Sample records for drug induced parkinsonism

  1. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG-INDUCED PARKINSONISM AND TARDIVE DYSKINESIAS

    E-print Network

    Lichtarge, Olivier

    EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG-INDUCED PARKINSONISM AND TARDIVE DYSKINESIAS L. Giselle Aguilar, MD and William G Ondo, MD Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department, haloperidol and thioridazine. Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) tends to have an insidious onset, often starting

  2. Drug-induced impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Reiff; W. H. Jost

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine replacement treatment with excessive or aberrant dopamine receptor stimulation can cause behavioral disturbances\\u000a in Parkinson’s disease, comprising dopamine dysregulation syndrome, punding, and impulse control disorders. Common impulse\\u000a control disorders are compulsive buying, pathological gambling, binge eating, hypersexuality, and compulsive reckless driving.

  3. Drugs for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Levodopa combined with carbidopa is still the most effective treatment for symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agonists, the next most effective class of drugs, can be used alone before the introduction of levodopa or as an adjunct to levodopa.Addition of a peripherally-acting COMT inhibitor or an MAO-B inhibitor to levodopa can reduce motor fluctuations in patients with advanced disease.Amantadine may have mild symptomatic benefit and can decrease levodopa-induced dyskinesias.Anticholinergics are rarely used because of their adverse effects, but can be a useful addition to levodopa for control of tremor and drooling.Subcutaneous apomorphine should be available for rescue use in patients with 'off' episodes. Deep brain stimulation is an option for patients with levodopa-induced motor complications and relatively intact cognition. PMID:24165688

  4. Generic vs. Branded Drugs for Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vs. Branded Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease Text Size Generic vs. Branded Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease Currently, there are multiple pharmaceutical ... you should know that the FDA requires that generic drugs must show an “essential similarity” to the branded ...

  5. Dopaminergic drug-induced modulation of the expression of the dopamine transporter in peripheral blood lymphocytes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fanciulli, Alessandra; Misasi, Roberta; Campanelli, Dario; Buttarelli, Francesca R; Pontieri, Francesco R

    2011-01-01

    The modulation of expression of the dopamine transporter by dopaminergic drugs was investigated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients suffering Parkinson's disease. An 8-week in vivo exposure to pramipexole (0.7 mg free base, 3 times a day) or ropinirole (12 mg, once daily), but not levodopa/carbidopa (100/25 mg, 3 times a day), significantly reduced the mean fluorescence intensity of the dopamine transporter in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that levodopa differs from dopamine agonists in its regulation of dopamine transporter expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:22001994

  6. Drug therapy in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson`s disease (PD) is a progressive, disabling neurodegenerative disorder with onset of motor and non-motor features. Both reduce quality of life of PD patients and cause caregiver burden. This review aims to provide a survey of possible therapeutic options for treatment of motor and non motor symptoms of PD and to discuss their relation to each other. MAO-B-Inhibitors, NMDA antagonists, dopamine agonists and levodopa with its various application modes mainly improve the dopamine associated motor symptoms in PD. This armentarium of PD drugs only partially influences the onset and occurrence of non motor symptoms. These PD features predominantly result from non dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Autonomic features, such as seborrhea, hyperhidrosis, orthostatic syndrome, salivation, bladder dysfunction, gastrointestinal disturbances, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as depression, sleep disorders, psychosis, cognitive dysfunction with impaired execution and impulse control may appear. Drug therapy of these non motor symptoms complicates long-term PD drug therapy due to possible occurrence of drug interactions, - side effects, and altered pharmacokinetic behaviour of applied compounds. Dopamine substituting compounds themselves may contribute to onset of these non motor symptoms. This complicates the differentiation from the disease process itself and influences therapeutic options, which are often limited because of additional morbidity with necessary concomitant drug therapy. PMID:23211041

  7. Anti-Parkinson drugs and orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, Hiroshi; Michinaga, Shotaro

    2012-01-01

    Non-ergot-type dopamine receptor agonists such as ropinirole are used for treatment of Parkinson disease, but they frequently produce adverse actions characterized by sleepiness and sleep attacks. Because these symptoms are similar to those observed in patients with narcolepsy, a sleep disorder caused by degeneration of hypothalamic orexin neurons, involvement of orexinergic system in the adverse drug actions is suspected. We found that ropinirole and other non-ergot dopamine D? receptor agonists cause selective loss of orexin-immunoreactive neurons in organotypic slice culture of rat hypothalamus. The mechanism of this action is considered to involve D? receptor-mediated presynaptic suppression of glutamatergic excitatory inputs to orexin neurons because continuous silencing of excitatory activity of orexin neurons can deplete orexin from cell bodies. In addition, Parkinson disease itself may accompany loss of orexin neurons. Disturbance of orexinergic system may play an important role in sleep/arousal dysfunctions under these and other clinical conditions. PMID:22640619

  8. Continuous drug delivery in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Senek, Marina; Nyholm, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Development of motor and non-motor complications during the course of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major challenge for therapeutic management. At advanced disease stages, patients frequently fluctuate between PD symptoms-such as bradykinesia-and dyskinesias, in response to fluctuations in drug concentrations. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of the dopamine agonist apomorphine or intestinal infusion of levodopa reduce such fluctuations in both pharmacokinetics and motor function. This is the basis for the concept of continuous drug delivery in PD, and the more theoretical concept of continuous dopaminergic stimulation. These expressions are sometimes used to describe a treatment that is more continuous in its pharmacokinetic profile or that produces more sustained effects, compared with immediate-release levodopa, i.e. not only pump treatments. For example, sustained-release formulations of levodopa or dopamine agonists, transdermal delivery of rotigotine, and addition of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors or monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors have been developed with the aim to provide more continuous drug concentrations, sustained benefits and minimized side effects. Progress has been made, but there are still knowledge gaps regarding how these treatment alternatives can be optimally used. New treatments are currently being developed to provide the continuous drug delivery that is known to successfully alleviate motor and non-motor complications. Hopefully, although not yet proven, these new methods may also prevent or postpone some of the late-stage complications. PMID:24323838

  9. Daytime Alertness in Parkinson’s Disease: Potentially Dose-Dependent, Divergent Effects by Drug Class

    PubMed Central

    Bliwise, Donald L.; Trotti, Lynn Marie; Wilson, Anthony G.; Greer, Sophia A.; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Juncos, Jorge J.; Factor, Stewart A.; Freeman, Alan; Rye, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease experience difficulties maintaining daytime alertness. Controversy exists regarding whether this reflects effects of anti-Parkinsonian medications, the disease itself or other factors such as nocturnal sleep disturbances. In this study we examined the phenomenon by evaluating medicated and unmedicated Parkinson’s patients with objective polysomnographic measurements of nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness. Methods Patients (n = 63) underwent a 48-hour laboratory-based study incorporating 2 consecutive nights of overnight polysomnography and 2 days of Maintenance of Wakefulness Testing. We examined correlates of individual differences in alertness, including demographics, clinical features, nocturnal sleep variables and class and dosage of anti-Parkinson’s medications. Results Results indicated that: 1) relative to unmediated patients, all classes of dopaminergic medications were associated with reduced daytime alertness and this effect was not mediated by disease duration or disease severity; 2) increasing dosages of dopamine agonists were associated with less daytime alertness, whereas higher levels of levodopa were associated with higher levels of alertness. Variables unrelated to Maintenance of Wakefulness Test defined daytime alertness included age, sex, years with diagnosis, motor impairment score and most nocturnal sleep variables. Conclusions Deficits in objectively assessed daytime alertness in Parkinson’s disease appear to be a function of both the disease and the medications and their doses utilized. The apparent divergent dose-dependent effects of drug class in Parkinson’s disease are anticipated by basic science studies of the sleep/wake cycle under different pharmacological agents. PMID:22753297

  10. A new approach to disease-modifying drug trials in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Roger A.; Stacy, Mark; Brundin, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Translating new findings in the laboratory into therapies for patients is a slow and expensive process. The development of therapies for neurodegenerative diseases is further complicated by the difficulty in determining whether the drug truly retards the slow degenerative process or provides only symptomatic benefit. In this issue, Aviles-Olmos et al. describe a first in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patient study using a drug previously approved for diabetes treatment. In addition to suggesting that the drug may indeed be disease modifying in PD, their innovative approach suggests there may be more rapid and inexpensive avenues for testing novel therapies in PD. PMID:23728166

  11. Pharmacogenetics of Parkinson’s Disease – Through Mechanisms of Drug Actions

    PubMed Central

    Dro?dzik, Marek; Bia?ecka, Monika; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2013-01-01

    In the last years due to development of molecular methods a substantial progress in understanding of genetic associations with drug effects in many clinical disciplines has been observed. The efforts to define the role of genetic polymorphisms in optimizing pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease (PD) were also undertaken. So far, some promising genetic loci for PD treatment were determined. In the review pharmacogenetic aspects of levodopa, dopamine agonists and COMT inhibitors are discussed. PMID:24532988

  12. Drugs in development for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Tom H; Brotchie, Jonathan M

    2004-07-01

    Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is entering a new and exciting era. Real promise now exists for the clinical application of a large range of molecules in development that will combat different aspects and stages of the condition. These include methyl- and ethyl-esterified forms of L-dopa (etilevodopa and melevodopa), inhibitors of enzymes such as monoamine oxidase type-B (eg, rasagiline), catechol-O-methyl transferase (eg, BIA-3202) and the monoamine re-uptake mechanism (eg, brasofensine). In addition, a range of full and partial dopamine agonists (eg, sumanirole, piribedil and BP-897) and their new formulations, for example, patch delivery systems (eg, rotigotine) are being developed. We also highlight non-dopaminergic treatments that will have wide ranging applications in the treatment of PD and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia. These include alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonists (eg, fipamezole), adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (eg, istradefylline), AMPA receptor antagonists (eg, talampanel), neuronal synchronization modulators (eg, levetiracetam) and agents that interact with serotonergic systems such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A agonists (eg, sarizotan) and 5-HT2A antagonists (eg, quetiapine). Lastly, we examine a growing number of neuroprotective agents that seek to halt or even reverse disease progression. These include anti-apoptotic kinase inhibitors (eg, CEP-1347), modulators of mitochondrial function (eg, creatine), growth factors (eg, leteprinim), neuroimmunophilins (eg, V-10367), estrogens (eg, MITO-4509), c-synuclein oligomerization inhibitors (eg, PAN-408) and sonic hedgehog ligands. PMID:15298067

  13. New drugs in the future treatment of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Djaldetti; Eldad Melamed

    2002-01-01

    During the last few decades, there has been a remarkable progress in our understanding of the biology of Parkinson's disease (PD), which has been translated into the development of numerous antiparkinsonian drugs. There are different therapeutic strategies for patients in an early stage versus patients in a late stage of the disease. The current therapeutic arsenal includes levodopa preparations, MAO-B

  14. ?6?2* and ?4?2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors As Drug Targets for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wonnacott, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating movement disorder characterized by a generalized dysfunction of the nervous system, with a particularly prominent decline in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Although there is currently no cure, drugs targeting the dopaminergic system provide major symptomatic relief. As well, agents directed to other neurotransmitter systems are of therapeutic benefit. Such drugs may act by directly improving functional deficits in these other systems, or they may restore aberrant motor activity that arises as a result of a dopaminergic imbalance. Recent research attention has focused on a role for drugs targeting the nicotinic cholinergic systems. The rationale for such work stems from basic research findings that there is an extensive overlap in the organization and function of the nicotinic cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in the basal ganglia. In addition, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) drugs could have clinical potential for Parkinson's disease. Evidence for this proposition stems from studies with experimental animal models showing that nicotine protects against neurotoxin-induced nigrostriatal damage and improves motor complications associated with l-DOPA, the “gold standard” for Parkinson's disease treatment. Nicotine interacts with multiple central nervous system receptors to generate therapeutic responses but also produces side effects. It is important therefore to identify the nAChR subtypes most beneficial for treating Parkinson's disease. Here we review nAChRs with particular emphasis on the subtypes that contribute to basal ganglia function. Accumulating evidence suggests that drugs targeting ?6?2* and ?4?2* nAChR may prove useful in the management of Parkinson's disease. PMID:21969327

  15. the road to Parkinson’s disease

    E-print Network

    Methamphetamine-induced Neurotoxicity; Bessy Thrash; Kariharan Thiruchelvan; Manuj Ahuja; Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran

    Studies have implicated methamphetamine exposure as a contributor to the development of Parkinson’s disease. There is a significant degree of striatal dopamine depletion produced by methamphetamine, which makes the toxin useful in the creation of an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. The immediate need is to understand the substances that increase the risk for this debilitating disorder as well as these substances’neurodegenerative mechanisms. Currently, various approaches are being taken to develop a novel and cost-effective anti-Parkinson’s drug with minimal adverse effects and the added benefit of a neuroprotective effect to facilitate and improve the care of patients with Parkinson’s disease. A methamphetamine-treated animal model for Parkinson’s disease can help to further the understanding of the neurodegenerative processes that target the nigrostriatal system. Studies on widely used drugs of abuse, which are also dopaminergic toxicants, may aid in understanding the etiology, pathophysiology and progression of the disease process and increase awareness of the risks involved in such drug abuse. In addition, this review evaluates the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of certain drugs against methamphetamine-induced toxicity. Key words: drug abuse, methamphetamine, neurotoxin, Parkinson disease, neuroprotection

  16. Rasagiline induced hypersexuality in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Dennys; Kurako, Kateryna; Galvez-Jimenez, Nestor

    2014-03-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are increasingly recognized in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly when treated with commonly used dopamine agonists such as pramipexole and ropinirole. Less evident is the possible association between monoamine oxidase inhibitors type B (MAO-B) and the development of ICD. Rasagiline is a second generation MAO-B I inducing moderate symptomatic and possibly disease modifying benefits with apparently good tolerability and safety profile in PD patients. Rasagiline is effective and well tolerated in PD as a monotherapy or in combination with levodopa. Here, we report a patient with PD who developed ICD when treated de novo with MAO-B inhibitors. PMID:24055209

  17. Drug-induced cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram; Schiff, Eugene

    2013-11-01

    Drug-induced cholestasis manifests as an acute self-limiting injury or as a chronic perpetuating injury, resulting in duct loss and cirrhosis. The number of drugs implicated in drug-induced cholestasis grows every year as new drugs are developed and approved. Other agents such as herbals, nutritional supplements, and complementary and alternative medicines are also reported to cause cholestatic liver injury. Recent literature on molecular transporters involved in bile transport has improved our understanding of patterns of drug-induced liver injury and the mechanisms of cholestasis. This article summarizes the probable offending drugs, and the diagnosis and management of drug-induced cholestasis. PMID:24099015

  18. Thrombocytopenia - drug induced

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your platelets, the condition is called drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Heparin, a blood thinner, is the most common cause of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. If a medicine prevents your bone marrow from ...

  19. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse, and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as “dopamine based”. There are five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1 to M5). Due to their overlapping expression patterns and the lack of receptor subtype-specific ligands, the roles of the individual muscarinic receptors have long remained elusive. During the past decade, studies with knockout mice lacking specific muscarinic receptor subtypes have greatly advanced our knowledge of the physiological roles of the M1–M5 receptors. Recently, new ligands have been developed that can interact with allosteric sites on different muscarinic receptor subtypes, rather than the conventional (orthosteric) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse, and Parkinson’s disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knockout mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess the roles of M1, M4, and M5 receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:22389751

  20. Eye Movements in Ephedrone-Induced Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Megrelishvili, Marika; Sieger, Tomáš; Matoušková, Olga; Okujava, Michael; Brožová, Hana; Nikolai, Tomáš; Hanuška, Jaromír; Kapianidze, Mariam; Mikeladze, Nina; Botchorishvili, Nazi; Khatiashvili, Irine; Janelidze, Marina; Serranová, Tereza; Fiala, Ond?ej; Roth, Jan; Bergquist, Jonas; Jech, Robert; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Gaymard, Bertrand; R?ži?ka, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ephedrone parkinsonism (EP) show a complex, rapidly progressive, irreversible, and levodopa non-responsive parkinsonian and dystonic syndrome due to manganese intoxication. Eye movements may help to differentiate parkinsonian syndromes providing insights into which brain networks are affected in the underlying disease, but they have never been systematically studied in EP. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded in 28 EP and compared to 21 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects using standardized oculomotor tasks with infrared videooculography. EP patients showed slow and hypometric horizontal saccades, an increased occurrence of square wave jerks, long latencies of vertical antisaccades, a high error rate in the horizontal antisaccade task, and made more errors than controls when pro- and antisaccades were mixed. Based on oculomotor performance, a direct differentiation between EP and PD was possible only by the velocity of horizontal saccades. All remaining metrics were similar between both patient groups. EP patients present extensive oculomotor disturbances probably due to manganese-induced damage to the basal ganglia, reflecting their role in oculomotor system. PMID:25117825

  1. Disease-related and drug-induced changes in dopamine transporter expression might undermine the reliability of imaging studies of disease progression in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Winogrodzka; J. Booij; E. C. M. J. Wolters

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Standard therapeutic interventions are aimed at replenishment of empty dopamine stores with levodopa or substitution with dopamine receptor agonists. However, in the long term this symptomatic therapy fails. Currently, various neuroprotective agents are being developed, with the intention to slow down the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In this context, the early identification

  2. Anchanling reduces pathology in a lactacystin- induced Parkinson's disease model?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinghong; Wu, Zhengzhi; Gao, Xiaowei; Zhu, Qingwei; Jin, Yu; Wu, Anmin; Huang, Andrew C. J.

    2012-01-01

    A rat model of Parkinson's disease was induced by injecting lactacystin stereotaxically into the left mesencephalic ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta. After rats were intragastrically perfused with Anchanling, a Chinese medicine, mainly composed of magnolol, for 5 weeks, when compared with Parkinson's disease model rats, tyrosine hydroxylase expression was increased, ?-synuclein and ubiquitin expression was decreased, substantia nigra cell apoptosis was reduced, and apomorphine-induced rotational behavior was improved. Results suggested that Anchanling can ameliorate Parkinson's disease pathology possibly by enhancing degradation activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  3. The anti-parkinson drug, rasagiline, prevents apoptotic DNA damage induced by peroxynitrite in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Maruyama; T. Takahashi; M. Youdim; M. Naoi

    2002-01-01

    Summary.   Clinical trials for treatment of Parkinson's disease suggest that (?)deprenyl (selegiline), an inhibitor of type B monoamine\\u000a oxidase, may slow the disease progression. However, the mechanism underlying protection of nigral dopamine neurons by selegiline\\u000a remains an enigma. Recently, rasagiline, (R)(+)-N-propargyl-1-aminoindan, was reported to be neuroprotective by in vivo and\\u000a in vitro experiments, which is another selective irreversible inhibitor of

  4. Detoxification and antioxidative therapy for levodopa-induced neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Levodopa is the most efficacious drug treatment option for Parkinson's disease. However, in particular, high levodopa dosing may contribute to disease progression. Chronic levodopa metabolism reduces the methylation capacity and the antioxidant defense. Thus, this levodopa-induced free radical production complements the disease process, which considerably depends on free radical-induced, apoptotic neuronal cell death. Accordingly, clinical long-term studies with in the laboratory neuroprotective compounds failed in clinical investigations, as these studies were performed in levodopa-naive patients with Parkinson's disease over a relative short interval. Therefore, the likelihood for a positive outcome was rather low, since trials only focused on the disease process in levodopa-naive patients. However, studies on antioxidant therapeutic strategies were positive in levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease patients. To counteract these metabolic long-term levodopa-associated effects, chronic levodopa therapy should be combined with supplemental application of free radical scavengers and methyl group donating vitamins. PMID:23739007

  5. Drug-Induced Diarrhea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bincy P. Abraham; Joseph H. Sellin

    \\u000a Drug-induced diarrhea (DID) is common, but our understanding of the underlying mechanisms may vary from solid understanding\\u000a to reasonable hypothesis to considerable conjecture. Drug-induced diarrhea is rarely an allergy, i.e., with an underlying\\u000a immune mechanism, but may well be an inherent component of the pharmacologic effect of the drug, may be due to variable pharmacogenomics\\u000a or be an appropriate physiologic

  6. Drug-induced panniculitides.

    PubMed

    Borroni, G; Torti, S; D'Ospina, R M; Pezzini, C

    2014-04-01

    A substantial number of all panniculitides fails to recognize a specific etiology, and that is true also for a relatively frequent type of panniculitis, such as erythema nodosum (EN). Between the recognized causative factors of panniculitides, infectious, physical agents, autoimmune mechanisms and neoplastic disorders are well known. On the contrary, the role of drugs as inducers of panniculitides is marginally considered, and their report limited to anecdotal observations, often without due histopathological support. Since the clinical and histopathological features of drug-induced panniculitides are indistinguishable from those caused by other agents, the causative relationship may be demonstrated by the history of previous drug intake and by clinical improvement after drug discontinuation. We reviewed the currently reported descriptions of drug-induced panniculitis, including a few exemplificative original observations. EN results as the most frequently reported drug-induced panniculitis. Among the causative drugs of EN a variety of medications, with disparate, or even opposite, mechanisms of action are reported, thus limiting the understanding of the pathogenesis. Common causative drugs include oral contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiobiotics and leukotriene-modifying agents. Unfortunately, in several cases, the diagnosis of drug-induced EN is done on clinical findings alone. In those cases, the lack of histopathological support does not allow to define a precise clinicopathological correlation on etiologic grounds. Drug-induced lobular and mixed panniculitides, including eosinophilic panniculitis, are even more rarely described. Reported causative agents are glatiramer acetate, interferon beta and heparin (at sites of injections), and systemic steroids, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and BRAF with subcutaneous fat involvement at distance. In view of the recent introduction of new classes of drugs, attention should be paid to disclose their possible etiologic role in inducing among other side effects, also panniculitides. PMID:24819647

  7. Targeting GTPases in Parkinson’s disease: comparison to the historic path of kinase drug discovery and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lin; Sklar, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurological diseases have placed heavy social and financial burdens on modern society. As the life expectancy of humans is extended, neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, have become increasingly common among senior populations. Although the enigmas of Parkinson’s diseases await resolution, more vivid pictures on the cause, progression, and control of the illness are emerging after years of research. On the molecular level, GTPases are implicated in the etiology of Parkinson’s disease and are rational pharmaceutical targets for their control. However, targeting individual GTPases, which belong to a superfamily of proteins containing multiple members with a conserved guanine nucleotide binding domain, has proven to be challenging. In contrast, pharmaceutical pursuit of inhibition of kinases, which constitute another superfamily of proteins with more than 500 members, has been fairly successful. We reviewed the breakthroughs in the history of kinase drug discovery to provide guidance for the GTPase field. We summarize recent progress made in the regulation of GTPase activity. We also present an efficient and cost effective approach to drug screening, which uses multiplex flow cytometry and mixture-based positional scanning libraries. These methods allow simultaneous measurements of both the activity and the selectivity of the screened library. Several GTPase activator clusters were identified which showed selectivity against different GTPase subfamilies. While the clusters need to be further deconvoluted to identify individual active compounds, the method described here and the structure information gathered create a foundation for further developments to build upon. PMID:24926233

  8. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia. PMID:25047526

  9. Pharmacogenetics of Antipsychotic-Induced Movement Disorders as a Resource for Better Understanding Parkinson’s Disease Modifier Genes

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Lior; Lerer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotic-induced movement disorders are major side effects of antipsychotic drugs among schizophrenia patients, and include antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism (AIP) and tardive dyskinesia (TD). Substantial pharmacogenetic work has been done in this field, and several susceptibility variants have been suggested. In this paper, the genetics of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders is considered in a broader context. We hypothesize that genetic variants that are risk factors for AIP and TD may provide insights into the pathophysiology of motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Since loss of dopaminergic stimulation (albeit pharmacological in AIP and degenerative in PD) is shared by the two clinical entities, genes associated with susceptibility to AIP may be modifier genes that influence clinical expression of PD motor sub-phenotypes, such as age at onset, disease severity, or rate of progression. This is due to their possible functional influence on compensatory mechanisms for striatal dopamine loss. Better compensatory potential might be beneficial at the early and later stages of the PD course. AIP vulnerability variants could also be related to latent impairment in the nigrostriatal pathway, affecting its functionality, and leading to subclinical dopaminergic deficits in the striatum. Susceptibility of PD patients to early development of l-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID) is an additional relevant sub-phenotype. LID might share a common genetic background with TD, with which it shares clinical features. Genetic risk variants may predispose to both phenotypes, exerting a pleiotropic effect. According to this hypothesis, elucidating the genetics of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders may advance our understanding of multiple aspects of PD and it clinical course, rendering this a potentially rewarding field of study.

  10. Drug-induced diarrhea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bincy Abraham; Joseph H. Sellin

    2007-01-01

    Many drugs have been known to cause diarrhea, although their mechanism of action has not been well desribed. The gastrointestinal\\u000a tract may become dysregulated when exposed to a drug that could disrupt mechanisms controlling mucosal permeability, transport,\\u000a motility, and gut metabolism. This review examines the mechanism by which drugs induce diarrhea within the broad classification\\u000a of watery, inflammatory, and fatty

  11. The essentiality of Bcl2, PKC and proteasome–ubiquitin complex activations in the neuroprotective-antiapoptotic action of the anti-Parkinson drug, rasagiline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moussa B. H. Youdim; Tamar Amit; Merav Falach-Yogev; Orit Bar Am; Wakkako Maruyama; Makato Naoi

    2003-01-01

    The anti-Parkinson drug, rasagiline, a irreversible propargyl possessing monoamine oxidase B inhibitor can protect neurons in vitro and in vivo from a variety of neurotoxic insults including SIN-1, glutamate, the parkinsonism inducing neurotoxin, N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, N-methyl-(R)-salsolinol and including beta amyloid protein. Recent studies have shown that rasagiline rapidly modulates intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell survival and death. Specifically rasagiline activates

  12. Drug-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. Should success in clinical management be a function of improvement of motor repertoire rather than amplitude of dyskinesia?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dyskinesia, a major complication in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), can require prolonged monitoring and complex medical management. Discussion The current paper proposes a new way to view the management of dyskinesia in an integrated fashion. We suggest that dyskinesia be considered as a factor in a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) equation where the signal is the voluntary movement and the noise is PD symptomatology, including dyskinesia. The goal of clinicians should be to ensure a high SNR in order to maintain or enhance the motor repertoire of patients. To understand why such an approach would be beneficial, we first review mechanisms of dyskinesia, as well as their impact on the quality of life of patients and on the health-care system. Theoretical and practical bases for the SNR approach are then discussed. Summary Clinicians should not only consider the level of motor symptomatology when assessing the efficacy of their treatment strategy, but also breadth of the motor repertoire available to patients. PMID:23514355

  13. A Case of SSRI Induced Irreversible Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahbaj A; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are widely used antidepressants for variety of clinical conditions and have found popularity. They are sometimes associated with extrapyramidal side effects including Parkinsonism. We report a case of generalized anxiety disorder on treatment with SSRI (fluoxetine / sertraline) who developed irreversible Parkinsonism. SSRI are known to cause reversible or irreversible motor disturbances through pathophysiological changes in basal ganglion motor system by altering the dopamine receptors postsynaptically. Clinician should keep risk benefit ratio in mind and change of antidepressant of different class may be considered. Case is reported to alert physicians to possibility of motor system damage while treating with SSRI.

  14. Tetrabenazine improves levodopa-induced peak-dose dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Brusa, Livia; Orlacchio, Antonio; Stefani, Alessandro; Galati, Salvatore; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Iani, Cesare; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Since levodopa-induced peak dyskinesias (LIDs) may reflect, in part, a disproportionate phasic release of dopamine from synaptic vesicles, we examined the ability of the vesicular depletor tetrabenazine (TBZ) to reduce LIDs in 10 dyskinetic advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. After basal evaluation, the patients received, through a slow titration, oral TBZ twice a day for six weeks (up to 50 mg daily) before being re-assessed after a challenge with levodopa. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) dyskinesia score (items 32 to 34). TBZ was well tolerated. A clear treatment effect on LIDs emerged (up to 45%, p<0.05). In two patients a little worsening of motor performance necessitated an increase of the antiparkinsonian therapy, which did not worsen peak-dose LIDs. The patients experienced a clear benefit in terms of their quality of life. In this open-label pilot study, orally administered TBZ resulted in objective and subjective improvements in LIDs. Larger pharmacological studies are in progress. PMID:24125559

  15. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease: emerging treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bargiotas, Panagiotis; Konitsiotis, Spyridon

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease therapy is still focused on the use of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa or L-dopa) for the symptomatic treatment of the main clinical features of the disease, despite intensive pharmacological research in the last few decades. However, regardless of its effectiveness, the long-term use of levodopa causes, in combination with disease progression, the development of motor complications termed levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs). LIDs are the result of profound modifications in the functional organization of the basal ganglia circuitry, possibly related to the chronic and pulsatile stimulation of striatal dopaminergic receptors by levodopa. Hence, for decades the key feature of a potentially effective agent against LIDs has been its ability to ensure more continuous dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. The growing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of LIDs and the increasing evidence on involvement of nondopaminergic systems raises the possibility of more promising therapeutic approaches in the future. In the current review, we focus on novel therapies for LIDs in Parkinson’s disease, based mainly on agents that interfere with glutamatergic, serotonergic, adenosine, adrenergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission that are currently in testing or clinical development. PMID:24174877

  16. Therapies for dopaminergic-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, Mildred D; Aminoff, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Existing and emerging strategies for managing L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) in patients with Parkinson disease have involved either delaying the introduction of L-dopa therapy, treatment with an antidyskinetic agent, using a therapy or delivery system that can provide continuous dopaminergic stimulation, or using novel agents that target receptors implicated in the mechanisms underlying LIDs. Treatment with dopamine agonists such as pramipexole or ropinirole allows levodopa to be delayed, but once levodopa is added to the drug regimen the usual course of onset of dyskinesias is observed. Amantadine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, is so far the only approved compound with evidence of providing a sustained antidyskinetic benefit in the absence of unacceptable side effects. These findings support the hypothesis of glutamate overactivity in the development of dyskinesias. More continuous delivery of dopaminergic medication, such as through intraintestinal or subcutaneous routes, is promising but invasive and associated with injection site reactions. As a result of molecular research and elucidation of the role of a variety of neurotransmitters in the mechanism of LIDs, new compounds have been identified, including those that modulate the direct and indirect striatal output pathways; some of these new agents are in the early stages of development or undergoing proof-of-concept evaluation as antidyskinetic agents. PMID:21681795

  17. Nicotinic Receptor Agonists Reduce l-DOPA–Induced Dyskinesias in a Monkey Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danhui; Mallela, Archana; Sohn, David; Carroll, F. Ivy; Bencherif, Merouane; Letchworth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal involuntary movements or dyskinesias are a serious complication of long-term l-DOPA treatment of Parkinson’s disease, for which there are few treatment options. Accumulating preclinical data show that nicotine decreases l-DOPA–induced dyskinesias (LIDs), suggesting that it may be a useful antidyskinetic therapy for Parkinson’s disease. Here, we investigated whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists reduced LIDs in nonhuman primates. We first tested the nonselective nAChR agonist 1, 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine (varenicline), which offers the advantage that it is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in humans. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)–lesioned monkeys (n = 23) were first administered l-DOPA/carbidopa (10/2.5 mg/kg) twice daily 5 days/week until stably dyskinetic. Oral varenicline (0.03–0.10 mg/kg) decreased LIDs ?50% compared with vehicle-treated monkeys, whereas nicotine treatment (300 µg/ml in drinking water) reduced LIDs by 70% in a parallel group of animals. We next tested the selective ?4?2*/?6?2* nAChR agonist TC-8831 [3-cyclopropylcarbonyl-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptane] on LIDs in the same set of monkeys after a 10-week washout. We also tested TC-8831 in another set of MPTP-lesioned monkeys (n = 16) that were nAChR drug–naďve. Oral TC-8831 (0.03–0.3 mg/kg) reduced LIDs in both sets by 30–50%. After a washout period, repeat TC-8831 dosing led to a greater decline in LIDs (60%) in both sets of monkeys that was similar to the effect of nicotine. Tolerance to any nAChR drug did not develop over the course of the study (3–4 months). NAChR drug treatment did not worsen parkinsonism or cognitive ability. These data suggest that nAChR agonists may be useful for the management of dyskinesias in l-DOPA–treated Parkinson’s disease patients. PMID:23902940

  18. Drug-induced esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Zografos, G N; Georgiadou, D; Thomas, D; Kaltsas, G; Digalakis, M

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced esophagitis is being recognized increasingly in the past few years. Since 1970 more than 650 cases have been reported worldwide caused by 30 or more medications. We have reviewed these cases with a view to classifying this disease based on underlying pathological mechanism. Drug-induced esophageal injury tends to occur at the anatomical site of narrowing, with the middle third behind the left atrium predominating (75.6%). The disease is broadly classified into two groups. The first group being transient and self-limiting as exemplified by the tetracycline group induced injury (65.8%). The second is the persistent esophagitis group, often with stricture, with two distinct entities: (i) patients on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents whose injury is aggravated by gastroesophageal reflux (21.8%) (reflux aggravated); and (ii) patients with potasium chloride and quinidine sulphate induced injury (12.4%) (persistent drug injury). Severe esophageal injury has been reported in some women taking biphosphonates as treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endoscopic findings in such patients with esophageal injury generally suggested a chemical esophagitis, with erosions or ulcerations and exudative inflammation accompanied by thickening of the esophageal wall. Most cases of medication-induced esophageal injury heal without intervention within a few days. Thus, the most important aspect of therapy is to make the correct diagnosis and then to avoid reinjury with the drug. When possible, potentially caustic oral medications should be discontinued. PMID:19392845

  19. Drug-Induced Cholestasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Hamilton; Jacqueline M. Laurin

    Medications and herbal supplements can induce a variety of hepatic, acute, and chronic cholestatic syndromes including bland\\u000a cholestasis, cholestasis with concurrent hepatitis, bile duct injury, and extrahepatic biliary strictures and stones. Most\\u000a cases of drug- and herbal-induced cholestasis are benign, but progression to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and death is\\u000a well described. We discuss the different types of cholestasis that

  20. Drug-induced uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates. PMID:23522744

  1. Promises of novel multi-target neuroprotective and neurorestorative drugs for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Youdim, Moussa B H; Kupershmidt, Lana; Amit, Tamar; Weinreb, Orly

    2014-01-01

    The cascade of neurotoxic events involved in neuronal degeneration suggests that it is naive to think mono-target drugs can induce disease modification by slowing the process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Employing the pharmacophore of rasagiline (N-propargyl-1-R-aminoindan), we have developed a series of novel multi-target neuroprotective drugs, including: (A) drugs [ladostigil, TV-3326 (N-propargyl-3R-aminoindan-5yl)-ethyl methylcarbamate)] with both cholinesterase-butyrylesterase (Ch-BuE) and brain-selective monamine oxidase-AB (MAO-AB) inhibitory activities and (B) iron chelator-radical scavenging drugs (M30) possessing brain-selective MAO-AB inhibitor activity and the neuroprotective-neurorescue propargylamine moiety of rasagiline. This was considered to be valid since brain MAO and iron increase in PD and aging, which could lead to oxidative stress-dependent neurodegeneration. The multi-target iron chelator, M30, has all the properties of ladostigil, but is not an acetylcholinesterase (CHE) inhibitor. However, M30 has both neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities for nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in post-lesion MPTP, lactacystin and 6-hydroxydopamine animal models of PD. The neurorestorative activity has been identified as being related to the ability of the drug to activate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by inhibiting prolyl-4-hydroxylase. M30 regulates cell cycle arrest and induces the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), as well as glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). These unique multiple actions of M30 make it potentially useful as a disease modifying drug for the treatment of PD. PMID:24262165

  2. Drug-induced immunotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dansette, P M; Bonierbale, E; Minoletti, C; Beaune, P H; Pessayre, D; Mansuy, D

    1998-01-01

    Immune-related drug responses are one of the most common sources of idiosyncratic toxicity. A number of organs may be the target of such reactions; however, this review concentrates mostly on the liver. Drug-induced hepatitis is generally divided into two categories: acute hepatitis in which the drug or a metabolite destroys a vital target in the cell; immunoallergic hepatitis in which the drug triggers an adverse immune response directed against the liver. Their clinical features are: a) low frequency; b) dose independence; c) typical immune system manifestations such as fever, eosinophilia; d) delay between the initiation of treatment and onset of the disease; e) a shortened delay upon rechallenge; and f) occasional presence of autoantibodies in the serum of patients. Such signs have been found in cases of hepatitis triggered by drugs such as halothane, tienilic acid, dihydralazine and anticonvulsants. They will be taken as examples to demonstrate the recent progress made in determining the mechanisms responsible for the disease. The following mechanisms have been postulated: 1) the drug is first metabolized into a reactive metabolite which binds to the enzyme that generated it; 2) this produces a neoantigen which, once presented to the immune system, might trigger an immune response characterized by 3) the production of antibodies recognizing both the native and/or the modified protein; 4) rechallenge leads to increased neoantigen production, a situation in which the presence of antibodies may induce cytolysis. Toxicity is related to the nature and amount of neoantigen and also to other factors such as the individual immune system. An effort should be made to better understand the precise mechanisms underlying this kind of disease and thereby identify the drugs at risk; and also the neoantigen processes necessary for their introduction into the immune system. An animal model would be useful in this regard. PMID:10323325

  3. Endpoints and Analyses to Discern Disease-Modifying Drug Effects in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkatesh Atul Bhattaram; Ohidul Siddiqui; Leonard P. Kapcala; Jogarao V. S. Gobburu

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is an age-related degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer’s\\u000a motor skills and speech, as well as other functions. Symptoms can include tremor, stiffness, slowness of movement, and impaired\\u000a balance. An estimated four million people worldwide suffer from the disease, which usually affects people over the age of\\u000a 60. Presently, there is no

  4. Prescribing Pattern of Anti-Parkinson Drugs in Japan: A Trend Analysis from 2005 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoka, Sachiko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Urushihara, Hisashi; Satoh, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Shunya; Yamamoto, Mitsutoshi; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Therapeutic options for Parkinson's disease mainly consist of L-dopa and dopamine agonists. However, in Japan, the product labeling of the ergot dopamine agonists, cabergoline and pergolide, was revised in April 2007 due to the risk of developing cardiac valvulopathy. Here, we describe the prescribing trends of anti-Parkinson drugs from 2005 through 2010 in Japan, and examined whether these trends changed after the drug safety measures in 2007. Methods and Patients We used medical claim data from January 2005 to December 2010 for Parkinson's disease patients older than 30 years who were prescribed anti-Parkinson drugs. We calculated the proportion of patients prescribed each drug for each year, and compared the proportions of first-line drugs prescribed before and after April 2007. We also examined the prescription variations of cabergoline/pergolide users one year before or after April 2007. Results L-dopa was the most frequently prescribed drug for Parkinson's disease (2005, 58%; 2010, 51%). The proportion of patients prescribed ergot dopamine agonists markedly decreased and non-ergot dopamine agonists increased after 2007. Among first-line drugs, the proportion of non-ergot agents increased after April 2007. Among 54 cabergoline/pergolide users, 24 (44%) discontinued these drugs, nine of whom switched to non-ergot agents. Conclusion L-dopa was the mainstay of Parkinson's disease treatment between 2005 and 2010 in Japan. There was a decrease in ergot agents and an increase in non-ergot agents prescribed after the regulatory actions in 2007. PMID:24906013

  5. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Dimitar; Kazandjieva, Jana; Etugov, Doncho; Gospodinov, Dimitar; Tsankov, Nikolai

    2004-01-01

    Among the numerous idiopathic immune-mediated diseases that can be drug-induced, such as pemphigus, psoriasis, lichen, etc, drug-induced lupus is the most widely commented upon and investigated. The terms drug-induced lupus (DIL) and drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE) are preferred, but other ones are also used--drug-related lupus, lupus-like syndrome, and lupus erythematosus medicamentosus. This review discusses the general issues in DILE, such as pathogenic mechanisms, clinical forms, and diagnostic criteria, and provides more detailed information for some of the implicated drugs: minocycline, statins, terbinafine, etc. PMID:15234017

  6. Intrastriatal injections of KN-93 ameliorates levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinxin; Wu, Na; Song, Lu; Liu, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    Background Levodopa remains the most effective drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, long-term levodopa treatment is associated with the emergence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), which has hampered its use for PD treatment. The mechanisms of LID are only partially understood. A previous study showed that KN-93, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor, could be used to ameliorate LID in rats. However, the precise mechanisms by which KN-93 acts as an antidyskinetic are not fully understood. Methods In the present study, a rat model of PD was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA) injections. Then, the successfully lesioned rats were intrastriatally administered with a different dose of KN-93 (1 ?g, 2 ?g, or 5 ?g) prior to levodopa treatment. Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) scores and apomorphine-induced rotations were measured in PD rats. Phosphorylated levels of GluR1 at Serine-845 (pGluR1S845) levels were determined by western blot. Arc and Penk levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results We found that both 2 ?g and 5 ?g KN-93 treatment lowered AIMs scores in levodopa priming PD rats without affecting the antiparkinsonian effect of levodopa. In agreement with behavioral analysis, KN-93 treatment (2 ?g) reduced pGluR1S845 levels in PD rats. Moreover, KN-93 treatment (2 ?g) reduced the expression of Gad1 and Nur77 in PD rats. Conclusion These data indicated that intrastriatal injections of KN-93 were beneficial in reducing the expression of LID by lowering the expression of pGluR1S845 via suppressing the activation of CaMKII in PD rats. Decreased expression of pGluR1S845 further reduced the expression of Gad1 and Nur77 in PD rats. PMID:23983471

  7. Drug-induced sexual dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Goldstein; Robert J. Krane

    1983-01-01

    Drug-induced sexual dysfunction is a relatively common yet poorly understood clinical problem. The mechanisms whereby various drug classes alter sexual function remain poorly documented. An attempt has been made, based on recent advances in sexual physiology, to clarify drug-induced sexual dysfunction on the basis of possible or probable mechanisms of action. It is hoped that this approach may ultimately allow

  8. Piribedil-induced sleep attacks in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, E K

    2003-02-01

    'Sleep attacks', episodes of sudden onset of sleep without any prodromal symptoms, were initially described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) taking the newer dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropinirole. Piribedil, a nonergot agonist with both D2 and D3 agonist action, is an effective antiparkinsonian medication. However, there are very few reports of Piribedil-induced sleep attacks in PD. Among 50 PD patients seen at our Movement Disorder Clinic who had recently taken Piribedil, we identified three (6%) who satisfied the clinical description of sleep attacks. Here we provide details of the clinical characteristics of Piribedil-induced sleep attacks in these PD patients. PMID:12588638

  9. Drug development in Parkinson's disease: from emerging molecules to innovative drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Garbayo, E; Ansorena, E; Blanco-Prieto, M J

    2013-11-01

    Current treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at addressing motor symptoms but there is no therapy focused on modifying the course of the disease. Successful treatment strategies have been so far limited and brain drug delivery remains a major challenge that restricts its treatment. This review provides an overview of the most promising emerging agents in the field of PD drug discovery, discussing improvements that have been made in brain drug delivery for PD. It will be shown that new approaches able to extend the length of the treatment, to release the drug in a continuous manner or to cross the blood-brain barrier and target a specific region are still needed. Overall, the results reviewed here show that there is an urgent need to develop both symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments, giving priority to neuroprotective treatments. Promising perspectives are being provided in this field by rasagiline and by neurotrophic factors like glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The identification of disease-relevant genes has also encouraged the search for disease-modifying therapies that function by identifying molecularly targeted drugs. The advent of new molecular and cellular targets like ?-synuclein, leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase 2 or parkin, among others, will require innovative delivery therapies. In this regard, drug delivery systems (DDS) have shown great potential for improving the efficacy of conventional and new PD therapy and reducing its side effects. The new DDS discussed here, which include microparticles, nanoparticles and hydrogels among others, will probably open up possibilities that extend beyond symptomatic relief. However, further work needs to be done before DDS become a therapeutic option for PD patients. PMID:23827471

  10. Why Do We Need Multifunctional Neuroprotective and Neurorestorative Drugs for Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Youdim, Moussa B. H.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are severe neurodegenerative disorders, with no drugs that are currently approved to prevent the neuronal cell loss characteristic in brains of patients suffering from PD and AD, and all drug treatments are symptomatic and monomodal in their action. Due to the complex pathophysiology, including a cascade of neurotoxic molecular events that result in neuronal death and predisposition to depression and eventual dementia, and etiology of these disorders, an innovative approach towards neuroprotection or neurorestoration (neurorescue) is the development and use of multifunctional pharmaceuticals which can act at different brain regions and neurons. Such drugs target an array of pathological pathways, each of which is believed to contribute to the cascades that ultimately lead to neuronal cell death. In this short review, we discuss examples of novel multifunctional ligands that may have potential as neuroprotective-neurorestorative therapeutics in PD and AD, some of which are under development. The compounds discussed originate from synthetic chemistry as well as from natural sources. PMID:23908783

  11. Excessive levels of nitric oxide in rat model of Parkinson’s disease induced by rotenone

    PubMed Central

    XIONG, ZHONG-KUI; LANG, JUAN; XU, GANG; LI, HAI-YU; ZHANG, YUN; WANG, LEI; SU, YAO; SUN, AI-JING

    2015-01-01

    Systemic rotenone models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are highly reproducible and may provide evidence on the pathogenesis of PD. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats (1-year-old) were subcutaneously administered with rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day) for six days and observed for the following three weeks. Compared with the control rats, a significant decrease was observed in the body weight and a marked increase was observed in the areas under the behavioral scoring curves in the rotenone-treated rats. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the abundance of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons was markedly reduced following rotenone treatment. ELISA and neurochemical assays demonstrated a significant increase in the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase, whereas a marked decrease was observed in the thiol levels in the brains of the rotenone-treated rats. Thus, subacute rotenone treatment was found to induce behavioral deficits and the loss of nigral TH-positive neurons which may be associated with the excessive levels of NO in the rat brains. PMID:25574233

  12. Mechanism of neuroprotective action of the anti-Parkinson drug rasagiline and its derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Mandel; Orly Weinreb; Tamar Amit; Moussa B. H. Youdim

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondria are directly involved in cell survival and death. Drugs that protect mitochondria viability and prevent apoptotic cascade mechanisms involved in mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTp) will be cytoprotective. Rasagiline (N-propargyl-1R-aminoindan) is a novel, highly potent irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO) B inhibitor, anti-Parkinson drug. Unlike selegiline, rasagiline is not derived from amphetamine, is not metabolized to neurotoxic l-methamphetamine derivative,

  13. A bidirectional drug repositioning approach for Parkinson's disease through network-based inference.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Hindol; Chatterjee, Paulami; Roy, Debjani

    2015-02-13

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is one of the most prevailing neurodegenerative disorders. Novel computational approaches are required to find new ways of using the existing drugs or drug repositioning, as currently there exists no cure for PD. We proposed a new bidirectional drug repositioning method that consists of Top-down and Bottom-up approaches and finally gives information about significant repositioning drug candidates. This method takes into account of the topological significance of drugs in the tripartite Indication-drug-target network (IDTN) as well the significance of their targets in the PD-specific protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). 9 non-Parkinsonian drugs have been proposed as the significant repositioning candidates for PD. In order to find out the efficiency of the repositioning candidates we introduced a parameter called the On-target ratio (OTR). The average OTR value of final repositioning candidates has been found to be higher than that of known PD specific drugs. PMID:25576361

  14. Ranitidine reduced levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guiyun; Yang, Xinxin; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zunsheng; Yue, Xuanye; Shi, Hongjuan; Shen, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic administration of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease leads to debilitating involuntary movements, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). The pathogenesis of LID is poorly understood. Previous research has shown that histamine H2 receptors are highly expressed in the input (striatum) and output (globus pallidus, substantia nigra) regions of the basal ganglia, particularly in the GABAergic striatopallidal and striatonigral pathways. Therefore, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist could be used to reduce LID. In the present work, we investigated whether ranitidine has the potential to diminish LID in rats with dyskinesia and explored the underlying mechanisms involved. Methods A rat model of PD was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Valid PD rats were then treated with levodopa (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and benserazide (12.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 21 days to induce a rat model of LID. The acute and chronic effects of administration of ranitidine at different doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg) on abnormal involuntary movements, levodopa-induced rotations, and the forelimb adjusting steps test were investigated in LID rats. The chronic effect of ranitidine (10 mg/kg) on the expression of Arc and proenkephalin was also evaluated. Results Levodopa elicited increased dyskinesia in PD rats. Acute ranitidine treatment had no effect on LID, but chronic ranitidine administration (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg) reduced LID in rats with dyskinesia. Importantly, levodopa-induced rotations were not affected by chronic treatment with ranitidine. In addition, chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg) significantly improved stepping of the lesioned forepaw. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that Arc and proenkephalin levels were reduced by chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg) in dyskinetic rats. Conclusion These data indicate that ranitidine is a good adjunct for reducing LID in rats with dyskinesia. Inhibition of dopamine D1-mediated activation in the medium spiny neurons may account for the antidyskinetic effects of ranitidine in rats with dyskinesia. PMID:24379672

  15. Drug-induced psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D A

    1981-07-01

    This article is a review of the principal drug-induced psychiatric symptoms that are likely to be encountered in daily clinical practice as a result of drug abuse, overdoses or side effects of drugs prescribed for treatment. Many categories of medication have the potential to produce psychiatric symptoms, but antitubercular drugs, hypotensive agents and steroids have the highest incidence in clinical practice. Additionally, the problems of alcohol are all too frequently overlooked. The variety and frequency of secondary psychiatric symptoms which may be drug-related emphasise the importance of a careful consideration of all drugs taken by a patient with psychiatric complaints, to determine causal association with symptoms. PMID:6114850

  16. Apomorphine-induced penile erections in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, J D; Hughes, A J

    1998-05-01

    Penile erections were regularly induced by intermittent subcutaneous injections of apomorphine in five patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) complicated by motor fluctuations. Four of the patients reported erectile dysfunction before beginning apomorphine and two of these report a significant improvement in their sexual function resulting from apomorphine use. Animal studies suggest central D2-type dopamine receptor stimulation and oxytocin release from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus mediate the effect. Erections reported with other dopamine agonists and levodopa are probably mediated by the same mechanism. Apomorphine-induced erections in PD are probably more common than previously thought. The benefit of apomorphine on sexual function in some patients suggests a possible role in the treatment of impotence in PD. PMID:9613749

  17. Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Beng H; Choi, Philip Young-Ill; Khachigian, Levon; Perdomo, Jose

    2013-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia is caused by immune reactions elicited by diverse drugs in clinical practice. The activity of the drug-dependent antibodies produces a marked decrease in blood platelets and a risk of serious bleeding. Understanding of the cellular mechanisms that drive drug-induced thrombocytopenia has advanced recently but there is still a need for improved laboratory tests and treatment options. This article provides an overview of the different types of drug-induced thrombocytopenia, discusses potential pathologic mechanisms, and considers diagnostic methods and treatment options. PMID:23714310

  18. Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity: the road to Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bessy Thrash; Kariharan Thiruchelvan; Manuj Ahuja; Vishnu Suppiramaniam; Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran

    Studies have implicated methamphetamine exposure as a contributor to the development of Parkinson's disease. There is a signifi- cant degree of striatal dopamine depletion produced by methamphetamine, which makes the toxin useful in the creation of an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with selective degenera- tion of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. The immediate

  19. An anti-Parkinson drug ropinirole depletes orexin from rat hypothalamic slice culture.

    PubMed

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Hisatsune, Akinori; Isohama, Yoichiro; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2010-12-01

    Non-ergot-type dopamine receptor agonists such as ropinirole are used for the treatment of Parkinson disease, but they occasionally show serious side effects including sleep attacks and daytime sleepiness. These symptoms are reminiscent of narcolepsy, a major sleep disorder. Because narcolepsy is thought to result from deficiency of a hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin, we examined whether ropinirole affected the integrity of orexin-containing neurons, using organotypic slice culture of rat hypothalamus. Application of ropinirole induced a significant decrease in the number of orexin-immunoreactive neurons. The same treatment showed no significant effect on the number of melanin-concentrating hormone-immunoreactive neurons. The decrease of orexin-immunoreactive neurons was reversible after washout of ropinirole and was not accompanied by induction of cell death. Antagonism of dopamine D(2) receptors and of serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors attenuated the effect of ropinirole, suggesting involvement of these receptors in depletion of orexin. On the other hand, a moderate concentration of N-methyl-d-aspartate that excited orexin neurons counteracted the effect of ropinirole on the number of orexin-immunoreactive neurons. These results suggest that ropinirole can cause deficiency of orexin by inhibiting excitatory activities of orexin neurons, which may be relevant to the adverse actions of this drug on sleep and wakefulness. PMID:20727917

  20. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: emerging treatments.

    PubMed

    Bargiotas, Panagiotis; Konitsiotis, Spyridon

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease therapy is still focused on the use of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa or L-dopa) for the symptomatic treatment of the main clinical features of the disease, despite intensive pharmacological research in the last few decades. However, regardless of its effectiveness, the long-term use of levodopa causes, in combination with disease progression, the development of motor complications termed levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs). LIDs are the result of profound modifications in the functional organization of the basal ganglia circuitry, possibly related to the chronic and pulsatile stimulation of striatal dopaminergic receptors by levodopa. Hence, for decades the key feature of a potentially effective agent against LIDs has been its ability to ensure more continuous dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. The growing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of LIDs and the increasing evidence on involvement of nondopaminergic systems raises the possibility of more promising therapeutic approaches in the future. In the current review, we focus on novel therapies for LIDs in Parkinson's disease, based mainly on agents that interfere with glutamatergic, serotonergic, adenosine, adrenergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission that are currently in testing or clinical development. PMID:24174877

  1. Contrasting neuroprotective and neurotoxic actions of respective metabolites of anti-Parkinson drugs rasagiline and selegiline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orit Bar Am; Tamar Amit; Moussa B. H. Youdim

    2004-01-01

    The anti-Parkinson selective irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor drugs, rasagiline and selegiline, have been shown to possess neuroprotective activities in cell culture and in vivo models. While rasagiline is metabolized to its major metabolite aminoindan, selegiline gives rise to l-methamphetamine. Cultured PC-12 cells in absence of serum and nerve growth factor (NGF) die by an apoptotic process. Pretreatment of PC12

  2. Drug-induced diarrhea

    MedlinePLUS

    Diarrhea associated with medications ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...

  3. [Drug-induced liver injury].

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Libri, Emanuela; Bosco, Domenico; Gallo, Dionisio; Luzza, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    Drug-induced liver injury represents the principal cause of acute liver failure and orthotopic liver transplantation in western country. A very large number of different drugs and medicinal herbs has been associated with liver injury but just for few of them we know the process that causes liver disease. All the people which ingest a large number of drugs present a risk of developing liver injury. Diagnosis is very difficult because a specific biomarker of damage is absent and the clinical picture is common to other liver diseases. A therapeutic approach is efficacy only in few cases. When a drug-induced liver injury is suspected, cessation of the drug is the first step in their management. PMID:22430754

  4. Rotigotine is safe and efficacious in Atypical Parkinsonism Syndromes induced by both ?-synucleinopathy and tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide Vito; Binetti, Giuliano; Zanetti, Orazio; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal rotigotine (RTG) is a non-ergot dopamine agonist (D3>D2>D1), and is indicated for use in early and advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). RTG patch has many potential advantages due to the immediacy of onset of the therapeutic effect. Of note, intestinal absorption is not necessary and drug delivery is constant, thereby avoiding drug peaks and helping patient compliance. In turn, transdermal RTG seems a suitable candidate in the treatment of atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APS). Fifty-one subjects with a diagnosis of APS were treated with transdermal RTG. The diagnoses were: Parkinson’s disease with dementia, multiple system atrophy Parkinsonian type, multiple system atrophy cerebellar type, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism. Patients were evaluated by the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS; part III), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and mini–mental state examination (MMSE) and all adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Patients treated with RTG showed an overall decrease of UPDRS III scores without increasing behavioral disturbances. Main AEs were hypotension, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, tachycardia, and dystonia. On the whole, 15 patients were affected by AEs and seven patients suspended RTG treatment due to AEs. The results show that transdermal RTG is effective with a good tolerability profile. RTG patch could be a good therapeutic tool in patients with APS. PMID:24940065

  5. Frequency of New-Onset Pathologic Compulsive Gambling or Hypersexuality After Drug Treatment of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Hecksel, Kathleen A.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Bower, James H.; Ahlskog, J. Eric

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of new-onset compulsive gambling or hypersexuality among regional patients with Parkinson disease (PD), ascertaining the relationship of these behaviors to PD drug use. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients from 7 rural southeastern Minnesota counties who had at least 1 neurology appointment for PD between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2006. The main outcome measure was compulsive gambling or hypersexuality developing after parkinsonism onset, including the temporal relationship to PD drug use. RESULTS: Of 267 patients with PD who met the study inclusion criteria, new-onset gambling or hypersexuality was documented in 7 (2.6%). All were among the 66 patients (10.6%) taking a dopamine agonist. Moreover, all 7 (18.4%) were among 38 patients taking therapeutic doses (defined as ?2 mg of pramipexole or 6 mg of ropinirole daily). Behaviors were clearly pathologic and disabling in 5: 7.6% of all patients taking an agonist and 13.2% of those taking therapeutic doses. Of the 5 patients, 2 had extensive treatment for what was considered a primary psychiatric problem before the agonist connection was recognized. CONCLUSION: Among the study patients with PD, new-onset compulsive gambling or hypersexuality was documented in 7 (18.4%) of 38 patients taking therapeutic doses of dopamine agonists but was not found among untreated patients, those taking subtherapeutic agonist doses, or those taking carbidopa/levodopa alone. Behaviors abated with discontinuation of agonist therapy or dose reduction. Because this is a retrospective study, cases may have been missed, and hence this study may reflect an underestimation of the true frequency. Physicians who care for patients taking these drugs should recognize the drug's potential to induce pathologic syndromes that sometimes masquerade as primary psychiatric disease. PMID:19339647

  6. Drug-induced nail disorders.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects. PMID:25162091

  7. Gastrodia elata Blume alleviates L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia by normalizing FosB and ERK activation in a 6-OHDA-lesioned Parkinson’s disease mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB), commonly used medicinal herb, has been reported as a promising candidate for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. The dopamine precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), is the gold-standard drug for Parkinson’s disease, but long-term treatment results in the L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). This study was undertaken to examine the beneficial effects of GEB on L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced experimental Parkinsonism. Methods We tested the effects of GEB on LID in 6-hydroxydopamine hydrochloride-hemiparkinsonian mice. To analyze the dyskinetic anomalies, we measured abnormal involuntary movement (AIM). Immunohistological analyses of pERK and FosB expressions in the striatum are performed to explore the mechanism of GEB on LID. Results The finding of this study demonstrated that GEB (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) alleviated L-dopa induced AIMs in a dose-dependent manner. In each integrative AIM subtype analysis, we also found that the GEB (400 and 800 mg/kg) treatment decreased L-DOPA-induced axial, limb, orolingual, and locomotive AIMs compared to the LID group. In addition, GEB normalized the abnormal LID-induced increase of pERK1/2 and FosB, the immediate early genes of LID in the striatum. Conclusions In conclusion, our results provide a novel insight into the pharmacological actions of GEB that could have a benefit for PD patients through the reduction of LID. PMID:24650244

  8. Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

  9. Drug-induced hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... induced hypertension are the same as those of primary hypertension, and may include: Anxiety Chest pain Confusion Excessive perspiration Headache Muscle tremors Nausea and vomiting Pale skin or redness Tiredness ...

  10. [Drug treatment of early-stage (de novo and "honeymoon") Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Cesaro, P; Defebvre, L

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the management of motor symptoms during the early phases of Parkinson's disease, excluding that of any other clinical manifestation. We relied primarily upon recently published data and do not describe older publications relating to anticholinergic drugs or amantadine. The initial pharmacological treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is symptomatic and remains based upon dopaminergic drugs. However, the development of new drugs has broadened the range of strategic options and improved overall patient management. Announcing the diagnosis is a critical moment, as pointed out by patients' associations. Patients should be advised to maintain personal, professional, social and physical activities as long as possible. The potential benefit of early pharmacological treatment should be explained, focusing on the possible disease-modifying effect of drugs such as rasagiline. According to current guidelines, L-Dopa is preferred in patients above 65years of age, while those below 65 should be treated with dopamine agonists. Like monoamine oxidase inhibitors B (MAOI-B), synthetic dopamine agonists exhibit several advantages: easy-to-use treatment with a once-daily administration, delayed L-Dopa initiation, significant efficacy on motor symptoms (although lower than that of L-Dopa). MOAI can be prescribed in association with L-Dopa or dopamine agonists. Rasagiline also delays L-Dopa initiation, and consequently motor complications. PMID:24673985

  11. Drug induced pulmonary parenchymal disease.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Gupta, Pawan; Singh, Abhijeet; Goel, Nitin

    2014-12-01

    Drug-induced pulmonary parenchymal disease (DIPPD) can be caused by a variety of agents, including antibiotics, chemotherapeutic drugs, antiarrhythmic agents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). DIPPD includes acute bronchospasm, organizing pneumonia, alveolar hypoventilation and hypersensitivity reactions. History, physical examination and investigations are required mainly to exclude other causes of lung diseases. Investigations may include chest radiography, pulmonary function testing and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Recognition of DIPPD is difficult because the clinical, radiologic, and histologic findings are nonspecific. Management includes drug withdrawal and in some cases corticosteroid therapy. In this article we reviewed the various drugs known to cause pulmonary parenchymal diseases, various patterns of parenchymal diseases observed and their management. PMID:25639301

  12. [Drug-induced urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Reveillaud, R J; Daudon, M

    1983-10-29

    All urinary calculi should be thoroughly examined. Among 2 000 calculi analyzed by infra-red spectrophotometry, some were found to contain rare constituants and drugs which might be held responsible for urinary stone formation. These included glafenine, triamterene, co-trimoxazole, sulphaguanidine, allopurinol, phenazopyridine, flumequine and anti-acid powders containing aluminium, calcium and magnesium trisilicates and/or carbonates or bicarbonates. Considering that these drugs are widely used, the incidence of drug-induced urinary calculi appears to be very low. PMID:6138768

  13. Parkinson's disease induced pluripotent stem cells with triplication of the ?-synuclein locus

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Michael J.; Ryten, Mina; Vodicka, Petr; Thomson, Alison J.; Burdon, Tom; Houlden, Henry; Cavaleri, Fatima; Nagano, Masumi; Drummond, Nicola J.; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Schapira, Anthony H.; Gwinn, Katrina; Hardy, John; Lewis, Patrick A.; Kunath, Tilo

    2011-01-01

    A major barrier to research on Parkinson's disease is inaccessibility of diseased tissue for study. One solution is to derive induced pluripotent stem cells from patients and differentiate them into neurons affected by disease. Triplication of SNCA, encoding ?-synuclein, causes a fully penetrant, aggressive form of Parkinson's disease with dementia. ?-Synuclein dysfunction is the critical pathogenic event in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Here we produce multiple induced pluripotent stem cell lines from an SNCA triplication patient and an unaffected first-degree relative. When these cells are differentiated into midbrain dopaminergic neurons, those from the patient produce double the amount of ?-synuclein protein as neurons from the unaffected relative, precisely recapitulating the cause of Parkinson's disease in these individuals. This model represents a new experimental system to identify compounds that reduce levels of ?-synuclein, and to investigate the mechanistic basis of neurodegeneration caused by ?-synuclein dysfunction. PMID:21863007

  14. Multi target neuroprotective and neurorestorative anti-Parkinson and anti-Alzheimer drugs ladostigil and m30 derived from rasagiline.

