicals and their reactivity. In general, polymers with high melting points and crystallinity had the highest yields of radicals observable at room temperature. We were able to use the free radicals induced by the usual sterilization procedures to follow the penetration of water and the degradation of the polymers in vitro and in vivo. The ability of in vivo EPR to follow drug delivery noninvasively and continuously in vivo, using the free radicals induced in the usual sterilization process indicates that this approach could be applied immediately for the characterization of these drug delivery systems in experimental animals and in the near future should be able to be used in human subjects. PMID:9022208

Mäder, K; Domb, A; Swartz, H M

1996-01-01

257

Cytokine expression and signaling in drug-induced cellular senescence.  

PubMed

Cellular senescence guards against cancer and modulates aging; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that genotoxic drugs capable of inducing premature senescence in normal and cancer cells, such as 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), distamycin A (DMA), aphidicolin and hydroxyurea, persistently activate Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling and expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as MX1, OAS, ISG15, STAT1, PML, IRF1 and IRF7, in several human cancer cell lines. JAK1/STAT-activating ligands, interleukin 10 (IL10), IL20, IL24, interferon gamma (IFNgamma), IFNbeta and IL6, were also expressed by senescent cells, supporting autocrine/paracrine activation of JAK1/STAT. Furthermore, cytokine genes, including proinflammatory IL1, tumor necrosis factor and transforming growth factor families, were highly expressed. The strongest inducer of JAK/STAT signaling, cytokine production and senescence was BrdU combined with DMA. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of JAK1 abolished expression of ISGs, but not DNA damage signaling or senescence. Thus, although DNA damage signaling, p53 and RB activation, and the cytokine/chemokine secretory phenotype are apparently shared by all types of senescence, our data reveal so far unprecedented activation of the IFNbeta-STAT1-ISGs axis, and indicate a less prominent causative role of IL6-JAK/STAT signaling in genotoxic drug-induced senescence compared with reports on oncogene-induced or replicative senescence. These results highlight shared and unique features of drug-induced cellular senescence, and implicate induction of cancer secretory phenotype in chemotherapy. PMID:19802007

Novakova, Z; Hubackova, S; Kosar, M; Janderova-Rossmeislova, L; Dobrovolna, J; Vasicova, P; Vancurova, M; Horejsi, Z; Hozak, P; Bartek, J; Hodny, Z

2010-01-14

258

Protective Effects of Salidroside in the MPTP/MPP(+)-Induced Model of Parkinson's Disease through ROS-NO-Related Mitochondrion Pathway.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease causing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait impairment. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in the development of Parkinson disease. Salidroside (Sal), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent antioxidant properties. Previous work from our group suggests that Sal might protect dopaminergic neurons through inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Sal in MPTP/MPP(+) models of Parkinson's disease in an attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanism of protection. We found that Sal pretreatment protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP(+)-induced toxicity in a dose-dependent manner by: (1) reducing the production of ROS-NO, (2) regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, (3) decreasing cytochrome-c and Smac release, and inhibiting caspase-3, caspas-6, and caspas-9 activation, and (4) reducing ?-synuclein aggregation. The present study supports the hypothesis that Sal may act as an effective neuroprotective agent through modulation of the ROS-NO-related mitochondrial pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24913834

Wang, Songhai; He, Hong; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianzong

2014-06-01

259

Parkinson's UK Parkinson's UK Applicant Guide June 2012 Page 1  

E-print Network

Parkinson's UK Parkinson's UK Applicant Guide June 2012 Page 1 2012 INTERNAL USER GUIDE A Guide to the Parkinson's UK grant application system A Quick Guide for applicants applying for funding from Parkinson's UK Parkinson's UK web page: http://www.parkinsons.org.uk/ #12;Parkinson's UK Parkinson's UK Applicant

260

Combined exposure to agriculture pesticides, paraquat and maneb, induces alterations in the N/OFQ-NOPr and PDYN/KOPr systems in rats: Relevance to sporadic Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Despite several years of research, the aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is quite far from being solved. In PD, as well as in other neurodegenerative disorders, it has been proposed that the combination of multiple factors might contribute to the onset of the disease. Indeed, several authors have suggested that environmental factors, such as pollutants and chemicals, might be associated with the onset of several neurodegenerative disorders. On the other hand, several studies have described that the nociceptin/orphanin-NOP and prodynorphin-KOP opioid systems are implicated in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. Considering the nonrestricted commercial availability and common use of several pesticides, such as paraquat and maneb, in agriculture of less developed countries, the aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of nociceptin/orphanin-NOP and prodynorphin-KOP systems in a chronic paraquat and maneb animal model of Parkinson's disease. Our results showed that after paraquat/maneb (5/15 mg kg(-1) ) treatment, a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was observed. Also, the association of paraquat and maneb (5/15 mg kg(-1) ) induced an increase in nociceptin/orphanin and a decrease of prodynorphin gene expression levels in the substantia nigra with a down-regulation of NOP and KOP receptors after both treatments in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen. These data further confirm that paraquat and maneb toxicity can modulate gene expression of the nociceptin/orphanin-NOP receptor and prodynorphin-KOP receptor systems in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen, offering further support to the hypothesis that chronic exposure to these agrochemicals might be implicated in the mechanisms underlying sporadic Parkinson's disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013. PMID:24376148

Bastías-Candia, Sussy; Di Benedetto, Manuela; D'Addario, Claudio; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

2013-12-23

261

Trigger medications and patient-related risk factors for Parkinson disease psychosis requiring anti-psychotic drugs: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Psychoses such as hallucinations are a frequent non-motor problem in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and serious psychosis requires anti-psychotic medications that worsen Parkinsonism. Although psychosis could be associated with patient-related or biological factors such as cognition, age, and severity of PD, it can also be associated with medications. Therefore we aimed to investigate patient-related and medication-related risks of psychosis requiring anti-psychotic medications (serious psychosis). Methods A retrospective cohort of 331 PD patients was followed for 2 years. Patient-related factors associated with risk of psychosis were identified by a survival time analysis. In patients who developed psychosis, medications during the hazard period (1-14 days before psychosis) were contrasted with those during the control periods (1 and 3 months before psychosis) using a case–crossover analysis to identify medication-related risks of psychosis. Results Serious psychosis was detected in 52 patients and the incidence was estimated to be 116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 85-148) per 1,000 person-years. Analyses of baseline characteristics revealed the risk to be higher in patients with a modified Hoehn–Yahr stage of ?4 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.22; 95% CI, 1.11-4.40), those with a longer duration of PD (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.00-1.55, per 5 years) and those with Mini-Mental State Examination scores of ?24 (HR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.37-5.16). The case-crossover analysis revealed that anti-cholinergics use (HR, 19.7; 95% CI, 2.39-162) elevated the risk, while donepezil use reduced it (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.85). Conclusions Risk of psychosis was elevated by increasing severity of PD, cognitive dysfunction and duration of the disease. It was elevated by use of anti-cholinergic drugs and reduced by use of donepezil. The medication-related risk was higher in patients aged???70 years. In contrast, there was no significant medication-related risk in younger patients, suggesting different pathomechanisms between young and old patients. PMID:24119306

2013-01-01

262

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Drug Regimens on Cognitive Performance of Patients with Parkinson's disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the effectiveness of 3 drug regimen on cognitive performance of PD patients was compared. 12 patients who had been using pramipexole, levodopa and amantadine for at least 1 month entered the study and compared with those 12 who had been using trihexiphenidyle, levodopa and amantadine. There was also a control group…

Emsaki, Golit; Asgari, Karim; Molavi, Hossein; Chitsaz, Ahmad

2013-01-01

263

The causative gene of parkinsonism and its medical treatment strategy.  

PubMed

  Parkinsonism is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. The neurodegenerative condition of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common cause of parkinsonism. PD is classified as sporadic PD and familial PD. Whereas idiopathic PD is caused by a number of complex factors, familial PD is a result of mutations in PD-associated genes. Unraveling the mechanisms surrounding familial PD will offer pivotal clues in understanding etiology of not only familial PD but also sporadic PD. We have demonstrated neuroprotective effects with particular focus on DJ-1. On the other hand, idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, also known as Fahr disease (FD) is another condition characterized by parkinsonism. In 2012, solute carrier family 20A2 (SLC20A2) was identified as the causative gene for familial FD. Our analysis of patient samples revealed a novel mutation in SLC20A2. Type-III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT-2), the protein encoded by SLC20A2, plays an important role in phosphate homeostasis. However, PiT-2's role in the pathology of FD remains largely unclear. We have established induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from FD patients and are investigating their usefulness in drug development. Here, we present some of our latest research findings. PMID:25452235

Inden, Masatoshi

2014-01-01

264

Drug-induced liver injury: present and future  

PubMed Central

Liver injury due to prescription and nonprescription medications is a growing medical, scientific, and public health problem. Worldwide, the estimated annual incidence rate of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is 13.9-24.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. DILI is one of the leading causes of acute liver failure in the US. In Korea, the annual extrapolated incidence of cases hospitalized at university hospital is 12/100,000 persons/year. Most cases of DILI are the result of idiosyncratic metabolic responses or unexpected reactions to medication. There is marked geographic variation in relevant agents; antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and psychotropic drugs are the most common offending agents in the West, whereas in Asia, 'herbs' and 'health foods or dietary supplements' are more common. Different medical circumstances also cause discrepancy in definition and classification of DILI between West and Asia. In the concern of causality assessment, the application of the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) scale frequently undercounts the cases caused by 'herbs' due to a lack of previous information and incompatible time criteria. Therefore, a more objective and reproducible tool that could be used for the diagnosis of DILI caused by 'herbs' is needed in Asia. In addition, a reporting system similar to the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) in the US should be established as soon as possible in Asia. PMID:23091804

Suk, Ki Tae

2012-01-01

265

Zebrafish as model organisms for studying drug induced liver injury  

PubMed Central

Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a major challenge in clinical medicine and drug development. New models are needed for predicting which potential therapeutic compounds will cause DILI in humans, and new markers and mediators of DILI still need to be identified. This review will highlight the strengths and weaknesses of using zebrafish as a high throughput in vivo model for studying DILI. Although the zebrafish liver architecture is different to the mammalian liver, the main physiological processes remain similar. Zebrafish metabolize drugs using similar pathways as humans; they possess a wide range of cytochrome P450 enzymes enabling metabolic reactions including hydroxylation, conjugation, oxidation, demethylation and de-ethylation. Following exposure to a range of liver toxic drugs, the zebrafish liver develops histological patterns of injury comparable to mammals and liver injury biomarkers can be quantified in the zebrafish circulation. The zebrafish immune system is similar to mammals, but the zebrafish inflammatory response to DILI is not yet defined. To quantify DILI in zebrafish a wide variety of methods can be used including: visual assessment, quantification of serum enzymes and experimental serum biomarkers and scoring histopathology. With further development, the zebrafish may be a model that complements rodents and may have value for the discovery of new disease pathways and translational biomarkers. PMID:24773296

Vliegenthart, A D B; Tucker, C S; Del Pozo, J; Dear, J W

2014-01-01

266

Pathophysiology of motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Loss of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) initiates a complex stream of effects that results in the development of tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity. While levodopa remains the most effective drug for the symptomatic treatment of PD, its chronic administration is associated with the development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. The risk of developing motor fluctuations has been linked to disease severity, dosage of levodopa, and the age of the patient. A recent body of preclinical data has demonstrated that alterations in dopaminergic tone as well as in treatment patterns results in cellular adaptations, including alterations in gene expression. This body of preclinical data suggests that nonphysiological, pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors induces the development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias and raises the possibility that nonpulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors (continuous dopaminergic stimulation) might induce fewer fluctuations. We discuss the theory of continuous dopaminergic stimulation and its implications for the management of motor fluctuations in patients with advanced and early PD. PMID:15822108

Widnell, Katherine

2005-01-01

267

Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is a common movement disorder caused by a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. The disease is chronic and progressive. While there are many treatments for symptomatic relief, there is no cure. This article addresses the etiology, clinical manifestations, standard and experimental therapeutics and role of the nurse in the comprehensive care of the patient and family. PMID:2529323

Vernon, G M

1989-10-01

268

Fungicidal Drugs Induce a Common Oxidative Damage Cellular Death Pathway  

PubMed Central

Summary Amphotericin, miconazole and ciclopirox are antifungal agents from three different drug classes that can effectively kill planktonic yeast, yet their complete fungicidal mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we employ a systems biology approach to identify a common oxidative damage cellular death pathway triggered by these representative fungicides in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This mechanism utilizes a signaling cascade involving the GTPases Ras1/2 and Protein Kinase A, and culminates in death through the production of toxic ROS in a tricarboxylic acid cycle- and respiratory chain-dependent manner. We also show that the metabolome of C. albicans is altered by antifungal drug treatment, exhibiting a shift from fermentation to respiration, a jump in the AMP/ATP ratio, and elevated production of sugars; this coincides with elevated mitochondrial activity. Lastly, we demonstrate that DNA damage plays a critical role in antifungal-induced cellular death and that blocking DNA repair mechanisms potentiates fungicidal activity. PMID:23416050

Belenky, Peter; Camacho, Diogo; Collins, James J.

2013-01-01

269

Drug-induced liver injury with autoimmune features.  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) with features of autoimmunity (AI) represents an important category of hepatotoxicity due to medication exposure. Drugs repeatedly associated with AI-DILI include diclofenac, ?-methyl DOPA, hydralazine, nitrofurantoin, minocycline, and more recently statins and anti-TNF-? agents. Usually, symptoms of acute liver injury occur within a few months after initiation of a culprit medication, but a longer latency period is possible. Like idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis, circulating autoantibodies and a hypergammaglobulinemia are frequently present in sera from patients with AI-DILI. If performed, a liver biopsy should demonstrate interface hepatitis with a prominent plasma cell infiltrate. The severity of AI-DILI is variable, but a complete resolution after withdrawal of the offending medication is the expectation. A response to corticosteroid therapy supports the diagnosis, whereas a lack of recurrence of symptoms or signs following corticosteroid cessation distinguishes AI-DILI from idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:24879983

deLemos, Andrew S; Foureau, David M; Jacobs, Carl; Ahrens, Will; Russo, Mark W; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

2014-05-01

270

Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Elevated Nigral Levels of Dynorphin Neuropeptides in L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is a troublesome complication of L-DOPA pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease and has been associated with disturbed brain opioid transmission. However, so far the results of clinical and preclinical studies on the effects of opioids agonists and antagonists have been contradictory at best. Prodynorphin mRNA levels correlate well with the severity of dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease; however the identities of the actual neuroactive opioid effectors in their target basal ganglia output structures have not yet been determined. For the first time MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was used for unbiased assessment and topographical elucidation of prodynorphin-derived peptides in the substantia nigra of a unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA induced dyskinesia. Nigral levels of dynorphin B and alpha-neoendorphin strongly correlated with the severity of dyskinesia. Even if dynorphin peptide levels were elevated in both the medial and lateral part of the substantia nigra, MALDI IMS analysis revealed that the most prominent changes were localized to the lateral part of the substantia nigra. MALDI IMS is advantageous compared with traditional molecular methods, such as radioimmunoassay, in that neither the molecular identity analyzed, nor the specific localization needs to be predetermined. Indeed, MALDI IMS revealed that the bioconverted metabolite leu-enkephalin-arg also correlated positively with severity of dyskinesia. Multiplexing DynB and leu-enkephalin-arg ion images revealed small (0.25 by 0.5 mm) nigral subregions with complementing ion intensities, indicating localized peptide release followed by bioconversion. The nigral dynorphins associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia were not those with high affinity to kappa opioid receptors, but consisted of shorter peptides, mainly dynorphin B and alpha-neoendorphin that are known to bind and activate mu and delta opioid receptors. This suggests that mu and/or delta subtype-selective opioid receptor antagonists may be clinically relevant for reducing L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. PMID:21984936

Ljungdahl, Anna; Hanrieder, Jörg; Fälth, Maria; Bergquist, Jonas; Andersson, Malin

2011-01-01

271

Neuroprotective effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma agonists in model of parkinsonism induced by intranigral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine.  

PubMed

A large body of evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists may improve some of the pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the PPAR-? agonist fenofibrate (100mg/kg) and PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone (30mg/kg) in a rat model of parkinsonism induced by intranigral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine (MPTP). Male Wistar rats were pretreated with both drugs for 5 days and received an infusion of MPTP. The experiments were divided into two parts. First, 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after surgery, the animals were submitted to the open field test. On days 21 and 22, the rats were subjected to the forced swim test and two-way active avoidance task. In the second part of the study, 24h after neurotoxin administration, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess tyrosine hydroxylase activity. The levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fluorescence detection was used to assess caspase-3 activation in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Both fenofibrate as pioglitazone protected against hypolocomotion, depressive-like behavior, impairment of learning and memory, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by MPTP, with dopaminergic neuron loss of approximately 33%. Fenofibrate and pioglitazone also protected against the increased activation of caspase-3, an effector enzyme of the apoptosis cascade that is considered one of the pathological features of PD. Thus, PPAR agonists may contribute to therapeutic strategies in PD. PMID:25127682

Barbiero, Janaína K; Santiago, Ronise M; Persike, Daniele Suzete; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Tonin, Fernanda S; da Cunha, Claudio; Lucio Boschen, Suelen; Lima, Marcelo M S; Vital, Maria A B F

2014-11-01

272

Predicting Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity Using QSAR and Toxicogenomics Approaches  

PubMed Central

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling and toxicogenomics are used independently as predictive tools in toxicology. In this study, we evaluated the power of several statistical models for predicting drug hepatotoxicity in rats using different descriptors of drug molecules, namely their chemical descriptors and toxicogenomic profiles. The records were taken from the Toxicogenomics Project rat liver microarray database containing information on 127 drugs (http://toxico.nibio.go.jp/datalist.html). The model endpoint was hepatotoxicity in the rat following 28 days of exposure, established by liver histopathology and serum chemistry. First, we developed multiple conventional QSAR classification models using a comprehensive set of chemical descriptors and several classification methods (k nearest neighbor, support vector machines, random forests, and distance weighted discrimination). With chemical descriptors alone, external predictivity (Correct Classification Rate, CCR) from 5-fold external cross-validation was 61%. Next, the same classification methods were employed to build models using only toxicogenomic data (24h after a single exposure) treated as biological descriptors. The optimized models used only 85 selected toxicogenomic descriptors and had CCR as high as 76%. Finally, hybrid models combining both chemical descriptors and transcripts were developed; their CCRs were between 68 and 77%. Although the accuracy of hybrid models did not exceed that of the models based on toxicogenomic data alone, the use of both chemical and biological descriptors enriched the interpretation of the models. In addition to finding 85 transcripts that were predictive and highly relevant to the mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury, chemical structural alerts for hepatotoxicity were also identified. These results suggest that concurrent exploration of the chemical features and acute treatment-induced changes in transcript levels will both enrich the mechanistic understanding of sub-chronic liver injury and afford models capable of accurate prediction of hepatotoxicity from chemical structure and short-term assay results. PMID:21699217

Low, Yen; Uehara, Takeki; Minowa, Yohsuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro; Sedykh, Alexander; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Zhu, Hao; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

2014-01-01

273

Parkinson's Empowering the  

E-print Network

Parkinson's Disease: Empowering the Community a free symposium Saturday, May 17, 2014 92037 Parkinson's Disease: Empowering the Community a free symposium Faculty Irene Litvan, MD Director Parkinson's disease symposium for patients, their families and caregivers. Each speaker in this year

274

78 FR 5817 - Detecting and Evaluating Drug-Induced Liver Injury; What's Normal, What's Not, and What Should We...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Detecting and Evaluating Drug-Induced Liver Injury; What's Normal, What's Not...Detecting and Evaluating Drug-Induced Liver Injury; What's Normal, What's Not...extent, and likelihood of drug causation of liver injury and dysfunction in people...

