Science.gov

Sample records for drug policy reform

  1. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-01-01

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures. PMID:25395346

  2. Interest Groups' Influence over Drug Pricing Policy Reform in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woojin

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way. PMID:15988802

  3. Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Thoumi, Francisco E

    2012-01-01

    This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change. PMID:22676567

  4. Drug policy reform and the reclassification of cannabis in England and Wales: A cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Michael

    2015-07-01

    When the legal classification of cannabis was downgraded in 2004 it represented the most significant liberalisation of British drug law in more than 30 years. Paradoxically, however, this apparently progressive reform led to an intensification of police efforts targeting minor possession offences and its failure was confirmed in January 2009 when the decision to downgrade cannabis was reversed. This article documents the impact that reclassification had on law enforcement activities and seeks to explain why it failed to deliver a more progressive approach. Drawing on official statistics, the analysis charts the process of net-widening that followed the reform, identifying a sharp increase in the number of people caught in the criminal justice net for minor possession offences. While police targeting of such offences was an unintended consequence of performance targets, broader political influences were also at play. The contradictions and reversals involved in the reclassification of cannabis, it is argued, can be readily understood in terms of the broader politics of crime and control and the 'structured ambivalence' of state responses. PMID:25959525

  5. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals. PMID:25300503

  6. Unpacking "Health Reform" and "Policy Capacity"

    PubMed Central

    Legge, David; Gleeson, Deborah H

    2015-01-01

    Health reform is the outcome of dispersed policy initiatives in different sectors, at different levels and across time. Policy work which can drive coherent health reform needs to operate across the governance structures as well as the institutions that comprise healthcare systems. Building policy capacity to support health reform calls for clarity regarding the nature of such policy work and the elements of policy capacity involved; and for evidence regarding effective strategies for capacity building. PMID:26673185

  7. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  8. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-05-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  9. POLICE BRIBERY AND ACCESS TO METHADONE MAINTENANCE THERAPY WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF DRUG POLICY REFORM IN TIJUANA, MEXICO

    PubMed Central

    Werb, D; Wagner, KD; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, SA

    2015-01-01

    Aims In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Methods Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Results Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1,825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.69, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02 – 2.81, p = 0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Discussion Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. PMID:25655577

  10. Social Problems of Drug Use and Drug Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Joel

    The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…

  11. Breaking the Consensus in Educational Policy Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The paper contributes to the debate on the implementation of policy reforms developing a typology for implementation based on the initial agreement on means and goals at the time of reform design. It is argued that the volume and nature of knowledge gathering and stakeholder involvement required to gain approval of a policy and avoid the…

  12. Evaluating the impact of Mexico’s drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing “war on drugs,” Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States—where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal—and Mexico—where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Methods Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012–2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits, subsets of participants completed qualitative interviews to explore contextual factors relating to study aims and other emergent phenomena. Planned analyses include descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data, content analysis and other mixed-methods approaches for qualitative data, and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-positive samples to understand cross-border transmission dynamics. Results Investigators and research staff shared preliminary findings across studies to provide feedback on instruments and insights regarding local

  13. Climate policy: Reforming emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-08-01

    Courageous steps are required to reform the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. To this end, an independent carbon authority has been proposed -- this is a move in the right direction, but should be part of a much broader discussion about reforming emissions trading.

  14. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: Becoming Policy Aware, Policy Wise and Policy Active.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis," this article describes the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Here, I illustrate that traditionally teachers have been, to a certain degree, involved in policy processes. However, the degree to which…

  15. Policy and Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current workforce reform, known as Remodelling the School Workforce, is part of an enduring policy process where there have been tensions between public and private sector structures and cultures. I show that the New Right and New Labour governments who have built and configured site based performance management over the past quarter of a century…

  16. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 43, 63 and 64 International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission eliminates the International Settlements... on all U.S.-international routes giving U.S. consumers competitive pricing when they...

  17. Implications of Bullying to School Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Nina Marie

    2014-01-01

    Governmental attention to bullying in kindergarten through Grade 3 continues to be a challenge in a metropolitan school district in the eastern United States. This has presented a case for school policy reform. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine how bullying and office discipline related to suspension referrals,…

  18. [Educational Reform and Discipline Policy Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria Joint Union High School District, CA.

    The program description and the newspaper advertisement presented describe the efforts of the Santa Maria Joint Union High School District (California) to implement the reforms mandated in California's SB 813, especially in the area of discipline policy, and to keep the public informed of those efforts. The program description provides an overview…

  19. Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

    2009-01-01

    Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions. PMID:20396645

  20. Drug pricing reform in China: analysis of piloted approaches and potential impact of the reform

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yixi; Hu, Shanlian; Dong, Peng; Kornfeld, Åsa; Jaros, Patrycja; Yan, Jing; Ma, Fangfang; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In 2009, the Chinese government launched a national healthcare reform programme aiming to control healthcare expenditure and increase the quality of care. As part of this programme, a new drug pricing reform was initiated on 1 June 2015. The objective of this study was to describe the changing landscape of drug pricing policy in China and analyse the potential impact of the reform. Methods The authors conducted thorough research on the drug pricing reform using three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang, and Weipu), Chinese health authority websites, relevant press releases, and pharmaceutical blogs and discussion forums. This research was complemented with qualitative research based on targeted interviews with key Chinese opinion leaders representing the authorities’ and prescribers’ perspectives. Results With the current reform, the government has attempted to replace its direct control over the prices of reimbursable drugs with indirect, incentive-driven influence. Although the exact implementation of the reform remains unclear at the moment, the changes introduced so far and the pilot project designs indicate that China is considering adaptation of some form of internal and external reference pricing policies, commonly used in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Several challenges related to the potential new mechanism were identified: 1) the risk of hospital underfunding, if hospital funding reform is not prioritised; 2) the risk of promoting the use of cheap, low-quality drugs, if a reliable quality control system is not in place and discrepancy between the available drugs is present; 3) the risk of increasing disparity in access to care between poor and rich regions, in case of country-wide price convergence; and 4) the risk of industry underinvestment, resulting in reduced competition, issues with quality and sustainability of supply, and potentially negative social impact. Conclusions Foreign pricing policies

  1. The Future of Medicare Policy Reform

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Allen; Langenbrunner, John C.

    1986-01-01

    The Medicare program, the largest health insurance program in the United States, is clearly at a crossroads as it enters its third decade. Historical increases in health care expenditures, plus a changing political and economic landscape, have set the groundwork for policy reform. Two basic reform strategies--reimbursement arrangements and program funding mechanisms--are discussed. In 1983, Congress enacted the Prospective Payment System (PPS) which initiated a fundamental change in the way hospitals are paid for care delivered to Medicare beneficiaries. But the PPS is only a stepping-stone to broader reforms such as capitation and vouchers. In addition, new methods of program funding may be necessary, especially in light of policymakers' considerations of coverage of services such as long term care and organ transplants.

  2. Drug policy in China: pharmaceutical distribution in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Dong, H; Bogg, L; Rehnberg, C; Diwan, V

    1999-03-01

    In 1978, China decided to reform its economy and since then has gradually opened up to the world. The economy has grown rapidly at an average of 9.8% per year from 1978 to 1994. Medical expenditure, especially for drugs, has grown even more rapidly. The increase in medical expenditure can be attributed to changing disease patterns, a higher proportion of older people in the population and fee-for-service incentives for hospitals. Due to the changing economic system and higher cost of health care, the Chinese government has reformed its health care system, including its health and drug policy. The drug policy reform has led to more comprehensive policy elements, including registration, production, distribution, utilization and administration. As a part of drug policy reform, the drug distribution network has also been changed, from a centrally controlled supply system (push system) to a market-oriented demand system (pull system). Hospitals can now purchase drugs directly from drug companies, factories and retailers, leading to increased price competition. Patients have easier access to drugs as more drugs are available on the market. At the same time, this has also entailed negative effects. The old drug administrative system is not suitable for the new drug distribution network. It is easy for people to get drugs on the market and this can lead to overuse and misuse. Marketing factors have influenced drug distribution so strongly that there is a risk of fake or low quality drugs being distributed. The government has taken some measures to fight these negative effects. This paper describes the drug policy reform in China, particularly the distribution of drugs to health care facilities. PMID:10190640

  3. Teachers' Professional Development and Education Reform. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, New Brunswick, NJ.

    This policy brief presents excerpts from an article by Judith Warren Little that addresses the problem of the "fit" between current state and local reforms and prevailing approaches to professional development. The brief addresses first five major themes of reform and their implications for teaching. These themes are: reforms in subject matter…

  4. Crafting an Education Reform Agenda through Economic Stimulus Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The economic stimulus enacted during President Obama's initial weeks included a down payment on his ambitious education reform agenda. By combining short-term policy with reform, the strategy gained his administration three advantages: a discretionary funding source with little Congressional scrutiny; flexibility in pursuing education reform goals…

  5. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Adams, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  6. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. PMID:27140431

  7. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  8. Intended and unintended consequences of China's zero markup drug policy.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hongmei; Miller, Grant; Zhang, Linxiu; Li, Shaoping; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Since economic liberalization in the late 1970s, China's health care providers have grown heavily reliant on revenue from drugs, which they both prescribe and sell. To curb abuse and to promote the availability, safety, and appropriate use of essential drugs, China introduced its national essential drug list in 2009 and implemented a zero markup policy designed to decouple provider compensation from drug prescription and sales. We collected and analyzed representative data from China's township health centers and their catchment-area populations both before and after the reform. We found large reductions in drug revenue, as intended by policy makers. However, we also found a doubling of inpatient care that appeared to be driven by supply, instead of demand. Thus, the reform had an important unintended consequence: China's health care providers have sought new, potentially inappropriate, forms of revenue. PMID:26240254

  9. Rationing Education: Policy, Practice, Reform and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David; Youdell, Deborah

    This book examines gender, racial/ethnic, and class inequalities in education, analyzing the impact of major reforms and exploring routine practices by which inequalities are reproduced and legitimized. It describes observations and interviews at two British secondary schools that show the costs of reform in terms of pressures on teachers and…

  10. Policy Capacity Meets Politics: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise. PMID:26673186

  11. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  12. Healthcare reform in China: making sense of a policy experiment?