    PubMed

    Youdim, Moussa B H

    2013-03-01

    Present anti-PD and -AD drugs have limited symptomatic activity and devoid of neuroprotective and neurorestorative property that is needed for disease modifying action. The complex pathology of PD and AD led us to develop several multi-target neuroprotective and neurorestorative drugs with several CNS targets with the ability for possible disease modifying activity. Employing the pharmacophore of our anti-parkinson drug rasagiline (Azilect, N-propagrgyl-1-R-aminoindan), we have developed a series of novel multi-functional neuroprotective drugs (A) [TV-3326 (N-propargyl-3R-aminoindan-5yl)-ethyl methylcarbamate)], with both cholinesterase-butyrylesterase and brain selective monoamine-oxidase (MAO) A/B inhibitory activities and (B) the iron chelator-radical scavenging-brain selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) A/B inhibitor and M30 possessing the neuroprotective and neurorescuing propargyl moiety of rasagiline, as potential treatment of AD, DLB and PD with dementia. Another series of multi-target drugs (M30, HLA-20 series) which are brain permeable iron chelators and potent selective brain MAO inhibitors were also developed. These series of drugs have the ability of regulating and processing amyloid precursor protein (APP) since APP and alpha-synuclein are metaloproteins (iron-regulated proteins), with an iron responsive element 5"UTR mRNA similar to transferring and ferritin. Ladostigil inhibits brain acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase in rats after oral doses. After chronic but not acute treatment, it inhibits MAO-A and -B in the brain. Ladostigil acts like an anti-depressant in the forced swim test in rats, indicating a potential for anti-depressant activity. Ladostigil prevents the destruction of nigrostriatal neurons induced by infusion of neurotoxin MPTP in mice. The propargylamine moiety of ladostigil confers neuroprotective activity against cytotoxicity induced by ischemia and peroxynitrite in cultured neuronal cells. The multi-target iron chelator M30 has all the properties of ladostigil and similar neuroprotective activity to ladostigil, but is not a ChE inhibitor. M30 has a neurorestorative activity in post-lesion of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in MPTP, lacatcystin and 6-hydroxydopamine animal models of PD. The neurorestorative activity is related to the ability of the drug to activate hypoxia inducing factor (HIF) which induces the production of such neurotrophins as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin as well as glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). The unique multiple actions of ladostigil and M30 make the potentially useful drugs for the treatment of dementia with Parkinsonian-like symptoms and depression. PMID:23585716

  15. Mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), shows multiple pharmacological actions such as inhibiting presynaptic ?2 noradrenaline receptor (NAR) and selectively activating 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) 1A receptor (5-HT1AR). Mirtazapine was also reported to increase dopamine release in the cortical neurons with 5-HT dependent manner. To examine whether mirtazapine has a therapeutic potency in Parkinson’s disease (PD), we examined this compound in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice model of PD. Results Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to MPTP treatment to establish a PD model. Mirtazapine was administered once a day for 3 days after MPTP treatment. MPTP-induced motor dysfunction, assessed by beam-walking and rota-rod tests, was significantly improved by administration of mirtazapine. Biochemical examinations by high performance liquid chromatography and western blot analysis suggested mirtazapine facilitated utilization of dopamine by increasing turnover and protein expression of transporters, without affecting on neurodegenerative process by MPTP. These therapeutic effects of mirtazapine were reduced by administration of WAY100635, an inhibitor for 5HT1AR, or of clonidine, a selective agonist for ?2-NAR, or of prazosin, an inhibitor for ?1-NAR, respectively. Conclusion Our results showed mirtazapine had a therapeutic potency against PD in a mouse model. Because PD patients sometimes show depression together, it will be a useful drug for a future PD treatment. PMID:24965042

  16. Dopamine transporter availability in motor subtypes of de novo drug-naďve Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Pappatŕ, Sabina; Picillo, Marina; Erro, Roberto; Coda, Anna Rita Daniela; Longo, Katia; Vitale, Carmine; Amboni, Marianna; Brunetti, Arturo; Capo, Giuseppe; Salvatore, Marco; Barone, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Tremor dominant (TD) and akinetic-rigid type (ART) are two motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease associated with different disease progression and neurochemical/neuropathological features. The role of presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage is still controversial, poorly explored, and only assessed in medicated patients. In this study, we investigated with FP-CIT SPECT the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in drug-naďve PD patients with ART and TD phenotypes. Fifty-one de novo, drug-naďve patients with PD underwent FP-CIT SPECT studies. Patients were evaluated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III and Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) and divided into ART (24/51) and TD (27/51) according to UPDRS part III. ART and TD patients were not different with regard to age, gender, and disease duration. However, compared to TD, ART patients presented higher UPDRS part III (p = 0.01) and H&Y (p = 0.02) and lower DAT availability in affected and unaffected putamen (p = 0.008 and p = 0.007, respectively), whereas no differences were found in caudate. Moreover, in the whole group of patients, rigidity and bradykinesia, but not tremor scores of UPDRS part III were significantly related to FP-CIT binding in the putamen. These results suggest that in newly diagnosed drug-naďve PD patients DAT availability might be different between ART and TD in relation to different disease severity. PMID:25119838

  17. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the incidence of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Hernán, Miguel A; Logroscino, Giancarlo; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2006-04-11

    Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decrease the incidence of Parkinson disease (PD). The authors studied 1,258 PD cases and 6,638 controls from the General Practice Research Database. The odds ratios (95% CI) for ever vs never use were 0.93 (0.80 to 1.08) for nonaspirin NSAIDs, 1.29 (1.05 to 1.58) for aspirin, and 1.16 (1.00 to 1.35) for acetaminophen. Nonaspirin NSAID use was associated with a higher risk in women and a lower risk in men. PMID:16606925

  18. Drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Leise, Michael D; Poterucha, John J; Talwalkar, Jayant A

    2014-01-01

    Drug hepatoxicity can be nonidiosyncratic (predictable), as in the case of acetaminophen, or idiosyncratic (unpredictable). This review article focuses primarily on idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). New epidemiologic data suggest that approximately 20 new cases of DILI per 100,000 persons occur each year. Idiosyncratic DILI accounts for 11% of the cases of acute liver failure in the United States. Risk factors for DILI include medication dose, drug lipophilicity, and extent of hepatic metabolism. There is mixed evidence to support the role of host factors such as age, sex, and chronic liver disease in the development of DILI. For specific drugs, a genetic predisposition appears to be a risk factor for DILI. Suspected cases of idiosyncratic DILI should be categorized as hepatitic, cholestatic, or mixed on the basis of the degree/ratio of abnormalities in the alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. A careful evaluation for other causes of liver disease should be performed, though a liver biopsy is rarely needed. There is evidence that some patients with DILI may actually have hepatitis E and this diagnosis should be considered. Amoxicillin/clavulanate isoniazid, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most common causes of DILI. Drug discontinuation or dechallenge should lead to an improvement in liver biochemistries in most patients, though a bilirubin value of more than 3 g/dL is associated with mortality of at least 10%. New biomarkers for DILI using proteomics and micro RNA appear promising but require further study. New studies on drugs with potential for causing DILI are reviewed herein, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, fluoroquinolones, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, statins, and supplements. PubMed was used with search terms of drug induced liver injury OR DILI with filter settings of "English language" and "humans" and custom date range of "January 1, 2000." The authors also manually searched bibliographies from key references and included seminal references before the year 2000. PMID:24388027

  19. Drug-induced visceral angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Thalanayar, Prashanth M.; Ghobrial, Ibrahim; Lubin, Fritz; Karnik, Reena; Bhasin, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Angioedema associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is due to the accumulation of bradykinin and its metabolites. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce anti-hypertensive effects by blocking the angiotensin II AT1 receptor action; hence bradykinin-related side effects are not expected. However, we notice the occurrence of ARB-induced angioedema as not a very rare side effect. Visceral drug-induced angioedema has been reported with ACEIs, not with ARBs. This underlying review will help educate readers on the pathophysiology and recent guidelines pertaining to ACEI- and ARB-induced visceral angioedema. PMID:25317271

  20. Human alkaloid biosynthesis : chemical inducers of Parkinson's disease?

    E-print Network

    Hatzios, Stavroula K. (Stavroula-Artemis K.)

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of certain alkaloids in the human brain appears to be associated with the onset of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, a human protein bearing homology to an alkaloid synthase in plants was identified. This ...

  1. Pharmacological properties of the anti-Parkinson drug rasagiline; modification of endogenous brain amines, reserpine reversal, serotonergic and dopaminergic behaviours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. M. Finberg; Moussa B. H. Youdim

    2002-01-01

    Rasagiline [N-propargyl-1R(+)-aminoindan; TVP1012] is a potent irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor with selectivity for type B of the enzyme, which is being developed for treatment of Parkinson’s disease. In this study we examined effects of rasagiline on CNS monoamine levels, modification of behavioural response to L-tryptophan, fluoxetine and L-DOPA, and reversal of reserpine syndrome. Reserpine-induced ptosis was reversed by rasagiline

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Pesticide-induced Neurotoxicity: Relevance to Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rodrigo; Li, Sumin; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Burns, Michaela; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural and other settings, resulting in continued human exposure. Pesticide toxicity has been clearly demonstrated to alter a variety of neurological functions. Particularly, there is strong evidence suggesting that pesticide exposure predisposes to neurodegenerative diseases. Epidemiological data has suggested a relationship between pesticide exposure and brain neurodegeneration. However, an increasing debate has aroused regarding this issue. Paraquat is a highly toxic quaternary nitrogen herbicide which has been largely studied as a model for Parkinson’s disease providing valuable insight into the possible mechanisms involved in the toxic effects of pesticides and their role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we review the molecular mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic actions of pesticides, with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms associated with the induction neuronal cell death by paraquat as a model for Parkinsonian neurodegeneration. PMID:20542017

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Joel E; Caffrey, Tara M; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2013-12-01

    iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells) are the newest tool used to model PD (Parkinson's disease). Fibroblasts from patients carrying pathogenic mutations that lead to PD have been reprogrammed into iPSCs, which can subsequently be differentiated into important cell types. Given the characteristic loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of PD patients, iPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons have been generated to investigate pathogenic mechanisms in this important cell type as a means of modelling PD. iPSC-derived cultures studied so far have been made from patients carrying mutations in LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2), PINK1 [PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10)-induced putative kinase 1], PARK2 (encodes parkin) or GBA (?-glucocerebrosidase), in addition to those with SNCA (?-synuclein) multiplication and idiopathic PD. In some cases, isogenic control lines have been created to minimize inherent variability between lines from different individuals. Disruptions in autophagy, mitochondrial function and dopamine biology at the synapse have been described. Future applications for iPSC-derived models of PD beyond modelling include drug testing and the ability to investigate the genetic diversity of PD. PMID:24256244

  4. Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guridi, J.; González-Redondo, R.; Obeso, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Dyskinetic disorders are characterized by excess of motor activity that may interfere with normal movement control. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the chronic levodopa treatment induces dyskinetic movements known as levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). This paper analyzed the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, pharmacological treatments, and surgical procedures to treat hyperkinetic disorders. Surgery is currently the only treatment available for Parkinson's disease that may improve both parkinsonian motor syndrome and LID. However, this paper shows the different mechanisms involved are not well understood. PMID:23125942

  5. A Tribute to Charlie Chaplin: Induced Positive Affect Improves Reward-Based Decision-Learning in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; Band, Guido P. H.; Wylie, Scott A.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Hees, Pieter; Buitenweg, Jessika; van de Vijver, Irene; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Reward-based decision-learning refers to the process of learning to select those actions that lead to rewards while avoiding actions that lead to punishments. This process, known to rely on dopaminergic activity in striatal brain regions, is compromised in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We hypothesized that such decision-learning deficits are alleviated by induced positive affect, which is thought to incur transient boosts in midbrain and striatal dopaminergic activity. Computational measures of probabilistic reward-based decision-learning were determined for 51 patients diagnosed with PD. Previous work has shown these measures to rely on the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the early phases of learning) and the putamen (reward prediction during later phases of learning). We observed that induced positive affect facilitated learning, through its effects on reward prediction rather than outcome evaluation. Viewing a few minutes of comedy clips served to remedy dopamine-related problems associated with frontostriatal circuitry and, consequently, learning to predict which actions will yield reward. PMID:22707944

  6. Ellagic acid improves hyperalgesia and cognitive deficiency in 6-hydroxidopamine induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dolatshahi, Mojtaba; Farbood, Yaghoob; Sarkaki, Alireza; Mansouri, Seyed Mohammad Taqhi; Khodadadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Parkinson’s disease (PD) is known for motor impairments. But often, there are non-motor symptoms such as cognitive deficiency and pain misperception, owing to possible role of nigrostriatal pathway. Antioxidants have protective effect on free radical-induced neuronal damage in PD. To further address, we examined the effects of ellagic acid (EA) in a rat model of PD induced by 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA). Materials and Methods: Right medial forebrain bundle (MFB) was lesioned by injecting 6-OHDA (16 µg/2 µl), in PD–animals. Sham operated animals received vehicle instead of 6-OHDA. PD was approved by apomorphine-induced contralateral rotation. EA (50 mg/kg/2 ml, PO, for 10 days) was administered to PD-EA group. Some PD-animals received pramipexole (PPX; 2 mg/kg/2 ml, PO) as a positive control group. Analgesia was measured by tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Passive avoidance task was measured by shuttle box apparatus to record the initial and step-through latency. Spatial cognition task was evaluated by Morris water maze test, measuring the escape latency time, path length, swimming speed and time spent in target quadrant. Results: MFB-lesioned rats showed hyperalgesic responses to the stimulus in tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Also they showed memory and learning deficit in cognitive tests. These effects reversed by EA treatment. Conclusion: 6-OHDA can induce oxidative stress and can disrupt the neural mechanisms underlying proper integration of painful stimuli and cognitive processes in MFB-lesioned rats. Consequently, nigrostriatal pathway can play possible role in nociception and cognition. EA, a natural antioxidant, has neuroprotective effect on this pathway and can ameliorate this defect and be considered in PD management. PMID:25810874

  7. Differentiation between the contributions of shortening reaction and stretch-induced inhibition to rigidity in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Douglas; Rymer, W. Zev; Hanson, Nicholas; Fang, Xiang; Threlkeld, A. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Parkinsonian rigidity is characterized by an increased resistance of a joint to externally imposed motion that remains uniform with changing joint angle. Two candidate mechanisms are proposed for the uniformity of rigidity, involving neural-mediated excitation of shortening muscles, i.e., shortening reaction (SR), or inhibition of stretched muscles, i.e., stretch-induced inhibition (SII). To date, no study has addressed the roles of these two phenomena in rigidity. The purpose of this study was to differentiate these two phenomena, and to quantify the potential contribution of each to wrist joint moment in 17 patients with parkinsonian rigidity, in both Off- and On-medication states. Joint position, torque, and EMGs of selected muscles were collected during externally imposed flexion and extension motions. Moments of shortened and stretched muscles were estimated using a biomechanical model. Slopes of the estimated torque–angle curve were calculated for shortened and stretched muscles, separately. A mixed model ANOVA was performed to compare the contribution between the two mechanisms. During flexion, slopes were significantly (P = 0.003) smaller for SR than for SII, whereas during extension, slopes for SII were significantly (P = 0.003) smaller. Results showed that both SR and SII contributed to rigidity. Which mechanism predominates appeared to be associated with the direction of movement. The findings provide new insights into the biomechanical underpinnings of this common symptom in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:21347660

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Protocatechuic Aldehyde against Neurotoxin-Induced Cellular and Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Zhai, Shenyu; An, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Yue-Hua; Yang, Ying-Fan; Ge, Hui-Qi; Liu, Jin-Hao; Pu, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL) has been reported to bind to DJ-1, a key protein involved in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and exerts potential neuroprotective effects via DJ-1 in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective pharmacological effects of PAL against neurotoxin-induced cell and animal models of PD. In cellular models of PD, PAL markedly increased cell viability rates, mitochondrial oxidation-reduction activity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced intracellular ROS levels to prevent neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. In animal models of PD, PAL reduced the apomorphine injection, caused turning in 6-OHDA treated rats, and increased the motor coordination and stride decreases in MPTP treated mice. Meanwhile, in an MPTP mouse model, PAL prevented a decrease of the contents of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in the striatum and TH-positive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra (SN). In addition, PAL increased the protein expression of DJ-1 and reduced the level of ?-synuclein in the SN of MPTP lesioned mice. PAL also increased the spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons. The current study demonstrates that PAL can efficiently protect dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxin injury in vitro and in vivo, and that the potential mechanisms may be related to its effects in increasing DJ-1, decreasing ?-synuclein and its growth-promoting effect on spine density. PMID:24205164

  9. Gene disruption of caspace-3 prevents MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Marina; Kida, Kotaro; Amutuhaire, Willington; Ichinose, Fumito; Kaneki, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The development of Parkinson's disease is accompanied by concurrent activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons of human patients and rodent models. The role of caspase-3, a final executioner of apoptosis, in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, however, remains to be determined. Here, we show that gene disruption of caspase-3 protects mice from 1-methyle-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahmydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonian syndrome, as reflected by reversal of MPTP-induced bradykinesia and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the nigra-striatum. MPTP treatment resulted in increased caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in the substantia nigra of wild-type mice at 24 h after the inception of MPTP treatment, as compared with vehicle-treated control animals. Gene disruption of caspase-3 prevented MPTP-induced apoptosis in the substantia nigra. At 7 days after MPTP treatment, tyrosine hydroxylase expression was suppressed and infiltration of activated microglia and astrocytes was markedly increased in the nigra-striatum of wild-type mice. All of these alterations following MPTP treatment were blocked by disruption of caspase-3 in mice. These results clearly indicate that caspase-3 activation is required for the development of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease in mice. These findings suggest that activation of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the early stage may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. PMID:20937256

  10. Identification of Potential Drugs for Parkinson's Disease Based on a Sub-Pathway Method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai-Guo; Lin, Ai-Qi; Huang, Shao-Yue; Huo, Di; Cong, Chao-Hua

    2014-11-18

    Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in ageing individuals. Current therapeutic regimen suffers from general side effects and a poor efficiency for PD symptoms. The need for development new therapeutic agents for PD is urgent. Here, we aimed to explore the metabolic mechanism of PD and identified potential novel agents for PD by a sub-pathway based method. By using the GSE7621 microarray data from the GEO database, we first identified the 1,226 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PD and normal samples. Then we identified 19 significant enriched metabolic sub-pathways which may involve in development of PD. Finally, by an integrated analysis of PD-involved sub-pathways and drug-affected sub-pathways, we identified 49 novel small molecular drugs capable to target the PD-involved sub-pathways. Our method could not only identify existing drug (apomorphine) for PD, but also predict potentially novel agents (ketoconazole and astemizole) which might have therapeutic effects via targeting some key enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolism. These candidate agents identified by our approach may provide insights into a novel therapy approach for PD. PMID:25405535

  11. Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Deleu, Dirk; Northway, Margaret G; Hanssens, Yolande

    2002-01-01

    Current research in Parkinson's disease (PD) focuses on symptomatic therapy and neuroprotective interventions. Drugs that have been used for symptomatic therapy are levodopa, usually combined with a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor, synthetic dopamine receptor agonists, centrally-acting antimuscarinic drugs, amantadine, monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors. Drugs for which there is at least some evidence for neuroprotective effect are certain dopamine agonists, amantadine and MAO-B inhibitors (selegiline). Levodopa remains the most effective drug for the treatment of PD. Several factors contribute to the complex clinical pharmacokinetics of levodopa: erratic absorption, short half-life, peripheral O-methylation and facilitated transport across the blood-brain barrier. In patients with response fluctuations to levodopa, the concentration-effect curve becomes steeper and shifts to the right compared with patients with stable response. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling can affect decisions regarding therapeutic strategies. The dopamine agonists include ergot derivatives (bromocriptine, pergolide, lisuride and cabergoline), non-ergoline derivatives (pramipexole, ropinirole and piribedil) and apomorphine. Most dopamine agonists have their specific pharmacological profile. They are used in monotherapy and as an adjunct to levodopa in early and advanced PD. Few pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data are available regarding centrally acting antimuscarinic drugs. They are characterised by rapid absorption after oral intake, large volume of distribution and low clearance relative to hepatic blood flow, with extensive metabolism. The mechanism of action of amantadine remains elusive. It is well absorbed and widely distributed. Since elimination is primarily by renal clearance, accumulation of the drug can occur in patients with renal dysfunction and dosage reduction must be envisaged. The COMT inhibitors entacapone and tolcapone dose-dependently inhibit the formation of the major metabolite of levodopa, 3-O-methyldopa, and improve the bioavailability and reduce the clearance of levodopa without significantly affecting its absorption. They are useful adjuncts to levodopa in patients with end-of-dose fluctuations. The MAO-B inhibitor selegiline may have a dual effect: reducing the catabolism of dopamine and limiting the formation of neurotoxic free radicals. The pharmacokinetics of selegiline are highly variable; it has low bioavailability and large volume of distribution. The oral clearance is many-fold higher than the hepatic blood flow and the drug is extensively metabolised into several metabolites, some of them being active. Despite the introduction of several new drugs to the antiparkinsonian armamentarium, no single best treatment exists for an individual patient with PD. Particularly in the advanced stage of the disease, treatment should be individually tailored. PMID:11978145

  12. Loss of cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal terminal lesion model of Parkinson’s disease in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sinéad; Mnich, Katarzyna; Mackie, Ken; Gorman, Adrienne M.; Finn, David P.; Dowd, Eilís

    2013-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is emerging as a potential alternative to the dopaminergic system for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Like all emerging targets, validation of this system’s potential for treating human Parkinsonism necessitates testing in animal models of the condition. However, if components of the endocannabinoid system are altered by the induction of a Parkinsonian state in animal models, this could have an impact on the interpretation of such preclinical experiments. This study sought to determine if expression of the CB1 subtype of cannabinoid receptor is altered in the two most commonly used rat models of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonian lesions were induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the axons (medial forebrain bundle) or terminals (striatum) of the nigrostriatal pathway. On days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 post-lesion, rats were sacrificed and brains were processed for tyrosine hydroxylase and CB1 receptor immunohistochemistry. The CB1 receptor was expressed strongly in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, minimally overlapping with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the pars compacta. Interestingly, while there was little change in CB1 receptor expression following axonal lesion, expression of the receptor was significantly reduced following terminal lesion. Loss of CB1 receptor expression in the pars reticulata correlated significantly with the loss of striatal and nigral volume after terminal lesion indicating this may have been due to 6-hydroxydopamine-induced non-specific damage of striatonigral neurons which are known to express CB1 receptors. Thus, this result has implications for the choice of model and interpretation of studies used to investigate potential cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease as well as striatonigral diseases such as Huntington’s disease and Multiple Systems Atrophy. PMID:20097273

  13. Mapping of brain function after MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in a primate Parkinson's disease model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Liisa Brownell; Kelly Canales; Y. Iris Chen; Bruce G Jenkins; Christopher Owen; Elijahu Livni; Meixiang Yu; Francesca Cicchetti; Rosario Sanchez-Pernaute; Ole Isacson

    2003-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies of the brain in normal and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have indicated intricate connections for basal ganglia-induced control of signaling into the motor cortex. To investigate if similar mechanisms are controlling function in the primate brain (Macaca fascicularis) after MPTP-induced neurotoxicity, we conducted PET studies of cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism, dopamine transporter, and D2 receptor

  14. Gender differences in non-motor symptoms in early, drug naďve Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Picillo, Marina; Amboni, Marianna; Erro, Roberto; Longo, Katia; Vitale, Carmine; Moccia, Marcello; Pierro, Angela; Santangelo, Gabriella; De Rosa, Anna; De Michele, Giuseppe; Santoro, Lucio; Orefice, Giuseppe; Barone, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Gender differences in brain structure and function may lead to differences in the clinical expression of neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies reported gender-related differences in the burden of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in treated PD patients, but this matter has not been previously explored in drug-naďve PD patients. This study is to assess gender differences in the prevalence of NMS in a large sample of early, drug-naďve PD patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy controls. Two hundred early, drug-naďve PD patients and ninety-three age and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Frequency of NMS was evaluated by means of the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire. The difference in gender distribution of NMS was evaluated with the ? (2) exact test; multiple comparisons were corrected with the Benjamini-Hochberg method. Male PD patients complained of problems having sex and taste/smelling difficulties significantly more frequently than female PD patients. Furthermore, men with PD complained more frequently of dribbling, sadness/blues, loss of interest, anxiety, acting during dreams, and taste/smelling difficulties as compared to healthy control men, while female PD patients reported more frequently loss of interest and anxiety as compared with healthy control women. This study shows specific sex-related patterns of NMS in drug-naďve PD. In contrast with previous data, female PD patients did not present higher prevalence of mood symptoms as compared to male PD patients. Comparison with healthy controls showed that some NMS classically present in premotor and early stage of disease (i.e., acting out during dreams, taste/smelling difficulties) are more frequent in male than in female patients. PMID:23989344

  15. Willingness to pay for a new drug delivery in Parkinson patients

    PubMed Central

    Lökk, Johan; Olofsson, Sara; Persson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Swedish reimbursement system operates a system where prices are set based on the expected value to the consumer. This value can be measured using willingness to pay (WTP). Aim To assess Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients’ WTP for newly developed microtablets of levodopa in combination with a drug-delivering electronic device (M/E) compared to standard treatment with levodopa in combination with the COMT (catechol-O-methyl transferase)-inhibitor entacapone (L/e). Method A total of 2,000 randomly included PD patients had a postal questionnaire covering demographics, disease-specific issues, views on medication and WTP in different hypothetical scenarios. The first scenario was M/E with no change in effects or side effects; the second scenario was M/E with same effect and less side effects; and the third scenario was M/E with improved effect and less side effects. These scenarios were coupled to different costs to choose from. Results A total of 999 patients (50%) responded, mean age of 71 years and a mean PD duration of 9 years. Of all respondents, 50% preferred M/E before L/e in scenario one with increasing preference to scenario three. The average monthly WTP among all respondents in scenario one was SEK 230 and SEK 226 in L/e, both with an almost longitudinal doubling up to scenario three. Duration of PD-related symptoms, high education, and high medication intake implied a higher WTP in all scenarios in contrast to age, sex, and extra doses of levodopa. Conclusion WTP for M/E increased gradually with high medication intake and education as well as with expected increased reduction of PD symptoms. PMID:25336962

  16. Generalized mathematical-computational-electronic model of MPTP- induced Parkinsonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo Raquejo, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    The substance 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 tetrahy dropyridine (MPTP) has been studied as a major cause of neurodegeneration dopaminica, which is specifically related to Parkinson's disease. The analysis is in terms of the diffusion of the substance to the mammalian brain, by evaluating the diffusion equation in a spherical coordinate system, being ? (collective diffusion term) spatially modulated. Although the progress of the disease with respect to time has not been established with certainty, an attempt to find a stable pattern of the concentration of MPTP and its effects has been made.

  17. Ropinirole-induced Pisa syndrome in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Galati, Salvatore; Möller, Jens Carsten; Städler, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Pisa syndrome (PS), also known as pleurothotonus, is an abnormal posture characterized by lateral flexion of the trunk that typically disappears in supine position. In Parkinson disease (PD), an abnormal forward flexion of the trunk (defined as camptocormia) is a common observation and has been interpreted as a sign of dystonia. Few reports have described PS mainly related to dopaminergic therapy in this kind of patients.Levodopa/carbidopa, levodopa/benserazide, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, pergolide, and pramipexole may cause PS, whereas no reports for ropinirole have been described.Here, we describe a case of a patient with PD who developed severe and reversible PS due to ropinirole intake. PMID:24614668

  18. Safinamide: from molecular targets to a new anti-Parkinson drug.

    PubMed

    Caccia, C; Maj, R; Calabresi, M; Maestroni, S; Faravelli, L; Curatolo, L; Salvati, P; Fariello, R G

    2006-10-10

    Ideal treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) aims at relieving symptoms and slowing disease progression. Of all remedies, levodopa remains the most effective for symptomatic relief, but the medical need for neuroprotectant drugs is still unfulfilled. Safinamide, currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of PD, is a unique molecule with multiple mechanisms of action and a very high therapeutic index. It combines potent, selective, and reversible inhibition of MAO-B with blockade of voltage-dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels and inhibition of glutamate release. Safinamide has neuroprotective and neurorescuing effects in MPTP-treated mice, in the rat kainic acid, and in the gerbil ischemia model. Safinamide potentiates levodopa-mediated increase of DA levels in DA-depleted mice and reverses the waning motor response after prolonged levodopa treatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Safinamide has excellent bioavailability, linear kinetics, and is suitable for once-a-day administration. Therefore, safinamide may be used in PD to reduce l-dopa dosage and also represents a valuable therapeutic drug to test disease-modifying potential. PMID:17030736

  19. Dopamine or L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity: The role of dopamine quinone formation and tyrosinase in a model of Parkinson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Asanuma; Ikuko Miyazaki; Norio Ogawa

    2003-01-01

    Dopamine (DA)- or L-dihydroxyphenylalanine- (L-DOPA-) induced neurotoxicity is thought to be involved not only in adverse\\u000a reaction induced by longterm L-DOPA therapy but also in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Numerousin vitro andin vivo studies concerning DA- or L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity have been reported in recent decades. The reactive oxygen or nitrogen\\u000a species generated in the enzymatical oxidation or auto-oxidation of

  20. Drug-induced Disorders of Teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Tredwin; C. Scully; J.-V. Bagan-Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    It is essential that every health care professional who is involved with the prescription or recommendation of drugs be fully aware of any resultant disorders that may arise as a side-effect. A range of drugs can affect the teeth. In this review article, drugs that have the potential to induce changes in teeth have been classified as those leading to

  1. Pharmacological strategies for the management of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Eva; Pilotto, Andrea; Berg, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    L-Dopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) are the most common adverse effects of long-term dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact mechanisms underlying dyskinesia are still unclear. For a long time, nigrostriatal degeneration and pulsatile stimulation of striatal postsynaptic receptors have been highlighted as the key factors for the development of LID. In recent years, PD models have revealed a wide range of non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems involved in pre- and postsynaptic changes and thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of LID. In the current review, we focus on therapeutic LID targets, mainly based on agents acting on dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotoninergic, adrenergic, and cholinergic systems. Despite a large number of clinical trials, currently only amantadine and, to a lesser extent, clozapine are being used as effective strategies in the treatment of LID in clinical settings. Thus, in the second part of the article, we review the placebo-controlled trials on LID treatment in order to disentangle the changing scenario of drug development. Promising results include the extension of L-dopa action without inducing LID of the novel monoamine oxidase B- and glutamate-release inhibitor safinamide; however, this had no obvious effect on existing LID. Others, like the metabotropic glutamate-receptor antagonist AFQ056, showed promising results in some of the studies; however, confirmation is still lacking. Thus, to date, strategies of continuous dopaminergic stimulation seem the most promising to prevent or ameliorate LID. The success of future therapeutic strategies once moderate to severe LID occur will depend on the translation from preclinical experimental models into clinical practice in a bidirectional process. PMID:25342080

  2. Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mark R.; Hall, Oliver Morgan; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of drug-induced pancreatitis cases are mild to moderate in severity, but severe and even fatal cases can occur. Management of drug-induced pancreatitis requires withdrawal of the offending agent and supportive care. Methods This review focuses on differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, drug-mediated effects, treatments, and mechanisms of pancreatitis, with an emphasis on drug-induced pancreatitis. Results Although only a minority of cases associated with acute pancreatitis are linked to drugs, clinical presentation and mechanisms of injury to the pancreas are not well understood by clinicians in terms of individual drug effects in the mediation or modulation of injury to the pancreas. In recent years, a large number of commonly prescribed medications has been linked to drug-induced pancreatitis pathogenesis. Although mechanisms are proposed, the exact cause of injury is either not well understood or controversial. Conclusion Future investigation into the mechanisms of pancreatitis and an appreciation by clinicians of the drugs commonly linked to the condition will help establish earlier diagnosis and quicker cessation of offending drugs in the treatment of drug-induced acute pancreatitis.

  3. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Weitz, Karl K.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Wood, Stephen A.; Melega, William P.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Desmond J.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-? pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of proteome changes underlying both nigrostriatal pathways and other brain regions potentially involved in MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. The observed molecular changes provide a valuable reference resource for future hypothesis-driven functional studies of PD.

  4. [Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

  5. Increased reflection impulsivity in patients with ephedrone induced Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Djamshidian, Atbin; Sanotsky, Yanosh; Matviyenko, Yuriy; O’Sullivan, Sean S.; Sharman, Stephen; Selikhova, Marianna; Fedoryshyn, Ludmyla; Filts, Yuriy; Bearn, Jenny; Lees, Andrew J.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To examine a syndrome of chronic manganism that occurs in drug addicts in Eastern Europe who use intravenous methcathinone (ephedrone) contaminated with potassium permanganate. The basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus and the putamen, are damaged irreversibly in many cases. Routine neuropsychological assessment has revealed no cognitive deficits despite widespread abnormalities on brain imaging studies and severe extrapyramidal motor handicap on clinical examination. Design Case control study. Setting Ephedrone patients and patients with opioid dependence were recruited from Lviv, Ukraine. Participants We tested 15 patients with ephedrone induced toxicity, 13 opiate dependent patients, who were receiving opioid replacement therapy and 18 matched healthy volunteers. Measurements The ‘beads task’, an information gathering task to assess reflection impulsivity was used and feedback learning, working memory and risk taking were also assessed. Findings Opiate dependent patients differed from controls on three out of four tasks, whereas ephedrone patients differed from controls on only one task. More specifically both patient groups were more impulsive and made more irrational choices on the beads task than controls (p<0.001). However, ephedrone patients had no deficits in working memory (p>0.1) or risk taking (p>0.1) compared with controls. Opioid dependent patients had significantly worse working memory (p<0.001) and were significantly more risk prone than controls (p=0.002). Conclusions Ephedrone patients may have similar deficits in information gathering and decision making to opiate dependent patients, with preservation of working memory and risk taking. This may reflect specific damage to anterior cingulate- basal ganglia loops. PMID:23228208

  6. Loss of thalamic serotonin transporters in early drug-naďve Parkinson’s disease patients is associated with tremor: an [123I]?-CIT SPECT study

    PubMed Central

    Stoffers, D.; Winogrodzka, A.; Isaias, I.-U.; Costantino, G.; Pezzoli, G.; Ferrarese, C.; Antonini, A.; Wolters, E.-Ch.; Booij, J.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro studies revealed serotonin transporter (5-HTT) decline in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Yet, few studies investigated thalamic 5-HTT in vivo and its effect on PD heterogeneity. We analyzed thalamic [123I]?-CIT binding (mainly reflecting 5-HTT binding) in 32 drug-naďve PD patients and 13 controls with SPECT. Twenty-six patients were examined twice (17 months apart). Based on UPDRS scores, we identified subgroups of patients with moderate/severe tremor (PDT) and without tremor (PDWT) at the time of clinical diagnosis. Additionally, depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline. Mean thalamic specific to non-specific [123I]?-CIT binding ratio was lower in patients when compared to controls, and further decreased during follow-up. At baseline, average thalamic ratio was significantly lower in the PDT than in the PDWT subgroup. No correlation was found between BDI scores and thalamic binding ratios. Our findings show decline of [123I]?-CIT binding to thalamic 5-HTT in PD and its possible contribution to tremor onset. PMID:18335163

  7. Effect of complex phytoadaptogen on MPTP-induced parkinson's syndrome in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Bocharov; V. G. Kucheryanu; G. N. Kryzhanovskii; O. A. Bocharova; V. S. Kudrin; S. A. Belorustseva

    2006-01-01

    Oral administration of 10% solution of Phytomix-40 (multicomponent plant phytoadaptogen) to C57Bl\\/6 mice with MPTP-induced\\u000a Parkinson's syndrome alleviated symptoms (oligokinesia and muscle rigidity), compensated for the deficiency of dopamine and\\u000a its metabolites (DOPAC and homovanillic acid), and reduced the level of lipid peroxides in the striatum. In vitro Phytomix-40 in a concentration of 3.310?2 g\\/liter exhibited a pronounced antioxidant effect

  8. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Stimulation Consortium Meeting Summary Parkinson's Disease Cell Biology Meeting Summary Parkinson's Disease Cell Biology Meeting Summary Udall Centers Meeting—Expediting Parkinson’s Disease ...

  9. New drug treatments show neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Insulin signaling in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease is impaired. Preclinical studies of growth factors showed impressive neuroprotective effects. In animal models of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, insulin, glia-derived neurotrophic factor, or analogues of the incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 prevented neurodegenerative processes and improved neuronal and synaptic functionality in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. On the basis of these promising findings, several clinical trials are ongoing with the first encouraging clinical results published. This gives hope for developing effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease that are currently unavailable. PMID:25558231

  10. Neuroprotective activity of Stereospermum suaveolens DC against 6-OHDA induced Parkinson's disease model

    PubMed Central

    Shalavadi, M. H.; Chandrashekhar, V. M.; Avinash, S. P.; Sowmya, C.; Ramkishan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Stereospermum suaveolens DC on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinson's disease model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats where parkinson's disease was induced by producing the striatal 6-hydroxy dopamine lesions. The test animals received methanolic extract of Stereospermum suaveolens at dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg for 42 days. Behavioral assessment, spontaneous locomotor activity and muscular coordination were studied. Antioxidant levels, striatal infraction area were assessed and histopathological studies were carried out. Results: The Stereospermum suaveolens DC methanolic extract showed significant dose dependent increase in behavioral activity, improved muscular coordination. Significant reduction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), increased antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and non-enzymatic activity of glutathione (GSH) and total thiol levels in extract treated groups was observed in test groups as compared to control group. Striatal infarction area was significantly reduced in extract treated groups as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of Stereospermum suaveolens DC showed neuroprotective activity against 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinson's disease in rats. PMID:23248404

  11. Drug-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    Hearing loss is generally due to ageing but can be caused by a wide variety of other factors, including some drugs. Many drugs that cause hearing loss are directly toxic to the inner ear or auditory nerve, leading to sensorineural deafness. Sometimes the role of a drug is only suspected after several months or even years. Drug ototoxicity is dependent on the dose and duration of exposure. Hearing loss can worsen if treatment is continued and sometimes even after the drug is withdrawn. Some ear drops contain ototoxic substances. A perforated eardrum facilitates their passage into the inner ear and increases the risk of irreversible hearing loss. Various factors increase the risk of drug-related hearing loss, including age, dehydration, reduced drug elimination (especially due to renal failure), and co-administration of other ototoxic drugs. Drugs known to cause hearing loss include: anti-infectives (especially aminoglycosides); cancer drugs (particularly cisplatin); loop diuretics such as furosemide and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors such as tadalafil. PMID:25629145

  12. Dopamine-Induced Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ariane; Stacy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) may emerge secondary to the underlying pathogenesis of the disease, while others are recognized side effects of treatment. Inevitably, there is an overlap as the disease advances and patients require higher dosages and more complex medical regimens. The non-motor symptoms that emerge secondary to dopaminergic therapy encompass several domains, including neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sleep. These are detailed in the paper. Neuropsychiatric complications include hallucinations and psychosis. In addition, compulsive behaviors, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, shopping, binge eating, and punding, have been shown to have a clear association with dopaminergic medications. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a compulsive behavior that is typically viewed through the lens of addiction, with patients needing escalating dosages of dopamine replacement therapy. Treatment side effects on the autonomic system include nausea, orthostatic hypotension, and constipation. Sleep disturbances include fragmented sleep, nighttime sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. Recognizing the non-motor symptoms that can arise specifically from dopamine therapy is useful to help optimize treatment regimens for this complex disease. PMID:21603184

  13. Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism: the Geoparkinson study

    PubMed Central

    Dick, F D; De Palma, G; Ahmadi, A; Scott, N W; Prescott, G J; Bennett, J; Semple, S; Dick, S; Counsell, C; Mozzoni, P; Haites, N; Wettinger, S Bezzina; Mutti, A; Otelea, M; Seaton, A; Söderkvist, P; Felice, A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between Parkinson's disease and other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes and environmental factors in five European countries. Methods A case–control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with Parkinson's disease) and 1989 controls in Scotland, Italy, Sweden, Romania and Malta was carried out. Cases were defined using the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank criteria, and those with drug?induced or vascular parkinsonism or dementia were excluded. Subjects completed an interviewer?administered questionnaire about lifetime occupational and hobby exposure to solvents, pesticides, iron, copper and manganese. Lifetime and average annual exposures were estimated blind to disease status using a job?exposure matrix modified by subjective exposure modelling. Results were analysed using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, country, tobacco use, ever knocked unconscious and family history of Parkinson's disease. Results Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed significantly increased odds ratios for Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism with an exposure–response relationship for pesticides (low vs no exposure, odds ratio (OR)?=?1.13, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.57, high vs no exposure, OR?=?1.41, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.88) and ever knocked unconscious (once vs never, OR?=?1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68, more than once vs never, OR?=?2.53, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.59). Hypnotic, anxiolytic or antidepressant drug use for more than 1 year and a family history of Parkinson's disease showed significantly increased odds ratios. Tobacco use was protective (OR?=?0.50, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.60). Analyses confined to subjects with Parkinson's disease gave similar results. Conclusions The association of pesticide exposure with Parkinson's disease suggests a causative role. Repeated traumatic loss of consciousness is associated with increased risk. PMID:17332139

  14. Drug-induced disorders of teeth.

    PubMed

    Tredwin, C J; Scully, C; Bagan-Sebastian, J-V

    2005-07-01

    It is essential that every health care professional who is involved with the prescription or recommendation of drugs be fully aware of any resultant disorders that may arise as a side-effect. A range of drugs can affect the teeth. In this review article, drugs that have the potential to induce changes in teeth have been classified as those leading to tooth discoloration (intrinsic and extrinsic), physical damage to tooth structure (enamel, dentin, and cementum), and alteration in tooth sensitivity. PMID:15972585

  15. Metabolomic Analysis Provides Insights on Paraquat-Induced Parkinson-Like Symptoms in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Ratnasekhar, Ch; Pragya, Prakash; Chaouhan, Hitesh Singh; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy

    2014-11-27

    Paraquat (PQ) exposure causes degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in an exposed organism while altered metabolism has a role in various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the study presented here was conceived to depict the role of altered metabolism in PQ-induced Parkinson-like symptoms and to explore Drosophila as a potential model organism for such studies. Metabolic profile was generated in control and in flies that were fed PQ (5, 10, and 20 mM) in the diet for 12 and 24 h concurrent with assessment of indices of oxidative stress, dopaminergic neurodegeneration, and behavioral alteration. PQ was found to significantly alter 24 metabolites belonging to different biological pathways along with significant alterations in the above indices. In addition, PQ attenuated brain dopamine content in the exposed organism. The study demonstrates that PQ-induced alteration in the metabolites leads to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the exposed organism along with movement disorder, a phenotype typical of Parkinson-like symptoms. The study is relevant in the context of Drosophila and humans because similar alteration in the metabolic pathways has been observed in both PQ-exposed Drosophila and in postmortem samples of patients with Parkinsonism. Furthermore, this study provides advocacy towards the applicability of Drosophila as an alternate model organism for pre-screening of environmental chemicals for their neurodegenerative potential with altered metabolism. PMID:25428622

  16. Levodopa-induced changes in synaptic dopamine levels increase with progression of Parkinson's disease: implications for dyskinesias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul de la Fuente-Fernandez; Vesna Sossi; Zhigao Huang; Sarah Furtado; Jian-Qiang Lu; Donald B. Calne; Thomas J. Ruth; A. Jon Stoessl

    2004-01-01

    Summary Peak-dose dyskinesias are abnormal movements that usually occur 1 h after oral administration of levodopa, and often complicate chronic treatment of Parkinson's disease. We investigated by PET with (11C)raclopride whether Parkinson's disease progression modifies the striatal changes in synaptic dopamine levels induced by levodopa administration, and whether this modification, if present, could have an impact on the emergence of

  17. Drug-induced and toxic granulomatous hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ishak, K G; Zimmerman, H J

    1988-04-01

    The ability to induce granulomatous hepatitis has been attributed to numerous drugs; some sixty causative drugs have been culled from the literature for this review. Additionally, granulomas or granulomatoid lesions have resulted from occupational exposure to toxic substances (e.g. silica, copper sulphate, beryllium compounds), and particulate material from various therapeutic or diagnostic procedures (e.g. reactions to starch, talc, suture material, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, silicone, barium sulphate, thorium dioxide) or from intravenous drug abuse (e.g. talc). Clinically, patients with drug-induced or toxic granulomatous hepatitis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, the presentation is that of an acute febrile illness, with or without a rash and eosinophilia, followed by jaundice and biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction. The diagnosis of drug-induced granulomatous hepatitis is based largely on ruling out other aetiologies. Liver biopsy plays a key role in diagnosis. Recovery is the rule following withdrawal of the drug. Morphologically, drug-induced granulomas may be impossible to distinguish from those due to other causes. Associated lesions suggesting a drug aetiology include significant tissue eosinophilia, unicellular hepatocytic degeneration and necrosis, cholestasis and acute cholangitis or vasculitis. Special stains, polarizing and phase contrast microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis all play a role in the aetiologic diagnosis of some types of granulomas. PMID:3044471

  18. Forensic aspects of drug-induced violence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-02-01

    Violence is unfortunately a part of society. The causes of violence are not completely understood, but it involves sociological, genetic, financial, biological, and environmental factors. Drugs can cause aggression by altering the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and serotonin. Specific drugs associated with aggression include alcohol, anabolic steroids, cocaine, amphetamines, sedatives, opiates, and hallucinogens. Aggression can be categorized into impulsive and predatory aggression. Drugs under certain conditions cause impulsive aggression. Sometimes a defense in criminal cases is that the drug caused the violence, that is drug-induced insanity. A case of insanity is more likely to be accepted if the event was unplanned and had no apparent motive. An acceptance of insanity by voluntary intoxication is rarely accepted by the criminal justice system. A more common legal strategy is to seek diminished capacity which aims to obtain a reduction in the severity of the criminal charges. We will discuss some, but not all of the pharmacological and physiological issues relating to drug-induced violence. Then some of the "big picture" forensic issues will be presented. Our goal is to present a primer on the pharmacological and forensic issues relating to drug-induced violence. No attempt was made to provide a comprehensive review of all the literature related to drug-induced violence. PMID:22215647

  19. Current status of safinamide for the drug portfolio of Parkinson's disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a slowly ongoing neuronal death. This alters dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission and causes a wide variety of motor and non-motor features. Safinamide has a unique pharmacological profile, which combines modulation of dopamine metabolism by reversible, highly specific monoamine oxidase-B inhibition, blockage of voltage-dependent sodium channels, modulation of calcium channels and of glutamate release induced by abnormal neuronal activity. Therefore, safinamide represents an ideal candidate for the treatment of PD. This compound asks for one time daily intake only within an optimum dose range between 50 and 100 mg. In clinical trials, safinamide was well tolerated and safe, improved motor behavior even in combination with dopamine agonist only, ameliorated levodopa-associated motor complications. Safinamide has the potential to become an important compound for the therapy of PD, since its symptomatic efficacy appears to be superior to available monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists like amantadine, according to available trial outcomes. PMID:24053341

  20. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome induced by meglumine antimoniate.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Fakhri; Caumes, Eric; Thellier, Marc; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Mazier, Dominique; Buffet, Pierre A

    2009-06-01

    We report a case of drug hypersensitivity syndrome (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms [DRESS]) induced by parenteral meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) in a 40-year-old man who traveled to Bolivia and was treated for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Two weeks after starting therapy, the patient had fever, joint pain, a cutaneous eruption, and hypereosinophilia (1,358 cells/mm(3)). These symptoms resolved after drug withdrawal but reappeared upon reintroduction of the drug. Pentavalent antimonials should be definitively withdrawn in patients with hypereosinophilia > 1,000 cells/mm(3) accompanied by systemic manifestations consistent with DRESS. PMID:19478253

  1. Promise of neurorestoration and mitochondrial biogenesis in Parkinson's disease with multi target drugs: an alternative to stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Youdim, Moussa Bh; Oh, Young J

    2013-09-01

    There is an unmet need in progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. The present therapeutics for these diseases at best is symptomatic and is not able to delay disease or possess disease modifying activity. Thus an approach to drug design should be made to slow or halt progressive course of a neurological disorder by interfering with a disease-specific pathogenetic process. This would entail the ability of the drug to protect neurons by blocking the common pathway for neuronal injury and cell death and the ability to promote regeneration of neurons and restoration of neuronal function. We have now developed a number of multi target drugs which possess neuroprotective, and neurorestorative activity as well as being able to active PGC-1? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1?), SIRT1 (NAD-dependent deacetylase protein) and NTF (mitochondrial transcription factor) that are intimately associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:24167412

  2. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Parkinson’s disease illustrates value of exposome studies (Mar. 2014) Exploring the haunting legacy – benomyl and Parkinson’s ( ... 2011) Deciphering a Core Process in Parkinson's Disease (Mar. 2011) Workshop Examines the Role of Air Pollution ...

  3. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePLUS

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain problems, such as ...

  4. Treatment of Parkinson’s disease: nanostructured sol–gel silica–dopamine reservoirs for controlled drug release in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    López, Tessy; Bata-García, José L; Esquivel, Dulce; Ortiz-Islas, Emma; Gonzalez, Richard; Ascencio, Jorge; Quintana, Patricia; Oskam, Gerko; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando J; Heredia-López, Francisco J; Góngora-Alfaro, José L

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We have evaluated the use of silica–dopamine reservoirs synthesized by the sol–gel approach with the aim of using them in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, specifically as a device for the controlled release of dopamine in the striatum. Theoretical calculations illustrate that dopamine is expected to assume a planar structure and exhibit weak interactions with the silica surface. Methods Several samples were prepared by varying the wt% of dopamine added during the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The silica–dopamine reservoirs were characterized by N2 adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro release profiles were determined using ultraviolet visible absorbance spectroscopy. The textural analyses showed a maximum value for the surface area of 620 m2/g nanostructured silica materials. The stability of dopamine in the silica network was confirmed by infrared and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The reservoirs were evaluated by means of apomorphine-induced rotation behavior in hemiparkisonian rats. Results The in vitro dopamine delivery profiles indicate two regimes of release, a fast and sustained dopamine delivery was observed up to 24 hours, and after this time the rate of delivery became constant. Histologic analysis of formalin-fixed brains performed 24–32 weeks after reservoir implantation revealed that silica–dopamine implants had a reddish-brown color, suggesting the presence of oxidized dopamine, likely caused by the fixation procedure, while implants without dopamine were always translucent. Conclusion The major finding of the study was that intrastriatal silica–dopamine implants reversed the rotational asymmetry induced by apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, in hemiparkinsonian rats. No dyskinesias or other motor abnormalities were observed in animals implanted with silica or silica–dopamine. PMID:21289978

  5. Non-human primate FOG develops with advanced parkinsonism induced by MPTP Treatment.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Gonzalo J; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Wahlquist, Amy E; Factor, Stewart A; Papa, Stella M

    2012-10-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other forms of parkinsonism. The anatomical or pathophysiological correlates are poorly understood largely due to the lack of a well-established animal model. Here we studied whether FOG is reproduced in the non-human primate (NHP) model of PD. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys (Genus Macaca, n=29) were examined for the development of FOG, and the leg movements were recorded with accelerometry. The relationships between developing FOG and the animals' characteristics, the MPTP treatments, and the modeled outcomes were determined. In parkinsonian monkeys FOG developed frequently (48%) manifesting similar characteristics to those seen in PD patients. In addition, FOG episodes in the monkey were accompanied by leg trembling with the typical duration (2-10s) and frequency (~7 Hz). The development of NHP FOG was significantly associated with the severity of parkinsonism, as shown by high motor disability scores (? 20) and levodopa-induced dyskinesia scores (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). Differences in demographics and MPTP treatments (doses, treatment duration, etc.) had no influence on NHP FOG occurrence, with the exception of gender that showed FOG predominance in males (p=0.03). The unique features of FOG in PD can be replicated in severely parkinsonian macaques, and this represents the first description of a FOG animal model. PMID:22967858

  6. Lentiviral overexpression of GRK6 alleviates L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in experimental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed R; Berthet, Amandine; Bychkov, Evgeny; Porras, Gregory; Li, Qin; Bioulac, Bernard H; Carl, Yonatan T; Bloch, Bertrand; Kook, Seunghyi; Aubert, Incarnation; Dovero, Sandra; Doudnikoff, Evelyne; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Gurevich, Eugenia V; Bezard, Erwan

    2010-04-21

    Parkinson's disease is caused primarily by degeneration of brain dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the consequent deficit of dopamine in the striatum. Dopamine replacement therapy with the dopamine precursor l-dopa is the mainstay of current treatment. After several years, however, the patients develop l-dopa-induced dyskinesia, or abnormal involuntary movements, thought to be due to excessive signaling via dopamine receptors. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) control desensitization of dopamine receptors. We found that dyskinesia is attenuated by lentivirus-mediated overexpression of GRK6 in the striatum in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease. Conversely, reduction of GRK6 concentration by microRNA delivered with lentiviral vector exacerbated dyskinesia in parkinsonian rats. GRK6 suppressed dyskinesia in monkeys without compromising the antiparkinsonian effects of l-dopa and even prolonged the antiparkinsonian effect of a lower dose of l-dopa. Our finding that increased availability of GRK6 ameliorates dyskinesia and increases duration of the antiparkinsonian action of l-dopa suggests a promising approach for controlling both dyskinesia and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. PMID:20410529

  7. Gastrodin inhibits neuroinflammation in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model rats?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Nan; Song, Yangwen; Mu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The present study showed that the latency of rats moving on a vertical grid was significantly prolonged, and the number of rats sliding down from the declined plane was increased remarkably, in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model rats compared with control rats. The moving latency recovered to normal levels, but the number of slides was significantly increased at 28 days after model establishment. The slope test is a meaningful approach to evaluate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease model rats treated with rotenone. In addition, loss of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurons in model rats was observed at 1 day after the model was established, and continued gradually at 14 and 28 days. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells was significantly increased in gastrodin-treated rats at 14 days. Significant numbers of activated microglia cells were observed in model rats at 14 and 28 days; treatment of rats with Madopar at 28 days suppressed microglial activation. Treatment of rats with gastrodin or Madopar at 28 days significantly reduced interleukin-1? expression. The loss of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurons paralleled the microglial activation in Parkinson's disease model rats treated with rotenone. The inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? are involved in the substantia nigral damage. Gastrodin could protect dopaminergic neurons via inhibition of interleukin-1? expression and neuroinflammation in the substantia nigra.