2013-01-28

275

Sexuality in Parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson’s disease has traditionally been considered as a pure motor condition; characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia\\u000a and slow postural reflexes. Disability can be seen in the patients with Parkinson’s disease. In additional to general physical\\u000a and psychological aberration, sexual dysfunction is common in Parkinson’s disease, occurring as a non-motor manifestation\\u000a of the illness but often compounded by secondary problems relating

Viroj Wiwanitkit

2008-01-01

276

The Role of MAPK in Drug-Induced Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on the role that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play in drug-induced kidney injury. The MAPKs, of which there are four major classes (ERK, p38, JNK, and ERK5/BMK), are signalling cascades which have been found to be broadly conserved across a wide variety of organisms. MAPKs allow effective transmission of information from the cell surface to the cytosolic or nuclear compartments. Cross talk between the MAPKs themselves and with other signalling pathways allows the cell to modulate responses to a wide variety of external stimuli. The MAPKs have been shown to play key roles in both mediating and ameliorating cellular responses to stress including xenobiotic-induced toxicity. Therefore, this paper will discuss the specific role of the MAPKs in the kidney in response to injury by a variety of xenobiotics and the potential for therapeutic intervention at the level of MAPK signalling across different types of kidney disease. PMID:22523682

Cassidy, Hilary; Radford, Robert; Slyne, Jennifer; O'Connell, Sein; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P.; McMorrow, Tara

2012-01-01

277

Osteoporosis and Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Parkinson’s disease (PD) and osteoporosis are two conditions with a quite high prevalence in older people. From the literature we learn that in parkinsonian people there a is e major reduction of Bone Mass Density (BMD) compared to age-matched controls. A low BMD is one of the factors related to fracture’s frequency in PD patients besides an increased risk of falls. From the standpoint pathophysiology, various factors are involved in osteoporosis: immobilization, endocrine factors like hypovitaminosis D, nutritional and iatrogenic factors. Considering morbidity and mortality related to fractures in old people and in particular in PD patients it is reasonable that these patients would undergo to vitamin and BMD measuring, to fall risk assessment and that all preventive measure are implemented to reduce the risk of fractures. Possible interventions are essentially based on fall prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Randomized clinical studies in the literature, in which it was studied the effect of anti-osteoporotic drugs in patients with MP showed a significant reduction in the number of fractures and increase BMD. PMID:22461823

Raglione, Laura Maria; Sorbi, Sandro; Nacmias, Benedetta

2011-01-01

278

Long term exposure to norharman exacerbates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonism: Possible involvement of L-type Ca 2+ channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Carbolines (BCs) are considered as endogenous neurotoxins that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, several lines of evidences show that these compounds have neuroprotective effect. This study was designed to assess effect of long term exposure to norharman, a BC compound which in mammalian brain occurs at high levels in the substantia nigra, on the progress

Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi; Sedighe-Sadat Hosseini; Ayda Faraji; Delaram Nahid; Hassan Jahanihashemi

2010-01-01

279

Lanosterol induces mitochondrial uncoupling and protects dopaminergic neurons from cell death in a model for Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. Several lines of evidence indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to its etiology. Other studies have suggested that alterations in sterol homeostasis correlate with increased risk for PD. Whether these observations are functionally related is, however, unknown. In this study, we used

L Lim; V Jackson-Lewis; L C Wong; G H Shui; A X H Goh; S Kesavapany; A M Jenner; M Fivaz; S Przedborski; M R Wenk

2012-01-01

280

Characterizing the modulation of mGluR5 in a 6-OHDA-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease  

E-print Network

MicroPET imaging studies were conducted to investigate the role of metabotropic glutamate subtype-5 receptors (mGluR5) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Four analogical PET ligands were used to characterize modulation of mGluR5 ...

Lamb, Peter (Peter Alexander John)

2008-01-01

281

Levodopa-Induced Modifications of Prosody and Comprehensibility in Advanced Parkinson's Disease as Perceived by Professional Listeners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prosodic aspects of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been the focus of numerous reports. Few data on the effects of levodopa on prosody, more specifically on the effects on the variability of prosodic characteristics such as pitch, loudness and speech rate, are available in advanced PD. The relation between these…

De Letter, Miet; Santens, Patrick; Estercam, Irina; Van Maele, Georges; De Bodt, Marc; Boon, Paul; Van Borsel, John

2007-01-01

282

DAP12 and CD11b contribute to the microglial-induced death of dopaminergic neurons in vitro but not in vivo in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons (DN) in the substantia nigra (SN). Several lines of evidence suggest that apoptotic cell death of DN is driven in part by non-cell autonomous mechanisms orchestrated by microglial cell-mediated inflammatory processes. Although the mechanisms and molecular network underlying this deleterious cross-talk between DN and microglial cells remain largely unknown, previous work indicates that, upon DN injury, activation of the ?2 integrin subunit CD11b is required for microglia-mediated DN cell death. Interestingly, during brain development, the CD11b integrin is also involved in microglial induction of neuronal apoptosis and has been shown to act in concert with the DAP12 immunoreceptor. Whether such a developmental CD11b/DAP12 pathway could be reactivated in a pathological context such as PD and play a role in microglia-induced DN cell death is a tantalizing hypothesis that we wished to test in this study. Methods To test the possibility that DAP12 could be involved in microglia-associated DN injury, we used both in vitro and in vivo toxin-based experimental models of PD recapitulating microglial-mediated non-cell autonomous mechanisms of DN cell death. In vitro, enriched mesencephalic neuronal/microglial co-cultures were exposed to the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) whereas in vivo, mice were administrated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) according to acute or subchronic mode. Mice deficient for DAP12 or CD11b were used to determine the pathological function of the CD11b/DAP12 pathway in our disease models. Results Our results show that DAP12 and CD11b partially contribute to microglia-induced DN cell death in vitro. Yet, in vivo, mice deficient for either of these factors develop similar neuropathological alterations as their wild-type counterparts in two different MPTP mouse models of PD. Conclusion Overall, our data suggest that DAP12 and CD11b contribute to microglial-induced DN cell death in vitro but not in vivo in the MPTP mouse model of PD. Therefore, the CD11b/DAP12 pathway may not be considered as a promising therapeutic target for PD. PMID:23844828

2013-01-01

283

Validation of a rodent model of Parkinson's Disease: evidence of a therapeutic window for oral Sinemet.  

PubMed

Behavioral measures of parkinsonism that are more clinically relevant than rotometry have been developed for rats with severe unilateral dopamine depletions, and the validity of these measures is supported by reports that these parkinsonian symptoms are attenuated by drugs that are effective in the clinical setting. Although the therapeutic gold standard, L-DOPA:carbidopa (Sinemet), effectively attenuates parkinsonian symptoms, the beneficial effects of this drug are limited by the dyskinesias that it produces at higher doses. The range of effective doses, from the minimum dose that produces beneficial effects to the dose that produces intolerable dyskinesias, is referred to as the "therapeutic window." It would be extremely valuable to assess, preclinically, the effects of novel treatments on the therapeutic window for Sinemet. The results of the present study support the validity of nondrug-induced measures of parkinsonian symptoms in dopamine-depleted rats. Neurological measures revealed large behavioral deficits in the affected forelimb analogous to the deficits exhibited in Parkinson's disease patients, and these deficits were significantly attenuated with some doses of oral Sinemet (30-40 mg/kg). These drug effects on measures of parkinsonism were specific to performance with the affected limb. At slightly higher doses (50 mg/ kg), the rats were untestable due to severe dyskinesias. The results of the present study suggest that it is possible to investigate the therapeutic potential of novel treatments as well as their effects on the therapeutic window of oral Sinemet in this rodent model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:9138746

Lindner, M D; Plone, M A; Francis, J M; Emerich, D F

1996-01-01

284

Neuroprotective effects of the andrographolide analogue AL-1 in the MPP?/MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in vitro and in mice.  

PubMed

The andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate AL-1 is a newly synthesized molecule by covalently linking andrographolide (Andro) with ?-lipoic acid (LA). In the present work, the neuroprotective effect of AL-1 was investigated in vitro and in a mouse model of the Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that AL-1 significantly prevented 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons. In a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, AL-1 rescued 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons, improved the behavioral impairment, and elevated the striatal levels of dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Furthermore, AL-1 remarkably lowered the nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels while increased the superoxide dismutase level in the substantial nigra of MPTP-treated mice. The immunoblotting data showed that AL-1 significantly ameliorated the decreased expression of TH protein in the substantial nigra and inhibited the up-regulation of phosphorylated NF-?B p65 in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, AL-1 exerted neuroprotective effect in vitro and in animal model of PD through anti-oxidation and inhibition of NF-?B activation. PMID:24726706

Zhang, Zaijun; Lai, Daoxu; Wang, Liang; Yu, Pei; Zhu, Longjun; Guo, Baojian; Xu, Lipeng; Zhou, Libing; Sun, Yewei; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Wang, Yuqiang

2014-07-01

285

Environmental neurotoxin dieldrin induces apoptosis via caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta): Implications for neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background In previous work, we investigated dieldrin cytotoxicity and signaling cell death mechanisms in dopaminergic PC12 cells. Dieldrin has been reported to be one of the environmental factors correlated with Parkinson's disease and may selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons. Methods Here we further investigated dieldrin toxicity in a dopaminergic neuronal cell model of Parkinson's disease, namely N27 cells, using biochemical, immunochemical, and flow cytometric analyses. Results In this study, dieldrin-treated N27 cells underwent a rapid and significant increase in reactive oxygen species followed by cytochrome c release into cytosol. The cytosolic cytochrome c activated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway and the increased caspase-3 activity was observed following a 3 hr dieldrin exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, dieldrin caused the caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of protein kinase C delta (PKC?) into 41 kDa catalytic and 38 kDa regulatory subunits in N27 cells as well as in brain slices. PKC? plays a critical role in executing the apoptotic process in dieldrin-treated dopaminergic neuronal cells because pretreatment with the PKC? inhibitor rottlerin, or transfection and over-expression of catalytically inactive PKC?K376R, significantly attenuates dieldrin-induced DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Conclusion Together, we conclude that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of PKC? is a critical event in dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neuronal cells. PMID:18945348

Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Kitazawa, Masashi; Yang, Yongjie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi

2008-01-01

286

Treatment options for depression and psychosis in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Neuropsychiatric symptoms are a frequent feature of advancing Parkinson's disease (PD). The reported prevalence of depression varies greatly between different studies but there is general consensus that between 40 and 50% of patients will be affected. Depression may antedate motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease and is usually of moderate or mild intensity. However, depression is of major impact on the quality of life in PD patients according to a recent survey. Drug-induced psychosis is one of the major therapeutic challenges in Parkinson's disease and may occur in up to 6% in otherwise uncomplicated de novo patients when first receiving dopaminergic therapy. It increases in frequency, in advanced disease and particularly in patients with dementia where up to 22% may be affected. There is an amazing lack of controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of antidepressants in clinical trials including more than 20 patients and assessing efficacy of antidepressants specifically in the context of mood changes in Parkinson's disease. A comprehensive literature search yielded only a total of 17 articles of which a majority included less than 20 patients and/or did not use valid depression ratings. The only randomized controlled trial was conducted more than 20 years ago using nortryptiline while no controlled trials were available on the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Studies assessing the antidepressant action of dopaminergic therapies are few and inconclusive. Thus, while tricyclic antidepressants or SSRIs are widely used in clinical practice, there is still a need for controlled clinical trials proving their efficacy specifically in parkinsonian depression. Three randomized controlled trials are now available assessing the efficacy of the atypical neuroleptics clozapine and olanzapine in the treatment of drug-induced psychosis. While clozapine is of proven efficacy at least in the short-term management of this complication without negative impact on the motor symptoms, olanzapine in currently used doses of 2.5 to 15 mg/d seems to aggravate motor symptoms with lesser effect on psychosis compared to clozapine. Currently, clozapine is the atypical neuroleptic of choice for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. PMID:11697683

Poewe, W; Seppi, K

2001-09-01

287

A fixed-dose randomized controlled trial of olanzapine for psychosis in Parkinson disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psychosis is a common and debilitating side effect of long-term dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). While clozapine is an effective treatment, the need for blood monitoring has limited its first-line use. Objective: Since olanzapine shows similar receptor affinity to clozapine, we hypothesized that it might be an effective alternative to clozapine for treatment of drug-induced psychosis (DIP) in PD, and that

Michelle J. Nichols; Johanna M. Hartlein; Meredith G. A. Eicken; Brad A. Racette; Kevin J. Black

2013-01-01

288

[Psychological changes in Parkinson disease].  

PubMed

The most frequent psychic disturbances in Parkinson patients are reversible toxic psychoses usually triggered by the antiparkinsonian therapy. One also finds depression and demential syndromes. The appearance of psychiatric complications shows a relation to age, duration, course and stage of the disease, drug dosage and occasionally to situational factors. The pharmacotoxic psychoses, to a certain degree, can be considered as specific for the terminal stages of the disease. They occur in two out of three patients and curtail therapeutic facilities decisively. Depression can not be considered as an integral part of the majority of Morbus Parkinson varieties, since its incidence and severity in old people afflicted with chronic disease, other than parkinson's disease, are not any lower. Dementing processes, in spite of the presently higher average age of the Parkinson population, show a more severe course in other cerebral diseases, like SDAT and MID than in the typical Parkinson patient, free from other cerebral affections. The additional appearance of SDAT and/or MID, with ageing is, however, equally possible. PMID:3788191

Danielczyk, W

1986-08-31

289

Mental dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degeneration of the dopamine (DA) producing cells in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmentum, resulting in a dopamine deficiency in the dopaminergic projection areas with defective functioning of specific cortico-subcortical extrapyramidal circuits. Depending on which circuits (;motor', ;association' or ;limbic') are involved, and on the extent of the accompanying noradrenergic, serotonergic and cholinergic detrition in PD, dysfunction may result in motor deficits, mood disturbances or cognitive deficits, sometimes proceeding to dementia. Drug-induced psychosis occurs in approximately 15-20% of patients treated with dopaminergic agents. In PD, mainly nigrostriatal dopamine (A9) is depleted, leading to progressive motor dysfunction with subtle cognitive disturbances. As a rule, the neuropsychological deficit in PD might be described as the inability to switch cortical behavioral programmes in situations requiring the internal regulation of behavior. In daily life, in most patients these deficits do not become manifest, due to the abundance of external information to guide behavior. When the ability to use environmental information or external cues is lost as well, significant cell loss in the ventral tegmental area, with reduced DA-innervation of the mesocorticolimbic regions and the nucleus accumbens, must be suspected. This leads to clinically overt defects not only in the ;motor' but also in the ;limbic' and ;association' circuits. In addition to more severe cognitive disturbances or even dementia, this may also lead to mood disorders and drug-induced psychosis. Depression then occurs as the cortical modulation of limbic activity has become deficient, leading to emotional reactions disproportionate to the thoughts that evoke them. The proposed mechanism of psychosis in PD is that cortical sensory input is misinterpreted, leading to misperceptions (hallucinations) or false beliefs about reality due to a reduced ;signal-to-noise' ratio by insufficient processing of relevant information. PMID:18591098

Wolters, E C; Francot, C M

1998-10-01

290

Drugs that have been shown to cause drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia or positive direct antiglobulin tests: some interesting findings since 2007.  

PubMed

This review updates new findings in drug-induced immune- hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) since the 2007 review in Immunohematology by these authors. Twelve additional drugs have been added to the three tables listing drugs associated with drug-dependent antibodies, drugs associated with drug-independent antibodies, and drugs associated with nonimmunologic protein adsorption. Other updated findings include (1) piperacillin is currently the most commonly encountered cause of DIIHA, (2) new data on blood group specificity of drug-dependent antibodies, (3) drug-dependent antibodies detected in healthy donors, (4) DIIHA associated with transplantation, and(5) DIIHA associated with chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:25247621

Garratty, George; Arndt, Patricia A

2014-01-01

291

Drug-induced psoriasis: an evidence-based overview and the introduction of psoriatic drug eruption probability score.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a common skin disorder that needs a long-term management, not only because, of its prevalence but also because of the profound impact it can have on patients quality of life. Drugs may result in exacerbation of a preexisting psoriasis, in induction of psoriatic lesions on clinically uninvolved skin in patients with psoriasis, or in precipitation of the disease in persons without family history of psoriasis or in predisposed individuals. The knowledge of the drugs that may induce, trigger, or exacerbate the disease is of primary importance in clinical practice. By reviewing the literature, there are many reports on drug-induced psoriasis, but the data are not univocal. We propose, when possible, the use of a probability score from the authors to obtain a better classification and further understanding of drug-induced psoriasis. PMID:16702050

Dika, Emi; Varotti, C; Bardazzi, F; Maibach, H I

2006-01-01

292

Treatment of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia.  