    PubMed

    Millar, Ross; Jian, Weiyan; Mannion, Russell; Miller, Robin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore recent healthcare reform in China. Reflecting on the current literature, the viewpoint argues that greater attention should be paid to healthcare reform in China as a public policy process, particularly one that is built on policy experimentation. Design/methodology/approach - The viewpoint argues that while recent efforts to understand the impact of reform have brought significant understanding of key issues and processes, such interest tends to focus on pragmatic concerns rather than pose wider theoretical and methodological questions about the nature and pace of reform. Findings - The authors suggest that the lens of public policy is particular relevant and insightful given what has been documented elsewhere regarding China's unique policy process characterised by "policy experimentation". The authors discuss how a policy experiment perspective can provide a useful heuristic for understanding healthcare reform in China. Originality/value - The viewpoint concludes by outlining possible applications of this approach and looks forward at the emerging research agenda in this area. PMID:27119389

  13. The Rhetoric of Policy Formation in Cordoba Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos, Liliana Esther

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore education policies formation during two administrations (1983-1998) in the province of Cordoba, Argentina through the comparison of policy documents. The profound connections of the social, cultural, economic, and educational processes impact of Argentina's educational reforms during the last two decades of…

  14. Educational Reform in Athletic Training: A Policy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2003-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply a policy-analysis framework to the athletic training educational reform policy that will be fully implemented by January 2004. DATA SOURCES: Policy analysis is not a specific science. No one framework exists for conducting all policy analyses. I used literature from the education, policy analysis, and athletic training fields as data sources to provide background and to create a framework from which to conduct the policy analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Once the policy-analysis framework was selected, I began data synthesis, using several athletic training sources in support of the findings. The tension among the myriad stakeholders in this policy is clear. Although many see the benefits of accreditation, some experience hardships from the imposed policy. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Of the 4 possible alternatives suggested, following the route currently under implementation (Committee on Accreditation of Health Education Programs accreditation) was the most agreeable solution. The goals as stated by the policy makers are attained by the policy. However, issues within the accreditation process itself need to be addressed. Of the many stakeholders in the reform effort, some will see little gain and have many hardships imposed on them. As the policy is implemented, unintended implications will likely arise, as with any new policy. Thus, I recommend that the National Athletic Trainers' Association develop a system dedicated solely to reducing the hardships faced by many of its members as the policy is implemented. PMID:14737218

  15. Educational Reform in Athletic Training: A Policy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To apply a policy-analysis framework to the athletic training educational reform policy that will be fully implemented by January 2004. Data Sources: Policy analysis is not a specific science. No one framework exists for conducting all policy analyses. I used literature from the education, policy analysis, and athletic training fields as data sources to provide background and to create a framework from which to conduct the policy analysis. Data Synthesis: Once the policy-analysis framework was selected, I began data synthesis, using several athletic training sources in support of the findings. The tension among the myriad stakeholders in this policy is clear. Although many see the benefits of accreditation, some experience hardships from the imposed policy. Conclusions/Recommendations: Of the 4 possible alternatives suggested, following the route currently under implementation (Committee on Accreditation of Health Education Programs accreditation) was the most agreeable solution. The goals as stated by the policy makers are attained by the policy. However, issues within the accreditation process itself need to be addressed. Of the many stakeholders in the reform effort, some will see little gain and have many hardships imposed on them. As the policy is implemented, unintended implications will likely arise, as with any new policy. Thus, I recommend that the National Athletic Trainers' Association develop a system dedicated solely to reducing the hardships faced by many of its members as the policy is implemented. PMID:14737218

  16. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: What is Policy?," this article refers to the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must…

  17. Curriculum Policy Implementation: How Schools Respond to Government's "Soft" Policy in the Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jacqueline K. S.

    2012-01-01

    "Soft" policy has newly emerged as a policy implementation concept in relation to governance. Non-binding in character, "soft" policy is designed for multi-level systems of governance in which there is relative autonomy at different levels of collective decision-making. "Soft" policy has gained attention since the adoption of curriculum reforms in…

  18. China's family planning policies: recent reforms and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Basten, Stuart; Jiang, Quanbao

    2014-12-01

    In November 2013, China announced reforms to its family planning policies whereby couples would be allowed to have a second child if either parent is an only child. The announcement garnered worldwide media coverage, and stimulated academic and popular discussion. We explore the context of the 2013 reforms, including the economic, demographic, and political motivations behind them, and speculate on their likely effect. Noting that the impact of the reforms on China's long-term demographic future is likely to be relatively slight, we consider why more radical reform may have been difficult to implement. We offer observations about possible future directions for Chinese family planning policies and explore the notion of "local pronatalism within nationally prescribed antinatalist limits" and how this suggests that an ideological shift within China's family planning apparatus may be plausible. PMID:25469931

  19. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  20. The Tracking Wars: State Reform Meets School Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    This book examines the reactions of schools in Massachusetts and California to policies that sought to persuade schools to abandon or reduce tracking--the practice of grouping students into classes by ability and organizing curriculum by level of difficulty. The text is divided into 8 chapters: (1) "Implementing Tracking Reform," which sets forth…

  1. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  2. The Culture of Education Policy Making: Curriculum Reform in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the culture of education policy making in Shanghai using the conceptual tool of a "global assemblage". A global assemblage is essentially a collection of ideas and practices that arise from the interplay between a global form and situated sociocultural elements. Focusing on the global form of curriculum reform, this paper…

  3. Understanding Reason in Policy Reform: Engaging "Problematic" Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Kym

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine current policy reforms that situate education as a means of addressing social inclusion. Borrowing from the work of Popkewitz and Lindblad, the paper takes the form of a cross-disciplinary literature review that informs understanding of the relationship between educational governance and social inclusion/exclusion in…

  4. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  5. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam's social policy reforms in the transition to a market economy included the introduction of fees for primary and secondary school in the late 1980s. Using data from the Viet Nam Living Standards Surveys, this paper examines how the increasing costs of education to households have impacted on school enrollment between 1993 and 1998, giving…

  6. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  7. Effective Faith-Based Treatment Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (May 23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents witness testimonies from a hearing discussing two issues critical to the House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources: insuring government support for effective programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and facilitating the inclusion of faith-based providers in the…

  8. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda. What is Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    This article is related to the impacts on teachers of the increasing marginalization of their voices in educational policy making and policy debates. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must construct their own…

  9. Layoff Policies Could Diminish Teacher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that with the poor economy endangering more novice teachers' jobs, researchers and policymakers have begun to question the human-capital costs of "last hired, first fired" layoff policies. Such layoffs, those experts argue, do not consider teacher effectiveness, meaning that teachers who make vital contributions to school…

  10. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  11. Drug Testing in Schools: An Effective Deterrent? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (May 30, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents testimonies from a hearing discussing the drug threat in the nations schools and the issue of whether drug testing is an effective deterrent. The subcommittee conducted the hearing as part of an effort to fully understand the nations drug crisis, how it impacts different parts of our nation, and what effective drug control…

  12. Korea‧s Engineering Education Reform Policy and the Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheongsig

    The Korean government is setting up an ambitious policy for an engineering innovation program called “engineering education innovation program.” Its primary goal is to resolve quantitative and qualitative imbalance problems in industrial manpower of the country. It is also a policy that aims at progressively reforming engineering education in Korea in cooperation with the Ministries of Education (MOE) and Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE) . The development of specialized centers for engineering education programs by engineering schools, in particular, can help the government provide suitable supports for enhancing industrial competitiveness.

  13. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  14. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  15. Five un-easy pieces of pharmaceutical policy reform.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Improper dependencies slant policy over a drug's life span, biasing the development of new drugs, the testing and marketing approval for new drugs, and the monitoring of patient safety after drugs are marketed. This article examines five ways in which the public improperly depends on pharmaceutical firms that compromise the integrity of pharmaceutical policy. Today the public relies on pharmaceutical firms: (1) to set priorities on drug research and development; (2) to conduct clinical trials to test whether drugs are safe and effective; (3) to decide what clinical trial data to disclose to the public; (4) to monitor post marketing drug safety; (5) to supply product information to physicians and to finance continuing medical education and other professional activities. The article suggests options to overcome each of these dependencies. PMID:24088148

  16. Policy Capacity in the Learning Healthcare System Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gardner, William

    2015-01-01

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest and his colleagues make a strong argument for the need to expand policy capacity among healthcare actors. In this commentary, I develop an additional argument in support of Forest et al view. Forest et al rightly point to the need to have embedded policy experts to successfully translate healthcare reform policy into healthcare change. Translation of externally generated innovation policy into local solutions is only one source of healthcare system change. We also need to build learning healthcare systems that can discover new health solutions at the frontline of care. Enhanced policy capacity staffing in those organizations will be key to building continuously learning health systems. PMID:26673470

  17. Effectiveness of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (July 11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This hearing focuses on the evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Specifically, the subcommittee was interested in measuring whether significant taxpayer investment has been effective in accomplishing the objectives of the campaign-- reaching the target audience, changing young peoples attitudes about drugs, encouraging…

  18. Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

    This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

  19. Social construction and the evidence-based drug policy endeavour.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kari

    2014-09-01

    'Evidence-based policy' has become the catch-cry of the drug policy field. A growing literature has been dedicated to better realising the goal of evidence-based drug policy: to maximise the use of the best quality research to inform policy decision-making and help answer the question of 'what works'. Alternative accounts in the policy processes literature conceptualise policy activity as an ambiguous and contested process, and the role of evidence as being only marginally influential. Multiple participants jostle for influence and seek to define what may be regarded as a policy problem, how it may be appropriately addressed, which participants may speak authoritatively, and what knowledge(s) may be brought to bear. The question posited in this article is whether the conceptual shift offered by thinking about policy activity as a process of social construction may be valuable for beginning to explore different perspectives of the evidence-based drug policy endeavour. Within a constructionist account of policy, what counts as valid 'evidence' will always be a constructed notion within a dynamic system, based on the privileging and silencing of participants and discourse, and the contestation of those many positions and perspectives. The social construction account shifts our focus from the inherent value of 'evidence' for addressing 'problems' to the ways in which policy knowledge is made valid, by whom and in what contexts. As such, social construction provides a framework for critically analysing the ways in which 'policy-relevant knowledge' may not be a stable concept but rather one which is constructed through the policy process, and, through a process of validation, is rendered useful. We have limited knowledge in the drug policy field about how this happens; how ambiguity about the problems to be addressed, which voices should be heard, and what activities may be appropriate is contested and managed. By unpicking the values and assumptions which underlie drug

  20. National drug policy: implications of the 'tough on drugs' ideology.

    PubMed

    Norman, R

    2001-10-01

    Australia has emerged over the last decade as a world leader in drug policy. According to Single and Rohl (1997 pvii) Australia's National Drug Strategy 'has been characterised by a unique combination of features which have brought it international attention and acclaim'. The strength of Australia's policy has been its emphasis on both licit and illicit drugs, and also its clear articulation of harm minimisation as a guiding principle in all areas of action. The key policy goals recognised the harm associated with all substances and sought results in key areas of alcohol-related problems, tobacco-related problems, under-age consumption, prescription medication problems and illicit drug use. However, Australia has a new drug policy document for the new millennium, The National Drug Strategic Framework 1998 - 2002. As a result of a conservative influence in national politics, this framework has moved from the harm minimisation philosophy to a moralistic 'tough on drugs' philosophy that stresses zero tolerance, law enforcement and abstinence. There is a risk that Australia will experience an increase in adverse health, social and economic consequences as a result of this new policy direction. Nurses need to think critically about the 'tough on drugs' ideology. There is a risk that significant adverse affects may occur for their drug-using patients as a result of this policy change. In their practice, nurses need to challenge the validity of a punitive response, and to commit themselves to improving the health and safety of the illicit drug-using community. PMID:15484689

  1. [An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies].