  8. Pleural Effusion and Pulmonary Hypertension in a Patient With Parkinson Disease Treated With Cabergoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Haro-Estarriol; Gladis Sabater-Talaverano; Francisco Rodríguez-Jerez; Anton Obrador-Lagares; David Genís-Batlle; Salvi Sendra-Salillas

    2009-01-01

    Cabergoline is a synthetic dopamine agonist used to treat Parkinson disease. The drug occasionally induces pleuropulmonary adverse effects, which manifest as pleural thickening or effusion, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary infiltrates, or fibrosis. We report a rare case of pleural effusion and severe pulmonary hypertension in a 79-year-old man with Parkinson disease who had been treated with cabergoline for 1 year. The

  9. Derrame pleural e hipertensión pulmonar en un paciente con enfermedad de Parkinson en tratamiento con cabergolina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Haro-Estarriol; Gladis Sabater-Talaverano; Francisco Rodríguez-Jerez; Anton Obrador-Lagares; David Genís-Batlle; Salvi Sendra-Salillas

    2009-01-01

    Cabergoline is a synthetic dopamine agonist used to treat Parkinson disease. The drug occasionally induces pleuropulmonary adverse effects, which manifest as pleural thickening or effusion, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary infiltrates, or fibrosis. We report a rare case of pleural effusion and severe pulmonary hypertension in a 79-year-old man with Parkinson disease who had been treated with cabergoline for 1 year. The

  10. Psychotic symptoms in Parkinson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spiridon Papapetropoulos; D. C. Mash

    2005-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and occur in at least 20% of medication-treated patients. Benign visual hallucinations usually appear earlier, while malignant hallucinations, confusional states, delusions, paranoid beliefs, agitation, and delirium become more frequent with disease progression. Virtually all antiparkinsonian drugs may produce psychotic symptoms. Cognitive impairment, increased age, disease duration and severity, depression, and sleep disorders

  11. Movement Disorders Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs: Implications of the CATIE Schizophrenia Trial

    PubMed Central

    Caroff, Stanley N.; Hurford, Irene; Lybrand, Janice; Campbell, E. Cabrina

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Drug-induced movement disorders have dramatically declined with the widespread use of second generation antipsychotics but remain important in clinical practice and for understanding antipsychotic pharmacology. The diagnosis and management of dystonia, parkinsonism, akathisia, catatonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and tardive dyskinesia are reviewed in relation to the decreased liability of the second generation antipsychotics contrasted with evidence from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial. Data from the CATIE trial imply that advantages of second generation antipsychotics in significantly reducing extrapyramidal side effects compared with haloperidol may be diminished when compared with modest doses of lower-potency first generation drugs, that the dichotomy between first and second generation drugs may be oversimplified, and that antipsychotics could be conceptualized as a single drug class with a spectrum of risk for movement disorders depending upon receptor binding affinities and individual patient susceptibility. PMID:21172575

  12. Eltoprazine counteracts l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: a dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Svenningsson, Per; Rosenblad, Carl; Af Edholm Arvidsson, Karolina; Wictorin, Klas; Keywood, Charlotte; Shankar, Bavani; Lowe, David A; Björklund, Anders; Widner, Hĺkan

    2015-04-01

    In advanced stages of Parkinson's disease, serotonergic terminals take up l-DOPA and convert it to dopamine. Abnormally released dopamine may participate in the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. Simultaneous activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors effectively blocks l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in animal models of dopamine depletion, justifying a clinical study with eltoprazine, a 5-HT1A/B receptor agonist, against l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson's disease. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled and dose-finding phase I/IIa study was conducted. Single oral treatment with placebo or eltoprazine, at 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg, was tested in combination with a suprathreshold dose of l-DOPA (Sinemet®) in 22 patients with Parkinson's disease (16 male/six female; 66.6 ± 8.8 years old) with l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. A Wilcoxon Signed Ranked Test was used to compare each eltoprazine dose level to paired randomized placebo on the prespecified primary efficacy variables; area under the curve scores on Clinical Dyskinesia Rating Scale for 3 h post-dose and maximum change of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III for 3 h post-dose. Secondary objectives included effects on maximum Clinical Dyskinesia Rating Scale score, area under the curve of Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale score for 3 h post-dose, mood parameters measured by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale along with the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability profile of eltoprazine. A mixed model repeated measures was used for post hoc analyses of the area under the curve and peak Clinical Dyskinesia Rating Scale scores. It was found that serum concentrations of eltoprazine increased in a dose-proportional manner. Following levodopa challenge, 5 mg eltoprazine caused a significant reduction of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias on area under the curves of Clinical Dyskinesia Rating Scale [-1.02(1.49); P = 0.004] and Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale [-0.15(0.23); P = 0.003]; and maximum Clinical Dyskinesia Rating Scale score [-1.14(1.59); P = 0.005]. The post hoc analysis confirmed these results and also showed an antidyskinetic effect of 7.5 mg eltoprazine. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III scores did not differ between the placebo and eltoprazine treatments. The most frequent adverse effects after eltoprazine were nausea and dizziness. It can be concluded that a single dose, oral treatment with eltoprazine has beneficial antidyskinetic effects without altering normal motor responses to l-DOPA. All doses of eltoprazine were well tolerated, with no major adverse effects. Eltoprazine has a favourable risk-benefit and pharmacokinetic profile in patients with Parkinson's disease. The data support further clinical studies with chronic oral eltoprazine to treat l-DOPA-induced-dyskinesias. PMID:25669730

  13. Possible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors affecting parkinsonism inducement by cinnarizine and flunarizine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Kariya; Sadao Isozaki; Yasuhiro Masubuchi; Tokuji Suzuki; Shizuo Narimatsu

    1995-01-01

    Potentialities of cinnarizine [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine, CZ] and its fluorine derivative flunarizine [1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)-methyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine, FZ] to induce parkinsonism as an adverse effect were evaluated pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically in rats. In multiple-dose experiments, CZ or FZ was given to rats at a daily dose of 20 ?mol\\/kg for 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30 days, and CZ, FZ, and the ring-hydroxylated metabolites of their

  14. Drug-induced arrhythmia: pharmacogenomic prescribing?

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Elijah R.; Roden, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced Torsades de Pointes is a rare, unpredictable, and life-threatening serious adverse event. It can be caused by both cardiac and non-cardiac drugs and has become a major issue in novel drug development and for the regulatory authorities. This review describes the problem, predisposing factors, and the underlying genetic predisposition as it is understood currently. The future potential for pharmacogenomic-guided and personalized prescription to prevent drug-induced Torsades de Pointes is discussed. Database searches utilized reports from www.qtdrugs.org up to January 2012, case reports and articles from www.pubmed.com up to January 2012, and the British National Formulary edition at www.bnf.org. PMID:23091201

  15. Drug-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Deavall, Damian G.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Horner, Judith M.; Roberts, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a byproduct of normal metabolism and have roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. Species include oxygen radicals and reactive nonradicals. Mechanisms exist that regulate cellular levels of ROS, as their reactive nature may otherwise cause damage to key cellular components including DNA, protein, and lipid. When the cellular antioxidant capacity is exceeded, oxidative stress can result. Pleiotropic deleterious effects of oxidative stress are observed in numerous disease states and are also implicated in a variety of drug-induced toxicities. In this paper, we examine the nature of ROS-induced damage on key cellular targets of oxidative stress. We also review evidence implicating ROS in clinically relevant, drug-related side effects including doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage, azidothymidine-induced myopathy, and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. PMID:22919381

  16. MK-801 inhibits L-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements only at doses that worsen parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Melanie A; Anderson, Akari M; Lewis, Jason R; Meshul, Charles K; Johnson, Steven W; Paul Berger, S

    2010-06-01

    Amantadine and dextromethorphan suppress levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease patients and abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. These medications have been hypothesized to exert their therapeutic effects by a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist mechanism, but they also have known serotonin (5-HT) indirect agonist effects that could suppress AIMs. This raised the possibility that NMDA antagonists lacking 5-HTergic effects would not have the anti-dyskinetic action predicted by previous investigators. To test this hypothesis, we investigated MK-801, the most widely-studied NMDA antagonist. We found that chronic low-dose MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) had no effect on development of AIMs or contraversive rotation. In addition, in L-DOPA-primed rats, low-dose MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) had no effect on expression of AIMs, contraversive rotation, or sensorimotor function. Conversely, higher doses of MK-801 (0.2-0.3 mg/kg) suppressed expression of AIMs. However, as we show for the first time, anti-dyskinetic doses of MK-801 also suppressed L-DOPA-induced contralateral rotation and impaired sensorimotor function, likely due to non-specific interference of MK-801 with L-DOPA-induced behavior. We conclude that noncompetitive NMDA antagonists are unlikely to suppress dyskinesia clinically without worsening parkinsonism. PMID:20079362

  17. Cognitive, motor and tyrosine hydroxylase temporal impairment in a model of parkinsonism induced by reserpine.

    PubMed

    Santos, José R; Cunha, Joăo A S; Dierschnabel, Aline L; Campęlo, Clarissa L C; Leăo, Anderson H F F; Silva, Anatildes F; Engelberth, Rovena C G J; Izídio, Geison S; Cavalcante, Jeferson S; Abílio, Vanessa C; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Silva, Regina H

    2013-09-15

    Studies have suggested that cognitive deficits can precede motor alterations in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, in general, classic animal models are based on severe motor impairment after one single administration of neurotoxins, and thereby do not express the progressive nature of the pathology. A previous study showed that the repeated administration with a low dose (0.1mg/kg) of the monoamine depleting agent reserpine induces a gradual appearance of motor signs of pharmacological parkinsonism in rats. Here, we showed this repeated treatment with reserpine induced a memory impairment (evaluated by the novel object recognition task) before the gradual appearance of the motor signs. Additionally, these alterations were accompanied by decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) striatal levels and reduced number of TH+ cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). After 30 days without treatment, reserpine-treated animals showed normal levels of striatal TH, partial recovery of TH+ cells in SNpc, recovery of motor function, but not reversal of the memory impairment. Furthermore, the motor alterations were statistically correlated with decreased TH levels (GD, CA1, PFC and DS) and number of TH+ cells (SNpc and VTA) in the brain. Thus, we extended previous results showing that the gradual appearance of motor impairment induced by repeated treatment with a low dose of reserpine is preceded by short-term memory impairment, as well as accompanied by neurochemical alterations compatible with the pathology of PD. PMID:23831411

  18. Immune Mechanisms in Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang-Xu Liu; Neil Kaplowitz

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common cause of liver disease. It accounts for approximately one-half of cases of acute\\u000a liver failure and significant numbers of deaths in the United States and many other countries (1–5). An estimated 1000 or more drugs have been implicated in causing liver disease on more than one occasion (5). Clinically, DILI mimics all forms

  19. Management of drug-induced liver disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Marino; Hyman J. Zimmerman; James H. Lewis

    2001-01-01

    The treatment and prevention of drug-induced liver injury starts with the recognition of hepatotoxicity at the earliest possible\\u000a time so that the suspected drug can be discontinued expeditiously. Both liver enzyme monitoring and vigilance for signs of\\u000a hypersensitivity involving the liver are useful strategies for many agents known to cause hepatocellular necrosis leading\\u000a to liver failure. Specific antidotes to prevent

  20. Drug-induced immune neutropenia/agranulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell in blood and play a critical role in preventing infections as part of the innate immune system. Reduction in neutrophils below an absolute count of 500 cells/pL is termed severe neutropenia or agranulocytosis. Drug-induced immune neutropenia (DIIN) occurs when drug-dependent antibodies form against neutrophil membrane glycoproteins and cause neutrophil destruction. Affected patients have fever, chills, and infections; severe infections left untreated can result in death. Treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor can hasten neutrophil recovery. Cumulative data show that severe neutropenia or agranulocytosis associated with exposure to nonchemotherapy drugs ranges from approximately 1.6 to 15.4 cases per million population per year. Drugs most often associated with neutropenia or agranulocytosis include dipyrone, diclofenac, ticlopidine, calcium dobesilate, spironolactone, antithyroid drugs (e.g., propylthiouracil), carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim, [3-lactam antibiotics, clozapine, levamisole, and vancomycin. Assays used for detection of neutrophil drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) include flow cytometry, monoclonal antibody immobilization of granulocyte antigens, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, granulocyte agglutination, and granulocytotoxicity. However, testing for neutrophil DDAbs is rarely performed owing to its complexity and lack of availability. Mechanisms proposed for DIIN have not been rigorously studied, but those that have been studied include drug- or hapten-induced antibody formation and autoantibody production against drug metabolite or protein adducts covalently attached to neutrophil membrane proteins. This review will address acute, severe neutropenia caused by neutrophil-reactive antibodies induced by nonchemotherapy drugs-DIIN PMID:25247619

  1. Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kannankeril, Prince; Darbar, Dawood

    2010-01-01

    The drug-induced long QT syndrome is a distinct clinical entity that has evolved from an electrophysiologic curiosity to a centerpiece in drug regulation and development. This evolution reflects an increasing recognition that a rare adverse drug effect can profoundly upset the balance between benefit and risk that goes into the prescription of a drug by an individual practitioner as well as the approval of a new drug entity by a regulatory agency. This review will outline how defining the central mechanism, block of the cardiac delayed-rectifier potassium current IKr, has contributed to defining risk in patients and in populations. Models for studying risk, and understanding the way in which clinical risk factors modulate cardiac repolarization at the molecular level are discussed. Finally, the role of genetic variants in modulating risk is described. PMID:21079043

  2. Drug Induced Hypersensitivity and the HLA Complex

    PubMed Central

    Alfirevic, Ana; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions are of major concern and present a burden for national healthcare systems due to their often severe nature, high rate of hospital admissions and high mortality. They manifest with a wide range of symptoms and signs, and can be initiated by a wide range of structurally diverse chemical compounds. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity reactions are not well understood, but it is thought that they are immune mediated. MHC region on Chromosome 6 contains many genes with immune function. Classical MHC molecules are highly polymorphic cell surface glycoproteins whose function is to present peptide antigens to T cells. In addition to conferring protection from some diseases, HLA alleles are also associated with an increased risk of other diseases, including drug-induced hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenetic approach to predict the risk of drug-induced hypersensitivity has been established for several drugs. We will discuss the progress of hypersensitivity pharmacogenetics over the last few years and focus on current efforts of the international community to develop consortia which aim to standardize disease phenotypes and to identify affected individuals through international collaborations. In addition, we will discuss the clinical utility of HLA typing as predictive or diagnostic testing for drug-induced hypersensitivity.

  3. Pluripotent stem cells as new drugs? The example of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Preynat-Seauve; Pierre R. Burkhard; Jean Villard; Walter Zingg; Nathalie Ginovart; Anis Feki; Michel Dubois-Dauphin; Samia A. Hurst; Alex Mauron; Marisa Jaconi

    2009-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy is a widely discussed novel concept of medical treatment. The increased knowl- edge in the stem cell field, particularly pluripotent stem cells, potentially provides powerful tools for this therapeutic concept. A large number of disease characterized by the loss of functional cells are potential candidates for cell replacement therapy and, in this regards, Parkinson's disease is of

  4. Antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism is associated with working memory deficits in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Stéphane; Aubin, Ginette; Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    In view of the significant cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and their impact on patients' social and occupational functioning, and considering that the influence potential influence of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms on cognition in schizophrenia remains poorly understood, the current study sought to identify the clinical, socio-demographic and neurologic predictors of the cognitive performance of schizophrenia patients. Eighty-two schizophrenia-spectrum (DSM-IV criteria) outpatients were recruited. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Extrapyramidal symptoms were evaluated with the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale, while spatial working, planning abilities and visual paired associates learning were evaluated with the CAmbridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop test was also administered. Multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses were performed. We found that negative symptoms were associated with cognitive flexibility, planning, visual learning and working memory performance in schizophrenia. Age, sex, number of hospitalizations and antipsychotic type also emerged as significant predictors. More importantly, we found a significant association between antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism and working memory performance. The fact that negative symptoms and socio-demographic variables predicted cognitive performance in schizophrenia is consistent with the previous literature on the topic. The finding of an association between parkinsonism and working memory may have clinical implications, since working memory deficits are considered putative endophenotypes of schizophrenia and are known to impair patients' social and occupational functioning. Our results will need to be replicated in longitudinal studies involving larger samples of patients. PMID:24925606

  5. Role of Serotoninergic Pathways in Drug-induced Valvular Heart Disease and Diagnostic Features by Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sakima A.; Waggoner, Alan D.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Davila-Roman, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin plays a significant role in the development of carcinoid heart disease, which primarily leads to fibrosis and contraction of right-sided heart valves. Recently, strong evidence has emerged that the use of specific drug classes such as ergot alkaloids (for migraine headaches), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) uptake regulators/inhibitors (for weight reduction), and ergot-derived dopamine agonists (for Parkinson’s disease) can result in left-sided heart valve damage that resembles carcinoid heart disease. Recent studies suggest that both right- and left-sided drug-induced heart valve disease involves increased serotoninergic activity and in particular activation of the 5-HT receptors, including the 5-HT2B receptor subtype, which mediate many of the central and peripheral functions of serotonin. G-proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity mediate the activity of the 5-HT2B receptor subunit which is widely expressed in a variety of tissues including liver, lung, heart, and coronary and pulmonary arteries; and it has also been reported in embryonic mouse heart, particularly on mouse heart valve leaflets. In this review we discuss the salient features of serotoninergic manifestations of both carcinoid heart disease and drug-induced cardiac valvulopathy with an emphasis on echocardiographic diagnosis. PMID:19553085

  6. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: incidence and severity.

    PubMed Central

    Lankisch, P G; Dröge, M; Gottesleben, F

    1995-01-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of drug induced acute pancreatitis, data from 45 German centres of gastroenterology were evaluated. Among 1613 patients treated for acute pancreatitis in 1993, drug induced acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 22 patients (incidence 1.4%). Drugs held responsible were azathioprine, mesalazine/sulfasalazine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), oestrogens, frusemide, hydrochlorothiazide, and rifampicin. Pancreatic necrosis not exceeding 33% of the organ was found on ultrasonography or computed tomography, or both, in three patients (14%). Pancreatic pseudocysts did not occur. A decrease of arterial PO2 reflecting respiratory insufficiency, and an increase of serum creatinine, reflecting renal insufficiency as complications of acute pancreatitis were seen in two (9%) and four (18%) patients, respectively. Artificial ventilation was not needed, and dialysis was necessary in only one (5%) case. Two patients (9%) died of AIDS and tuberculosis, respectively; pancreatitis did not seem to have contributed materially to their death. In conclusion, drugs rarely cause acute pancreatitis, and drug induced acute pancreatitis usually runs a benign course. PMID:7489946

  7. Mechanisms of Drug Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liyun; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Drug induced liver injury (DILI) represents a broad spectrum of liver manifestations. However, the most common manifestation is hepatocyte death following drug intake. DILI can be predictable and dose dependent with notable example of acetaminophen toxicity. Idiosyncratic DILI occurs in an unpredictable fashion at low frequencies implying that environmental and genetic factors alter the susceptibility of individuals to the insult (drugs). An biochemical stress is usually initiated by drugs and their reactive metabolites through covalent binding or direct damage to mitochondria, which leads to oxidative stress, activation of stress signaling pathways, impairment of mitochondrial function, endoplasmic reticulum stress, etc. The ultimate cell death pathways converges at mitochondria through acting on mitochondrial outer-membrane permeability (MOMP) or mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The striking HLA associations with idiosyncratic DILI highlight the critical role of the adaptive immune response in pathogenesis, which is now believed to be unmasked in genetically susceptible individuals by the biochemical stress in the liver triggered by drug and/or metabolites. The drug-induced biochemical stress may also contribute to the severity of injury by sensitizing hepatocytes to the lethal effects of the immune response. Adaptive mechanisms including antioxidant signaling (such as Nrf2 signaling) , mitophagy, autophagy, unfolded protein response, anti-inflammatory and immune tolerance dampen and ameliorate injury. All together, the development and severity of injury is determined on the battle between the hazardous stress and adaptive responses within the hepatocytes and the innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:24099014

  8. Drug-induced acid-base disorders.

    PubMed

    Kitterer, Daniel; Schwab, Matthias; Alscher, M Dominik; Braun, Niko; Latus, Joerg

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of acid-base disorders (ABDs) is high, especially in hospitalized patients. ABDs are often indicators for severe systemic disorders. In everyday clinical practice, analysis of ABDs must be performed in a standardized manner. Highly sensitive diagnostic tools to distinguish the various ABDs include the anion gap and the serum osmolar gap. Drug-induced ABDs can be classified into five different categories in terms of their pathophysiology: (1) metabolic acidosis caused by acid overload, which may occur through accumulation of acids by endogenous (e.g., lactic acidosis by biguanides, propofol-related syndrome) or exogenous (e.g., glycol-dependant drugs, such as diazepam or salicylates) mechanisms or by decreased renal acid excretion (e.g., distal renal tubular acidosis by amphotericin B, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin D); (2) base loss: proximal renal tubular acidosis by drugs (e.g., ifosfamide, aminoglycosides, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, antiretrovirals, oxaliplatin or cisplatin) in the context of Fanconi syndrome; (3) alkalosis resulting from acid and/or chloride loss by renal (e.g., diuretics, penicillins, aminoglycosides) or extrarenal (e.g., laxative drugs) mechanisms; (4) exogenous bicarbonate loads: milk-alkali syndrome, overshoot alkalosis after bicarbonate therapy or citrate administration; and (5) respiratory acidosis or alkalosis resulting from drug-induced depression of the respiratory center or neuromuscular impairment (e.g., anesthetics, sedatives) or hyperventilation (e.g., salicylates, epinephrine, nicotine). PMID:25370778

  9. Combined treatment with acupuncture reduces effective dose and alleviates adverse effect of l-dopa by normalizing Parkinson’s disease-induced neurochemical imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Ji-Yeun; Choo, Hyunwoo J.; Shim, Insop; Park, Jongbae J.; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Bena; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study first showed the behavioural benefits of novel combination therapy of l-dopa with acupuncture on Parkinson’s disease, and its underlying mechanisms within basal ganglia. The previous study reported that acupuncture may improve the motor function of a Parkinson’s disease (PD) mouse model by increasing the dopamine efflux and turnover ratio of dopamine. Hence, we hypothesised that combining l-dopa with acupuncture would have a behavioural benefit for those with PD. We performed unilateral injections of 6-OHDA into the striatum of C57Bl/6 mice to model hemi-Parkinsonian attributes. To test motor function and dyskinetic anomalies, we examined cylinder behaviour and abnormal involuntary movement (AIM), respectively. We found that (1) a 50% reduced dose of l-dopa (7.5 mg/kg) combined with acupuncture showed an improvement in motor function that was comparable to mice given the standard dose of l-dopa treatment (15 mg/kg) only, and that (2) the combination treatment (l-dopa +acupuncture) was significantly superior in reducing AIM scores when equivalent doses of l-dopa were used. The combination treatment also significantly reduces the abnormal increase of GABA contents in the substantia nigra compared to the standard l-dopa treatment. Furthermore, abnormal expression of FosB, the immediate early gene of l-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID), was mitigated in the striatum by the combination treatment. All of these results indicate that acupuncture enhances the benefits of l-dopa on motor function with reduced dose of l-dopa and alleviating LID by normalising neurochemical imbalance within the basal ganglia. PMID:24321617

  10. A single-center, cross-sectional prevalence study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: association with dopaminergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Michele; Logi, Chiara; Lucetti, Claudio; Del Dotto, Paolo; Baldacci, Filippo; Vergallo, Andrea; Ulivi, Martina; Del Sarto, Simone; Rossi, Giuseppe; Ceravolo, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2013-10-01

    The current study aimed at establishing the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and their association with demographic, drug-related, and disease-related characteristics. We performed a single-center cross-sectional study of 805 PD patients. Impulse control disorders were investigated with the Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; also comorbid neuropsychiatric complications (dementia, delusions, visual hallucinations) were investigated with clinical interviews and ad hoc instruments (Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire and Neuropsychiatry Inventory). Impulse control disorders were identified in 65 patients (prevalence, 8.1%), with pathological gambling and hypersexuality the most frequent. Impulse control disorders were present in 57 of 593 cognitively preserved patients (prevalence, 9.6%) and in 8 of 212 demented patients (prevalence, 3.8%). Impulse control disorders were significantly associated with dopamine agonists (odds ratio [OR], 5.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.60-12.46; P < 0.0001) and levodopa (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.06-6.35; P = 0.034). Impulse control disorders frequency was similar for pramipexole and ropinirole (16.6% vs 12.5%; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.79-2.74; P = 0.227). Additional variables associated with ICDs were male sex and younger age. These findings suggested that dopaminergic treatments in PD are associated with increased odds of having an ICD, but also other demographic and clinical variables are associated with ICDs, suggesting the multifactorial nature of the ICD phenomenon in PD. PMID:23857310

  11. Parkinson Disease Protein DJ-1 Binds Metals and Protects against Metal-induced Cytotoxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Björkblom, Benny; Adilbayeva, Altynai; Maple-Grřdem, Jodi; Piston, Dominik; Ökvist, Mats; Xu, Xiang Ming; Brede, Cato; Larsen, Jan Petter; Mřller, Simon Geir

    2013-01-01

    The progressive loss of motor control due to reduction of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and decreased striatal dopamine levels are the classically described features of Parkinson disease (PD). Neuronal damage also progresses to other regions of the brain, and additional non-motor dysfunctions are common. Accumulation of environmental toxins, such as pesticides and metals, are suggested risk factors for the development of typical late onset PD, although genetic factors seem to be substantial in early onset cases. Mutations of DJ-1 are known to cause a form of recessive early onset Parkinson disease, highlighting an important functional role for DJ-1 in early disease prevention. This study identifies human DJ-1 as a metal-binding protein able to evidently bind copper as well as toxic mercury ions in vitro. The study further characterizes the cytoprotective function of DJ-1 and PD-mutated variants of DJ-1 with respect to induced metal cytotoxicity. The results show that expression of DJ-1 enhances the cells' protective mechanisms against induced metal toxicity and that this protection is lost for DJ-1 PD mutations A104T and D149A. The study also shows that oxidation site-mutated DJ-1 C106A retains its ability to protect cells. We also show that concomitant addition of dopamine exposure sensitizes cells to metal-induced cytotoxicity. We also confirm that redox-active dopamine adducts enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of intracellular proteins in vivo by use of live cell imaging of redox-sensitive S3roGFP. The study indicates that even a small genetic alteration can sensitize cells to metal-induced cell death, a finding that may revive the interest in exogenous factors in the etiology of PD. PMID:23792957

  12. Dopamine mediated iron release from ferritin is enhanced at higher temperatures: Possible implications for fever-induced Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babincová, Melánia; Babinec, Peter

    2005-05-01

    A new molecular mechanism is proposed to explain the pathogenesis of fever-induced Parkinson's disease. This proposal is based on dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine-mediated free iron release from ferritin magnetic nanoparticles, which is enhanced at higher temperatures, and which may lead to substantial peroxidation and injury of lipid biomembranes of the substantia nigra in the brain.

  13. Dopamine Induced Neurodegeneration in a PINK1 Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Gandhi; Annika Vaarmann; Zhi Yao; Michael R. Duchen; Nicholas W. Wood; Andrey Y. Abramov

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundParkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine depletion in the striatum. Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease. Loss of PINK1 function causes mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species production and calcium dysregulation, which increases susceptibility to neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. The basis

  14. Identifying adverse drug reactions and drug-induced diseases using network-based drug mapping.

    PubMed

    Shoshi, Alban; Ogultarhan, Venus; Hoppe, Tobias; Kormeier, Benjamin; Müller, Ulrich; Hofestädt, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Drugs are essential for the prevention and treatment of diseases. However, co-administration of multiple drugs may cause serious adverse drug reactions, which are usually known but sometimes unknown. Package inserts of prescription drugs are supposed to contain risks and side effects, but such information is not necessarily complete. At the core of efforts to improve prescription quality, there is reliance on the extent and quality of information used for decision of a medical doctor. To address this on-going need, GraphSAW provides users a comprehensive view on drug-related pharmacological and molecular information. The features of GraphSAW allow users to analyze drug cocktails for adverse drug reactions and drug-induced diseases. Network visualization by drug mapping enables exploring associative networks of drugs, pathways, and diseases to fully understand effects of drugs in an intuitive way. GraphSAW is meant to be a platform and starting point for health professionals and researchers for educational and scientific research in order to achieve substantial improvements in patient safety. PMID:25666653

  15. PET Imaging a MPTP-Induced Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease Using the Fluoropropyl-Dihydrotetrabenazine Analog [18F]-DTBZ (AV-133)

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, James S.; Bhatia, Shilpa; Moon, La’Wanda T.; Orchard, Elysse A.; Tainter, Kerrie H.; Lokitz, Stephen J.; Terry, Tracee; Mathis, J. Michael; Penman, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the nigrostriatal system. Numerous researchers in the past have attempted to track the progression of dopaminergic depletion in PD. We applied a quantitative non-invasive PET imaging technique to follow this degeneration process in an MPTP-induced mouse model of PD. The VMAT2 ligand 18F-DTBZ (AV-133) was used as a radioactive tracer in our imaging experiments to monitor the changes of the dopaminergic system. Intraperitoneal administrations of MPTP (a neurotoxin) were delivered to mice at regular intervals to induce lesions consistent with PD. Our results indicate a significant decline in the levels of striatal dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) following MPTP treatment as determined by HPLC method. Images obtained by positron emission tomography revealed uptake of 18F-DTBZ analog in the mouse striatum. However, reduction in radioligand binding was evident in the striatum of MPTP lesioned animals as compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical analysis further confirmed PET imaging results and indicated the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in treated animals compared with the control counterparts. In conclusion, our findings suggest that MPTP induced PD in mouse model is appropriate to follow the degeneration of dopaminergic system and that 18F-DTBZ analog is a potentially sensitive radiotracer that can used to diagnose changes associated with PD by PET imaging modality. PMID:22723923

  16. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?

    PubMed Central

    Tenner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

  17. PACAP27 prevents Parkinson-like neuronal loss and motor deficits but not microglia activation induced by prostaglandin J2.

    PubMed

    Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Machlovi, Saima Ishaq; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E

    2014-09-01

    Neuroinflammation is a major risk factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alternative approaches are needed to treat inflammation, as anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can produce devastating side effects, including heart attack and stroke. New therapeutic strategies that target factors downstream of COX-2, such as prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), hold tremendous promise because they will not alter the homeostatic balance offered by COX-2 derived prostanoids. In the current studies, we report that repeated microinfusion of PGJ2 into the substantia nigra of non-transgenic mice, induces three stages of pathology that mimic the slow-onset cellular and behavioral pathology of PD: mild (one injection) when only motor deficits are detectable, intermediate (two injections) when neuronal and motor deficits as well as microglia activation are detectable, and severe (four injections) when dopaminergic neuronal loss is massive accompanied by microglia activation and motor deficits. Microglia activation was evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C](R)PK11195 to provide a regional estimation of brain inflammation. PACAP27 reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor deficits induced by PGJ2, without preventing microglia activation. The latter could be problematic in that persistent microglia activation can exert long-term deleterious effects on neurons and behavior. In conclusion, this PGJ2-induced mouse model that mimics in part chronic inflammation, exhibits slow-onset PD-like pathology and is optimal for testing diagnostic tools such as PET, as well as therapies designed to target the integrated signaling across neurons and microglia, to fully benefit patients with PD. PMID:24970746

  18. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease: Reconsidering the Role of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy H.; Bigbee, Matthew J.; Boynton, Grace E.; Wakeham, Colin M.; Rosenheim, Hilary M.; Staral, Christopher J.; Morrissey, James L.; Hund, Amanda K.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common neurodegenerative diseases with age as the greatest risk factor. As the general population experiences extended life span, preparation for the prevention and treatment of these and other age-associated neurological diseases are warranted. Since epidemiological studies suggested that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use decreased risk for AD and PD, increasing attention has been devoted to understanding the costs and benefits of the innate neuroinflammatory response to functional recovery following pathology onset. This review will provide a general overview on the role of neuroinflammation in these neurodegenerative diseases and an update on NSAID treatment in recent experimental animal models, epidemiological analyses, and clinical trials.

  19. Knockdown of Hsc70-5/mortalin Induces Loss of Synaptic Mitochondria in a Drosophila Parkinson’s Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-yi; Vereshchagina, Natalia; Sreekumar, Vrinda; Burbulla, Lena F.; Costa, Ana C.; Daub, Katharina J.; Woitalla, Dirk; Martins, L. Miguel; Krüger, Rejko; Rasse, Tobias M.

    2013-01-01

    Mortalin is an essential component of the molecular machinery that imports nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria, assists in their folding, and protects against damage upon accumulation of dysfunctional, unfolded proteins in aging mitochondria. Mortalin dysfunction associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) increases the vulnerability of cultured cells to proteolytic stress and leads to changes in mitochondrial function and morphology. To date, Drosophila melanogaster has been successfully used to investigate pathogenesis following the loss of several other PD-associated genes. We generated the first loss-of-Hsc70-5/mortalin-function Drosophila model. The reduction of Mortalin expression recapitulates some of the defects observed in the existing Drosophila PD-models, which include reduced ATP levels, abnormal wing posture, shortened life span, and reduced spontaneous locomotor and climbing ability. Dopaminergic neurons seem to be more sensitive to the loss of mortalin than other neuronal sub-types and non-neuronal tissues. The loss of synaptic mitochondria is an early pathological change that might cause later degenerative events. It precedes both behavioral abnormalities and structural changes at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of mortalin-knockdown larvae that exhibit increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Autophagy is concomitantly up-regulated, suggesting that mitochondria are degraded via mitophagy. Ex vivo data from human fibroblasts identifies increased mitophagy as an early pathological change that precedes apoptosis. Given the specificity of the observed defects, we are confident that the loss-of-mortalin model presented in this study will be useful for further dissection of the complex network of pathways that underlie the development of mitochondrial parkinsonism. PMID:24386261

  20. Isogenic Human iPSC Parkinson’s Model Shows Nitrosative Stress-Induced Dysfunction in MEF2-PGC1? Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Scott D.; Dolatabadi, Nima; Chan, Shing Fai; Zhang, Xiaofei; Akhtar, Mohd Waseem; Parker, James; Soldner, Frank; Sunico, Carmen R.; Nagar, Saumya; Talantova, Maria; Lee, Brian; Lopez, Kevin; Nutter, Anthony; Shan, Bing; Molokanova, Elena; Zhang, Yaoyang; Han, Xuemei; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Masliah, Eliezer; Yates, John R.; Nakanishi, Nobuki; Andreyev, Aleksander Y.; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of A9 dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). An association has been reported between PD and exposure to mitochondrial toxins, including environmental pesticides paraquat, maneb, and rotenone. Here, using a robust, patient-derived stem cell model of PD allowing comparison of A53T ?-synuclein (?-syn) mutant cells and isogenic mutation-corrected controls, we identify mitochondrial toxin-induced perturbations in A53T ?-syn A9 DA neurons (hNs). We report a pathway whereby basal and toxin-induced nitrosative/oxidative stress results in S-nitrosylation of transcription factor MEF2C in A53T hNs compared to corrected controls. This redox reaction inhibits the MEF2C-PGC1? transcriptional network, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. Our data provide mechanistic insight into gene-environmental interaction (GxE) in the pathogenesis of PD. Furthermore, using small-molecule high-throughput screening, we identify the MEF2C-PGC1? pathway as a therapeutic target to combat PD. PMID:24290359

  1. Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effect of Piperine on 6-OHDA induced Parkinson's rat model.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Pallavi; Vaibhav, Kumar; Tabassum, Rizwana; Khan, Andleeb; Ishrat, Tauheed; Khan, Mohd Moshahid; Ahmad, Ajmal; Islam, Farah; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism by which Piperine (bioactive compound of Piper nigrum) inhibits neuronal cell apoptosis. We further investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of Piperine on 6-OHDA induced Parkinson's disease. Consistent with its antioxidant properties, Piperine (10 mg/kg bwt) reduced 6-OHDA-induced lipid peroxidation and stimulated glutathione levels in striatum of rats. Furthermore, Piperine treatment diminished cytochrome-c release from mitochondria and reduced caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation induced by 6-OHDA. Treatment with Piperine markedly inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation, pro-apoptotic Bax levels and elevation of Bcl-2 levels. Piperine reduces contralateral rotations induced by apomorphine. Further narrow beam test and rotarod also showed improvement in motor coordination and balance behavior in rats treated with Piperine. In addition Piperine depletes inflammatory markers, TNF-? and IL-1? in 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's rats. We propose that, in addition to its antioxidant properties Piperine exerts a protective effect via anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanism on 6-OHDA induced Parkinson's disease. PMID:22819561

  2. HLA and drug-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Elizabeth J; Mallal, Simon A

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of new associations between drug toxicities and specific HLA alleles has been facilitated by the use of DNA-based molecular techniques and the introduction of higher-resolution HLA typing, which have replaced serological typing in this field of study. Drug toxicity/HLA associations have been best documented for immunologically mediated reactions, such as drug hypersensitivity reactions associated with the use of abacavir, and severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by carbamazepine and allopurinol use, respectively. The implementation of HLA-B*5701 screening for the prevention of abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome (ABC HSR) has provided a model approach that can be applied to the screening of other drugs. High-level clinical evidence supporting HLA-B*5701 screening for ABC HSR has converged with experimental findings characterizing the CD8+T-cell HLA-B*5701-restricted immune response triggered by abacavir. This has been followed by the successful development of simplified inexpensive and quality-assured laboratory tests for HLA-B*5701 and ongoing quality assurance programs, resulting in a paradigm both for the implementation of HLA-B*5701 screening for HIV providers as well as for the broader successful implementation of pharmacogenetic screening in the clinic. PMID:19479656

  3. [Research progress in mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Mao, Hua-Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity in children is dependent upon the histological, anatomical and physiological features of their kidneys and the structural and functional characteristics of drugs. The kidney is mainly composed of microvascular network and tubulointerstitial tissue, so drug-induced nephrotoxicity is usually manifested by interstitial nephropathy. The mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity include cytotoxicity (necrosis or apoptosis), ischemic injury, and immunological injury. Individual drugs cause renal damage by various mechanisms due to differences in chemical structure and pharmacology. This article reviews the main features of nephrotoxicity induced by common antibiotics (cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, vancomycin, carbapenems and amphotericin B), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cyclosporine A. PMID:24750824

  4. Initiatives to improve prescribing efficiency for drugs to treat Parkinson's disease in Croatia: influence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brkicic, Ljiljana Sovic; Godman, Brian; Voncina, Luka; Sovic, Slavica; Relja, Maja

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disease affecting older adults. Consequently, this disease should be a focus among payers, with increasing utilization of newer premium-priced patent-protected add-on therapies to stabilize or even improve motor function over time. However, expenditure can be moderated by reforms. Consequently, there is a need to assess the influence of these reforms on the prescribing efficiency for drugs to treat PD in Croatia before proposing additional measures. Prescribing efficiency is defined as increasing the use of add-on therapies for similar expenditure. An observational retrospective study of the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance database of drugs to treat patients with PD in Croatia from 2000 to 2010 was carried out, with utilization measured in defined daily doses (defined as the average maintenance dose of a drug when used in its major indication in adults). The study years were chosen to reflect recent reforms. Only reimbursed expenditure is measured from a health insurance perspective. Utilization of drugs to treat PD increased by 218% between 2000 and 2010. Reimbursed expenditure increased by 360%, principally driven by increasing utilization of premium-priced patent-protected add-on therapies, including ropinirole and pramipexole. However, following recent reforms, reducing expenditure/defined daily dose for the different drugs, as well as overall expenditure, stabilized reimbursed expenditure between 2005 and 2010. Treatment of PD is complex, and add-on therapies are needed to improve care. Reimbursed expenditure should now fall following stabilization, despite increasing volumes, as successive add-on therapies lose their patents, further increasing prescribing efficiency. PMID:22812560

  5. HIV transactivator of transcription enhances methamphetamine-induced Parkinson's-like behavior in the rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengxun; Shi, Zhenchun; Liu, Jintong; Wang, Yang

    2014-06-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (MA) increases the risk of infection of HIV-1, induces considerable neurotoxicity in several brain regions, and impairs the motor and cognitive function in individuals. HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) has also shown the potent capability to induce neuronal death and impaired brain function. The present study aims to study the synergistic effect of MA and Tat on cytokine synthesis in substantia nigra, striatal dopamine content, and behavioral performance in the rats. Although increased expression of cytokines (interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?) was observed in the substantia nigra in the rats receiving either MA or Tat alone, a combination of MA and Tat induced a larger and more sustained upregulation of cytokines. In the rats receiving either MA or Tat alone, significant loss in striatal dopamine content was found, which was further exacerbated in the rats receiving both MA and Tat. In the rats receiving either MA or Tat alone, significantly lower performance in the rotarod test and open-field test was observed, whereas the rats receiving both MA and Tat showed more sustained behavioral impairments. These results suggested that Tat protein synergized with MA to induce central neuroinflammation and impair the dopaminergic transmission, thus leading to sustained Parkinson's-like behavior. PMID:24911386

  6. Posttraumatic parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Rita; Zasler, Nathan D

    2014-01-01

    Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly used drugs in the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of disorders of consciousness (DOCs) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, its actions as a pro-dopaminergic drug and as an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist makes amantadine an interesting candidate to improve consciousness and responsiveness in individuals with DOC, including vegetative state and minimally conscious state. Giacino et al (N Engl J Med. 2012;366(9):819-826) recently reported that amantadine was able to accelerate the functional recovery course of subjects after TBI with DOC, during a 4-week treatment period. Some patients with DOC following severe TBI have been reported to have parkinsonian symptoms. Severe TBI and posttraumatic parkinsonism may share a common midbrain network dysfunction. In fact, both vegetative state and minimally conscious state following severe TBI can include features of akinetic mutism and parkinsonism. Responsiveness to pro-dopaminergic agents in some patients and to deep brain stimulation in others, might depend, respectively, on the integrity, or lack thereof, of the dopaminergic postsynaptic receptors. We are of the strong opinion that more attention should be given to parkinsonian findings in persons with DOC after severe TBI and would advocate for multicenter, randomized, controlled trials to assess risk factors for parkinsonism following severe TBI. PMID:24695262

  7. Effect of memantine on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tronci, E; Fidalgo, C; Zianni, E; Collu, M; Stancampiano, R; Morelli, M; Gardoni, F; Carta, M

    2014-04-18

    An increasing body of experimental evidence demonstrates that the glutamatergic system is involved in the genesis of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID). Indeed, the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist amantadine is the only anti-dyskinetic compound used in patients, albeit with limited efficacy and side effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-dyskinetic properties of memantine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist in clinical use for the treatment of dementia, in the 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)-lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease. For comparison, parallel experiments were also performed with amantadine. First, we investigated the acute effect of different doses of memantine (5, 10, 15 and 20mg/kg), and amantadine (10, 20, 40, 60mg/kg) on established dyskinesia induced by L-DOPA (6mg/kg plus benserazide). Results showed that both memantine and amantadine produced a significant reduction of LID. Afterward, drug-naďve and L-DOPA-primed 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were sub-chronically treated with daily injections of L-DOPA (6mg/kg plus benserazide) alone, or in combination with the effective doses of memantine, while amantadine was tested in already dyskinetic rats. Results showed that memantine significantly dampened dyskinesia in both drug-naďve and L-DOPA-primed rats, but only during the first few days of administration. In fact, the anti-dyskinetic effect of memantine was completely lost already at the fifth administration, indicating a rapid induction of tolerance. Interestingly, a 3-week washout period was not sufficient to restore the anti-dyskinetic effect of the drug. Similarly, amantadine was able to dampen already established dyskinesia only during the first day of administration. Moreover, memantine partially decreased the therapeutic effect of L-DOPA, as showed by the result of the stepping test. Finally, loss of the anti-dyskinetic effect of memantine was associated to increased synaptic GluN2A/GluN2B ratio at striatal synaptic membranes. Our results are in line with clinical observations suggesting that NMDA receptor blockade may only be transiently effective against LID in PD patients. PMID:24486947

  8. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Toxin-Induced Neuronal Damage via Nrf2-Dependent Glial Cells-Mediated Protective Activity in Parkinson’s Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Yun; Wei-Ji; Liu, Qi; Ma, Yi-Hui; He, Jiao-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SalB), a bioactive compound isolated from the plant-derived medicinal herb Danshen, has been shown to exert various anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in several neurological disorders. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential protective effects and associated molecular mechanisms of SalB in Parkinson’s disease (PD) models. To determine the neuroprotective effects of SalB in vitro, MPP+- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuronal injury was achieved using primary cultures with different compositions of neurons, microglia and astrocytes. Our results showed that SalB reduced both LPS- and MPP+-induced toxicity of dopamine neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, SalB treatment inhibited the release of microglial pro-inflammatory cytokines and resulted in an increase in the expression and release of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) from astrocytes. Western blot analysis illustrated that SalB increased the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). The knockdown of Nrf2 using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) partially reversed the SalB-induced GDNF expression and anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, SalB treatment significantly attenuated dopaminergic (DA) neuronal loss, inhibited neuroinflammation, increased GDNF expression and improved the neurological function in MPTP-treated mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that SalB protects DA neurons by an Nrf-2 -mediated dual action: reducing microglia activation-mediated neuroinflammation and inducing astrocyte activation-dependent GDNF expression. Importantly the present study also highlights critical roles of glial cells as targets for developing new strategies to alter the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24991814

  9. Adjunctive therapy in Parkinson’s disease: the role of rasagiline

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Kathryn D; Hinson, Vanessa K

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, currently affecting 1.5 million people in the US. In this review, we describe the diagnostic and pathological features of Parkinson’s disease, as well as its clinical course. We then review pharmacologic treatments for the disease, with a particular focus on therapies adjunctive to levodopa and specifically the role of rasagiline. We review the four pivotal rasagiline trials, and discuss rasagiline and its use as adjunctive therapy for Parkinson’s disease. Finally, we discuss potential side effects, drug interactions, and other practical aspects concerning the use of rasagiline in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22802692

  10. Retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles induce neuroprotection in a mouse model for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Marta; Cristóvăo, Ana C.; Saraiva, Tatiana; Rocha, Sandra M.; Baltazar, Graça; Ferreira, Lino; Bernardino, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the commitment, maturation and survival of neural cells. Recently, RA was pointed as a therapeutic option for some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). The administration of RA has been defying, and in this sense we have previously developed novel RA-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (RA-NPs) that ensure the efficient intracellular transport and controlled release of RA. Herein, we show that nanoformulation as an efficient neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mouse model for PD. The results showed that the RA-NPs administration induced a significant reduction of DA neuron loss in the substantia nigra (SN) as well as their neuronal fiber/axonal innervations in the striatum. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the expression levels of the transcription factors Pitx3 and Nurr1 induced by RA-NPs, showing its supportive effect on the development and functional maintenance of DA neurons in PD. This is the first study showing that RA-NPs can be an innovative strategy to halt the progression of PD pathogenesis, suggesting that this nanoformulation could be of particular interest for the development of new approaches for PD therapeutics. PMID:25798108

  11. Bilateral pallidotomy for treatment of Parkinson's disease induced corticobulbar syndrome and psychic akinesia avoidable by globus pallidus lesion combined with contralateral stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Merello, M; Starkstein, S; Nouzeilles, M; Kuzis, G; Leiguarda, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) has proved to be an effective method for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, data on bilateral procedures are still limited. To assess the effects of bilateral globus pallidus (GPi) lesion and to compare it with a combination of unilateral GPi lesion plus contralateral GPi stimulation (PVP+PVS), an open blind randomised trial was designed.?METHODS—A prospective series of patients with severe Parkinson's disease refractory to medical treatment, and severe drug induced dyskinesias, were randomised either to simultaneous bilateral PVP or simultaneous PVP+PVS. All patients were assessed with the core assessment programme for intracerebral transplantation (CAPIT), and a comprehensive neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric battery both before surgery and 3 months later.?RESULTS—The severe adverse effects found in the first three patients subjected to bilateral PVP led to discontinuation of the protocol. All three patients developed depression and apathy. Speech, salivation, and swallowing, as well as freezing, walking, and falling, dramatically worsened. By contrast, all three patients undergoing PVP+PVS had a significant motor improvement.?CONCLUSION—Bilateral simultaneous lesions within the GPi may produce severe motor and psychiatric complications. On the other hand, a combination of PVP+ PVS significantly improves parkinsonian symptoms not associated with the side effects elicited by bilateral lesions.?? PMID:11606671

  12. Neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of Apigenin and Luteolin in MPTP induced parkinsonism in mice.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sachin P; Jain, Pankaj D; Sancheti, Jayant S; Ghumatkar, Priya J; Tambe, Rufi; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we aim to investigate the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of naturally occurring polyphenols like apigenin and luteolin and also to explore the underlying mechanisms with respect to Parkinson's disease (PD). MPTP (25 mg/kg) along with Probenecid (250 mg/kg) was administrated for five consecutive days to induce parkinsonism in mice. Apigenin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), luteolin (10 and 20 mg/kg) and Bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally for 26 days including 5 days of pretreatment. Behavioural analysis and biochemical estimation of oxidative stress biomarkers were conducted. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated in substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain by immunostaining. TNF-? was estimated using ELISA technique. Our results demonstrate that apigenin and luteolin treatment improved the locomotor and muscular activities in MPTP treated mice. TH-positive cells decreased up to 7% in MPTP treated mice compared to normal mice (P < 0.001) and were found to be protected from degeneration in apigenin (69%) and luteolin (63%) treated mice (P < 0.001). Levels of GFAP were found to be decreased in the SN of the brain due to apigenin and luteolin treatment as compared to MPTP mice. BDNF levels were elevated significantly in apigenin and luteolin treatment groups when compared to MPTP treatment mice. In conclusion, apigenin and luteolin protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing oxidative damage, neuroinflammation and microglial activation along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results propose both these flavonoids as promising molecules in the therapeutics of PD. PMID:25087727

  13. A validated chiral liquid chromatographic method for the enantiomeric separation of safinamide mesilate, a new anti-Parkinson drug.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Xue, Na; Shi, Xiaowei; Liu, Weina; Meng, Jing; Du, Yumin

    2011-04-28

    A enantioselective reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the enantiomeric resolution of safinamide mesilate, 2(S)-[4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino] propionamide methanesulfonate, a neuroprotectant with antiparkinsonian and anticonvulsant activity for the treatment of Parkinson disease. The enantiomers of safinamide mesilate were baseline resolved on a Chiralcel OD-RH (150mm×4.6mm, 5?m) column using a mobile phase system containing 300mM sodium di-hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.0):methanol:acetonitrile (65:25:10, v/v/v). The resolution between the enantiomers was not less than 3.0. The pH value of buffer solution in the mobile phase has played a key role in enhancing chromatographic efficiency and resolution between the enantiomers. The developed method was validated and proved to be robust. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of (R)-enantiomer were found to be 15 and 50ng/mL, respectively, for 20?L injection volume. The percentage recovery of (R)-enantiomer was ranged from 94.2 to 103.7 in bulk drug samples of safinamide mesilate. The sample solution and mobile phase were found to be stable at least for 48h. The final optimized method was successfully applied to separate (R)-enantiomer from safinamide mesilate and was proven to be reproducible and accurate for the quantitative determination of (R)-enantiomer in bulk drugs. PMID:21277726

  14. Current approaches to the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, Joseph; Aguilar, L Giselle

    2008-01-01

    Enormous progress has been made in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). As a result of advances in experimental therapeutics, many promising therapies for PD are emerging. Levodopa remains the most potent drug for controlling PD symptoms, yet is associated with significant complications such as the “wearing off” effect, levodopa-induced dyskinesias and other motor complications. Catechol-o-methyl-transferase inhibitors, dopamine agonists and nondopaminergic therapy are alternative modalities in the management of PD and may be used concomitantly with levodopa or one another. The neurosurgical treatment, focusing on deep brain stimulation, is reviewed briefly. Although this review has attempted to highlight the most recent advances in the treatment of PD, it is important to note that new treatments are not necessarily better than the established conventional therapy and that the treatment options must be individualized and tailored to the needs of each individual patient. PMID:19043519

  15. Symptomatic Models of Parkinson's Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Non-human Primates.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Tom M; Fox, Susan H

    2014-08-27

    Models of Parkinson's disease (PD) can be produced in several non-human primate (NHP) species by applying neurotoxic lesions to the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. The most commonly used neurotoxin is MPTP, a compound accidentally discovered as a contaminant of street drugs. Compared to other neurotoxins, MPTP has the advantage of crossing the blood-brain barrier and can thus be administered systemically. MPTP-lesioned NHPs exhibit the main core clinical features of PD. When treated with L-DOPA, these NHP models develop involuntary movements resembling the phenomenology of human dyskinesias. In old-world NHP species (macaques, baboons), choreic and dystonic dyskinesias can be readily distinguished and quantified with specific rating scales. More recently, certain non-motor symptoms relevant to human PD have been described in L-DOPA-treated MPTP-NHPs, including a range of neuropsychiatric abnormalities and sleep disturbances. The main shortcomings of MPTP-NHP models consist in a lack of progression of the underlying neurodegenerative lesion, along with an inability to model the intracellular protein-inclusion pathology typical of PD. The strength of MPTP-NHP models lies in their face and predictive validity for symptomatic treatments of parkinsonian motor features. Indeed, these models have been instrumental to the development of several medical and surgical approaches that are currently applied to treat PD. PMID:25158623

  16. RegionSpecific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinsons Disease Mouse Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Zhang; Jian-Ying Zhou; Mark H. Chin; Athena A. Schepmoes; Vladislav A. Petyuk; Karl K. Weitz; Brianne O. Petritis; Matthew E. Monroe; David G. Camp; Stephen A. Wood; William P. Melega; Diana J. Bigelow; Desmond J. Smith; Wei-Jun Qian; Richard D. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS\\/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced

  17. A rare manifestation of atrial fibrillation in the presence of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    De?irmencio?u, Aleks; Karaku?, Gültekin; Baysal, Erkan; Zencirci, Ertu?rul; Cakmak, Nazmiye

    2014-03-01

    We report a 68-year-old man who presented with heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF) with rapid ventricular response and wide QRS complexes. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) due to persistent AF developing on the basis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome was considered. Signs and symptoms of heart failure improved with restoration of sinus rhythm. This case suggested that persistent AF in a patient with WPW syndrome is one of the rare causes of TIC. PMID:24643151

  18. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms of something called Parkinson's disease. What Is Parkinson's Disease? You may have seen the actor Michael J. ... it needs to move normally. Continue What Causes Parkinson's Disease? Experts agree that low dopamine levels in the ...

  19. Serotonergic mechanisms responsible for levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Politis, Marios; Wu, Kit; Loane, Clare; Brooks, David J; Kiferle, Lorenzo; Turkheimer, Federico E; Bain, Peter; Molloy, Sophie; Piccini, Paola

    2014-03-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are the most common and disabling adverse motor effect of therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. In this study, we investigated serotonergic mechanisms in LIDs development in PD patients using 11C-DASB PET to evaluate serotonin terminal function and 11C-raclopride PET to evaluate dopamine release. PD patients with LIDs showed relative preservation of serotonergic terminals throughout their disease. Identical levodopa doses induced markedly higher striatal synaptic dopamine concentrations in PD patients with LIDs compared with PD patients with stable responses to levodopa. Oral administration of the serotonin receptor type 1A agonist buspirone prior to levodopa reduced levodopa-evoked striatal synaptic dopamine increases and attenuated LIDs. PD patients with LIDs that exhibited greater decreases in synaptic dopamine after buspirone pretreatment had higher levels of serotonergic terminal functional integrity. Buspirone-associated modulation of dopamine levels was greater in PD patients with mild LIDs compared with those with more severe LIDs. These findings indicate that striatal serotonergic terminals contribute to LIDs pathophysiology via aberrant processing of exogenous levodopa and release of dopamine as false neurotransmitter in the denervated striatum of PD patients with LIDs. Our results also support the development of selective serotonin receptor type 1A agonists for use as antidyskinetic agents in PD. PMID:24531549

  20. Proteasome inhibition in medaka brain induces the features of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Hideaki; Ito, Hidefumi; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Inoue, Haruhisa; Takeda, Shunichi; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2010-10-01

    Recent findings suggest that a defect in the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A previous report (McNaught et al. 2004) demonstrated that rats systemically injected with proteasome inhibitors exhibited PD-like clinical symptoms and pathology. However, because these findings have not been consistently replicated, this model is not commonly used to study PD. We used medaka fish to test the effect of systemic administration of proteasome inhibitors because of the high level of accessibility of the cerebrospinal fluid in fish. We injected lactacystin or epoxomicin into the CSF of medaka. With proteasome inhibition in the medaka brain, selective dopaminergic and noradrenergic cell loss was observed. Furthermore, treated fish exhibited reduced spontaneous movement. Treatment with proteasome inhibitors also induced the formation of inclusion bodies resembling Lewy bodies, which are characteristic of PD. Treatment with 6-OHDA also induced dopaminergic cell loss but did not produce inclusion bodies. These findings in medaka are consistent with previous results reporting that non-selective proteasome inhibition replicates the cardinal features of PD: locomotor dysfunction, selective dopaminergic cell loss, and inclusion body formation. PMID:20649841

  1. Protective effects of curcumin against rotenone and salsolinol-induced toxicity: implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Zakiya; Brown, Dwayne; Ramlochansingh, Carlana; Hurley, Laura L; Tizabi, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that results from the loss of or damage to dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. Exposure to either the pesticide rotenone or the endogenous neurotoxin salsolinol has been shown to mimic this dopaminergic cell loss. In this study, we first sought to determine whether combination of rotenone and salsolinol would result in an additive or synergistic toxicity. For this purpose we utilized SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line that is commonly used to model dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We then tested whether curcumin, a natural plant compound with known health benefits including potential neuroprotective properties, could also protect against rotenone and/or salsolinol-induced toxicity. Moreover, since apoptotic mechanism has been implicated in toxicity of these compounds the anti-apoptotic effect of curcumin was also evaluated. Our results indicate a synergistic toxicity of low concentrations of rotenone (1 and 5 µM) and salsolinol (25 and 50 µM) that was associated with apoptosis as determined by cell flow cytometry. There was also an increase in caspase-3 levels. Pretreatment with curcumin (1-µM) dose-dependently attenuated rotenone and/or salsolinol-induced toxicity and the associated apoptosis. These results suggest that exposure to a combination of rotenone and salsolinol may contribute to the pathology of PD, and that curcumin has a therapeutic potential in this disease. PMID:24122264

  2. Deep brain stimulation induces rapidly reversible transcript changes in Parkinson's leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, Lilach; Bergman, Hagai; Goll, Yael; Greenberg, David S; Israel, Zvi; Soreq, Hermona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) reversibly modulates Parkinson's disease (PD) motor symptoms, providing an unusual opportunity to compare leucocyte transcripts in the same individuals before and after neurosurgery and 1 hr after stimulus cessation (ON- and OFF-stimulus). Here, we report DBS-induced reversibility and OFF-stimulus restoration in 12 of 16 molecular functions and 3 of 4 biological processes shown in exon microarrays to be differentially expressed between PD patients and controls, post-DBS from pre-DBS and OFF from ON states. Intriguingly, 6 of 18 inflammation and immune-related functions exhibited reversibility, and the extent of stimulus-induced changes correlated with the neurological DBS efficacy, suggesting mechanistic implications. A minimal list of 29 transcripts that changed in all three comparisons between states discriminated pre-surgery and OFF states from post-surgery and controls. Six of these transcripts were found to be able to distinguish between PD patients and both healthy controls and patients with other neurological diseases in a previously published whole blood 3’ array data study of early PD patients. Our findings support the future use of this approach for identifying targets for therapeutic intervention and assessing the efficacy of current and new treatments in this and other neurological diseases. PMID:21910823

  3. Solving the puzzle of Parkinson's disease using induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Luo, Zhiwei; Tian, Weihua; Yang, Jiayin; Ibáńez, David P; Huang, Zhijian; Tortorella, Micky D; Esteban, Miguel A; Fan, Wenxia

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing due to a prolonged life expectancy. This highlights the need for a better mechanistic understanding and new therapeutic approaches. However, traditional in vitro and in vivo experimental models to study PD are suboptimal, thus hampering the progress in the field. The epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers a unique way to overcome this problem, as these cells share many properties of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) including the potential to be transformed into different lineages. PD modeling with iPSCs is nowadays facilitated by the growing availability of high-efficiency neural-specific differentiation protocols and the possibility to correct or induce mutations as well as creating marker cell lines using designer nucleases. These technologies, together with steady advances in human genetics, will likely introduce profound changes in the way we interpret PD and develop new treatments. Here, we summarize the different PD iPSCs reported so far and discuss the challenges for disease modeling using these cell lines. PMID:24939824

  4. Neuroprotective effects of swimming training in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine.

    PubMed

    Goes, A T R; Souza, L C; Filho, C B; Del Fabbro, L; De Gomes, M G; Boeira, S P; Jesse, C R

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum. Exercise has been shown to be a promising non-pharmacological approach to reduce the risk of neurodegeneration diseases. This study was designed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of swimming training (ST) in a mouse model of PD induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in mice. The present study demonstrated that a 4-week ST was effective in attenuating the following impairments resulting from 6-OHDA exposure: (i) depressive-like behavior in the tail suspension test; (ii) increase in the number of falls in the rotarod test; (iii) impairment on long-term memory in the object recognition test; (iv) increase of the reactive species and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1?) levels; (v) inhibition of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity; (vi) rise of the glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and vii) decrease of DA, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels. The mechanisms involved in this study are the modulation of GPx, GR and GST activities as well as IL-1? level in a PD model induced by 6-OHDA, protecting against the decrease of DA, DOPAC and HVA levels in the striatum of mice. These findings reinforce that one of the effects induced by exercise on neurodegenerative disease, such as PD, is due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We suggest that exercise attenuates cognitive and motor declines, depression, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation induced by 6-OHDA supporting the hypothesis that exercise can be used as a non-pharmacological tool to reduce the symptoms of PD. PMID:24090962

  5. Drug-induced spatial dispersion of repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Antzelevitch, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Spatial dispersion of repolarization in the form of transmural, trans-septal and apico-basal dispersion of repolarization creates voltage gradients that inscribe the J wave and T wave of the ECG. Amplification of this spatial dispersion of repolarization (SDR) underlies the development of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias associated with inherited or acquired ion channelopathies giving rise to the long QT, short QT and Brugada syndromes (BrS). This review focuses on the role of spatial dispersion of repolarization in drug-induced arrhythmogenesis associated with the long QT and BrS. In the long QT syndrome, drug-induced amplification of SDR is often secondary to preferential prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) of M cells, whereas in the BrS, it is thought to be due to selective abbreviation of the APD of right ventricular epicardium. Among the challenges ahead is the identification of a means to quantitate SDR non-invasively. This review also discusses the value of the interval between the peak and end of the T wave (Tpeak–Tend, Tp–Te) as an index of SDR and transmural dispersion of repolarization, in particular. PMID:18651395

  6. AFQ056 in Parkinson patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia: 13-week, randomized, dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Stocchi, Fabrizio; Rascol, Olivier; Destee, Alain; Hattori, Nobutaka; Hauser, Robert A; Lang, Anthony E; Poewe, Werner; Stacy, Mark; Tolosa, Eduardo; Gao, Haitao; Nagel, Jennifer; Merschhemke, Martin; Graf, Ana; Kenney, Christopher; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    AFQ056 is a novel, selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist. This was a 13-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients with Parkinson's disease and moderate-to-severe levodopa (l-dopa)-induced dyskinesia who were receiving stable l-dopa/anti-parkinsonian treatment and were not currently receiving amantadine were randomized to receive either AFQ056 (at doses of 20, 50, 100, 150, or 200 mg daily) or placebo (1:1:1:1:2:3 ratio) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the modified Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale. Secondary outcomes included the 26-item Parkinson's Disease Dyskinesia Scale, the Patient's/Clinician's Global Impression of Change, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale parts III (motor evaluation) and IV (severity of motor complications). Safety was assessed. In total, 98 of 133 (73.7%) AFQ056-treated patients and 47 of 64 (73.4%) patients in the placebo group completed the study. Baseline characteristics were comparable. Patients randomized to AFQ056 200 mg daily administered in 2 doses demonstrated significant improvements at Week 12 on the modified Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale compared with placebo (difference, -2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.2, -0.4; P?=?0.007). Based on final actual doses, there was a dose-response relationship on the modified Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale, with 200 mg daily demonstrating the most robust effect (difference, -3.6; 95% CI, -7.0, -0.3; P?=?0.012). Improvements in dyskinesia were supported by change on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part IV item 32 (50 mg daily: difference, -0.7; 95% CI, -1.1, -0.2; P?=?0.003; 200 mg daily: difference, -0.5; 95% CI, -0.8, -0.1; P?=?0.005). No significant changes were observed on the 26-item Parkinson's Disease Dyskinesia Scale, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part IV item 33 or items 32 and 33, or the Patient's/Clinician's Global Impression of Change. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III scores were not significantly changed, indicating no worsening of motor symptoms. The most common adverse events (with incidence greater with AFQ056 than with placebo) were dizziness, hallucination, fatigue, nasopharyngitis, diarrhea, and insomnia. AFQ056 demonstrated anti-dyskinetic efficacy in this population without worsening underlying motor symptoms. These results will guide dose selection for future clinical trials. PMID:23853029

  7. 72 FR 60681 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-10-25

    ...Guidance for Industry on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...for industry entitled ``Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...of a drug to cause severe drug-induced liver injury (DILI). This guidance...