PubMed

Cognitive decline and dementia affect approximately 30% to 40% of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease during the course of their illness. PD-dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are second to Alzheimer's disease in causing degenerative dementia in the elderly. The nosological distinction of the conditions has remained controversial because of broad clinical and pathological overlap. Treatment issues in both clinical settings are virtually identical. Treatment of Parkinsonism is often complicated by drug-induced psychosis and reduced levodopa responsiveness. Cognition, alertness, attention, as well as apathy or aggressive behavior have been shown to respond to treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors in randomized controlled trials both in DLB and PDD. Such treatment may also improve hallucinosis, but many patients will require add-on treatment with atypical neuroleptics to control drug-induced psychotic reactions. Clozapine and quetiapine are the drugs most commonly used and, contrary to classic neuroleptics, risperidone or olanzapine do not seem to cause severe side effects according to published data. PMID:16092095

Poewe, Werner

2005-08-01

293

Young-Onset Parkinson's  

MedlinePLUS

... rate of dyskinesias in response to L-DOPA treatment. As is the case with older-onset Parkinson’s disease, the speed and severity of the progression ... of the population with the disease. Is medication treatment different for ... Parkinson’s disease patient requires an understanding of the significantly ...

294

Social Odor Recognition: A Novel Behavioral Model for Cognitive Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by an increasing loss of dopaminergic neurons resulting in motor dysfunction. However, cognitive impairments in PD patients are a common clinical feature that has gained increased attention. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of an MPTP-induced dopaminergic lesion in mice on social odor recognition

Michael M. Monaghan; Lauren Leddy; Mei-Li Amy Sung; Kristin Albinson; Katie Kubek; Menelas N. Pangalos; Peter H. Reinhart; Margaret M. Zaleska; Thomas A. Comery

2010-01-01

295

Stem-Cell-Based Strategies for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cell transplantation to replace lost neurons in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) offers a hopeful prospect for many patients. Previously, fetal grafts have been shown to survive, integrate and induce functional recovery in PD patients. However, limited tissue availability has haltered the widespread use of this therapy and begs the demand for alternative tissue sources. In this

Clare L. Parish; Ernest Arenas

2007-01-01

296

Drug-induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis: Pathology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment.  

PubMed

Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (DAIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and often presents as an unexplained rise in serum creatinine level. Kidney biopsy is therefore frequently required to make a definitive diagnosis. The hallmark pathologic features of DAIN are interstitial edema, interstitial inflammation, and tubulitis with a predominance of CD4+ T lymphocytes and mononuclear cells, with variable numbers of eosinophils. This is a result of a type B idiosyncratic non-immunoglobulin-E-mediated immune reaction marked by cell-mediated immune injury to the renal tubulointerstitium. The drug becomes immunogenic via various mechanisms such as haptenization, antigen mimicry, and neo-antigen formation. Renal interstitial dendritic cells, and renal tubular epithelial cells play an important role in further propagating this immunologic injury. Acute DAIN can progress within days to weeks to a chronic form triggered by fibroblast activation and manifested as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The mainstay of treatment of DAIN is discontinuation of the offending drug. Incomplete renal recovery is seen in one-third of the patients and depends on the duration of injury prior to diagnosis. Use of steroids for treatment of DAIN makes biological sense, but lack of randomized controlled trials and conflicting data from retrospective studies makes the approach unclear. Positive effects include faster recovery of kidney function, more complete recovery with less chronic kidney disease, and reduced need for chronic dialysis. Therefore, it seems reasonable to employ corticosteroids in patients that do not rapidly improve 3 to 5 days following discontinuation of the offending agent. PMID:25599729

Krishnan, Namrata; Perazella, Mark A

2015-01-01

297

Parkinson disease psychosis: Update.  

PubMed

Psychotic symptoms are common in drug treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Visual hallucinations occur in about 30% and delusions, typically paranoid in nature, occur in about 5%. These problems, particularly the delusions, cause great distress for patient and caregivers, and are among the most important precipitants for nursing home placement. Psychotic symptoms carry a poor prognosis. They often herald dementia, and are associated with increased mortality. These symptoms often abate with medication reductions, but this may not be tolerated due to worsened motor function. Only clozapine has level A evidence to support its use in PD patients with psychosis (PDP), whether demented or not. While quetiapine has been recommended by the American Academy of Neurology for "consideration," double blind placebo controlled trials have demonstrated safety but not efficacy. Other antipsychotic drugs have been reported to worsen motor function and data on the effectiveness of cholinesterase inhibitors is limited. PDP remains a serious problem with limited treatment options. PMID:23242358

Friedman, J H

2013-01-01

298

Gauging reactive metabolites in drug-induced toxicity.  

PubMed

Over the past decades, it has become abundantly clear that enzymes evolved to detoxify and eliminate foreign chemicals from the body, occasionally generate highly reactive metabolites which have toxicological implications. To decrease the probability of late clinical failure or market withdrawal, there has been an increased prioritization on understanding key metabolic processes that might cause drug interactions or toxicities. Significant advances have been made in the detection of reactive metabolites and in understanding the structure activity relationship. It is now widely accepted that compounds with certain functional groups such as anilines, quinones, hydrazines, thiophenes, furans, acylpropionic acids, and alkynes have a much greater associated risk towards formation of reactive metabolites than compounds that do not contain such "structural alerts". Detection of reactive metabolites is usually done with in vitro assays, which have become more sensitive with advances in mass spectrometry. As an increasingly large number of compounds that form reactive metabolites have been identified, much of the focus has shifted from detection to evaluation of toxicological implication. While there is a disproportionate number of compounds metabolized to reactive metabolites that are associated with drug-induced hepatotoxicity and serious skin toxicities such as toxic endothelial necrolysis and Steven's Johnson syndrome, attempts to predict toxicity based on in vitro testing have been discouraging. In this review we attempt to summarize the experimental options available to evaluate reactive metabolites. PMID:25174933

Eno, Marsha R; Cameron, Michael D

2015-01-01

299

Diversities of podocyte molecular changes induced by different antiproteinuria drugs.  

PubMed

Nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, and alpha-actinin-4 are important podocyte proteins that help maintain the integrity of the slit diaphragm and prevent proteinuria. Studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, glucocorticoids, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) have antiproteinuric effects. However, it is still unclear whether these drugs, with different pharmacological mechanisms, lead to a reduction in proteinuria by changing the expression and distribution of these important podocyte proteins. In this study, changes in the expression and distribution of nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, and alpha-actinin-4 were dynamically detected in Adriamycin-induced nephrotic (ADR) rats treated with three different drugs: lisinopril, prednisone, and ATRA. Nephropathy was induced by an intravenous injection of Adriamycin. After Adriamycin injection, rats received lisinopril, prednisone, and ATRA treatment, respectively. Renal tissues were collected at Days 3, 7, 14, and 28. The distribution and the expression of messenger RNA and protein of nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, and alpha-actinin-4 were detected by indirect immunofluorescence, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting, respectively. With the intervention of lisinopril, prednisone, and ATRA, changes in the expression of nephrin, podocin, and CD2AP were diverse, which was different from that detected in ADR rats. After lisinopril and prednisone intervention, podocin exhibited prominent earlier changes compared with those of nephrin and CD2AP, whereas CD2AP showed more prominent changes after ATRA intervention. There was no change in the expression of alpha-actinin-4 molecule. In summary, we conclude that the antiproteinuric effects of lisinopril, prednisone, and ATRA were achieved by changes in the expression and distribution of the important podocyte molecules nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, and alpha-actinin-4. The pattern in the change of podocyte molecules after lisinopril and prednisone intervention was similar, but the pattern in the change of podocyte molecules after ATRA intervention was different from that of lisinopril or prednisone intervention. PMID:16636307

Xing, Yan; Ding, Jie; Fan, Qingfeng; Guan, Na

2006-05-01

300

Detection of preclinical Parkinson's disease with PET  

SciTech Connect

Putamen 18F-dopa uptake of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is reduced by at least 35% at onset of symptoms; therefore, positron-emission tomography (PET) can be used to detect preclinical disease in clinically unaffected twins and relatives of patients with PD. Three out of 6 monozygotic and 2 out of 3 dizygotic unaffected PD co-twins have shown reduced putamen 18F-dopa uptake to date. In addition, an intact sibling and a daughter of 1 of 4 siblings with PD both had low putamen 18F-dopa uptake. These preliminary findings suggest there may be a familial component to the etiology of PD. PET can also be used to detect underlying nigral pathology in patients with isolated tremor and patients who become rigid taking dopamine-receptor blocking agents (DRBAs). Patients with familial essential tremor have normal, and those with isolated rest tremor have consistently low, putamen 18F-dopa uptake. Drug-induced parkinsonism is infrequently associated with underlying nigral pathology.

Brooks, D.J. (MRC Cyclotron Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London (England))

1991-08-01

301

Apoptosis in mesangial cells induced by ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis in mesangial cells induced by ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs. Mesangial proliferation contributes to the pathogenesis of many forms of glomerulonephritis. To evaluate the role of apoptosis on the pharmacologic effects of cytotoxic drugs and ionizing radiation, we studied their effects on cultured rat mesangial cells (MC), whose apoptotic response to these drugs is unknown. Mesangial cells were cultured

Dae Ryong Cha; Stella M Feld; Cynthia Nast; Janine LaPage; Sharon G Adler

1996-01-01

302

Antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain mediated by histamine H1 receptor-linked activation  

E-print Network

Antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain mediated by histamine H1 receptor-linked activation, December 21, 2006 (sent for review November 28, 2006) The atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) have intake. atypical antipsychotic drugs obesity hypothalamus The antipsychotic actions of classic

Kim, Sangwon F.

303

[Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases : Often forgotten].  

PubMed

Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases (DILD) are probably more common than diagnosed. Due to their potential reversibility, increased vigilance towards DILD is appropriate also from the radiologist's point of view, particularly as these diseases regularly exhibit radiological correlates in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs.Based on personal experience typical relatively common manifestations of DILD are diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), eosinophilic pneumonia (EP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), organizing pneumonia (OP), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). These patterns are presented based on case studies, whereby emphasis is placed on the clinical context. This is to highlight the relevance of interdisciplinary communication and discussion in the diagnostic field of DILD as it is a diagnosis of exclusion or of probability in most cases.Helpful differential diagnostic indications for the presence of DILD, such as an accompanying eosinophilia or increased attenuation of pulmonary consolidations in amiodarone-induced pneumopathy are mentioned and the freely available online database http://www.pneumotox.com is presented. PMID:25446693

Poschenrieder, F; Stroszczynski, C; Hamer, O W

2014-12-01

304

Acute Drug-Induced Hepatitis Caused by Albendazole  

PubMed Central

Albendazole binds to parasite's tubulin inhibiting its glucose absorption. Its common adverse effects are nausea, vomiting, constipation, thirst, dizziness, headache, hair loss and pruritus. Although mainly metabolized in the liver, abnormal liver function tests were a rare adverse effect during clinical trials and we found no literature about albendazole-induced hepatitis requiring admission. This patient had a previous history of albendazole ingestion in 2002 resulting in increase of liver function tests. And in 2005, the episode repeated. We evaluated the patient for viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and autoimmune hepatitis, but no other cause of hepatic injury could be found. Liver biopsy showed periportal steatosis and periportal necrosis. The initial abnormal liver function test improved only with supportive care. These findings and the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (RUCAM/CIOMS) score of 9 are compatible with drug-induced hepatitis so we report the case of this patient with a review of the literature. PMID:18955802

Choi, Gi Young; Cho, Soung Hoon; Kang, Dong Wook; Go, Hoon; Lee, Woong Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, An Na; Cha, Sang Woo

2008-01-01

305

Functionalized nanoparticles for AMF-induced gene and drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties and broad applications of nano-magnetic colloids have generated much interest in recent years. Specially, Fe3O4 nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention since their magnetic properties can be used for hyperthermia treatment or drug targeting. For example, enhanced levels of intracellular gene delivery can be achieved using Fe3O4 nano-vectors in the presence of an external magnetic field, a process known as 'magnetofection'. The low cytotoxicity, tunable particle size, ease of surface functionalization, and ability to generate thermal energy using an external alternating magnetic field (AMF) are properties have propelled Fe3O4 research to the forefront of nanoparticle research. The strategy of nanoparticle-mediated, AMF-induced heat generation has been used to effect intracellular hyperthermia. One application of this 'magnetic hyperthermia' is heat activated local delivery of a therapeutic effector (e.g.; drug or polynucleotide). This thesis describes the development of a magnetic nano-vector for AMF-induced, heat-activated pDNA and small molecule delivery. The use of heat-inducible vectors, such as heat shock protein ( hsp) genes, is a promising mode of gene therapy that would restrict gene expression to a local region by focusing a heat stimulus only at a target region. We thus aimed to design an Fe3O4 nanoparticle-mediated gene transfer vehicle for AMF-induced localized gene expression. We opted to use 'click' oximation techniques to assemble the magnetic gene transfer vector. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis, characterization, and transfection studies of the oxime ether lipid-based nano-magnetic vectors MLP and dMLP. The synthesis and characterization of a novel series of quaternary ammonium aminooxy reagents (2.1--2.4) is described. These cationic aminooxy compounds were loaded onto nanoparticles for ligation with carbonyl groups and also to impart a net positive charge on the nanoparticle surface. Our studies indicated that the non-toxic magnetoplexes (magnetic nanoparticle + pDNA complex) derived from dMLP deliver pDNA into mammalian cells even without external magnetic assistance. To date, dMLP is the only polymer-free magnetic gene delivery system that can deliver pDNA without any magnetic assistance. Chapter 3 of this thesis outlines the synthesis and characterization of other oxime ether lipids and details studies using derived-lipoplexes. These lipids were evaluated in pDNA and siRNA transfection studies in various mammalian cell lines. This work constitutes the first use of an oxime ether as the linking domain in cationic transfection lipids. These biocompatible oxime ether lipids can be readily assembled by click chemistry through ligation of hydrophobic aldehydes with quaternary ammonium aminooxy salts. Our studies showed that the oxime ether lipids transfected pDNA and siRNA efficiently in MCF-7, H 1792, and in PAR C10 cells comparable to and in some cases better than commercial transfection lipids. Chapter 4 describes the design and characterization of a nano-magnetic delivery system for AMF-induced drug (doxorubicin) release. In efforts to develop a magnetic formulation free from thermosensitive materials, such as hydrogels, we synthesized three nanoparticle-based doxorubicin formulations using charge interactions as the key associative force. To do so, we synthesized and characterized a novel cationic oxime ether conjugate at C-13 of doxorubicin. Our investigation indicated that the positive charge of the oxime ether drug conjugate tended to bind better to the negatively charged nanoparticle than did the other formulations prepared in stepwise manner. Our findings show that the nano-magnetic formulations remained essestially inactive at body temperature (37.5 °C) and released a majority of the cargo only when exposed to an external AMF. Our designed magnetic drug delivery platform is the first example of an AMF-inducible system that does not depend on the inclusion of thermosensitive materials. Finally, we have developed a bioanalytical application of the highly chemosele

Biswas, Souvik

306

Drug Eruptions Induced by Allopurinol Associated with HLA-BFNx015801.  

PubMed

Allopurinol, a drug commonly used for treating gout and hyperuricemia, is a frequent cause of drug eruptions. Recent investigations suggest that HLA-BFNx015801 allele is a very strong marker for allopurinol-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs). In this article we report two cases of allopurinol-induced drug eruptions in patients carrying the HLA-BFNx015801 allele and review the literature on the association between HLA-BFNx015801 and allopurinol-induced cADRs based on a MEDLINE and PubMed search. PMID:25566896

Zeng, Meihua; Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Yan, Wenliang; Kong, Qingtao; Sang, Hong

2015-01-01

307

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-induced pseudoporphyria: is there an alternative drug?  

PubMed

Drug-induced pseudoporphyria cutanea tarda has been attributed to many different medications including several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Often the patients taking these anti-inflammatory medications became part of a treatment dilemma when one of the drugs is deemed the cause of a blistering disease. We present a prototypical case of NSAID-induced pseudoporphyria cutanea tarda and suggest alternative NSAIDs that may be safely used in these patients. PMID:10228751

Checketts, S R; Morrison, K A; Baughman, R D

1999-04-01

308

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Dopamine Agonists in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine or pergolide are often used in Japan to treat Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agonists are relatively expensive drugs; economic evaluations are required. Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of dopamine agonists for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in Japan. Design and setting: We used a Markov model to simulate the course of Parkinson's disease and

Takuro Shimbo; Kenji Hira; Manabu Takemura; Tsuguya Fukui

2001-01-01

309

dl-3-n-Butylphthalide prevents oxidative damage and reduces mitochondrial dysfunction in an MPP(+)-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP(+))-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). NBP was extracted from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. (Chinese celery). MPP(+) treatment of PC12 cells caused reduced viability, formation of reactive oxygen, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results indicated that NBP reduced the cytotoxicity of MPP(+) by suppressing the mitochondrial permeability transition, reducing oxidative stress, and increasing the cellular GSH content. NBP also reduced the accumulation of alpha-synuclein, the main component of Lewy bodies. Given that NBP is safe and currently used in clinical trials for stroke patients, NBP will likely be a promising chemical for the treatment of PD. PMID:20347933

Huang, Jin-Zhong; Chen, Ying-Zhu; Su, Min; Zheng, Hui-Fen; Yang, Ya-Ping; Chen, Jing; Liu, Chun-Feng

2010-05-14

310

Facts, fancies and follies of drug-induced QT/QTc interval shortening  

PubMed Central

Parallels exist between drug-induced QT/QTc prolongation and shortening. However, these parallels are largely superficial and the experience with drug-induced QTc prolongation and its potential proarrhythmic link cannot be directly applied to drug-related QTc shortening. The congenital short QT syndrome (SQTS) is clearly much less prevalent than congenital, long QT syndrome, possibly some 1000 times. If the same discrepancy exists between arrhythmic susceptibility to drug-induced QTc prolongation and shortening, it is questionable whether regulatory burden should be imposed on drugs that might cause serious arrhythmia, once in many millions of exposures. Further, majority of torsadegenic drugs block the IKr current which is susceptible to the drug blockade because of the corresponding channel geometry. There is no parallel known for drug-induced QTc shortening. Also, all drugs that prolong QTc interval massively cause torsade de pointes tachycardia in more than exceptional isolated instances. On the contrary, digitalis that causes substantial QTc shortening is not known to trigger frequently ventricular arrhythmias. Moreover, most available population QTc data were obtained with Bazett's correction which produces erroneous QTc shortening at slow heart rates. Safety limits derived from such data are inappropriate. Because practically all new drugs undergo the so-called thorough QT study, drug-induced QTc shortening will not go unnoticed for any new pharmaceutical. Describing drug-related QTc shortening in the label seems sufficient to avoid treatment of the rare SQTS subjects. Intensive investigations of QTc-shortening drugs (similar to those of drugs with positive thorough QT studies) do not seem to be warranted. This article is a commentary on Shah, pp. 58–69 of this issue and is part of a themed section on QT safety. To view this issue visit http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear?year=2010 PMID:20141519

Malik, Marek

2010-01-01

311

Effects of the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa on mitochondria-mediated neuroprotection in an MPTP-induced model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is generally characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) to the striatum that results in movement dysfunction, but also entails mitochondrial dysfunction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of Moutan Cortex Radicis (MCE, Moutan peony) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD-like symptoms and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action, with a focus on mitochondrial function. In a rat primary mesencephalic culture system, MCE significantly protected dopaminergic neurons from the neurotoxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active form of MPTP. Additionally, in a subacute mouse model of MPTP-induced PD, MCE resulted in enhanced recovery from PD-like motor symptoms, including increased locomotor activity and reduced bradykinesia. MCE increased dopamine availability and protected against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage. Moreover, MCE inhibited MPTP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and resulted in increased expression of phosphorylated Akt, ND9, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and H2AX in the SNpc. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis was also inhibited, via the regulation of B-cell lymphoma family proteins and the inhibition of cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activation. These results indicate that MCE has neuroprotective effects in PD models and may be useful for preventing or treating PD. PMID:24389454

Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Gunhyuk; Piao, Ying; Kang, Min Seo; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-03-01

312

Neuroprotective Effects of Jitai Tablet, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, on the MPTP-Induced Acute Model of Parkinson's Disease: Involvement of the Dopamine System.  