    PubMed

    Pitta, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly, has resisted the force of time and stigma in the ten years since the Law was enacted? These and other questions need to be worked on. It is time to recycle the focus of assessment and analysis in order to identify what threatens its vitality. This is the challenge to which the writer and debaters will be enjoined to contribute. PMID:22124894

  2. Drug Policy of the Framingham Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    The policy of the Framingham School System with respect to drug use and abuse is to establish a climate within its schools that is conducive to the understanding and respect for the proper use of drugs and an attitude toward nonabuse of drugs. To achieve this climate, some basic measures described in this report were taken. One measure was to set…

  3. [Reflections on drug policies in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Tarcísio Matos

    2011-12-01

    This article contains some reflections on drug policies in Brazil. In the first two chapters, taking the needle exchange programs (SEPs) as the starting point, the author discusses the trajectory of the Harm Reduction Policy in Brazil and the role played in it by the Department of STD, AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. The third chapter examines the actions developed by the National Coordination of Mental Health, Alcohol and Other Drugs and the Office of Drug Policies - SENAD, after the retraction of the Department of STD and AIDS from drug policies, as well as the introduction of PEAD and the "Crack Plan" in the country. In the fourth and fifth chapters the provisions of the current Brazilian policy on drugs and its limitations related mainly to the fragility of the Family Health Strategy are discussed, and some of the actions foreseen in the PEAD and the "Crack Plan" are critically analyzed. In the sixth chapter the author examines the effects of repression in the name of combating trafficking in the Brazilian policy on drugs having as background of the marginalization and social exclusion of users. Finally, some proposals are presented for the Alcohol and Drugs Policy in Brazil. PMID:22124907

  4. The Controlled Substances Act: how a "big tent" reform became a punitive drug law.

    PubMed

    Courtwright, David T

    2004-10-01

    The 1970 Controlled Substances Act was part of an omnibus reform package designed to rationalize, and in some respects to liberalize, American drug policy. While the legislation provided additional resources for law enforcement and a systematic means for regulating the use of most psychoactive drugs, it also did away with mandatory minimum sentences and provided more support for treatment and research. Over the next three decades, and in response to public alarm about drug abuse, the US Congress continuously amended the law to produce a more punitive system of drug control. The amendments, which gave the Drug Enforcement Administration greater control over scheduling and maintenance and which substantially increased penalties for illicit trafficking, transformed the law into the legal foundation of America's "drug war," as the stricter criminal approach came to be known. By the 1980s, the flexibility and innovative spirit of the original Controlled Substances Act (and that of Nixon-era drug strategy generally) had largely disappeared from American drug policy. PMID:15380284

  5. Managing la malilla: Exploring drug treatment experiences among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico, and their implications for drug law reform

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer; Pollini, Robin A.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In August 2009, Mexico reformed its drug laws and decriminalized small quantities of drugs for personal use; offenders caught three times will be mandated to enter drug treatment. However, little is known about the quality or effectiveness of drug treatment programs in Mexico. We examined injection drug users’ (IDUs) experiences in drug treatment in Tijuana, Mexico, with the goal of informing program planning and policy. Methods We examined qualitative and quantitative data from Proyecto El Cuete, a multi-phased research study on HIV risk among IDUs in Tijuana. Phase I consisted of 20 in-depth interviews and Phase II employed respondent-driven sampling to recruit 222 IDUs for a quantitative survey. We also reviewed national drug policy documents, surveillance data, and media reports to situate drug users’ experiences within the broader sociopolitical context. Results Participants in the qualitative study were 50% male with a mean age of 32; most injected heroin (85.0%) and methamphetamine (60.0%). The quantitative sample was 91.4% male with a mean age of 35; 98.2% injected heroin and 83.7% injected heroin and methamphetamine together. The majority of participants reported receiving treatment: residential treatment was most common, followed by methadone; other types of services were infrequently reported. Participants’ perceptions of program acceptability and effectiveness were mixed. Mistreatment emerged as a theme in the qualitative interviews and was reported by 21.6% of Phase II participants, primarily physical (72.0%) and verbal (52.0%) abuse. Conclusions Our results point to the need for political, economic, and social investment in the drug treatment system before offenders are sentenced to treatment under the revised national drug law. Resources are needed to strengthen program quality and ensure accountability. The public health impact of the new legislation that attempts to bring drug treatment to the forefront of national drug policy

  6. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  7. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Allison L.; Haas, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  8. Can pharmacogenomics improve malaria drug policy?

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Howard; Juliano, Jonathan J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Coordinated global efforts to prevent and control malaria have been a tour-de-force for public health, but success appears to have reached a plateau in many parts of the world. While this is a multifaceted problem, policy strategies have largely ignored genetic variations in humans as a factor that influences both selection and dosing of antimalarial drugs. This includes attempts to decrease toxicity, increase effectiveness and reduce the development of drug resistance, thereby lowering health care costs. We review the potential hurdles to developing and implementing pharmacogenetic-guided policies at a national or regional scale for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. We also consider current knowledge on some component drugs of artemisinin combination therapies and ways to increase our understanding of host genetics, with the goal of guiding policy decisions for drug selection. PMID:22084530

  9. Niche markets and evidence assessment in transition: a critical review of proposed drug reforms.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Shannon G; Lemmens, Trudo

    2014-01-01

    In response to rising demands and treatment costs, and the need to achieve better value for money in the face of tight fiscal constraints, both the National Health Service and the public drug reimbursement system are undergoing important reforms. Concurrently, the pharmaceutical sector itself is also alleged to be experiencing significant changes, perhaps most notably, a decline of the blockbuster model of drug development and a growing focus on niche market products. As pharmaceutical development strategies evolve and the resulting drug products become more complex, regulatory and policy responses must be able to evolve along with them. We explore how in numerous jurisdictions, including the UK, proposals for 'adaptive licensing' on the regulatory side and 'performance-based risk sharing agreements' on the funding side are shifting the focus of drug regulation and reimbursement towards more incremental access to new therapies and more post-market evidence generation. However, serious questions remain about how such reforms can be successfully implemented and whether they can balance demands for earlier access to promising new therapies with the need for robust evidence on safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:24841527

  10. Drug price reform in the UK: debunking the myths.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Simeon

    2007-10-01

    The OFT report into the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS) called for reform of the scheme, replacing existing profit and price controls with a system of value-based pricing (VBP). The report argued that VBP would be much more effective than the current PPRS both at providing value for money for the NHS and giving pharmaceutical companies the right incentives to invest in drugs in the future. The report has sparked a widespread debate about drug pricing in the UK and has been controversial in some quarters. Some of the more negative responses are, however, based on fundamental misconceptions about the OFT recommendations. In particular, contrary to some claims, the recommended system would provide strong incentives for incremental innovation and the right balance of rewards for first in class and follow-on products. Nor, as is sometimes argued, would VBP have an adverse effect on investment in the UK.Certainly, real challenges lie ahead if VBP is to be implemented. These concern the definition of value, particularly where patient benefits differ significantly by subgroup or indication, and the level of resource required to implement VBP. The OFT report contains proposals for addressing each of these areas. Perhaps the most difficult challenge is the political one: securing acceptance for a reform package that would create winners and losers among pharmaceutical companies according to their success in producing valuable drugs. Ultimately, however, only a scheme that does precisely this can hope to meet the needs of patients, the NHS and innovative companies in the long run. PMID:17853505

  11. Mental Health Policy and Psychotropic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Richard G; Conti, Rena M; Goldman, Howard H

    2005-01-01

    The pace of innovation in psychotropic drugs has been rapid over the past 15 years. There also have been unprecedented increases in spending on prescription drugs generally and psychotropic medications specifically. Psychotropic medications are playing a more central role in treatment. They also are receiving close scrutiny from health insurers, state budget makers, and ordinary citizens. Public policy actions regarding prescription drugs have the potential to significantly affect clinical care for mental disorders, the costs of this care to individuals and society at large, and the prospects for future scientific advances. This article outlines the policy issues related to psychotropic drugs with respect to their role in determining access to mental health treatment and the cost and quality of mental health care. PMID:15960772

  12. Transitioning to a national health system in Cyprus: a stakeholder analysis of pharmaceutical policy reform

    PubMed Central

    Kanavos, Panos G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the pharmaceutical sector in Cyprus in terms of the availability and affordability of medicines and to explore pharmaceutical policy options for the national health system finance reform expected to be introduced in 2016. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews in April 2014 with senior representatives from seven key national organizations involved in pharmaceutical care. The captured data were coded and analysed using the predetermined themes of pricing, reimbursement, prescribing, dispensing and cost sharing. We also examined secondary data provided by the Cypriot Ministry of Health; these data included the prices and volumes of prescription medicines in 2013. Findings We identified several key issues, including high medicine prices, underuse of generic medicines and high out-of-pocket drug spending. Most stakeholders recommended that the national government review existing pricing policies to ensure medicines within the forthcoming national health system are affordable and available, introduce a national reimbursement system and incentivize the prescribing and dispensing of generic medicines. There were disagreements over how to (i) allocate responsibilities to governmental agencies in the national health system, (ii) reconcile differences in opinion between stakeholders and (iii) raise awareness among patients, physicians and pharmacists about the benefits of greater generic drug use. Conclusion In Cyprus, if the national health system is going to provide universal health coverage in a sustainable fashion, then the national government must address the current issues in the pharmaceutical sector. Importantly, the country will need to increase the market share of generic medicines to contain drug spending. PMID:26478624

  13. Policy Diffusion and Transfer and Teachers' Perceptions within the Bologna Reforms: The Armenia case of Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper seeks to understand how higher education policy from the European Community is defused and transferred to Armenia, a developing country. Particularly, this study aims to delve deeper in the actual implementation process of higher education reforms in Armenia through teachers' perceptions. The findings mainly reveal that teachers do long…

  14. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    PubMed

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism. PMID:21591306

  15. Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening the English Language Policy: An Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah; Umar, Nur Farita Mustapa; Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Today's global economy and dependency on technology has led to educational reforms in Malaysia, which includes language policies; namely the Upholding the Malay Language, and Strengthening the English Language ("MBMMBI") policy. This policy underpins the project presented and discussed in this paper; on the development of a bilingual…

  16. Educational Reform: The Need To Redefine State-Local Governance of Schools. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B.