  8. Anticancer drug-induced kidney disorders.

    PubMed

    Kintzel, P E

    2001-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is an inherent adverse effect of certain anticancer drugs. Renal dysfunction can be categorised as prerenal uraemia, intrinsic damage or postrenal uraemia according to the underlying pathophysiological process. Renal hypoperfusion promulgates prerenal uraemia. Intrinsic renal damage results from prolonged hypoperfusion, exposure to exogenous or endogenous nephrotoxins, renotubular precipitation of xenobiotics or endogenous compounds, renovascular obstruction, glomerular disease, renal microvascular damage or disease, and tubulointerstitial damage or disease. Postrenal uraemia is a consequence of clinically significant urinary tract obstruction. Clinical signs of nephrotoxicity and methods used to assess renal function are discussed. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced renal dysfunction generally include damage to vasculature or structures of the kidneys, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and prerenal perfusion deficits. Patients with cancer are frequently at risk of renal impairment secondary to disease-related and iatrogenic causes. This article reviews the incidence, presentation, prevention and management of anticancer drug-induced renal dysfunction. Dose-related nephrotoxicity subsequent to administration of certain chloroethylnitrosourea compounds (carmustine, semustine and streptozocin) is commonly heralded by increased serum creatinine levels, uraemia and proteinuria. Additional signs of streptozocin-induced nephrotoxicity include hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia, hypouricaemia, renal tubular acidosis, glucosuria, aceturia and aminoaciduria. Cisplatin and carboplatin cause dose-related renal dysfunction. In addition to increased serum creatinine levels and uraemia, electrolyte abnormalities, such as hypomagnesaemia and hypokalaemia, are commonly reported adverse effects. Rarely, cisplatin has been implicated as the underlying cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Pharmaceutical antidotes to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity include amifostine, sodium thiosulfate and diethyldithiocarbamate. Dose- and age-related proximal tubular damage is an adverse effect of ifosfamide. In addition to renal wasting of electrolytes, glucose and amino acids, Fanconi syndrome, rickets and osteomalacia have occurred with ifosfamide treatment. High dose azacitidine causes renal dysfunction manifested by tubular acidosis, polyuria and increased urinary excretion of electrolytes, glucose and amino acids. Haemolytic uraemia is a rare adverse effect of gemcitabine. Methotrexate can cause increased serum creatinine levels, uraemia and haematuria. Acute renal failure is reported following administration of high dose methotrexate. Urinary alkalisation and hydration confer protection against methotrexate-induced renal dysfunction. Dose-related nephrotoxicity, including acute renal failure, are reported subsequent to treatment with pentostatin and diaziquone. Acute renal failure is a rare adverse effect of treatment with interferon-alpha. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome occurs with mitomycin administration. A mortality rate of 50 to 100% is reported in patients developing mitomycin-induced haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Capillary leak syndrome occurring with aldesleukin therapy can cause renal dysfunction. Infusion-related hypotension during infusion of high dose carmustine can precipitate renal dysfunction. PMID:11219485

  9. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibition modulates response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zheng; Altena, Ellemarije; Nombela, Cristina; Housden, Charlotte R.; Maxwell, Helen; Rittman, Timothy; Huddleston, Chelan; Rae, Charlotte L.; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Barker, Roger A.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is common in Parkinson’s disease even in the absence of impulse control disorders. It is likely to be multifactorial, including a dopaminergic ‘overdose’ and structural changes in the frontostriatal circuits for motor control. In addition, we proposed that changes in serotonergic projections to the forebrain also contribute to response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease, based on preclinical animal and human studies. We therefore examined whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram improves response inhibition, in terms of both behaviour and the efficiency of underlying neural mechanisms. This multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study used a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover design with an integrated Stop-Signal and NoGo paradigm. Twenty-one patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (46–76 years old, 11 male, Hoehn and Yahr stage 1.5–3) received 30 mg citalopram or placebo in addition to their usual dopaminergic medication in two separate sessions. Twenty matched healthy control subjects (54–74 years old, 12 male) were tested without medication. The effects of disease and drug on behavioural performance and regional brain activity were analysed using general linear models. In addition, anatomical connectivity was examined using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics. We confirmed that Parkinson’s disease caused impairment in response inhibition, with longer Stop-Signal Reaction Time and more NoGo errors under placebo compared with controls, without affecting Go reaction times. This was associated with less stop-specific activation in the right inferior frontal cortex, but no significant difference in NoGo-related activation. Although there was no beneficial main effect of citalopram, it reduced Stop-Signal Reaction Time and NoGo errors, and enhanced inferior frontal activation, in patients with relatively more severe disease (higher Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor score). The behavioural effect correlated with the citalopram-induced enhancement of prefrontal activation and the strength of preserved structural connectivity between the frontal and striatal regions. In conclusion, the behavioural effect of citalopram on response inhibition depends on individual differences in prefrontal cortical activation and frontostriatal connectivity. The correlation between disease severity and the effect of citalopram on response inhibition may be due to the progressive loss of forebrain serotonergic projections. These results contribute to a broader understanding of the critical roles of serotonin in regulating cognitive and behavioural control, as well as new strategies for patient stratification in clinical trials of serotonergic treatments in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24578545

  10. Genomic and proteomic study to survey the mechanism of action of the anti-Parkinson’s disease drug, rasagiline compared with selegiline, in the rat midbrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orly Weinreb; Tamar Amit; Yotam Sagi; Noam Drigues; Moussa B. H. Youdim

    2009-01-01

    The novel anti-Parkinson’s disease (PD) drug, rasagiline (N-propargyl-1-(R)-aminoindan), is a second generation of irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B follows selegiline.\\u000a In light of the recent large clinical study (phase III ADAGIO) reporting benefits in PD patients, it has been suggested that\\u000a rasagiline could be the first PD treatment to receive the label neuroprotective “disease-modifying” drug. Indeed, rasagiline\\u000a has been

  11. Milestones in Parkinson's disease therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rascol, Olivier; Lozano, Andres; Stern, Matthew; Poewe, Werner

    2011-05-01

    In the mid-1980s, the treatment of Parkinson's disease was quite exclusively centered on dopatherapy and was focusing on dopamine systems and motor symptoms. A few dopamine agonists and a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor (selegiline) were used as adjuncts in advanced Parkinson's disease. In the early 2010s, levodopa remains the gold standard. New insights into the organization of the basal ganglia paved the way for deep brain stimulation, especially of the subthalamic nucleus, providing spectacular improvement of drug-refractory levodopa-induced motor complications. Novel dopamine agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine), catecholmethyltransferase inhibitors (entacapone), and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors (rasagiline) have also been developed to provide more continuous oral delivery of dopaminergic stimulation in order to improve motor outcomes. Using dopamine agonists early, before levodopa, proved to delay the onset of dyskinesia, although this is achieved at the price of potentially disabling daytime somnolence or impulse control disorders. The demonstration of an antidyskinetic effect of the glutamate antagonist amantadine opened the door for novel nondopaminergic approaches of Parkinson's disease therapy. More recently, nonmotor symptoms (depression, dementia, and psychosis) have been the focus of the first randomized controlled trials in this field. Despite therapeutic advances, Parkinson's disease continues to be a relentlessly progressive disorder leading to severe disability. Neuroprotective interventions able to modify the progression of Parkinson's disease have stood out as a failed therapeutic goal over the last 2 decades, despite potentially encouraging results with compounds like rasagiline. Newer molecular targets, new animal models, novel clinical trial designs, and biomarkers to assess disease modification have created hope for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:21626552

  12. Excessive Sensitivity to Uncertain Visual Input in L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesias in Parkinson’s Disease: Further Implications for Cerebellar Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, James K. R.; Lee, Chonho; Lee, Bu-Sung; TalebiFard, Pouria; Ty, Edna; Aseeva, Kristina; Oishi, Meeko M. K.; McKeown, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    When faced with visual uncertainty during motor performance, humans rely more on predictive forward models and proprioception and attribute lesser importance to the ambiguous visual feedback. Though disrupted predictive control is typical of patients with cerebellar disease, sensorimotor deficits associated with the involuntary and often unconscious nature of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease (PD) suggests dyskinetic subjects may also demonstrate impaired predictive motor control. Methods: We investigated the motor performance of 9 dyskinetic and 10 non-dyskinetic PD subjects on and off l-DOPA, and of 10 age-matched control subjects, during a large-amplitude, overlearned, visually guided tracking task. Ambiguous visual feedback was introduced by adding “jitter” to a moving target that followed a Lissajous pattern. Root mean square (RMS) tracking error was calculated, and ANOVA, robust multivariate linear regression, and linear dynamical system analyses were used to determine the contribution of speed and ambiguity to tracking performance. Results: Increasing target ambiguity and speed contributed significantly more to the RMS error of dyskinetic subjects off medication. l-DOPA improved the RMS tracking performance of both PD groups. At higher speeds, controls and PDs without dyskinesia were able to effectively de-weight ambiguous visual information. Conclusion: PDs’ visually guided motor performance degrades with visual jitter and speed of movement to a greater degree compared to age-matched controls. However, there are fundamental differences in PDs with and without dyskinesia: subjects without dyskinesia are generally slow, and less responsive to dynamic changes in motor task requirements, but in PDs with dyskinesia, there was a trade-off between overall performance and inappropriate reliance on ambiguous visual feedback. This is likely associated with functional changes in posterior parietal–ponto–cerebellar pathways. PMID:24550883

  13. Mechanism of copper(II)-induced misfolding of Parkinson's disease protein

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Frisco; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    ?-synuclein (aS) is a natively unfolded pre-synaptic protein found in all Parkinson's disease patients as the major component of fibrillar plaques. Metal ions, and especially Cu(II), have been demonstrated to accelerate aggregation of aS into fibrillar plaques, the precursors to Lewy bodies. In this work, copper binding to aS is investigated by a combination of quantum and molecular mechanics simulations. Starting from the experimentally observed attachment site, several optimized structures of Cu-binding geometries are examined. The most energetically favorable attachment results in significant allosteric changes, making aS more susceptible to misfolding. Indeed, an inverse kinematics investigation of the configuration space uncovers a dynamically stable ?-sheet conformation of Cu-aS that serves as a nucleation point for a second ?-strand. Based on these findings, we propose an atomistic mechanism of copper-induced misfolding of aS as an initial event in the formation of Lewy bodies and thus in PD pathogenesis. PMID:22355530

  14. Citalopram-induced hyponatraemia and parkinsonism: potentially fatal side-effects not to be missed.

    PubMed

    Damali Amiri, Negin; Wijenaike, Nishan

    2014-01-01

    The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as citalopram, is on the rise and, as such, clinicians must be vigilant of rare side-effects associated with this group of medications. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented to West Suffolk Hospital with a fall, confusion and movement abnormalities, and was found to have a serum sodium of 105 on admission. He was managed with hypertonic saline, dopamine agonists and intensive physiotherapy. Despite initially deteriorating neurologically, he made a remarkable recovery, and was discharged home at his pre-admission baseline. The learning points from this report are as follows: (1) regular monitoring of electrolytes on starting an SSRI (and similarly selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors-SNRIs) in SSRI/SNRIs naďve patients, (2) awareness of possible citalopram-induced parkinsonism and the potential benefits of dopamine agonists as one management strategy and (3) vigilant fluid/electrolyte monitoring in patients with profound hyponatraemia. PMID:25391825

  15. The Pael-R gene does not mediate the changes in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model cells

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ting; Tang, Xiangqi; Huang, Zhiling; Xu, Niangui; Hu, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we established cell models for Parkinson's disease using rotenone. An RNA interference vector targeting Parkin-associated endothelin receptor-like receptor (Pael-R) was transfected into the model cells. The results of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed that Pael-R expression was decreased after RNA interference compared with the control group (no treatment) and the model group (rotenone treatment), while the rate of apoptosis and survival of dopaminergic cells did not differ significantly between groups, as detected by flow cytometry and an MTT assay. These experimental findings indicate that the Pael-R gene has no role in the changes in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model cells. PMID:25206827

  16. Drug-induced hepatitis associated with anticytoplasmic organelle autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Homberg, J C; Abuaf, N; Helmy-Khalil, S; Biour, M; Poupon, R; Islam, S; Darnis, F; Levy, V G; Opolon, P; Beaugrand, M

    1985-01-01

    A study from five hepatology units documenting 157 cases of drug-induced hepatitis and a second study from a laboratory of immunology which tested more than 100,000 sera permitted us to establish the frequency of antiorganelle antibodies and their diagnostic value in drug-induced hepatitis. In drug-induced hepatitis caused by a heterogenous group of drugs consisting of ajmaline, aminopterine, isaxonine, isoniazid, perhexiline, phenylbutazone and troleandromycine, antiorganelle antibodies were absent or rare. In drug-induced hepatitis caused by another heterogenous group of drugs, including clometacin, fenofibrate, oxyphenisatin and papaverine, antismooth muscle, antinucleus and antimitochondria antibodies were found in isolation or in different combinations in 70% of cases. From the presence of antismooth muscle antibodies in sera, we could trace 30 cases of clometacin-induced hepatitis. The third group included drug-induced hepatitis with special antibody:iproniazid-induced hepatitis with antimitochondrial antibody 6 and tienilic acid (ticrynafen)-induced hepatitis with antiliver/kidney microsome antibody 2 (anti-LKM2). These two antibodies are rare in routine sera and were absent in patients who received the drug and had no liver damage. From the presence of corresponding antibodies, we detected six cases of iproniazid-induced hepatitis and 67 cases of tienilic acid-induced hepatitis. Antiorganelle antibodies found in high titers disappeared in 2 to 24 months following withdrawal of the offending drug. The fourth group was represented by halothane-induced hepatitis; antiliver/kidney microsome antibody 1 was weak and infrequent. Similarities between drug-induced hepatitis of the second group and lupoďd hepatitis suggest that drugs may reveal this spontaneous disorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4029887

  17. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... In some cases, a drug can cause the immune system to mistake your own red blood cells for foreign substances. The body responds by making ...

  18. Protein Oxidation Triggers the Unfolded Protein Response and Neuronal Injury in Chemically Induced Parkinson Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison I. Bernstein; Karen L. O’Malley

    The recent identification of genetic mutations linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD), such as ?-synuclein, parkin, and LRRK2,\\u000a has highlighted the role of aberrant protein handling and degradation in this disorder. Moreover, a growing body of data suggests\\u000a that environmental toxins that mimic PD also exhibit faulty protein handling, providing a mechanistic link between toxicity\\u000a and the identified PD mutations. In

  19. Alteration of Striatal Tetrahydrobiopterin in Iron-Induced Unilateral Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Bijay; Lee, Jin-Koo; Kim, Hak Rim

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that transition metal ions such as iron can produce an oxidative injuries to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, like Parkinson's disease (PD) and subsequent compensative increase of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) during the disease progression induces the aggravation of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in striatum. It had been established that the direct administration of BH4 into neuron would induce the neuronal toxicity in vitro. To elucidate a role of BH4 in pathogenesis in the PD in vivo, we assessed the changes of dopamine (DA) and BH4 at striatum in unilateral intranigral iron infused PD rat model. The ipsistriatal DA and BH4 levels were significantly increased at 0.5 to 1 d and were continually depleting during 2 to 7 d after intranigral iron infusion. The turnover rate of BH4 was higher than that of DA in early phase. However, the expression level of GTP-cyclohydrolase I mRNA in striatum was steadily increased after iron administration. These results suggest that the accumulation of intranigral iron leads to generation of oxidative stress which damage to dopaminergic neurons and causes increased release of BH4 in the dopaminergic neuron. The degenerating dopaminergic neurons decrease the synthesis and release of both BH4 and DA in vivo that are relevance to the progression of PD. Based on these data, we propose that the increase of BH4 can deteriorate the disease progression in early phase of PD, and the inhibition of BH4 increase could be a strategy for PD treatment. PMID:24757374

  20. Parkinson's disease-linked mutations in VPS35 induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsika, Elpida; Glauser, Liliane; Moser, Roger; Fiser, Aris; Daniel, Guillaume; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Lees, Andrew; Troncoso, Juan C.; Lewis, Patrick A.; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Schneider, Bernard L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 homolog (VPS35) gene at the PARK17 locus, encoding a key component of the retromer complex, were recently identified as a new cause of late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we explore the pathogenic consequences of PD-associated mutations in VPS35 using a number of model systems. VPS35 exhibits a broad neuronal distribution throughout the rodent brain, including within the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. In the human brain, VPS35 protein levels and distribution are similar in tissues from control and PD subjects, and VPS35 is not associated with Lewy body pathology. The common D620N missense mutation in VPS35 does not compromise its protein stability or localization to endosomal and lysosomal vesicles, or the vesicular sorting of the retromer cargo, sortilin, SorLA and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, in rodent primary neurons or patient-derived human fibroblasts. In yeast we show that PD-linked VPS35 mutations are functional and can normally complement VPS35 null phenotypes suggesting that they do not result in a loss-of-function. In rat primary cortical cultures the overexpression of human VPS35 induces neuronal cell death and increases neuronal vulnerability to PD-relevant cellular stress. In a novel viral-mediated gene transfer rat model, the expression of D620N VPS35 induces the marked degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and axonal pathology, a cardinal pathological hallmark of PD. Collectively, these studies establish that dominant VPS35 mutations lead to neurodegeneration in PD consistent with a gain-of-function mechanism, and support a key role for VPS35 in the development of PD. PMID:24740878

  1. Pramipexole-Induced Increased Probabilistic Discounting: Comparison Between a Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Rokosik, Sandra L; Napier, T Celeste

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine agonist pramipexole (PPX) can increase impulsiveness, and PPX therapy for neurological diseases (Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless leg syndrome) is associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs) in subpopulations of treated patients. A commonly reported ICD is pathological gambling of which risk taking is a prominent feature. Probability discounting is a measurable aspect of risk taking. We recently developed a probability discounting paradigm wherein intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) serves as the positive reinforcer. Here we used this paradigm to determine the effects of PPX on discounting. We included assessments of a rodent model of PD, wherein 6-OHDA was injected into the dorsolateral striatum of both hemispheres, which produced persistent PD-like deficits in posture adjustment. Rats were trained to perform ICSS-mediated probability discounting, in which PD-like and control groups exhibited similar profiles. Rats were treated twice daily for 2 weeks with 2?mg/kg (±)PPX (ie, 1?mg/kg of the active form), a dose that improved lesion-induced motor deficits. In both groups, (±)PPX increased discounting; preference for the large reinforcer was enhanced 30–45% at the most uncertain probabilities. Tolerance did not develop with repeated treatments. Increased discounting subsided within 2 weeks of (±)PPX cessation, and re-exposure to (±)PPX reinstated heightened discounting. Such findings emulate the clinical scenario; therefore, ICSS for discounting assessments in rats exhibited high face validity. This model should prove useful in medication development where assessment of the propensity of a putative therapy to induce risk-taking behaviors is of interest. PMID:22257895

  2. Drug-Induced Impulse Control Disorders: A Prospectus for Neuroethical Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Carter; Polly Ambermoon; Wayne D. Hall

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) used to treat Parkinson’s Disease can cause compulsive behaviours\\u000a and impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, compulsive buying and hypersexuality. Like more familiar\\u000a drug-based forms of addiction, these iatrogenic disorders can cause significant harm and distress for sufferers and their\\u000a families. In some cases, people treated with DRT have

  3. Mechanisms of drug-induced proarrhythmia in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Konstantopoulou, Arkadia; Tsikrikas, Spyros; Asvestas, Dimitrios; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Letsas, Konstantinos P

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced proarrhythmia represents a great challenge for those involved in the development of novel pharmaceuticals and in the regulatory bodies for drug approval as well as for the prescribing clinicians. Our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie drug-induced proarrhythmia has grown dramatically over the last two decades. A growing number of cardiac and non-cardiac agents have been shown to alter cardiac repolarization predisposing to fatal cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. These agents may induce the phenotype of long QT syndrome and less commonly of short QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome (BS). Although, genetic susceptibility underlie drug-induced proarrhythmia in certain cases, current data are limited regarding this topic. The present review surveys the current published literature on the mechanisms and the offending medical agents that predispose to drug-induced long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome and BS. Drug-induced proarrhythmia should be considered as a predictor of sudden cardiac death and should prompt critical re-evaluation of the risks and benefits of the suspicious medication. Survivors of drug-induced proarrhythmia and family members require careful examination and possibly genetic testing for the presence of a channelopathy. Treating physicians are advised to follow the lists of agents implicated in drug-induced proarrhythmia in order to minimize the risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. PMID:23847724

  4. Drug-induced hyperkalemia: old culprits and new offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Perazella

    2000-01-01

    Prescribed medications, over-the-counter drugs, and nutritional supplements are used by many patients. Although most of these products are well tolerated, drug-induced hyperkalemia may develop in patients with underlying renal impairment or other abnormalities in potassium handling. Drug-induced hyperkalemia most often occurs from impaired renal potassium excretion. However, disturbed cellular uptake of a potassium load as well as excessive ingestion or

  5. Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derick Han; Mie Shinohara; Maria D. Ybanez; Behnam Saberi; Neil Kaplowitz

    Hepatocyte death following drug intake is the critical event in the clinical manifestation of drug-induced liver injury (DILI).\\u000a Traditionally, hepatocyte death caused by drugs had been attributed to overwhelming oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction\\u000a caused by reactive metabolites formed during drug metabolism. However, recent studies have also shown that signal transduction\\u000a pathways activated\\/inhibited during oxidative stress play a key role

  6. Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Drugs and Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Camus; Annlyse Fanton; Philippe Bonniaud; Clio Camus; Pascal Foucher

    2004-01-01

    An ever-increasing number of drugs can reproduce variegated patterns of naturally occurring interstitial lung disease (ILD), including most forms of interstitial pneumonias, alveolar involvement and, rarely, vasculitis. Drugs in one therapeutic class may collectively produce the same pattern of involvement. A few drugs can produce more than one pattern of ILD. The diagnosis of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) essentially rests on

  7. Tremorolytic effects of safinamide in animal models of drug-induced parkinsonian tremor.

    PubMed

    Podurgiel, Samantha; Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Yohn, Samantha; Randall, Patrick A; Roach, Arthur; Lobianco, Christophe; Salamone, John D

    2013-04-01

    Safinamide is an ?-aminoamide derivative that is currently in Phase III clinical trial development as an add-on therapy to levodopa or dopamine agonists for patients with Parkinson's disease. Safinamide is a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor with additional non-dopaminergic actions. The present experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of safinamide to attenuate parkinsonian motor impairments using the tremulous jaw movement model, an animal model of parkinsonian tremor. In rats, tremulous jaw movements can be induced with dopamine (DA) antagonists, DA depletion, and cholinomimetics, and can be reversed by various antiparkinsonian drugs, including L-DOPA, DA agonists, anticholinergics and adenosine A2A antagonists. In these present experiments, tremulous jaw movements were induced with the anticholinesterase galantamine (3.0mg/kg IP), the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (0.5mg/kg IP), and the dopamine D2 antagonist pimozide (1.0mg/kg IP). Safinamide significantly reduced the number of tremulous jaw movements induced by galantamine, pilocarpine, and pimozide, with consistent effects across all three drugs at a dose range of 5.0-10.0mg/kg. The results of this study support the use of safinamide as a treatment for parkinsonian tremor. PMID:23360954

  8. Olfactory performance and resting state functional connectivity in non-demented drug naďve patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Cha, Jungho; Ham, Jee Hyun; Song, Sook K; Hong, Jin Yong; Lee, Jong-Min; Sohn, Young H; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2015-05-01

    Olfactory performance in Parkinson's disease (PD) is closely associated with subsequent cognitive decline. In the present study, we analyzed the olfaction-dependent functional connectivity with a hypothesis that olfactory performance would influence functional connectivity within key brain areas of PD. A total of 110 nondemented drug-naďve patients with PD were subdivided into three groups of high score (PD-H, n?=?23), middle score (PD-M, n?=?64), and low score (PD-L, n?=?23) based on olfactory performance. We performed the resting-state functional connectivity with seed region of interest in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and caudate. An analysis of functional connectivity revealed that PD-L patients exhibited a significant attenuation of cortical functional connectivity with the PCC in the bilateral primary sensory areas, right frontal areas, and right parietal areas compared to PD-H or PD-M patients. Meanwhile, PD-L patients exhibited a significant enhancement of striatocortical functional connectivity in the bilateral occipital areas and right frontal areas compared to PD-H or PD-M patients. In the voxel-wise correlation analysis, olfactory performance was positively associated with cortical functional connectivity with the PCC in similar areas of attenuated cortical connectivity in PD-L patients relative to PD-H patients. On the other hand, the cortical functional connectivity with the caudate was negatively correlated with olfactory performance in similar areas of increased connectivity in PD-L patients relative to PD-H patients. The present study demonstrated that resting state functional connectivity exhibits a distinctive pattern depending on olfactory performance, which might shed light on a meaningful relationship between olfactory impairment and cognitive dysfunction in PD. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1716-1727, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25640661

  9. Cyclooxygenase and Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Anna L; Leenders, Klaus L

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in the brain is associated with pro-inflammatory activities, which are instrumental in neurodegenerative processes such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is discussed that drugs with the capacity to rescue dopaminergic neurons from microglia toxicity and neuroinflammatory processes may result in an amelioration of parkinsonian symptoms by delaying the onset or slowing progression. This article reviews the involvement of COX in neuroinflammation, specifically focussing at the role of selective COX-2 inhibition in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:20808546

  10. Zhichan decoction induces differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease rats after neural stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huifen; Song, Jie; Yang, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to increase the dopamine content and reduce dopaminergic metabolites in the brain of Parkinson's disease rats. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that dopamine and dopaminergic metabolite (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) content in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease rats was increased after neural stem cell transplantation + Zhichan decoction, compared with neural stem cell transplantation alone. Our genetic algorithm results show that dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels achieve global optimization. Neural stem cell transplantation + Zhichan decoction increased dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels up to 10-fold, while transplantation alone resulted in a 3-fold increment. Homovanillic acid levels showed no apparent change. Our experimental findings show that after neural stem cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease rats, Zhichan decoction can promote differentiation of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25206914

  11. Zhichan decoction induces differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease rats after neural stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huifen; Song, Jie; Yang, Xuming

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study was to increase the dopamine content and reduce dopaminergic metabolites in the brain of Parkinson's disease rats. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that dopamine and dopaminergic metabolite (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) content in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease rats was increased after neural stem cell transplantation + Zhichan decoction, compared with neural stem cell transplantation alone. Our genetic algorithm results show that dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels achieve global optimization. Neural stem cell transplantation + Zhichan decoction increased dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels up to 10-fold, while transplantation alone resulted in a 3-fold increment. Homovanillic acid levels showed no apparent change. Our experimental findings show that after neural stem cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease rats, Zhichan decoction can promote differentiation of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25206914

  12. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation: mechanisms and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Nachimuthu, Senthil; Assar, Manish D.

    2012-01-01

    The prolonged QT interval is both widely seen and associated with the potentially deadly rhythm, Torsades de Pointes (TdP). While it can occur spontaneously in the congenital form, there is a wide array of drugs that have been implicated in the prolongation of the QT interval. Some of these drugs have either been restricted or withdrawn from the market due to the increased incidence of fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The list of drugs that cause QT prolongation continues to grow, and an updated list of specific drugs that prolong the QT interval can be found at www.qtdrugs.org. This review focuses on the mechanism of drug-induced QT prolongation, risk factors for TdP, culprit drugs, prevention and monitoring of prolonged drug-induced QT prolongation and treatment strategies. PMID:25083239

  13. Identification of Drugs Inducing Phospholipidosis by Novel in vitro Data

    PubMed Central

    Muehlbacher, Markus; Tripal, Philipp; Roas, Florian; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the accumulation of phospholipids within the lysosome. This adverse drug effect can occur in various tissues and is suspected to impact cellular viability. Therefore, it is important to test chemical compounds for their potential to induce PLD during the drug design process. PLD has been reported to be a side effect of many commonly used drugs, especially those with cationic amphiphilic properties. To predict drug-induced PLD in silico, we established a high-throughput cell-culture-based method to quantitatively determine the induction of PLD by chemical compounds. Using this assay, we tested 297 drug-like compounds at two different concentrations (2.5 ?m and 5.0 ?m). We were able to identify 28 previously unknown PLD-inducing agents. Furthermore, our experimental results enabled the development of a binary classification model to predict PLD-inducing agents based on their molecular properties. This random forest prediction system yields a bootstrapped validated accuracy of 86 %. PLD-inducing agents overlap with those that target similar biological processes; a high degree of concordance with PLD-inducing agents was identified for cationic amphiphilic compounds, small molecules that inhibit acid sphingomyelinase, compounds that cross the blood–brain barrier, and compounds that violate Lipinski’s rule of five. Furthermore, we were able to show that PLD-inducing compounds applied in combination additively induce PLD. PMID:22945602

  14. Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in children

    PubMed Central

    Donald, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Recent increases in the dosages of the essential antituberculosis agents isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), pyrazinamide (PZA) for use in children recommended by World Health Organization have raised concerns regarding the risk of hepatotoxicity. Published data relating to the incidence and pathogenesis of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ADIH), particularly in children, is reviewed. Amongst 12,708 children receiving chemoprophylaxis, mainly with INH, but also other combinations of INH, RMP and PZA only 1 case (0.06%) of jaundice was recorded and abnormal liver functions documented in 110 (8%) of the 1225 children studied. Excluding tuberculous meningitis (TBM) 8984 were children treated for tuberculosis disease and jaundice documented in 75 (0.83%) and abnormal liver function tests in 380 (9.9%) of the 3855 children evaluated. Amongst 717 children treated for TBM, however, jaundice occurred in 72 (10.8%) and abnormal LFT were recorded in 174 (52.9%) of those studied. Case reports document the occurrence of ADIH in at least 63 children. Signs and symptoms of ADIH were frequently ignored in the recorded cases. ADIH can occur in children at any age or at any dosage of INH, RMP or PZA, but the incidence of.ADIH is is considerably lower in children than in adults. Children with disseminated forms of disease are at greater risk of ADIH. The use of the higher dosages of INH, RMP and PZA recently recommended by WHO is unlikely to result in a greater risk of ADIH in children. PMID:21772953

  15. 73 FR 12181 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-03-06

    ...Guidance for Industry on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...for industry entitled ``Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...Detecting and Investigating Drug-Induced Liver Injury During Clinical Trials.''...

  16. Drug attrition during pre-clinical and clinical development: understanding and managing drug-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Nicola; Siegl, Peter; Corsini, Alberto; Herrmann, Joerg; Lerman, Amir; Benghozi, Renee

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity remains a major cause of concern during preclinical and clinical development as well as contributing to post-approval withdrawal of medicines. This issue is particularly relevant for anticancer drugs where, the significant improvement in the life expectancies of patients has dramatically extended the use and duration of drug therapies. Nevertheless, cardiotoxicity is also observed with other classes of drugs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. This article summarizes the clinical manifestations of drug-induced cardiotoxicity by various cancer chemotherapies and novel drugs for the treatment of other diseases. Furthermore, it presents on overview of biomarker and imaging techniques for the detection of drug-induced cardiotoxicity. Guidelines for the management of patients exposed to drugs with cardiotoxic potential are presented as well as a checklist for collecting information when a safety signal is observed in clinical trials to more effectively assess the risk of cardiotoxicity and manage patient safety. PMID:23507039

  17. Drug-Induced Epigenetic Changes Produce Drug Tolerance

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Nigel

    of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America, 2 Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America, 3 Department of Biology, Brandeis University, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America Tolerance to drugs that affect neural

  18. Subthalamic 6-OHDA-induced lesion attenuates levodopa-induced dyskinesias in the rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Rodríguez-Oroz, M C; Obeso, J A

    2013-12-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives direct dopaminergic innervation from the substantia nigra pars compacta that degenerates in Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the role of dopaminergic denervation of STN in the origin of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Rats were distributed in four groups which were concomitantly lesioned with 6-OHDA or vehicle (sham) in the STN and in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) as follows: a) MFB-sham plus STN-sham, b) MFB-sham plus STN-lesion, c) MFB-lesion plus STN-sham, and d) MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion. Four weeks after lesions, animals were treated with levodopa (6mg/kg with 15mg/kg benserazide i.p.) twice daily for 22 consecutive days. Abnormal involuntary movements were measured. In situ hybridization was performed measuring the expression of striatal preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin, STN cytochrome oxidase (CO) and nigral GAD67 mRNAs. STN 6-OHDA denervation did not induce dyskinesias in levodopa-treated MFB-sham animals but attenuated axial (p<0.05), limb (p<0.05) and orolingual (p<0.01) dyskinesias in rats with a concomitant lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. The attenuation of dyskinesias was associated with a decrease in the ipsilateral STN CO mRNA levels (p<0.05). No significant differences between MFB-lesion plus STN-sham and MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion groups in the extent of STN dopaminergic denervation were observed. Moreover, intrasubthalamic microinfusion of dopamine in the MFB-lesion plus STN-lesion group triggered orolingual (p<0.01), but not axial or limb, dyskinesias. These results suggest that dopaminergic STN innervation influences the expression of levodopa-induced dyskinesias but also the existence of non dopaminergic-mediated mechanisms. STN noradrenergic depletion induced by 6-OHDA in the STN needs to be taken in account as a possible mechanism explaining the attenuation of dyskinesias in the combined lesion group. PMID:24140562

  19. Striatal glutamate induces retrograde excitotoxicity and neuronal degeneration of intralaminar thalamic nuclei: their potential relevance for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ingrid; Sabate, Magdalena; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    An over-stimulation of nigral glutamate (GLU) receptors has been proposed as a cause of the progression of the dopamine (DA) cell degeneration (excitotoxicity) which characterizes Parkinson's disease. The possible toxic action of striatal GLU (retrograde excitotoxicity) on these cells, and on other neurons which innervate the striatum and which also degenerate in Parkinson's disease (thalamostriatal cells of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei), is still practically unexplored. The retrograde excitotoxicity of striatal GLU on DAergic mesostriatal and GLUergic thalamostriatal cells was tested here by studying these cells 6 weeks after striatal perfusion of GLU by reverse microdialysis. GLU perfusion induced the striatal denervation of thalamic inputs (as revealed by vesicular glutamate transporter 2) and the remote degeneration of intralaminar neurons. In both centres, these effects were accompanied by microglial activation. Similar responses were not observed for nigrostriatal neurons, which showed no dopaminergic striatal denervation, no microglial activation in the substantia nigra and no changes in the number of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. The inhibition of DAergic transmission increased the extrasynaptic GLU levels in the striatum (evaluated by microdialysis), an effect observed after the local administration of agonists and antagonists of DAergic transmission, and after the peripheral administration of levodopa (which increased the DA and decreased the GLU levels in the striatum of rats with an experimental DAergic denervation of this centre). The data presented show that striatal GLU induced a retrograde excitotoxicity which did not affect all striatal inputs in the same way and which could be involved in the cell degeneration of the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus generally observed in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23565852

  20. Clinimetrics of postural instability in Parkinson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bastiaan R. Bloem; Dennis J. Beckley; Bob J. van Hilten; Raymund A. C. Roos

    1998-01-01

    Judgement of the ability to recover balance after a sudden shoulder pull is used as a clinical measure of postural instability\\u000a in Parkinson’s disease. To further evaluate its merits, we compared this ‘retropulsion test’ with dynamic posturography in\\u000a 23 Parkinson patients. Dynamic posturography involved 20 serial ‘toe-up’ support surface rotations, which induced backward\\u000a body sway. We found a moderate correlation

  1. Factors affecting drug-induced liver injury: antithyroid drugs as instances

    PubMed Central

    Niknahad, Hossein; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Abdoli, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Methimazole and propylthiouracil have been used in the management of hyperthyroidism for more than half a century. However, hepatotoxicity is one of the most deleterious side effects associated with these medications. The mechanism(s) of hepatic injury induced by antithyroid agents is not fully recognized yet. Furthermore, there are no specific tools for predicting the occurrence of hepatotoxicity induced by these drugs. The purpose of this article is to give an overview on possible susceptibility factors in liver injury induced by antithyroid agents. Age, gender, metabolism characteristics, alcohol consumption, underlying diseases, immunologic mechanisms, and drug interactions are involved in enhancing antithyroid drugs-induced hepatic damage. An outline on the clinically used treatments for antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity and the potential therapeutic strategies found to be effective against this complication are also discussed. PMID:25320726

  2. Gene therapy using lactoferrin-modified nanoparticles in a rotenone-induced chronic Parkinson model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongqin Huang; Weilun Ke; Yang Liu; Dongdong Wu; Linyin Feng; Chen Jiang; Yuanying Pei

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundGene therapy is considered one of the most promising approaches to develop an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB) significantly limits its development. In this study, lactoferrin (Lf)-modified nanoparticles (NPs) were used as a potential non-viral gene vector due to its brain-targeting and BBB-crossing ability.

  3. Surgical Treatment of Dyskinesia in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Munhoz, Renato P.; Cerasa, Antonio; Okun, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main indications for stereotactic surgery in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the control of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. This can be achieved by pallidotomy and globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) or by subthalamotomy and subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS, which usually allow for a cut down in the dosage of levodopa. DBS has assumed a pivotal role in stereotactic surgical treatment of PD and, in fact, ablative procedures are currently considered surrogates, particularly when bilateral procedures are required, as DBS does not produce a brain lesion and the stimulator can be programed to induce better therapeutic effects while minimizing adverse effects. Interventions in either the STN and the GPi seem to be similar in controlling most of the other motor aspects of PD, nonetheless, GPi surgery seems to induce a more particular and direct effect on dyskinesia, while the anti-dyskinetic effect of STN interventions is mostly dependent on a reduction of dopaminergic drug dosages. Hence, the si ne qua non-condition for a reduction of dyskinesia when STN interventions are intended is their ability to allow for a reduction of levodopa dosage. Pallidal surgery is indicated when dyskinesia is a dose-limiting factor for maintaining or introducing higher adequate levels of dopaminergic therapy. Also medications used for the treatment of PD may be useful for the improvement of several non-motor aspects of the disease, including sleep, psychiatric, and cognitive domains, therefore, dose reduction of medication withdrawal are not always a fruitful objective. PMID:24808889

  4. Higher iron in the red nucleus marks Parkinson’s dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Mechelle M.; Du, Guangwei; Kidacki, Michal; Patel, Nisargkumar; Shaffer, Michele L.; Mailman, Richard B.; Huang, Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine cell loss and increased iron in the substantia nigra (SN) characterize Parkinson’s disease (PD), with cerebellar involvement increasingly recognized, particularly in motor compensation and levodopa-induced-dyskinesia (LID) development. Because the red nucleus (RN) mediates cerebellar circuitry, we hypothesized that RN iron changes may reflect cerebellum-related compensation, and/or the intrinsic capacity for LID development. We acquired high resolution MRI images from 23 Controls and 38 PD subjects [12 with (PD+DYS) and 26 without (PD?DYS) LID history]. Iron content was estimated from bilateral RN and SN transverse relaxation rates (R2*). PD subjects overall displayed higher R2* values in both the SN and RN. RN R2* values correlated with off-drug Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-motor scores, but not disease duration or drug dosage. RN R2* values were significantly higher in PD+DYS subjects compared to Controls and PD?DYS; Controls and PD?DYS did not differ. The association of higher RN iron content with PD-related dyskinesia suggests increased iron content is involved in, or reflects, greater cerebellar compensatory capacity and thus increased likelihood of LID development. PMID:23177595

  5. Acute Hepatocellular Drug Induced Liver Injury Probably by Alfuzosin

    PubMed Central

    Cicek, Tufan; Gokturk, Huseyin Savas; Unler, Gulhan Kanat

    2015-01-01

    Alpha blockers are the drugs that exert their effects by binding to alpha receptors and relaxing smooth muscles and are currently used for treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). These drugs are often tolerated well by the patients. However, they also possess some common side effects. Hepatotoxicity, on the other hand, is quite rare. We report herein a case with the rare complication of acute hepatocellular drug induced liver injury (DILI) by administration of Alfuzosin.

  6. Drug-induced hyperthermic syndromes: part I. Hyperthermia in overdose.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Bryan D; Martinez, Joseph P; Barrueto, Fermin

    2013-11-01

    Drugs and natural compounds that affect the thermoregulatory system can induce or contribute to hyperthermia when used in excess. Hyperthermia associated with drug overdose is dangerous and potentially lethal. This article reviews the body's process of maintaining thermodynamic equilibrium, and describes the mechanisms by which it is influenced by sympathomimetic and anticholinergic drugs, salicylates, and thyroid replacement medications. Appropriate treatment strategies such as cooling and the administration of counteractive medications are discussed. PMID:24176476

  7. Drug-induced impairment of renal function

    PubMed Central

    Pazhayattil, George Sunny; Shirali, Anushree C

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical agents provide diagnostic and therapeutic utility that are central to patient care. However, all agents also carry adverse drug effect profiles. While most of these are clinically insignificant, some drugs may cause unacceptable toxicity that impacts negatively on patient morbidity and mortality. Recognizing adverse effects is important for administering appropriate drug doses, instituting preventive strategies, and withdrawing the offending agent due to toxicity. In the present article, we will review those drugs that are associated with impaired renal function. By focusing on pharmaceutical agents that are currently in clinical practice, we will provide an overview of nephrotoxic drugs that a treating physician is most likely to encounter. In doing so, we will summarize risk factors for nephrotoxicity, describe clinical manifestations, and address preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:25540591

  8. Parkinson’s disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - Parkinson's disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Parkinson's disease : The Michael J. Fox Foundation - www.michaeljfox.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www. ...

  9. Rational Design of Drugs That Induce Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean H. Hamer; Sven Bocklandt; Louise McHugh; Tae-Wook Chun; Peter M. Blumberg; Dina M. Sigano; Victor E. Marquez

    2003-01-01

    Drugs that induce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication could be used in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to reduce the size of the latent reservoir that is in part responsible for viral persistence. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a logical target for such drugs because it activates HIV-1 transcription through multiple mechanisms. Here we show that

  10. Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos A. Oikonomou; Andreas N. Kapsoritakis; Ioannis Stefanidis; Spyros P. Potamianos

    2011-01-01

    Conservative management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is based on a combination of drugs, including aminosalicylates (ASAs), steroids, antibiotics, immunosuppressives and biologic agents. Although various side effects have been related to treatment regimens, drug-induced nephrotoxicity is rather uncommon. Furthermore, it is often underestimated since renal function deterioration may be attributed to the underlying disease. The nephrotoxicity of ASAs and cyclosporine

  11. In silico modeling to predict drug-induced phospholipidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sydney S.; Kim, Jae S.; Valerio, Luis G., E-mail: luis.valerio@fda.hhs.gov; Sadrieh, Nakissa

    2013-06-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is a preclinical finding during pharmaceutical drug development that has implications on the course of drug development and regulatory safety review. A principal characteristic of drugs inducing DIPL is known to be a cationic amphiphilic structure. This provides evidence for a structure-based explanation and opportunity to analyze properties and structures of drugs with the histopathologic findings for DIPL. In previous work from the FDA, in silico quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modeling using machine learning approaches has shown promise with a large dataset of drugs but included unconfirmed data as well. In this study, we report the construction and validation of a battery of complementary in silico QSAR models using the FDA's updated database on phospholipidosis, new algorithms and predictive technologies, and in particular, we address high performance with a high-confidence dataset. The results of our modeling for DIPL include rigorous external validation tests showing 80–81% concordance. Furthermore, the predictive performance characteristics include models with high sensitivity and specificity, in most cases above ? 80% leading to desired high negative and positive predictivity. These models are intended to be utilized for regulatory toxicology applied science needs in screening new drugs for DIPL. - Highlights: • New in silico models for predicting drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) are described. • The training set data in the models is derived from the FDA's phospholipidosis database. • We find excellent predictivity values of the models based on external validation. • The models can support drug screening and regulatory decision-making on DIPL.

  12. The effect of piribedil on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: differential role of ?(2) adrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Manfred; Halley, Paul; Riederer, Peter; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Piribedil is a non-ergoline, dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist with ?(2) adrenoceptor antagonist properties that has been used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Noradrenergic neurotransmission may be involved in the pathogenesis of dyskinesias induced by chronic treatment with L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, levodopa), but its role in the in vivo action of piribedil or on different subclasses of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) remains unclear. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to investigate the anti-dyskinetic effects of piribedil on L-DOPA-induced contralateral turning behaviour, locomotive dyskinesias (LD), axial dystonia (AD), orolingual dyskinesia (OD) and forelimb dyskinesia (FD) and (2) to compare these effects to the ?(2) adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan, or the ?(2) adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine. Rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and injected intraperitoneally twice daily with L-DOPA methylester (12.5 mg/kg) and benserazide (3.25 mg/kg). After 3 weeks, the effects of piribedil (5, 15, 40 mg/kg), clonidine (0.15 mg/kg), idazoxan (10 mg/kg) and combinations of these drugs were scored during 2 h. Pre-treatment with 5 and 40 mg/kg, but not 15 mg/kg, of piribedil reduced turning behaviour and AD, OD and FD, but piribedil increased LD at the 40 mg/kg doses compared to the L-DOPA group. Idazoxan induced similar effects as piribedil (40 mg/kg), except that it had no effect on LD. Idazoxan blocked the effect of piribedil on AD and FD. Clonidine reduced all AIMs except OD, possibly because of its sedative effect. Clonidine blocked the effect of piribedil on AD, OD and FD. These data suggest a differential involvement of ?(2) adrenergic receptors in the action of piribedil on different subclasses of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. PMID:22592937

  13. Non-toxic concentrations of ?-synuclein exacerbate Parkinson's disease-like cell death by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction 

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Sally Joanne Mary

    2008-01-01

    ?-Synuclein (?-syn), is a self-aggregating protein that has been identified as a pathologically important component in a number of diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD, a progressive neurological disorder ...

  14. Prospect of cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease

    E-print Network

    Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The hallmark of Parkinson’s disease is on-going degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which may be due to various etiologies. Various approaches to alleviate symptoms are available, such as life-long pharmacological intervention, deep brain stimulation, and transplantation of dopaminergic neuron-containing fetal tissue. However, each of these approaches has a disadvantage. Several studies have shown that various kinds of stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and other cells can differentiate into dopaminergic neurons and may be promising for treating Parkinson’s disease in the future. Therefore, this review addresses those cells in terms of their prospects in cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease. In addition, the need for safety and efficacy studies, various cell delivery modes and sites, and possible side effects will be discussed.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation in rotenone-induced cellular and animal models of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ching-Chi; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh; Lai, Szu-Chia; Wu-Chou, Yah-Huei; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Jie; Chen, Chao-Lang; Chang, Ya-Ming; Wang, Hung-Li; Lu, Chin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown that mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) functions as a cellular protector against oxidative stress by detoxification of cytotoxic aldehydes. Within dopaminergic neurons, dopamine is metabolized by monoamine oxidase to yield 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) then converts to a less toxic acid product by ALDH. The highly toxic and reactive DOPAL has been hypothesized to contribute to the selective neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective mechanism and therapeutic effect of ALDH2 in rotenone models for parkinsonism. Overexpression of wild-type ALDH2 gene, but not the enzymatically deficient mutant ALDH2*2 (E504K), reduced rotenone-induced cell death. Application of a potent activator of ALDH2, Alda-1, was effective in protecting against rotenone-induced apoptotic cell death in both SH-SY5Y cells and primary cultured substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons. In addition, intraperitoneal administration of Alda-1 significantly reduced rotenone- or MPTP-induced death of SN tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons. The attenuation of rotenone-induced apoptosis by Alda-1 resulted from decreasing ROS accumulation, reversal of mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, and inhibition of activation of proteins related to mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The present study demonstrates that ALDH2 plays a crucial role in maintaining normal mitochondrial function to protect against neurotoxicity and that Alda-1 is effective in ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. These results indicate that ALDH2 activation could be a neuroprotective therapy for PD. PMID:25263579

  16. Intrastriatal GDNF gene transfer by inducible lentivirus vectors protects dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sha-Sha; Yang, Chun; Hao, Fei; Li, Chen; Lu, Tao; Zhao, Li-Ru; Duan, Wei-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic (DA) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. However, substantial evidence has shown that a long-term overexpression of GDNF gene is often associated with side effects. We previously improved tetracycline (Tet)-On lentivirus system carrying human GDNF (hGDNF) gene, and demonstrated that hGDNF gene expression was tightly regulated and functional in vitro. Here we further examined the efficiency and neuroprotection of Tet-On lentivirus-mediated hGDNF gene regulation in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and a rat model of parkinsonism. The results showed that hGDNF gene expression was tightly regulated in transduced NPCs. Doxycycline (Dox)-induced hGDNF protected DA neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in vitro. Intrastriatal injections of Tet-On lentivirus vectors resulted in dramatically increased levels of hGDNF protein in the striatum of rats with Dox-drinking water, when compared to lentivirus-injected and saline-injected rats with normal drinking water, respectively. In addition, hGDNF protected nigral DA neurons and striatal DA fibers, and attenuated d-amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry in the 6-OHDA lesioned rats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that hGDNF gene transfer by Tet-On lentivirus vectors is tightly regulated in rat brain, and Dox-induced hGDNF is functional in neuroprotection of nigral DA neurons in a rat model of parkinsonism. PMID:24997241

  17. Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, James T.; Hamill, Robert W.; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common age-related motoric neurodegenerative disease initially described in the 1800’s by James Parkinson as the ‘Shaking Palsy’. Loss of the neurotransmitter dopamine was recognized as underlying the pathophysiology of the motor dysfunction; subsequently discovery of dopamine replacement therapies brought substantial symptomatic benefit to PD patients. However, these therapies do not fully treat the clinical syndrome nor do they alter the natural history of this disorder motivating clinicians and researchers to further investigate the clinical phenotype, pathophysiology/pathobiology and etiology of this devastating disease. Although the exact cause of sporadic PD remains enigmatic studies of familial and rare toxicant forms of this disorder have laid the foundation for genome wide explorations and environmental studies. The combination of methodical clinical evaluation, systematic pathological studies and detailed genetic analyses have revealed that PD is a multifaceted disorder with a wide-range of clinical symptoms and pathology that include regions outside the dopamine system. One common thread in PD is the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions that contain the protein, ?-synuclein. The presence of toxic aggregated forms of ?-synuclein (e.g., amyloid structures) are purported to be a harbinger of subsequent pathology. In fact, PD is both a cerebral amyloid disease and the most common synucleinopathy, that is, diseases that display accumulations of ?-synuclein. Here we present our current understanding of PD etiology, pathology, clinical symptoms and therapeutic approaches with an emphasis on misfolded ?-synuclein. PMID:23225012

  18. An In Vivo Microdialysis Study of FLZ Penetration through the Blood-Brain Barrier in Normal and 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Parkinson's Disease Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinfeng; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingfei; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    FLZ (N-[2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative and a potential anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) agent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the penetration of free FLZ across the BBB and the effects of P-gp inhibition on FLZ transport in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced PD model rats. In vivo microdialysis was used to collect FLZ containing brain and blood dialysates following intravenous (i.v.) drug administration either with or without pretreatment with the specific P-gp inhibitor, zosuquidar trihydrochloride (zosuquidar·3HCl). A sensitive, rapid, and reliable ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) technique was developed and validated to quantitate free FLZ levels in the dialysates. No significant differences were observed in the brain/blood FLZ area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio between normal and PD model rats. However, pretreatment with zosuquidar·3HCl markedly increased the AUC ratio in both rat models. In addition, FLZ penetration was similar in zosuquidar·3HCl-pretreated normal and PD rats. These results suggest that P-gp inhibition increases BBB permeability to FLZ, thereby supporting the hypothesis that P-gp normally restricts FLZ transfer to the brain. These findings could provide reference data for future clinical trials and may aid investigation of the BBB permeability of other CNS-active substances. PMID:25045708

  19. Immune-mediated drug-induced liver disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhang-Xu; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2002-08-01

    Drug-induced immune-mediated hepatic injury is an adverse immune response against the liver that results in a disease with hepatitic, cholestatic, or mixed clinical features. Drugs such as halothane, tienilic acid, dihydralazine, and anticonvulsants trigger a hepatitic reaction, and drugs such as chlorpromazine, erythromycins, amoxicillin-calvulanic acid, sulfonamides and sulindac trigger a cholestatic or mixed reaction. Unstable metabolites derived from the metabolism of the drug may bind to cellular proteins or macromolecules, leading to a direct toxic effect on hepatocytes. Protein adducts formed in the metabolism of the drug may be recognized by the immune system as neoantigens. Immunocyte activation may then generate autoantibodies and cell-mediated immune responses, which in turn damage the hepatocytes. Cytochromes 450 are the major oxidative catalysts in drug metabolism, and they can form a neoantigen by covalently binding with the drug metabolite that they produce. Autoantibodies that develop are selectively directed against the particular cytochrome isoenzyme that metabolized the parent drug. The hapten hypothesis proposes that the drug metabolite can act as a hapten and can modify the self of the individual by covalently binding to proteins. The danger hypothesis proposes that the immune system only responds to a foreign antigen if the antigen is associated with a danger signal, such as cell stress or cell death. Most clinically overt adverse hepatic events associated with drugs are unpredictable, and they have intermediate (1 to 8 weeks) or long latency (up to 12 months) periods characteristic of hypersensitivity reactions. Immune-mediated drug-induced liver disease nearly always disappears or becomes quiescent when the drug is removed. Methyldopa, minocycline, and nitrofurantoin can produce a chronic hepatitis resembling AIH if the drug is continued. PMID:12362579

  20. Histopathological and immunohistochemical features of drug-induced exanthems.

    PubMed

    Lisi, P; Pelliccia, S; Bellini, V

    2014-04-01

    Exanthematic eruptions, together with urticaria-angioedema syndrome and fixed drug eruption, are the most frequent cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Among the drug-induced exanthems (DIEs), erythematous maculopapular eruptions are the most common. Their management, especially when retrospective, is often not easy, and it is based on the use of clinical criteria, history, results of some laboratory tests, drug elimination test, skin tests, and oral challenge test. The superficial perivascular and spongiotic dermatitis, which is the prevalent histopathological features of DIEs, is not very useful in the differential diagnosis with virus- and bacteria-induced exanthems (VBIEs). On the contrary, some immune-histochemical findings (interleukin-5 overexpression, concomitant enhancement of perforin, interleukin-5, and granzyme B production, positivity for fatty acid synthase-ligand-L in amoxicillin-induced exanthems) seem to be more important. These data justifie the inclusion of DIEs in the subtypes IVb and IVc of delayed hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:24819645

  1. Contemporary review of drug-induced pancreatitis: A different perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Whitney Y; Abreu Lanfranco, Odaliz

    2014-01-01

    Although gallstone and alcohol use have been considered the most common causes of acute pancreatitis, hundreds of frequently prescribed medications are associated with this disease state. The true incidence is unknown since there are few population based studies available. The knowledge of drug induced acute pancreatitis is limited by the availability and the quality of the evidence as the majority of data is extrapolated from case reports. Establishing a definitive causal relationship between a drug and acute pancreatitis poses a challenge to clinicians. Several causative agent classification systems are often used to identify the suspected agents. They require regular updates since new drug induced acute pancreatitis cases are reported continuously. In addition, infrequently prescribed medications and herbal medications are often omitted. Furthermore, identification of drug induced acute pancreatitis with new medications often requires accumulation of post market case reports. The unrealistic expectation for a comprehensive list of medications and the multifactorial nature of acute pancreatitis call for a different approach. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms of drug induced acute pancreatitis and provide the perspective of deductive reasoning in order to allow clinicians to identify potential drug induced acute pancreatitis with limited data. PMID:25400984

  2. Drug-Induced Torsade de Pointes and Implications for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Robert R.; Malik, Marek; Antzelevitch, Charles; Sanguinetti, Michael; Roden, Dan M.; Priori, Silvia G.; Ruskin, Jeremy N.; Lipicky, Raymond J.; Cantilena, Lou

    2006-01-01

    Torsade de pointes is a potentially lethal arrhythmia that occasionally appears as an adverse effect of pharmacotherapy. Recently-developed understanding of the underlying electrophysiology allows better estimation of the drug-induced risks, and explains the failures of older approaches through the surface electrocardiogram. The article expresses a consensus reached by an independent academic task force on the physiologic understanding of drug-induced repolarisation changes, on their preclinical and clinical evaluation, and on the risk-benefit interpretation of drug-induced torsade de pointes. The consensus of the task force includes suggestions on how to evaluate the risk of torsade within drug development program. Individual sections of the text discuss the techniques and limitations of methods directed at drug-related ion-channel phenomena, investigations aimed at action potentials changes, preclinical studies of phenomena seen only in the whole (or nearly whole) heart, and at interpretation of human electrocardiograms obtained in clinical studies. Final section of the text discusses drug-induced torsade within the larger evaluation of drug-related risks and benefits. PMID:15090000

  3. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    MedlinePLUS

    Parkinson's Disease Dementia Tweet Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment in thinking and reasoning that eventually affects many people with Parkinson's ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Parkinson's disease dementia The brain changes caused by Parkinson's disease begin ...

  4. Activity of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor 'biased agonists' in rat models of Parkinson's disease and l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Iderberg, H; McCreary, A C; Varney, M A; Cenci, M A; Newman-Tancredi, A

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonists reduce l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we compared the effects of novel 5-HT1A receptor 'biased agonists' on LID in hemiparkinsonian rats. F13714 preferentially activates pre-synaptic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. F15599 preferentially activates cortical postsynaptic 5-HT1A heteroreceptors. The partial agonist, tandospirone, does not differentiate these receptor subpopulations. The drugs were also tested on rotational behavior, rotarod and cylinder test for evaluation of locomotor activity, motor coordination and forelimb akinesia. Finally, the effects of F13714 and F15599 on 5-HT, DA, glutamate, and GABA release were investigated by microdialysis. F13714 abolished l-DOPA-induced AIMs even at very low doses (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). This effect was reversed by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635. F13714 also elicited ipsilateral rotations (which were blocked by WAY100635) and potentiated the rotational activity of a sub-threshold dose of l-DOPA (2 mg/kg). F13714 profoundly inhibited striatal 5-HT release on both sides of the brain, and slightly increased DA release on the intact side. F15599 inhibited the l-DOPA-induced AIMs only at a dose (0.16 mg/kg) that reduced 5-HT release. Tandospirone produced a modest attenuation of peak AIMs severity and did not elicit rotations. F13714, F15599 and tandospirone did not modify the action of l-DOPA in the cylinder test but impaired rotarod performance at the highest doses tested. Targeting 5-HT1A receptors with selective biased agonists exerts distinct effects in the rat model of PD and LID. Preferential activation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors could potentially translate to superior antidyskinetic and l-DOPA dose-sparing effects in PD patients. PMID:25645393

  5. Contrast between innovator drug- and generic drug-induced renal dysfunction on coronary angiography (CONTRAST study).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ayumi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Sugihara, Makoto; Miyase, Yuiko; Norimatsu, Kenji; Shiga, Yuhei; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2014-09-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has gained increasing attention in clinical practice, particularly during coronary angiography (CAG). However, some "bioequivalent" generic (GE) drugs are less effective than the innovator (IN) drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare contrast media (IN drug)-induced renal dysfunction with contrast media (GE drug)-induced dysfunction. We enrolled 44 patients who underwent elective CAG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and randomly divided them into two groups that received contrast media (Iohexol, nonionic and low-osmolality contrast agent) containing either IN drug (Omnipaque) or GE drug (Iopaque). Blood and urine sampling were performed before and after (24 and 48 h) CAG or PCI. Biochemical parameters in blood (serum creatinine, cystatin C, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and pentraxin-3) and urine (urinary albumin/Cr and liver-type fatty acid binding protein/Cr) were measured. There were no significant differences in the biochemical parameters at baseline between the groups. In addition, there were no differences in changes in biochemical parameters in blood and urine before and after CAG or PCI between the groups, although one patient in the GE group had CIN. The degree of contrast in Iopaque-induced renal dysfunction was comparable with that in Omnipaque-induced dysfunction. PMID:24072136

  6. N-acetylcysteine prevents rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease in rat: An investigation into the interaction of parkin and Drp1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahimmi, Arman; Khosrobakhsh, Farnoosh; Izadpanah, Esmael; Moloudi, Mohammad Raman; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz

    2015-04-01

    There are convincing evidences that oxidative stress has an important role in both the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is shown to have antioxidant properties via fortifying glutathione which is one of the main endogenous antioxidant systems. Therefore our study was aimed to evaluate the effect of NAC in management of Parkinson's disease. To this aim, male Wistar rats (10-12 months) received rotenone 2.5mg/kg/48h intraperitoneally (ip) to induce a Parkinson's disease model. Pretreatment with NAC (25 and 50mg/kg/48h ip) was administered 1h before the rotenone injection. Three behavioral tests (rotarod, rearing and bar tests) were performed for motor function assessment. Dopamine levels of dopaminergic areas in rat brain including substantia nigra (SN) and striatum (ST) were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography analysis to measure the loss of dopamine. Western blot analysis was also done for parkin and Drp1 (dynamin related protein-1) proteins quantification in SN and ST. Our results indicated that NAC significantly ameliorated the rotenone-induced motor dysfunction and dopamine loss. Furthermore, NAC was able to prevent the rotenone-induced changes in parkin and Drp1 levels in the both studied areas. In conclusion we found that NAC delayed the Parkinson's disease induction by rotenone and this effect might be related to its proved antioxidant effect. PMID:25732239

  7. Drug-induced skin reactions: a 2-year study

    PubMed Central

    Farshchian, Mahmood; Ansar, Akram; Zamanian, Abbas; Rahmatpour-Rokni, Ghasem; Kimyai-Asadi, Arash; Farshchian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions, which occur when a medicinal product results in cutaneous morbidity. Methods The study included 308 patients who were diagnosed as having an adverse cutaneous drug reaction during the study period (2007–2009). In 84 cases, histopathologic examination of skin biopsies were also performed. Results Patients with drug reactions were found to be more commonly female (63%) than male (37%). Beta-lactam antibiotics were found to be the most frequent cause of adverse cutaneous drug reactions (42.7%), followed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.5%). Acute urticaria was the most common clinical presentation (59.2%) followed by fixed drug eruptions (18.5%), and maculopapular eruptions (14.9%). Conclusion Adverse cutaneous drug reactions in our study population were mainly induced by beta-lactam antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The most common forms of cutaneous adverse drug reactions were found to be acute urticaria, fixed drug eruptions, and maculopapular rashes. PMID:25709487

  8. The natural history of histologically proved drug induced liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Aithal, P; Day, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The long term outcome of drug related liver disease is unknown. ?AIMS—To study the natural history of histologically proved drug induced hepatotoxicity. ?METHODS—110 patients with liver biopsies coded either as drug induced liver disease or hepatitis/cholestasis of unknown aetiology were identified from hospital records 1978-1996. Review of case notes and histology identified 44 patients with definite drug induced hepatotoxicity. Forty surviving patients were invited to attend a follow up clinic. History, examination, full liver screen, and isotope and ultrasound liver scans were repeated in all patients. Repeat liver biopsies were offered to patients with abnormal liver tests. ?RESULTS—Presentation at index biopsy was jaundice in 24 patients, abnormal liver tests in 17, and hepatic failure in three. Antibiotics (n=13) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=11) were the most common drugs implicated. Initial histology showed acute hepatitis in six, chronic hepatitis in 20, and cholestasis in 18. At 1-19 years (median 5 years) follow up, 13/33 (39%) patients had persistent significant abnormalities in their liver blood tests and/or scans. Three of the five repeat liver biopsies performed showed significant abnormalities. Factors predicting persistence or development of chronic liver disease were fibrosis and continued exposure to the drug. ?CONCLUSIONS—Drugs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal liver function and/or histology, as failure to withdraw the offending drug is associated with a high risk of persistent liver damage. ?? Keywords: drugs; chronic active hepatitis; toxic hepatitis; diclofenac PMID:10205214

  9. A single intramuscular injection of rAAV-mediated mutant erythropoietin protects against MPTP-induced parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Dhanushkodi, A.; Akano, E. O.; Roguski, E. E.; Xue, Y.; Rao, S. K.; Matta, S. G.; Rex, T. S.; McDonald, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is neuroprotective in a number of preparations, but can lead to unacceptably high and even lethal hematocrit levels. Recent reports show that modified Epo variants confer neuroprotection in models of glaucoma and retinal degeneration without raising hematocrit. In this study, neuroprotective effects of two Epo variants (EpoR76E and EpoS71E) were assessed in a model of Parkinson’s disease. The constructs were packaged in recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors and injected intramuscularly. After 3 weeks, mice received five daily injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and were killed 5 weeks later. The MPTP-lesioned mice pretreated with rAAV.eGFP (negative control) exhibited a 7- to 9-Hz tremor and slower latencies to move on a grid test (akinesia). Both of these symptomatic features were absent in mice pretreated with either modified Epo construct. The rAAV.eGFP-treated mice lesioned with MPTP exhibited a 41% reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rAAV.EpoS71E construct did not protect nigral neurons, but neuronal loss in mice pretreated with rAAV.EpoR76E was only half that of rAAV.eGFP controls. Although dopamine levels were normal in all groups, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was significantly reduced only in MPTP-lesioned mice pre-treated with rAAV.eGFP, indicating reduced dopamine turnover. Analysis of TH-positive fibers in the striatum showed normalized density in MPTP-lesioned mice pretreated with rAAV.EpoS71E, suggesting that enhanced sprouting induced by EpoS71E may have been responsible for normal behavior and dopaminergic tone in these mice. These results show that systemically administered rAAV-generated non-erythropoietic Epo may protect against MPTP-induced parkinsonism by a combination of neuroprotection and enhanced axonal sprouting. PMID:23190369

  10. Systems biology analysis of the proteomic alterations induced by MPP+, a Parkinson's disease-related mitochondrial toxin

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Chiara; Bondi, Heather; Urbani, Andrea; Fasano, Mauro; Alberio, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease whose etiology has not been completely characterized. Many cellular processes have been proposed to play a role in the neuronal damage and loss: defects in the proteosomal activity, altered protein processing, increased reactive oxygen species burden. Among them, the involvement of a decreased activity and an altered disposal of mitochondria is becoming more and more evident. The mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an inhibitor of complex I, has been widely used to reproduce biochemical alterations linked to PD in vitro and its precursor, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP), to induce a Parkinson-like syndrome in vivo. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature of all the proteomic investigations of neuronal alterations due to MPP+ treatment and compared it with our results obtained with a mitochondrial proteomic analysis of SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+. By using open-source bioinformatics tools, we identified the biochemical pathways and the molecular functions mostly affected by MPP+, i.e., ATP production, the mitochondrial unfolded stress response, apoptosis, autophagy, and, most importantly, the synapse funcionality. Eventually, we generated protein networks, based on physical or functional interactions, to highlight the relationships among the molecular actors involved. In particular, we identified the mitochondrial protein HSP60 as the central hub in the protein-protein interaction network. As a whole, this analysis clarified the cellular responses to MPP+, the specific mitochondrial proteome alterations induced and how this toxic model can recapitulate some pathogenetic events of PD. PMID:25698928

  11. Parkinson's Disease Iron Deposition Caused by Nitric Oxide-Induced Loss of ?-Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    PubMed

    Ayton, Scott; Lei, Peng; Hare, Dominic J; Duce, James A; George, Jessica L; Adlard, Paul A; McLean, Catriona; Rogers, Jack T; Cherny, Robert A; Finkelstein, David I; Bush, Ashley I

    2015-02-25

    Elevation of both neuronal iron and nitric oxide (NO) in the substantia nigra are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. We reported previously that the Alzheimer-associated ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) facilitates neuronal iron export. Here we report markedly decreased APP expression in dopaminergic neurons of human PD nigra and that APP(-/-) mice develop iron-dependent nigral cell loss. Conversely, APP-overexpressing mice are protected in the MPTP PD model. NO suppresses APP translation in mouse MPTP models, explaining how elevated NO causes iron-dependent neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:25716857

  12. Dopamine Agonists and their risk to induce psychotic episodes in Parkinson's disease: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Daniel; Unrath, Alexander; Kassubek, Jan; Sabolek, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychosis is rare in untreated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) but the prevalence rises to 40% during dopaminergic treatment. So far, no systematic comparison of the psychogenic potential of different dopaminergic drugs had been performed. Methods Eighty PD patients with psychotic episodes were compared to an age-matched control group of PD patients without psychotic episodes (n = 120) in a cross-sectional retrospective study. Results We found a positive correlation between psychotic episodes and dementia, number of concomitant medication, and pergolide intake. Odds ratio calculation confirmed the association with dementia. With respect to dopaminergic treatment, pergolide showed the highest odds ratio, levodopa the lowest. An adjusted logistic regression model confirmed the strong association with psychotic episodes and pergolide and no association with levodopa (adjusted odds ratio 2.01 and 0.11, respectively). Conclusion The analysis indicates that dementia and concomitant medication are factors in PD associated with psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, different dopaminergic drugs showed markedly different associations with psychotic symptoms PMID:19515253

  13. Drug-Induced Changes to Nutritional Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane M. Gervasio

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Identify drugs associated with alterations in weight and their subsequent effect on growth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Understand varying taste alterations and their effect on nutrition intake.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Recognize the differing drugs’ mechanisms of action or their adverse effects and the varying nutritional complications which\\u000a may ensue.