PubMed

Jitai tablet (JTT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that JTT treatment led to increased level of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, thus indicating that JTT might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by dysregulated dopamine (DA) transmission and decreased striatal DAT expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of JTT on MPTP-induced PD mice. Using locomotor activity test and rotarod test, we evaluated the effects of JTT (0.50, 0.15, or 0.05?g/kg) on MPTP-induced behavioral impairments. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels in the striatum were detected by immunohistochemical staining and/or autoradiography. Levels of DA and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. In MPTP-treated mice, behavioral impairments were alleviated by JTT treatment. Moreover, JTT protected against impairment of TH-positive neurons and attenuated the MPTP-induced decreases in DAT and D2R. Finally, high dose of JTT (0.50?g/kg) inhibited the MPTP-induced increase in DA metabolism rate. Taken together, results from our present study provide evidence that JTT offers neuroprotective effects against the neurotoxicity of MPTP and thus might be a potential treatment for PD. PMID:24799940

Liu, Jia; Gao, Jinlong; Tu, Shaoang; Xu, Shasha; Liu, Ying; Shang, Weihu; Gu, Chenxin; Huang, Yiyun; Han, Mei

2014-01-01

313

Neuroprotective Effects of Jitai Tablet, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, on the MPTP-Induced Acute Model of Parkinson's Disease: Involvement of the Dopamine System  

PubMed Central

Jitai tablet (JTT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that JTT treatment led to increased level of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, thus indicating that JTT might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by dysregulated dopamine (DA) transmission and decreased striatal DAT expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of JTT on MPTP-induced PD mice. Using locomotor activity test and rotarod test, we evaluated the effects of JTT (0.50, 0.15, or 0.05?g/kg) on MPTP-induced behavioral impairments. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels in the striatum were detected by immunohistochemical staining and/or autoradiography. Levels of DA and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. In MPTP-treated mice, behavioral impairments were alleviated by JTT treatment. Moreover, JTT protected against impairment of TH-positive neurons and attenuated the MPTP-induced decreases in DAT and D2R. Finally, high dose of JTT (0.50?g/kg) inhibited the MPTP-induced increase in DA metabolism rate. Taken together, results from our present study provide evidence that JTT offers neuroprotective effects against the neurotoxicity of MPTP and thus might be a potential treatment for PD. PMID:24799940

Liu, Jia; Gao, Jinlong; Xu, Shasha; Liu, Ying; Shang, Weihu; Gu, Chenxin; Huang, Yiyun; Han, Mei

2014-01-01

314

Drug-Induced Respiratory Disease in Cardiac Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By definition, adverse reactions to drugs develop unpredictably in patients exposed to therapeutic doses of ‘drugs,’ which\\u000a include such respiratory gases as dioxygen (O2) and nitric oxide (NO). Accordingly, misuse, disuse, drug interactions, deliberate or accidental overdoses, illicit drugs,\\u000a and radiation therapy are outside the province of this chapter. Notwithstanding that, it is difficult to cover this topic\\u000a without mentioning

Philippe Camus; Clio Camus; Pascal Foucher

315

[Vascular parkinsonism].  

PubMed

Critchley speculated that multiple vascular lesions of the basal ganglia must have an etiological connection to the symptoms of so-called vascular parkinsonism (VP), but without neuropathological confirmation. Some had doubts about its existence because of the lack of the pathologically confirmed case with adequate clinical correlation. At present, VP is characterized clinically by the short-stepped or frozen gait, lead-pipe rigidity, the symmetry of findings, absence of resting tremor, and negative response to levodopa in elderly patients with cerebrovascular lesions on CT/MRI. Pseudobulbar palsies, pyramidal tract findings, and/or multi-infarct dementia coexist in some of the cases. Most of clinically suspected VP patients have cerebral white matter lesions as well as basal ganglia lesions. PMID:9014431

Yamanouchi, H

1997-01-01

316

75 FR 14602 - Guidance for Industry on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation; Opening of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guidance for Industry on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...30, 2009, entitled ``Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the...

2010-03-26

317

Quercetin glycosides induced neuroprotection by changes in the gene expression in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Quercetin glycosides, rutin and isoquercitrin, are potent antioxidants that have been found to possess neuroprotective effect in diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we have examined the gene expression changes with rutin and isoquercitrin pretreatment on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated toxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PC12 cells were pretreated with rutin or isoquercitrin and subsequently exposed to 6-OHDA. Rutin-pretreated PC12 attenuated the Park2, Park5, Park7, Casp3, and Casp7 genes which were expressed significantly in the 6-OHDA-treated PC12 cells. Rutin upregulated the TH gene which is important in dopamine biosynthesis, but isoquercitrin pretreatment did not affect the expression of this gene. Both rutin and isoquercitrin pretreatments upregulated the ion transport and antiapoptotic genes (NSF and Opa1). The qPCR array data were further validated by qRT-PCR using four primers, Park5, Park7, Casp3, and TH. This finding suggests that changes in the expression levels of transcripts encoded by genes that participate in ubiquitin pathway and dopamine biosynthesis may be involved in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25129099

Magalingam, Kasthuri Bai; Radhakrishnan, Ammu; Ramdas, Premdass; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja

2015-03-01

318

Biomarkers of endothelial cell activation: candidate markers for drug-induced vasculitis in patients or drug-induced vascular injury in animals.  

PubMed

There is a pressing need for vascular biomarkers for studies of drug-induced vasculitis in patients and drug-induced vascular injury (DIVI) in animals. We previously reviewed a variety of candidate biomarkers of endothelial cell (EC) activation (Zhang et al., 2010). Now we update information on EC activation biomarkers from animal data on DIVI and clinical data of vasculitic patients, particularly patients with primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated small vessel vasculitis (primary AAVs), including Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome and necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. Drug-associated ANCA-positive small vessel vasculitis (drug-AAVs) can closely resemble primary AAVs, suggesting the large overlap between primary idiopathic systemic vasculitis and drug-induced vasculitis. AAVs in patients and DIVI in animals vary considerably; however, there is close resemblance between AAVs and DIVI in some respects: (1) the immunopathogenetic mechanisms (activation of primed neutrophils, ECs and T cells by ANCA in patients and activation of ECs, mast cells, and macrophages by drugs in animals); (2) the morphologic changes (fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall and neutrophilic infiltration); (3) the preferable sites (small arteries, arterioles, capillaries and venules); and (4) elevation of vascular biomarkers suggestive of an endothelial origin. The present review discusses soluble and cell component biomarkers and provides a rationale for the potential utility of EC activation biomarkers in nonclinical and clinical studies during new drug development. Further investigation, however, is needed to assess their potential utility. PMID:21968053

Zhang, Jun; Hanig, Joseph P; De Felice, Albert F

2012-01-01

319

Glutathione Metabolism and Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

It has been established that oxidative stress, defined as the condition when the sum of free radicals in a cell exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the cell, contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Glutathione is a ubiquitous thiol tripeptide that acts alone, or in concert with enzymes within cells to reduce superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrites. In this review, we examine the synthesis, metabolism and functional interactions of glutathione, and discuss how this relates to protection of dopaminergic neurons from oxidative damage and its therapeutic potential in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23665395

Smeyne, Michelle

2013-01-01

320

Spectrum of addictions in Parkinson’s disease: from dopamine dysregulation syndrome to impulse control disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing awareness that addictive disorders may occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD), either typical substance-related\\u000a addictions that are commonly known as dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) or behavioral addictive syndromes, usually presenting\\u000a as impulse control disorders (ICDs) that include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating and buying. DDS\\u000a is characterized by the use of dopaminergic drugs in doses larger than

Roberto Ceravolo; Daniela Frosini; Carlo Rossi; Ubaldo Bonuccelli

2010-01-01

321

Prime-, Stress- and Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Extinguished Drug-Reinforced Responding in Rats: Cocaine as the Prototypical Drug of Abuse  

PubMed Central

This unit describes the testing of rats in prime-, footshock- and cue-induced reinstatement procedures. Evaluating rats in these procedures enables the assessment of treatments on behavior thought to model drug relapse precipitated by re-contact with an abused drug (prime-induced), induced by stress (footshock-induced), or by stimuli previously associated with drug administration (cue-induced). For instance, levels of reinstatement under the effects of test compound administration could be compared to levels under vehicle administration to help identify potential treatments for drug relapse, or reinstatement levels of different rat strains could be compared to identify potential genetic determinants of perseverative drug-seeking behavior. Cocaine is used as a prototypical drug of abuse, and relapse to its use serves as the model in this unit, but other self-administered drugs could readily be substituted with little modification to the procedures. PMID:23093352

Beardsley, Patrick M.; Shelton, Keith L.

2012-01-01

322

5-HT1A receptor-dependent control of nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission in the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Dysfunctions of the basal ganglia are associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions including Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Current treatments of these disorders are mostly symptomatic and inadequate, and are often associated with a number of unwanted side-effects. The striatum, the terminal region of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway, is the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, and dopamine neurotransmission through the nigrostriatal pathway plays a crucial role in the modulation of basal ganglia output and mediated behaviors. Evidence suggests a role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin)-1A receptors in the modulation of dopamine neurotransmission and in improving pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. This review concerns the role of 5-HT1A receptors in the modulation of nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission, with the aim of providing guidelines for future research to improve pharmacotherapy. The current state of knowledge suggests that drugs simultaneously targeting dopamine D2 and 5-HT1A receptors may improve pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Activation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus has an important role in the alleviation of extrapyramidal symptoms and levodopa-induced dyskinesia induced by antipsychotic treatment. Drugs acting exclusively through dopamine D2 and 5-HT1A receptors are highly needed to validate the potential role of 5-HT1A receptors in improving therapeutics for Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:25503261

Haleem, Darakhshan J

2015-02-01

323

Pain in Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... for increased overall health care costs. A person’s perception of pain can be affected by emotional factors. ... medications such as levodopa can affect a person’s perception of pain. People with Parkinson’s who are in ...

324

A novel therapeutic approach to 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease in rats via supplementation of PTD-conjugated tyrosine hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

The present study aimed to evaluate whether the protein transduction domain (PTD)-conjugated human tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) fusion protein was effective on the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) model rats. An expression vector pET-PTD-TH harbouring the PTD-TH gene was constructed and transformed to the Escherichia coli BL21 cells for expression. The expressed recombinant PTD-TH with a molecular weight of 61 kD was successfully transduced (1 {mu}M) into the dopaminergic SH-sy5y human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and visualized by immunohistochemical assay. An in vivo experiment in rats showed that the iv administered PTD-TH protein (8 mg/kg) permeated across the blood-brain barrier, penetrated into the striatum and midbrain, and peaked at 5-8 h after the injection. The behavioral effects of PTD-TH on the apomorphine-induced rotations in the PD model rats 8 weeks after the 6-OHDA lesion showed that a single bolus of PTD-TH (8 mg/kg) iv injection caused a decrement of 60% of the contralateral turns on day 1 and 40% on days 5-17. The results imply that iv delivery of PTD-TH is therapeutically effective on the 6-OHDA-induced PD in rats, the PTD-mediated human TH treatment opening a promising therapeutic direction in treatment of PD.

Wu Shaoping [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Beijing Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing 100013 (China); Fu Ailing [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang Yuxia [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Yu Leiping [Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203 (China); Jia Peiyuan [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Li Qian [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Jin Guozhang [Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203 (China); Sun Manji [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail: Sunmj@nic.bmi.ac.cn

2006-07-21

325

Ventricular bigeminy after subcutaneous administration of apomorphine in a patient with refractory Parkinson's disease: a case report.  

PubMed

Apomorphine is a well established treatment for the management of sudden, unexpected and refractory levodopa-induced "off" states in fluctuating Parkinson's disease either as bolus injections or as continuous infusions. Incidents of atrial fibrillation associated with the administration of the drug have been reported in the past but no incidents of ventricular arrhythmias. We report a case of ventricular bigeminy recorded in a female patient after the administration of apomorphine. PMID:24868418

Kaminioti, Anastasia N; Nikitas, Georgios T; Terlis, Apostolos K; Manolis, Athanasios G; Thomaides, Thomas; Panousopoulou, Aggeliki N

2013-05-01

326

The selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist ADL5510 reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesia without affecting antiparkinsonian action in MPTP-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

In Parkinson's disease (PD), dyskinesia develops following long-term treatment with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). Given the prominent role of the opioid system in basal ganglia function, nonselective opioid receptor antagonists have been tested for antidyskinetic efficacy in the clinic (naltrexone and naloxone), although without success. In the current study, ADL5510, a novel, orally active opioid antagonist with mu opioid receptor selectivity, was examined in L-dopa-treated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) macaques. Antidyskinetic effects were compared with those of naltrexone. Parkinsonian monkeys with established L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) received acute challenges with L-dopa (subcutaneously) in combination with either vehicle, ADL5510 (0.1, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg by mouth), or naltrexone (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg subcutaneously). Following treatments, behavior was monitored for 6 hours. Parameters assessed were total activity, parkinsonism, and dyskinesia. ADL5510 (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) reduced activity and LID (chorea and dystonia) without affecting the antiparkinsonian benefits of L-dopa. The antidyskinetic effect of ADL5510 showed a U-shaped dose-response. It was inactive at 0.1 mg/kg, efficacious at 1 and 3 mg/kg (72% and 40% reductions, respectively), and then less effective at 10 mg/kg. The quality of ON time produced by L-dopa was improved, as indicated by a reduction in the percentage of ON time spent experiencing disabling dyskinesia (70% and 61% reductions with 1 and 3 mg/kg, respectively, compared with L-dopa). Naltrexone, in contrast, did not alleviate LID or affect the antiparkinsonian actions of L-dopa. Mu-selective opioid antagonists have the potential to form the basis of novel antidyskinetic therapies for PD. PMID:21465551

Koprich, James B; Fox, Susan H; Johnston, Tom H; Goodman, Allan; Le Bourdonnec, Bertrand; Dolle, Roland E; DeHaven, Robert N; DeHaven-Hudkins, Diane L; Little, Patrick J; Brotchie, Jonathan M

2011-06-01

327

Aggravation of ventricular arrhythmia. A drug-induced complication.  

PubMed

Each antiarrhythmic agent can cause side effects, but most of these are easily recognised by the patient or physician. However, one potentially serious side effect common to all of these drugs is aggravation of ventricular arrhythmia. Often this is without symptoms and goes unrecognised by the patient. It occurs in 11 to 16% of drug tests depending upon the method of drug evaluation employed. There are no ECG changes which predict its occurrence and blood concentrations of drug are usually within a therapeutic range. There are no clinical patient features which are associated with this toxic reaction and it does not correlate with the presence or extent of underlying heart disease, the nature of the presenting arrhythmia or the known electrophysiological properties of the antiarrhythmic drug. Careful evaluation of these drugs is therefore essential. PMID:3924550

Podrid, P J

1985-01-01

328

Trichloroharmanes as potential endogenously formed inducers of Morbus Parkinson: synthesis, analytics, and first in vivo-investigations.  

PubMed

The hypnotic chloral reacts chemically with tryptamine and tryptophan under physiological conditions to give novel trichloro-tetrahydroharmanes ("TTHs"). These are structurally similar to the classical neurotoxin MPTP. Moreover, the TTH-precursor chloral is also a metabolite of the frequently used solvent trichloroethylene (Tri). These properties and first hints at a neuropharmacological potential of this class of substances warrent investigations whether TTHs and other chloral-derived harmanes are formed endogenously and possibly have to do with the pathogenesis of Morbus Parkinson (MP). For an investigation of these problems, some fundamental methods and results had to be elaborated first: the synthesis of several representatives of this novel class of trichloroharmanes, sensitive analytical methods for the detection of these compounds even in biological matrices, and studies concerning their biological "fate". PMID:1491246

Bringmann, G; Friedrich, H; Feineis, D

1992-01-01

329

The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline, and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available. PMID:22125548

Seidl, Stacey E.; Potashkin, Judith A.

2011-01-01

330

Nonmotor Disturbances in Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonmotor disturbances (NMDs) affect most patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and often have a profound impact on their quality of life. NMDs such as depression, anxiety, fatigue, REM sleep behavior disorder, constipation, delayed gastric emptying, altered olfaction and pain can precede the onset of motor symptoms. Other NMDs, including hallucinations, dementia, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, orthostatic hypotension and bladder disturbances,

Claudio L. Bassetti

2011-01-01

331

(1)H NMR-based metabolomics study on a goldfish model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).  