    This document examines recent state school reform efforts from two perspectives: the strategies states adopt to improve educational excellence and the influence those strategies have on the functional dimensions of education policy. The paper reports the research findings of a study that examined state reform strategies nationally. The study…

  17. The Contribution of Stuart Hall to Analyzing Educational Policy and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandin, Luis Armando

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the contribution of Stuart Hall to the study of educational policy and reform, using the experience of the Citizen School initiative in Porto Alegre, Brazil as a concrete example. This experience was a participatory educational reform implemented during the 16 years of the Workers' Party tenure in Porto Alegre's municipal…

  18. How Do School Leaders Navigate ICT Educational Reform? Policy Learning Narratives from a Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua Reyes, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research inquiry focuses on how school leaders "make sense" of educational reform in their local contexts. In order to do this, an exploratory qualitative case study of two schools that took part in policy reform initiatives directed at ubiquitous use of information communication and technology (ICT) in the Singapore…

  19. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  20. Policy Networks and Boundary Objects: Enacting Curriculum Reform in the Absence of Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banner, Indira; Donnelly, Jim; Ryder, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the concept of "boundary object", first developed within science studies by Star and Griesemer, to analyse curriculum policy implementation. It employs as a vehicle a significant but contested reform of the science curriculum in schools in England from 2006 onwards, drawing empirically on an extended study of the reform, using…

  1. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  2. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  3. Postmarket policy considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Matthew J; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Weymann, Deirdre; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Oncology biological products are some of the most expensive drugs on the market and are a growing financial burden on patients and health-care systems. By 2020, numerous major biological cancer drugs will lose their patent protection allowing follow-on competitors, known as biosimilars, to enter the market. Clinical and regulatory considerations for biosimilars have begun to harmonise in Europe and the USA to help to define and streamline the pathway for biosimilar market authorisation. Yet, substantial international variation still exists in the pricing and market uptake of approved biosimilar oncology drugs. Differences in national postmarket policies for biosimilars might explain these disparities in pricing and uptake. In this Policy Review, policy approaches to competition between biosimilars and originators used by seven European countries--Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the UK--and the USA are discussed, chosen because these countries represent a variety of postmarket policies and build on conclusions from previous work. We discuss these policies within the context of interchangeability, physician prescribing, substitutability, pharmacist dispensing, hospital financing and tendering, and pricing. PMID:26758759

  4. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  5. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  6. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  7. From Agitating in the Streets to Implementing in the Suites: Understanding Education Policy Reforms Initiated by Local Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne; Deschenes, Sarah; Hopkins, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Community organizing for education reform continues to expand across U.S. cities, and this article provides a framework for understanding how grassroots advocacy organizations influence local education policy. Comparing two landmark policy reforms achieved by advocates in California, we analyze the complicated role advocates have in reform that…

  8. Pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to

  9. A drug policy for our times.

    PubMed

    Nahas, G G; Frick, H C; Gleaton, T; Schuchard, K; Moulton, O

    1986-01-01

    Three erroneous assumptions have influenced illicit drug abuse control policy. The first states that dependence-producing drugs are not different from many other substances consumed by people. This assumption underestimates the inherent neuro-behavioural properties of dependence-producing drugs that lead their users to adopt a compulsive pattern of daily consumption that is damaging to health. The second assumption states that even a young person may learn to use these drugs in a reasonable and responsible fashion, taking advantage of their redeeming qualities and avoiding their damaging effects. This assumption overestimates the ability of the human neocortex (new brain) to override the chemical stimuli induced by dependence-producing drugs in the pleasure and reward centres, which seem to be located in the limbic system of the old primitive brain. The third assumption states that social acceptance and commercial availability of illicit drugs would eliminate the social costs associated with their illegal traffic, which breeds crime and corruption. This assumption ignores historical precedents and the results of epidemiological surveys that demonstrate the damaging effects that social acceptance of these drugs and their widespread use may have on the individual and society. Surveys of drug consumers indicate that the percentage of addicts is significantly related to the dependence-producing potential of the drug used. In a population where alcohol is commonly consumed, 7-9 per cent of the consumers drink in amounts that are damaging to health. In a population where cannabis is socially accepted and easily available, more than half of cannabis consumers use the drugs in doses damaging to health. Approximately 90-95 per cent of cocaine or heroin users consume their drug of choice on a daily basis. Therefore, the dependence-producing potential of cannabis and that of cocaine or heroin would be, respectively, 7 and 14 times greater than the dependence potential of

  10. Education Reform and the Limits of Policy: Lessons from Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Michael F.; Kearney, C. Philip

    2012-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the United States has experienced more attempts at education reform than at any other time in its history. Efforts to reform financing, the assessment of student performance, accountability and equity, and school choice have all been implemented--with varying levels of success. Michael F. Addonizio and C. Philip Kearney…

  11. Citizen participation in the reform of health care policy: a case example.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, D

    1996-01-01

    The trend toward greater citizen participation in health care policy reform has its roots in the consumerism of the 1960s. This era witnessed the beginning of a dispersion of power in health care and an increase in the number and variety of stakeholders involved in the policy development process. Using the reform Ontario's long-term care policy as a case example, this paper offers observations about the benefits and challenges of participative policy-making. Despite the challenges and the paucity of hard evidence pointing to benefits, the author concludes that broad citizen participation in health care policy reform is a desirable goal. However, the capacity for genuine collaboration remains underdeveloped and requires more systematic refinement. PMID:10159410

  12. [National pharmaceutical policy in Colombia and social security reform: access and rational use of medicines].

    PubMed

    Mejia Restrepo, Samuel; Velez Arango, Alba Lucía; Buritica Arboleda, Olga Clemencia; Arango Mejia, María Cristina; Rio Gomez, Jaime Alberto del

    2002-01-01

    Based on the new social security system in Colombia (1993), which establishes equity and mandatory care as the basis for public health care provision, the authors analyze whether the formulation and implementation of pharmaceutical policy promote accessibility, availability, and rational use of medicines, thereby contributing to equity in health. Two approaches were used: a macro approach centered on the legal framework and various actors in the reform process and a micro approach related to the processes and results in the drug supply system. The authors studied the legal instruments backing the country's pharmaceutical policy and evaluated their application, using indicators and a specific disease (diabetes mellitus) as a marker. Although there is a legal framework providing the people's right to access health care services and essential medicines, the country lacks a comprehensive pharmaceuticals policy. Most of the institutions experience problems in distributing the medicines listed under the Mandatory Health Plan, a low percentage of medicines is dispensed at zero cost, and a major portion of patients purchase medicines through associations of diabetics or rely on alternative medicine. The study unveiled several obstacles to equity in health care coverage and access to essential medicines. PMID:12118308

  13. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  14. Curriculum Convergence in Chile: The Global and Local Context of Reforms in Curriculum Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Gilbert A.

    2004-01-01

    In the 14 years since Chile's return to democracy, educational reform has figured prominently in the social policy agenda. As is true throughout Latin America, Chilean policy makers have placed the quality of educational opportunities among their main concerns. Having previously focused on the numerical expansion of enrollment, Chile's leadership…

  15. Educational Turbulence: The Influence of Macro and Micro-Policy on Science Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2013-01-01

    Enactment of federal educational policy has direct implications for states and local school districts across the nation, particularly in the areas of accountability and funding. This study utilized constructivist grounded theory to examine the impact of policy on science education reform in a large, urban school district over a 5-year period. The…

  16. Controlling the Front Gates: Effective Admissions Policies and Practices. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Frank

    This report identifies policies and practices essential to overcoming problems with admissions to juvenile detention facilities, using information from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Chapter 1, "Why Objective Admissions Policies and Practices Are Critical to Detention Reform," describes factors contributing to uncontrolled…

  17. One Policy, Disparate Reactions: Institutional Responses in Florida's Developmental Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Toby J.; Tandberg, David A.; Hu, Shouping; Hankerson, Dava

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to better understand how community colleges in Florida planned to implement a new sweeping state policy pertaining to developmental education. Via a cluster analysis, we identify three distinct patterns in the ways in which the colleges responded to the policy: reformers, responders, and resisters. Further, we find that these…

  18. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  19. FYI: Reforming Social Welfare Policy...Indiana's Children...Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes results of reports and resources concerning the reform of social welfare policy. Focuses on a profile of Indiana children, hospital policies and programs designed to meet the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children and their families, a senior center/latchkey program, and lead poisoning prevention. (BB)

  20. Compensation Reform and Design Preferences of Teacher Incentive Fund Grantees. Policy Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyburn, Sara; Lewis, Jessica; Ritter, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In U.S. K-12 public education, incentive pay for educators remains firmly fixed as a high-interest policy topic and has recently become a popular reform initiative in many school systems. The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF), created in 2006 by the U.S. Department of Education, is at the forefront of this policy movement and has provided hundreds of…

  1. Knaves or Knights, Pawns or Queens?: An Evaluation of Australian Higher Education Reform Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollery, Brian; Murray, David; Crase, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To invoke Julian Le Grand's conceptual model of the interaction between human motivation and policy formulation in order to explain how motivational endogeneity in the university environment has distorted policy outcomes in the Australian higher education reform program. Design/methodology/approach: Le Grand contends that changes in the…

  2. The Impact of Reform Policies on Teachers' Work and Professionalism in the Chinese Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Leslie Nai-Kwai; Lai, Manhong; Wang, Lijia

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reform policies on the work of Chinese teachers. It explores the policy context in which a fragile teaching profession attempts to develop and discusses the dynamics of interacting societal forces that have created the dilemmas for the teachers. The authors argue that while the continual implementation of reform…

  3. Have VET Reforms Resulted in Improvements in Quality? Illustrations from the Alcohol and Other Drugs Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Ann; Kostadinov, Victoria; White, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Australian vocational education and training (VET) has undergone major reforms since the 1990s, including the introduction of competency based training (CBT) and the "streamlining" of qualifications. This paper examines the impact of these reforms, using the alcohol and other drugs sector as a case illustration. A survey of alcohol and…

  4. Generic drug policy in Australia: a community pharmacy perspective

    PubMed Central

    Beecroft, Grahame

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a commentary, from a community pharmacy perspective, on the policy environment for the pharmacy sector in Australia, with a particular focus on present challenges arising from proposals to achieve substantial PBS cost savings from an anticipated surge of new generic drugs. Some $2 billion of medicines currently on the PBS will come off patent in the next 4 years. This growth comes from a low base where generics currently account for only 15% of the total PBS budget. Remuneration for PBS dispensing is fixed through five year agreements with the government, so trading terms on generics are important for the cross-subsidy of other dispensing activities and professional services. These trading terms (discounts provided by generics suppliers) have become part of the overall cost and revenue structure of pharmacies. Despite these arrangements, generic substitution rates in Australia are lower than in most comparable countries, which the government views as an opportunity to promote generic use. The future of generic drug supply via the PBS is important to allow consumers access to medications at the lowest possible price and to provide space for PBS listing of new and expensive drugs. But considerations of PBS reform need to take account of the role and viability of community pharmacy sector as provider of pharmaceuticals in a timely and efficient manner to Australian residents. PMID:17543112

  5. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0... JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall report to the Attorney General, through the Deputy...

  6. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0... JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall report to the Attorney General, through the Deputy...

  7. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0... JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall report to the Attorney General, through the Deputy...

  8. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  9. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform. PMID:22069793

  10. Medicaid and State Health Care Reform: Process, Programs, and Policy Options

    PubMed Central

    Rotwein, Suzanne; Boulmetis, Maria; Boben, Paul J.; Fingold, Helaine I.; Hadley, James P.; Rama, Kathy L.; Van Hoven, Debbie

    1995-01-01

    Health care reform is a continuously evolving process. The States and the Federal Government have struggled with policy issues to combat escalating Medicaid expenditures while ensuring access and quality of care to an ever-expanding population. In the absence of national health care reform, States are increasingly relying on Federal waivers to develop innovative approaches to address a myriad of issues associated with the present health care delivery system. This article provides a summary of State health care reform efforts that have been initiated under Federal waiver authority. PMID:10142572

  11. Israeli policy toward veterans with disabilities: a snapshot and insights of the proposed reform.

    PubMed

    Tal-Katz, Patricia; Araten-Bergman, Tal; Rimmerman, Arie

    2011-01-01

    The policy toward Israeli veterans with disabilities is based on the Invalids Law (Benefits and Rehabilitation) of 1949 . This legislation has served as the foundation for an intricate disability policy, providing benefits and psychosocial services for veterans with disabilities. Sixty two years later, in light of the emergence of a new social model and disability rights conceptualization, there is a need to reevaluate the current legislation and policy. In this article the authors present the essence of the current Israeli disability policy and explore the applications of a proposed reform aimed at adapting the disability policy and services to the new principles of the social model of disability. PMID:22126141

  12. Stories of reform in science education: commentary on opp(reg)ressive policies and tempered radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytler, Russell

    2010-12-01

    This response to the two papers (by Rodriguez and Carlone et al.) on science education reform acknowledges first the coherence of the arguments presented around four reform narratives; that of the process of becoming science-enthusiastic, the nature of beliefs of science reform teachers, the barriers to reform, and the institutional expressions of these barriers. In the commentary I first discuss the reform `problem' in terms of two interacting issues—the purposes of school science and the value placed on it in an elementary school curriculum. The insights produced in these papers are then used to reflect on a range of experiences and current policy debates in Australia. Finally, in this commentary, I point out: (a) the relationship of the papers to the reform issue of opposition to Standards Based Science (SBS) from proponents' traditional conceptions of science education, discussing how this more specific reform question relates to the two papers; and (b) the singular nature of the I-meanings characterised in the Carlone et al. paper, describing (using Australian examples) how the notions of tempered radicals and I-meanings might also be used to characterise complexities in the processes of school science reform.