  14. Drug-induced osteoporosis: Beyond glucocorticoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Briot; Christian Roux

    2008-01-01

    To prevent osteoporotic fractures, it is important to identify patients at high risk of fracture by assessing risk factors\\u000a such as underlying diseases and drugs. Prior and current use of oral corticosteroids is strongly associated with increased\\u000a fracture risk, but other medications could be involved and should be assessed as part of the optimal care of patients at risk\\u000a of

  15. Drug-induced granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a pediatric patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Tong; David N. Howell; John W. Foreman

    2007-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a known cause of acute renal failure in children. In most instances, drug therapy is\\u000a the offending agent. Although granuloma formation has been observed in drug-induced interstitial nephritis, it is not a commonly\\u000a associated manifestation. This is a case of a 15-year-old white female with Tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia who\\u000a developed acute renal

  16. [Autoimmunity induced by drugs. Immunological characteristics and etiopathogenic hypotheses].

    PubMed

    Homberg, J C

    1984-12-15

    Drug-induced autoimmune diseases have two immunological peculiarities. Firstly, some autoantibodies are present, which are virtually never seen in spontaneous human diseases and may be regarded as specific. This applies to antimitochondria antibody type 3 (anti M3) in the lupus-like syndrome caused by Venocuran, to antimitochondria antibody type 6 (anti M6) in iproniazide-induced hepatitis, to anti-insulin antibody found after treatment with methimazole, and to anti liver/kidney microsome antibody type 2 (anti LKM2) associated with hepatitis induced by tielinic acid. Secondly, a search for other autoantibodies shows that the immune disorder is much more limited than in spontaneous autoimmune diseases. Thus, contrary to myasthenia and idiopathic autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, we never found autoantibodies specifically directed against the thyroid, the stomach or the adrenal gland during treatment with D-penicillamine and alpha-methyldopa. Only some hypotheses may account for these peculiarities. Cross-reaction between drug and autoantigen may occur, but the fact that the antigen-antibody reaction is not inhibited by the drug or its metabolites does not support this explanation. Much more attractive is the "T-cell bypass" theory, according to which autoreacting suppressor T-cells are circumvented by helper T-cells stimulated by the drug-modified autoantigen. In this case, the autoimmune reaction would indicate to which body substance the drug is bound, thus making it immunostimulant, and not a structural similarity between the drug and the autoantigen. PMID:6240048

  17. Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Rohit Kumar; Mathur, Ranjan; Srivastava, Rashi; Nag, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    Gingival overgrowth is well documented side effect associated with three major classes of drugs viz, anticonvulsants, calcium channel blockers, and immunosuppressants. Despite our greater understanding of pathogenesis of Drug induced Gingival Overgrowth (DIGO), its treatment still remains a challenge for the periodontists and treatment is still largely limited to maintenance of improved level of oral hygiene and surgical removal of overgrown tissue. Dental Surgeons need to discuss this issue with their medical colleagues and to practice care while prescribing the drugs associated with gingival overgrowth. The aim of present article is to report a rare case where even after extraction of all teeth; the enlargement did not subsided for one month. PMID:25738096

  18. The Parkinson's disease gene DJ-1 is also a key regulator of stroke-induced damage

    PubMed Central

    Aleyasin, Hossein; Rousseaux, Maxime W. C.; Phillips, Maryam; Kim, Raymond H.; Bland, Ross J.; Callaghan, Steve; Slack, Ruth S.; During, Matthew J.; Mak, Tak W.; Park, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that common mechanisms play roles among multiple neurological diseases. However, the specifics of these pathways are not completely understood. Stroke is caused by the interruption of blood flow to the brain, and cumulative evidence supports the critical role of oxidative stress in the ensuing neuronal death process. DJ-1 (PARK7) has been identified as the gene linked to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease. Currently, our work also shows that DJ-1 is central to death in both in Vitro and in Vivo models of stroke. Loss of DJ-1 increases the sensitivity to excitotoxicity and ischemia, whereas expression of DJ-1 can reverse this sensitivity and indeed provide further protection. Importantly, DJ-1 expression decreases markers of oxidative stress after stroke insult in Vivo, suggesting that DJ-1 protects through alleviation of oxidative stress. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrate the essential role of the oxidation-sensitive cysteine-106 residue in the neuroprotective activity of DJ-1 after stroke. Our work provides an important example of how a gene seemingly specific for one disease, in this case Parkinson's disease, also appears to be central in other neuropathological conditions such as stroke. It also highlights the important commonalities among differing neuropathologies. PMID:18003894

  19. In silico modeling to predict drug-induced phospholipidosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sydney S; Kim, Jae S; Valerio, Luis G; Sadrieh, Nakissa

    2013-06-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is a preclinical finding during pharmaceutical drug development that has implications on the course of drug development and regulatory safety review. A principal characteristic of drugs inducing DIPL is known to be a cationic amphiphilic structure. This provides evidence for a structure-based explanation and opportunity to analyze properties and structures of drugs with the histopathologic findings for DIPL. In previous work from the FDA, in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling using machine learning approaches has shown promise with a large dataset of drugs but included unconfirmed data as well. In this study, we report the construction and validation of a battery of complementary in silico QSAR models using the FDA's updated database on phospholipidosis, new algorithms and predictive technologies, and in particular, we address high performance with a high-confidence dataset. The results of our modeling for DIPL include rigorous external validation tests showing 80-81% concordance. Furthermore, the predictive performance characteristics include models with high sensitivity and specificity, in most cases above ?80% leading to desired high negative and positive predictivity. These models are intended to be utilized for regulatory toxicology applied science needs in screening new drugs for DIPL. PMID:23541745

  20. An Update on Drug-induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Devarbhavi, Harshad

    2012-09-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following drugs taken in therapeutic doses. Hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition in drug development, or withdrawal or restricted use after marketing. No age is exempt although adults and the elderly are at increased risk. DILI spans the entire spectrum ranging from asymptomatic elevation in transaminases to severe disease such as acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure. The liver specific Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is the most validated and extensively used for determining the likelihood that an implicated drug caused DILI. Asymptomatic elevation in liver tests must be differentiated from adaptation. Drugs producing DILI have a signature pattern although no single pattern is characteristic. Antimicrobial and central nervous system agents including antiepileptic drugs are the leading causes of DILI worldwide. In the absence of a diagnostic test or a biomarker, the diagnosis rests on the evidence of absence of competing causes such as acute viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis and others. Recent studies show that antituberculosis drugs given for active or latent disease are still a major cause of drug-induced liver injury in India and the West respectively. Presence of jaundice signifies a severe disease and entails a worse outcome. The pathogenesis is unclear and is due to a mix of host, drug metabolite and environmental factors. Research has evolved from incriminating candidate genes to genome wide analysis studies. Immediate cessation of the drug is key to prevent or minimize progressive damage. Treatment is largely supportive. N-acetylcysteine is the antidote for paracetamol toxicity. Carnitine has been tried in valproate injury whereas steroids and ursodeoxycholic acid may be used in DILI associated with hypersensitivity or cholestatic features respectively. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, the patterns of hepatotoxicity, the pathogenesis and associated risk factors besides its clinical management. PMID:25755441

  1. An Update on Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Devarbhavi, Harshad

    2012-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following drugs taken in therapeutic doses. Hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition in drug development, or withdrawal or restricted use after marketing. No age is exempt although adults and the elderly are at increased risk. DILI spans the entire spectrum ranging from asymptomatic elevation in transaminases to severe disease such as acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure. The liver specific Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is the most validated and extensively used for determining the likelihood that an implicated drug caused DILI. Asymptomatic elevation in liver tests must be differentiated from adaptation. Drugs producing DILI have a signature pattern although no single pattern is characteristic. Antimicrobial and central nervous system agents including antiepileptic drugs are the leading causes of DILI worldwide. In the absence of a diagnostic test or a biomarker, the diagnosis rests on the evidence of absence of competing causes such as acute viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis and others. Recent studies show that antituberculosis drugs given for active or latent disease are still a major cause of drug-induced liver injury in India and the West respectively. Presence of jaundice signifies a severe disease and entails a worse outcome. The pathogenesis is unclear and is due to a mix of host, drug metabolite and environmental factors. Research has evolved from incriminating candidate genes to genome wide analysis studies. Immediate cessation of the drug is key to prevent or minimize progressive damage. Treatment is largely supportive. N-acetylcysteine is the antidote for paracetamol toxicity. Carnitine has been tried in valproate injury whereas steroids and ursodeoxycholic acid may be used in DILI associated with hypersensitivity or cholestatic features respectively. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, the patterns of hepatotoxicity, the pathogenesis and associated risk factors besides its clinical management. PMID:25755441

  2. 74 FR 38035 - Guidance for Industry on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-07-30

    ...Guidance for Industry on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...for industry entitled ``Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Premarketing Clinical Evaluation...of a drug to cause severe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) during the conduct of...

  3. Low Dosage of Rasagiline and Epigallocatechin Gallate Synergistically Restored the Nigrostriatal Axis in MPTP-Induced Parkinsonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydia Reznichenko; Limor Kalfon; Tamar Amit; Moussa B. H. Youdim; Silvia A. Mandel

    2010-01-01

    Background: The anti-Parkinson monoamine oxidase B inhibitor rasagiline appears to be the first neuroprotective disease-modifying therapy in early-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objective: Using a polypharmacy paradigm, we tested whether the distinct neuroprotective pharmacological profile of rasagiline would complement that of (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main antioxidant\\/iron chelator polyphenol constituent of green tea, and restore the neuronal loss and molecular targets damaged

  4. Molecular Docking and Prediction of Pharmacokinetic Properties of Dual Mechanism Drugs that Block MAO-B and Adenosine A(2A) Receptors for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Azam, Faizul; Madi, Arwa M; Ali, Hamed I

    2012-07-01

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitory potential of adenosine A(2A) receptor (AA(2A)R) antagonists has raised the possibility of designing dual-target-directed drugs that may provide enhanced symptomatic relief and that may also slow the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) by protecting against further neurodegeneration. To explain the dual inhibition of MAO-B and AA(2A)R at the molecular level, molecular docking technique was employed. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was used for flexible ligand docking studies. A good correlation (R(2)= 0.524 and 0.627 for MAO-B and AA(2A)R, respectively) was established between docking predicted and experimental K(i) values, which confirms that the molecular docking approach is reliable to study the mechanism of dual interaction of caffeinyl analogs with MAO-B and AA(2A)R. Parameters for Lipinski's "Rule-of-Five" were also calculated to estimate the pharmacokinetic properties of dual-target-directed drugs where both MAO-B inhibition and AA(2A)R antagonism exhibited a positive correlation with calculated LogP having a correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.535 and 0.607, respectively. These results provide some beneficial clues in structural modification for designing new inhibitors as dual-target-directed drugs with desired pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of PD. PMID:23112538

  5. Molecular Docking and Prediction of Pharmacokinetic Properties of Dual Mechanism Drugs that Block MAO-B and Adenosine A2A Receptors for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Faizul; Madi, Arwa M.; Ali, Hamed I.

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitory potential of adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR) antagonists has raised the possibility of designing dual-target–directed drugs that may provide enhanced symptomatic relief and that may also slow the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) by protecting against further neurodegeneration. To explain the dual inhibition of MAO-B and AA2AR at the molecular level, molecular docking technique was employed. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was used for flexible ligand docking studies. A good correlation (R2= 0.524 and 0.627 for MAO-B and AA2AR, respectively) was established between docking predicted and experimental Ki values, which confirms that the molecular docking approach is reliable to study the mechanism of dual interaction of caffeinyl analogs with MAO-B and AA2AR. Parameters for Lipinski's “Rule-of-Five” were also calculated to estimate the pharmacokinetic properties of dual-target–directed drugs where both MAO-B inhibition and AA2AR antagonism exhibited a positive correlation with calculated LogP having a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.535 and 0.607, respectively. These results provide some beneficial clues in structural modification for designing new inhibitors as dual-target–directed drugs with desired pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of PD. PMID:23112538

  6. A partial lesion model of Parkinson's disease in mice - Characterization of a 6-OHDA-induced medial forebrain bundle lesion.

    PubMed

    Boix, Jordi; Padel, Thomas; Paul, Gesine

    2015-05-01

    The most frequently used animal models for Parkinson's disease (PD) utilize unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), which results in total denervation of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. However, neuroprotective interventions in PD require models resembling earlier stages of PD, where some dopaminergic cells and fibres remain. The aim of the present study was therefore to establish a MFB partial lesion model in mice. We tested four different 6-OHDA doses, and our results show a dose-dependent loss of nigral dopaminergic cells and striatal fibres that correlated with behavioural impairment in several behavioural tests. Specifically, doses of 0.7?g and 1?g of 6-OHDA induced a partial denervation of the nigrostriatal pathway, associated with a mild but quantifiable behavioural impairment. We identified the amphetamine-induced rotation, stepping, corridor and cylinder test to be sensitive enough to select partial lesion animals. Based on our data, we proposed a range of cut-off values for these different behavioural tests to select partial lesion mice. Using a statistical prediction model we identified two behavioural tests (the stepping test and amphetamine-induced rotation test) that with a high sensitivity and specificity predict the extent of nigral dopaminergic cell loss and select mice with a partial nigrostriatal lesion prior to further interventions. This model can serve as an important tool to study neuroprotective therapies for PD in mouse models, especially when the treatment targets the substantia nigra and/or the striatum. PMID:25698603

  7. Activation of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors protects astrocytes against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis: implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiaoning; Hui, Yujian; Zhu, Chenlei; Wu, Jie; Taylor, Devin H; Ji, Juan; Fan, Weimin; Huang, Zuhu; Hu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Astrocytes have been implicated in the immune responses associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Inhibition of astrocyte apoptosis is a novel strategy for the treatment of PD. Recent studies suggest that ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7-nAChRs) expressed in glial cells are critical links between inflammation and neurodegeneration in PD. However, little is known about their contribution to astrocyte apoptosis during the development of this disorder. In the present study, we showed that nicotine exerts a protective effect on H2O2-induced astrocyte apoptosis and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) downregulation, and this effect was abolished by an ?7-nAChR-selective antagonist. The underlying mechanisms might involve alleviation of mitochondrial membrane potential loss, stabilization of the Bax/Bcl-2 balance, and inhibition of cleaved caspase-9 activity through ?7-nAChR activation. Systemic administration of nicotine dramatically alleviated MPTP-induced symptoms, protected dopaminergic neurons against degeneration, inhibited astrocytes and microglia activation in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and blocked the decrease of GDNF in the striatum by activating ?7-nAChRs. Taken together these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that nicotine suppresses H2O2-induced astrocyte apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway through the stimulation of ?7-nAChRs. Targeting ?7-nAChRs expressed in astrocytes may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25486621

  8. Protective role of SIRT5 against motor deficit and dopaminergic degeneration in MPTP-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Peritore, Carina; Ginsberg, Jessica; Shih, Jennifer; Arun, Siddharth; Donmez, Gizem

    2015-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons that results in motor deficits including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Despite decades of intensive study, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to neuronal death, which is the key feature of neurodegeneration. Mitochondria are pivotal organelles that host essential functions in neuronal viability including energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, calcium buffering, redox homeostasis and apoptosis. SIRT5, which localizes in the mitochondrial matrix, is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent histone deacetylase. The physiological and pathophysiological functions of SIRT5 in vivo remain elusive although it is known to be an important energy sensor. Here, we investigated the role of SIRT5 in the pathogenesis of PD mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We present evidence that SIRT5 deficiency, by itself, does not affect motor and non-motor functions; however, lack of SIRT5 exacerbates MPTP-induced motor deficits. Consistently, MPTP-exposed SIRT5 knockout mice exhibited more severe nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration than that observed in wild-type controls. Furthermore, deletion of SIRT5 leads to a larger decrease, relative to control, in the expression level of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), a mitochondria-specific antioxidant enzyme, after MPTP induction. These findings indicate that SIRT5 ameliorates MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration via preserving mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. PMID:25541039

  9. Atomistic Investigation of Cu-Induced Misfolding in the Onset of Parkinson's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Francis; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2009-03-01

    A nucleation mechanism for the misfolding of ?-synuclein, the protein implicated in Parkinson's Disease (PD), is investigated using computer simulations. Through a combination of ab initio and classical simulation techniques, the conformational evolution of copper-ion-initiated misfolding of ?-synuclein is determined. Based on these investigations and available experimental evidence, an atomistic model detailing the nucleation-initiated pathogenesis of PD is proposed. Once misfolded, the proteins can assemble into fibrils, the primary structural components of the deleterious PD plaques. Our model identifies a process of structural modifications to an initially unfolded ?-synuclein that results in a partially folded intermediate with a well defined nucleation site as a precursor to the fully misfolded protein. The identified pathway can enable studies of reversal mechanisms and inhibitory agents, potentially leading to the development of effective therapies.

  10. Levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone-induced acute Pisa syndrome in a Parkinson's disease patient.

    PubMed

    Solla, Paolo; Cannas, Antonino; Congia, Socrate; Floris, Gianluca; Aste, Rosa; Tacconi, Paolo; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna

    2008-12-15

    Pisa syndrome (PS) is a dystonic lateroflexion of the trunk with a postural disturbance resembling the leaning tower of Pisa. Initially reported as a side effect related to antipsychotic therapy, this original dystonic posture is also manifested in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple system atrophy, or in rare idiopathic cases. Recent observations have described the onset of PS with subchronic course in patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we report on the acute development of PS in a parkinsonian patient during treatment with entacapone/levodopa/carbidopa combination. This case illustrates how, in contrast to previously well-known chronic/subchronic forms, this axial dystonic posture may occur in PD as an acute onset reversible type, related to levodopa treatment. PMID:18814889

  11. Emerging restorative treatments for Parkinson's disease: manipulation and inducement of dopaminergic neurons from adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junpeng; Xu, Qunyuan

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by a selective loss of midbrain Dopaminergic (DA) neurons. To address this problem, various types of stem cells that have potential to differentiate into DA neurons are being investigated as cellular therapies for PD, including cells derived from embryonic or adult donor tissue, and embryonic stem cells. These cell sources, however, have raised certain questions with regard to ethical and rejection issues. Recent progress in adult stems has further proved that the cells derived from adult tissue could be expanded and differentiated into DA precursor cells in vitro, and cell therapy with adult stem cells could produce a clear improvement for PD models. Using adult stem cells for clinic application may not only overcome the ethical problem inherent in using human fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, but also open the possibility for autologous transplantation. The patient-specific adult stem cell is therefore a potential and prospective candidate for PD treatment. PMID:21495964

  12. Recovering Drug-Induced Apoptosis Subnetwork from Connectivity Map Data

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiyang; Putcha, Preeti; Silva, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The Connectivity Map (CMAP) project profiled human cancer cell lines exposed to a library of anticancer compounds with the goal of connecting cancer with underlying genes and potential treatments. Since the therapeutic goal of most anticancer drugs is to induce tumor-selective apoptosis, it is critical to understand the specific cell death pathways triggered by drugs. This can help to better understand the mechanism of how cancer cells respond to chemical stimulations and improve the treatment of human tumors. In this study, using CMAP microarray data from breast cancer cell line MCF7, we applied a Gaussian Bayesian network modeling approach and identified apoptosis as a major drug-induced cellular-pathway. We then focused on 13 apoptotic genes that showed significant differential expression across all drug-perturbed samples to reconstruct the apoptosis network. In our predicted subnetwork, 9 out of 15 high-confidence interactions were validated in the literature, and our inferred network captured two major cell death pathways by identifying BCL2L11 and PMAIP1 as key interacting players for the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and TAXBP1 and TNFAIP3 for the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Our inferred apoptosis network also suggested the role of BCL2L11 and TNFAIP3 as “gateway” genes in the drug-induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways.

  13. Drug-induced liver injury: Is it somehow foreseeable?

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Capone, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    The classic view on the pathogenesis of drug-induced liver injury is that the so-called parent compounds are made hepatotoxic by metabolism (formation of neo-substances that react abnormally), mainly by cytochromes P-450 (CYP), with further pathways, such as mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, also playing a role. Risk factors for drug-induced liver injury include concomitant hepatic diseases, age and genetic polymorphisms of CYP. However, some susceptibility can today be predicted before drug administration, working on the common substrate, by phenotyping and genotyping studies and by taking in consideration patients’ health status. Physicians should always think of this adverse effect in the absence of other clear hepatic disease. Ethical and legal problems towards operators in the health care system are always matters to consider. PMID:19533803

  14. Vanadium induces dopaminergic neurotoxicity via protein kinase Cdelta dependent oxidative signaling mechanisms: Relevance to etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Witte, Travis; Houk, Robert [Ames Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Kanthasamy, Anumantha G. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)], E-mail: akanthas@iastate.edu

    2009-10-15

    Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC{sub 50} was determined to be 37 {mu}M in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (> fourfold) and caspase-3 (> ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKC{delta}, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKC{delta} kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKC{delta} proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKC{delta} cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKC{delta} knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration.

  15. Flurbiprofen-induced generalized bullous fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Balta, I; Simsek, H; Simsek, G G

    2014-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is an unusual drug-related side effect that results in recurrent lesions whenever the causative drugs are used. FDEs usually occur as a single, sharply demarcated, round erythematous patch or plaque, occasionally with localized bullae. The most common offending agents include antimicrobials, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antiepileptics. There are some reports where contact dermatitis and cutaneous vasculitis have been associated with the use of flurbiprofen. We present the case of a 50-year-old man with flurbiprofen-induced generalized bullous FDE. To the best of our knowledge, the most serious form of FDE, the generalized bullous FDE, to be caused by flurbiprofen has not been reported previously. PMID:23703815

  16. Modulatory effects of sodium salicylate on the factors affecting protein aggregation during rotenone induced Parkinson's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Poonam; Nehru, Bimla

    2014-09-01

    Sodium salicylate (SS) confers neuroprotection in various models of Parkinson's disease (PD) but the mechanisms behind its protective actions are not clear. PD pathology is multifactorial involving numerous processes such as protein aggregation, dysfunction of protein degradation machinery and apoptosis. Detailed evaluation of effects of SS on these processes can provide an insight into the mechanism of neuroprotection by SS in PD pathology. In a rotenone (2mg/kg b.w.) based rat model of PD, SS (100mg/kg b.w.) was administered in conjunction. Drug treatments continued for 5 weeks after which various analyses were conducted using mid-brain tissue. IHC analysis revealed a decline in the aggregation of ?-synuclein and ubiquitin with SS supplementation. These effects might be mediated by the elevation in HSF-1, HSP-40, and HSP-27 expression following SS co-treatment. This HSP upregulation helped in the improvement in proteasome activity as well as expression. Further, IHC analysis revealed that SS co-treatment prevented the activation of astrocytes caused by rotenone. Since astrocytes are involved in maintenance of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis, it resulted in a concomitant improvement in the GSH levels. As a result, decrease in apoptosis as indicated by caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression as well as TUNEL assay was also observed in the SS conjunction group. Our results indicate that besides being a known free radical scavenger and anti-inflammatory compound, SS can provide neuroprotection by differently upregulating the HSPs and reducing the protein aggregation burden. PMID:24852355

  17. Structure-based Methods for Predicting Target Mutation-induced Drug Resistance and Rational Drug Design to Overcome the Problem

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Yang, Guang-Fu; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance has become one of the biggest challenges in drug discovery/development and attracted great research interests worldwide. During the last decade, computational strategies have been developed to predict target mutation-induced drug resistance. Meanwhile, various molecular design strategies, including targeting protein backbone, targeting highly conserved residues, and dual/multiple targeting, have been used to design novel inhibitors for combating the drug resistance. This is a brief review of recent advances in development of computational methods for target mutation-induced drug resistance prediction and strategies for rational design of novel inhibitors that could be effective also against the possible drug-resistant mutants of the target. PMID:22789991

  18. A tribute to charlie chaplin: induced positive affect improves reward-based decision-learning in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Band, Guido P H; Wylie, Scott A; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Hees, Pieter; Buitenweg, Jessika; van de Vijver, Irene; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M

    2012-01-01

    Reward-based decision-learning refers to the process of learning to select those actions that lead to rewards while avoiding actions that lead to punishments. This process, known to rely on dopaminergic activity in striatal brain regions, is compromised in Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that such decision-learning deficits are alleviated by induced positive affect, which is thought to incur transient boosts in midbrain and striatal dopaminergic activity. Computational measures of probabilistic reward-based decision-learning were determined for 51 patients diagnosed with PD. Previous work has shown these measures to rely on the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the early phases of learning) and the putamen (reward prediction during later phases of learning). We observed that induced positive affect facilitated learning, through its effects on reward prediction rather than outcome evaluation. Viewing a few minutes of comedy clips served to remedy dopamine-related problems associated with frontostriatal circuitry and, consequently, learning to predict which actions will yield reward. PMID:22707944

  19. Isogenic human iPSC Parkinson's model shows nitrosative stress-induced dysfunction in MEF2-PGC1? transcription.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Scott D; Dolatabadi, Nima; Chan, Shing Fai; Zhang, Xiaofei; Akhtar, Mohd Waseem; Parker, James; Soldner, Frank; Sunico, Carmen R; Nagar, Saumya; Talantova, Maria; Lee, Brian; Lopez, Kevin; Nutter, Anthony; Shan, Bing; Molokanova, Elena; Zhang, Yaoyang; Han, Xuemei; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Masliah, Eliezer; Yates, John R; Nakanishi, Nobuki; Andreyev, Aleksander Y; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; Lipton, Stuart A

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of A9 dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). An association has been reported between PD and exposure to mitochondrial toxins, including environmental pesticides paraquat, maneb, and rotenone. Here, using a robust, patient-derived stem cell model of PD allowing comparison of A53T ?-synuclein (?-syn) mutant cells and isogenic mutation-corrected controls, we identify mitochondrial toxin-induced perturbations in A53T ?-syn A9 DA neurons (hNs). We report a pathway whereby basal and toxin-induced nitrosative/oxidative stress results in S-nitrosylation of transcription factor MEF2C in A53T hNs compared to corrected controls. This redox reaction inhibits the MEF2C-PGC1? transcriptional network, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. Our data provide mechanistic insight into gene-environmental interaction (GxE) in the pathogenesis of PD. Furthermore, using small-molecule high-throughput screening, we identify the MEF2C-PGC1? pathway as a therapeutic target to combat PD. PMID:24290359

  20. The expression and release of Hsp60 in 6-OHDA induced in vivo and in vitro models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mei jiang; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Zhengxia; Zhou, Ping; Lu, Xiang

    2013-10-01

    In Parkinson's disease, dopaminergic neuron damage/death causes the release of soluble substances that are selectively toxic to neighboring/additional dopaminergic neurons through the activation of microglia. Hsp60 can be released from injured cells of central nervous system to activate microglia. However, its expression and role in Parkinson's disease has not been well understood. Here, we performed a 6-OHDA treated Parkinson's disease model in adult rats. Western blot analysis showed a time-course expression of Hsp60, which decreased gradually and then rose back. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Hsp60 was decreased in dopaminergic neuron, and most Hsp60 located on the surface of activated microglia. Furthermore, in cellular Parkinson's disease model, Hsp60 was obviously detected in the culture supernatants after 6-OHDA treatment, and a concomitant decrease in cell extracts. Taken together, our results suggested that Hsp60 could be released extracellularly to activate microglia in Parkinson's disease model. PMID:23943523

  1. Diabetes and the Risk of Developing Parkinson’s Disease in Denmark

    E-print Network

    Eva Schernhammer; Johnni Hansen

    OBJECTIVE—Insulin contributes to normal brain function. Previous studies have suggested associations between midlife diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease. Using Danish population registers, we investigated whether a history of diabetes or the use of antidiabetes drugs was associated with Parkinson’s disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—From the nationwide Danish Hospital Register hospital records, we identified 1,931 patients with a first-time diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease between 2001 and 2006. We randomly selected 9,651 population control subjects from the Central Population Registry and density matched them by birth year and sex. Pharmacy records comprising all antidiabetes and anti-Parkinson drug prescriptions in Denmark were available. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS—Having diabetes, as defined by one or more hospitalizations and/or outpatient visits for the condition, was associated with a 36 % increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (OR 1.36 [95 % CI 1.08–1.71]). Similarly, diabetes defined by the use of any antidiabetes medications was associated with a 35 % increased Parkinson’s disease risk (1.35 [1.10–1.65]). When diabetes was defined as the use of oral antidiabetes medications, effect estimates were

  2. P-Glycoprotein Mediated Efflux Limits the Transport of the Novel Anti-Parkinson's Disease Candidate Drug FLZ across the Physiological and PD Pathological In Vitro BBB Models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Hou, Jinfeng; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Gengtao; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    FLZ, a novel anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) candidate drug, has shown poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration based on the pharmacokinetic study using rat brain. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two important transporters obstructing substrates entry into the CNS as well as in relation to PD neuropathology. However, it is unclear whether P-gp and BCRP are involved in low BBB permeability of FLZ and what the differences of FLZ brain penetration are between normal and Parkinson's conditions. For this purpose, in vitro BBB models mimicking physiological and PD pathological-related BBB properties were constructed by C6 astroglial cells co-cultured with primary normal or PD rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (rCMECs) and in vitro permeability experiments of FLZ were carried out. High transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and low permeability for sodium fluorescein (NaF) confirmed the BBB functionality of the two models. Significantly greater expressions of P-gp and BCRP were detected in PD rCMECs associated with the lower in vitro BBB permeability of FLZ in pathological BBB model compared with physiological model. In transport studies only P-gp blocker effectively inhibited the efflux of FLZ, which was consistent with the in vivo permeability data. This result was also confirmed by ATPase assays, suggesting FLZ is a substrate for P-gp but not BCRP. The present study first established in vitro BBB models reproducing PD-related changes of BBB functions in vivo and demonstrated that poor brain penetration of FLZ and low BBB permeability were due to the P-gp transport. PMID:25036090

  3. Light induced cytosolic drug delivery from liposomes with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Tatu; Viitala, Lauri; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Laaksonen, Timo; Liang, Huamin; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina; Viitala, Tapani; Le Guével, Xavier; Yliperttula, Marjo; Murtomäki, Lasse; Urtti, Arto

    2015-04-10

    Externally triggered drug release at defined targets allows site- and time-controlled drug treatment regimens. We have developed liposomal drug carriers with encapsulated gold nanoparticles for triggered drug release. Light energy is converted to heat in the gold nanoparticles and released to the lipid bilayers. Localized temperature increase renders liposomal bilayers to be leaky and triggers drug release. The aim of this study was to develop a drug releasing system capable of releasing its cargo to cell cytosol upon triggering with visible and near infrared light signals. The liposomes were formulated using either heat-sensitive or heat- and pH-sensitive lipid compositions with star or rod shaped gold nanoparticles. Encapsulated fluorescent probe, calcein, was released from the liposomes after exposure to the light. In addition, the pH-sensitive formulations showed a faster drug release in acidic conditions than in neutral conditions. The liposomes were internalized into human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and did not show any cellular toxicity. The light induced cytosolic delivery of calcein from the gold nanoparticle containing liposomes was shown, whereas no cytosolic release was seen without light induction or without gold nanoparticles in the liposomes. The light activated liposome formulations showed a controlled content release to the cellular cytosol at a specific location and time. Triggering with visual and near infrared light allows good tissue penetration and safety, and the pH-sensitive liposomes may enable selective drug release in the intracellular acidic compartments (endosomes, lysosomes). Thus, light activated liposomes with gold nanoparticles are an attractive option for time- and site-specific drug delivery into the target cells. PMID:25701610

  4. The Sirtuin-2 Inhibitor AK7 Is Neuroprotective in Models of Parkinson’s Disease but Not Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiqun; Wales, Pauline; Quinti, Luisa; Zuo, Fuxing; Moniot, Sébastien; Herisson, Fanny; Rauf, Nazifa Abdul; Wang, Hua; Silverman, Richard B.; Ayata, Cenk; Maxwell, Michelle M.; Steegborn, Clemens; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Kazantsev, Aleksey G.

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin deacetylases regulate diverse cellular pathways and influence disease processes. Our previous studies identified the brain-enriched sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) deacetylase as a potential drug target to counteract neurodegeneration. In the present study, we characterize SIRT2 inhibition activity of the brain-permeable compound AK7 and examine the efficacy of this small molecule in models of Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral ischemia. Our results demonstrate that AK7 is neuroprotective in models of Parkinson’s disease; it ameliorates alpha-synuclein toxicity in vitro and prevents 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopamine depletion and dopaminergic neuron loss in vivo. The compound does not show beneficial effects in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral ischemia. These findings underscore the specificity of protective effects observed here in models of Parkinson’s disease, and previously in Huntington’s disease, and support the development of SIRT2 inhibitors as potential therapeutics for the two neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25608039

  5. Targeting the Intrinsically Disordered Structural Ensemble of ?-Synuclein by Small Molecules as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Gergely; Gardai, Shyra J.; Zago, Wagner; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Cremades, Nunilo; Roy, Susan L.; Tambe, Mitali A.; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Galvagnion, Celine; Skibinski, Gaia; Finkbeiner, Steven; Bova, Michael; Regnstrom, Karin; Chiou, San-San; Johnston, Jennifer; Callaway, Kari; Anderson, John P.; Jobling, Michael F.; Buell, Alexander K.; Yednock, Ted A.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Vendruscolo, Michele; Christodoulou, John; Dobson, Christopher M.; Schenk, Dale; McConlogue, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The misfolding of intrinsically disordered proteins such as ?-synuclein, tau and the A? peptide has been associated with many highly debilitating neurodegenerative syndromes including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Therapeutic targeting of the monomeric state of such intrinsically disordered proteins by small molecules has, however, been a major challenge because of their heterogeneous conformational properties. We show here that a combination of computational and experimental techniques has led to the identification of a drug-like phenyl-sulfonamide compound (ELN484228), that targets ?-synuclein, a key protein in Parkinson’s disease. We found that this compound has substantial biological activity in cellular models of ?-synuclein-mediated dysfunction, including rescue of ?-synuclein-induced disruption of vesicle trafficking and dopaminergic neuronal loss and neurite retraction most likely by reducing the amount of ?-synuclein targeted to sites of vesicle mobilization such as the synapse in neurons or the site of bead engulfment in microglial cells. These results indicate that targeting ?-synuclein by small molecules represents a promising approach to the development of therapeutic treatments of Parkinson’s disease and related conditions. PMID:24551051

  6. Effects of intravenous human umbilical cord blood CD34+ stem cell therapy versus levodopa in experimentally induced Parkinsonism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Grisha, Noha; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M.; Abdel-Hady, Zenab

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease with impaired motor function. The current research was directed to investigate the effect of CD34+ stem cells versus levodopa in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonism. Material and methods Mice were divided into 4 groups; saline-injected, MPTP: received four MPTP injections (20 mg/kg, i.p.) at 2 h intervals, MPTP groups treated with levodopa/carbidopa (100/10 mg/kg/twice/day for 28 days) or single intravenous injection of 106 CD34+ stem cells/mouse at day 7 and allowed to survive until the end of week 5. Results Levodopa and stem cells improved MPTP-induced motor deficits; they abolished the difference in stride length, decreased percentage of foot slip errors and increased ambulation, activity factor and mobility duration in parkinsonian mice (p < 0.05). Further, they significantly (p < 0.05) increased striatal dopamine (85.3 ±4.3 and 110.6 ±5.3) and ATP levels (10.6 ±1.1 and 15.5 ±1.14) compared to MPTP (60.1 ±3.9 pmol/g and 3.6 ±0.09 mmol/g, respectively) (p < 0.05). Moreover, mitochondrial DNA from mice treated with levodopa or stem cells was in intact form; average concentration was (52.8 ±3.01 and 107.8 ±8.6) and no appreciable fragmentation of nuclear DNA was found compared to MPTP group. Regarding tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining, stem cell group showed a marked increase of percentage of TH-immunopositive neurons (63.55 ±5.2) compared to both MPTP (37.6 ±3.1) and levodopa groups (41.6 ±3.5). Conclusions CD34+ cells ameliorated motor, biochemical and histological deficits in MPTP-parkinsonian mice, these effects were superior to those produced by levodopa that would be promising for the treatment of PD. PMID:24482663

  7. Nicotine and Parkinson's disease: Implications for therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryka Quik; Kathryn O'Leary; Caroline M. Tanner

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that nicotine, a drug that stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, may be of therapeutic value in Parkinson's disease. Beneficial effects may be several-fold. One of these is a protective action against nigrostriatal damage. This possibility stems from the results of epidemiological studies that consistently demonstrate an inverse correlation between tobacco use and Parkinson's disease. This reduced incidence of

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 1attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity: an in vitro and in vivo investigation in experimental models of parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojie; He, Songbin; Wang, Zhouguang; Wu, Jiamin; Zhang, Jinjing; Cheng, Yi; Yang, Jie; Xu, Xinlong; Chen, Zaifeng; Ye, Junmin; Chen, Li; Lin, Li; Xiao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system and is characterized by motor system disorders resulting in loss of dopamine producing brain cells. Acidic fibroblast growth factor, also called FGF1, promotes the survival of neurons. The aims of the present study were to confirm FGF1 could protect neurons cultures from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated FGF1 administration improved the motor function recovery, increased the TH-positive neurons survival and up-regulated the levels of neurotransmitters in PD rats. Meanwhile, FGF1 prevents the death of DA neuron at least in part by reducing the levels of ?-synuclein and ER stress. The administration of FGF1 activated downstream signals PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2. In conclusion, FGF1 diminished ?-synuclein neurotoxicity by down regulating ER stress mediators and the level of apoptosis, and these effects may underlying the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signal pathway. PMID:25628778

  9. Striatal blood flow, glucose metabolism and 18F-dopa uptake: difference in Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism.

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, M; Ichiya, Y; Hosokawa, S; Kuwabara, Y; Tahara, T; Fukumura, T; Kato, M; Masuda, K; Goto, I

    1991-01-01

    Striatal blood flow, glucose metabolism and 18F-Dopa uptake were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) in eight non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and eight with atypical Parkinsonism. Patients with atypical Parkinsonism had no specific cause for the Parkinsonian symptoms and were clinically different from Parkinson's disease with lack of resting tremor and a poor response to dopaminergic drugs. Decreased 18F-Dopa uptake in the putamen was observed in patients with Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism compared with normal controls. 18F-Dopa uptake in the head of the caudate was also significantly reduced in both conditions but relatively less in Parkinson's disease. Decreased blood flow and glucose metabolism in the striatum associated with a global cerebral decrease were also observed in patients with atypical Parkinsonism compared with controls, while they were preserved in patients with Parkinson's disease, indicating affected neurons not only in the striatum but also in the cerebrum in patients with atypical Parkinsonism compared with patients with Parkinson's disease. The differences in the caudate 18F-Dopa uptake, and blood flow and glucose metabolism in the cerebrum including the striatum between Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism assessed by PET may be due to the differences in the pathophysiological mechanism between Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism. Images PMID:1744644

  10. Brain iron accumulation exacerbates the pathogenesis of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    You, L-H; Li, F; Wang, L; Zhao, S-E; Wang, S-M; Zhang, L-L; Zhang, L-H; Duan, X-L; Yu, P; Chang, Y-Z

    2015-01-22

    Brain iron levels are significantly increased in Parkinson's disease (PD) and iron deposition is observed in the substantia nigra (SN) of PD patients. It is unclear whether iron overload is an initial cause of dopaminergic neuronal death or merely a byproduct that occurs in the SN of PD patients. In this study, ceruloplasmin knockout (CP-/-) mice and mice receiving an intracerebroventricular injection of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) were selected as mouse models with high levels of brain iron. These mice were administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) by intraperitoneal injection. Their behavior and the dopaminergic neuron damage to their substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were assessed. These findings suggest that the injection of FAC or the absence of the CP gene may exacerbate both the observed apoptosis of TH-positive neurons and the behavioral symptoms of the MPTP-treated mice. The intracerebroventricular injection of deferoxamine (DFO) significantly alleviated the neuronal damage caused by MPTP in CP-/- mice. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the increased nigral iron content exacerbates the oxidative stress levels, promoting apoptosis through the Bcl-2/Bax pathway and the activated caspase-3 pathway in the brain. Therefore, iron overload in the brain exacerbates dopaminergic neuronal death in SNpc and leads to the onset of PD. PMID:25301748

  11. Parkinson disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with Parkinson disease: Stay healthy by eating nutritious foods and not smoking. Make changes in what you ... Jankovic J. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... severe, people with the disorder may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. They also experience non-motor, or movement, symptoms including mental and behavioral changes, sleep problems, depression, memory difficulties, and fatigue. Parkinson's disease ...

  13. Drug-induced hypertension: an unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

    2012-01-01

    A myriad variety of therapeutic agents or chemical substances can induce either a transient or persistent increase in blood pressure, or interfere with the blood pressure-lowering effects of antihypertensive drugs. Some agents cause either sodium retention or extracellular volume expansion, or activate directly or indirectly the sympathetic nervous system. Other substances act directly on arteriolar smooth muscle or do not have a defined mechanism of action. Some medications that usually lower blood pressure may paradoxically increase blood pressure, or an increase in pressure may be encountered after their discontinuation. In general, drug-induced pressure increases are small and transient: however, severe hypertension involving encephalopathy, stroke, and irreversible renal failure have been reported. The deleterious effect of therapeutic agents is more pronounced in patients with preexisting hypertension, in those with renal failure, and in the elderly. Careful evaluation of a patient's drug regimen may identify chemically induced hypertension and obviate unnecessary evaluation and facilitate antihypertensive therapy. Once chemical-induced hypertension has been identified, discontinuation of the causative agent is recommended, although hypertension can often be managed by specific therapy and dose adjustment if continued use of the offending agent is mandatory. The present review summarizes the therapeutic agents or chemical substances that elevate blood pressure and their mechanisms of action. PMID:22195528

  14. Parkinson's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Przedborski

    In this chapter the topic of inflammation in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in models of human disease will be reviewed. To\\u000a set the stage, the biological, clinical and pathological hallmarks of PD and related degenerative conditions will be presented.\\u000a A more comprehensive review of PD can be found in the following two references (Fahn and Przedborski, 2005; Dauer and Przedborski,

  15. Parkinson’s Disease and Parkinsonism: Neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinsonism, the clinical term for a disorder with prominent bradykinesia and variable associated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms, is accompanied by degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, with neuronal loss and reactive gliosis in the substantia nigra found at autopsy. Parkinsonism is pathologically heterogeneous, with the most common pathologic substrates related to abnormalities in the presynaptic protein ?-synuclein or the microtubule binding protein tau. In idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD), ?-synuclein accumulates in neuronal perikarya (Lewy bodies) and neuronal processes (Lewy neurites). The disease process is multifocal and involves select central nervous system neurons and peripheral autonomic nervous system neurons. The particular set of neurons affected determines nonmotor clinical presentations. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is the other major ?-synucleinopathy. It is also associated with autonomic dysfunction and in some cases with cerebellar signs. The hallmark histopathologic feature of MSA is accumulation of ?-synuclein within glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCI). The most common of the Parkinsonian tauopathies is progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), which is clinically associated with severe postural instability leading to early falls. The tau pathology of PSP also affects both neurons and glia. Given the population frequency of PD, ?-synuclein pathology similar to that in PD, but not accompanied by neuronal loss, is relatively common (10% of people over 65 years of age) in neurologically normal individuals, leading to proposed staging schemes for PD progression. Although MSA-like and PSP-like pathology can be detected in neurologically normal individuals, such cases are too infrequent to permit assessment of patterns of disease progression. PMID:22908195

  16. Ceftriaxone prevents and reverses behavioral and neuronal deficits in an MPTP-induced animal model of Parkinson's disease dementia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chao-Yu; Hung, Ching-Sui; Chang, Hung-Ming; Liao, Wen-Chieh; Ho, Shih-Chun; Ho, Ying-Jui

    2015-04-01

    Glutamatergic hyperactivity plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ceftriaxone increases expression of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and affords neuroprotection. This study was aimed at clarifying whether ceftriaxone prevented, or reversed, behavioral and neuronal deficits in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat model. Male Wistar rats were injected daily with either ceftriaxone starting 5 days before or 3 days after MPTP lesioning (day 0) or saline and underwent a bar-test on days 1-7, a T-maze test on days 9-11, and an object recognition test on days 12-14, then the brains were taken for histological evaluation on day 15. Dopaminergic degeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum was observed on days 3 and 15. Motor dysfunction in the bar test was observed on day 1, but disappeared by day 7. In addition, lesioning resulted in deficits in working memory in the T-maze test and in object recognition in the object recognition task, but these were not observed in rats treated pre- or post-lesioning with ceftriaxone. Lesioning also caused neurodegeneration in the hippocampal CA1 area and induced glutamatergic hyperactivity in the subthalamic nucleus, and both changes were suppressed by ceftriaxone. Increased GLT-1 expression and its co-localization with astrocytes were observed in the striatum and hippocampus in the ceftriaxone-treated animals. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a relationship between ceftriaxone-induced GLT-1 expression, neuroprotection, and improved cognition in a PD rat model. Ceftriaxone may have clinical potential for the prevention and treatment of dementia associated with PD. PMID:25499022

  17. Protective effects of Althaea officinalis L. extract in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced hemi-Parkinsonism model: behavioral, biochemical and histochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Alirezaei, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in humans. In this regard, the neuroprotective effect of Althaea officinalis (AO) has already been reported. Therefore, this study examined whether administration of AO extract would improve behavioral, biochemical and structural abnormalities in an experimental animal model of PD in rats. For this purpose, we induced hemi-Parkinsonism by unilateral intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 8 ?g/5 ?l saline-ascorbate). The rats were pretreated i.p. with AO extract (10 mg/kg) started 6 days before surgery and continued until the 3rd day post-surgery. Regarding oxidative stress, brain MDA concentration (as a lipid peroxidation marker) increased significantly in the 6-OHDA-administered group in comparison with rats pretreated with AO extract. It was found that AO treatment attenuated rotational behavior in the 6-OHDA-administered group and protected the neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta against 6-OHDA toxicity. Overall, AO extract administration indicated neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA-induced hemi-Parkinsonism in rats. PMID:24464760

  18. Naphthazarin has a protective effect on the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon Young; Son, Tae Gen; Park, Hee Ra; Jang, Young Jung; Oh, Shin Bi; Jin, Bora; Lee, Jaewon

    2012-09-01

    "Neurohormesis" refers to a response to a moderate level of stress that enhances the ability of the nervous systems to resist more severe stress that might be lethal or cause dysfunction or disease. Neurohormetic phytochemicals, such as, resveratrol, sulforaphane, curcumin, and catechins, protect neurons against injury and disease. Naphthoquinones, such as, juglone and plumbagin, induce robust hormetic stress responses. However, the possibility that subtoxic dose of 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) may protect against brain diseases via the activation of an adaptive stress response pathway in the brain has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the neurohormetic effect of a subtoxic dose of naphthazarin in a Parkinson's disease model. It was found that, under these conditions, naphthazarin enhanced movement ability, prevented loss of dopaminergic neurons, and attenuated neuroinflammation in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson's disease model. Furthermore, it was found that the neuroprotective effect of naphthazarin was mediated by the suppression of astroglial activation in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine treatment. In conclusion, we suggest that naphthazarin, in view of its hormetic effect on neuroprotection, be viewed as a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation. PMID:22513651

  19. A case of severe psychosis induced by novel recreational drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dragogna, Filippo; Oldani, Lucio; Buoli, Massimiliano; Altamura, A. Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:  The use of novel recreational drugs is becoming of public interest, especially after recent international alerts about their cardiovascular and neurological toxicity. Additionally, little is known about the psychiatric consequences of the long-term use of these compounds. Case presentation: We describe a case of severe psychotic episode likely induced by chronic use of a combination of new recreational drugs (methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone, butylone and alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone). The patient had no psychiatric history and showed poor response to conventional antipsychotic treatment (haloperidol). Conclusions: This case illustrates the potential negative effects of recreational drugs that cannot be limited to an acute psychotic episode but might determine a condition of prolonged paranoid psychosis. Although the use of these compounds is currently increasing, such molecules might often pass undetected in patients accessing the emergency room, leading to misdiagnosis (e.g. schizophrenic episode) and lack of appropriate treatment. PMID:25352977

  20. Progesterone prevents depression-like behavior in a model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in male rats.

    PubMed

    Casas, Sebastián; García, Sebastián; Cabrera, Ricardo; Nanfaro, Federico; Escudero, Carla; Yunes, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Hemiparkinsonism induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected in left corpus striatum is a recognized model of motor deficits in rats. Some reports concerning motor deficits indicate a favorable response to steroid administration in hemiparkinsonian animals. However, there is no much information regarding progesterone administration in relation to cognitive and affective dysfunctions. Here we could confirm earlier reports regarding a mild deficit of memory and a noticeable depressive-like behavior 4 weeks after injecting 6-OHDA. We also present some evidence that progesterone could be - when administered 7 days after the injection of 6-OHDA - a possible neuroprotector concerning both motor deficits as well as cognitive - memory- and depression-like behaviors. The affective deficit was reverted by administering the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine. Since Parkinson's disease is a conspicuous cause of psycho-organic decline in human beings, it would be important to be able of dealing early with non-motor indicators in order to use prospective neuroprotectors to prevent the progression of the disease. PMID:21689676

  1. L-DOPA induced-endogenous 6-hydroxydopamine is the cause of aggravated dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Borah, Anupom; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2012-08-01

    Dopamine replacement therapy by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which is the gold standard symptomatic treatment for the Parkinson's disease (PD), frequently leads to potential debilitating side-effects such as dyskinesia. One of the most significant molecules reported to be produced endogenously in the brain is 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), contributed solely by unsequestered dopamine in neurons derived from L-DOPA. It is further demonstrated that scavengers of hydroxyl radicals such as melatonin and salicylic acid inhibited its generation. However no reports on the level of 6-OHDA and hydroxyl radicals generated in vivo in human brain is known. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are known to be associated with Lewy body formation, which is directly dependent on the levels of free dopamine. Therefore, it is hypothesized that L-DOPA induced increase in endogenous 6-OHDA levels will have the ability to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions that eventually leads to Lewy body formation in dopaminergic neurons resulting in its degeneration. Concomitant use of potent anti-oxidants along with L-DOPA would help in attenuating the neurodegeneration caused by endogenous 6-OHDA and would ultimately delay the progression of PD. PMID:22641021

  2. Amantadine induced reversible corneal edema.

    PubMed

    Deogaonkar, Milind; Wilson, Kathy; Vitek, Jerrold

    2011-02-01

    Amantadine is becoming more commonly used for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly for its efficacy in treating the drug-induced dyskinesias. Corneal edema is a known but unusual side effect of amantadine therapy, rarely reported in the neurological literature. We report amantadine-induced reversible corneal edema in a patient with advanced PD. PMID:21163653

  3. Rasagiline Promotes Regeneration of Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons in Post-MPTP-induced Parkinsonism via Activation of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Signaling Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia A. Mandel; Yotam Sagi; Tamar Amit

    2007-01-01

    The anti-Parkinson drug rasagiline (Azilect), an irreversible and selective monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, was shown\\u000a to possess neuroprotective activities, involving multiple survival pathways among them the up-regulation of protein kinase\\u000a C (PKC)?, PKC?, the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-w and the induction of brain-derived- and glial cell line-derived\\u000a neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF). More recently, employing conventional neurochemical techniques, as well

  4. Effects of gabaergic drugs on reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Marcello F; Araujo, Nilza P; Silva, Regina H; Castro, Juliana P M V; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Faria, Rulian R; Zanier-Gomes, Patrícia H; Medrano, Wladimir A; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Abílio, Vanessa C

    2005-05-01

    Recently we have described the antidyskinetic property of the GABA mimetic drugs valproic acid and topiramate on reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia. In this respect, oral dyskinesia has been associated with important neuropathologies. The present study investigates the effects of different doses of the GABA(A) agonist tetrahydroisoxazolopyridine (THIP), of the GABA(B) agonist baclofen as well as of the GABA(A) modulator diazepam on the manifestation of reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia. Male Wistar rats received two injections of vehicle or of 1mg/kg reserpine separated by 48 h. Twenty-four hours later, animals were acutely treated with vehicle or THIP (2, 4 or 8 mg/kg), baclofen (1, 2 or 4 mg/kg) or diazepam (1, 2 or 4 mg/kg) and were observed for quantification of oral dyskinesia and open-field general activity. In order to verify the effects of these drugs per se on spontaneous oral movements, male Wistar rats were acutely treated with vehicle, 8 mg/kg THIP, 4 mg/kg baclofen or 4 mg/kg diazepam and observed for quantification of oral dyskinesia. The two highest doses of THIP or of baclofen abolished the manifestation of reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia while the lowest dose of baclofen attenuated it. Diazepam did not modify reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia at any dose tested. The highest doses of these drugs did not modify spontaneous oral movements. Reserpine-induced decrease in open-field general activity was not modified by any of the doses of THIP and diazepam or by the two lowest doses of baclofen. The highest dose of baclofen potentiated the increase in the duration of immobility induced by reserpine. These results reinforce the involvement of GABAergic hypofunction in the expression of oral dyskinesias, and support the potential therapeutic use of THIP and baclofen in the treatment of oral dyskinesias. PMID:15836900

  5. Risk Factors for Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    CHALASANI, NAGA; BJÖRNSSON, EINAR

    2011-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare disorder that is not related directly to dosage and little is known about individuals who are at increased risk. There are no suitable preclinical models for the study of idiosyncratic DILI and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. It is likely to arise from complex interactions among genetic, nongenetic host susceptibility, and environmental factors. Nongenetic risk factors include age, sex, and other diseases (eg, chronic liver disease or human immunodeficiency virus infection). Compound-specific risk factors include daily dose, metabolism characteristics, and propensity for drug interactions. Alcohol consumption has been proposed as a risk factor for DILI from medications, but there is insufficient evidence to support this. Many studies have explored genetic defects that might be involved in pathogenesis and focused on genes involved in drug metabolism and the immune response. Multicenter databases of patients with DILI (the United States Drug Induced Liver Injury Network, DILIGEN, and the Spanish DILI registry) are important tools for clinical and genetic research. A genome-wide association study of flucloxacillin hepatotoxicity has yielded groundbreaking results and many similar studies are underway. Nonetheless, DILI is challenging to investigate because of its rarity, the lack of experimental models, the number of medications that might cause it, and challenges to diagnosis. PMID:20394749

  6. Pathophysiology and diagnosis of cancer drug induced cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Zuppinger; Francesco Timolati; Thomas M. Suter

    2007-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of anti-cancer drug associated cardiac side effects are diverse and can range from acutely induced\\u000a cardiac arrhythmias to Q–T interval prolongation, changes in coronary vasomotion with consecutive myocardial ischemia, myocarditis,\\u000a pericarditis, severe contractile dysfunction, and potentially fatal heart failure. The pathophysiology of these adverse effects\\u000a is similarly heterogeneous and the identification of potential mechanisms is frequently difficult

  7. Chronic thalamic stimulation improves tremor and levodopa induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Caparros-Lefebvre; S Blond; P Vermersch; N Pécheux; J D Guieu; H Petit

    1993-01-01

    Chronic thalamic stimulation was performed in 10 Parkinsonian patients with disabling tremor and poor response to drug therapy. During the stereotactic procedure, an electrode was introduced in the ventralis intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. Test stimulation was performed during the intra-operative procedure and a few days after surgery using an external stimulator. When tremor was obviously reduced by thalamic stimulation,

  8. Altered Brain Activation in Early Drug-Naive Parkinson's Disease during Heat Pain Stimuli: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ying; Tan, Juan; Cui, Wenjuan; He, Hui; Bin, Yi; Deng, Jiayan; Tan, Rui; Tan, Wenrong; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Nanlin; Xiao, Ruhui; Yao, Dezhong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor signs and symptoms. To date, many studies of PD have focused on its cardinal motor symptoms. To study the nonmotor signs of early PD, we investigated the reactions solicited by heat pain stimuli in early untreated PD patients without pain using fMRI. The activation patterns of contact heat stimuli (51°C) were assessed in 14 patients and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Patients with PD showed significant decreases in activation of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula compared with controls. In addition, a significant relationship between activation of the insula and STG and the pain scores was observed in healthy controls but not in PD. This study provided further support that the insula and STG are important parts of the somatosensory circuitry recruited during the period of pain. The hypoactivity of the STG and insula in PD implied that functions including affective, cognitive, and sensory-discriminative processes, which are associated with the insula and STG, were disturbed. This finding supports the view that leaving early PD untreated could be tied directly to central nervous system dysfunction. PMID:25628915

  9. Resveratrol attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative damage and dopamine depletion in rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Moshahid; Ahmad, Ajmal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Khan, M Badruzzaman; Hoda, Md Nasrul; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Raza, Syed Shadab; Khan, Andleeb; Javed, Hayate; Vaibhav, Kumar; Islam, Fakhrul

    2010-04-30

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol (RES) on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) in rats. PD is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder in which the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is strongly implicated. RES, a polyphenolic antioxidant compound enriched in grapes, has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions and thus was tested for its beneficial effects using 6-OHDA-induced PD rat model. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with RES (20mg/kg body weight i.p.) once daily for 15 days and subjected to unilateral intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA (10 microg in 0.1% ascorbic acid in normal saline). Three weeks after 6-OHDA infusion, rats were tested for neurobehavioral activity and were killed after 4 weeks of 6-OHDA infusion for the estimation of lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, and activity of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase [GPx], glutathione reductase [GR], catalase [CAT], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]. RES was found to be successful in upregulating the antioxidant status and lowering the dopamine loss. Conversely, the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), and activity of phospholipase A2 in 6-OHDA group was attenuated significantly in RES-pretreated group when compared with 6-OHDA-lesioned group. These results were supported by the immunohistochemical findings in the substantia nigra that has shown the protection of neurons by RES from deleterious effects of 6-OHDA. Thus, RES may be used to reduce the deterioration caused by free radicals thereby preventing subsequent behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological changes that occur during PD. PMID:20167206

  10. Olfactory loss as a supporting feature in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: a pragmatic approach.