PubMed

A goldfish (Carassius auratus) model of Parkinson's disease (PD) was constructed by a single dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) according to previously reported methods. Global metabolite changes in brain of the MPTP induced goldfish model of PD were investigated. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics combined with various statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) found significant increase of leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, alanylalanine, creatinine, myo-inositol, 18:2 fatty acid, total fatty acids, arachic alcohol, taurine and significant decrease of N-acetylaspartate, (phospho)creatine, (phospho)choline, betaine, glutamine, 3-hexenedioate, acetamide, malonate, isocitrate, scyllo-inositol, phosphatidylcholines, cholesterols, n-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in brain of MPTP induced PD goldfish. These disturbed metabolite levels were involved in oxidative stress, energy failure, neuronal cell injury and death, consistent with those observed in clinical PD patients, and rodents and primates model of PD, indicating that the acute MPTP model of goldfish was an ideal and valuable model for PD research. In addition, several unusual metabolites in brain were significantly changed between MPTP induced PD and control goldfish, which might also play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. This study also demonstrated the applicability and potential of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach for evaluation of animal models of disease induced by chemicals, such as MPTP-induced PD goldfish. PMID:25242684

Lu, Zhaoguang; Wang, Junsong; Li, Minghui; Liu, Qingwang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

2014-09-19

332

Drug-induced Acute Kidney Injury in Children.  

PubMed

Acute kidney injury is a serious problem occurring in anywhere between 8 and 30% of children in the intensive care unit. Up to 25% of these cases are believed to be the result of pharmacotherapy. In this review we have focused on several relevant drugs and/or drug classes, which are known to cause AKI in children, including cancer chemotherapeutics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antimicrobials. AKI demonstrates a steady association with increased long-term risk of poor outcomes including chronic kidney disease and death as determined by the extent of injury. For this reason it is important to understand the causality and implications of these drugs and drug classes. Children occupy a unique patient population, advocating for the importance of understanding how they are affected dissimilarly compared with adults. While the kidney itself is likely more susceptible to injury than other organs, the inherent toxicity of these drugs also plays a major role in the resulting AKI. Mechanisms involved in the toxicity of these drugs include oxidative damage, hypersensitivity reactions, altered hemodynamics and tubule obstruction and may affect the glomerulus and/or the tubules. Understanding these mechanisms is critical in determining the most effective strategies for treatment and/or prevention, whether these strategies are less toxic versions of the same drugs or add-on agents to mitigate the toxic effect of the existing therapy. PMID:25395343

Faught, Lauren N; Greff, Michael Je; Rieder, Michael J; Gideon, Koren

2014-11-13

333

Testing Drugs in Animal Models of Cigarette Smoke-induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) provide potentially useful ways to test drug therapies, either by direct administration of the treatment of interest, or by use of genetically modified animals that mimic the actions of the drug of interest. Evaluation of the potential effects of a drug in animal models requires a long-term (generally 6-mo) smoke

Andrew Churg; Joanne L. Wright

2009-01-01

334

The Protective Effect of Minocycline in a Paraquat-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model in Drosophila is Modified in Altered Genetic Backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies link the herbicide paraquat to increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). We previously reported that Drosophila exposed to paraquat recapitulate PD symptoms, including region-specific degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, exerts ameliorative effects in neurodegenerative disease models, including Drosophila. We investigated whether our environmental toxin-based PD model could contribute to an understanding of cellular and genetic mechanisms of minocycline action and whether we could assess potential interference with these drug effects in altered genetic backgrounds. Cofeeding of minocycline with paraquat prolonged survival, rescued mobility defects, blocked generation of reactive oxygen species, and extended dopaminergic neuron survival, as has been reported previously for a genetic model of PD in Drosophila. We then extended this study to identify potential interactions of minocycline with genes regulating dopamine homeostasis that might modify protection against paraquat and found that deficits in GTP cyclohydrolase adversely affect minocycline rescue. We further performed genetic studies to identify signaling pathways that are necessary for minocycline protection against paraquat toxicity and found that mutations in the Drosophila genes that encode c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt/Protein kinase B block minocycline rescue. PMID:22900232

Inamdar, Arati A.; Chaudhuri, Anathbandhu; O'Donnell, Janis

2012-01-01

335

hERG trafficking inhibition in drug-induced lethal cardiac arrhythmia.  

PubMed

Acquired long QT syndrome induced by non-cardiovascular drugs can cause lethal cardiac arrhythmia called torsades de points and is a significant problem in drug development. The prolongation of QT interval and cardiac action potential duration are mainly due to reduced physiological function of the rapidly activating voltage-dependent potassium channels encoded by human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). Structurally diverse groups of drugs are known to directly inhibit hERG channel conductance. Therefore, the ability of acute hERG inhibition is routinely assessed at the preclinical stages in pharmaceutical testing. Recent findings indicated that chronic treatment with various drugs not only inhibits hERG channels but also decreases hERG channel expression in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes, which has become another concern in safety pharmacology. The mechanisms involve the disruption of hERG trafficking to the surface membrane or the acceleration of hERG protein degradation. From this perspective, we present a brief overview of mechanisms of drug-induced trafficking inhibition and pathological regulation. Understanding of drug-induced hERG trafficking inhibition may provide new strategies for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation and lethal cardiac arrhythmia in pharmaceutical drug development. PMID:24998878

Nogawa, Hisashi; Kawai, Tomoyuki

2014-10-15

336

A case of pulmonary hemorrhage due to drug-induced pneumonitis secondary to ticagrelor therapy.  

PubMed

We report a case of significant pulmonary hemorrhage developing shortly after commencing ticagrelor and aspirin therapy and requiring coronary artery bypass grafting to safely cease the antiplatelet therapy. Lung biopsy findings were consistent with drug-induced lung injury. Clinicians should be aware of this significant adverse event with this drug class. PMID:24590025

Whitmore, Timothy J; O'Shea, John P; Starac, Diana; Edwards, Mark G; Waterer, Grant W

2014-03-01

337

A New Concept for Smart Drug Delivery: Adhesion Induced Nanovector Implosion§  

PubMed Central

In this paper we show that controlling adhesion in highly flexible nanovectors can help in smartly delivering the drug. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only at the target site by the new concept of “adhesion induced nanovector implosion”; a liquid drop analogy is developed for the calculations. PMID:19662144

Pugno, Nicola M

2008-01-01

338

Neurodegenerative Shielding by Curcumin and Its Derivatives on Brain Lesions Induced by 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease in Albino Wistar Rats.  

PubMed

Study was undertaken to evaluate the neurodegenerative defending potential of curcumin (CUR), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) on 6-hydroxydopamine-(6-OHDA) induced Parkinsonism model in rats. Curcuminoids were administered (60?mg/kg, body weight, per oral) for three weeks followed by unilateral injection of 6-OHDA on 22nd day (10??g/2??L) into the right striatum leading to extensive loss of dopaminergic cells. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine (DA), DOPAC, and HVA followed by dopamine (D(2)) receptor binding assay and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, using immunohistochemistry) were evaluated using HPLC after three weeks of lesion. Pretreated animals showed significant protection against neuronal degeneration compared to lesion animals by normalizing the deranged levels of biomarkers and showed the potency in the order CUR > DMC > BDMC. The same order of effectiveness was observed in D(2) receptors binding assay and TH immunohistochemistry study. We conclude that curcuminoids appear to shield progressive neuronal degeneration from increased oxidative attack in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats through its free radical scavenging mechanism, and DA, DOPAC, and HVA enhancing capabilities in the sequence of efficacy CUR > DMC > BDMC. Further, curcuminoids may have potential utility in treatment of many more oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22928089

Agrawal, Shyam Sunder; Gullaiya, Sumeet; Dubey, Vishal; Singh, Varun; Kumar, Ashok; Nagar, Ashish; Tiwari, Poonam

2012-01-01

339

miR-155 mediates drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells via inducing autophagy  

PubMed Central

Frequent acquisition of drug resistance is often associated with the chemotherapy of malignant tumors, including osteosarcoma. A number of studies have demonstrated a critical role for autophagy in osteosarcoma development, therapy and drug resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the autophagy-mediated chemotherapy resistance of osteosarcoma cells remain largely unknown. In the present study, we determined the autophagy and microRNA-155 (miR-155) expression induced by chemotherapeutic drugs in osteosarcoma cells. Then we determined the promotory role of miR-155 to the chemotherapy-induced autophagy. Our results demonstrated that microRNA-155 (miR-155) expression was highly induced during chemotherapy of osteosarcoma cells, and this was accompanied by upregulated autophagy. The increased miR-155 expression levels upregulated anticancer drug-induced autophagy in osteosarcoma cells and ameliorated the anticancer drug-induced cell proliferation and viability decrease. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that miR-155 mediated drug-resistance in osteosarcoma cells by inducing autophagy. The present study recognized a novel mechanism of chemoresistance in osteosarcoma cancers. PMID:25009614

CHEN, LU; JIANG, KE; JIANG, HUA; WEI, PENG

2014-01-01

340

Pathologic Role of Stressed-Induced Glucocorticoids in Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (AILI) in mice is associated with a rise in serum levels of the glucocorticoid (GC), corticosterone. In the current study, we provide evidence that endogenous GC play a pathologic role in AILI. Specifically, pretreatment of mice with the GC receptor (GCR) inhibitor, RU486 (mifepristrone), protected normal but not adrenalectomized mice from AILI, while pretreatment with dexamethasone, a synthetic GC, exacerbated AILI. RU486 did not affect the depletion of whole liver reduced GSH or the formation of APAP-protein adducts. It also had no effects on the formation of reactive oxygen species or the depletion of mitochondrial GSH or ATP. While RU486 pretreatment also protected against halothane-induced liver injury, it exacerbated concanavalin A (ConA)- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury, demonstrating the complexity of GC effects in different types of liver injury. Conclusion: These results suggest that under certain conditions, elevated levels of GC might represent a previously unappreciated risk factor for liver injury caused by APAP and other drugs through the diverse biological processes regulated by GCR. PMID:20510877

Masson, Mary Jane; Collins, Lindsay A.; Carpenter, Leah D.; Graf, Mary L.; Ryan, Pauline M.; Bourdi, Mohammed; Pohl, Lance R.

2010-01-01

341

Histone Hyperacetylation Up-regulates Protein Kinase C? in Dopaminergic Neurons to Induce Cell Death: RELEVANCE TO EPIGENETIC MECHANISMS OF NEURODEGENERATION IN PARKINSON DISEASE.  

PubMed

The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase C? (PKC?) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKC? expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKC? gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKC? expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKC? promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKC? promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKC? promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKC? up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKC? up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKC? sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKC? expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease. PMID:25342743

Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

2014-12-12

342

Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson's rats  

PubMed Central

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a synapse-enriched kinase in mammalian brains. This kinase interacts with various synaptic proteins to regulate expression and function of interacting proteins and thereby modulates synaptic transmission. CaMKII and its interacting partners are also believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we found that CaMKII? binds to dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in vitro. A distal region in the D2R third intracellular loop harbors CaMKII? binding. Endogenous CaMKII? was also found to interact with native D2Rs in rat striatal neurons in which D2Rs are expressed at a high level. In addition, in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned model of PD, chronic levodopa administration induced characteristic dyskinesia. In parallel, levodopa induced an increase in CaMKII?-D2R interactions in striatal neurons. Intrastriatal injection of a Tat-fusion and CaMKII?-D2R interaction-dead peptide (Tat-D2Ri) reversed this increase in the interaction between two proteins. Tat-D2Ri also alleviated dyskinetic behaviors induced by levodopa. These results reveal a new interaction between CaMKII? and D2Rs in striatal neurons which is sensitive to long-term administration of levodopa in PD rats. Prevention of the response of CaMKII?-D2R interactions to levodopa can alleviate levodopa-induced dyskinesia. PMID:25351365

Zhang, SuFang; Xie, ChengLong; Wang, Qiang; Liu, ZhenGuo

2014-01-01

343

Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson's rats.  

PubMed

Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a synapse-enriched kinase in mammalian brains. This kinase interacts with various synaptic proteins to regulate expression and function of interacting proteins and thereby modulates synaptic transmission. CaMKII and its interacting partners are also believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we found that CaMKII? binds to dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in vitro. A distal region in the D2R third intracellular loop harbors CaMKII? binding. Endogenous CaMKII? was also found to interact with native D2Rs in rat striatal neurons in which D2Rs are expressed at a high level. In addition, in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned model of PD, chronic levodopa administration induced characteristic dyskinesia. In parallel, levodopa induced an increase in CaMKII?-D2R interactions in striatal neurons. Intrastriatal injection of a Tat-fusion and CaMKII?-D2R interaction-dead peptide (Tat-D2Ri) reversed this increase in the interaction between two proteins. Tat-D2Ri also alleviated dyskinetic behaviors induced by levodopa. These results reveal a new interaction between CaMKII? and D2Rs in striatal neurons which is sensitive to long-term administration of levodopa in PD rats. Prevention of the response of CaMKII?-D2R interactions to levodopa can alleviate levodopa-induced dyskinesia. PMID:25351365

Zhang, SuFang; Xie, ChengLong; Wang, Qiang; Liu, ZhenGuo

2014-01-01

344

Synthesis of walking sounds for alleviating gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Managing gait disturbances in people with Parkinson's disease is a pressing challenge, as symptoms can contribute to injury and morbidity through an increased risk of falls. While drug-based interventions have limited efficacy in alleviating gait impairments, certain nonpharmacological methods, such as cueing, can also induce transient improvements to gait. The approach adopted here is to use computationally-generated sounds to help guide and improve walking actions. The first method described uses recordings of force data taken from the steps of a healthy adult which in turn were used to synthesize realistic gravel-footstep sounds that represented different spatio-temporal parameters of gait, such as step duration and step length. The second method described involves a novel method of sonifying, in real time, the swing phase of gait using real-time motion-capture data to control a sound synthesis engine. Both approaches explore how simple but rich auditory representations of action based events can be used by people with Parkinson's to guide and improve the quality of their walking, reducing the risk of falls and injury. Studies with Parkinson's disease patients are reported which show positive results for both techniques in reducing step length variability. Potential future directions for how these sound approaches can be used to manage gait disturbances in Parkinson's are also discussed. PMID:24235275

Rodger, Matthew W M; Young, William R; Craig, Cathy M

2014-05-01

345

Poly (ADP-ribose) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

The defining feature of Parkinson’s disease is a progressive and selective demise of dopaminergic neurons. A recent report on Parkinson’s disease animal model demonstrates that poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) dependent cell death, also named parthanatos, is accountable for selective dopaminergic neuronal loss. Parthanatos is a programmed necrotic cell death, characterized by PARP1 activation, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation, and large scale DNA fragmentation. Besides cell death regulation via interaction with AIF, PAR molecule mediates diverse cellular processes including genomic stability, cell division, transcription, epigenetic regulation, and stress granule formation. In this review, we will discuss the roles of PARP1 activation and PAR molecules in the pathological processes of Parkinson’s disease. Potential interaction between PAR molecule and Parkinson’s disease protein interactome are briefly introduced. Finally, we suggest promising points of therapeutic intervention in the pathological PAR signaling cascade to halt progression in Parkinson’s disease. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 424-432] PMID:24874851

Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Kim, Young Pil; Shin, Joo-Ho

2014-01-01

346

The History of Parkinson's Disease: Early Clinical Descriptions and Neurological Therapies  

PubMed Central

Although components of possible Parkinson's disease can be found in very early documents, the first clear medical description was written in 1817 by James Parkinson. In the mid-1800s, Jean-Martin Charcot was particularly influential in refining and expanding this early description and in disseminating information internationally about Parkinson's disease. He separated Parkinson's disease from multiple sclerosis and other disorders characterized by tremor, and he recognized cases that later would likely be classified among the Parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Early treatments of Parkinson's disease were based on empirical observation, and anticholinergic drugs were used as early as the nineteenth century. The discovery of dopaminergic deficits in Parkinson's disease and the synthetic pathway of dopamine led to the first human trials of levodopa. Further historically important anatomical, biochemical, and physiological studies identified additional pharmacological and neurosurgical targets for Parkinson's disease and allow modern clinicians to offer an array of therapies aimed at improving function in this still incurable disease. PMID:22229124

Goetz, Christopher G.

2011-01-01

347

The history of Parkinson's disease: early clinical descriptions and neurological therapies.  

PubMed

Although components of possible Parkinson's disease can be found in very early documents, the first clear medical description was written in 1817 by James Parkinson. In the mid-1800s, Jean-Martin Charcot was particularly influential in refining and expanding this early description and in disseminating information internationally about Parkinson's disease. He separated Parkinson's disease from multiple sclerosis and other disorders characterized by tremor, and he recognized cases that later would likely be classified among the Parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Early treatments of Parkinson's disease were based on empirical observation, and anticholinergic drugs were used as early as the nineteenth century. The discovery of dopaminergic deficits in Parkinson's disease and the synthetic pathway of dopamine led to the first human trials of levodopa. Further historically important anatomical, biochemical, and physiological studies identified additional pharmacological and neurosurgical targets for Parkinson's disease and allow modern clinicians to offer an array of therapies aimed at improving function in this still incurable disease. PMID:22229124

Goetz, Christopher G

2011-09-01

348

The neuropsychiatry of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The neuropsychiatry of Parkinson's disease (PD) and its correlates are reviewed. Dementia occurs in up to 30% and can be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors. Cognitive impairments involve executive, visuospatial, attentional, and memory dysfunctions. Apathy may respond to dopamine agonists or cholines-terase inhibitors. Cognitive impairment, psychosis, and depression predict quality of life. Visual hallucinations and paranoia are common, and respond to low dose clozapine. Depression is common and predicts caregiver burden and depression. The best data suggest the efficacy of nortriptyline and the safety of SSRIs. Anxiety disorders occur in 40% of patients, especially off-period panic attacks and specific phobias. Bromazepam has proven useful for anxiety in PD, but buspirone has only diminished drug-induced dyskinesias to date. Sleep disorders occur in up to 94% of patients. Insomnia is common and is treated by dopaminergic agent dose reduction, nocturnal dosing, treatment of depression, or use of short half-lived hypnotics, depending on etiology. Parasomnias include REM behavior disorder and vivid dreams and nightmares. Excessive daytime somnolence occurs in at least 15% of patients. Sleep attacks are common and patients should be warned about driving when taking dopamine agonists. Sexual disorders occur in most patients. Paraphilias are associated with dopamine agonists, and clozapine may be useful in their treatment. Surgical therapies are associated with a wide variety of neuropsychiatric features, and vigilance for suicide attempts with subthalamic nucleus stimulation seems warranted. Neuropsychiatric disorders are important determinants of quality of life and caregiver burden in PD. More clinical research is needed to establish effective treatments. PMID:16175159

Lauterbach, E C

2005-06-01

349

Acetaldehyde and parkinsonism: role of CYP450 2E1  

PubMed Central

The present review update the relationship between acetaldehyde (ACE) and parkinsonism with a specific focus on the role of P450 system and CYP 2E1 isozyme particularly. We have indicated that ACE is able to enhance the parkinsonism induced in mice by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a neurotoxin able to damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Similarly diethyldithiocarbamate, the main metabolite of disulfiram, a drug widely used to control alcoholism, diallylsulfide (DAS) and phenylisothiocyanate also markedly enhance the toxin-related parkinsonism. All these compounds are substrate/inhibitors of CYP450 2E1 isozyme. The presence of CYP 2E1 has been detected in the dopamine (DA) neurons of rodent Substantia Nigra (SN), but a precise function of the enzyme has not been elucidated yet. By treating CYP 2E1 knockout (KO) mice with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, the SN induced lesion was significantly reduced when compared with the lesion observed in wild-type animals. Several in vivo and in vitro studies led to the conclusion that CYP 2E1 may enhance the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice by increasing free radical production inside the dopaminergic neurons. ACE is a good substrate for CYP 2E1 enzyme as the other substrate-inhibitors and by this way may facilitate the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to toxic events. The literature suggests that ethanol and/or disulfiram may be responsible for toxic parkinsonism in human and it indicates that basal ganglia are the major targets of disulfiram toxicity. A very recent study reports that there are a decreased methylation of the CYP 2E1 gene and increased expression of CYP 2E1 mRNA in Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. This study suggests that epigenetic variants of this cytochrome contribute to the susceptibility, thus confirming multiples lines of evidence which indicate a link between environmental toxins and PD. PMID:23801948

Vaglini, Francesca; Viaggi, Cristina; Piro, Valentina; Pardini, Carla; Gerace, Claudio; Scarselli, Marco; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

2013-01-01

350

Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-OHDA induces oxidative damage through proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease  

SciTech Connect

The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 {mu}M) for 24 h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the free radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 {mu}M) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 {mu}M). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKC{delta}{sup D327A} and kinase dead PKC{delta}{sup K376R} or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC{delta} protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKC{delta} expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKC{delta} cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKC{delta}{sup D327A} protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKC{delta} activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value for development of novel treatment strategies for PD.

Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Kanthasamy, Arthi, E-mail: arthik@iastate.edu

2011-11-15

351

Modeling the Parkinson's tremor and its treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss modeling issues of the Parkinson's tremor. Through the work we have employed physiological structure as well as functioning of the parts in brain that are involved in the disease. To obtain more practical similarity, random behaviors of the connection paths are also considered. Medication or treatment of the disease both by drug prescription and electrical

Mohammad Haeri; Yashar Sarbaz; Shahriar Gharibzadeh

2005-01-01

352

Tat-fused recombinant human SAG prevents dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model.  

PubMed

Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from abnormal cellular process lead to various human diseases such as inflammation, ischemia, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), a RING-FINGER protein, has anti-apoptotic activity and anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigate whether Tat-SAG, fused with a Tat domain, could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that, unlike SAG, Tat-SAG transduced efficiently into SH-SY5Y cells and into the brain, respectively. Tat-SAG remarkably suppressed ROS generation, DNA damage, and the progression of apoptosis, caused by MPP(+) in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, immunohistochemical data using a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and cresyl violet staining demonstrated that Tat-SAG obviously protected DA neurons in the SN against MPTP toxicity in a PD mouse model. Tat-SAG-treated mice showed significant enhanced motor activities, compared to SAG- or Tat-treated mice. Therefore, our results suggest that Tat-SAG has potential as a therapeutic agent against ROS-related diseases such as PD. PMID:24625574

Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Kim, Dae Won; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

2014-03-01

353

A fixed-dose randomized controlled trial of olanzapine for psychosis in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychosis is a common and debilitating side effect of long-term dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). While clozapine is an effective treatment, the need for blood monitoring has limited its first-line use.  Objective: Since olanzapine shows similar receptor affinity to clozapine, we hypothesized that it might be an effective alternative to clozapine for treatment of drug-induced psychosis (DIP) in PD, and that lower doses than usual might make it tolerable. Methods: In 1998-2003 we conducted a four-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, fixed-dose trial of olanzapine (0, 2.5mg, or 5mg) in 23 PD patients with DIP while allowing for clinically realistic dose adjustments of dopaminomimetic mid-study. The primary outcome measures were Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) ratings scored from videotaped interviews after study termination by an observer blinded to dose assignment and to interview timing, and CGI (Clinical Global Impression). The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor subscale (UPDRS) was the primary measure of tolerability. Results: Intention-to-treat analysis found no significant differences among treatment groups in study completion or serious adverse events. However, a disproportionate number of olanzapine vs. placebo subjects reported mild side effects (p<0.04), many citing motor worsening. Fourteen patients completed the study (seven on placebo, two on 2.5mg olanzapine, five on 5mg olanzapine). In study completers, analysis by repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant difference between olanzapine and placebo groups in BPRS psychosis reduction (p=0.536), parkinsonism (p=0.608), or any other measured parameters (CGI, MMSE, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression score, PDQ?39, Schwab-England ADL assessment, and sleep scores). Conclusion: This study adds to other evidence that olanzapine is ineffective in treating medication-induced psychosis in Parkinson disease. PMID:24627787

Black, Kevin J

2013-01-01

354

Cross-drug resistance to sunitinib induced by doxorubicin in endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Multiple drug resistance remains an unsolved problem in cancer therapy. A previous study has demonstrated that the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (Dox) induced upregulation of P-glycoprotein in endothelial cells, resulting in a 20-fold increase in drug resistance and reduced efficiency of doxorubicin treatment in a mouse tumor model. In the present study, the cross-resistance and sensitivity of HMECd1 and HMECd2 established cell lines to anti-angiogenic drugs, particularly sunitinib, was explored. The results revealed that Dox treatment induced a significant increase in the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) gene transcription and protein expression. This increase gave rise to a 4- to 5-fold increase in the half maximal inhibitory concentration of the HMECd1 and HMECd2 cells in response to sunitinib treatment in vitro. Functionally, the role of ABCG2 in the resistance to sunitinib was confirmed by the use of the ABCG2 inhibitors fumitremorgin C and diethylstilbestrol, which blocked cell resistance. The present study indicates that endothelial cells exhibit cross-resistance between cytotoxic drugs and anti-angiogenic drugs. This suggests that multiple drug resistance induced by chemotherapy in endothelial cells may affect the efficiency of anti-angiogenic drugs. PMID:25663899

HUANG, LIMIN; HU, CHAOQUAN; DI BENEDETTO, MÉLANIE; VARIN, RÉMI; LIU, JIELIN; JIN, JIAN; WANG, LI; VANNIER, JEAN-PIERRE; JANIN, ANNE; LU, HE; LI, HONG

2015-01-01

355

Drug-induced anaemia: a decade review of reporting to the Italian Pharmacovigilance data-base.  

PubMed

Background Studies investigating drug-induced anaemia are relatively scarce and mostly related to specific drugs or patients with specific pathologies. Objective To analyse all reports of suspected drug-induced anaemias recorded in the National Pharmacovigilance Database of the Italian Medicines Agency. Method The cases of suspected drug-induced anaemias analysed were those retrieved from the Italian National Pharmacovigilance Database from January 2001 to December 2013. Results The active substances involved were 375 in 3,305 reports of drug-induced anaemia; of these, 72 % were reported as serious. In 35 % of the reports patients were in polytherapy. In 24.3 % of the cases relevant DDIs were identified. We found a PRR value of 57.29 for peginterferon alfa-2a, of 12.57 for ribavirin, of 13 for flu vaccine for the occurrence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. The drugs mostly involved in the cases where the Naranjo causality was probable or possible were acetylsalicylic acid, warfarin, ribavirin, peginterferon alfa-2a, carboplatin and acenocoumarol. Conclusions A possible signal was detected for peginterferon alfa-2a, ribavirin and flu vaccine in the occurrence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. A great involvement of clopidogrel, enoxaparin, warfarin, ticlopidine and acetylsalicylic acid in preventable DDI-induced anaemia was detected, highlighting a poor awareness among healthcare providers on this issue. PMID:25515616

Carnovale, Carla; Brusadelli, Tatiana; Casini, Maria Luisa; Renda, Francesca; Ruggieri, Sara; Pimpinella, Giuseppe; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

2015-02-01

356

Drug induced QT prolongation: the measurement and assessment of the QT interval in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

There has been an increasing focus on drug induced QT prolongation including research on drug development and QT prolongation, following the removal of drugs due to torsades de pointes (TdP). Although this has improved our understanding of drug-induced QT prolongation there has been much less research aimed at helping clinicians assess risk in individual patients with drug induced QT prolongation. This review will focus on assessment of drug-induced QT prolongation in clinical practice using a simple risk assessment approach. Accurate measurement of the QT interval is best done manually, and not using the measurement of standard ECG machines. Correction for heart rate (HR) using correction formulae such as Bazett's is often inaccurate. These formulae underestimate and overestimate the duration of cardiac repolarization at low and high heart rates, respectively. Numerous cut-offs have been suggested as an indicator of an abnormal QT, but are problematic in clinical practice. An alternative approach is the QT nomogram which is a plot of QT?vs. HR. The nomogram has an ‘at risk’ line and QT-HR pairs above this line have been shown in a systematic study to be associated with TdP and the line is more sensitive and specific than Bazett's QTc of 440 ms or 500 ms. Plotting the QT-HR pair for patients on drugs suspected or known to cause QT prolongation allows assessment of the QT interval based on normal population QT variability. This risk assessment then allows the safer commencement of drugs therapeutically or management of drug induced effects in overdose. PMID:23167578

Isbister, Geoffrey K; Page, Colin B

2013-01-01

357

Heat Shock Protein-70 (Hsp-70) Suppresses Paraquat-Induced Neurodegeneration by Inhibiting JNK and Caspase-3 Activation in Drosophila Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders with limited clinical interventions. A number of epidemiological as well as case-control studies have revealed an association between pesticide exposure, especially of paraquat (PQ) and occurrence of PD. Hsp70, a molecular chaperone by function, has been shown as one of the modulators of neurological disorders. However, paucity of information regarding the protective role of Hsp70 on PQ-induced PD like symptoms led us to hypothesize that modulation of hsp70 expression in the dopaminergic neurons would improve the health of these cells. We took advantage of Drosophila, which is a well-established model for neurological research and also possesses genetic tools for easy manipulation of gene expression with limited ethical concern. Over-expression of hsp70 was found to reduce PQ-induced oxidative stress along with JNK and caspase-3 mediated dopaminergic neuronal cell death in exposed organism. Further, anti-apoptotic effect of hsp70 was shown to confer better homeostasis in the dopaminergic neurons of PQ-exposed organism as evidenced by their improved locomotor performance and survival. The study has merit in the context of human concern since we observed protection of dopaminergic neurons in PQ-exposed organism by over-expressing a human homologue of hsp70, HSPA1L, in these cells. The effect was parallel to that observed with Drosophila hsp70. These findings reflect the potential therapeutic applicability of hsp70 against PQ-induced PD like symptoms in an organism. PMID:24887138

Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Pragya, Prakash; Chaouhan, Hitesh Singh; Tiwari, Anand Krishna; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

2014-01-01

358

Methylparaben protects 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and improved behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. Considerable evidence suggests that free radical formation and oxidative stress might play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present investigation we evaluated the therapeutic potential of methylparaben (MP) a well known pharmaceutical preservative against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and in a mouse model of PD. At nanomolar concentrations MP (0.01, 0.1 and 1 nM) significantly attenuated the 6-OHDA- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The reactive oxygen species generated by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells was also inhibited by MP in a concentration dependent fashion. Further, intranigral damage induced by stereotaxically injecting 6-OHDA in mouse brain was significantly attenuated by MP treatment. MP (1, 10 or 50 ?g/kg, i.p.) prevented apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and significantly improved motor deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. The cognitive impairments as evaluated by passive avoidance and Y-maze task in mice were also attenuated by MP concentration dependently. Immunohistochemical analysis of substantia nigra in MP treated mice showed significantly higher number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells. Furthermore, MP also suppressed the lipid peroxidation products in 6-OHDA-lesioned mouse brain tissues. Considering the results obtained, the marked neuroprotection exhibited by MP might be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. In conclusion, this study reports the neuroprotective properties of MP in experimental models of PD for the first time and can be developed as a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:23068419

Kopalli, Spandana Rajendra; Noh, Su-Jin; Koppula, Sushruta; Suh, Yoo-Hun

2013-01-01

359

Dimethyl fumarate attenuates 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and in animal model of Parkinson's disease by enhancing Nrf2 activity.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is central to the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), and therapeutics designed to enhance antioxidant potential could have clinical value. In this study, we investigated whether dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has therapeutic effects in cellular and animal model of PD, and explore the role of nuclear transcription factor related to NF-E2 (Nrf2) in this process. Treatment of animals and dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells with DMF resulted in increased nuclear levels of active Nrf2, with subsequent upregulation of antioxidant target genes. The cytotoxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was reduced by pre-treatment with DMF in SH-SY5Y cells. The increase in the reactive oxygen species caused by 6-OHDA treatment was also attenuated by DMF in SH-SY5Y cells. The neuroprotective effects of DMF against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity were dependent on Nrf2, since treatment with Nrf2 siRNA failed to block against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and induce Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective genes in SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo, DMF oral administration was shown to upregulate mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated cytoprotective genes, attenuate 6-OHDA induced striatal oxidative stress and inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, DMF ameliorated dopaminergic neurotoxicity in 6-OHDA-induced PD animal models as evidenced by amelioration of locomotor dysfunction, loss in striatal dopamine, and reductions in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that DMF may be beneficial for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like PD. PMID:25449120

Jing, X; Shi, H; Zhang, C; Ren, M; Han, M; Wei, X; Zhang, X; Lou, H

2015-02-12

360

Parkinson’s disease: carbidopa, nausea, and dyskinesia  

PubMed Central

When l-dopa use began in the early 1960s for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, nausea and reversible dyskinesias were experienced as continuing side effects. Carbidopa or benserazide was added to l-dopa in 1975 solely to control nausea. Subsequent to the increasing use of carbidopa has been the recognition of irreversible dyskinesias, which have automatically been attributed to l-dopa. The research into the etiology of these phenomena has identified the causative agent of the irreversible dyskinesias as carbidopa, not l-dopa. The mechanism of action of the carbidopa and benserazide causes irreversible binding and inactivation of vitamin B6 throughout the body. The consequences of this action are enormous, interfering with over 300 enzyme and protein functions. This has the ability to induce previously undocumented profound antihistamine dyskinesias, which have been wrongly attributed to l-dopa and may be perceived as irreversible if proper corrective action is not taken. PMID:25484598

Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Cole, Ted

2014-01-01

361

A simple transcriptomic signature able to predict drug-induced hepatic steatosis.  

PubMed

It is estimated that only a few marketed drugs are able to directly induce liver steatosis. However, many other drugs may exacerbate or precipitate fatty liver in the presence of other risk factors or in patients prone to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, current in vitro tests for drug-induced steatosis in preclinical research are scarce and not very sensitive or reproducible. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of well-characterized steatotic drugs on the expression profile of 47 transcription factors (TFs) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and found that these drugs are able to up- and down-regulate a substantial number of these factors. Multivariate data analysis revealed a common TF signature for steatotic drugs, which consistently and significantly repressed FOXA1, HEX and SREBP1C in cultured cells. This signature was also observed in the livers of rats and in cultured human hepatocytes. Therefore, we selected these three TFs as predictive biomarkers for iatrogenic steatosis. With these biomarkers, a logistic regression analysis yielded a predictive model, which was able to correctly classify 92 % of drugs. The developed algorithm also predicted that ibuprofen, nifedipine and irinotecan are potential steatotic drugs, whereas troglitazone is not. In summary, this is a sensitive, specific and simple RT-PCR test that can be easily implemented in preclinical drug development to predict drug-induced steatosis. Our results also indicate that steatotic drugs affect expression of both common and specific subsets of TF and lipid metabolism genes, thus generating complex transcriptomic responses that cause or contribute to steatosis in hepatocytes. PMID:24469900

Benet, Marta; Moya, Marta; Donato, M Teresa; Lahoz, Agustín; Hervás, David; Guzmán, Carla; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Castell, José Vicente; Jover, Ramiro

2014-04-01

362

Patterned, but not tonic, optogenetic stimulation in motor thalamus improves reaching in acute drug-induced parkinsonian rats.  