  13. [On the formulation of TCM foreign exchange policy after the reform and opening-up].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfang; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    The foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine are conducted under the guidance of the policy of the CPC and Chinese government. After the carrying out of the reform and opening-up policy, foreign exchange policy of TCM has experienced the process of growing up from nothing, from less to more, and from coarse to fine, which is closely related to our country's foreign policy, the cause of Chinese medicine development, and urgent need of international communication. In the three decades after the reform and opening-up policy, the formulation of foreign exchange policy of TCM can be divided into three stages: viz., inclusion in the framework of national foreign policy (1978-1985), embodiment in the policy of developing TCM cause (1986-1996), and appearance in the special policy of foreign exchange of Chinese medicine (since 1997). From the development process of these policies, the development of each policy gradually complies with the process of the development of the times, with its contents basically in line with the requirements of the times. The implementation of some policies promotes the foreign exchanges and cooperation of Chinese medicine. PMID:26420412

  14. Australian pharmaceutical policy: price control, equity, and drug innovation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Doran, Evan; Alexander Henry, David

    2008-04-01

    This paper outlines the increasing salience of drug "innovation" in the debate for reform of Australia's pharmaceutical policy, particularly change to Australia's price control mechanisms. The pharmaceutical industry has consistently criticised the central role of price control in Australia's pharmaceutical regulatory regime as an impediment to drug innovation and industry growth. Despite ambivalent or contrary evidence on the impact of price control on drug innovation, this criticism, and the appeals for reform it supports, appear to be increasingly influential in directing pharmaceutical policy. This is particularly evident in the implementation of the Australia/United States Free Trade Agreement, which has led to a weakening of the historical process of evidence-based reference pricing in Australia. Should drug innovation come to dominate Australian pharmaceutical policy, there is the potential to precipitate a devaluing of the current public orientation of regulation and diminish equitable access to affordable pharmaceuticals. The manner in which trade policy has effectively undermined a publicly funded pharmaceutical benefits scheme has clear implications for many countries that maintain such programmes. PMID:18368023

  15. Welfare Reform on Rosebud Reservation: Challenges for Tribal Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biolsi, Thomas; Cordier, Rose; Two Eagle, Marvine Douville; Weil, Melinda

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with low-income, American Indian, single parents on the Rosebud Reservation in Todd County, South Dakota, included families who were on and who had left Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Welfare reform issues discussed included transportation problems; access to affordable, quality child care; food insecurity; and the scarcity of…

  16. Fiscal Policy Implications of the Education Reform Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; McKeown, Mary P.

    This paper examines fiscal implications of five 1983 reports that recommend reform of America's schools. Greater rigor in curriculum and textbook content is a common report theme, while three call for specific graduation requirements. Generally, reports recommend increasing time for key courses and requiring regular homework, achievement tests,…

  17. Inclusive Education Reform in Queensland: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Patricia E.

    2010-01-01

    In Queensland, Australia, the school system is being reformed to be more "inclusive". However, the enthusiasm for "inclusive education" in Queensland seems to be waning amongst practitioners, and the "confusion, frustration, guilt and exhaustion" that has emerged with teachers and support practitioners in the UK is emerging amongst support…

  18. Mental health reform under policy mainstreaming: needed, but uncertain.

    PubMed

    Hogan, M

    2014-03-01

    October 2013 marks the 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's message to the US Congress on the need to reform mental healthcare. Much has changed in that time. In 2006, Frank and Glied summarized these changes and the forces behind them, finding that the well-being of people with mental illness was 'better but not well.' They also conclude that most improvements have been due to 'mainstreaming,' the inclusion of those with mental illness in broad reforms such as Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security. With the gradual assimilation of mental health concerns, leadership and resources into mainstream programmes and agencies, future improvements will require that these programmes are accessible and oriented to people with mental illness. The passage of broad health reform legislation in 2010 (the Affordable Care Act) reinforces this change; several of its provisions attempt to make healthcare more relevant to the population with mental illness. In this editorial, I discuss a set of challenges which remain for the population with mental illness in the healthcare system, and the prospects for change. These challenges include: (1) improving basic mental healthcare in primary care, (2) improving mental healthcare for children, (3) earlier detection and treatment of psychotic illness, (4) disability and unemployment and (5) the challenge of sustaining an adequate, speciality public mental healthcare system under conditions of mainstreaming. In general, I conclude that the prospects for successful reform are uncertain. Establishing mental healthcare specialization in mainstream systems has not been notably successful to date. PMID:24229608

  19. Reform Options for the Intergovernmental Funding System: Decategorization Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sid

    In the midst of the current concern for system reform and effective services there is renewed attention to the effects of categorical funding as the predominant method of allocating resources for children and their families. This paper presents a historical view of categorical funding for services to children and families. It explores the policy…

  20. Regulatory Federalism: Policy, Process, Impact and Reform. A Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC.

    In the last two decades, the federal government's role in state and local affairs has shifted markedly from subsidy to regulation. This report examines the origins and effects of the new "regulatory federalism" and proposes reforms. Chapter 1 delineates the subject, chronicling the growth of intergovernmental regulation and discussing the legal…

  1. Policies and Initiatives: Reforming Teacher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadi, Martha Nkechinyere

    2012-01-01

    Much discussion surrounding educational policy currently is international in character. Governments, policy makers, stakeholders and many international organizations of both developed and developing countries have become concerned with how policies, practices, and outcomes in one country can be compared with those in other countries. Comparative…

  2. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  3. The Role of Education and Training in Welfare Reform. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueron, Judith M.; Hamilton, Gayle

    States have used variants of these three approaches to structure the welfare to-work component of welfare reform for single mothers: (1) put education or training first; (2) place job searching first; and (3) create a flexible program that allows staff and participants choice in the initial and subsequent activities. Research on these program…

  4. Education Reform Support: A Framework for Scaling Up School Reform. Policy Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, F. Henry; DeStefano, Joseph

    The Bureau for Africa of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has been examining in detail the question of how best to support and sustain sectorwide education reform in Africa. The USAID and Education Commission of the States jointly sponsored a seminar in October 1996 to examine the issue of "scaling up" and to bring…

  5. In Search of a Coherent Policy of Reform: A Longitudinal Examination of Educational Reform in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the social, cultural, and political context for educational reform in Utah, highlighting Mormon influences, high educational valuation and aspiration, booming public school enrollments, moderate revenue growth, and the state's "minimalist" tax mood. Discusses the character and impact of efficiency, effectiveness, strategic planning, and…

  6. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  7. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  8. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D

    2003-09-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995-2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  9. Reductions in abortion-related mortality following policy reform: evidence from Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform. PMID:22192901

  10. The Intersection of Policy, Reform, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Policy affecting teacher education evolves from a wide range of sources, including public perceptions and attitudes, federal initiatives, current trends in public schools and higher education, the visions and whims of politicians, and the profession's own initiatives. No matter how it emerges, it is not unusual for policy ebbs and flows to result…

  11. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  12. Vulnerable societies: why antidrug policies fail, why there is a need for reforms and why they are unlikely to be implemented.

    PubMed

    Thoumi, Francisco E

    2012-01-01

    Illegal drugs develop in vulnerable societies. Antidrug policies fail because they do not attack those vulnerabilities; most only attack some of the contributing or risk factors that help the illegal drug industry development. Political systems, particularly those of nonauthoritarian regimes in pluralistic societies, are ill suited to prohibit individual behaviors. The only solution for the "drug problem" requires the elimination of the countries' vulnerabilities, that is, to harmonize the formal laws with the socially accepted norms of the various groups of the society. This requires substantial social reforms, and it is unlikely to occur in the near future. PMID:23186493

  13. The Evidence on the "Florida Formula" for Education Reform. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Carlo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    During the late 1990s and 2000s, the State of Florida enacted a set of education reforms spearheaded by Governor Jeb Bush. These policies, which emphasize test-based accountability, competition, and choice, have since become known as the "Florida Formula for education success," or, simply, the "Florida Formula." In recent…

  14. Postcolonial Teacher Education Reform in Namibia: Travelling of Policies and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreman, Inger Erixon; Erixon, Per-Olof; Rehn, Karl-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Long before Namibia's independence in 1990, Sweden initiated a policy dialogue with Namibia's future political leadership. This article reviews the impact of an educational reform in Namibia in the early 1990s called the Integrated Teacher Training Programme (ITTP), which was an outcome of collaboration between the South West African People's…

  15. Moving Middle Schooling Reform from Policy to Practice: Issues for Queensland Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryer, Fiona; Main, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Three well-established issues for educational reform to insert middle schooling into the traditional primary-secondary tiers are (a) lack of preservice training of specialist middle school teachers, (b) the absence of clear positive educational outcomes linked to the promotion of middle schooling policy as a philosophy of teaching, and (c) the ad…

  16. Reconstructions of Nordic Teachers: Reform Policies and Teachers' Work during the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlgren, Ingrid; Klette, Kirsti

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how the restructuring of educational systems in Nordic countries affects teachers' working conditions. It is based on results from the project "Restructuring in Education: Reform policy and teacher professionalism in different Nordic contexts" in which the construction of the "New Teacher" in Nordic…

  17. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s, have been…

  18. Why Are Studies of Neighborhoods and Communities Central to Education Policy and Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    To understand the long shadow of education policy and reform in the United States, especially in the urban core, requires a full and elaborate understanding of the neighborhoods and communities that have transformed in the last 20 or 30 years. Studying classrooms and educational spaces without concomitant understanding of the dynamics and facets…

  19. Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

  20. Dual Immersion: A Driving Force for Language Policy Reform and Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerena, Linda M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined beliefs and perceptions of practicing professionals and those in leadership positions regarding developing and maintaining dual immersion programs to produce long-lasting language policy reform, language transformation, and a restructured school culture. Based on combined findings of the surveys and interviews, the factors that are most…

  1. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  2. Reforms in Urban School District Policy Making: Comparing the "Watchdog" and the "Think Tank."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1980-01-01

    Examines two reform efforts that indicate promising strategies for changing and improving urban school district decision- and policy-making systems, particularly as those systems reflect the relationships among boards of education, school superintendents, and the school district bureaucracy. (Author/IRT)

  3. Hungary: Reform of Social Policy and Expenditures. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study evaluates the overall social policy system of Hungary and proposes reforms aimed at strengthening its role as a defense against poverty, raising the quality and equity of social programs, ensuring financial sustainability of the system, and restoring incentives (in particular relating to demand and supply for labor) suitable to a market…

  4. Unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi reforms in China: interplay of agricultural reform and population control policy.