    PubMed

    Hoyles, Katie; Sharma, Jagdish C

    2013-12-01

    There is ample evidence from a large number of clinical and pathological studies of an early involvement of olfactory bulbs and cortex in the Lewy body pathology in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD), the olfactory system being one of the first targets of degeneration in this condition. The olfactory dysfunction may be measurably present at the time of initial presentation and progresses in a proportion of patients as the disease advances. Patients with iPD have a more severe olfactory loss as compared to multisystem atrophy whereas the syndromes of corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy have no olfactory loss. A proportion of drug induced parkinsonism may have olfactory loss indicative of primary pathology of dopaminergic degeneration in these patients. Unlike single photon emission tomography, formal measurement of olfaction would provide a supportive role in diagnosing or excluding iPD depending on the duration of an individual patient's parkinsonian symptoms. Whilst olfaction may be only minimally impaired in early stages and may thus not help to differentiate from other syndromes, an intact olfaction in patients with parkinsonism of few years' duration would indicate a non-iPD pathology. Olfactory measurement is easy, cheap and now easily available in a number of tests, and olfactory assessment at different stages of parkinsonism should be used as a diagnostic aid for idiopathic PD and would enhance the diagnostic accuracy of iPD when used in conjunction with the UK Parkinson's disease society Brain Bank supportive criteria for diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. PMID:23377435

  11. Drug-reaction eosinophilia and systemic symptoms and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Suran L

    2014-02-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), also known as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), is a rare, severe cutaneous adverse reaction characterised by fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, eosinophilia and/or other leukocyte abnormalities, and internal organ involvement and often has a relapsing-remitting course despite withdrawal of the drug. The drugs that are most implicated include aromatic anticonvulsants, allopurinol, sulphonamides, antiretrovirals (abacavir and nevirapine), and minocycline. The pathogenesis of DRESS/DIHS is far from clear but probably involves a combination of impaired pharmacokinetics and the accumulation of drug metabolites, the sequential reactivation of the herpesvirus family and genetic susceptibility conferred by the association with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles. The strong association between abacavir and HLA-B*5701 has enabled pharmacogenetics screening to be employed successfully to minimise the occurrence of hypersensitivity. A prolonged course of oral corticosteroids is required to treat DRESS/DIHS, given the relapsing-remitting nature of the condition with i.v. immunoglobulin and valgangciclovir reserved for refractory or life-threatening cases. PMID:23866082

  12. Heat shock protein 60: an endogenous inducer of dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation associated with microglial cell activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) is not only a consequence of neuronal degeneration, but may actively sustain dopaminergic (DA) cell loss over time. We aimed to study whether the intracellular chaperone heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) could serve as a signal of CNS injury for activation of microglial cells. Methods Hsp60 mRNA expression in the mesencephalon and the striatum of C57/BL6 mice treated with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and the Hsp60/TH mRNA ratios in the SN of PD patients and aged-matched subjects were measured. To further investigate a possible link between the neuronal Hsp60 response and PD-related cellular stress, Hsp60 immunoblot analysis and quantification in cell lysates from SH-SY5Y after treatment with 100 ?M MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) at different time points (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) compared to control cells were performed. Additional MTT and LDH assay were used. We next addressed the question as to whether Hsp60 influences the survival of TH+ neurons in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures treated either with MPP+ (1 ?M), hHsp60 (10 ?g/ml) or a combination of both. Finally, we measured IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and NO-release by ELISA in primary microglial cell cultures following treatment with different hHsp60 preparations. Control cultures were exposed to LPS. Results In the mesencephalon and striatum of mice treated with MPTP and also in the SN of PD patients, we found that Hsp60 mRNA was up-regulated. MPP+, the active metabolite of MPTP, also caused an increased expression and release of Hsp60 in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y. Interestingly, in addition to being toxic to DA neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures, exogenous Hsp60 aggravated the effects of MPP+. Yet, although we demonstrated that Hsp60 specifically binds to microglial cells, it failed to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or NO by these cells. Conclusions Overall, our data suggest that Hsp60 is likely to participate in DA cell death in PD but via a mechanism unrelated to cytokine release. PMID:24886419

  13. Parkinson's Disease Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Free of Viral Reprogramming Factors

    E-print Network

    Soldner, Frank

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients represent a powerful tool for biomedical research and may provide a source for replacement therapies. However, the use of viruses encoding the ...

  14. Protective Effects of Salidroside in the MPTP/MPP(+)-Induced Model of Parkinson's Disease through ROS-NO-Related Mitochondrion Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songhai; He, Hong; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianzong

    2015-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease causing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait impairment. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in the development of Parkinson disease. Salidroside (Sal), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent antioxidant properties. Previous work from our group suggests that Sal might protect dopaminergic neurons through inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Sal in MPTP/MPP(+) models of Parkinson's disease in an attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanism of protection. We found that Sal pretreatment protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP(+)-induced toxicity in a dose-dependent manner by: (1) reducing the production of ROS-NO, (2) regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, (3) decreasing cytochrome-c and Smac release, and inhibiting caspase-3, caspas-6, and caspas-9 activation, and (4) reducing ?-synuclein aggregation. The present study supports the hypothesis that Sal may act as an effective neuroprotective agent through modulation of the ROS-NO-related mitochondrial pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24913834

  15. Calreticulin binds to gentamicin and reduces drug-induced ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Takatoshi; Wang, Qi; David, Larry L; Steyger, Peter S

    2011-12-01

    Aminoglycosides like gentamicin are among the most commonly used antibiotics in clinical practice and are essential for treating life-threatening tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, aminoglycosides are also nephrotoxic and ototoxic. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear how aminoglycosides induce cell death in auditory sensory epithelia and subsequent deafness. Aminoglycosides bind to various intracellular molecules, such as RNA and phosphoinositides. We hypothesized that aminoglycosides, based on their tissue-specific susceptibility, also bind to intracellular proteins that play a role in drug-induced ototoxicity. By conjugating an aminoglycoside, gentamicin, to agarose beads and conducting a gentamicin-agarose pull-down assay, we have isolated gentamicin-binding proteins (GBPs) from immortalized cells of mouse organ of Corti, HEI-OC1. Mass spectrometry identified calreticulin (CRT) as a GBP. Immunofluorescence revealed that CRT expression is concentrated in strial marginal cells and hair cell stereocilia, primary locations of drug uptake and cytotoxicity in the cochlea. In HEI-OC1 cells treated with gentamicin, reduction of CRT expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced intracellular drug levels. CRT-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells as well as CRT siRNA-transfected wild-type MEFs also had reduced cell viability after gentamicin treatment. A pull-down assay using deletion mutants of CRT determined that the carboxyl C-domain of CRT binds to gentamicin. HeLa cells transfected with CRT C-domain deletion mutant construct were more susceptible to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity compared with cells transfected with full-length CRT or other deletion mutants. Therefore, we conclude that CRT binding to gentamicin is protective against gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:21785162

  16. Treatment with icatibant in the management of drug induced angioedema.

    PubMed

    Bertazzoni, G; Bresciani, E; Cipollone, L; Fante, E; Galandrini, R

    2015-01-01

    Acute, drug-induced angioedema may not respond to standard therapies, because the pathogenetic mechanism that induces the pathology is not always mediated by histamine but, in certain instances, by bradykinin. A case of angioedema is reported here, in which allergic etiology was excluded by the non-response to antihistamines. Considering the clinical history (repeated use of drugs) and the ineffectiveness of standard therapy, it was decided to administer a beta2 receptor antagonist, icatibant. After 20 minutes, the patient reported a subjective improvement. The only form of angioedema for which this type of medication is licensed is the hereditary deficiency of C1 inhibitor. The use of icatibant for the treatment of other types of angioedema (which can also be life-saving if the airway is involved) is off label. The off-label use of a drug is allowed in the absence of a viable alternative therapy, if there is scientific evidence in the literature and if the prescriber takes responsibility. The case here reported draws attention to this therapeutic problem and underlines the fact that a life-threatening emergency can justify the use of icatibant. PMID:25635988

  17. Causes and management of drug-induced long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Ramy F; Assar, Manish D; Simpson, Leo; Garner, John B; Schussler, Jeffrey M

    2010-07-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by inherited or acquired prolonged QT interval on the surface electrocardiogram. This can lead to torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP VT) and ventricular fibrillation. In the acquired form of the disease, medications from several classes can cause TdP VT or potentiate the electrocardiographic findings. These include class IA and III antiarrhythmics, antibiotics (macrolides and quinolones), antidepressants (tricyclics and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), antipsychotics (haloperidol and phenothiazines), and antiemetics (ondansetron and prochlorperazine). We present four cases of drug-induced LQTS resulting in life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Antiarrhythmic medications were the cause in two cases, and the other two cases involved noncardiac medications. All four patients had at least one risk factor for LQTS in addition to the offending drug, including female gender, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and bradycardia. In one patient, amiodarone was administered for treatment of VT, although the correct diagnosis was actually TdP VT. In patients with polymorphic VT or ventricular fibrillation without a significant history of cardiovascular disease, drug-induced LQTS should be high in the differential diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is key, as amiodarone, while often used to suppress VT, is potentially harmful in the setting of LQTS and TdP VT. PMID:20671821

  18. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Drug Regimens on Cognitive Performance of Patients with Parkinson's disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emsaki, Golit; Asgari, Karim; Molavi, Hossein; Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of 3 drug regimen on cognitive performance of PD patients was compared. 12 patients who had been using pramipexole, levodopa and amantadine for at least 1 month entered the study and compared with those 12 who had been using trihexiphenidyle, levodopa and amantadine. There was also a control group…

  19. Predicting Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity Using QSAR and Toxicogenomics Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Low, Yen; Uehara, Takeki; Minowa, Yohsuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro; Sedykh, Alexander; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Zhu, Hao; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling and toxicogenomics are used independently as predictive tools in toxicology. In this study, we evaluated the power of several statistical models for predicting drug hepatotoxicity in rats using different descriptors of drug molecules, namely their chemical descriptors and toxicogenomic profiles. The records were taken from the Toxicogenomics Project rat liver microarray database containing information on 127 drugs (http://toxico.nibio.go.jp/datalist.html). The model endpoint was hepatotoxicity in the rat following 28 days of exposure, established by liver histopathology and serum chemistry. First, we developed multiple conventional QSAR classification models using a comprehensive set of chemical descriptors and several classification methods (k nearest neighbor, support vector machines, random forests, and distance weighted discrimination). With chemical descriptors alone, external predictivity (Correct Classification Rate, CCR) from 5-fold external cross-validation was 61%. Next, the same classification methods were employed to build models using only toxicogenomic data (24h after a single exposure) treated as biological descriptors. The optimized models used only 85 selected toxicogenomic descriptors and had CCR as high as 76%. Finally, hybrid models combining both chemical descriptors and transcripts were developed; their CCRs were between 68 and 77%. Although the accuracy of hybrid models did not exceed that of the models based on toxicogenomic data alone, the use of both chemical and biological descriptors enriched the interpretation of the models. In addition to finding 85 transcripts that were predictive and highly relevant to the mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury, chemical structural alerts for hepatotoxicity were also identified. These results suggest that concurrent exploration of the chemical features and acute treatment-induced changes in transcript levels will both enrich the mechanistic understanding of sub-chronic liver injury and afford models capable of accurate prediction of hepatotoxicity from chemical structure and short-term assay results. PMID:21699217

  20. Circulating microRNAs, potential biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Wang; Shile Zhang; Bruz Marzolf; Pamela Troisch; Amy Brightman; Zhiyuan Hu; Leroy E. Hood; David J. Galas

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a frequent side effect of many drugs, constitutes a significant threat to patient health and has an enormous economic impact on health care expenditures. Numerous efforts have been made to identify reliable and predictive markers to detect the early signs of drug-induced injury to the liver, one of the most vulnerable organs in the body. These

  1. The role of histone acetylation versus DNA damage in drug-induced senescence and apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Rebbaa; X Zheng; F Chu; B L Mirkin

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the significance of histone acetylation versus DNA damage in drug-induced irreversible growth arrest (senescence) and apoptosis. Cellular treatment with the DNA-damaging drugs doxorubicin and cisplatin or with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, led to the finding that all the three drugs induced senescence at concentrations significantly lower than those required for apoptosis.

  2. Modulation of levodopa-induced motor response complications by NMDA antagonists in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre J. Blanchet; Stella M. Papa; Leo Verhagen Metman; M. Maral Mouradian; Thomas N. Chase

    1997-01-01

    The complex dopamine-glutamate interactions within the basal ganglia are disrupted by chronic nigrostriatal denervation and standard replacement therapy with levodopa. Acute N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade is able to overcome the changes in dopamine D1- and D2-dependent responses and the progressive shortening in the duration of response induced by long-term exposure to levodopa in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Preliminary results further suggest that

  3. An anti-Parkinson's disease drug, N-propargyl-1( R)-aminoindan (rasagiline), enhances expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiro Akao; Wakako Maruyama; Hong Yi; Masayo Shamoto-Nagai; Moussa B. H. Youdim; Makoto Naoi

    2002-01-01

    N-Propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan (rasagiline) is now under phase III clinical trials for Parkinson's disease (PD), and it rescues dopamine neurons from cell death in animal and cellular models of PD. Recently, we proved that rasagiline protected dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells against apoptosis induced by a dopaminergic neurotoxin, N-methyl(R)salsolinol, and the mechanism was clarified to be due to suppression of death signal transduction in

  4. Clinical manifestations and treatment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Christin M; Zervos, Xaralambos B

    2013-11-01

    With an increase of prescription medication and herbal supplement use, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has become an increasingly important entity. Because DILI is a usually readily treatable condition, it is essential for providers to reach a diagnosis in a timely fashion. Unfortunately, varied clinical presentations, difficulties in establishing causality, and lack of a gold standard diagnostic criterion may make early diagnosis difficult. This article seeks to define commonly used terminology, describe common clinical presentations of DILI, provide an overview of current diagnostic criteria, and provide management guidelines. PMID:24099018

  5. Lichenoid drug eruption of nails induced by propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marumi; Nakamura, Koichiro; Kaneko, Fumio

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a patient who developed deformities of the fingernails and reddish nodules on the nail beds after administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) for 6 months to treat Grave's disease. Histological examination of the lesion revealed a lichenoid tissue reaction. After withdrawal of PTU, she noticed an improvement in the eruption and the growth of the nails. No recurrence of the eruption was detected after the withdrawal of PTU. Thus, we strongly suggest that this was a rare case of PTU-induced lichenoid drug eruption of nail. PMID:17908140

  6. Activation of tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathway by rasagiline facilitates neurorescue and restoration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in post-MPTP-induced parkinsonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yotam Sagi; Silvia Mandel; Tamar Amit; Moussa B. H. Youdim

    2007-01-01

    The anti-Parkinson monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor rasagiline (Azilect) was shown to possess neuroprotective activities, involving the induction of brain-derived- and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF). Employing conventional neurochemical techniques, transcriptomics and proteomic screening tools combined with a biology-based clustering method, we show that rasagiline, given chronically post-MPTP (N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), exerts neurorescue\\/neurotrophic activity in mice midbrain dopamine neurons. Rasagiline induced

  7. 78 FR 5817 - Detecting and Evaluating Drug-Induced Liver Injury; What's Normal, What's Not, and What Should We...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...Detecting and Evaluating Drug-Induced Liver Injury; What's Normal, What's Not...Detecting and Evaluating Drug-Induced Liver Injury; What's Normal, What's Not...extent, and likelihood of drug causation of liver injury and dysfunction in people...

  8. Handwriting movement analyses for monitoring drug-induced motor side effects in schizophrenia patients treated with risperidone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Caligiuri; Hans-Leo Teulings; Charles E. Dean; Alexander B. Niculescu; James Lohr

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that nearly 60% of schizophrenia (SZ) patients treated with conventional antipsychotic drugs develop extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) such as parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Although the prevalence of EPS has decreased due to the newer antipsychotics, EPS continue to limit the effectiveness of these medicines. Ongoing monitoring of EPS is likely to improve treatment outcome or compliance and

  9. Dropped head associated with amantadine in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The antiviral agent amantadine has been used to manage Parkinson's disease or levodopa-induced dyskinesias for nearly 5 decades. Amantadine is often associated with hallucinations as an adverse effect, but a long-term study reported no serious motor complications. We describe an unusual patient who had Parkinson's disease with dropped head syndrome (DHS) caused by amantadine. When the patient, who had DHS while receiving only 2 kinds of antiparkinsonian drugs, was rechallenged with amantadine, DHS developed, accompanied by increased muscle tone in the neck muscles on surface electromyogram. The DHS resolved after the withdrawal of amantadine. Moreover, an intravenous infusion of levodopa did not alter the DHS. These findings collectively suggest that the DHS in our patient was most likely caused directly by amantadine. Our findings suggest that amantadine may carry the risk of augmenting dystonic syndrome in humans. PMID:21242745

  10. Reduced anti-oxidative stress activities of DJ1 mutants found in Parkinson’s disease patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuko Takahashi-Niki; Takeshi Niki; Takahiro Taira; Sanae M. M Iguchi-Ariga; Hiroyoshi Ariga

    2004-01-01

    DJ-1 is a multi-functional protein that plays roles in transcriptional regulation and anti-oxidative stress, and loss of its function is thought to result in onset of Parkinson’s disease. We have previously reported that L166P, a mutant DJ-1 found in Parkinson’s disease patients, had no activity to prevent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death. In this study, we analyzed other mutants of

  11. Influence of Age and Gender on Cytokine Expression in a Murine Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka Ciesielska; Ilona Joniec

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The neuroinflammatory reaction has been linked with Parkinson’s disease. One of the hypotheses to explain the significance of age and gender (male predominance) effects on neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease may result from a link between these risk factors and the inflammatory processes. Here, we investigated the expression of inflammatory mediators in relation to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropiridine (MPTP)-induced neurodegenerative processes in nigrostriatal

  12. The Role of MAPK in Drug-Induced Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Hilary; Radford, Robert; Slyne, Jennifer; O'Connell, Sein; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P.; McMorrow, Tara

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play in drug-induced kidney injury. The MAPKs, of which there are four major classes (ERK, p38, JNK, and ERK5/BMK), are signalling cascades which have been found to be broadly conserved across a wide variety of organisms. MAPKs allow effective transmission of information from the cell surface to the cytosolic or nuclear compartments. Cross talk between the MAPKs themselves and with other signalling pathways allows the cell to modulate responses to a wide variety of external stimuli. The MAPKs have been shown to play key roles in both mediating and ameliorating cellular responses to stress including xenobiotic-induced toxicity. Therefore, this paper will discuss the specific role of the MAPKs in the kidney in response to injury by a variety of xenobiotics and the potential for therapeutic intervention at the level of MAPK signalling across different types of kidney disease. PMID:22523682

  13. Young-Onset Parkinson's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... multiple causes of PD. Is there such as thing as Juvenile Parkinsonism? In rare instances, Parkinson’s-like symptoms can appear in children and teenagers. This form of the disorder, called "Juvenile Parkinsonism”, is viewed ...

  14. Parkinson's Empowering the

    E-print Network

    Parkinson's Disease: Empowering the Community a free symposium Saturday, May 17, 2014 92037 Parkinson's Disease: Empowering the Community a free symposium Faculty Irene Litvan, MD Director Parkinson's disease symposium for patients, their families and caregivers. Each speaker in this year

  15. Symptoms of Parkinson's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HelpLine Educational Publications Online Seminars Parkinson's News Educational Materials Do you need to know more about Parkinson's? ... medications, resources & more. Order Free Materials Today Educational Materials Do you want to know more about Parkinson's? ...

  16. Over-Pressure Suppresses Ultrasonic-Induced Drug Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Stringham, S. Briant; Viskovska, Maria A.; Richardson, Eric S.; Ohmine, Seiga; Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Murray, Byron K.; Pitt, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is used to enhance and target delivery of drugs and genes to cancer tissues. The present study further examines the role of acoustic cavitation in US-induced permeabilization of cell membranes and subsequent drug or gene uptake by the cell. Rat colon cancer cells were exposed to ultrasound at various static pressures to examine the hypothesis that oscillating bubbles, also known as cavitating bubbles, permeabilize cells. Increasing pressure suppresses bubble cavitation activity; thus if applied pressure were to reduce drug uptake, cell permeabilization would be strongly linked to bubble cavitation activity. Cells were exposed to 476 kHz pulsed ultrasound at average intensities of 2.75 W/cm2 and 5.5 W/cm2 at various pressures and times in an isothermal chamber. Cell fractions with reversible membrane damage (calcein uptake) and irreversible damage (propidium iodide uptake) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Pressurization to 3 atm nearly eliminated the biological effect of US in promoting calcein uptake. Data also showed a linear increase in membrane permeability based upon increased time and intensity. This research shows that US-mediated cell membrane permeability is likely linked to cavitation bubble activity. PMID:19056161

  17. Cognitive deficits and psychosis in Parkinson's disease: a review of pathophysiology and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Foltynie, Thomas; Lewis, Simon J G; Barker, Roger A

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder causing not only motor dysfunction but also cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic and sensory disturbances. Symptoms of dementia and psychosis are common: longitudinal studies suggest that up to 75% of patients with Parkinson's disease may eventually develop dementia, and the prevalence of hallucinations ranges from 16-17% in population-based surveys to 30-40% in hospital-based series. These cognitive and behavioural features are important in terms of prognosis, nursing home placement and mortality. The pattern of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease is variable, but often includes executive impairment similar to that seen in patients with frontal lesions, as well as episodic memory impairment, visuospatial dysfunction and impaired verbal fluency. The most common manifestation of psychosis in Parkinson's disease is visual hallucinations, but delusions, paranoid beliefs, agitation and florid psychosis can also occur. An understanding of the pathophysiology underlying these symptoms is essential to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. Post-mortem studies suggest an association between Lewy body deposition and dementia in Parkinson's disease, and indeed Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies may form part of the same disease spectrum. Whether Lewy bodies actually play a causative role in cognitive dysfunction, however, is unknown. Deficits in neurotransmitter systems provide more obvious therapeutic targets and dysfunction of dopaminergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems have all been implicated; these may each underlie different features of Parkinson's disease dementia, perhaps explaining some of the heterogeneity of the syndrome. Psychosis has traditionally been considered as a dopaminergic drug-induced phenomenon, but factors intrinsic to the disease process itself also cause hallucinations and delusions. These factors may include Lewy body deposition in the limbic system, cholinergic deficits and impairments of primary visual processing. Therapeutic intervention for cognitive and behavioural symptoms in Parkinson's disease currently focuses on two main groups of drugs: cholinesterase inhibitors and atypical antipsychotics. A recent large, randomised, controlled trial suggests that cholinesterase inhibitors can produce a modest improvement in cognitive function, as well as psychotic symptoms, generally without an adverse effect on motor function. Certain atypical antipsychotics allow hallucinations, delusions and behavioural problems to be brought under control with minimal deleterious effects on motor function and cognition, but their safety in elderly patients has recently been called into question. Deep brain stimulation does not appear to be a useful treatment for cognitive and psychiatric dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease. Modafinil improves alertness in Parkinson's disease and warrants further investigation to establish its effects on cognitive performance. PMID:16734499

  18. Therapeutic potential of targeting glutamate receptors in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Clare; Duty, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Glutamate plays a complex role in many aspects of Parkinson's disease including the loss of dopaminergic neurons, the classical motor symptoms as well as associated non-motor symptoms and the treatment-related side effect, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. This widespread involvement opens up possibilities for glutamate-based therapies to provide a more rounded approach to treatment than is afforded by current dopamine replacement therapies. Beneficial effects of blocking postsynaptic glutamate transmission have already been noted in a range of preclinical studies using antagonists of NMDA receptors or negative allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5), while positive allosteric modulators of mGlu4 in particular, although at an earlier stage of investigation, also look promising. This review addresses each of the key features of Parkinson's disease in turn, summarising the contribution glutamate makes to that feature and presenting an up-to-date account of the potential for drugs acting at ionotropic or metabotropic glutamate receptors to provide relief. Whilst only a handful of these have progressed to clinical trials to date, notably NMDA and NR2B antagonists against motor symptoms and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, with mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators also against L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, the mainly positive outcomes of these trials, coupled with supportive preclinical data for other strategies in animal models of Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, raise cautious optimism that a glutamate-based therapeutic approach will have significant impact on the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24557498

  19. Parkinson's disease: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Katzenschlager, Regina

    2014-05-01

    While a curative treatment for Parkinson's disease remains elusive, our understanding of disease mechanisms as well as preclinical and pre-motor early manifestations has improved greatly over the past years. An agent with proven disease modifying properties has not yet been identified but symptomatic treatment options for affected patients have improved. For patients with motor complications, this includes invasive approaches such as deep brain stimulation and continuous device-aided drug delivery. The many facets of non-motor problems patients are faced with have finally been fully recognized and have become the target of treatment trials, as have been non-pharmacological approaches. PMID:24687891

  20. Controlled release of rasagiline mesylate promotes neuroprotection in a rotenone-induced advanced model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M; Barcia, E; Fernández-Carballido, A; Garcia, L; Slowing, K; Negro, S

    2012-11-15

    Microencapsulation of rasagiline mesylate (RM) into PLGA microspheres was performed by method A (O/W emulsion) and method B (W/O/W double emulsion). The best formulation regarding process yield, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release was that prepared with method A, which exhibited constant drug release for two weeks (K(0)=62.3 ?g/day/20mg microspheres). Exposure of SKN-AS cells to peroxide-induced oxidative stress (1 mM) resulted in cell apoptosis which was significantly reduced by RM (40.7-102.5 ?M) as determined by cell viability, ROS production and DNA fragmentation. Daily doses of rotenone (2 mg/kg) given i.p. to rats for 45 days induced neuronal and behavioral changes similar to those occurring in PD. Once an advanced stage of PD was achieved, animals received RM in saline (1 mg/kg/day) or encapsulated within PLGA microspheres (amount of microspheres equivalent to 15 mg/kg RM given on days 15 and 30). After 45 days RM showed a robust effect on all analytical outcomes evaluated with non-statistically significant differences found between its administration in solution or within microparticles however; with this controlled release system administration of RM could be performed every two weeks thereby making this new therapeutic system an interesting approach for the treatment of PD. PMID:22985602

  1. Serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms in graft-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eunju; Garcia, Joanna; Winkler, Christian; Björklund, Anders; Carta, Manolo

    2012-09-01

    Dyskinesia seen in the off-state, referred as graft-induced dyskinesia (GID), has emerged as a serious complication induced by dopamine (DA) cell transplantation in parkinsonian patients. Although the mechanism underlying the appearance of GID is unknown, in a recent clinical study the partial 5-HT(1A) agonist buspirone was found to markedly reduce GID in three grafted patients, who showed significant serotonin (5-HT) hyperinnervation in the grafted striatum in positron emission tomography scanning (Politis et al., 2010, 2011). Prompted by these findings, this study was performed to investigate the involvement of serotonin neurons in the appearance of GID in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine model. L-DOPA-primed rats received transplants of DA neurons only, DA plus 5-HT neurons or 5-HT neurons only into the lesioned striatum. In DA cell-grafted rats, with or without 5-HT neurons, but not in 5-HT grafts, GID was observed consistently after administration of amphetamine (1.5mg/kg, i.p.) indicating that grafted DA neurons are required to induce GID. Strikingly, a low dose of buspirone produced a complete suppression of GID. In addition, activation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors by 8-OH-DPAT and CP 94253, known to inhibit the activity of 5-HT neurons, significantly reduced GID, whereas induction of neurotransmitter release by fenfluramine administration significantly increased GID, indicating an involvement of the 5-HT system in the modulation of GID. To investigate the involvement of the host 5-HT system in GID, the endogenous 5-HT terminals were removed by intracerebral injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, but this treatment did not affect GID expression. However, 5-HT terminal destruction suppressed the anti-GID effect of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) agonists, demonstrating that the 5-HT(1) agonist combination exerted its anti-GID effect through the activation of pre-synaptic host-derived receptors. By contrast, removal of the host 5-HT innervation or pre-treatment with a 5-HT(1A) antagonist did not abolish the anti-GID effect of buspirone, showing that its effect is independent from activation of either pre- or post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. Since buspirone is known to also act as a DA D(2) receptor antagonist, the selective D(2) receptor antagonist eticlopride was administered to test whether blockade of D(2) receptors could account for the anti-dyskinetic effect of buspirone. In fact, eticlopride produced complete suppression of GID in grafted animals already at very low dose. Together, these results point to a critical role of both 5-HT(1) and D(2) receptors in the modulation of GID, and suggest that 5-HT neurons exert a modulatory role in the development of this side effect of neuronal transplantation. PMID:22579773

  2. Mechanism of the neuroprotective role of coenzyme Q10 with or without L-dopa in rotenone-induced parkinsonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amany A. Abdin; Hala E. Hamouda

    2008-01-01

    Current treatment options for parkinsonism as a neurodegenerative disease are limited and still mainly symptomatic and lack significant disease-modifying effect. Understanding its molecular pathology and finding the cause of dopaminergic cell loss will lead to exploring therapies that could prevent and cure the disease. Mitochondrial dysfunction was found to stimulate releasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with subsequent induction of

  3. Levodopa-Induced Modifications of Prosody and Comprehensibility in Advanced Parkinson's Disease as Perceived by Professional Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Letter, Miet; Santens, Patrick; Estercam, Irina; Van Maele, Georges; De Bodt, Marc; Boon, Paul; Van Borsel, John

    2007-01-01

    The prosodic aspects of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been the focus of numerous reports. Few data on the effects of levodopa on prosody, more specifically on the effects on the variability of prosodic characteristics such as pitch, loudness and speech rate, are available in advanced PD. The relation between these…

  4. Characterizing the modulation of mGluR5 in a 6-OHDA-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease

    E-print Network

    Lamb, Peter (Peter Alexander John)

    2008-01-01

    MicroPET imaging studies were conducted to investigate the role of metabotropic glutamate subtype-5 receptors (mGluR5) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Four analogical PET ligands were used to characterize modulation of mGluR5 ...

  5. Patients with quinine-induced immune thrombocytopenia have both “drug-dependent” and “drug-specific” antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bougie, Daniel W.; Wilker, Peter R.; Aster, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia induced by quinine and many other drugs is caused by antibodies that bind to platelet membrane glycoproteins (GPs) only when the sensitizing drug is present in soluble form. In this disorder, drug promotes antibody binding to its target without linking covalently to either of the reacting macro-molecules by a mechanism that has not yet been defined. How drug provides the stimulus for production of such antibodies is also unknown. We studied 7 patients who experienced severe thrombocytopenia after ingestion of quinine. As expected, drug-dependent, platelet-reactive antibodies specific for GPIIb/IIIa or GPIb/IX were identified in each case. Unexpectedly, each of 6 patients with GPIIb/IIIa-specific antibodies was found to have a second antibody specific for drug alone that was not platelet reactive. Despite recognizing different targets, the 2 types of antibody were identical in requiring quinine or desmethoxy-quinine (cinchonidine) for reactivity and in failing to react with other structural analogues of quinine. On the basis of these findings and previous observations, a model is proposed to explain drug-dependent binding of antibodies to cellular targets. In addition to having implications for pathogenesis, drug-specific antibodies may provide a surrogate measure of drug sensitivity in patients with drug-induced immune cytopenia. PMID:16861345

  6. Alterations of BDNF and trkB mRNA Expression in the 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Model of Preclinical Stages of Parkinson’s Disease: An Influence of Chronic Pramipexole in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berghauzen-Maciejewska, Klemencja; Wardas, Jadwiga; Kosmowska, Barbara; G?owacka, Urszula; Kuter, Katarzyna; Ossowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study has indicated that a moderate lesion of the mesostriatal and mesolimbic pathways in rats, modelling preclinical stages of Parkinson’s disease, induces a depressive-like behaviour which is reversed by chronic treatment with pramipexole. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling in the aforementioned model of depression. Therefore, we investigated the influence of 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration into the ventral region of the caudate-putamen on mRNA levels of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (trkB) receptor. The BDNF and trkB mRNA levels were determined in the nigrostriatal and limbic structures by in situ hybridization 2 weeks after the operation. Pramipexole (1 mg/kg sc twice a day) and imipramine (10 mg/kg ip once a day) were injected for 2 weeks. The lesion lowered the BDNF and trkB mRNA levels in the hippocampus [CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG)] and amygdala (basolateral/lateral) as well as the BDNF mRNA content in the habenula (medial/lateral). The lesion did not influence BDNF and trkB expression in the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens (shell and core) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Chronic imipramine reversed the lesion-induced decreases in BDNF mRNA in the DG. Chronic pramipexole increased BDNF mRNA, but decreased trkB mRNA in the VTA in lesioned rats. Furthermore, it reduced BDNF and trkB mRNA expression in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens, BDNF mRNA in the amygdala and trkB mRNA in the caudate-putamen in these animals. The present study indicates that both the 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic lesion and chronic pramipexole influence BDNF signalling in limbic structures, which may be related to their pro-depressive and antidepressant activity in rats, respectively. PMID:25739024

  7. Current status of the molecular mechanisms of anticancer drug-induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryungsa Kim; Kazuaki Tanabe; Yoko Uchida; Manabu Emi; Hideki Inoue; Tetsuya Toge

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important phenomenon in cytotoxicity induced by anticancer drugs. Here, we review the current status of the molecular mechanisms of anticancer drug-induced apoptosis in order to assess the contribution of molecular-level analysis to cancer chemotherapy. It is apparent that the molecular mechanisms by which anticancer drugs induce apoptosis are mediated by death receptor-dependent and -independent pathways, which are

  8. Targeting glutamate receptors to tackle the pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and levodopa-induced dyskinesia associated with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Duty, Susan

    2012-12-01

    The appearance of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) and ongoing degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are two key features of Parkinson's disease (PD) that current treatments fail to address. Increased glutamate transmission contributes to the motor symptoms in PD, to the striatal plasticity that underpins LID and to the progression of neurodegeneration through excitotoxic mechanisms. Glutamate receptors have therefore long been considered as potential targets for pharmacological intervention in PD, with emphasis on either blocking activation of 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or excitatory metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 5 receptors or promoting the activation of group II/III mGlu receptors. Following a brief summary of the role of glutamate in PD and LID, this article explores the current status of pharmacological studies in pre-clinical rodent and primate models through to clinical trials, where applicable, that support the potential of glutamate-based therapeutic interventions. To date, AMPA antagonists have shown good efficacy against LID in rat and primate models, but the failure of perampanel to lessen LID in clinical trials casts doubt on the translational potential of this approach. In contrast, antagonists selective for NR2B-containing NMDA receptors were effective against LID in animal models and in small-scale clinical trials, though observed adverse cognitive effects need addressing. So far, mGlu5 antagonists or negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) look set to become the first introduced for tackling LID, with AFQ-056 reported to exhibit good efficacy in phase II clinical trials. NR2B antagonists and mGlu5 NAMs may subsequently prove to also be effective disease-modifying agents if their protective effects in rat and primate models of PD, respectively, are replicated in the next stages of investigation. Finally, group III mGlu4 agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), although in the early pre-clinical stages of investigation, are showing good efficacy against motor symptoms, neurodegeneration and LID. It is anticipated that the recent development of mGlu4 PAMs with improved systemic bioavailability will facilitate progression of these agents into the primate model of PD where their potential can be further explored. PMID:23114872

  9. Metronidazole Induced Liver Injury: A Rare Immune Mediated Drug Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kancherla, Dayakar; Vallabhaneni, Priyanka; Vipperla, Kishore

    2013-01-01

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) can result either from dose-dependent direct hepatotoxicity or from an unpredictable dose-independent idiosyncratic reaction. Incidence of idiosyncratic DILI is estimated to be approximately 10–15 per 100,000 patient years. Here we report an extremely rare case of metronidazole induced delayed immune-allergic hepatocellular liver injury masquerading as autoimmune hepatitis. A previously healthy 54-year-old Caucasian male, who was treated with metronidazole for Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, presented 3 months later with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Laboratory tests revealed total bilirubin level of 12.7?mg/dL, direct bilirubin of 7.2?mg/dL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of 973?IU/L, aspartate transaminase (AST) of 867?IU/L, alkaline phosphatase (AP) of 96?IU/L, and an INR of 1.9, suggestive of hepatocellular pattern of injury. A detailed workup for hepatitis revealed no other etiology. A clinical diagnosis of metronidazole induced liver injury was made. With a persistent rise in his bilirubin and transaminase levels, the patient was started on oral prednisone. At the 2-week posthospitalization follow-up visit, the patient reported a significant improvement in his overall sense of being well and liver functions tests trended down substantially (total bilirubin 7.2?mg/dL, ALT 420?IU/L, AST 276?IU/L, AP 183?IU/L, and INR 1.5). PMID:24455335

  10. Current Concepts of Mechanisms in Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Russmann, Stefan; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has become a leading cause of severe liver disease in Western countries and therefore poses a major clinical and regulatory challenge. Whereas previously drug-specific pathways leading to initial injury of liver cells were the main focus of mechanistic research and classifications, current concepts see these as initial upstream events and appreciate that subsequent common downstream pathways and their attenuation by drugs and other environmental and genetic factors also have a profound impact on the risk of an individual patient to develop overt liver disease. This review summarizes current mechanistic concepts of DILI in a 3-step model that limits its principle mechanisms to three main ways of initial injury, i.e. direct cell stress, direct mitochondrial impairment, and specific immune reactions. Subsequently, initial injury initiates further downstream events, i.e. direct and death receptor-mediated pathways leading to mitochondrial permeability transition, which then results in apoptotic or necrotic cell death. For all mechanisms, mitochondria play a central role in events leading to apoptotic vs. necrotic cell death. New treatment targets consequently focus on interference with downstream pathways that mediate injury and therefore determine the ultimate outcome of DILI. Genome wide and targeted pharmacogenetic as well as metabonomic approaches are now used in order to reach the key goals of a better understanding of mechanisms in hepatotoxicity, and to develop new strategies for its prediction and treatment. However, the complexity of interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors is considerable, and DILI therefore currently remains unpredictable for most hepatotoxins. PMID:19689281

  11. Sleep attacks and Parkinson's disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J J; Galitzky, M; Montastruc, J L; Rascol, O

    2000-04-15

    Three patients with Parkinson's disease had so-called sleep attacks at the wheel while taking bromocryptine, lisuride pergolide, or piribedil. We believe that all dopamine agonists can induce sleep attacks. PMID:10776750

  12. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia secondary to natalizumab treatment.

    PubMed

    Cachia, David; Izzy, Saef; Berriosmorales, Idanis; Ionete, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman with a 10-year history of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) was started on natalizumab after she developed side effects for interferon ?-1a and glatiramer acetate. The patient presented with acute severe infusion reaction after the third treatment with natalizumab, developing whole-body purpura. Laboratory testing revealed progressive worsening thrombocytopenia up to 3?weeks following natalizumab discontinuation. Platelet antibodies to platelet-specific antigen as well as antibodies against natalizumab were positive. Bone marrow biopsy was negative. The patient was diagnosed with drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) as a rare case of natalizumab side effect which was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by rituximab with successful resolution of thrombocytopenia. The patient had a stable course of RRMS with no relapses and no brain MRI changes at 2?years after initiation of rituximab. PMID:24879724

  13. Gauging reactive metabolites in drug-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Eno, Marsha R; Cameron, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, it has become abundantly clear that enzymes evolved to detoxify and eliminate foreign chemicals from the body, occasionally generate highly reactive metabolites which have toxicological implications. To decrease the probability of late clinical failure or market withdrawal, there has been an increased prioritization on understanding key metabolic processes that might cause drug interactions or toxicities. Significant advances have been made in the detection of reactive metabolites and in understanding the structure activity relationship. It is now widely accepted that compounds with certain functional groups such as anilines, quinones, hydrazines, thiophenes, furans, acylpropionic acids, and alkynes have a much greater associated risk towards formation of reactive metabolites than compounds that do not contain such "structural alerts". Detection of reactive metabolites is usually done with in vitro assays, which have become more sensitive with advances in mass spectrometry. As an increasingly large number of compounds that form reactive metabolites have been identified, much of the focus has shifted from detection to evaluation of toxicological implication. While there is a disproportionate number of compounds metabolized to reactive metabolites that are associated with drug-induced hepatotoxicity and serious skin toxicities such as toxic endothelial necrolysis and Steven's Johnson syndrome, attempts to predict toxicity based on in vitro testing have been discouraging. In this review we attempt to summarize the experimental options available to evaluate reactive metabolites. PMID:25174933

  14. Epidemiology of Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lauren N.; Chalasani, Naga

    2010-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant health problem because of its unpredictable nature, poorly understood pathogenesis, and potential to cause fatal outcomes. It is also a significant hurdle for drug development and marketing of safe prescription medications. Idiosyncratic DILI is generally rare, but its occurrence is likely underappreciated due to the lack of active reporting or surveillance systems and substantial challenges involved in its recognition and diagnosis. Nonetheless, DILI is a common cause of potentially serious and fatal acute liver failure in both children and adults. Population-based studies that accurately estimate the incidence and full spectrum of DILI are limited. However, using a prospective, population-based French study with an annual estimated incidence of 13.9 ± 2.4 DILI cases per 100,000 inhabitants, it has been extrapolated that nearly 44,000 individuals in the United States will suffer from DILI each year. Although increasing numbers of patients are also being seen with DILI due to herbal and dietary supplements, the epidemiology of this entity requires further investigation. In this article, the epidemiology of DILI, both in the general population and in potentially high-risk subgroups, is reviewed. PMID:19826967

  15. Optical imaging biomarkers of drug-induced vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-An; Suresch, Donna L; Connolly, Brett; Mesfin, Gebre; Gonzalez, Raymond J; Patel, Manishkumar R; Shevell, Diane; Johnson, Timothy; Bednar, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    AbstractDrug-induced vascular injury (DIVI), defined as arterial medial degeneration/necrosis usually associated with perivascular inflammation, is frequently observed in the mesenteric arteries of rats but the relevance to humans remains a hurdle for drug development. Here, we describe the evaluation of commercially available optical imaging biomarkers using a rat DIVI model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered 10 mg/kg/day of a proprietary soluble guanylate cyclase activator (sGCa). Optical agents, AngioSense for the detection of vessel permeability, MMPSense for the detection of activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and IntegriSense for the detection of ?v?3 integrin, were injected via tail vein 24 hours before fluorescence (FL) ex vivo imaging. Imaging found a statistically significant difference in FL from all optical agents between treated and vehicle groups (p < .05). Mesenteric arteries were further analyzed by histopathology, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. Histopathology confirmed perivascular inflammation and/or arterial medial degeneration in the sGCa-treated animals. Flow cytometry of digested arteries revealed myeloid cells as a main source of MMPSense signal. Immunohistochemical analysis further identified elevated MMP-9 expression within arterial walls and surrounding tissue of treated animals. Together, these data demonstrate that MMPSense and AngioSense are sensitive optical imaging biomarkers for the quantification of DIVI in rat mesenteric arteries. PMID:25773788

  16. Drug-sensing hydrogels for the inducible release of biopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrbar, Martin; Schoenmakers, Ronald; Christen, Erik H.; Fussenegger, Martin; Weber, Wilfried

    2008-10-01

    Drug-dependent dissociation or association of cellular receptors represents a potent pharmacologic mode of action for regulating cell fate and function. Transferring the knowledge of pharmacologically triggered protein-protein interactions to materials science will enable novel design concepts for stimuli-sensing smart hydrogels. Here, we show the design and validation of an antibiotic-sensing hydrogel for the trigger-inducible release of human vascular endothelial growth factor. Genetically engineered bacterial gyrase subunit B (GyrB) (ref. 4) coupled to polyacrylamide was dimerized by the addition of the aminocoumarin antibiotic coumermycin, resulting in hydrogel formation. Addition of increasing concentrations of clinically validated novobiocin (Albamycin) dissociated the GyrB subunits, thereby resulting in dissociation of the hydrogel and dose- and time-dependent liberation of the entrapped protein pharmaceutical VEGF121 for triggering proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pharmacologically controlled hydrogels have the potential to fulfil the promises of stimuli-sensing materials as smart devices for spatiotemporally controlled delivery of drugs within the patient.

  17. Nicotine as a potential neuroprotective agent for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Quik, Maryka; Perez, Xiomara A.; Bordia, Tanuja

    2012-01-01

    Converging research efforts suggest that nicotine and other drugs that act at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may be beneficial in the management of Parkinson’s disease. This idea initially stemmed from the results of epidemiological studies which demonstrate that smoking is associated with a decreased incidence of Parkinson’s disease. The subsequent finding that nicotine administration protected against nigrostriatal damage in parkinsonian animal models led to the idea that nicotine in tobacco products may contribute to this apparent protective action. Nicotine most likely exerts its effects by interacting at nAChRs. Accumulating research indicates that multiple subtypes, including ?4?2, ?6?2 and/or ?7 containing nAChRs, may be involved. Stimulation of nAChRs initially activates various intracellular transduction pathways primarily via alterations in calcium signaling. Consequent adaptations in immune responsiveness and trophic factors may ultimately mediate nicotine’s ability to reduce/halt the neuronal damage that arises in Parkinson’s disease. In addition to a potential neuroprotective action, nicotine also has anti-depressant properties and improves attention/cognition. Altogether, these findings suggest that nicotine and nAChR drugs represent promising therapeutic agents for the management of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22693036

  18. Round window membrane intracochlear drug delivery enhanced by induced advection.

    PubMed

    Borkholder, David A; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D

    2014-01-28

    Delivery of therapeutic compounds to the inner ear via absorption through the round window membrane (RWM) has advantages over direct intracochlear infusions; specifically, minimizing impact upon functional hearing measures. However, previous reports show that significant basal-to-apical concentration gradients occur, with the potential to impact treatment efficacy. Here we present a new approach to inner ear drug delivery with induced advection aiding distribution of compounds throughout the inner ear in the murine cochlea. Polyimide microtubing was placed near the RWM niche through a bullaostomy into the middle ear cavity allowing directed delivery of compounds to the RWM. We hypothesized that a posterior semicircular canalostomy would induce apical flow from the patent cochlear aqueduct to the canalostomy due to influx of cerebral spinal fluid. To test this hypothesis, young adult CBA/CaJ mice were divided into two groups: bullaostomy approach only (BA) and bullaostomy+canalostomy (B+C). Cochlear function was evaluated by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds during and after middle ear infusion of salicylate in artificial perilymph (AP), applied near the RWM. The mice recovered for 1week, and were re-tested. The results demonstrate there was no significant impact on auditory function utilizing the RWM surgical procedure with or without the canalostomy, and DPOAE thresholds were elevated reversibly during the salicylate infusion. Comparing the threshold shifts for both methods, the B+C approach had more of a physiological effect than the BA approach, including at lower frequencies representing more apical cochlear locations. Unlike mouse cochleostomies, there was no deleterious auditory functional impact after 1week recovery from surgery. The B+C approach had more drug efficacy at lower frequencies, underscoring potential benefits for more precise control of delivery of inner ear therapeutic compounds. PMID:24291333

  19. Round Window Membrane Intracochlear Drug Delivery Enhanced by Induced Advection

    PubMed Central

    Borkholder, David A.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic compounds to the inner ear via absorption through the round window membrane (RWM) has advantages over direct intracochlear infusions; specifically, minimizing impact upon functional hearing measures. However, previous reports show that significant basal-to-apical concentration gradients occur, with the potential to impact treatment efficacy. Here we present a new approach to inner ear drug delivery with induced advection aiding distribution of compounds throughout the inner ear in the murine cochlea. Polyimide microtubing was placed near the RWM niche through a bullaostomy into the middle ear cavity allowing directed delivery of compounds to the RWM. We hypothesized that a posterior semicircular canalostomy would induce apical flow from the patent cochlear aqueduct to the canalostomy due to influx of cerebral spinal fluid. To test this hypothesis, young adult CBA/CaJ mice were divided into two groups: bullaostomy approach only (BA) and bullaostomy + canalostomy (B+C). Cochlear function was evaluated by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds during and after middle ear infusion of salicylate in artificial perilymph (AP), applied near the RWM. The mice recovered for 1 week, and were re-tested. The results demonstrate there was no significant impact on auditory function utilizing the RWM surgical procedure with or without the canalostomy, and DPOAE thresholds were elevated reversibly during the salicylate infusion. Comparing the threshold shifts for both methods, the B+C approach had more of a physiological effect than the BA approach, including at lower frequencies representing more apical cochlear locations. Unlike mouse cochleostomies, there was no deleterious auditory functional impact after 1 week recovery from surgery. The B+C approach had more drug efficacy at lower frequencies, underscoring potential benefits for more precise control of delivery of inner ear therapeutic compounds. PMID:24291333

  20. Small RNA sequencing-microarray analyses in Parkinson leukocytes reveal deep brain stimulation-induced splicing changes that classify brain region transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, Lilach; Salomonis, Nathan; Bronstein, Michal; Greenberg, David S.; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai; Soreq, Hermona

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key post transcriptional regulators of their multiple target genes. However, the detailed profile of miRNA expression in Parkinson's disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide and the first motor disorder has not been charted yet. Here, we report comprehensive miRNA profiling by next-generation small-RNA sequencing, combined with targets inspection by splice-junction and exon arrays interrogating leukocyte RNA in Parkinson's disease patients before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment and of matched healthy control volunteers (HC). RNA-Seq analysis identified 254 miRNAs and 79 passenger strand forms as expressed in blood leukocytes, 16 of which were modified in patients pre-treatment as compared to HC. 11 miRNAs were modified following brain stimulation 5 of which were changed inversely to the disease induced changes. Stimulation cessation further induced changes in 11 miRNAs. Transcript isoform abundance analysis yielded 332 changed isoforms in patients compared to HC, which classified brain transcriptomes of 47 PD and control independent microarrays. Functional enrichment analysis highlighted mitochondrion organization. DBS induced 155 splice changes, enriched in ubiquitin homeostasis. Cellular composition analysis revealed immune cell activity pre and post treatment. Overall, 217 disease and 74 treatment alternative isoforms were predictably targeted by modified miRNAs within both 3? and 5? untranslated ends and coding sequence sites. The stimulation-induced network sustained 4 miRNAs and 7 transcripts of the disease network. We believe that the presented dynamic networks provide a novel avenue for identifying disease and treatment-related therapeutic targets. Furthermore, the identification of these networks is a major step forward in the road for understanding the molecular basis for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases and assessment of the impact of brain stimulation on human diseases. PMID:23717260

  1. Programmed cell death-2 isoform1 is ubiquitinated by parkin and increased in the substantia nigra of patients with autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease

    E-print Network

    Fukae, Jiro

    Mutations in parkin gene are responsible for autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (ARPD) and its loss-of-function is assumed to affect parkin ubiquitin ligase activity. Accumulation of its substrate may induce dopaminergic ...

  2. Social Odor Recognition: A Novel Behavioral Model for Cognitive Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Monaghan; Lauren Leddy; Mei-Li Amy Sung; Kristin Albinson; Katie Kubek; Menelas N. Pangalos; Peter H. Reinhart; Margaret M. Zaleska; Thomas A. Comery

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by an increasing loss of dopaminergic neurons resulting in motor dysfunction. However, cognitive impairments in PD patients are a common clinical feature that has gained increased attention. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of an MPTP-induced dopaminergic lesion in mice on social odor recognition

  3. Stem-Cell-Based Strategies for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare L. Parish; Ernest Arenas

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cell transplantation to replace lost neurons in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) offers a hopeful prospect for many patients. Previously, fetal grafts have been shown to survive, integrate and induce functional recovery in PD patients. However, limited tissue availability has haltered the widespread use of this therapy and begs the demand for alternative tissue sources. In this

  4. Redox Imbalance in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chinta, Shankar J.; Andersen, Julie K.

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons in an area of the midbrain called the substantia nigra (SN) along with occurrence of intraneuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies. The majority of cases of PD are sporadic in nature with late onset (95% of patients); however a few PD cases (5%) are seen in familial clusters with generally earlier onset. Although PD has been heavily researched, so far the exact cause of the rather selective cell death is unknown. Multiple lines of evidence suggest an important role for oxidative stress. Dopaminergic neurons (DA) are particularly prone to oxidative stress due to DA metabolism and auto-oxidation combined with increased iron, decreased total glutathione levels and mitochondrial complex I inhibition-induced ROS production in the SN which can lead to cell death by exceeding the oxidative capacity of DA-containing cells in the region. Enhancing antioxidant capabilities and chelating labile iron pools in this region therefore constitutes a rational approach to prevent or slow ongoing damage of DA neurons. In this review, we summarize the various sources of reactive oxygen species that may cause redox imbalance in PD as well as potential therapeutic targets for attenuation of oxidative stress associated with PD. PMID:18358848

  5. Detection of preclinical Parkinson's disease with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.J. (MRC Cyclotron Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London (England))

    1991-08-01

    Putamen 18F-dopa uptake of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is reduced by at least 35% at onset of symptoms; therefore, positron-emission tomography (PET) can be used to detect preclinical disease in clinically unaffected twins and relatives of patients with PD. Three out of 6 monozygotic and 2 out of 3 dizygotic unaffected PD co-twins have shown reduced putamen 18F-dopa uptake to date. In addition, an intact sibling and a daughter of 1 of 4 siblings with PD both had low putamen 18F-dopa uptake. These preliminary findings suggest there may be a familial component to the etiology of PD. PET can also be used to detect underlying nigral pathology in patients with isolated tremor and patients who become rigid taking dopamine-receptor blocking agents (DRBAs). Patients with familial essential tremor have normal, and those with isolated rest tremor have consistently low, putamen 18F-dopa uptake. Drug-induced parkinsonism is infrequently associated with underlying nigral pathology.

  6. Detection of preclinical Parkinson's disease with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.J. (MRC Cyclotron Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London, (United Kingdom))

    1991-05-01

    Putamen 18F-dopa uptake of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is reduced by at least 35% at onset of symptoms; therefore, positron-emission tomography (PET) can be used to detect preclinical disease in clinically unaffected twins and relatives of patients with PD. Three out of 6 monozygotic and 2 out of 3 dizygotic unaffected PD co-twins have shown reduced putamen 18F-dopa uptake to date. In addition, an intact sibling and a daughter of 1 of 4 siblings with PD both had low putamen 18F-dopa uptake. These preliminary findings suggest there may be a familial component to the etiology of PD. PET can also be used to detect underlying nigral pathology in patients with isolated tremor and patients who become rigid taking dopamine-receptor blocking agents (DRBAs). Patients with familial essential tremor have normal, and those with isolated rest tremor have consistently low, putamen 18F-dopa uptake. Drug-induced parkinsonism is infrequently associated with underlying nigral pathology.