PubMed

High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) in motor thalamus (Mthal) ameliorates tremor but not akinesia in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are effective methods of Mthal stimulation to treat akinesia. Glutamatergic Mthal neurons, transduced with channelrhodopsin-2 by injection of lentiviral vector (Lenti.CaMKII.hChR2(H134R).mCherry), were selectively stimulated with blue light (473 nm) via a chronically implanted fiber-optic probe. Rats performed a reach-to-grasp task in either acute drug-induced parkinsonian akinesia (0.03-0.07 mg/kg haloperidol, s.c.) or control (vehicle injection) conditions, and the number of reaches was recorded for 5 min before, during, and after stimulation. We compared the effect of DBS using complex physiological patterns previously recorded in the Mthal of a control rat during reaching or exploring behavior, with tonic DBS delivering the same number of stimuli per second (rate-control 6.2 or 1.8 Hz, respectively) and with stimulation patterns commonly used in other brain regions to treat neurological conditions (tonic 130 Hz, theta burst (TBS), and tonic 15 Hz rate-control for TBS). Control rats typically executed >150 reaches per 5 min, which was unaffected by any of the stimulation patterns. Acute parkinsonian rats executed <20 reaches, displaying marked akinesia, which was significantly improved by stimulating with the physiological reaching pattern or TBS (both p < 0.05), whereas the exploring and all tonic patterns failed to improve reaching. Data indicate that the Mthal may be an effective site to treat akinesia, but the pattern of stimulation is critical for improving reaching in parkinsonian rats. PMID:25609635

Seeger-Armbruster, Sonja; Bosch-Bouju, Clémentine; Little, Shane T C; Smither, Roseanna A; Hughes, Stephanie M; Hyland, Brian I; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C

2015-01-21

363

Amelioration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced behavioural dysfunction and oxidative stress by Pycnogenol in mouse model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Increased oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease in which dopaminergic neurons are intrinsically susceptible to oxidative damage. Swiss albino mice were pretreated with Pycnogenol (PYC), an extract of Pinus maritime bark [20 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] once daily for 15 days. Thereafter, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (20 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) was given four times at 2-hour intervals on 1 day only. Behaviours were altered in the MPTP group as compared with the vehicle-treated group and were restored in the PYC-pretreated MPTP group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of glutathione were significantly depleted in the MPTP-induced Parkinsonian group. The MPTP group pretreated with PYC showed significant protection of the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content when compared with the vehicle-treated MPTP group. A significantly elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the MPTP group was decreased significantly in the animals pretreated with PYC. An increase in the number of dopaminergic D2 receptors and decrease in the level of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid in the striatum were observed after MPTP injection, and restored significantly after PYC pretreatment. Thus, PYC may be used to prevent or reduce the deterioration caused by free radicals, thereby preventing subsequent behavioural and biochemical changes that occur in Parkinsonian mice. PMID:20657266

Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Hoda, Md Nasrul; Ishrat, Tauheed; Ahmad, Ajmal; Khan, Mohammad Badruzzaman; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Raza, Syed Shadab; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

2010-09-01

364

Association of Cerebrospinal Fluid ?-Amyloid 1-42, T-tau, P-tau181, and ?-Synuclein Levels With Clinical Features of Drug-Naive Patients With Early Parkinson Disease  

PubMed Central

Importance We observed a significant correlation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau proteins and ?-synuclein, but not ?-amyloid 1–42 (A?1–42), and lower concentration of CSF biomarkers, as compared with healthy controls, in a cohort of entirely untreated patients with Parkinson disease (PD) at the earliest stage of the disease studied so far. Objective To evaluate the baseline characteristics and relationship to clinical features of CSF biomarkers (A?1–42, total tau [T-tau], tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 [P-tau181], and ?-synuclein) in drug-naive patients with early PD and demographically matched healthy controls enrolled in the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional study of the initial 102 research volunteers (63 patients with PD and 39 healthy controls) of the PPMI cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The CSF biomarkers were measured by INNO-BIA AlzBio3 immunoassay (A?1–42, T-tau, and P-tau181; Innogenetics Inc) or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (?-synuclein). Clinical features including diagnosis, demographic characteristics, motor, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive assessments, and DaTscan were systematically assessed according to the PPMI study protocol. Results Slightly, but significantly, lower levels of A?1–42, T-tau, P-tau181, ?-synuclein, and T-tau/A?1–42 were seen in subjects with PD compared with healthy controls but with a marked overlap between groups. Using multivariate regression analysis, we found that lower A?1–42 and P-tau181 levels were associated with PD diagnosis and that decreased CSF T-tau and ?-synuclein were associated with increased motor severity. Notably, when we classified patients with PD by their motor phenotypes, lower CSF A?1–42 and P-tau181 concentrations were associated with the postural instability–gait disturbance–dominant phenotype but not with the tremor-dominant or intermediate phenotype. Finally, we found a significant correlation of the levels of ?-synuclein with the levels of T-tau and P-tau181. Conclusions and Relevance In this first report of CSF biomarkers in PPMI study subjects, we found that measures of CSF A?1–42, T-tau, P-tau181, and ?-synuclein have prognostic and diagnostic potential in early-stage PD. Further investigations using the entire PPMI cohort will test the predictive performance of CSF biomarkers for PD progression. PMID:23979011

Kang, Ju-Hee; Irwin, David J.; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Siderowf, Andrew; Caspell, Chelsea; Coffey, Christopher S.; Waligórska, Teresa; Taylor, Peggy; Pan, Sarah; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Kieburtz, Karl; Jennings, Danna; Simuni, Tanya; Tanner, Caroline M.; Singleton, Andrew; Toga, Arthur W.; Chowdhury, Sohini; Mollenhauer, Brit; Trojanowski, John Q.; Shaw, Leslie M.

2014-01-01

365

[Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease].  

PubMed

Of the patients having Parkinson's disease, up to third encounters some degree of impulse control problems and one out of seven suffers from true impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping and binge eating. Dopaminergic drugs used in anti-Parkinson therapy, especially dopamine agonists, increase the risk of these disorders. Impulse control disorders are associated with a relatively more active dopamine-mediated neurotransmission of the mesolimbic and mesocortical system. Discontinuation of dopamine agonist medication can thus be considered as the first line treatment of these disorders. PMID:24397147

Joutsa, Juho; Kaasinen, Valtteri

2013-01-01

366

Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, a wealth of animal and human studies has implicated inflammation-derived oxidative stress and\\u000a cytokine-dependent neurotoxicity in the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, the hallmark of\\u000a Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this review, we discuss the various hypotheses regarding the role of microglia and other immune\\u000a cells in PD pathogenesis and progression, the inflammatory mechanisms

Jae-Kyung Lee; Thi Tran; Malú G. Tansey

2009-01-01

367

Treatment of Early Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of early Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves the treatment of motor symptoms, and, increasingly, non-motor symptoms. Given the fast pace of clinical research in PD, clinicians are faced with the challenge of integrating the latest findings into the ongoing care of individual PD patients. Part 1 of this 2-part article reviews efficacy and safety data for the newest PD

Tanya Simuni; Kelly E. Lyons; Rajesh Pahwa; Robert A. Hauser; Cynthia Comella; Lawrence Elmer; Daniel Weintraub

2009-01-01

368

Drug-Induced Gambling: Valid Excuse of True Addiction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It sounds crazy that a drug can cause a person to voluntarily risk a sum of money based on the outcome of a game or event. This 'behavior' is known as gambling: a game in which a person chooses to wager money in hopes of winning more money. This allegation has become quite popular lately, with the buzz surrounding a

Lareina Maskell

369

Tolerance to drug-induced cell death favours the acquisition of multidrug resistance in Leishmania  

PubMed Central

The control of the protozoan parasite Leishmania relies on few drugs with unknown cellular targets and unclear mode of action. Several antileishmanials, however, were shown to induce apoptosis in Leishmania and this death mechanism was further studied in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Leishmania infantum. In sensitive parasites, antimonials (SbIII), miltefosine (MF) and amphotericin B (AMB), but not paromomycin (PARO), triggered apoptotic cell death associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, Leishmania mutants resistant to SbIII, MF or AMB not only failed to undergo apoptosis following exposure to their respective drugs, but also were more tolerant towards apoptosis induced by other antileishmanials, provided that these killed Leishmania via ROS production. Such tolerance favored the rapid acquisition of multidrug resistance. PARO killed Leishmania in a non-apoptotic manner and failed to produce ROS. PARO resistance neither protected against drug-induced apoptosis nor provided an increased rate of acquisition of resistance to other antileishmanials. However, the PARO-resistant mutant, but not SbIII-, MF- or AMB-resistant mutants, became rapidly cross-resistant to methotrexate, a model drug also not producing ROS. Our results therefore link the mode of killing of drugs to tolerance to cell death and to a facilitated emergence of multidrug resistance. These findings may have fundamental implications in the field of chemotherapeutic interventions. PMID:21881603

Moreira, W; Leprohon, P; Ouellette, M

2011-01-01

370

The clinically approved drugs dasatinib and bosutinib induce anti-inflammatory macrophages by inhibiting the salt-inducible kinases.  

PubMed

Macrophages switch to an anti-inflammatory, 'regulatory'-like phenotype characterized by the production of high levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to promote the resolution of inflammation. A potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases would be to administer drugs that could induce the formation of 'regulatory'-like macrophages at sites of inflammation. In the present study, we demonstrate that the clinically approved cancer drugs bosutinib and dasatinib induce several hallmark features of 'regulatory'-like macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with bosutinib or dasatinib elevates the production of IL-10 while suppressing the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. Moreover, macrophages treated with bosutinib or dasatinib express higher levels of markers of 'regulatory'-like macrophages including LIGHT, SPHK1 and arginase 1. Bosutinib and dasatinib were originally developed as inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinases Bcr-Abl and Src but we show that, surprisingly, the effects of bosutinib and dasatinib on macrophage polarization are the result of the inhibition of the salt-inducible kinases. Consistent with the present finding, bosutinib and dasatinib induce the dephosphorylation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 3 (CRTC3) and its nuclear translocation where it induces a cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene transcription programme including that of IL-10. Importantly, these effects of bosutinib and dasatinib on IL-10 gene expression are lost in macrophages expressing a drug-resistant mutant of salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2). In conclusion, our study identifies the salt-inducible kinases as major targets of bosutinib and dasatinib that mediate the effects of these drugs on the innate immune system and provides novel mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory properties of these drugs. PMID:25351958

Ozanne, James; Prescott, Alan R; Clark, Kristopher

2015-01-15

371

The clinically approved drugs dasatinib and bosutinib induce anti-inflammatory macrophages by inhibiting the salt-inducible kinases  

PubMed Central

Macrophages switch to an anti-inflammatory, ‘regulatory’-like phenotype characterized by the production of high levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to promote the resolution of inflammation. A potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases would be to administer drugs that could induce the formation of ‘regulatory’-like macrophages at sites of inflammation. In the present study, we demonstrate that the clinically approved cancer drugs bosutinib and dasatinib induce several hallmark features of ‘regulatory’-like macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with bosutinib or dasatinib elevates the production of IL-10 while suppressing the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. Moreover, macrophages treated with bosutinib or dasatinib express higher levels of markers of ‘regulatory’-like macrophages including LIGHT, SPHK1 and arginase 1. Bosutinib and dasatinib were originally developed as inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinases Bcr-Abl and Src but we show that, surprisingly, the effects of bosutinib and dasatinib on macrophage polarization are the result of the inhibition of the salt-inducible kinases. Consistent with the present finding, bosutinib and dasatinib induce the dephosphorylation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 3 (CRTC3) and its nuclear translocation where it induces a cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene transcription programme including that of IL-10. Importantly, these effects of bosutinib and dasatinib on IL-10 gene expression are lost in macrophages expressing a drug-resistant mutant of salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2). In conclusion, our study identifies the salt-inducible kinases as major targets of bosutinib and dasatinib that mediate the effects of these drugs on the innate immune system and provides novel mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory properties of these drugs. PMID:25351958

Ozanne, James; Prescott, Alan R.; Clark, Kristopher

2014-01-01

372

Antipsychotic drugs rapidly induce dopamine neuron depolarization block in a developmental rat model of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Repeated administration of antipsychotic drugs to normal rats has been shown to induce a state of dopamine neuron inactivation known as depolarization block, which correlates with the ability of the drugs to exhibit antipsychotic efficacy and extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenia patients. Nonetheless, in normal rats depolarization block requires weeks of antipsychotic drug administration, whereas schizophrenia patients exhibit initial effects soon after initiating antipsychotic drug treatment. We now report that, in a developmental disruption rat model of schizophrenia [methyl-azoxymethanol acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.) injected into G17 pregnant female rats, with offspring tested as adults], the extant hyperdopaminergic state combines with the excitatory actions of a first- (haloperidol; 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and a second- (sertindole; 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) generation antipsychotic drug to rapidly induce depolarization block in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Acute injection of either antipsychotic drug induced an immediate reduction in the number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons (cells per electrode track; termed population activity). Repeated administration of either antipsychotic drug for 1, 3, 7, 15, and 21 d continued to reduce dopamine neuron population activity. Both acute and repeated effects on population activity were reversed by acute apomorphine injections, which is consistent with the reversal of dopamine neuron depolarization block. Although this action may account for the effects of D2 antagonist drugs on alleviating psychosis and the lack of development of tolerance in humans, the drugs appear to do so by inducing an offsetting deficit rather than attacking the primary pathology present in schizophrenia. PMID:21865475

Valenti, Ornella; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Gill, Kathryn M; Grace, Anthony A

2011-08-24

373

Pharmacological treatment and the prospect of pharmacogenetics in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder marked by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability. Levodopa (l-dopa), usually combined with a peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, has been proved to provide the best symptomatic benefit for PD. However, its long-term efficacy is limited because of motor complications and drug-induced dyskinesia. Dopamine agonists, catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors are anti-parkinsonian (anti-PD) drugs that have been found to further improve the potency of l-dopa and prevent the onset of motor complications. However, as PD is a progressive disorder, all the drugs used for its therapy, manifest reduced efficacy and adverse effects with time. Research on the field of pharmacogenetics has pointed out that the genetic variability of each individual determines to a large extent the inter-individual variability in response to anti-PD drugs. Clinicogenetic trials show that drug efficacy or toxicity or susceptibility to side effects are features governed by genetic principles. This article is a review of the present pharmacological treatment of PD and current pharmacogenetic data for PD. PMID:22093536

Kalinderi, K; Fidani, L; Katsarou, Z; Bostantjopoulou, S

2011-12-01

374

Depression in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The prevalence of major and minor depression in Parkinson's disease is around 30-40% but, unfortunately, depression remains frequently underrecognized and often undertreated. However, recognition and appropriate treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is essential for improving the cross-sectional picture and longitudinal course. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and different treatment modalities of depression in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25509363

Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Döme, Péter

2014-07-30

375

Drug-induced reactivation of apoptosis abrogates HIV-1 infection.  

PubMed

HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal antivirals that eliminate viral infection by destroying infected cells. A drug-based drug discovery program, based on these compounds, is warranted to determine the potential of such agents in clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. PMID:24086341

Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D; Cambiaghi, Tavane D; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; D'Alliessi Gandolfi, Darlene; Heller, Debra S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Popowicz, Anthony M; Cone, Richard A; Holland, Bart; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B

2013-01-01

376

Thyroid-Induced Worsening of Parkinsonian Tremor Resistant to Drugs and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Symptoms of both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis can be easily overlooked in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We report on a patient whose parkinsonian tremor worsened and proved refractory not only to common treatment, but also to deep brain stimulation (DBS). Case Presentation. A 61-year-old woman with advanced PD underwent bilateral subthalamic DBS, with an excellent outcome. Twenty-one months after the surgery, however, patient's resting/postural tremor markedly worsened. There was a slight improvement for 1 month after repeated adjustments of DBS parameters, but then the tremor worsened again. Since even a minimal increase of the dose of dopaminergic drugs caused extremely severe dyskinesias, an anticholinergic drug biperiden and benzodiazepine clonazepam were introduced, what helped for another month. With the onset of severe diarrhoea, a laboratory workup was performed. Thyrotoxicosis was detected. During treatment with the antithyroid agent carbimazole, the parkinsonian tremor clearly improved within two weeks. Conclusion. A hyperthyroid state can markedly exaggerate all forms of tremor, as well as other types of movement disorders. This condition can be overlooked or masked by other symptoms. Therefore, if the tremor in a patient with PD gradually worsens and proves resistant to the usual treatment, examine the thyroid gland.

Minár, Michal; Valkovi?, Peter

2014-01-01

377

A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives.  

PubMed

Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient. PMID:24260733

Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, Sae-Hoon

2013-10-01

378

A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives  

PubMed Central

Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient. PMID:24260733

Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

2013-01-01

379

l-DOPA-induced behavioral sensitization of motor activity in the MPTP-treated common marmoset as a Parkinson's disease model.  

PubMed

l-DOPA is the gold standard for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the drug produces some serious side effects, including dyskinesia, which is characterized by repetitive involuntary movements-including chorea. In the present preclinical study using a nonhuman primate model, dyskinesia caused by repeated l-DOPA administration was investigated in the context of behavioral sensitization by objectively quantifying motor activity in the common marmoset of PD model (the Parkinsonian marmoset). Twelve male Parkinsonian marmosets previously treated with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and six intact male marmosets were used. The motor activity of each marmoset was measured using infrared sensors attached to each individual living cage. Parkinsonian marmosets (n=6) exhibited behavioral sensitization (enhanced motor activity) in 10weeks upon oral administration of l-DOPA (10mg/kg per day on 3days/week). These animals also exhibited dyskinesia characterized by repetitive rapid movements including chorea in 6-10weeks. Neither behavioral sensitization nor dyskinesia was observed in Parkinsonian marmosets given vehicle and in intact marmosets given l-DOPA at the same dose (both n=6 each). Behavioral sensitization was detected sensitively and objectively on motor activity only in Parkinsonian marmosets given repeated l-DOPA at a similar dose used in PD patients. The behavioral feature of the marmosets was dyskinesia similar to that of PD patients but appeared earlier than would be manifested in humans. In spite of statistically significant behavioral sensitization, some marmosets did not exhibit dyskinesia in the present limited l-DOPA administration period. Although both commonalities and differences may exist between behavioral sensitization and dyskinesia, behavioral sensitization is considered to be an objective, quantitative, sensitive and predictive measure of behavioral mechanism underlying dyskinesia in preclinical studies in evaluating compounds. PMID:25449794

Ando, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Itoh, Toshio

2014-10-31

380

Parkinson's disease with camptocormia  

PubMed Central

Background Camptocormia is defined as an abnormal flexion of the trunk that appears when standing or walking and disappears in the supine position. The origin of the disorder is unknown, but it is usually attributed either to a primary or a secondary paravertebral muscle myopathy or a motor neurone disorder. Camptocormia is also observed in a minority of patients with parkinsonism. Objective To characterise the clinical and electrophysiological features of camptocormia and parkinsonian symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease and camptocormia compared with patients with Parkinson's disease without camptocormia. Methods Patients with parkinsonism and camptocormia (excluding patients with multiple system atrophy) prospectively underwent a multidisciplinary clinical (neurological, neuropsychological, psychological, rheumatological) and neurophysiological (electromyogram, ocular movement recording) examination and were compared with age?matched patients with Parkinson's disease without camptocormia. Results The camptocormia developed after 8.5 (SD 5.3)?years of parkinsonism, responded poorly to levodopa treatment (20%) and displayed features consistent with axial dystonia. Patients with camptocormia were characterised by prominent levodopa?unresponsive axial symptoms (ie, axial rigidity, gait disorder and postural instability), along with a tendency for greater error in the antisaccade paradigm. Conclusion We suggest that (1) the salient features of parkinsonism observed in patients with camptocormia are likely to represent a specific form of Parkinson's disease and camptocormia is an axial dystonia and (2) both camptocormia and parkinsonism in these patients might result from additional, non?dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction in the basal ganglia. PMID:16754693

Bloch, F; Houeto, J L; du Montcel, S Tezenas; Bonneville, F; Etchepare, F; Welter, M L; Rivaud?Pechoux, S; Hahn?Barma, V; Maisonobe, T; Behar, C; Lazennec, J Y; Kurys, E; Arnulf, I; Bonnet, A M; Agid, Y

2006-01-01

381

Symptoms of Parkinson's  

MedlinePLUS

... Secondary Motor Symptoms Nonmotor Symptoms Causes Progression Medications & Treatments Clinical Trials Statistics on Parkinson's Chasing the Cure National HelpLine Educational Publications Online ...

382

Managing Your Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Side Effects Manage Your Medications Nutrition Exercise Complementary Therapies Finding Support Staying Independent Caring in Parkinson's Navigating Employment, Insurance, Financial and Legal Matters PD ...