    PubMed

    Yen, W; Carter, L F

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the discussion of unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi policy reforms in China is to show how isolating problems and developing solutions in isolation can lead to serious consequences. The Ze Ren Zhi reforms in 1978 were intended to increase agricultural productivity by changing from the collective system to an individual responsibility system, but the unintended and undesirable consequences were a growth in family size and discouragement of some environmentally sound land use practices. The prior system gave an equal share of collective income for an equal number of days worked. Under the new reform, "Baochan Daohu," each household had responsibility for a contracted quantity of grain production. Within 2-4 years, economic conditions improved considerably. A discussion is provided of the transition from rights and duties of the collectives to the new responsibility system and the experimentation with different systems. Specific attention is directed to land reforms, mutual aid teams, cooperatives, communes, variations of Ze Ren Zhi, contracting output to individual laborers, contracting jobs to households, and contracting output quotas to households. During the reforms, beginning in the 1950s and lasting until 1978, other changes were taking place. Death rates were declining and birth rates were increasing, such that in 1971 a campaign was established to promote the Late, Sparse, and Few policy for marrying and giving birth later, increasing birth intervals, and having fewer children. This voluntary program eventually took on a more universally mandatory nature. The 1950 Marriage Law stipulated 20 years as the legal age for marriage (18 years for females), and family planning (FP) workers during the 1970s were encouraging even later marriage, and by 1980 a system of rewards and penalties was established to reinforce small family size. After 1978 and a period of birth declines, the crude birth rate increased to 3.06 in 1983. The new responsibility

  5. Packaging policies to reform the water sector: The case of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Zilberman, David

    2005-07-01

    Existing water policies often deviate from measures suggested by economic and environmental analysis. This is particularly true in the case of drought response policies, where effective policies are rarely adopted. This study focuses on how to enhance the political feasibility of options rather than identifying the optimal water policies. It argues that a legislative policy package may be a mechanism both to unite divergent interest groups into a coalition with common policy agendas and also to fragment or realign existing and traditional alliances. This majority building approach may have a greater chance of obtaining the required political support to advance water reforms. The negotiation over the Central Valley Project Improvement Act in California is used as an example. The case study illustrates how the policy packaging strategy split the traditional power alliance between the agricultural sector and the urban sector in California and between the agricultural sector in California and their allies in other U.S. western states. At the same time, policy packaging has created new regional and sectoral advocacy coalitions in support of water reform. As a result, the Bureau of Reclamation changed its policies in the Central Valley in California relating to the establishment of water markets, water pricing, and wildlife restoration fund and allocating water for the environment.

  6. Re-naming and re-gaming: Medicare's doomed attempt to reform reimbursement for injectable drugs.

    PubMed

    Kleinke, J D

    2004-01-01

    Hastily crafted provisions in the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) of 2003, intended to reform the government's flawed method for reimbursing providers who administer injectable drugs, will exacerbate existing economic and clinical problems instead of resolving them. The new provisions recast Medicare's traditional drug reimbursement system; increase temptations for physicians to overuse injectable drugs; and promise to aggravate the economic problems Congress attempted to fix with the new law. Medicare can resolve these problems by reimbursing providers for injectable drugs based on their actual acquisition cost rather than on estimates embedded in a complex drug reimbursement system. PMID:15590722

  7. Peter Bourne's drug policy and the perils of a public health ethic, 1976-1978.

    PubMed

    Clark, Claire D; Dufton, Emily

    2015-02-01

    As President Jimmy Carter's advisor for health issues, Peter Bourne promoted a rational and comprehensive drug strategy that combined new supply-side efforts to prevent drug use with previously established demand-side addiction treatment programs. Using a public health ethic that allowed the impact of substances on overall population health to guide drug control, Bourne advocated for marijuana decriminalization as well as increased regulations for barbiturates. A hostile political climate, a series of rumors, and pressure from both drug legalizers and prohibitionists caused Bourne to resign in disgrace in 1978. We argue that Bourne's critics used his own public health framework to challenge him, describe the health critiques that contributed to Bourne's resignation, and present the story of his departure as a cautionary tale for today's drug policy reformers. PMID:25521893

  8. Employee Drug Testing Policies in Police Departments. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, J. Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of drug testing policies and the implementation of drug testing procedures involve legal, ethical, medical, and labor relations issues. To learn how police departments are addressing the problem of drug use and drug testing of police officers, the National Institute of Justice sponsored a telephone survey of 33 major police…

  9. Benchmarks of fairness for health care reform: a policy tool for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, N.; Bryant, J.; Castano, R. A.; Dantes, O. G.; Khan, K. S.; Pannarunothai, S.

    2000-01-01

    Teams of collaborators from Colombia, Mexico, Pakistan, and Thailand have adapted a policy tool originally developed for evaluating health insurance reforms in the United States into "benchmarks of fairness" for assessing health system reform in developing countries. We describe briefly the history of the benchmark approach, the tool itself, and the uses to which it may be put. Fairness is a wide term that includes exposure to risk factors, access to all forms of care, and to financing. It also includes efficiency of management and resource allocation, accountability, and patient and provider autonomy. The benchmarks standardize the criteria for fairness. Reforms are then evaluated by scoring according to the degree to which they improve the situation, i.e. on a scale of -5 to 5, with zero representing the status quo. The object is to promote discussion about fairness across the disciplinary divisions that keep policy analysts and the public from understanding how trade-offs between different effects of reforms can affect the overall fairness of the reform. The benchmarks can be used at both national and provincial or district levels, and we describe plans for such uses in the collaborating sites. A striking feature of the adaptation process is that there was wide agreement on this ethical framework among the collaborating sites despite their large historical, political and cultural differences. PMID:10916911

  10. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results. PMID:26766859

  11. Educational Turbulence: The Influence of Macro and Micro-Policy on Science Education Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2013-06-01

    Enactment of federal educational policy has direct implications for states and local school districts across the nation, particularly in the areas of accountability and funding. This study utilized constructivist grounded theory to examine the impact of policy on science education reform in a large, urban school district over a 5-year period. The existence and interaction between macro and micro, and explicit and implicit policies created educational turbulence. Findings further extend upon Fullan's (Change theory: a force for school improvement, 2006) change theory adding high-stakes accountability as a prevalent distractor issue and the need for quad-level, rather than tri-level engagement in reform. Suggestions for addressing educational turbulence are provided.

  12. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health. PMID:24970383

  13. Winning Policy Change to Promote Community Health Workers: Lessons From Massachusetts in The Health Reform Era

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Terry; Wilkinson, Geoffrey W.; Nannini, Angela; Martin, Cindy Marti; Fox, Durrell J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a national movement among community health workers (CHWs) to improve compensation, working conditions, and recognition for the workforce through organizing for policy change. As some of the key advocates involved, we describe the development in Massachusetts of an authentic collaboration between strong CHW leaders of a growing statewide CHW association and their public health allies. Collaborators worked toward CHW workforce and public health objectives through alliance building and organizing, legislative advocacy, and education in the context of opportunities afforded by health care reform. This narrative of the path to policy achievements can inform other collaborative efforts attempting to promote a policy agenda for the CHW workforce across the nation. PMID:22021281

  14. Need for multicriteria evaluation of generic drug policies.

    PubMed

    Kaló, Zoltán; Holtorf, Anke-Peggy; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Shen, Jie; Ágh, Tamás; Inotai, András; Brixner, Diana

    2015-03-01

    Policymakers tend to focus on improving patented drug policies because they are under pressure from patients, physicians, and manufacturers to increase access to novel therapies. The success of pharmaceutical innovation over the last few decades has led to the availability of many off-patent drugs to treat disease areas with the greatest public health need. Therefore, the success of public health programs in improving the health status of the total population is highly dependent on the efficiency of generic drug policies. The objective of this article was to explore factors influencing the true efficiency of generic prescription drug policies in supporting public health initiatives in the developed world. Health care decision makers often assess the efficiency of generic drug policies by the level of price erosion and market share of generics. Drug quality, bioequivalence, in some cases drug formulations, supply reliability, medical adherence and persistence, health outcomes, and nondrug costs, however, are also attributes of success for generic drug policies. Further methodological research is needed to measure and improve the efficiency of generic drug policies. This also requires extension of the evidence base of the impact of generic drugs, partly based on real-world evidence. Multicriteria decision analysis may assist policymakers and researchers to evaluate the true value of generic drugs. PMID:25773570

  15. Reformers or Roadblocks: Educational Interest Groups and State Policy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Joseph; Lemasters, Linda; Howerton, Everett

    2008-01-01

    Given the overt political nature of this topic, an additional theoretical postulate, the Triadic Theory of Power was also presented as another framework to conceptualize the external and internal forces which shape the formation of contemporary education policy. Predicated upon the scholarship of Nobel laureate James Q. Wilson, Andrew McFarland…

  16. Difficulties in Reforming Education Policy: The Hong Kong Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, the education-policy machinery in Hong Kong has been faced with important quality issues emerging that concern the history and culture of the school system. Evaluates two change-management initiatives between 1990 and 1995 and examines their outcomes in light of the endemic features of Hong Kong civil-service culture and…

  17. Ohio's Education Reform Challenges: Lessons from the Frontlines. Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Ryan, Terry; Lafferty, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Charter schools have emerged as one of the central policy debates in U.S. education--and the Thomas B. Fordham Institute team has been a key participant in this debate since day one, both nationally and in Ohio. Despite President Obama's call for states to strengthen the charter sector and widen the options it provides to needy youngsters,…

  18. State Child Welfare Reform: Toward a Family-Based Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Susan; Schwoch, Sharon, Ed.

    This report outlines state legislative initiatives to develop family-based child welfare public policy. Emphasis is placed on legislation to ensure that "reasonable efforts" are made to reduce the need for out-of-home placement of children. Also included is an update of state implementation of permanency planning initiatives related to agency…

  19. Primary School English Reform in Japan: Policies, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011, the Ministry of Education in Japan formally introduced Primary School English (PSE) language teaching in Japanese elementary schools. The PSE policy made it mandatory for fourth- and fifth-graders to attend English lessons once a week. Using the theoretical framework on why educational language plans fail [Kaplan, R. B., Baldauf, R.…

  20. The Policy Context of Recent Curriculum Reforms in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, D. S. G.

    Australia's economy slowly emerged from recession in the 1990s. Populist government leaders claimed that their economic restructuring policies of the 1980s were responsible for the economic turnaround. But even with greater national economic optimism, Australians have wondered why their country has not fared better economically both internally and…

  1. Ensuring the policy relevance of population health research: experiences from the Drug Policy Modelling Program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alison

    2011-04-01

    Illicit drugs are an important public health concern. A unique approach to tackling this problem is represented in the work of the Drug Policy Modelling Program which aims to improve evidence-informed policy by reducing the gap between research and policy. There are three elements to the Drug Policy Modelling Program: generating new knowledge; translating evidence into information of relevance for decision makers; and studying policy processes. Key aspects include the use of computer modelling as a translational tool and the focus on understanding policy processes such as the role of media and politics, important in contextualising the research-policy nexus. Other features of the Drug Policy Modelling Program approach include engagement of diverse disciplines, and government researcher partnerships. PMID:21527076

  2. Land reform policies, the sources of violent conflict, and implications for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, L.J.; Libecap, G.D.; Mueller, B.