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Induced Reduction of Dopamine Transporter Expression as a Precursor to Parkinson's Disease-Associated Dopamine Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Michael Caudle; Jason R. Richardson; Kristin C. Delea; Thomas S. Guillot; Minzheng Wang; Kurt D. Pennell; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential mechanisms by which PCBs may disrupt normal functioning of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. We utilized an environmentally relevant exposure of PCBs (7.5 or 15 mg\\/kg\\/day Aroclor 1254:1260 for 30

  8. Doxycycline induced generalized bullous fixed drug eruption – A case report

    PubMed Central

    Nitya, Selvaraj; Deepa, Kameswari; Mangaiarkkarasi, Adhimoolam; Karthikeyan, Kaliaperumal

    2013-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a major hazard of modern medicine. Fixed drug eruption, which is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction, is commonly seen with antimicrobials and analgesics. Here we report 37-year-old female with bullous fixed drug eruptions due to doxycycline administration. PMID:24563602

  9. Cortical Regulation of Striatal Medium Spiny Neuron Dendritic Remodeling in Parkinsonism: Modulation of Glutamate Release Reverses Dopamine Depletion–Induced Dendritic Spine Loss

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Bonnie G.; Neely, M. Diana

    2010-01-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) receive glutamatergic afferents from the cerebral cortex and dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra (SN). Striatal dopamine loss decreases the number of MSN dendritic spines. This loss of spines has been suggested to reflect the removal of tonic dopamine inhibitory control over corticostriatal glutamatergic drive, with increased glutamate release culminating in MSN spine loss. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. We first determined in vivo if decortication reverses or prevents dopamine depletion–induced spine loss by placing motor cortex lesions 4 weeks after, or at the time of, 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the SN. Animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after cortical lesions. Motor cortex lesions significantly reversed the loss of MSN spines elicited by dopamine denervation; a similar effect was observed in the prevention experiment. We then determined if modulating glutamate release in organotypic cocultures prevented spine loss. Treatment of the cultures with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 to suppress corticostriatal glutamate release completely blocked spine loss in dopamine-denervated cultures. These studies provide the first evidence to show that MSN spine loss associated with parkinsonism can be reversed and point to suppression of corticostriatal glutamate release as a means of slowing progression in Parkinson's disease. PMID:20118184

  10. Drug eruptions induced by allopurinol associated with HLA-B*5801.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Meihua; Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Yan, Wenliang; Kong, Qingtao; Sang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Allopurinol, a drug commonly used for treating gout and hyperuricemia, is a frequent cause of drug eruptions. Recent investigations suggest that HLA-BFNx015801 allele is a very strong marker for allopurinol-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs). In this article we report two cases of allopurinol-induced drug eruptions in patients carrying the HLA-BFNx015801 allele and review the literature on the association between HLA-BFNx015801 and allopurinol-induced cADRs based on a MEDLINE and PubMed search. PMID:25566896

  11. Targeting impulsivity in Parkinson’s disease using atomoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Housden, Charlotte R.; Regenthal, Ralf; Barker, Roger A.; Müller, Ulrich; Rowe, James; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic dysfunction may play a significant role in cognition in Parkinson’s disease due to the early degeneration of the locus coeruleus. Converging evidence from patient and animal studies points to the role of noradrenaline in dopaminergically insensitive aspects of the parkinsonian dysexecutive syndrome, yet the direct effects of noradrenergic enhancement have not to date been addressed. Our aim was to directly investigate these, focusing on impulsivity during response inhibition and decision making. To this end, we administered 40 mg atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor to 25 patients with Parkinson’s disease (12 female /13 male; 64.4 ± 6.9 years old) in a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled design. Patients completed an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests addressing response inhibition, decision-making, attention, planning and verbal short term memory. Atomoxetine improved stopping accuracy on the Stop Signal Task [F(1,19) = 4.51, P = 0.047] and reduced reflection impulsivity [F(1,9) = 7.86, P = 0.02] and risk taking [F(1,9) = 9.2, P = 0.01] in the context of gambling. The drug also conferred effects on performance as a function of its measured blood plasma concentration: it reduced reflection impulsivity during information sampling [adjusted R2 = 0.23, F(1,16) = 5.83, P = 0.03] and improved problem solving on the One Touch Stockings of Cambridge [adjusted R2 = 0.29, F(1,17) = 8.34, P = 0.01]. It also enhanced target sensitivity during sustained attention [F(1,9) = 5.33, P = 0.046]. The results of this exploratory study represent the basis of specific predictions in future investigations on the effects of atomoxetine in Parkinson’s disease and support the hypothesis that targeting noradrenergic dysfunction may represent a new parallel avenue of therapy in some of the cognitive and behavioural deficits seen in the disorder. PMID:24893708

  12. Parkinson's Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses the symptoms, and treatment options for Parkinson's Disease, including their benefits and side effects. It also reviews the anatomy of the central nervous system. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  13. Enhanced glutamate, IP3 and cAMP activity in the cerebral cortex of Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rats: Effect of 5-HT, GABA and bone marrow cell supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which leads to dopamine depletion in the striatum and indirectly to cortical dysfunction. Increased glutamatergic transmission in the basal ganglia is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and glutamate receptor mediated excitotoxicity has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of the neuronal degeneration. In the present study, the effects of serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and bone marrow cells infused intranigrally to substantia nigra individually and in combination on unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rat model was analyzed. Scatchard analysis of total glutamate and NMDA receptor binding parameters showed a significant increase in Bmax (P < 0.001) in the cerebral cortex of 6-hydroxydopamine infused rat compared to control. Real Time PCR amplification of NMDA2B, mGluR5, bax, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase were up regulated in cerebral cortex of 6-hydroxydopamine infused rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of GLAST, ?-Synuclien and Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein showed a significant (P < 0.001) down regulation in 6-OHDA infused rats compared to control. Behavioural studies were carried out to confirm the biochemical and molecular studies. Serotonin and GABA along with bone marrow cells in combination showed reversal of glutamate receptors and behaviour abnormality shown in the Parkinson's rat model. The therapeutic significance in Parkinson's disease is of prominence. PMID:21235809

  14. The Impact of Enzyme-Inducing Antiepileptic Drugs on Antiretroviral Drugs: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Okulicz, Jason F; Grandits, Greg A; French, Jacqueline A; Perucca, Emilio; George, Jomy M; Landrum, Michael L; Acosta, Edward P; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EI-AEDs) on serum antiretroviral (ARV) levels in patients with HIV. Methods Data from the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study were screened to identify participants taking ARVs with EI-AEDs and controls taking ARVs with non enzyme inducing AEDs (NEI-AEDs). The proportion of serum ARV levels below the recommended minimum concentrations (Cmin) was compared between these groups. Results ARV levels were available for 10 individuals exposed to 16 intervals on combined ARVs/EI-AEDs (phenytoin and carbamazepine) and for 25 controls exposed to 30 overlap intervals on combined ARVs/NEI-AEDs. The percentage of overlap intervals with ?1 ARV levels below Cmin was higher in the EI-AED group than in controls (37.5% vs. 23.3%; p=0.124). After excluding intervals associated with serum levels of EI-AEDs below the reference range (n=6), the proportion of intervals with ?1 ARV level below Cmin was significantly greater among EI-AED recipients (60%) compared to controls (23.3%; p=0.008). Conclusions ARV levels below Cmin were more common in participants receiving EI-AEDs, the difference being statistically significant for intervals associated with EI-AED levels within the reference range. These data suggest that, in agreement with current guidelines, EI-AEDs should be avoided in patients receiving ARV therapy. PMID:22835761

  15. Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: The Genetic Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Noronha Shyam Curtis; Chavan, Rahul; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Nalla, Srinivas; Mali, Jaydeepchandra; Prajapati, Anchal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently, the etiology of drug-induced gingival overgrowth is not entirely understood but is clearly multifactorial. Phenytoin, one of the common drugs implicated in gingival enlargement, is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and partly by CYP2C19. The CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are polymorphically expressed and most of the variants result in decreased metabolism of the respective substrates. Aims: The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variant genotypes on phenytoin hydroxylation in subjects diagnosed with epilepsy from South India, thus establishing the genetic polymorphisms leading to its defective hydroxylation process. Materials and Methods: Fifteen epileptic subjects, age 9 to 60 years were included in the study. Among the study subjects, 8 were males and 7 were females. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients’ blood using Phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was done for CYP2C9 using customized TaqMan genotyping assays on a real time thermocycler, by allelic discrimination method. The genetic polymorphisms *1, *2 and *3 on CYP2C9 were selected based on their function and respective allele frequencies in Asian subcontinent among the Asian populations. Results: CYP2C9*1*2 and CYP2C9*3/*3 were identified with equal frequency in the study population. There were seven subjects with CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype (heterozygous mutant), one subject with CYP2C9*1/*1 (wild type) and seven study subjects with CYP2C9*3/*3 (homozygous mutant). Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study will be helpful in the medical prescription purposes of phenytoin, and a more personalized patient approach with its administration can be advocated. PMID:25317394

  16. Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson Patients

    E-print Network

    Gluck, Mark

    Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson. Gluck, PhDw Abstract: In a study of acquired equivalence in Parkinson disease (PD), in which patients that anticholinergic drugs may particularly impair cognitive abilities that depend on the MT lobe. Key Words: Parkinson

  17. Modulation of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced membrane fusion by copper coordination of these drugs: anchoring effect.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Anupa; Chakraborty, Sreeja; Sarkar, Munna

    2014-12-01

    Membrane fusion, an integral event in several biological processes, is characterized by several intermediate steps guided by specific energy barriers. Hence, it requires the aid of fusogens to complete the process. Common fusogens, such as proteins/peptides, have the ability to overcome theses barriers by their conformational reorganization, an advantage not shared by small drug molecules. Hence, drug induced fusion at physiologically relevant drug concentrations is rare and occurs only in the case of the oxicam group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To use drugs to induce and control membrane fusion in various biochemical processes requires the understanding of how different parameters modulate fusion. Also, fusion efficacy needs to be enhanced. Here we have synthesized and used Cu(II) complexes of fusogenic oxicam NSAIDs, Meloxicam and Piroxicam, to induce fusion in model membranes monitored by using DSC, TEM, steady-state, and time-resolved spectroscopy. The ability of the complexes to anchor apposing model membranes to initiate/facilitate fusion has been demonstrated. This results in better fusion efficacy compared to the bare drugs. These complexes can take the fusion to its final step. Unlike other designed membrane anchors, the role of molecular recognition and strength of interaction between molecular partners is obliterated for these preformed Cu(II)-NSAIDs. PMID:25380501

  18. Dopamine agonists suppress cholinomimetic-induced tremulous jaw movements in an animal model of Parkinsonism: tremorolytic effects of pergolide, ropinirole and CY 208–243

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Salamone; Brian B. Carlson; Clifford Rios; Elizabeth Lentini; Merce Correa; Ania Wisniecki; Adrienne Betz

    2005-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that cholinomimetic-induced tremulous jaw movements in rats share many characteristics with human Parkinsonian tremor, and several antiparkinsonian drugs suppress cholinomimetic-induced tremulous jaw movements. The present study investigated three different types of dopamine agonists, which have known antiparkinsonian characteristics, for their ability to suppress the tremulous jaw movements induced by tacrine (5.0mg\\/kg). The non-selective dopamine agonist pergolide, a

  19. Drug-Induced Respiratory Disease in Cardiac Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Camus; Clio Camus; Pascal Foucher

    \\u000a By definition, adverse reactions to drugs develop unpredictably in patients exposed to therapeutic doses of ‘drugs,’ which\\u000a include such respiratory gases as dioxygen (O2) and nitric oxide (NO). Accordingly, misuse, disuse, drug interactions, deliberate or accidental overdoses, illicit drugs,\\u000a and radiation therapy are outside the province of this chapter. Notwithstanding that, it is difficult to cover this topic\\u000a without mentioning

  20. Novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwan Bezard; Jonathan Brotchie; Frédéric Calon; Graham L. Collingridge; Borris Ferger; Bastian Hengerer; Etienne Hirsch; Peter Jenner; Nicolas Le Novčre; José A. Obeso; Michael A. Schwarzschild; Umberto Spampinato; Giora Davidai; Anthony H. V. Schapira

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine deficiency, caused by the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, is the cause of the major clinical motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can be treated successfully with a range of drugs that include levodopa, inhibitors of the enzymatic breakdown of levodopa and dopamine agonists delivered by oral, subcutaneous, transcutaneous, intravenous or intra-duodenal routes. However, Parkinson's disease involves degeneration

  1. Clinical vignettes in Parkinson's disease: a collection of unusual medication-induced hallucinations, delusions, and compulsive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Joseph H; Agarwal, P; Alcalay, R; Black, K J; Chou, K L; Cote, L; Dayalu, P; Frank, S; Hartlein, J; Hauser, R A; Lang, A E; Marsh, L; Marshall, F; Moskowitz, C; Ravina, B; Riley, D; Sanchez-Ramos, J; Simon, D K; Simuni, T; Sutton, J; Tuite, P; Weintraub, D; Zesiewicz, T

    2011-08-01

    Hallucinations, delusions, and compulsive behaviors are frequent iatrogenic complications of the treatment of motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although these have been studied, and the phenomenology described, there are few detailed descriptions of the various psychiatric problems our treated PD patients live with that allow physicians who do not have a great deal of experience with PD patients to appreciate the extent of their altered lives. This report is a compilation of vignettes describing these behavioral problems that the treating neurologist or psychiatrist attributed to the medications used for treating PD. PMID:21663381

  2. "PINK1"-Linked Parkinsonism Is Associated with Lewy Body Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaranch, Lluis; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Arbelo, Jose M.; Ferrer, Isidre; Lorenzo, Elena; Irigoyen, Jaione; Pastor, Maria A.; Marrero, Carmen; Isla, Concepcion; Herrera-Henriquez, Joanna; Pastor, Pau

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 gene mutations have been associated with autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease. To date, no neuropathological reports have been published from patients with Parkinson's disease with both phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 gene copies mutated. We analysed…

  3. Abnormal Bidirectional Plasticity-Like Effects in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Rothwell, John C.; Lu, Chin-Song; Chuang, Wen-Li; Chen, Rou-Shayn

    2011-01-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is a major complication of long-term dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease that becomes increasingly problematic in advanced Parkinson's disease. Although the cause of levodopa-induced dyskinesias is still unclear, recent work in animal models of the corticostriatal system has suggested that…

  4. Drug-induced TINU syndrome and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Vita, Giuseppe; Rovito, Stefania; Venuto, Lucia; Cavallari, Vittorio; Vita, Roberto; Savica, Vincenzo; Bellinghieri, Guido; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2012-09-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is due to a disregulation of cell-mediated immunity and genetical predisposition due a particular molecular characterization. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted for acute renal failure. She had recently taken flurbiprofen for 10 d for recurrent bronchitis. A renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Prednisone was started and prognosis was favorable. Three months later the patient developed transitory blurred vision. The diagnosis was bilateral uveitis and she received topic and systemic corticosteroid therapy, with resolution of ocular symptoms. Recurrent episodes of uveitis experienced during the next 12 months were treated with same therapy. Genomic haplotype in our patients was HLA A*0278/2631,-B*1517/3802,- Cw*0701/1202, -DRB1*0101/1359 (DRB3* 52), -DQA1*0102/0102, DQB1*0603/0603. TINU syndrome is characterized by tubulointerstitial nephritis that tends to be selflimiting, whereas uveitis tends to relapse. HLA-DQA1*01 and -DQB1*06 haplotypes are strongly associated with TINU syndrome. This is the first report of TINU syndrome induced by flubiprofen intake. Our case emphasizes the importance of the association between drug exposure and strong susceptibility to TINU syndrome giving the molecular characterization. PMID:22874112

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of Jitai Tablet, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, on the MPTP-Induced Acute Model of Parkinson's Disease: Involvement of the Dopamine System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Gao, Jinlong; Xu, Shasha; Liu, Ying; Shang, Weihu; Gu, Chenxin; Huang, Yiyun; Han, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Jitai tablet (JTT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that JTT treatment led to increased level of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, thus indicating that JTT might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by dysregulated dopamine (DA) transmission and decreased striatal DAT expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of JTT on MPTP-induced PD mice. Using locomotor activity test and rotarod test, we evaluated the effects of JTT (0.50, 0.15, or 0.05?g/kg) on MPTP-induced behavioral impairments. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels in the striatum were detected by immunohistochemical staining and/or autoradiography. Levels of DA and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. In MPTP-treated mice, behavioral impairments were alleviated by JTT treatment. Moreover, JTT protected against impairment of TH-positive neurons and attenuated the MPTP-induced decreases in DAT and D2R. Finally, high dose of JTT (0.50?g/kg) inhibited the MPTP-induced increase in DA metabolism rate. Taken together, results from our present study provide evidence that JTT offers neuroprotective effects against the neurotoxicity of MPTP and thus might be a potential treatment for PD. PMID:24799940

  6. Neuroprotective effects of puerarin on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced Parkinson's disease model in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guoqi; Wang, Xuncui; Wu, Shengbing; Li, Xiaoxiang; Li, Qinglin

    2014-02-01

    Puerarin, an active component of Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep is well-known for its anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities. Although anti-Parkinson's disease activity of puerarin was reported in both of in vivo and in vitro model, detailed mechanisms are not clarified. In this study, we addressed that puerarin attenuated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced behavioral deficits, dopaminergic neuronal degeneration and dopamine depletion. Puerarin administration enhanced glutathione (GSH) activity, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression and PI3K/Akt pathway activation, which might ameliorate MPTP injection-induced progressive elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in mice. In addition to the effect on ROS, puerarin ameliorated MPTP-reduced lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (Lamp 2A) expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that puerarin attenuates MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal degeneration via modulating GDNF expression, PI3K/Akt pathway and GSH activation, which subsequently ameliorate MPTP-induced ROS formation and decrease of Lamp 2A expression. PMID:23512787

  7. doi:10.4061/2011/897586 Clinical Study Nondipping in Parkinson’s Disease

    E-print Network

    Sita Sommer; Billur Aral-becher; Wolfgang Jost

    which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify patients with Parkinson’s disease who showed loss or decrease of nocturnal blood pressure fall (nondipper patients) as a marker of autonomic dysfunction. Presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension was considered to investigate whether alterations in circadian blood pressure pattern are associated with posture-related dysregulation of blood pressure. Methods. 40 patients with Parkinson’s disease underwent 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. 21 patients were diagnosed with arterial hypertension and received anti-hypertensive drugs. Nondipper patients were defined as having nocturnal decrease of mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure less than 10%. Presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension was determined by Schellong’s test. Results. We identified 35 nondipper patients (88%). Nondipping was detected in 20 patients with orthostatic hypotension (95%) and in 15 patients without orthostatic hypotension (79%). 18 patients with hypertensive and 22 patients with normal blood pressure values were detected. Conclusions. In conclusion 24-hour blood pressure monitoring showed a high prevalence of nondipping in 40 patients with Parkinson’s disease with and without orthostatic hypotension independent of coexisting arterial hypertension and antihypertensive treatment. 24-hour blood pressure monitoring may be useful to identify non-dipping as a marker of autonomic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson’s disease. 1.

  8. [Parkinson's disease and psychoses].

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Jacopo Vittoriano; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Maniscalco, Ignazio; Schroffenegger, Patrizia; Conca, Andreas; Kapfhammer, Hans Peter

    2015-03-01

    Psychotic symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with increased disability, worsened quality of life, and poor long-term prognosis. In this article, clinical features, hypotheses on pathogenesis, and current treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) are reviewed. According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of PDP is between 20 to 40 %. Complex visual hallucinations are the most common psychotic symptoms and are present in 17-72 % of the patients. Other sensory disturbances encompass tactile hallucinations and minor hallucinatory phenomena, such as sense of presence and visual illusions. Hallucinations are often accompanied by delusions, whose most frequent themes are persecution and jealousy. The pathophysiology of PDP remains unclear. Different factors have been implicated, including Levo-dopa and dopaminergic medications, neurotransmitter imbalances, neuroanatomic alterations, abnormal visuospatial processes, and genetic predisposition. The first-line strategy in the treatment of persistent and problematic PDP is represented by reduction in anti-PD medications. Second-generation antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, with clozapine being demonstrated as the most effective and tolerable drug for PD patients. PMID:25586068

  9. Prime-, Stress- and Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Extinguished Drug-Reinforced Responding in Rats: Cocaine as the Prototypical Drug of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Patrick M.; Shelton, Keith L.

    2012-01-01

    This unit describes the testing of rats in prime-, footshock- and cue-induced reinstatement procedures. Evaluating rats in these procedures enables the assessment of treatments on behavior thought to model drug relapse precipitated by re-contact with an abused drug (prime-induced), induced by stress (footshock-induced), or by stimuli previously associated with drug administration (cue-induced). For instance, levels of reinstatement under the effects of test compound administration could be compared to levels under vehicle administration to help identify potential treatments for drug relapse, or reinstatement levels of different rat strains could be compared to identify potential genetic determinants of perseverative drug-seeking behavior. Cocaine is used as a prototypical drug of abuse, and relapse to its use serves as the model in this unit, but other self-administered drugs could readily be substituted with little modification to the procedures. PMID:23093352

  10. 79 FR 75822 - Serious Drug-Induced Liver Injury: The Importance of Getting It Right: How To Measure and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-12-19

    ...2007D-0396) Serious Drug-Induced Liver Injury: The Importance of Getting It Right...To Measure and Interpret Drug-Induced Liver Injury Information and Make Correct Diagnoses...conference entitled ``Serious Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI): The Importance of...

  11. DIGRE: Drug-Induced Genomic Residual Effect Model for Successful Prediction of Multidrug Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J; Tang, H; Li, Y; Zhong, R; Wang, T; Wong, STC; Xiao, G; Xie, Y

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug regimens are a promising strategy for improving therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects, especially for complex disorders such as cancer. However, the use of multidrug therapies is very challenging, due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of drug interactions. We herein present a novel computational approach—Drug-Induced Genomic Residual Effect (DIGRE) Computational Model—to predict drug combination effects by explicitly modeling drug response curves and gene expression changes after drug treatments. The prediction performance of DIGRE was evaluated using two datasets: (i) OCI-LY3 B-lymphoma cells treated with 14 different drugs and (ii) MCF breast cancer cells treated with combinations of gefitinib and docetaxel at different doses. In both datasets, the predicted drug combination effects significantly correlated with the experimental results. The results indicated the model was useful in predicting drug combination effects, which may greatly facilitate the discovery of new, effective multidrug therapies.

  12. Stress, Depression and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hemmerle, Ann M.; Herman, James P.; Seroogy, Kim B.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the relationship among Parkinson’s disease (PD), stress and depression. Parkinson’s disease patients have a high risk of developing depression, and it is possible that stress contributes to the development of both pathologies. Stress dysfunction may have a role in the etiology of preclinical non-motor symptoms of PD (such as depression) and, later in the course of the disease, may worsen motor symptoms. However, relatively few studies have examined stress or depression and the injured nigrostriatal system. This review discusses the effects of stress on neurodegeneration and depression, and their association with the symptoms and progression of PD. PMID:22001159

  13. Drug-induced respiratory depression: an integrated model of drug effects on the hypercapnic and hypoxic drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonello L. G. Caruso; Thomas W. Bouillon; Peter M. Schumacher; M. Luginbuhl; M. Morari

    2007-01-01

    Drug-induced respiratory depression is a common side effect of the agents used in anesthesia practice to provide analgesia and sedation. Depression of the ventilatory drive in the spontaneously breathing patient can lead to severe cardiorespiratory events and it is considered a primary cause of morbidity. Reliable predictions of respiratory inhibition in the clinical setting would therefore provide a valuable means

  14. Drug-induced autoimmunity: experience of the French Pharmacovigilance system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Vial; Brigitte Nicolas; Jacques Descotes

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions to a pharmacovigilance structure is a reasonable tool to detect new associations between drugs and a given toxic effect. An analysis of the French national database of pharmacovigilance was undertaken to evaluate how such a system is relevant to survey and\\/or detect drug-associated autoimmune disorders. Only 0.2% of reports were coded with terms

  15. The importance of propargylamine moiety in the anti-Parkinson drug rasagiline and its derivatives for MAPK-dependent amyloid precursor protein processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merav Yogev-Falach; Tamar Amit; Orit Bar-Am; Moussa B. H. Youdim

    2003-01-01

    Rasagiline (N-propargyl-(1R)-aminoindan) a highly potent selective irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor exerts neuroprotective and antiapoptotic effects against a variety of insults in cell cultures and in vivo and has finished its phase III clinical trials for Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we show that rasagiline (1 and 10 µM) significantly protected rat PC12 cells against ?-amyloid (A?1-42) toxicity. In

  16. A novel therapeutic approach to 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease in rats via supplementation of PTD-conjugated tyrosine hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Shaoping [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Beijing Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing 100013 (China); Fu Ailing [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang Yuxia [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Yu Leiping [Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203 (China); Jia Peiyuan [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Li Qian [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China); Jin Guozhang [Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203 (China); Sun Manji [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road, 27, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail: Sunmj@nic.bmi.ac.cn

    2006-07-21

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether the protein transduction domain (PTD)-conjugated human tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) fusion protein was effective on the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) model rats. An expression vector pET-PTD-TH harbouring the PTD-TH gene was constructed and transformed to the Escherichia coli BL21 cells for expression. The expressed recombinant PTD-TH with a molecular weight of 61 kD was successfully transduced (1 {mu}M) into the dopaminergic SH-sy5y human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and visualized by immunohistochemical assay. An in vivo experiment in rats showed that the iv administered PTD-TH protein (8 mg/kg) permeated across the blood-brain barrier, penetrated into the striatum and midbrain, and peaked at 5-8 h after the injection. The behavioral effects of PTD-TH on the apomorphine-induced rotations in the PD model rats 8 weeks after the 6-OHDA lesion showed that a single bolus of PTD-TH (8 mg/kg) iv injection caused a decrement of 60% of the contralateral turns on day 1 and 40% on days 5-17. The results imply that iv delivery of PTD-TH is therapeutically effective on the 6-OHDA-induced PD in rats, the PTD-mediated human TH treatment opening a promising therapeutic direction in treatment of PD.

  17. Parkinsonism in Spinocerebellar Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beom S.

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) presents heterogeneous clinical phenotypes, and parkinsonism is reported in diverse SCA subtypes. Both levodopa responsive Parkinson disease (PD) like phenotype and atypical parkinsonism have been described especially in SCA2, SCA3, and SCA17 with geographic differences in prevalence. SCA2 is the most frequently reported subtype of SCA related to parkinsonism worldwide. Parkinsonism in SCA2 has unique genetic characteristics, such as low number of expansions and interrupted structures, which may explain the sporadic cases with low penetrance. Parkinsonism in SCA17 is more remarkable in Asian populations especially in Korea. In addition, an unclear cutoff of the pathologic range is the key issue in SCA17 related parkinsonism. SCA3 is more common in western cohorts. SCA6 and SCA8 have also been reported with a PD-like phenotype. Herein, we reviewed the epidemiologic, clinical, genetic, and pathologic features of parkinsonism in SCAs.

  18. Parkinson disease - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads to ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may come ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All proceeds benefit PDF research programs. Learn More Community Events Saturday, April 25, 2015, 8:30 AM - ... Sponsored Events Parkinson's Disease Foundation Calls Upon the Community to Shape Research During Parkinson's Awareness Month April ...

  20. Pain in Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for increased overall health care costs. A person’s perception of pain can be affected by emotional factors. ... medications such as levodopa can affect a person’s perception of pain. People with Parkinson’s who are in ...

  1. Combined treatment with acupuncture reduces effective dose and alleviates adverse effect of L-dopa by normalizing Parkinson's disease-induced neurochemical imbalance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Ji-Yeun; Choo, Hyunwoo J; Shim, Insop; Park, Jongbae J; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Bena; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2014-01-28

    This study first showed the behavioural benefits of novel combination therapy of L-dopa with acupuncture on Parkinson's disease, and its underlying mechanisms within basal ganglia. The previous study reported that acupuncture may improve the motor function of a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model by increasing the dopamine efflux and turnover ratio of dopamine. Hence, we hypothesised that combining L-dopa with acupuncture would have a behavioural benefit for those with PD. We performed unilateral injections of 6-OHDA into the striatum of C57Bl/6 mice to model hemi-Parkinsonian attributes. To test motor function and dyskinetic anomalies, we examined cylinder behaviour and abnormal involuntary movement (AIM), respectively. We found that (1) a 50% reduced dose of L-dopa (7.5 mg/kg) combined with acupuncture showed an improvement in motor function that was comparable to mice given the standard dose of L-dopa treatment (15 mg/kg) only, and that (2) the combination treatment (L-dopa +acupuncture) was significantly superior in reducing AIM scores when equivalent doses of L-dopa were used. The combination treatment also significantly reduces the abnormal increase of GABA contents in the substantia nigra compared to the standard L-dopa treatment. Furthermore, abnormal expression of FosB, the immediate early gene of L-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID), was mitigated in the striatum by the combination treatment. All of these results indicate that acupuncture enhances the benefits of L-dopa on motor function with reduced dose of L-dopa and alleviating LID by normalising neurochemical imbalance within the basal ganglia. PMID:24321617

  2. An overview on the proposed mechanisms of antithyroid drugs-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Reza; Niknahad, Hossein; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Abdoli, Narges

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major problem for pharmaceutical industry and drug development. Mechanisms of DILI are many and varied. Elucidating the mechanisms of DILI will allow clinicians to prevent liver failure, need for liver transplantation, and death induced by drugs. Methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU) are two convenient antithyroid agents which their administration is accompanied by hepatotoxicity as a deleterious side effect. Although several cases of antithyroid drugs-induced liver injury are reported, there is no clear idea about the mechanism(s) of hepatotoxicity induced by these medications. Different mechanisms such as reactive metabolites formation, oxidative stress induction, intracellular targets dysfunction, and immune-mediated toxicity are postulated to be involved in antithyroid agents-induced hepatic damage. Due to the idiosyncratic nature of antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity, it is impossible to draw a specific conclusion about the mechanisms of liver injury. However, it seems that reactive metabolite formation and immune-mediated toxicity have a great role in antithyroids liver toxicity, especially those caused by methimazole. This review attempted to discuss different mechanisms proposed to be involved in the hepatic injury induced by antithyroid drugs. PMID:25789213

  3. An Overview on the Proposed Mechanisms of Antithyroid Drugs-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Reza; Niknahad, Hossein; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Abdoli, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major problem for pharmaceutical industry and drug development. Mechanisms of DILI are many and varied. Elucidating the mechanisms of DILI will allow clinicians to prevent liver failure, need for liver transplantation, and death induced by drugs. Methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU) are two convenient antithyroid agents which their administration is accompanied by hepatotoxicity as a deleterious side effect. Although several cases of antithyroid drugs-induced liver injury are reported, there is no clear idea about the mechanism(s) of hepatotoxicity induced by these medications. Different mechanisms such as reactive metabolites formation, oxidative stress induction, intracellular targets dysfunction, and immune-mediated toxicity are postulated to be involved in antithyroid agents-induced hepatic damage. Due to the idiosyncratic nature of antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity, it is impossible to draw a specific conclusion about the mechanisms of liver injury. However, it seems that reactive metabolite formation and immune-mediated toxicity have a great role in antithyroids liver toxicity, especially those caused by methimazole. This review attempted to discuss different mechanisms proposed to be involved in the hepatic injury induced by antithyroid drugs. PMID:25789213

  4. Parkinson's disease as a result of aging.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Sabate, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider phenomenon affecting cells all over the body, whereas Parkinson's disease seems to be restricted to certain brain centers and cell populations. However, reviewed data suggest that Parkinson's disease may be a local expression of aging on cell populations which, by their characteristics (high number of synaptic terminals and mitochondria, unmyelinated axons, etc.), are highly vulnerable to the agents promoting aging. The development of new knowledge about Parkinson's disease could be accelerated if the research on aging and Parkinson's disease were planned together, and the perspective provided by gerontology gains relevance in this field. PMID:25677794

  5. The Cortical and Striatal Gene Expression Profile of 100?Hz Electroacupuncture Treatment in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Li-Rong; Liang, Xi-Bin; Li, Bo; Liang, Jian-Tao; He, Yi; Jia, Yan-Jun; Jia, Jun; Gong, Xiao-Li; Yu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2012-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA), especially high-frequency EA, has frequently been used as an alternative therapy for Parkinson disease (PD) and is reportedly effective for alleviating motor symptoms in patients and PD models. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its effectiveness is not completely understood. To implement a full-scale search for the targets of 100?Hz EA, we selected rat models treated with 6-hydroxydopamine into the unilateral MFB, which mimic end-stage PD. High-throughput microarray analysis was then used to uncover the regulated targets in the cortex and striatum after 4-week EA treatment. In the differentially regulated transcripts, the proportion of recovered expression profiles in the genes, the functional categories of targets in different profiles, and the affected pathways were analyzed. Our results suggested that the recovery of homeostasis in the transcript network and many regulated functional clusters in the cortex and striatum after EA treatment may contribute to the behavioral improvement of PD rats. PMID:22319547

  6. The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Stacey E.; Potashkin, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline, and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available. PMID:22125548

  7. Pathways towards an effective immunotherapy for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutter-Saunders, Jessica AL; Mosley, Rodney Lee; Gendelman, Howard E

    2012-01-01

    Immunizations that target specific types of immune responses are used commonly to prevent microbial infections. However, a range of immune responses may prove necessary to combat the ravages of neurodegenerative diseases. The goal is to eliminate the ‘root’ cause of neurodegenerative disorders, misfolded aggregated proteins, while harnessing adaptive immune responses to promote neural repair. However, immunization strategies used to elicit humoral immune responses against aberrant brain proteins have yielded mixed success. While specific proteins can be cleared, the failures in halting disease progression revolve, in measure, around adaptive immune responses that promote autoreactive T cells and, as such, induce a meningoencephalitis, accelerating neurodegeneration. Thus, alternative approaches for protein clearance and neural repair are desired. To this end, our laboratories have sought to transform autoreactive adaptive immune responses into regulatory neuroprotective cells in Parkinson’s disease. In this context, induction of immune responses against modified brain proteins serves to break immunological tolerance, while eliciting adaptive immunity to facilitate neuronal repair. How to harness the immune response in the setting of Parkinson’s disease requires a thorough understanding of the role of immunity in human disease and the ways to modify such immune responses to elicit therapeutic gain. These are discussed in this review. PMID:22091596

  8. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans.

    PubMed

    Bjarnason, I; Zanelli, G; Smith, T; Prouse, P; Williams, P; Smethurst, P; Delacey, G; Gumpel, M J; Levi, A J

    1987-09-01

    This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an 111In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal 111In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (75Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis. PMID:3609658

  9. Analysis of dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction in genetic and toxin-induced models of Parkinson's disease in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan A; Heßner, Sabina; Yenisetti, Sarat C; Bayersdorfer, Florian; Zhang, Li; Voigt, Aaron; Schneuwly, Stephan; Botella, Jose A

    2014-11-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has contributed significantly to the understanding of disease mechanisms in Parkinson's disease (PD) as it is one of the very few PD model organisms that allow the study of age-dependent behavioral defects, physiology and histology, and genetic interactions among different PD-related genes. However, there have been contradictory results from a number of recent reports regarding the loss of dopaminergic neurons in different PD fly models. In an attempt to re-evaluate and clarify this issue, we have examined three different genetic (?-synuclein, Pink1, parkin) and two toxin-based (rotenone and paraquat) models of the disease for neuronal cell loss. Our results showed no dopaminergic neuronal loss in all models tested. Despite this surprising result, we found additional phenotypes showing the dysfunctional status of the dopaminergic neurons in most of the models analyzed. A common feature found in most models is a quantifiable decrease in the fluorescence of a green-fluorescent protein reporter gene in dopaminergic neurons that correlates well with other phenotypes found for these models and can be reliably used as a hallmark of the neurodegenerative process when modeling diseases affecting the dopaminergic system in Drosophila. Analyzing three genetic and two toxin-based Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease (PD) through green fluorescent protein reporter and ?-tyrosine hydroxylase staining, we have found the number of dopaminergic neurons to remain unchanged. Despite the lack of neuronal loss, we have detected a remarkable decrease in a reporter green-fluorescent protein (GFP) signal in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting an abnormal neuronal status that correlates with the phenotypes associated with those PD fly models. PMID:25040725

  10. Genomic indicators in the blood predict drug-induced liver injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Huang; W Shi; J Zhang; J W Chou; R S Paules; K Gerrish; J Li; J Luo; R D Wolfinger; W Bao; T-M Chu; Y Nikolsky; T Nikolskaya; D Dosymbekov; M O Tsyganova; L Shi; X Fan; J C Corton; M Chen; Y Cheng; W Tong; H Fang; P R Bushel

    2010-01-01

    Genomic biomarkers for the detection of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) from blood are urgently needed for monitoring drug safety. We used a unique data set as part of the Food and Drug Administration led MicroArray Quality Control Phase-II (MAQC-II) project consisting of gene expression data from the two tissues (blood and liver) to test cross-tissue predictability of genomic indicators to

  11. EFFECT OF OZONE ON DRUG-INDUCED SLEEPING TIME IN MICE PRETREATED WITH MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDASE INDUCERS AND INHIBITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of ozone in prolonging pentobarbital (PEN)-induced sleeping time (S.T.). Since ozone is a common air pollutant, an ozone-induced alteration of mechanisms of drug action could have public health implications. It was shown that a 5-h...

  12. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... does not represent official policy of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The information in LiverTox ... treatment of drug induced liver injury. The U.S. Government and its individual agencies, including the NIDDK, NLM ...

  13. Case Definition and Phenotype Standardization in Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G P Aithal; P B Watkins; R J Andrade; D Larrey; M Molokhia; H Takikawa; C M Hunt; R A Wilke; M Avigan; N Kaplowitz; E Bjornsson; A K Daly

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most frequent reason cited for the withdrawal of approved drugs from the market and accounts for up to 15% of the cases of acute liver failure. Investigators around the globe have begun to identify and study patients with DILI; several large registries and tissue banks are being established. In order to gain the maximum

  14. ?-Synuclein-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease occurs independent of ATP13A2 (PARK9).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Guillaume; Musso, Alessandra; Tsika, Elpida; Fiser, Aris; Glauser, Liliane; Pletnikova, Olga; Schneider, Bernard L; Moore, Darren J

    2014-10-18

    Mutations in the ATP13A2 (PARK9) gene cause early-onset, autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) and Kufor-Rakeb syndrome. ATP13A2 mRNA is spliced into three distinct isoforms encoding a P5-type ATPase involved in regulating heavy metal transport across vesicular membranes. Here, we demonstrate that three ATP13A2 mRNA isoforms are expressed in the normal human brain and are modestly increased in the cingulate cortex of PD cases. ATP13A2 can mediate protection toward a number of stressors in mammalian cells and can protect against ?-synuclein-induced toxicity in cellular and invertebrate models of PD. Using a primary cortical neuronal model combined with lentiviral-mediated gene transfer, we demonstrate that human ATP13A2 isoforms 1 and 2 display selective neuroprotective effects toward toxicity induced by manganese and hydrogen peroxide exposure through an ATPase-independent mechanism. The familial PD mutations, F182L and G504R, abolish the neuroprotective effects of ATP13A2 consistent with a loss-of-function mechanism. We further demonstrate that the AAV-mediated overexpression of human ATP13A2 is not sufficient to attenuate dopaminergic neurodegeneration, neuropathology, and striatal dopamine and motoric deficits induced by human ?-synuclein expression in a rat model of PD. Intriguingly, the delivery of an ATPase-deficient form of ATP13A2 (D513N) to the substantia nigra is sufficient to induce dopaminergic neuronal degeneration and motor deficits in rats, potentially suggesting a dominant-negative mechanism of action. Collectively, our data demonstrate a distinct lack of ATP13A2-mediated protection against ?-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity in the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, and limited neuroprotective capacity overall, and raise doubts about the potential of ATP13A2 as a therapeutic target for PD. PMID:25461191

  15. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics study on a goldfish model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaoguang; Wang, Junsong; Li, Minghui; Liu, Qingwang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-09-19

    A goldfish (Carassius auratus) model of Parkinson's disease (PD) was constructed by a single dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) according to previously reported methods. Global metabolite changes in brain of the MPTP induced goldfish model of PD were investigated. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics combined with various statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) found significant increase of leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, alanylalanine, creatinine, myo-inositol, 18:2 fatty acid, total fatty acids, arachic alcohol, taurine and significant decrease of N-acetylaspartate, (phospho)creatine, (phospho)choline, betaine, glutamine, 3-hexenedioate, acetamide, malonate, isocitrate, scyllo-inositol, phosphatidylcholines, cholesterols, n-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in brain of MPTP induced PD goldfish. These disturbed metabolite levels were involved in oxidative stress, energy failure, neuronal cell injury and death, consistent with those observed in clinical PD patients, and rodents and primates model of PD, indicating that the acute MPTP model of goldfish was an ideal and valuable model for PD research. In addition, several unusual metabolites in brain were significantly changed between MPTP induced PD and control goldfish, which might also play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. This study also demonstrated the applicability and potential of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach for evaluation of animal models of disease induced by chemicals, such as MPTP-induced PD goldfish. PMID:25242684

  16. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald F. Pfeiffer

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, an increasingly detailed picture of gastrointestinal dysfunction in the setting of Parkinson’s disease has emerged. Abnormalities of function may occur at virtually all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. Weight loss, dental deterioration, salivary excess, dysphagia, gastroparesis, decreased bowel movement frequency, and anorectal dysfunction all may occur. The pathophysiologic basis for this dysfunction entails both central and enteric

  17. The Sequence Effect in De Novo Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk Yun; Wasaka, Toshiaki; Shamim, Ejaz A.; Auh, Sungyoung; Ueki, Yoshino; Dang, Nguyet; Hallett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose The sequence effect (SE) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) denotes progressive slowness in speed or progressive decrease in amplitude of repetitive movements. It is a well-known feature of bradykinesia and is considered unique in PD. Until now, it was well-documented in advanced PD, but not in drug-naďve PD. The aim of this study is to know whether the SE can also be measured in drug-naďve PD. Methods We measured the SE with a computer-based, modified Purdue pegboard in 4 drug-naďve PD patients, which matched our previous study with advanced PD patients. Results We observed progressive slowness during movement, that is, SE. Statistical analysis showed a strong statistical trend toward the SE with the right hand, but no significance with the left hand. There was no statistical significance of SE with either the more or less affected hands. Conclusions These results indicate that the SE can be identified in drug-naďve PD, as well as in advanced PD, with objective measurements and support the idea that the SE is a feature in PD observed during the early stage of the disease without medication. PMID:24868390

  18. The exploration of rotenone as a toxin for inducing Parkinson's disease in rats, for application in BBB transport and PK–PD experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulien G. M. Ravenstijn; Mario Merlini; Marjolijn Hameetman; Tracey K. Murray; Mark A. Ward; Hywel Lewis; Gareth Ball; Cathy Mottart; Christine de Ville de Goyet; Thomas Lemarchand; Kristel van Belle; Michael J. O'Neill; Meindert Danhof; Elizabeth C. M. de Lange

    2008-01-01

    IntroductionIn search for a suitable rat model to study potentially affected blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport mechanisms in the course of Parkinsons disease (PD) progression, experiments were performed to characterise Parkinsons disease markers following subcutaneous (SC) and intracerebral (IC) infusion of the toxin rotenone in the rat.

  19. Comparison of DSIP- (delta sleep-inducing peptide) and P-DSIP-like (phosphorylated) immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, multi-infarct syndrome, communicating hydrocephalus and Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Ernst; Hinrich Cramer; Denise Strubel; Francis Kuntzmann; Guido A. Schoenenberger

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP)-like (DSIP-LI) and P-DSIP-like (phosphorylated, Ser7) immunoreactivity (P-DSIP-LI) were measured by specific radioimmunoassay in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type [SDAT, subdivided into early (S1), middle (S2) and late dementia (S3)], multi-infarct dementia (MD), Parkinson's disease (PD), vascular disease (VD) and communicating hydrocephalus (H), as well as

  20. Diabetes in Patients With Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

    E-print Network

    Claudia Becker; Gunnar P. Brobert; Christoph R. Meier

    OBJECTIVE — Previous observational studies reported inconsistent results on the association between diabetes and Parkinson’s disease, and data on the risk of developing incident diabetes in relation to Parkinson’s disease are scarce. We aimed at comparing the diabetes prevalence between patients with or without Parkinson’s disease and at exploring the risk of developing incident diabetes associated with Parkinson’s disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — We used the U.K.-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) to 1) compare the diabetes prevalence between Parkinson’s disease cases and a matched comparison group free of Parkinson’s disease between 1994 and 2005 and to 2) conduct a follow-up study with a nested case-control analysis to quantify the risk of developing new-onset diabetes in association with Parkinson’s disease. RESULTS — The diabetes prevalence was similar in patients with and without Parkinson’s disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.95 [95 % CI 0.80–1.14]). In the cohort analysis (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.55 [95 % CI 0.38–0.81]) and in the nested case-control analysis (adjusted OR 0.53 [95 % CI 0.33–0.87]), the risk of developing diabetes was lower in patients with Parkinson’s disease than in subjects without. The adjusted OR for patients with Parkinson’s disease who were

  1. Neurodegenerative Shielding by Curcumin and Its Derivatives on Brain Lesions Induced by 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shyam Sunder; Gullaiya, Sumeet; Dubey, Vishal; Singh, Varun; Kumar, Ashok; Nagar, Ashish; Tiwari, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Study was undertaken to evaluate the neurodegenerative defending potential of curcumin (CUR), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) on 6-hydroxydopamine-(6-OHDA) induced Parkinsonism model in rats. Curcuminoids were administered (60?mg/kg, body weight, per oral) for three weeks followed by unilateral injection of 6-OHDA on 22nd day (10??g/2??L) into the right striatum leading to extensive loss of dopaminergic cells. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine (DA), DOPAC, and HVA followed by dopamine (D2) receptor binding assay and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, using immunohistochemistry) were evaluated using HPLC after three weeks of lesion. Pretreated animals showed significant protection against neuronal degeneration compared to lesion animals by normalizing the deranged levels of biomarkers and showed the potency in the order CUR > DMC > BDMC. The same order of effectiveness was observed in D2 receptors binding assay and TH immunohistochemistry study. We conclude that curcuminoids appear to shield progressive neuronal degeneration from increased oxidative attack in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats through its free radical scavenging mechanism, and DA, DOPAC, and HVA enhancing capabilities in the sequence of efficacy CUR > DMC > BDMC. Further, curcuminoids may have potential utility in treatment of many more oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22928089

  2. Hepatocyte-based in vitro model for assessment of drug-induced cholestasis

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sagnik, E-mail: Sagnik.Chatterjee@pharm.kuleuven.be [Drug Delivery and Disposition, KU Leuven Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, O and N2, Herestraat 49 — bus 921, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Richert, Lysiane, E-mail: l.richert@kaly-cell.com [KaLy-Cell, 20A rue du Général Leclerc, 67115 Plobsheim (France); Augustijns, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Augustijns@pharm.kuleuven.be [Drug Delivery and Disposition, KU Leuven Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, O and N2, Herestraat 49 — bus 921, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Annaert, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Annaert@pharm.kuleuven.be [Drug Delivery and Disposition, KU Leuven Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, O and N2, Herestraat 49 — bus 921, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of drug-induced cholestasis remains a challenge during drug development. We have developed and validated a biorelevant sandwich-cultured hepatocytes- (SCH) based model that can identify compounds causing cholestasis by altering bile acid disposition. Human and rat SCH were exposed (24–48 h) to known cholestatic and/or hepatotoxic compounds, in the presence or in the absence of a concentrated mixture of bile acids (BAs). Urea assay was used to assess (compromised) hepatocyte functionality at the end of the incubations. The cholestatic potential of the compounds was expressed by calculating a drug-induced cholestasis index (DICI), reflecting the relative residual urea formation by hepatocytes co-incubated with BAs and test compound as compared to hepatocytes treated with test compound alone. Compounds with clinical reports of cholestasis, including cyclosporin A, troglitazone, chlorpromazine, bosentan, ticlopidine, ritonavir, and midecamycin showed enhanced toxicity in the presence of BAs (DICI ? 0.8) for at least one of the tested concentrations. In contrast, the in vitro toxicity of compounds causing hepatotoxicity by other mechanisms (including diclofenac, valproic acid, amiodarone and acetaminophen), remained unchanged in the presence of BAs. A safety margin (SM) for drug-induced cholestasis was calculated as the ratio of lowest in vitro concentration for which was DICI ? 0.8, to the reported mean peak therapeutic plasma concentration. SM values obtained in human SCH correlated well with reported % incidence of clinical drug-induced cholestasis, while no correlation was observed in rat SCH. This in vitro model enables early identification of drug candidates causing cholestasis by disturbed BA handling. - Highlights: • Novel in vitro assay to detect drug-induced cholestasis • Rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) as in vitro models • Cholestatic compounds sensitize SCH to toxic effects of accumulating bile acids • Drug-induced cholestasis index (DICI) as measure of a drug's cholestatic signature • In vitro findings correlate well with clinical reports on cholestasis.

  3. Investigational targeted drug induces responses in aggressive lymphomas

    Cancer.gov

    Preliminary results from clinical trials in a subtype of lymphoma show that for a number of patients whose disease was not cured by other treatments, the drug ibrutinib can provide significant anti-cancer responses with modest side effects.

  4. [A case of drug eruption induced by hydroxyzine pamoate].

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, Risa; Katoh, Norito; Nin, Megumi; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2006-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, Basedow's disease and arrhythmia has been treated with antirheumatic, antiarrhythmic drugs and so on. She developed pruritic diffuse erythema with papules on the trunk and extremities 2 days after taking hydroxyzine pamoate for asteatotic eczema. Laboratory data showed increased levels of eosinophils. Histopathological examination revealed a infiltrate of inflammatory cells in the upper dermis. Patch tests with hydroxyzine pamoate and hydroxyzine hydrochloride were positive. From these findings, we diagnosed this case as drug eruption due to hydroxyzine. Her eruption subsided after she discontinued hydroxyzine pamoate and other drugs which were started within 5 days before the onset of the eruption and was treated with systemic steroid, systemic antiallergic drug and topical steroid. PMID:16671329

  5. The history of Parkinson's disease: early clinical descriptions and neurological therapies.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2011-09-01

    Although components of possible Parkinson's disease can be found in very early documents, the first clear medical description was written in 1817 by James Parkinson. In the mid-1800s, Jean-Martin Charcot was particularly influential in refining and expanding this early description and in disseminating information internationally about Parkinson's disease. He separated Parkinson's disease from multiple sclerosis and other disorders characterized by tremor, and he recognized cases that later would likely be classified among the Parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Early treatments of Parkinson's disease were based on empirical observation, and anticholinergic drugs were used as early as the nineteenth century. The discovery of dopaminergic deficits in Parkinson's disease and the synthetic pathway of dopamine led to the first human trials of levodopa. Further historically important anatomical, biochemical, and physiological studies identified additional pharmacological and neurosurgical targets for Parkinson's disease and allow modern clinicians to offer an array of therapies aimed at improving function in this still incurable disease. PMID:22229124

  6. The History of Parkinson's Disease: Early Clinical Descriptions and Neurological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Although components of possible Parkinson's disease can be found in very early documents, the first clear medical description was written in 1817 by James Parkinson. In the mid-1800s, Jean-Martin Charcot was particularly influential in refining and expanding this early description and in disseminating information internationally about Parkinson's disease. He separated Parkinson's disease from multiple sclerosis and other disorders characterized by tremor, and he recognized cases that later would likely be classified among the Parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Early treatments of Parkinson's disease were based on empirical observation, and anticholinergic drugs were used as early as the nineteenth century. The discovery of dopaminergic deficits in Parkinson's disease and the synthetic pathway of dopamine led to the first human trials of levodopa. Further historically important anatomical, biochemical, and physiological studies identified additional pharmacological and neurosurgical targets for Parkinson's disease and allow modern clinicians to offer an array of therapies aimed at improving function in this still incurable disease. PMID:22229124

  7. Drug-Induced Morphology Switch in Drug Delivery Systems Based on Poly(2-oxazoline)s

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Defined aggregates of polymers such as polymeric micelles are of great importance in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. The amount of drug that can be formulated by a drug delivery system is an important issue, and most drug delivery systems suffer from their relatively low drug-loading capacity. However, as the loading capacities increase, i.e., promoted by good drug–polymer interactions, the drug may affect the morphology and stability of the micellar system. We investigated this effect in a prominent system with very high capacity for hydrophobic drugs and found extraordinary stability as well as a profound morphology change upon incorporation of paclitaxel into micelles of amphiphilic ABA poly(2-oxazoline) triblock copolymers. The hydrophilic blocks A comprised poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline), while the middle blocks B were either just barely hydrophobic poly(2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline) or highly hydrophobic poly(2-n-nonyl-2-oxazoline). The aggregation behavior of both polymers and their formulations with varying paclitaxel contents were investigated by means of dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, (cryogenic) transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering. While without drug, wormlike micelles were present, after incorporation of small amounts of drugs only spherical morphologies remained. Furthermore, the much more hydrophobic poly(2-n-nonyl-2-oxazoline)-containing triblock copolymer exhibited only half the capacity for paclitaxel than the poly(2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline)-containing copolymer along with a lower stability. In the latter, contents of paclitaxel of 8 wt % or higher resulted in a raspberry-like micellar core. PMID:24548260

  8. Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia following a Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval for In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Ioanna A.; Longmire, Michelle; Aster, Richard H.; Milki, Amin A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia has been associated with hundreds of medications and can lead to devastating consequences for the patient. We present a case of a healthy 33-year-old female undergoing in vitro fertilization who developed a severe drug-induced thrombocytopenia, petechiae, and a large hemoperitoneum after receiving Cefazolin antibiotic prophylaxis for a transvaginal oocyte retrieval. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for resuscitation with blood products. The presence of drug-dependent platelet antibodies to Cefazolin was confirmed serologically.

  9. Optimizing bioavailability in the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren C. Seeberger; Robert A. Hauser

    2007-01-01

    The bioavailability of drugs used to treat chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease may have important implications for their clinical utility. Drugs with low bioavailability may cause a wide variation in clinical response between patients and even in the same patient. In addition, numerous factors – including gender, age, and gastric motility – may affect a drug's bioavailability. This is

  10. Poly (ADP-ribose) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Kim, Young Pil; Shin, Joo-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The defining feature of Parkinson’s disease is a progressive and selective demise of dopaminergic neurons. A recent report on Parkinson’s disease animal model demonstrates that poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) dependent cell death, also named parthanatos, is accountable for selective dopaminergic neuronal loss. Parthanatos is a programmed necrotic cell death, characterized by PARP1 activation, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation, and large scale DNA fragmentation. Besides cell death regulation via interaction with AIF, PAR molecule mediates diverse cellular processes including genomic stability, cell division, transcription, epigenetic regulation, and stress granule formation. In this review, we will discuss the roles of PARP1 activation and PAR molecules in the pathological processes of Parkinson’s disease. Potential interaction between PAR molecule and Parkinson’s disease protein interactome are briefly introduced. Finally, we suggest promising points of therapeutic intervention in the pathological PAR signaling cascade to halt progression in Parkinson’s disease. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 424-432] PMID:24874851

  11. Acetaldehyde and parkinsonism: role of CYP450 2E1

    PubMed Central

    Vaglini, Francesca; Viaggi, Cristina; Piro, Valentina; Pardini, Carla; Gerace, Claudio; Scarselli, Marco; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The present review update the relationship between acetaldehyde (ACE) and parkinsonism with a specific focus on the role of P450 system and CYP 2E1 isozyme particularly. We have indicated that ACE is able to enhance the parkinsonism induced in mice by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a neurotoxin able to damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Similarly diethyldithiocarbamate, the main metabolite of disulfiram, a drug widely used to control alcoholism, diallylsulfide (DAS) and phenylisothiocyanate also markedly enhance the toxin-related parkinsonism. All these compounds are substrate/inhibitors of CYP450 2E1 isozyme. The presence of CYP 2E1 has been detected in the dopamine (DA) neurons of rodent Substantia Nigra (SN), but a precise function of the enzyme has not been elucidated yet. By treating CYP 2E1 knockout (KO) mice with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, the SN induced lesion was significantly reduced when compared with the lesion observed in wild-type animals. Several in vivo and in vitro studies led to the conclusion that CYP 2E1 may enhance the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice by increasing free radical production inside the dopaminergic neurons. ACE is a good substrate for CYP 2E1 enzyme as the other substrate-inhibitors and by this way may facilitate the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to toxic events. The literature suggests that ethanol and/or disulfiram may be responsible for toxic parkinsonism in human and it indicates that basal ganglia are the major targets of disulfiram toxicity. A very recent study reports that there are a decreased methylation of the CYP 2E1 gene and increased expression of CYP 2E1 mRNA in Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. This study suggests that epigenetic variants of this cytochrome contribute to the susceptibility, thus confirming multiples lines of evidence which indicate a link between environmental toxins and PD. PMID:23801948

  12. Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson's rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, SuFang; Xie, ChengLong; Wang, Qiang; Liu, ZhenGuo

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a synapse-enriched kinase in mammalian brains. This kinase interacts with various synaptic proteins to regulate expression and function of interacting proteins and thereby modulates synaptic transmission. CaMKII and its interacting partners are also believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we found that CaMKII? binds to dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in vitro. A distal region in the D2R third intracellular loop harbors CaMKII? binding. Endogenous CaMKII? was also found to interact with native D2Rs in rat striatal neurons in which D2Rs are expressed at a high level. In addition, in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned model of PD, chronic levodopa administration induced characteristic dyskinesia. In parallel, levodopa induced an increase in CaMKII?-D2R interactions in striatal neurons. Intrastriatal injection of a Tat-fusion and CaMKII?-D2R interaction-dead peptide (Tat-D2Ri) reversed this increase in the interaction between two proteins. Tat-D2Ri also alleviated dyskinetic behaviors induced by levodopa. These results reveal a new interaction between CaMKII? and D2Rs in striatal neurons which is sensitive to long-term administration of levodopa in PD rats. Prevention of the response of CaMKII?-D2R interactions to levodopa can alleviate levodopa-induced dyskinesia. PMID:25351365

  13. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for drug development and toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sinnecker, Daniel; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Moretti, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology is creating exciting new opportunities for cardiovascular research by providing platforms to study the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis that could lead to new therapies or reveal drug sensitivities. In this review, the potential usefulness of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes in drug development as well as in drug toxicity testing is discussed, with a focus on the achievements that have been already made in this regard. Moreover, the crucial steps that have to be taken before this technology can be broadly used in drug discovery and toxicology assessments are highlighted. PMID:24657289

  14. Pharmacogenetic aspects of drug-induced torsade de pointes: potential tool for improving clinical drug development and prescribing.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2004-01-01

    Drug-induced torsade de pointes (TdP) has proved to be a significant iatro-genic cause of morbidity and mortality and a major reason for the withdrawal of a number of drugs from the market in recent times. Enzymes that metabolise many of these drugs and the potassium channels that are responsible for cardiac repolarisation display genetic polymorphisms. Anecdotal reports have suggested that in many cases of drug-induced TdP, there may be a concealed genetic defect of either these enzymes or the potassium channels, giving rise to either high plasma drug concentrations or diminished cardiac repolarisation reserve, respectively. The presence of either of these genetic defects may predispose a patient to TdP, a potentially fatal adverse reaction, even at therapeutic dosages of QT-prolonging drugs and in the absence of other risk factors. Advances in pharmacogenetics of drug metabolising enzymes and pharmacological targets, together with the prospects of rapid and inexpensive genotyping procedures, promise to individualise and improve the benefit/risk ratio of therapy with drugs that have the potential to cause TdP. The qualitative and the quantitative contributions of these genetic defects in clinical cases of TdP are unclear because not all of the patients with TdP are routinely genotyped and some relevant genetic mutations still remain to be discovered. There are regulatory guidelines that recommend strategies aimed at uncovering the risk of TdP associated with new chemical entities during their development. There are also a number of guidelines that recommend integrating pharmacogenetics in this process. This paper proposes a strategy for integrating pharmacogenetics into drug development programmes to optimise association studies correlating genetic traits and endpoints of clinical interest, namely failure of efficacy or development of repolarisation abnormalities. Until pharmacogenetics is carefully integrated into all phases of development of QT-prolonging drugs and large-scale studies are undertaken during their post-marketing use to determine the genetic components involved in induction of TdP, routine genotyping of patients remains unrealistic. Even without this pharmacogenetic data, the clinical risk of TdP can already be greatly minimised. Clinically, a substantial proportion of cases of TdP are due to the use of either high or usual dosages of drugs with potential to cause TdP in the presence of factors that inhibit drug metabolism. Therefore, choosing the lowest effective dose and identifying patients with these non-genetic risk factors are important means of minimising the risk of TdP. In view of the common secondary pharmacology shared by these drugs, a standard set of contraindications and warnings have evolved over the last decade. These include factors responsible for pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic drug interactions. Among the latter, the more important ones are bradycardia, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac disease and co-administration of two or more QT-prolonging drugs. In principle, if large scale prospective studies can demonstrate a substantial genetic component, pharmacogenetically driven prescribing ought to reduce the risk further. However, any potential benefits of pharmacogenetics will be squandered without any reduction in the clinical risk of TdP if physicians do not follow prescribing and monitoring recommendations. PMID:14756578

  15. Drug mimic induced conformational changes in model polymer-drug conjugates characterized by small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Paul, A; James, C; Heenan, R K; Schweins, R

    2010-08-01

    Copolymers based on poly(N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide)) with conjugated Doxrubicin are established as candidate anticancer therapeutics. Two HPMA-co-polymers (ca. 35000 g mol(-1)) with 2.5 and 8 mol % gly-phe-leu-gly peptidyl side-chain content have been modified using linear hydrocarbon and small aromatic molecules as simple drug mimics. This first contrast-variation SANS study on these systems demonstrates, combined with detailed modeling, a controlled switch from random coil to a more defined morphology induced by inclusion of a series of model drug mimics. Relatively small changes in drug-mimic type and loading can significantly alter the solution conformation, and we tentatively propose a helical type structure that is more or less tightly wound, depending on both hydrophobe loading and type. The results presented have important implications for understanding the influence of conjugate structure on solution properties, which is an important factor influencing biological and clinical activity. PMID:20593879

  16. A recent update of pharmacogenomics in drug-induced severe skin reactions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-Yu; Ko, Tai-Ming; Shen, Chen-Yang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2012-01-01

    In some adverse drug reactions (ADRs), genetic predisposition plays a significant role in pathogenesis, and the skin is the most frequently reported target. These severe cutaneous ADRs include bullous fixed drug eruptions (FDE), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). The putative contribution of individual effector cells in drug hypersensitivity is briefly mentioned. To trigger these drug hypersensitivities, certain class I HLA alleles (e.g., HLA-A and HLA-B alleles) and certain class II HLA alleles (e.g., HLA-DR alleles) have been recently found to be the genetic determinants. One of the best characterized examples mentioned in this article is HLA-B*1502 to determine the incidence of carbamazepine-induced SJS. How drugs are processed and presented by these HLA alleles to activate immune responses has been explained by several hypotheses. Further implication of pharmagenomic findings to prevent drug-induced severe skin reactions can be achieved by pre-screening putative risk HLA alleles before using drugs. PMID:22041139

  17. Cross-drug resistance to sunitinib induced by doxorubicin in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, LIMIN; HU, CHAOQUAN; DI BENEDETTO, MÉLANIE; VARIN, RÉMI; LIU, JIELIN; JIN, JIAN; WANG, LI; VANNIER, JEAN-PIERRE; JANIN, ANNE; LU, HE; LI, HONG

    2015-01-01

    Multiple drug resistance remains an unsolved problem in cancer therapy. A previous study has demonstrated that the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (Dox) induced upregulation of P-glycoprotein in endothelial cells, resulting in a 20-fold increase in drug resistance and reduced efficiency of doxorubicin treatment in a mouse tumor model. In the present study, the cross-resistance and sensitivity of HMECd1 and HMECd2 established cell lines to anti-angiogenic drugs, particularly sunitinib, was explored. The results revealed that Dox treatment induced a significant increase in the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) gene transcription and protein expression. This increase gave rise to a 4- to 5-fold increase in the half maximal inhibitory concentration of the HMECd1 and HMECd2 cells in response to sunitinib treatment in vitro. Functionally, the role of ABCG2 in the resistance to sunitinib was confirmed by the use of the ABCG2 inhibitors fumitremorgin C and diethylstilbestrol, which blocked cell resistance. The present study indicates that endothelial cells exhibit cross-resistance between cytotoxic drugs and anti-angiogenic drugs. This suggests that multiple drug resistance induced by chemotherapy in endothelial cells may affect the efficiency of anti-angiogenic drugs. PMID:25663899

  18. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-OHDA induces oxidative damage through proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Kanthasamy, Arthi, E-mail: arthik@iastate.edu

    2011-11-15

    The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 {mu}M) for 24 h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the free radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 {mu}M) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 {mu}M). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKC{delta}{sup D327A} and kinase dead PKC{delta}{sup K376R} or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC{delta} protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKC{delta} expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKC{delta} cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKC{delta}{sup D327A} protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKC{delta} activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value for development of novel treatment strategies for PD.