383

Treating dopamimetic psychosis in Parkinson's disease: structured review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Psychosis due to dopamimetic treatment is a difficult problem in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this structured review with meta-analysis was to evaluate which neuroleptic drugs can efficiently be used to treat drug-induced psychosis (DIP) in Parkinson's disease. Electronic databases were screened for the key words Parkinson's disease and psychosis. Only 7 trials with a satisfactory allocation concealment and data reporting were included into the study. Two trials compared low-dose clozapine versus placebo with a significantly better outcome for clozapine regarding efficacy and motor functioning. In one trial clozapine was compared against quetiapine showing equivalent efficacy and tolerability. However, in two placebo controlled trials quetiapine failed to show efficacy. In two further placebo controlled trials olanzapine did not improve psychotic symptoms and significantly caused more extrapyramidal side effects. Based on randomized trial-derived evidence which is currently available, only clozapine can be fully recommended for the treatment of DIP in PD. Olanzapine should not be used in this indication. PMID:17070675

Frieling, Helge; Hillemacher, Thomas; Ziegenbein, Marc; Neundörfer, Bernhard; Bleich, Stefan

2007-02-01

384

[Assessment of hyper- and hypodopaminergic behaviors in Parkinson's disease].  

PubMed

The common perception that Parkinson's disease patients tend to be depressed, anxious, apathetic and harm-avoiding has currently been challenged by the recognition that they can also exhibit a hedonistic, novelty-seeking personality. Thus, Parkinson's disease patients may indulge in their passions in an irresponsible and disinhibited manner, and engage in repetitive, compulsive behaviors that may be harmful and destructive to their social or professional lives. The dopamine dysregulation syndrome includes hypersexuality, pathological gambling, and compulsive shopping; it is associated with addiction to dopaminergic medication. However, not all behavioral changes are necessarily accompanied by a dopaminergic addiction. After antiparkinson treatment is initiated, patients enter a 'honeymoon period' during which changes in mood and behavior reflect a return to the patients' premorbid personality. The increased motivation and higher level of activity in professional as well as leisure activities are considered positive changes by both the patients and their relatives. With prolonged and increased dopaminergic treatment, these positive behavioral changes can become excessive and evolve into nocturnal hyperactivity and stereotyped, repetitive and time consuming behaviors which ultimately disorganize the patient's everyday routine and herald behavioral addictions. These drug-induced behavioral changes are under-appreciated by neurologists and under-reported by the patients who neither complain about the behaviors nor understand the relationship between motivated behavior and dopaminergic medication. For these reasons, we propose a new scale for the assessment of behavior and mood to quantify and track changes related to Parkinson's disease, to dopaminergic medication, and to non-motor fluctuations. This scale is based on the concept of hypo- and hyperdopaminergic mood and behavior. The scale consists of 18 items addressing non-motor symptoms, grouped in four parts: general psychological evaluation, apathy, non-motor fluctuations and hyperdopaminergic behaviors. The rating in five points (0-4 from absent to severe) is carried out during a semi-structured interview. Open-ended questions introduce each item, allowing patients to express themselves as freely as possible. Close-ended questions permit the rating of severity and intensity. This new instrument can be used by psychologists, psychiatrists or neurologists familiar with Parkinson's disease. Designed to detect changes in mood and behavior of Parkinson's disease patients resulting either from the disease or its treatment, this tool can be used in conjunction with the neurocognitive evaluation, to help tailor the treatment of motor and non-motor symptoms to each individual's needs. PMID:19683776

Ardouin, C; Chéreau, I; Llorca, P-M; Lhommée, E; Durif, F; Pollak, P; Krack, P

2009-11-01

385

Carnosic acid protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in in vivo and in vitro model of Parkinson's disease: Involvement of antioxidative enzymes induction.  

PubMed

The neuroprotective effects of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), have been widely investigated in recent years, however, its protection in in vivo still unclear. In this study, we investigated the behavioral activity and neuroprotective effects of CA in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Rats were treated with 20mg/kg body weight of CA for 3weeks before 6-OHDA exposure. Results indicated that CA improved the locomotor activity and reduced the apomorphine-caused rotation in 6-OHDA-stimulated rats. Significant protection against lipid peroxidation and GSH reduction was observed in the 6-OHDA rats pretreated with CA. Pretreatment with CA increased the protein expression of ?-glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, ?-glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase compared with 6-OHDA-stimulated rats and SH-SY5Y cells. Immunoblots showed that the reduction of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, the induction of caspase 3 cleavage, and the induction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage by 6-OHDA was reversed in the presence of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) in SH-SY5Y cells. Rats treated with CA reversed the 6-OHDA-mediated the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38, the down-regulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, the up-regulation of cleaved caspase 3/caspase 3 and cleaved PARP/PARP ratio, and the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase protein. However, BAM7, an activator of Bax, attenuated the effect of CA on apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that CA protected against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity is attributable to its anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative action. The present findings may help to clarify the possible mechanisms of rosemary in the neuroprotection of PD. PMID:25446857

Wu, Chi-Rei; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Li-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Wen

2015-01-01

386

Noradrenaline neuron degeneration contributes to motor impairments and development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. However, studies of post-mortem PD brains have shown that not only DA neurons but also the noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the locus coeruleus degenerate, and that the NA neurodegeneration may be as profound, and also precede degeneration of the midbrain DA neurons. Previous studies in animal models of PD have suggested that loss of forebrain NA will add to the development of motor symptoms in animals with lesions of the nigrostriatal DA neurons, but the results obtained in rodents have been inconclusive due to the shortcomings of the toxin, DSP-4, used to lesion the NA projections. Here, we have developed an alternative double-lesion paradigm using injections of 6-OHDA into striatum in combination with intraventricular injections of a powerful NA immunotoxin, anti-DBH-Saporin, to eliminate the NA neurons in the locus coeruleus, and associated pontine nuclei. Animals with combined DA and NA lesions were more prone to develop L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, even at low L-DOPA doses, and they performed significantly worse in tests of reflexive and skilled paw use, the stepping and staircase tests, compared to DA-only lesioned rats. Post-mortem analysis revealed that NA depletion did not affect the degree of DA depletion, or the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive innervation in the striatum. Cell loss in the substantia nigra was similar in both single and double lesioned animals, showing that the worsening effect was not due to increased loss of nigral DA neurons. The results show that damage to brainstem NA neurons, contributes to the development of motor impairments and the appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in 6-OHDA lesioned rats, and provide support for the view that the development of motor symptoms and dyskinetic side effects in PD patients reflects the combined loss of midbrain DA neurons and NA neurons. PMID:24747357

Shin, Eunju; Rogers, James T; Devoto, Paola; Björklund, Anders; Carta, Manolo

2014-07-01

387

Glial-Mediated Inflammation Underlying Parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

The interest in studying neuroimmune interactions is increasing in the scientific community, and for many researchers, immunity is becoming a crucial factor in the understanding of the physiology of the normal brain as well as the biology underlying neurodegenerative diseases. Mounting data over the last two decades point toward immune and inflammatory alterations as important mediators of the progressive dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this review is to address, under a historical perspective, as well as in the light of recent reports, the glial-mediated inflammatory and immune responses that occur in Parkinsonism. In line with this, this review also evaluates and highlights available anti-inflammatory drugs and putative targets for Parkinson's disease therapy for the near future. PMID:24278772

Barcia, Carlos

2013-01-01

388

Congestive heart failure induced by six of the newer antiarrhythmic drugs.  

PubMed

The incidence of drug-induced congestive heart failure with several newer antiarrhythmic agents including encainide, ethmozine, lorcainide, mexiletine, propafenone and tocainide was determined in a group of 407 patients who underwent 1,133 drug tests. The incidence rate ranged from 0.7% with lorcainide to 4.7% with propafenone. Congestive heart failure was present in 167 patients (41%) who underwent 491 drug trials. Congestive failure was induced in 15 (9%) of these 167 patients and involved 19 (3.9%) of the 491 tests. Left ventricular ejection fraction was 20 +/- 8% in patients who developed congestive failure, in contrast to 39 +/- 19% in those who did not (p less than 0.001). It is concluded that each of the six antiarrhythmic drugs examined has the potential to aggravate congestive heart failure in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction or a history of congestive heart failure, but the incidence rate is low and its occurrence unpredictable. PMID:2509529

Ravid, S; Podrid, P J; Lampert, S; Lown, B

1989-11-01

389

Dronedarone-induced digoxin toxicity: new drug, new interactions.  

PubMed

Dronedarone is a relatively new antiarrhythmic drug approved for paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation. Dronedarone can inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated digoxin clearance and increase steady-state digoxin level 2.5 times. It is important to closely monitor plasma digoxin levels or administer a lower loading dose of digoxin in patients taking dronedarone concomitantly. We report a case of digoxin toxicity in a patient taking concomitant dronedarone as a result of interaction between digoxin and dronedarone. PMID:21519214

Vallakati, Ajay; Chandra, Preeti A; Pednekar, Manali; Frankel, Robert; Shani, Jacob

2013-01-01

390

Carboxymefloquine, the major metabolite of the antimalarial drug mefloquine, induces drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter expression by activation of pregnane x receptor.  

PubMed

Malaria patients are frequently coinfected with HIV and mycobacteria causing tuberculosis, which increases the use of coadministered drugs and thereby enhances the risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) by xenobiotics, which include many drugs, induces drug metabolism and transport, thereby resulting in possible attenuation or loss of the therapeutic responses to the drugs being coadministered. While several artemisinin-type antimalarial drugs have been shown to activate PXR, data on nonartemisinin-type antimalarials are still missing. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the potential of nonartemisinin antimalarial drugs and drug metabolites to activate PXR. We screened 16 clinically used antimalarial drugs and six major drug metabolites for binding to PXR using the two-hybrid PXR ligand binding domain assembly assay; this identified carboxymefloquine, the major and pharmacologically inactive metabolite of the antimalarial drug mefloquine, as a potential PXR ligand. Two-hybrid PXR-coactivator and -corepressor interaction assays and PXR-dependent promoter reporter gene assays confirmed carboxymefloquine to be a novel PXR agonist which specifically activated the human receptor. In the PXR-expressing intestinal LS174T cells and in primary human hepatocytes, carboxymefloquine induced the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters on the mRNA and protein levels. The crucial role of PXR for the carboxymefloquine-dependent induction of gene expression was confirmed by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of the receptor. Thus, the clinical use of mefloquine may result in pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions by means of its metabolite carboxymefloquine. Whether these in vitro findings are of in vivo relevance has to be addressed in future clinical drug-drug interaction studies. PMID:25313206

Piedade, Rita; Traub, Stefanie; Bitter, Andreas; Nüssler, Andreas K; Gil, José P; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

2015-01-01

391

Nonchemotherapy drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis: could medications be the culprit?  

PubMed

Drug-induced agranulocytosis is a severe complication that has been implicated with most classes of medications. Medications such as clozapine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and methimazole have been more commonly associated with agranulocytosis than other agents. Although the pathogenesis isn't fully elucidated, it appears to be two-fold with a direct toxicity to the myeloid cell line and immune-mediated destruction. Patients may be asymptomatic at the time neutropenia is discovered or may present with more severe complications such as sepsis. In approximately 5% of cases drug-induced agranulocytosis may be fatal. Management of drug-induced agranulocytosis includes the immediate discontinuation of the offending medication, initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics and consideration of the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in high-risk patients. PMID:25124379

Pick, Amy M; Nystrom, Kelly K

2014-10-01

392

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?  

PubMed Central

Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother's antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism. PMID:21966652

Kota, Sunil Kumar; Modi, Kirtikumar; Kumaresan, Karuppiah

2011-01-01

393

Ocular microtremor in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities in the oculomotor control mechanism of patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease are well recognised. In this study the effect of Parkinson’s disease on tonic output from oculomotor nuclei was studied by using oculomicrotremor as an index of such output. Oculomicrotremor readings were taken from 22 parkinsonian patients and 22 normal healthy volunteers using the piezoelectric strain gauge technique. There

Ciaran Bolger; Stana Bojanic; Noirin F Sheahan; Davis Coakley; James F Malone

1999-01-01

394

Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Drug-Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) is a challenging clinical problem that is under-recognized, difficult to diagnose and associated with severe bleeding complications. DITP may be caused by classic drug-dependent platelet antibodies (eg, quinine); haptens (eg, penicillin); fiban-dependent antibodies (eg, tirofiban); monoclonal antibodies (eg, abciximab); autoantibody formation (eg, gold); and immune complex formation (eg, heparin). A thorough clinical history is essential in establishing the diagnosis of DITP and should include exposures to prescription medications, herbal preparations and even certain foods and beverages. Clinical and laboratory criteria have been established to determine the likelihood of a drug being the cause of thrombocytopenia, but these criteria can only be applied retrospectively. The most commonly implicated drugs include quinine, quinidine, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin. We propose a practical approach to the diagnosis of the patient with suspected DITP. Key features are: the presence of severe thrombocytopenia (platelet nadir <20 × 109/L); bleeding complications; onset 5 to 10 days after first drug exposure, or within hours of subsequent exposures or after first exposure to fibans or abciximab; and exposure to drugs that have been previously implicated in DITP reactions. Treatment involves stopping the drug(s), administering platelet transfusions or other therapies if bleeding is present and counselling on future drug avoidance. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a positive drug re-challenge, which is often impractical, or by demonstrating drug-dependent platelet reactive antibodies in vitro. Current test methods, which are mostly flow cytometry-based, must show drug-dependence, immunoglobulin binding, platelet specificity and ideally should be reproducible across laboratories. Improved standardization and accessibility of laboratory testing should be a focus of future research. PMID:23845922

Arnold, Donald M.; Nazi, Ishac; Warkentin, Theodore E.; Smith, James W.; Toltl, Lisa J.; George, James N.; Kelton, John G.

2013-01-01

395

Characteristic molecular and proteomic signatures of drug-induced liver injury in a rat model.  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety concern during drug development and remains one of the main reasons for withdrawal of drugs from the market. Although it is crucial to develop methods that will detect potential hepatotoxicity of drug candidates as early and as quickly as possible, there is still a lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for DILI that consequently leads to a scarcity of reliable hepatotoxic data. Hence, in this study, we assessed characteristic molecular signatures in rat liver treated with drugs (pyrazinamide, ranitidine, enalapril, carbamazepine and chlorpromazine) that are known to cause DILI in humans. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of transcriptome changes induced by DILI-causing drugs resulted in three different subclusters on dendrogram, i.e., hepatocellular, cholestatic and mixed type of DILI at early time points (2 days), and multiclassification analysis suggested 31 genes as discernible markers for each DILI pattern. Further analysis for characteristic molecular signature of each DILI pattern provided a molecular basis for different modes of DILI action. A proteomics study of the same rat livers was used to confirm the results, and the two sets of data showed 60 matching classifiers. In conclusion, the data of different DILI-causing drug treatments from genomic analysis in a rat model suggest that DILI-specific molecular signatures can discriminate different patterns of DILI at an early exposure time point, and that they provide useful information for mechanistic studies that may lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of DILI. PMID:25231249

Eun, Jung Woo; Bae, Hyun Jin; Shen, Qingyu; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Hyung Seok; Shin, Woo Chan; Yang, Hee Doo; Jin, Chan Young; You, Jueng Soo; Kang, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hoguen; Ahn, Young Min; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

2015-02-01

396

Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND  

PubMed Central

Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

2013-01-01

397

Artesunate overcomes drug resistance in multiple myeloma by inducing mitochondrial stress and non-caspase apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Although novel drugs have contributed immensely to improving outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), many patients develop drug resistance and ultimately succumb to MM. Here, we show that artesunate, an anti-malarial drug, reliably induces cell death in vitro in naďve as well as drug-resistant MM cells at concentrations shown to be safe in humans. Artesunate induced apoptosis predominantly through the non-caspase mediated pathway by primarily targeting mitochondria and causing outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization that led to cytosolic and subsequent nuclear translocation of mitochondrial proteins apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG). Nuclear translocation of AIF and EndoG was accompanied by low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased mitochondrial production of superoxide. These effects were present before apoptosis was evident and were related to intracellular levels of bivalent iron (Fe+2). Artesunate's unique mechanism probably was at least partially responsible for, its ability to act synergistically with multiple anti-myeloma agents. Our findings suggest that artesunate acts through iron to affect the mitochondria and induce low ROS and non-caspase–mediated apoptosis. Its potency, toxicity profile, and synergism with other drugs make it an intriguing new candidate for MM treatment. PMID:24948357

Papanikolaou, Xenofon; Johnson, Sarah; Garg, Tarun; Tian, Erming; Tytarenko, Ruslana; Zhang, Qing; Stein, Caleb; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua; Heuck, Christoph

2014-01-01

398

Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side Effects  

PubMed Central

Platinum complexes are clinically used as adjuvant therapy of cancers aiming to induce tumor cell death. Depending on cell type and concentration, cisplatin induces cytotoxicity, e.g., by interference with transcription and/or DNA replication mechanisms. Additionally, cisplatin damages tumors via induction of apoptosis, mediated by the activation of various signal transduction pathways, including calcium signaling, death receptor signaling, and the activation of mitochondrial pathways. Unfortunately, neither cytotoxicity nor apoptosis are exclusively induced in cancer cells, thus, cisplatin might also lead to diverse side-effects such as neuro- and/or renal-toxicity or bone marrow-suppression. Moreover, the binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes may modulate its biochemical mechanism of action. While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs) and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects. PMID:24212665

Florea, Ana-Maria; Büsselberg, Dietrich

2011-01-01

399

Immunosuppressant Drug Prevents Tobacco-induced Lung Cancer in Mice  

Cancer.gov

Rapamycin, an FDA-approved drug normally used to help prevent the body from rejecting organ and bone marrow transplants and also used to coat cardiac stents, was highly effective in preventing the development of tobacco-related lung tumors in mice. Researhers found that mice that were administered rapamycin one week after exposure to a very common tobacco-specific carcinogen showed a 90 percent decrease in the number of tumors, a 74 percent decrease in tumor size, and fewer abnormalities within their cancer cells.

400

Smoking and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case control study of the relationship between smoking habits and Parkinson's disease a negative association was demonstrated with a relative risk of 0 x 52. A history of smoking up to 20 years earlier was associated with a risk of developing Parkinson's disease equal to about half that in non-smokers. The type of disease, age of onset and

R B Godwin-Austen; P N Lee; M G Marmot; G M Stern

1982-01-01