    2000-03-01

    The authors examine land reform policies and their implications for violent conflict and resource use in the Brazilian Amazon. They identify the protagonists (land owners and squatters), derive their incentives to use violence, and show the role of legal inconsistencies as a basis for conflict. The authors describe the government agency involved in land reform, INCRA, and show that its intervention critically affects the actions of both squatters and land owners. Further, they point out the incentives for deforestation under land reform and associated insecure property rights to land. Forested lands are vulnerable to invasion by squatters and redistribution by INCRA. Using data from the Brazilian census and the Pastoral Land Commission, the authors examine the characteristics of regions where violent conflict predominates.

  3. Health Care Reform: Ethical Foundations, Policy, and Law

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Health care system reform has enormous implications for the future of American society and economic life. Since the early days of the republic, 2 world views have vied for determination of this country’s political system: the view of the individual as sovereign vs government as sovereign. As they developed the foundations of our nation’s governance, the founders were heavily influenced by the Enlightenment philosophy of the late 17th and 18th centuries—the US Constitution sharply limited the power of central government to specific narrowly defined functions, and the economic system was largely laissez faire, that is, economic exchange was mostly free of government regulation and securing individual liberty was a high priority. This situation has slowly reversed—the federal government originally was narrowly limited, but now it dominates states and individuals. The economic system has followed, lagging by several decades, so although it still retains some features of laissez faire capitalism, federal and state regulation have produced a decidedly mixed economy. PMID:22626914

  4. Steering without navigation equipment: the lamentable state of Australian health policy reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Commentary on health policy reform in Australia often commences with an unstated logical error: Australians' health is good, therefore the Australian Health System is good. This possibly explains the disconnect between the options discussed, the areas needing reform and the generally self-congratulatory tone of the discussion: a good system needs (relatively) minor improvement. Results This paper comments on some issues of particular concern to Australian health policy makers and some areas needing urgent reform. The two sets of issues do not overlap. It is suggested that there are two fundamental reasons for this. The first is the failure to develop governance structures which promote the identification and resolution of problems according to their importance. The second and related failure is the failure to equip the health services industry with satisfactory navigation equipment - independent research capacity, independent reporting and evaluation - on a scale commensurate with the needs of the country's largest industry. These two failures together deprive the health system - as a system - of the chief driver of progress in every successful industry in the 20th Century. Conclusion Concluding comment is made on the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC). This continued the tradition of largely evidence free argument and decision making. It failed to identify and properly analyse major system failures, the reasons for them and the form of governance which would maximise the likelihood of future error leaning. The NHHRC itself failed to error learn from past policy failures, a key lesson from which is that a major - and possibly the major - obstacle to reform, is government itself. The Commission virtually ignored the issue of governance. The endorsement of a monopolised system, driven by benevolent managers will miss the major lesson of history which is illustrated by Australia's own failures. PMID:19948044

  5. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  6. Drug policy in China. Transformations, current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Li, S

    1997-07-01

    The pharmaceutical sector in China developed rapidly with the implementation of the market-oriented economic reforms, which began at the end of the 1970s. From 1980 to 1988 the production of drugs quadrupled, subsequently increasing at an annual rate of 20%, and consumption of drugs correspondingly increased. The increase in drug production was largely a result of the increase in the number of pharmaceutical companies, particularly the number of private joint ventures, of which there were none in 1980 and 1900 in 1994, accounting for 37% of the total number of pharmaceutical companies. With the transformation of the Chinese pharmaceutical market, some new problems have appeared. The low efficiency of pharmaceutical companies, poor-quality drugs, unfair competition and misuse of drugs have been of great concern to the Chinese government. Some countermeasures have been taken, but the problems remain. Increases in the age of the Chinese population, increases in income and changes in disease patterns, together with membership of the World Trade Organization will promote the development of the pharmaceutical market. However, health-insurance reform, an essential drug list, the separation of drugs from services, and controls on the increases in hospital revenue will reduce the demand for drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in China face both opportunities and challenges. The trend in development of the pharmaceutical market depends on the outcome of the interaction between the factors that increase, and those that decrease, the demand for drugs. While the general trend is towards an increase in the demand for drugs and the expansion of the pharmaceutical market, downward fluctuation is inevitable if effective health reforms of cost control are introduced nationwide. PMID:10169383

  7. The policy and politics of the 2015 long-term care reform in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Maarse, J A M Hans; Jeurissen, P P Patrick

    2016-03-01

    As of 2015 a major reform in LTC is taking place in the Netherlands. An important objective of the reform is to reign in expenditure growth to safeguard the fiscal sustainability of LTC. Other objectives are to improve the quality of LTC by making it more client-tailored. The reform consists of four interrelated pillars: a normative reorientation, a shift from residential to non-residential care, decentralization of non-residential care and expenditure cuts. The article gives a brief overview of these pillars and their underlying assumptions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political decision-making process and the politics of implementation and evaluation. Perceptions of the effects of the reform so far widely differ: positive views alternate with critical views. Though the reform is radical in various aspects, LTC care will remain a largely publicly funded provision. A statutory health insurance scheme will remain in place to cover residential care. The role of municipalities in publicly funded non-residential care is significantly upgraded. The final section contains a few policy lessons. PMID:26872702

  8. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  9. Mapping Educational Equity and Reform Policy in the Borderlands: LatCrit Spatial Analysis of Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Cristóbal; Amador, Adam; Tarango, B. Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to investigate reform policy, specifically a proposed third grade reading retention policy within the Borderlands. Under this policy, students not performing proficiently on the third grade reading standardized exam will be automatically retained in the third grade. The research methods and approach used in this study…

  10. Do American and Korean Education Systems Converge? Tracking School Reform Policies and Outcomes in Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and…

  11. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  12. Drug policy in Canada--the way forward.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Thomas; O'Briain, Warren

    2002-07-01

    This article is one of a series commissioned to mark the tenth anniversary of the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, discussing past developments and future directions in areas of policy and law related to HIV/AIDS. It takes a critical look at Canada's drug policy. Despite calls for a balanced approach focused on reducing drug-related harm, Canada's method of dealing with problems of illicit drug use has remained prohibitionist in nature, and by far the greatest part of federal funding is devoted to supply-reduction initiatives. Considerable changes in policy and law are needed to significantly reduce the harms associated with injection drug use in Canada. These include developing a comprehensive and integrated strategy, exploring alternative legal frameworks, piloting innovative approaches to reducing injection-related harms, and investing in broad social policies that address the determinants of injection drug use. PMID:14765475

  13. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  14. Therapeutic drug use in Bangladesh: policy versus practice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Saidul

    2008-01-01

    The National Drug Policy (NDP), 1982, of Bangladesh was expected to make available essential, good quality drugs at affordable prices. This article gives an overview of the situation today, more than two decades after the Drugs (Control) Ordinance, 1982, was promulgated to implement the NDP. While there have been some successes, many of the goals of this initiative are yet to be achieved. Inadequate supply of essential drugs, substandard quality, uncontrolled drug prices and inappropriate uses of drugs are major problems in Bangladesh. PMID:18630250

  15. Reforming Further Education Teacher Training: A Policy Communities and Policy Networks Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and 1990s teacher preparation for the schools sector in the United Kingdom was subject to a series of reforms and innovations including the establishment of new institutional arrangements to oversee the sector, namely the Teacher Training Agency (TTA--now the Training and Development Agency, TDA). Since 2002 the arrangements…

  16. Grassroots efforts pursue alcohol policy reform: refocusing upstream in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Stivers, C

    1994-01-01

    ORGANIZATION SETTING. The New Mexico Alcohol Issues Consortium (NMAIC) originated in January 1989 as a grassroots effort to focus on the reduction of driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) in New Mexico. It was the brainchild of three state health department officials and grew to include in its membership representatives from education, medicine, law enforcement, neighborhood associations, business, and local and state government. RATIONALE. New Mexico ranks at or near the top in several alcohol-related statistics, including motor vehicle fatalities, cirrhosis, and alcoholism. Furthermore, the 'alcohol environment' in New Mexico included the allowance for the purchase of alcoholic beverages at drive-up windows, lax enforcement of DWI laws, and even state legislators with DWI records. Theoretical bases upon which NMAIC goals and strategies were based include the public health model, the public health/dynamic systems, model of alcohol and other drug use, and 'refocusing upstream,' all of which give attention to the environment as a determinant of health status. IMPLEMENTATION. While the NMAIC's activities addressed a variety of alcohol-related problems in New Mexico, the bulk of the organization's efforts for four years were directed toward increasing the excise tax on alcohol, either as a statewide measure or via county-level local option referenda. Strategies which were enacted to support this legislative activity included collaboration with other programs and organizations with similar DWI-prevention goals, and staged media events to solicit public support. IMPACT. In four years, the NMAIC had established itself as a credible organization which was successful in publicly and systematically challenging existing alcohol policies in New Mexico. The NMAIC was also instrumental in empowering individuals and communities to speak and act against the alcohol problems in their own communities. Finally, during the 1993 New Mexico Legislative Session, a bill was passed which

  17. ICT Policy Planning in a Context of Curriculum Reform: Disentanglement of ICT Policy Domains and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan; Dexter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers around the world are increasingly acknowledging the importance of developing a school-based ICT policy plan to facilitate the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Despite this interest, not much is known about how schools can develop their local ICT policy capacity and how to…

  18. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  19. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, S R

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives. PMID:1955823

  20. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  1. Health policy thoughtleaders' views of the health workforce in an era of health reform.

    PubMed

    Donelan, Karen; Buerhaus, Peter I; DesRoches, Catherine; Burke, Sheila P

    2010-01-01

    Although registered nurses rank similarly with physicians in the public's esteem, physicians are more visible than nurses in media coverage, public policy, and political spheres. Thus, nursing workforce issues are overshadowed by those of other health priorities, including Medicare and health reform. The purpose of this research was to understand the visibility and salience of the health workforce in general, gain an understanding about the effectiveness of messages concerning the nursing workforce in particular, and to understand why nursing workforce issues do not appear to have gained more traction in national health care policymaking. The National Survey of Thoughtleaders about the Health Workforce was administered via mail, telephone and online to health workforce and policy thoughtleaders from August 2009-October 2009. Of 301 thoughtleaders contacted, 123 completed questionnaires for a response rate of 41%. Thoughtleaders agree that nurses are critical to the quality and safety of our healthcare system, that there are current nursing shortages, and that nursing shortages will be intensified by health reform. Thoughtleaders reported that while they do hear about nursing issues frequently, they do not view most sources of information as proposing effective policy solutions. This study highlights a critical gap in effective policy advocacy and leadership to advance nurse workforce issues higher on the national health agenda. PMID:20637930

  2. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  3. Children's Medicaid enrollment: the impacts of mandates, welfare reform, and policy delinking.