  19. Imaging of the dopamine transporter predicts pattern of disease progression and response to levodopa in patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism: a 2-year follow-up multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Morgante, Francesca; Matinella, Angela; Bovi, Tommaso; Cannas, Antonino; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Zappia, Mario; Luca, Antonina; Di Stefano, Angela; Morgante, Letterio; Pacchetti, Claudio; Minafra, Brigida; Sciarretta, Massimo; Dallocchio, Carlo; Rossi, Simone; Ulivelli, Monica; Ceravolo, Roberto; Frosini, Daniela; Cipriani, Andrea; Barbui, Corrado

    2014-02-01

    Similarly to subjects with degenerative parkinsonism, (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT has been reported either normal or abnormal in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP), challenging the notion that parkinsonism might be entirely due to post-synaptic D2-receptors blockade by antipsychotic drugs. In a previous multicenter cross-sectional study conducted on a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, we identified 97 patients who developed parkinsonism with a similar bi-modal distribution of DAT-SPECT. In this longitudinal study, we reported clinical and imaging features associated with progression of motor disability over 2-year follow-up in 60 out of those 97 patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism who underwent (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT at baseline evaluation (normal SPECT=33; abnormal SPECT=27). As second end-point, chronic response to levodopa over a 3-month period was tested in a subgroup of subjects. Motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) at follow-up significantly increased in patients with abnormal SPECT. Specifically, a 6-point worsening was demonstrated in 18.5% of the subjects with abnormal SPECT and in none of the subjects with normal SPECT. Levodopa treatment improved motor UPDRS only in the group with abnormal SPECT. After adjustment for possible confounders, linear regression analysis demonstrated that abnormal SPECT findings at baseline were the only predictor of motor disability progression and of better outcome of levodopa treatment. Our results support the notion that a degenerative disease might underlie parkinsonism in a minority of schizophrenic patients chronically exposed to antipsychotics. Functional imaging of the dopamine transporter can be helpful to select this patient sub-group that might benefit from levodopa therapy. PMID:24369987

  20. Drug-induced cure drives conversion to a stable and protective CD8+ T central memory response in chronic

    E-print Network

    Drug-induced cure drives conversion to a stable and protective CD8+ T central memory response the development of stable, antigen-independent CD8+ T cell memory after drug-induced cure of a chronic infection. By establishing a system for drug cure of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection, we present the first extensively

  1. Neuroprotective effects of 5-(4-hydroxy-3-dimethoxybenzylidene)-thiazolidinone in MPTP induced Parkinsonism model in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhili; Yang, Nan; Ji, Chao; Zheng, Ji; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yanyong; Zuo, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DAergic) system. Present treatment targeting to DAergic system solely ameliorated the symptoms but failed to retard the DAergic neuron degeneration, therefore new therapeutic methods aiming at preventing or delaying the neurodegenerative process are urgently needed. In the present study, we found that 5-(4-hydroxy-3-dimethoxybenzylidene)-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (RD-1), a compound derived from rhodanine, protected DAergicneurons from neurotoxicity of MPTP/MPP(+). Firstly, RD-1 significantly improved the locomotor ability in the MPTP mice model, and elevated the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cell numbers in substantianigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the integrated optical density (IOD) of TH-positive nerve fibers in striatum respectively. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in pathogenesis of PD, thereby we investigated the molecular mechanisms of RD-1 against MPTP/MPP(+) neurotoxicity, focusing on its effects on the mitochondrial dysfunction. Immunoblotting analysis showed that RD-1 significantly elevated the Parkin and Miro2 expression levels in acute MPTP treated mice, and improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis in MPP(+)-treated Neuro-2a cells. Moreover, RD-1attenuated impaired mitochondrial transport and vesicle release dysfunction evoked by MPP(+) cytotoxicity in cultured primary mesencephalic neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that improving the mitochondrial dysfunction may be a good choice to delay the neurodegenerative progression commonly associated with PD. PMID:25680233

  2. Transplantation of subventricular zone neural precursors induces an endogenous precursor cell response in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Lalitha; Daley, Brian F; Paumier, Katrina L; Collier, Timothy J

    2009-07-01

    Realistically, future stem cell therapies for neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD) will most probably entail combination treatment strategies, involving both the stimulation of endogenous cells and transplantation. Therefore, this study investigates these two modes of neural precursor cell (NPC) therapy in concert in order to determine their interrelationships in a rat PD model. Human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPAP)-labeled NPCs were transplanted unilaterally into host rats which were subsequently infused ipsilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The reaction of host NPCs to the transplantation and 6-OHDA was tracked by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling. Two weeks after transplantation, in animals transplanted with NPCs we found evidence of elevated host subventricular zone NPC proliferation, neurogenesis, and migration to the graft site. In these animals, we also observed a significant preservation of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and substantia nigra TH cell number. We have seen no evidence that neuroprotection is a product of dopamine neuron replacement by NPC-derived cells. Rather, the NPCs expressed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), sonic hedgehog (Shh), and stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1alpha), providing a molecular basis for the observed neuroprotection and endogenous NPC response to transplantation. In summary, our data suggests plausible synergy between exogenous and endogenous NPC actions, and that NPC implantation before the 6-OHDA insult can create a host microenvironment conducive to stimulation of endogenous NPCs and protection of mature nigral neurons. PMID:19399899

  3. Tat-fused recombinant human SAG prevents dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Kim, Dae Won; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2014-03-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from abnormal cellular process lead to various human diseases such as inflammation, ischemia, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), a RING-FINGER protein, has anti-apoptotic activity and anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigate whether Tat-SAG, fused with a Tat domain, could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that, unlike SAG, Tat-SAG transduced efficiently into SH-SY5Y cells and into the brain, respectively. Tat-SAG remarkably suppressed ROS generation, DNA damage, and the progression of apoptosis, caused by MPP(+) in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, immunohistochemical data using a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and cresyl violet staining demonstrated that Tat-SAG obviously protected DA neurons in the SN against MPTP toxicity in a PD mouse model. Tat-SAG-treated mice showed significant enhanced motor activities, compared to SAG- or Tat-treated mice. Therefore, our results suggest that Tat-SAG has potential as a therapeutic agent against ROS-related diseases such as PD. PMID:24625574

  4. Neuroprotective effects of curcumin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonism in rats: behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Khuwaja, Gulrana; Khan, Mohd Moshahid; Ishrat, Tauheed; Ahmad, Ajmal; Raza, Syed Shadab; Ashafaq, Mohammad; Javed, Hayate; Khan, M Badruzzaman; Khan, Andleeb; Vaibhav, Kumar; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

    2011-01-12

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric used in Indian curry is known for its antitumor, antioxidant, antiarthritic, anti-ischemic and anti-inflammatory properties and might inhibit the accumulation of destructive beta-amyloid in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. A Parkinsonian model in rats was developed by giving 6-hydroxydopamine (10 ?g/2 ?l in 0.1% ascorbic acid-saline) in the right striatum. After 3 weeks of lesioning, the behavior activities (rotarod, narrow beam test, grip test and contra-lateral rotations) were increased in a lesioned group as compared to a sham group and these activities were protected significantly with the pretreatment of curcumin. A significant protection on lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, tyrosine hydroxylase and D(2) receptor binding was observed in the striatum of lesioned group animals pretreated with 80 mg/kg body weight of curcumin for 21 days as compared to lesion group animals. No significant alterations on behavior and biochemical parameters were observed in sham group animals and the animals of sham group pretreated with curcumin. This study indicates that curcumin, which is an important ingredient of diet in India and also used in various systems of indigenous medicine, is helpful in preventing Parkinsonism and has therapeutic potential in combating this devastating neurologic disorder. PMID:20951685

  5. Patterned, but not tonic, optogenetic stimulation in motor thalamus improves reaching in acute drug-induced Parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Seeger-Armbruster, Sonja; Bosch-Bouju, Clémentine; Little, Shane T C; Smither, Roseanna A; Hughes, Stephanie M; Hyland, Brian I; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C

    2015-01-21

    High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) in motor thalamus (Mthal) ameliorates tremor but not akinesia in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are effective methods of Mthal stimulation to treat akinesia. Glutamatergic Mthal neurons, transduced with channelrhodopsin-2 by injection of lentiviral vector (Lenti.CaMKII.hChR2(H134R).mCherry), were selectively stimulated with blue light (473 nm) via a chronically implanted fiber-optic probe. Rats performed a reach-to-grasp task in either acute drug-induced parkinsonian akinesia (0.03-0.07 mg/kg haloperidol, s.c.) or control (vehicle injection) conditions, and the number of reaches was recorded for 5 min before, during, and after stimulation. We compared the effect of DBS using complex physiological patterns previously recorded in the Mthal of a control rat during reaching or exploring behavior, with tonic DBS delivering the same number of stimuli per second (rate-control 6.2 or 1.8 Hz, respectively) and with stimulation patterns commonly used in other brain regions to treat neurological conditions (tonic 130 Hz, theta burst (TBS), and tonic 15 Hz rate-control for TBS). Control rats typically executed >150 reaches per 5 min, which was unaffected by any of the stimulation patterns. Acute parkinsonian rats executed <20 reaches, displaying marked akinesia, which was significantly improved by stimulating with the physiological reaching pattern or TBS (both p < 0.05), whereas the exploring and all tonic patterns failed to improve reaching. Data indicate that the Mthal may be an effective site to treat akinesia, but the pattern of stimulation is critical for improving reaching in parkinsonian rats. PMID:25609635

  6. Microtubule Destabilization Is Shared by Genetic and Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease Patient Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cartelli, Daniele; Goldwurm, Stefano; Casagrande, Francesca; Pezzoli, Gianni; Cappelletti, Graziella

    2012-01-01

    Data from both toxin-based and gene-based models suggest that dysfunction of the microtubule system contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, even if, at present, no evidence of alterations of microtubules in vivo or in patients is available. Here we analyze cytoskeleton organization in primary fibroblasts deriving from patients with idiopathic or genetic Parkinson’s disease, focusing on mutations in parkin and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2. Our analyses reveal that genetic and likely idiopathic pathology affects cytoskeletal organization and stability, without any activation of autophagy or apoptosis. All parkinsonian fibroblasts have a reduced microtubule mass, represented by a higher fraction of unpolymerized tubulin in respect to control cells, and display significant changes in microtubule stability-related signaling pathways. Furthermore, we show that the reduction of microtubule mass is so closely related to the alteration of cell morphology and behavior that both pharmacological treatment with microtubule-targeted drugs, and genetic approaches, by transfecting the wild type parkin or leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, restore the proper microtubule stability and are able to rescue cell architecture. Taken together, our results suggest that microtubule destabilization is a point of convergence of genetic and idiopathic forms of parkinsonism and highlight, for the first time, that microtubule dysfunction occurs in patients and not only in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, these data contribute to the knowledge on molecular and cellular events underlying Parkinson’s disease and, revealing that correction of microtubule defects restores control phenotype, may offer a new therapeutic target for the management of the disease. PMID:22666358

  7. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and in animal model of Parkinson's disease by enhancing Nrf2 activity.

    PubMed

    Jing, X; Shi, H; Zhang, C; Ren, M; Han, M; Wei, X; Zhang, X; Lou, H

    2015-02-12

    Oxidative stress is central to the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), and therapeutics designed to enhance antioxidant potential could have clinical value. In this study, we investigated whether dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has therapeutic effects in cellular and animal model of PD, and explore the role of nuclear transcription factor related to NF-E2 (Nrf2) in this process. Treatment of animals and dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells with DMF resulted in increased nuclear levels of active Nrf2, with subsequent upregulation of antioxidant target genes. The cytotoxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was reduced by pre-treatment with DMF in SH-SY5Y cells. The increase in the reactive oxygen species caused by 6-OHDA treatment was also attenuated by DMF in SH-SY5Y cells. The neuroprotective effects of DMF against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity were dependent on Nrf2, since treatment with Nrf2 siRNA failed to block against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity and induce Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective genes in SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo, DMF oral administration was shown to upregulate mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated cytoprotective genes, attenuate 6-OHDA induced striatal oxidative stress and inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, DMF ameliorated dopaminergic neurotoxicity in 6-OHDA-induced PD animal models as evidenced by amelioration of locomotor dysfunction, loss in striatal dopamine, and reductions in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that DMF may be beneficial for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like PD. PMID:25449120

  8. Heat Shock Protein-70 (Hsp-70) Suppresses Paraquat-Induced Neurodegeneration by Inhibiting JNK and Caspase-3 Activation in Drosophila Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Pragya, Prakash; Chaouhan, Hitesh Singh; Tiwari, Anand Krishna; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders with limited clinical interventions. A number of epidemiological as well as case-control studies have revealed an association between pesticide exposure, especially of paraquat (PQ) and occurrence of PD. Hsp70, a molecular chaperone by function, has been shown as one of the modulators of neurological disorders. However, paucity of information regarding the protective role of Hsp70 on PQ-induced PD like symptoms led us to hypothesize that modulation of hsp70 expression in the dopaminergic neurons would improve the health of these cells. We took advantage of Drosophila, which is a well-established model for neurological research and also possesses genetic tools for easy manipulation of gene expression with limited ethical concern. Over-expression of hsp70 was found to reduce PQ-induced oxidative stress along with JNK and caspase-3 mediated dopaminergic neuronal cell death in exposed organism. Further, anti-apoptotic effect of hsp70 was shown to confer better homeostasis in the dopaminergic neurons of PQ-exposed organism as evidenced by their improved locomotor performance and survival. The study has merit in the context of human concern since we observed protection of dopaminergic neurons in PQ-exposed organism by over-expressing a human homologue of hsp70, HSPA1L, in these cells. The effect was parallel to that observed with Drosophila hsp70. These findings reflect the potential therapeutic applicability of hsp70 against PQ-induced PD like symptoms in an organism. PMID:24887138

  9. Heat shock protein-70 (Hsp-70) suppresses paraquat-induced neurodegeneration by inhibiting JNK and caspase-3 activation in Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Pragya, Prakash; Chaouhan, Hitesh Singh; Tiwari, Anand Krishna; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders with limited clinical interventions. A number of epidemiological as well as case-control studies have revealed an association between pesticide exposure, especially of paraquat (PQ) and occurrence of PD. Hsp70, a molecular chaperone by function, has been shown as one of the modulators of neurological disorders. However, paucity of information regarding the protective role of Hsp70 on PQ-induced PD like symptoms led us to hypothesize that modulation of hsp70 expression in the dopaminergic neurons would improve the health of these cells. We took advantage of Drosophila, which is a well-established model for neurological research and also possesses genetic tools for easy manipulation of gene expression with limited ethical concern. Over-expression of hsp70 was found to reduce PQ-induced oxidative stress along with JNK and caspase-3 mediated dopaminergic neuronal cell death in exposed organism. Further, anti-apoptotic effect of hsp70 was shown to confer better homeostasis in the dopaminergic neurons of PQ-exposed organism as evidenced by their improved locomotor performance and survival. The study has merit in the context of human concern since we observed protection of dopaminergic neurons in PQ-exposed organism by over-expressing a human homologue of hsp70, HSPA1L, in these cells. The effect was parallel to that observed with Drosophila hsp70. These findings reflect the potential therapeutic applicability of hsp70 against PQ-induced PD like symptoms in an organism. PMID:24887138

  10. Adenoviral-mediated expression of G2019S LRRK2 induces striatal pathology in a kinase-dependent manner in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tsika, Elpida; Nguyen, An Phu Tran; Dusonchet, Julien; Colin, Philippe; Schneider, Bernard L; Moore, Darren J

    2015-05-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 contains functional GTPase and kinase domains. The most common G2019S mutation enhances the kinase activity of LRRK2 in vitro whereas G2019S LRRK2 expression in cultured neurons induces toxicity in a kinase-dependent manner. These observations suggest a potential role for kinase activity in LRRK2-associated PD. We have recently developed a novel rodent model of PD with progressive neurodegeneration induced by the adenoviral-mediated expression of G2019S LRRK2. In the present study, we further characterize this LRRK2 model and determine the contribution of kinase activity to LRRK2-mediated neurodegeneration. Recombinant human adenoviral vectors were employed to deliver human wild-type, G2019S or kinase-inactive G2019S/D1994N LRRK2 to the rat striatum. LRRK2-dependent pathology was assessed in the striatum, a region where LRRK2 protein is normally enriched in the mammalian brain. Human LRRK2 variants are robustly expressed throughout the rat striatum. Expression of G2019S LRRK2 selectively induces the accumulation of neuronal ubiquitin-positive inclusions accompanied by neurite degeneration and the altered distribution of axonal phosphorylated neurofilaments. Importantly, the introduction of a kinase-inactive mutation (G2019S/D1994N) completely ameliorates the pathological effects of G2019S LRRK2 in the striatum supporting a kinase activity-dependent mechanism for this PD-associated mutation. Collectively, our study further elucidates the pathological effects of the G2019S mutation in the mammalian brain and supports the development of kinase inhibitors as a potential therapeutic approach for treating LRRK2-associated PD. This adenoviral rodent model provides an important tool for elucidating the molecular basis of LRRK2-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:25731749

  11. Parkinson’s disease: carbidopa, nausea, and dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Cole, Ted

    2014-01-01

    When l-dopa use began in the early 1960s for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, nausea and reversible dyskinesias were experienced as continuing side effects. Carbidopa or benserazide was added to l-dopa in 1975 solely to control nausea. Subsequent to the increasing use of carbidopa has been the recognition of irreversible dyskinesias, which have automatically been attributed to l-dopa. The research into the etiology of these phenomena has identified the causative agent of the irreversible dyskinesias as carbidopa, not l-dopa. The mechanism of action of the carbidopa and benserazide causes irreversible binding and inactivation of vitamin B6 throughout the body. The consequences of this action are enormous, interfering with over 300 enzyme and protein functions. This has the ability to induce previously undocumented profound antihistamine dyskinesias, which have been wrongly attributed to l-dopa and may be perceived as irreversible if proper corrective action is not taken. PMID:25484598

  12. mTOR complex 1: a key player in neuroadaptations induced by drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Neasta, Jeremie; Barak, Segev; Hamida, Sami Ben; Ron, Dorit

    2014-07-01

    The mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is a serine and threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, survival, and proliferation. mTORC1 is a master controller of the translation of a subset of mRNAs. In the central nervous system mTORC1 plays a crucial role in mechanisms underlying learning and memory by controlling synaptic protein synthesis. Here, we review recent evidence suggesting that the mTORC1 signaling pathway promotes neuroadaptations following exposure to a diverse group of drugs of abuse including stimulants, cannabinoids, opiates, and alcohol. We further describe potential molecular mechanisms by which drug-induced mTORC1 activation may alter brain functions. Finally, we propose that mTORC1 is a focal point shared by drugs of abuse to mediate drug-related behaviors such as reward seeking and excessive drug intake, and offer future directions to decipher the contribution of the kinase to mechanisms underlying addiction. Recent studies suggesting that exposure to diverse classes of drugs of abuse as well as exposure to drug-associated memories lead to mTORC1 kinase activation in the limbic system. In turn, mTORC1 controls the onset and the maintenance of pathological neuroadaptions that underlie several features of drug addiction such as drug seeking and relapse. Therefore, we propose that targeting mTORC1 and its effectors is a promising strategy to treat drug disorders. PMID:24666346

  13. Cherry-tree colon: colonoscopic appearance suggesting drug-induced mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Manca, Alessandra; Soro, Sara; Schiavo-Lena, Marco; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Graham, David Yates; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2014-06-01

    Drug-induced damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa has been mainly focused on damage in the upper tract. However, increasing evidence suggests that commonly used drugs may also affect the mucosa of the lower gut, and particularly in the colon. The aim of this study was to report that fairly homogeneous colonoscopic findings, correlate with histological evidence of drug-induced mucosal injury. Charts of patients with the "cherry tree" colonoscopic aspect were reviewed to correlate the endoscopic and histological findings for a possible association with the use of drugs. Data from 29 patients (5 men, 24 women, age range 16-76 years) with the "cherry tree" colonoscopic findings were analyzed. Histology revealed an increase in eosinophils in the left colon in 23 patients, pseudomelanosis coli in 3, and microscopic colitis in 3. The findings were associated with proton pump inhibitors in 19 (65.5 %), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or statins (3 cases each), and other drugs [4 cases, including estroprogestinics (1), antidepressants (2), and thyroxin (1)]. The "cherry tree" colonoscopic appearance suggests drug-induced colonic damage. Awareness of this association may prevent unnecessary, expensive and time-consuming procedures. PMID:23494541

  14. Association of Cerebrospinal Fluid ?-Amyloid 1-42, T-tau, P-tau181, and ?-Synuclein Levels With Clinical Features of Drug-Naive Patients With Early Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Irwin, David J.; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Siderowf, Andrew; Caspell, Chelsea; Coffey, Christopher S.; Waligórska, Teresa; Taylor, Peggy; Pan, Sarah; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Kieburtz, Karl; Jennings, Danna; Simuni, Tanya; Tanner, Caroline M.; Singleton, Andrew; Toga, Arthur W.; Chowdhury, Sohini; Mollenhauer, Brit; Trojanowski, John Q.; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2014-01-01

    Importance We observed a significant correlation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau proteins and ?-synuclein, but not ?-amyloid 1–42 (A?1–42), and lower concentration of CSF biomarkers, as compared with healthy controls, in a cohort of entirely untreated patients with Parkinson disease (PD) at the earliest stage of the disease studied so far. Objective To evaluate the baseline characteristics and relationship to clinical features of CSF biomarkers (A?1–42, total tau [T-tau], tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 [P-tau181], and ?-synuclein) in drug-naive patients with early PD and demographically matched healthy controls enrolled in the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional study of the initial 102 research volunteers (63 patients with PD and 39 healthy controls) of the PPMI cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The CSF biomarkers were measured by INNO-BIA AlzBio3 immunoassay (A?1–42, T-tau, and P-tau181; Innogenetics Inc) or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (?-synuclein). Clinical features including diagnosis, demographic characteristics, motor, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive assessments, and DaTscan were systematically assessed according to the PPMI study protocol. Results Slightly, but significantly, lower levels of A?1–42, T-tau, P-tau181, ?-synuclein, and T-tau/A?1–42 were seen in subjects with PD compared with healthy controls but with a marked overlap between groups. Using multivariate regression analysis, we found that lower A?1–42 and P-tau181 levels were associated with PD diagnosis and that decreased CSF T-tau and ?-synuclein were associated with increased motor severity. Notably, when we classified patients with PD by their motor phenotypes, lower CSF A?1–42 and P-tau181 concentrations were associated with the postural instability–gait disturbance–dominant phenotype but not with the tremor-dominant or intermediate phenotype. Finally, we found a significant correlation of the levels of ?-synuclein with the levels of T-tau and P-tau181. Conclusions and Relevance In this first report of CSF biomarkers in PPMI study subjects, we found that measures of CSF A?1–42, T-tau, P-tau181, and ?-synuclein have prognostic and diagnostic potential in early-stage PD. Further investigations using the entire PPMI cohort will test the predictive performance of CSF biomarkers for PD progression. PMID:23979011

  15. A novel mixed phospholipid functionalized monolithic column for early screening of drug induced phospholipidosis risk.

    PubMed

    Zhao, XiangLong; Chen, WeiJia; Liu, ZhengHua; Guo, JiaLiang; Zhou, ZhengYin; Crommen, Jacques; Moaddel, Ruin; Jiang, ZhengJin

    2014-11-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is characterized by the excessive accumulation of phospholipids, resulting in multilamellar vesicle structure within lysosomes. In the present study, a novel mixed phospholipid functionalized monolithic column was developed for the first time through a facile one-step co-polymerization approach. The phospholipid composition of the monolith can be adjusted quantitatively and accurately to mimic the mixed phospholipid environment of different biomembranes on a solid matrix. The mixed phospholipid functionalized monolith as a promising immobilized artificial membrane technique was used to study drug-phospholipid interaction. Scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, FT-IR spectra, ?-potential analysis and micro-HPLC were carried out to characterize the physicochemical properties and separation performance of the monolith. Mechanism studies revealed that both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions play an important role in the retention of analytes. The ratio of their contributions to retention can be easily manipulated by adjusting the composition of the mixed phospholipids, in order to better mimic the interaction between drugs and cell membrane. The obtained mixed phospholipid functionalized monolithic columns were applied to the screening of drug-induced PLD potency. Data from 79 drugs on the market demonstrated that the chromatographic hydrophobicity index referring to the mixed phospholipid functionalized monolith at pH 7.4 (CHI IAM7.4) for the selected drugs were highly correlated with the drug-induced PLD potency data obtained from other in vivo or in vitro assays. Moreover, the effect of the acidic phospholipid phosphatidylserine proportion on prediction accuracy was also investigated. The monolith containing 20% phosphatidylserine and 80% phosphatidylcholine exhibited the best prediction ability for the drug-induced PLD potency of the tested compounds. This research has led to the successful development of a novel and facile approach to prepare a mixed phospholipids functionalized monolith, which offers a reliable, cost-effective and high-throughput screening tool for early prediction of the PLD potency of drug candidates. PMID:25294294

  16. Drug-Induced Gambling: Valid Excuse of True Addiction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lareina Maskell

    It sounds crazy that a drug can cause a person to voluntarily risk a sum of money based on the outcome of a game or event. This 'behavior' is known as gambling: a game in which a person chooses to wager money in hopes of winning more money. This allegation has become quite popular lately, with the buzz surrounding a

  17. The clinically approved drugs dasatinib and bosutinib induce anti-inflammatory macrophages by inhibiting the salt-inducible kinases.

    PubMed

    Ozanne, James; Prescott, Alan R; Clark, Kristopher

    2015-01-15

    Macrophages switch to an anti-inflammatory, 'regulatory'-like phenotype characterized by the production of high levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to promote the resolution of inflammation. A potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases would be to administer drugs that could induce the formation of 'regulatory'-like macrophages at sites of inflammation. In the present study, we demonstrate that the clinically approved cancer drugs bosutinib and dasatinib induce several hallmark features of 'regulatory'-like macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with bosutinib or dasatinib elevates the production of IL-10 while suppressing the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. Moreover, macrophages treated with bosutinib or dasatinib express higher levels of markers of 'regulatory'-like macrophages including LIGHT, SPHK1 and arginase 1. Bosutinib and dasatinib were originally developed as inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinases Bcr-Abl and Src but we show that, surprisingly, the effects of bosutinib and dasatinib on macrophage polarization are the result of the inhibition of the salt-inducible kinases. Consistent with the present finding, bosutinib and dasatinib induce the dephosphorylation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 3 (CRTC3) and its nuclear translocation where it induces a cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene transcription programme including that of IL-10. Importantly, these effects of bosutinib and dasatinib on IL-10 gene expression are lost in macrophages expressing a drug-resistant mutant of salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2). In conclusion, our study identifies the salt-inducible kinases as major targets of bosutinib and dasatinib that mediate the effects of these drugs on the innate immune system and provides novel mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory properties of these drugs. PMID:25351958

  18. Effect of Quercetin in the 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-Induced Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chuanfeng; Hong, Tie; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Lu; Dong, Man; Zhao, Jing; Mu, Jiaye; Meng, Yixiao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the protective effect of the bioflavonoid quercetin on behaviors, antioxidases, and neurotransmitters in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-(MPTP-) induced Parkinson's disease (PD) was investigated. Quercetin treatment (50?mg/kg, 100?mg/kg and 200?mg/kg body weight) was orally administered for 14 consecutive days. The results show that quercetin treatment markedly improves the motor balance and coordination of MPTP-treated mice. Significant increases were observed in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Na+, K+-ATPase, AchE, the content of dopamine (DA) in the quercetin plus MPTP groups compared to those in the MPTP group. Significant reduction the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) immunoreactivity in striatum of brains was observed in the quercetin plus MPTP groups in comparison to the MPTP group. Taken together, we propose that quercetin has shown antiparkinsonian properties in our studies. More work is needed to explore detailed mechanisms of action. PMID:22454690

  19. Sequence variants in SLC6A3, DRD2, and BDNF genes and time to levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Natalie; Vituri, Aya; Korczyn, Amos D; Cohen, Oren S; Inzelberg, Rivka; Yahalom, Gilad; Kozlova, Evgenia; Milgrom, Roni; Laitman, Yael; Friedman, Eitan; Rosset, Saharon; Hassin-Baer, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) present a common but elusive complication of levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). In order to identify genetic factors associated with LID, 352 (213 males) levodopa-treated Israeli PD patients were genotyped for 34 polymorphisms within three candidate genes affecting dopaminergic activity and synaptic plasticity: dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 or SLC6A3) [14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 40-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)], DRD2 [11 SNPs and dinucleotide CA short tandem repeat (STR)], and BDNF (7 SNPs). A comparison of patients with and without LID was performed by applying a time-oriented approach, with survival analyses evaluating LID development hazard rate over time [Cox proportional hazards and accelerated failure time (AFT) lognormal models]. Overall, 192 (54.5 %) participants developed LID, with a mean latency of 5.0 (±4.5) years. After adjusting for gender, age at PD onset, duration of symptoms prior to levodopa exposure, and multiple testing correction, one SNP in SLC6A3 (with 81 % genotyping success) was significantly associated with LID latency: the C allele of the rs393795 extended the time to LID onset, time ratio?=?4.96 (95 % CI, 2.3-10.9; p?=?4.1?×?10(-5)). This finding should be validated in larger, ethnically diverse PD populations, and the biological mechanism should be explored. PMID:24633632

  20. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Ji-guo; Xie, Jun-xia

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson's disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect.

  1. [Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Joutsa, Juho; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2013-01-01

    Of the patients having Parkinson's disease, up to third encounters some degree of impulse control problems and one out of seven suffers from true impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping and binge eating. Dopaminergic drugs used in anti-Parkinson therapy, especially dopamine agonists, increase the risk of these disorders. Impulse control disorders are associated with a relatively more active dopamine-mediated neurotransmission of the mesolimbic and mesocortical system. Discontinuation of dopamine agonist medication can thus be considered as the first line treatment of these disorders. PMID:24397147

  2. Drug-induced reactivation of apoptosis abrogates HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D; Cambiaghi, Tavane D; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; D'Alliessi Gandolfi, Darlene; Heller, Debra S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Popowicz, Anthony M; Cone, Richard A; Holland, Bart; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal antivirals that eliminate viral infection by destroying infected cells. A drug-based drug discovery program, based on these compounds, is warranted to determine the potential of such agents in clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. PMID:24086341

  3. Drug-Induced Reactivation of Apoptosis Abrogates HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M.; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E.; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D.; Cambiaghi, Tavane D.; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; Gandolfi, Darlene D'Alliessi; Heller, Debra S.; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M.; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Cone, Richard A.; Holland, Bart; Pe’ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal antivirals that eliminate viral infection by destroying infected cells. A drug-based drug discovery program, based on these compounds, is warranted to determine the potential of such agents in clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. PMID:24086341

  4. A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient. PMID:24260733

  5. Exploring drug-induced alterations in gene expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by microarray hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael; DeRisi, Joseph; Kristensen, Hans-Henrik; Imboden, Paul; Rane, Sangeeta; Brown, Patrick O.; Schoolnik, Gary K.

    1999-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease that is transmitted by cough-propelled droplets that carry the etiologic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although currently available drugs kill most isolates of M. tuberculosis, strains resistant to each of these have emerged, and multiply resistant strains are increasingly widespread. The growing problem of drug resistance combined with a global incidence of seven million new cases per year underscore the urgent need for new antituberculosis therapies. The recent publication of the complete sequence of the M. tuberculosis genome has made possible, for the first time, a comprehensive genomic approach to the biology of this organism and to the drug discovery process. We used a DNA microarray containing 97% of the ORFs predicted from this sequence to monitor changes in M. tuberculosis gene expression in response to the antituberculous drug isoniazid. Here we show that isoniazid induced several genes that encode proteins physiologically relevant to the drug’s mode of action, including an operonic cluster of five genes encoding type II fatty acid synthase enzymes and fbpC, which encodes trehalose dimycolyl transferase. Other genes, not apparently within directly affected biosynthetic pathways, also were induced. These genes, efpA, fadE23, fadE24, and ahpC, likely mediate processes that are linked to the toxic consequences of the drug. Insights gained from this approach may define new drug targets and suggest new methods for identifying compounds that inhibit those targets. PMID:10536008

  6. A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2013-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient. PMID:24260733

  7. Thyroid-Induced Worsening of Parkinsonian Tremor Resistant to Drugs and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Minár, Michal; Valkovi?, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Symptoms of both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis can be easily overlooked in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We report on a patient whose parkinsonian tremor worsened and proved refractory not only to common treatment, but also to deep brain stimulation (DBS). Case Presentation. A 61-year-old woman with advanced PD underwent bilateral subthalamic DBS, with an excellent outcome. Twenty-one months after the surgery, however, patient's resting/postural tremor markedly worsened. There was a slight improvement for 1 month after repeated adjustments of DBS parameters, but then the tremor worsened again. Since even a minimal increase of the dose of dopaminergic drugs caused extremely severe dyskinesias, an anticholinergic drug biperiden and benzodiazepine clonazepam were introduced, what helped for another month. With the onset of severe diarrhoea, a laboratory workup was performed. Thyrotoxicosis was detected. During treatment with the antithyroid agent carbimazole, the parkinsonian tremor clearly improved within two weeks. Conclusion. A hyperthyroid state can markedly exaggerate all forms of tremor, as well as other types of movement disorders. This condition can be overlooked or masked by other symptoms. Therefore, if the tremor in a patient with PD gradually worsens and proves resistant to the usual treatment, examine the thyroid gland. PMID:25628904

  8. Therapeutic potential of natural products in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mythri, Rajeswara B; Harish, Gangadharappa; Bharath, M M

    2012-09-01

    The central objective in treating patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is two-fold (i) to increase the striatal dopamine content and (ii) to prevent further degeneration of the surviving dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region of the ventral midbrain. Most of the current PD drugs contribute to the former and provide symptomatic relief. Although compounds such as Levodopa (L-DOPA) improve the striatal dopamine content, their long-term usage is associated with progressive decrease in drug response, motor fluctuations, dyskinesias and drug-induced toxicity. In addition, these drugs fail to prevent the progression of the degenerative process. This has shifted the focus onto alternative therapeutic approaches involving natural products that could provide independent therapy or offer neuroprotective support to the existing drugs. The current review describes the neuroprotective and therapeutic utility of such natural products including herbal extracts, phytochemicals and bioactive ingredients from other natural sources either in isolation or in combination, with potential application in PD, highlighting the relevant patents. PMID:22827714

  9. Parkinson’s Disease: Gene Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Coune, Philippe G.; Schneider, Bernard L.; Aebischer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    With the recent development of effective gene delivery systems, gene therapy for the central nervous system is finding novel applications. Here, we review existing viral vectors and discuss gene therapy strategies that have been proposed for Parkinson’s disease. To date, most of the clinical trials were based on viral vectors to deliver therapeutic transgenes to neurons within the basal ganglia. Initial trials used genes to relieve the major motor symptoms caused by nigrostriatal degeneration. Although these new genetic approaches still need to prove more effective than existing symptomatic treatments, there is a need for disease-modifying strategies. The investigation of the genetic factors implicated in Parkinson’s disease is providing precious insights in disease pathology that, combined with innovative gene delivery systems, will hopefully offer novel opportunities for gene therapy interventions to slow down, or even halt disease progression. PMID:22474617

  10. The medical treatment of Parkinson disease from James Parkinson to George Cotzias.

    PubMed

    Fahn, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    It took exactly 150 years since James Parkinson's description in 1817 of the illness bearing his name until the development of effective therapy for this disorder, namely, the introduction of high-dosage levodopa by George Cotzias in 1967. During the first 50 years, no effective therapy was available, but neurologists reported using different agents, including metals. Then, around 1867, Charcot found solanaceous alkaloids to be somewhat helpful, and these became the accepted and popular therapy for the next 75 years. When basic scientists discovered that these alkaloids had central antimuscarinic activity, pharmaceutical chemists developed synthetic chemical agents that were equally effective, with possibly less adverse effects, and around 1950 these synthetic drugs became the standard medical therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The link between dopamine and PD did not take place until 1957, 140 years after Parkinson's Essay. The clue came from research on reserpine, a drug derived from the Rauwolfia plant that caused a sedative effect, now recognized as a drug-induced parkinsonian state. Initial investigations revealed that reserpine caused the release and depletion of serotonin stores in the brain. With that knowledge, Arvid Carlsson, a young pharmacologist in Sweden, decided to explore the possibility that reserpine might also affect brain catecholamines. In his now famous, elegant, and simple experiment, he showed that injecting l-dopa, the precursor of catecholamines, alleviated the reserpine-induced parkinsonian state in animals, whereas the precursor of serotonin failed to do so. Carlsson then developed a highly sensitive assay to measure dopamine, and his lab found that dopamine is selectively present in high concentrations in the striatum and that administered l-dopa could restore the dopamine depleted by reserpine. Carlsson postulated that all these findings implicate dopamine in motor disorders. Oleh Hornykiewicz, a young pharmacologist in Vienna, on being aware of the regional localization of brain dopamine, decided to measure it in the brains of people who had PD and postencephalitic parkinsonism. In 1960, he reported finding markedly depleted dopamine in the striatum in these conditions. Immediately after, Hornykiewicz teamed up with the geriatrician, Walther Birkmayer, to inject small doses of l-dopa intravenously (IV) into PD patients. They found benefit and pursued this treatment, but the gastrointestinal side effects limited the dosage, and many neurologists were doubtful that the effects from l-dopa were any better than those with antimuscarinic agents. A number of neurologists tested such low doses of IV l-dopa and even higher oral dosages, but without showing any dramatic benefit, not better than the antimuscarinics. Some of these studies were small, controlled trials. This general lack of efficacy with l-dopa prevailed, and neurologists were discouraged about l-dopa until 1967, when George C. Cotzias, a neuropharmacologist in New York, reported his results. He thought that PD may be result from the loss of neuromelanin in the substantia nigra, and he decided to try to replenish the depleted neuromelanin. Among the agents he tried was dl-dopa. He wisely began with low oral doses and increased the dosage slowly and steadily, thereby limiting the gastrointestinal complication. He also treated his patients for a long duration, months in a government-supported hospital. In the accompanying videotape of an interview Cotzias gave in 1970, he describes much of his success to be able to observe his patients over months while building up the dosage very slowly and observe for signs of toxicity. When higher doses, usually over 12 g/day, were reached, dramatic antiparkinsonian effects were observed, and a revolutionary new treatment for PD was established. PMID:25491387

  11. Pathogenesis of parkinson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Fernandez-Espejo

    2004-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra projecting to striatum.\\u000a The cause of idiopathic PD is obscure, and most cases are sporadic. It is widely accepted that there is a genetic component\\u000a of the disease, and the earlier the age of onset, the greater the likelihood that genetic factors play a dominant role.

  12. Cell Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Laguna Goya; R. A. Barker

    \\u000a Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons\\u000a in the substantia nigra. It is typically treated symptomatically by dopamine replacement using either levodopa or dopamine\\u000a agonists, however, cell therapies that aim to repair and replace these lost neurons and their projections to the striatum\\u000a represent a very promising strategy to help cure

  13. Dementia in idiopathic Parkinson’s syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd A. Fuchs; Irene Gemende; Birgit Herting; Matthias R. Lemke; Christian Oehlwein; Heinz Reichmann; Jürgen Rieke; David Emmans; Jens Volkmann

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 25% of patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) later developdementia, with the typical characteristics as detailed in ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Differential diagnosis has to exclude dementia due to Lewy bodies, subcortical vascular encephalopathy and subcortical dementia due to progressive supranuclear paralysis or corticobasal degeneration. Several studies showed promising results for cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezile, rivastigmine and galantamine. The

  14. Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Kyung Lee; Thi Tran; Malú G. Tansey

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, a wealth of animal and human studies has implicated inflammation-derived oxidative stress and\\u000a cytokine-dependent neurotoxicity in the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, the hallmark of\\u000a Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this review, we discuss the various hypotheses regarding the role of microglia and other immune\\u000a cells in PD pathogenesis and progression, the inflammatory mechanisms

  15. OATP1B1-related drug–drug and drug–gene interactions as potential risk factors for cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Tamraz, Bani; Fukushima, Hisayo; Wolfe, Alan R.; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Totah, Rheem A.; Floyd, James S.; Ma, Benjamin; Chu, Catherine; Marciante, Kristin D.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Kwok, Pui-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters as well as concomitant drug therapy can modulate the beneficial and the deleterious effects of drugs. We investigated whether patients exhibiting rhabdomyolysis who were taking cerivastatin possess functional genetic variants in SLCO1B1 and whether they were on concomitant medications that inhibit OATP1B1, resulting in accumulation of cerivastatin. Methods This study had three components: (a) resequencing the SLCO1B1 gene in 122 patients who developed rhabdomyolysis while on cerivastatin; (b) functional evaluation of the identified SLCO1B1 nonsynonymous variants and haplotypes in in-vitro HEK293/FRT cells stably transfected with pcDNA5/FRT empty vector, SLCO1B1 reference, variants, and haplotypes; and (c) in-vitro screening of 15 drugs commonly used among the rhabdomyolysis cases for inhibition of OATP1B1-mediated uptake of cerivastatin in HEK293/FRT cells stably transfected with reference SLCO1B1. Results The resequencing of the SLCO1B1 gene identified 54 variants. In-vitro functional analysis of SLCO1B1 nonsynonymous variants and haplotypes showed that the V174A, R57Q, and P155T variants, a novel frameshift insertion, OATP1B1*14 and OATP1B1*15 haplotype were associated with a significant reduction (P<0.001) in cerivastatin uptake (32, 18, 72, 3.4, 2.1 and 5.7% of reference, respectively). Furthermore, clopidogrel and seven other drugs were shown to inhibit OATP1B1-mediated uptake of cerivastatin. Conclusion Reduced function of OATP1B1 related to genetic variation and drug–drug interactions likely contributed to cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis. Although cerivastatin is no longer in clinical use, these findings may translate to related statins and other substrates of OATP1B1. PMID:23652407

  16. NMR fingerprints of the drug-like natural-product space identify iotrochotazine A: a chemical probe to study Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Grkovic, Tanja; Pouwer, Rebecca H; Vial, Marie-Laure; Gambini, Luca; Noël, Alba; Hooper, John N A; Wood, Stephen A; Mellick, George D; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-06-10

    The NMR spectrum of a mixture of small molecules is a fingerprint of all of its components. Herein, we present an NMR fingerprint method that takes advantage of the fact that fractions contain simplified NMR profiles, with minimal signal overlap, to allow the identification of unique spectral patterns. The approach is exemplified in the identification of a novel natural product, iotrochotazine?A (1), sourced from an Australian marine sponge Iotrochota?sp. Compound 1 was used as a chemical probe in a phenotypic assay panel based on human olfactory neurosphere-derived cells (hONS) from idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients. Compound 1 at 1??M was not cytotoxic but specifically affected the morphology and cellular distribution of lysosomes and early endosomes. PMID:24737726

  17. Modeling dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Jourdain, Vincent A; Di Paolo, Thérčse

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) with the dopamine (DA) precursor, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) introduced 50years ago still remains a very effective medication. However, involuntary movements termed l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) appear in the vast majority of PD patients after chronic treatment and may become disabling. Once they appeared, the first dose after a several-weeks drug holiday will trigger them again, showing that l-DOPA has permanently or persistently modified the brain response to DA. LID are very difficult to manage and no drug is yet approved for dyskinesias, aside from a modest benefit with amantadine. New drugs are needed for PD to alleviate parkinsonian symptoms without inducing dyskinesias. Hence, animal models have been developed to seek the mechanisms involved in LID and new drug targets. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was discovered as a contamination of a derivative of heroin taken by drug users and produced similar motor symptoms as idiopathic PD. Since then, MPTP is used extensively to model PD and LID in non-human primates and mice in addition to the classical PD model in rats with a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. This article reviews rodent and non-human primate models of PD that reproduce motor complications induced by DA replacement therapy. Moreover, key biochemical changes in the brain of post-mortem PD patients with LID will be compared to those observed in animal models. Finally, the translational usefulness of drugs found to treat LID in animal models will be compared to their clinical activities. PMID:23360802

  18. Evidence for prostaglandin-producing suppressor cells in drug-induced liver injury and implications in the diagnosis of drug sensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Victorino, R M; Maria, V A; Pinto, L A

    1992-01-01

    Lymphocyte reactivity to drugs is present in a minority [corrected] of cases of drug-induced liver injury when in vitro proliferation assays to the suspected drugs are used. One possible explanation to this could be that adherent suppressor cells mediating their action through the production of prostaglandin E2 would suppress the lymphocyte proliferation to drugs in vitro. We studied 42 patients with a clinical diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury by comparing lymphocyte proliferation observed in cultures with five different concentrations of the suspected drug with the lymphocyte proliferation observed in cultures with drug and a prostaglandin inhibitor (indomethacin). Forty-four healthy subjects and 15 individuals with a recent exposure to the suspected drug without development of adverse drug reactions were also studied as controls. In nine (21%) out of 42 patients with drug-induced liver injury a significant lymphocyte reactivity to drugs was detected. When a prostaglandin inhibitor was added to the cultures, the detection of lymphocyte reactivity increased from 21% to 57%. No cases of lymphocyte reactivity to drugs or drugs with prostaglandin inhibitor were found in the control groups. The phenomenon of increase of lymphocyte proliferation with the addition of a prostaglandin inhibitor was more frequent in patients whose hepatitis was cured in less than 2 months, was more frequently found in certain pharmacological groups and was significantly associated to a latency period to development of hepatitis of less than 8 days. In conclusion, the in vitro phenomenon described here may be used to improve the ability to demonstrate lymphocyte sensitization in drug-induced liver injury and the clinical correlations found are consistent with the possibility of its relevance in vivo. PMID:1531122

  19. Dronedarone-induced digoxin toxicity: new drug, new interactions.

    PubMed

    Vallakati, Ajay; Chandra, Preeti A; Pednekar, Manali; Frankel, Robert; Shani, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Dronedarone is a relatively new antiarrhythmic drug approved for paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation. Dronedarone can inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated digoxin clearance and increase steady-state digoxin level 2.5 times. It is important to closely monitor plasma digoxin levels or administer a lower loading dose of digoxin in patients taking dronedarone concomitantly. We report a case of digoxin toxicity in a patient taking concomitant dronedarone as a result of interaction between digoxin and dronedarone. PMID:21519214

  20. Drug-induced esophagitis detected by double-contrast radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Creteur, V. (Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Laufer, I.; Kressel, H.Y.; Caroline, D.F.; Goren, R.A.; Evers, K.A.; Glick, S.N.; Gatenby, R.A.

    1983-05-01

    Patients with esophageal symptoms following drug ingestion underwent double-contrast upper gastrointestinal studies, and radiographic findings are described. Superficial esophageal ulceration and subtle mucosal abnormalities, which have not been seen on single-contrast radiographs, were confirmed on double-contrast radiographs. Erosions or ulcers usually occur in the region of the aortic arch and occasionally lower in the esophagus. Repeat esophagrams after withdrawal of the medication indicate resolution of the symptoms.

  1. Pharmacogenetics and drug-induced nephrotoxicity in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Samadi, Nasser; Omidi, Yadollah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The advent of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), as the leading immunosuppressive agents, not only has revolutionized the transplant medicine but also made it a better therapeutic intervention that guarantees the graft outcome and improves the survival rate of patients. However, genetic polymorphism(s) in the CNIs metabolic substrates genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5) and their transporter such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can influence the CNIs metabolism and elicit some possible systemic and intra-renal exposures to drugs and/or metabolites with differential risk of nephrotoxicity, jeopardizing the transplantation. Methods: In the current study, we review the recent literatures to evaluate the effects of genetic polymorphisms of the genes involved in development of chronic calcineurin nephrotoxicity and progression of chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) providing an extensive overview on their clinical impacts. Results: Identifying the inherited genetic basis for the inter-individual differences in terms of drug responses and determining the risk of calcineurin-mediated nephrotoxicity and CAD allow optimized personalized administration of these agents whith minimal adverse effects. Conclusion: Pharmacogenetics characteristics of CYP isoforms (CYP3A) and efflux transporters (P-gp and MRP), involved in metabolism and extracellular transportation of the immunosuppressive CNIs, can be of pivotal information in the pharmacotherapy of the renal-transplant recipients. Such information can be used for the successes clinical interventions to attain an improved drug administration strategy with reduced rates of rejection and toxicity. PMID:25901296

  2. Carnosic acid protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in in vivo and in vitro model of Parkinson's disease: involvement of antioxidative enzymes induction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Rei; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Li-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), have been widely investigated in recent years, however, its protection in in vivo still unclear. In this study, we investigated the behavioral activity and neuroprotective effects of CA in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Rats were treated with 20mg/kg body weight of CA for 3 weeks before 6-OHDA exposure. Results indicated that CA improved the locomotor activity and reduced the apomorphine-caused rotation in 6-OHDA-stimulated rats. Significant protection against lipid peroxidation and GSH reduction was observed in the 6-OHDA rats pretreated with CA. Pretreatment with CA increased the protein expression of ?-glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, ?-glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase compared with 6-OHDA-stimulated rats and SH-SY5Y cells. Immunoblots showed that the reduction of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, the induction of caspase 3 cleavage, and the induction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage by 6-OHDA was reversed in the presence of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) in SH-SY5Y cells. Rats treated with CA reversed the 6-OHDA-mediated the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38, the down-regulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, the up-regulation of cleaved caspase 3/caspase 3 and cleaved PARP/PARP ratio, and the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase protein. However, BAM7, an activator of Bax, attenuated the effect of CA on apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that CA protected against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity is attributable to its anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative action. The present findings may help to clarify the possible mechanisms of rosemary in the neuroprotection of PD. PMID:25446857

  3. Enhanced vaginal drug delivery through the use of hypotonic formulations that induce fluid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, Laura M.; Hoen, Timothy; Maisel, Katharina; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that administration of hypotonic solutions would induce fluid uptake that could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We found that hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which small molecule drugs and muco-inert nanoparticles (mucus-penetrating particles, or MPP), but not conventional mucoadhesive nanparticles (CP), reached the vaginal epithelial surface in vivo in mice. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that drugs or MPP in isotonic formulations failed to reach efficiently. However, hypotonic formulations caused unencapsulated “free” drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for localized sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. In contrast, as we previously demonstrated, hypotonic delivery of drug via MPP led to better long-term retention and protection in the vagina. Importantly, we demonstrate that slightly hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. Hypotonic formulations for vaginal drug delivery via MPP may significantly improve prevention and treatment of reproductive tract diseases and disorders. PMID:23769419

  4. The potential of cytokines as safety biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh G. Laverty; Daniel J. Antoine; Craig Benson; Masautso Chaponda; Dominic Williams; B. Kevin Park

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an event that has a detrimental impact on drug development and patient safety; therefore\\u000a the identification of novel biomarkers that are both sensitive and specific to the liver would have great benefit. Inflammation\\u000a is known to be associated with human cases of DILI, and given the role of cytokines in modulating the inflammatory response,\\u000a changes

  5. Glial-Mediated Inflammation Underlying Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Barcia, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interest in studying neuroimmune interactions is increasing in the scientific community, and for many researchers, immunity is becoming a crucial factor in the understanding of the physiology of the normal brain as well as the biology underlying neurodegenerative diseases. Mounting data over the last two decades point toward immune and inflammatory alterations as important mediators of the progressive dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this review is to address, under a historical perspective, as well as in the light of recent reports, the glial-mediated inflammatory and immune responses that occur in Parkinsonism. In line with this, this review also evaluates and highlights available anti-inflammatory drugs and putative targets for Parkinson's disease therapy for the near future. PMID:24278772

  6. Motor response to acute dopaminergic challenge with apomorphine and levodopa in Parkinson's disease: implications for the pathogenesis of the on-off phenomenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Colosimo; M Merello; A J Hughes; K Sieradzan; A J Lees

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the contribution of postsynaptic changes to motor fluctuations, three groups of parkinsonian patients with differing responses to treatment were acutely challenged with two dopaminergic drugs-apomorphine and levodopa-having different mechanisms of action. METHODS--Forty two patients with Parkinson's disease (14 untreated, eight with a stable response to levodopa, and 20 with levodopa induced motor fluctuations) were challenged on two consecutive

  7. Drug Tolerance in Replicating Mycobacteria Mediated by a Macrophage-Induced Efflux Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kristin N.; Takaki, Kevin; Connolly, Lynn E.; Wiedenhoft, Heather; Winglee, Kathryn; Humbert, Olivier; Edelstein, Paul H.; Cosma, Christine L.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Treatment of tuberculosis, a complex granulomatous disease, requires long-term multidrug therapy to overcome tolerance, an epigenetic drug resistance that is widely attributed to nonreplicating bacterial subpopulations. Here, we deploy Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae for in vivo characterization of antitubercular drug activity and tolerance. We describe the existence of multi-drug tolerant organisms that arise within days of infection, are enriched in the replicating intracellular population, and are amplified and disseminated by the tuberculous granuloma. Bacterial efflux pumps that are required for intracellular growth mediate this macrophage-induced tolerance. This newly discovered tolerant population also develops when Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects cultured macrophages, suggesting that it contributes to the burden of drug tolerance in human tuberculosis. Efflux pump inhibitors like verapamil reduce this tolerance. Thus, the addition of this currently approved drug, or more specific inhibitors, to standard antitubercular therapy may shorten the duration of curative treatment. PMID:21376383

  8. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity test using gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase knockdown rat.

    PubMed

    Morita, Mayu; Akai, Sho; Hosomi, Hiroko; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2009-09-10

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major clinical problem for drug development. It is generally known that DILI is mainly caused by hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion. The glutathione S-transferase activity of rodent is higher than that of human, which could make the prediction of DILI more difficult. Recently, we reported that an experimental rat model of GSH-depletion displayed high susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. To deplete GSH, we used an adenovirus vector with short hairpin RNA against gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy chain subunit (AdGCSh-shRNA). In this study, we further investigated the usefulness of this rat model for determining drug-induced sensitive acute and subacute toxicity. Rats were administered diclofenac and flutamide which have been reported as idiosyncratic hepatotoxic drugs. In the acute (6 or 24h) or subacute (7 days) toxicity tests, rats were administered the drugs once or once a day for a week, respectively. Plasma biochemical markers for hepatotoxicity were measured. The 6 and 24h toxicity test of diclofenac, and the 24h and 7 days toxicity tests of flutamide showed significant ALT elevations. Additionally, the 24h toxicity test of flutamide showed a slight bilirubin elevation, and histological hepatotoxicity. The 7 days toxicity test of flutamide also demonstrated histological hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, this rat model would contribute to evaluating acute and subacute DILI in preclinical drug development. PMID:19481141

  9. Cultured corneal fibroblasts as a model system for the demonstration of drug-induced mucopolysaccharidosis.

    PubMed

    Burmester, J; Handrock, K; Lüllmann-Rauch, R

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to establish a cell culture system suitable for demonstrating the drug-induced lysosomal storage of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This is a drug side-effect which was previously studied in animals treated with the di-cationic amphiphilic compound tilorone and congeners, and which is likely to occur in humans, too. Cultured corneal fibroblasts of rats were exposed to tilorone for 72 h. They developed histochemical and cytochemical alterations indicative of mucopolysaccharidosis and resembling those occurring in vivo. The threshold drug concentration was found to be below 0.7 microM. The reversibility of the lysosomal GAG storage was low. An increase in the drug concentration to 10 microM produced additional unspecific lysosomal alterations, while the mucopolysaccharidosis-like lesions became less prominent. Concentrations of 40 microM and 80 microM caused unspecific cytoplasmic vacuolation and cell death, respectively. The present model system appears suitable for screening investigations of newly developed drugs with respect to their mucopolysaccharidosis-inducing potential and for investigating the structure-activity relationships underlying this adverse drug effect. Care should be taken not to use too high drug concentrations which cause unspecific lysosomal lesions. PMID:2117432

  10. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Peter J; Calderon, Tina M; Coley, Jacqueline S; Berman, Joan W

    2013-06-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70 % of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  11. Inhibitory effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on type II collagen induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaki, K; Nakagawa, H; Tsurufuji, S

    1987-01-01

    The effects of steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the established lesion of type II collagen induced arthritis in rats were evaluated by measuring the hind paw oedema and anti-type II collagen antibody titre. Dexamethasone, a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, reduced the anti-type II collagen antibody titre and markedly suppressed the established lesion of type II collagen induced arthritis in rats. A rebound of the arthritis, i.e., a rapid recovery of the hind paw swelling took place after withdrawal of the treatment with steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including dexamethasone, prednisolone, and hydrocortisone. On the other hand, indomethacin, benoxaprofen, piroxicam, and tiflamizole, which are cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in prostaglandin synthesis, had no effect on anti-type II collagen antibody titre, but suppressed the established lesion of the arthritis without causing an apparent rebound of the arthritis after withdrawal of the drug treatment. These results suggest that the level of anti-type II collagen antibodies has no relation to the intensity of hind paw swelling in the established lesion of the arthritis, though the antibodies contribute to the incidence of the arthritis. It also indicates that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs having inhibitory action on cyclo-oxygenase are useful antiarthritic drugs without causing the rebound phenomenon, an untoward side effect after withdrawal of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:3662643

  12. Exploring drug-induced alterations in gene expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M; DeRisi, J; Kristensen, H H; Imboden, P; Rane, S; Brown, P O; Schoolnik, G K

    1999-10-26

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease that is transmitted by cough-propelled droplets that carry the etiologic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although currently available drugs kill most isolates of M. tuberculosis, strains resistant to each of these have emerged, and multiply resistant strains are increasingly widespread. The growing problem of drug resistance combined with a global incidence of seven million new cases per year underscore the urgent need for new antituberculosis therapies. The recent publication of the complete sequence of the M. tuberculosis genome has made possible, for the first time, a comprehensive genomic approach to the biology of this organism and to the drug discovery process. We used a DNA microarray containing 97% of the ORFs predicted from this sequence to monitor changes in M. tuberculosis gene expression in response to the antituberculous drug isoniazid. Here we show that isoniazid induced several genes that encode proteins physiologically relevant to the drug's mode of action, including an operonic cluster of five genes encoding type II fatty acid synthase enzymes and fbpC, which encodes trehalose dimycolyl transferase. Other genes, not apparently within directly affected biosynthetic pathways, also were induced. These genes, efpA, fadE23, fadE24, and ahpC, likely mediate processes that are linked to the toxic consequences of the drug. Insights gained from this approach may define new drug targets and suggest new methods for identifying compounds that inhibit those targets. PMID:10536008

  13. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  14. Genetics of congenital and drug-induced long QT syndromes: current evidence and future research perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mahida, Saagar; Hogarth, Andrew J; Cowan, Campbell; Tayebjee, Muzahir H; Graham, Lee N; Pepper, Christopher B

    2013-06-01

    The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition characterized by abnormal prolongation of the QT interval with an associated risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Congenital forms of LQTS arise due to rare and highly penetrant mutations that segregate in a Mendelian fashion. Over the years, multiple mutations in genes encoding ion channels and ion channel binding proteins have been reported to underlie congenital LQTS. Drugs are by far the most common cause of acquired forms of LQTS. Emerging evidence suggests that drug-induced LQTS also has a significant heritable component. However, the genetic substrate underlying drug-induced LQTS is presently largely unknown. In recent years, advances in next-generation sequencing technology and molecular biology techniques have significantly enhanced our ability to identify genetic variants underlying both monogenic diseases and more complex traits. In this review, we discuss the genetic basis of congenital and drug-induced LQTS and focus on future avenues of research in the field. Ultimately, a detailed characterization of the genetic substrate underlying congenital and drug-induced LQTS will enhance risk stratification and potentially result in the development of tailored genotype-based therapies. PMID:23515882

  15. Artesunate overcomes drug resistance in multiple myeloma by inducing mitochondrial stress and non-caspase apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Xenofon; Johnson, Sarah; Garg, Tarun; Tian, Erming; Tytarenko, Ruslana; Zhang, Qing; Stein, Caleb; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua; Heuck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Although novel drugs have contributed immensely to improving outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), many patients develop drug resistance and ultimately succumb to MM. Here, we show that artesunate, an anti-malarial drug, reliably induces cell death in vitro in naďve as well as drug-resistant MM cells at concentrations shown to be safe in humans. Artesunate induced apoptosis predominantly through the non-caspase mediated pathway by primarily targeting mitochondria and causing outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization that led to cytosolic and subsequent nuclear translocation of mitochondrial proteins apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG). Nuclear translocation of AIF and EndoG was accompanied by low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased mitochondrial production of superoxide. These effects were present before apoptosis was evident and were related to intracellular levels of bivalent iron (Fe+2). Artesunate's unique mechanism probably was at least partially responsible for, its ability to act synergistically with multiple anti-myeloma agents. Our findings suggest that artesunate acts through iron to affect the mitochondria and induce low ROS and non-caspase–mediated apoptosis. Its potency, toxicity profile, and synergism with other drugs make it an intriguing new candidate for MM treatment. PMID:24948357

  16. Spinal Cord Stimulation Restores Locomotion in Animal Models of Parkinson’s disease1

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Romulo; Petersson, Per; Siesser, William B.; Caron, Marc G.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine replacement therapy is useful for treating motor symptoms in the early phase of Parkinson’s disease, but is less effective in the long-term. Electrical deep-brain stimulation is a valuable complement to pharmacological treatment but involves a highly invasive surgical procedure. We found that epidural electrical stimulation of the dorsal columns in the spinal cord restores locomotion in both acute pharmacologically induced dopamine-depleted mice and in chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. The functional recovery was paralleled by a disruption of aberrant low-frequency synchronous corticostriatal oscillations, leading to the emergence of neuronal activity patterns that resemble the state normally preceding spontaneous initiation of locomotion. We propose that dorsal column stimulation might become an efficient and less invasive alternative for treatment of Parkinson’s disease in the future. PMID:19299613

  17. Apathy in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Pluck, G; Brown, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess apathy in patients with Parkinson's disease and its relation to disability, mood, personality, and cognition. Methods: Levels of apathy in 45 patients with Parkinson's disease were compared with a group of 17 similarly disabled patients with osteoarthritis. Additional neuropsychiatric data were collected concerning levels of depression, anxiety, and hedonic tone. Personality was assessed with the tridimensional personality questionnaire. Cognitive testing included the mini-mental state examination, the Cambridge examination of cognition in the elderly, and specific tests of executive functioning. Results: Patients with Parkinson's disease had significantly higher levels of apathy than equally disabled osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, within the Parkinson sample, levels of apathy appear to be unrelated to disease progression. The patients with Parkinson's disease with the highest levels of apathy where not more likely to be depressed or anxious than those with the lowest levels of apathy, though they did show reduced hedonic tone. No differences in personality traits were detected in comparisons between patients with Parkinson's disease and osteoarthritis, or between patients in the Parkinson group with high or low levels of apathy. As a group, the patients with Parkinson's disease tended not to differ significantly from the osteoarthritic group in terms of cognitive skills. However, within the Parkinson's disease sample, the high apathy patients performed significantly below the level of the low apathy patients. This was particularly evident on tests of executive functioning. Conclusions: Apathy in Parkinson's disease is more likely to be a direct consequence of disease related physiological changes than a psychological reaction or adaptation to disability. Apathy in Parkinson's disease can be distinguished from other psychiatric symptoms and personality features that are associated with the disease, and it is closely associated with cognitive impairment. These findings point to a possible role of cognitive mechanisms in the expression of apathy. PMID:12438462

  18. MK-801-induced stereotypy and its antagonism by neuroleptic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. I. Tiedtke; C. Bischoff; W. J. Schmidt

    1990-01-01

    Summary MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydroxy-5H-dibenzo-(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5, 10-imine hydrogen maleate], which blocks glutamatergic transmission at the NMDA-receptor-gated ion chanel, induced stereotypies which are similar to those found after intrastriatal injections of AP-5, e.g. sniffing and locomotion. Tests in familiar or unfamiliar environment (non-stressful or stressful situation) did not qualitatively change MK-801-induced effects. Haloperidol (0.1mg\\/kg, IP) delayed the onset and shortened the duration of MK-801

  19. Integrated Systems Pharmacology Analysis of Clinical Drug-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hur, J; Guo, A Y; Loh, W Y; Feldman, E L; Bai, J P F

    2014-01-01

    A systems pharmacology approach was undertaken to define and identify the proteins/genes significantly associated with clinical incidence and severity of drug-induced peripheral neuropathy (DIPN). Pharmacological networks of 234 DIPN drugs, their known targets (both intended and unintended), and the intermediator proteins/genes interacting with these drugs via their known targets were examined. A permutation test identified 230 DIPN-associated intermediators that were enriched with apoptosis and stress response genes. Neuropathy incidence and severity were curated from drug labels and literature and were used to build a predictive model of DIPN using a regression tree algorithm, based on the drug targets and their intermediators. DIPN drugs whose targets interacted with both v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-associated factor (PAF15) were associated with a neuropathy incidence of 38.1%, whereas drugs interacting only with MYC had an incidence of 2.9%. These results warrant further investigation in order to develop a predictive tool for the DIPN potential of a new drug. PMID:24827872

  20. Acute Challenge with Apomorphine and Levodopa in Parkinsonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Rossi; Carlo Colosimo; Elena Moro; Pietro Tonali; Alberto Albanese

    2000-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of different parkinsonian syndromes and the ability to predict long-term drug efficacy constitute important clinical issues. Design: Motor responses to the acute administration of levodopa and apomorphine were analyzed in a series of 134 parkinsonian patients, including 83 patients with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD), 28 patients with multiple-system atrophy (MSA), 6 with progressive