    PubMed

    Kronebusch, K

    2001-12-01

    From 1984 to 1990. Congress enacted a series of mandates that expanded Medicaid eligibility for low-income children by gradually delinking Medicaid eligibility from welfare eligibility. The 1996 national welfare reform law nominally completed the delinking process when the statutory phase-in of children's Medicaid coverage was preserved even as the states were given increased flexibility for administering welfare programs. This article provides estimates of the impact of these fedcral policy changes on children's Medicaid enrollment rates and analyzes the degree of success in uncoupling children's Medicaid enrollment from welfare. Data from the Current Population Survey for 1979 to 1998 are used to provide standardized enrollment probabilities for the United States and individual states. The results show important enrollment increases associated with the period of the mandated expansions, followed by enrollment declines associated with welfare reform. The largest increases in enrollment during this period were in states with historically restrictive welfare eligibility, but rates also rose in states that previously had relatively expansive welfare eligibility. The net effect was a reduction in the extent of state-to-state variation in enrollment. The Medicaid expansion peaked in 1995, prior to the advent of national welfare reform. Since then, children's Medicaid enrollment has fallen, with the largest declines falling on families with the very lowest incomes. Consistent with the desire to delink children's Medicaid coverage from welfare, the association between Medicaid and AFDC/TANF enrollment weakened during the expansionary period, but there still was a relatively strong relationship between policy outcomes for these two programs. Despite the policy changes, Medicaid coverage of children is still influenced by state-level welfare policy. PMID:11831579

  4. Antimalarial drug policy in India: Past, present & future

    PubMed Central

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Arora, Usha; Sonal, G.S.; Mishra, Neelima; Shahi, Bharatendu; Savargaonkar, Deepali; Kumar, Navin; Shah, Naman K.; Valecha, Neena

    2014-01-01

    The use of antimalarial drugs in India has evolved since the introduction of quinine in the 17th century. Since the formal establishment of a malaria control programme in 1953, shortly after independence, treatments provided by the public sector ranged from chloroquine, the mainstay drug for many decades, to the newer, recently introduced artemisinin based combination therapy. The complexity of considerations in antimalarial treatment led to the formulation of a National Antimalarial Drug Policy to guide procurement as well as communicate best practices to both public and private healthcare providers. Challenges addressed in the policy include the use of presumptive treatment, the introduction of alternate treatments for drug-resistant malaria, the duration of primaquine therapy to prevent relapses of vivax malaria, the treatment of malaria in pregnancy, and the choice of drugs for chemoprophylaxis. While data on antimalarial drug resistance and both public and private sector treatment practices have been recently reviewed, the policy process of setting national standards has not. In this perspective on antimalarial drug policy, this review highlights its relevant history, analyzes the current policy, and examines future directions. PMID:24718394

  5. Office of National Drug Control Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seniors & Social Security Taxes Technology Trade Urban and Economic Mobility Veterans Women The Administration People President Barack ... Office of Science and Technology Policy Council of Economic Advisers Council on Environmental Quality National Security Council ...

  6. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  7. A survey of Colombia's new outer space policy: Reforms in Colombian law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Jairo A. Becerra

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the changes the Colombian government needs to make in its legislation (including the Constitution), to provide a solid basis for its new outer space policy in consonance with international law. In Article 101 paragraph 3 the Colombian Constitution states: The segment of Geostationary Orbit over Colombia is part of your national territory. This article is at odds with international law, which prohibits any claim of sovereignty over outer space. Until now, the issue has not caused any difficulty; however, Colombia has recently embarked on an outer space policy and the existence of this article may deter other nations from entering any agreement or joint project due to the fear of implicitly accepting this claim of sovereignty. What is more, in Colombia such agreements or projects may be declared illegal, since they do not comply with the Constitution. However, the major problem is not this article, but the complex procedure required to change it. A Constitutional reform is necessary. Furthermore, outer space policy is not a priority issue on the public agenda. This barrier may hinder the efforts to set up a space program in Colombia. We introduce an alternative solution that does not reform the Colombian Constitution but allows the development of the country's space policy. This solution involves identifying the space sectors that would not be affected by Article 101, paragraph 3 and including them in the space policy; checking that the non-definition of the limits of outer space means that the agreements with other nations are not affected; and finally, considering the possibility of making specific declarations of non-recognition of sovereignty over outer space in the agreements signed with other nations (Similar to the American flag over the moon declaration. EEUU Law 83 Stat. 202, sect 8). All these measures can help the development of Colombian space policy as we wait for the country to reach a definitive solution in accordance with

  8. Misuse of "study drugs:" prevalence, consequences, and implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Miller, Toby

    2006-01-01

    Background Non-medical/illegal use of prescription stimulants popularly have been referred to as "study drugs". This paper discusses the current prevalence and consequences of misuse of these drugs and implications of this information for drug policy. Results Study drugs are being misused annually by approximately 4% of older teens and emerging adults. Yet, there are numerous consequences of misuse of prescription stimulants including addiction, negative reactions to high dosages, and medical complications. Policy implications include continuing to limit access to study drugs, finding more safe prescription drug alternatives, interdiction, and public education. Conclusion Much more work is needed on prescription stimulant misuse assessment, identifying the extent of the social and economic costs of misuse, monitoring and reducing access, and developing prevention and cessation education efforts. PMID:16764722

  9. The regulation of pharmacogenomics-based drugs and policy making.

    PubMed

    Issa, Amalia M

    2004-01-01

    In addition to potential future clinical benefits such as reducing adverse drug reactions and optimizing therapeutic efficacy, pharmacogenomic applications promise numerous benefits for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, including decreasing the size and expense of clinical trials and streamlining the drug development process. The application of pharmacogenomics and related technological advances to drug development has prompted various regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration to issue guidance documents and other advisory statements. This article delineates the impact of pharmacogenomic-guided drug development on the regulatory process in the United States including relevant highlights of industry guidance documents and policy statements. Hypothetical vignettes are used to illustrate a number of issues that are challenging to policy makers and the potential impact of pharmacogenomic based drug research and development on the regulatory environment. PMID:15379657

  10. Mexicans’ Use of Illicit Drugs in an Era of Drug Reform: National Comparative Analysis by Migrant Status

    PubMed Central

    Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376

  11. A Policy Sociology Reflection on School Reform in England: From the "Third Way" to the "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a policy sociology reflection on Bernard Barker's book, "The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform". The book represents Barker's attempt to intervene in education policy during the lead-up to the 2010 UK general election and is framed by what he imagined might be possible under a new Conservative government. Barker…

  12. The Impact of College Drug Policy on Students' Drug Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Holly N.

    2012-01-01

    Illicit drug usage at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) is a topic of limited research. The research questions that guided this study were (a) What is the relationship between college policy on illicit drugs and students' frequency of drug usage after controlling for college location (urban or rural) and students' age,…

  13. The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed. PMID:22292173

  14. Increase in Caesarean Deliveries after the Australian Private Health Insurance Incentive Policy Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Kemp, Anna; Haggar, Fatima A.; Moorin, Rachael E.; Gunnell, Anthony S.; Preen, David B.; Stanley, Fiona J.; Holman, C. D’Arcy J

    2012-01-01

    Background The Australian Private Health Insurance Incentive (PHII) policy reforms implemented in 1997–2000 increased PHI membership in Australia by 50%. Given the higher rate of obstetric interventions in privately insured patients, the reforms may have led to an increase in surgical deliveries and deliveries with longer hospital stays. We aimed to investigate the effect of the PHII policy introduction on birth characteristics in Western Australia (WA). Methods and Findings All 230,276 birth admissions from January 1995 to March 2004 were identified from administrative birth and hospital data-systems held by the WA Department of Health. Average quarterly birth rates after the PHII introduction were estimated and compared with expected rates had the reforms not occurred. Rate and percentage differences (including 95% confidence intervals) were estimated separately for public and private patients, by mode of delivery, and by length of stay in hospital following birth. The PHII policy introduction was associated with a 20% (−21.4 to −19.3) decrease in public birth rates, a 51% (45.1 to 56.4) increase in private birth rates, a 5% (−5.3 to −5.1) and 8% (−8.9 to −7.9) decrease in unassisted and assisted vaginal deliveries respectively, a 5% (−5.3 to −5.1) increase in caesarean sections with labour and 10% (8.0 to 11.7) increase in caesarean sections without labour. Similarly, birth rates where the infant stayed 0–3 days in hospital following birth decreased by 20% (−21.5 to −18.5), but rates of births with >3 days in hospital increased by 15% (12.2 to 17.1). Conclusions Following the PHII policy implementation in Australia, births in privately insured patients, caesarean deliveries and births with longer infant hospital stays increased. The reforms may not have been beneficial for quality obstetric care in Australia or the burden of Australian hospitals. PMID:22844477

  15. Welfare reform, employment, and drug and alcohol use among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Meara, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    In 1996 welfare reform legislation transformed income assistance for needy families by imposing work requirements, time-limited benefits, and explicit provisions allowing states to sanction recipients who fail to meet program requirements. Though they represent a minority of the welfare population, women with substance use disorders (SUDs) experience multiple, and more severe, employment barriers than other Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients. This review of welfare reform, substance abuse, and employment documents the evidence to date regarding the employment patterns of women with SUDs before and after welfare reform, and proposes several topics for further research. Based on higher rates of unemployment, less work experience, and lower earnings when working, women with SUDs have worse employment records than other TANF recipients. Despite elevated employment barriers, women with SUDs left TANF after 1996 as fast as, or faster than, other women. Since the 1996 welfare reform, women with SUDs have increased their employment and earnings, but by less than similar women without SUDs. Future research should describe how specific state welfare policies relate to employment of low-income women with SUDs, how the well-being of these women and their children changes with employment, and how welfare and employment interact to affect access to health insurance among this population. PMID:16912008

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse. PMID:25239857

  17. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  18. The debate on FDA reform: a view from the U.S. Senate. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1995-09-01

    The recently released concept paper on Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reform from Republican Senator, Nancy Kassebaum, is reviewed. Senator Kassebaum chairs the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources that will influence the Senate's action on FDA reform. The paper outlines the Senator's priorities for Congressional legislation on FDA reform in the following areas: the FDA mission and its accountability; creation of a Performance Review Panel and Industry Advisory Council; approval and access of products for seriously ill patients; the FDA's responsibility for good manufacturing practices; establishment of an Ombudsman Office for resolving disputes; dissemination of information on unapproved uses of approved products; and approval standards for new drugs. PMID:11362892

  19. The science of green chemistry and its role in chemicals policy and educational reform.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Amy S; Warner, John C

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the science of green chemistry has continued to evolve and has been adopted in research labs in industry and academia. At the same time, new innovations in chemicals policy have widened opportunities for legislative action to protect human health and the environment. This article addresses the mechanisms by which the science of green chemistry and chemicals policy can work together to help attain a more sustainable future. It also speaks to the pitfalls of inappropriately merging these two, and explores how such a merger could inhibit the creation of sustainable technologies. Green chemistry's role in educational reform is discussed as a means for training students who are prepared to create truly sustainable technologies. PMID:22001044

  20. Methods for comparing drug policies--the utility of composite drug harm indexes.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alison

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges for drug policy research is being able to compare policy options and outcomes. The development of indexes, such as the UK Drug Harm Index or the UNODC Illicit Drug Index is a way to systematically enable such comparisons. An Index is a single common metric that represents the diverse outcomes or consequences of drug use. An Index may be used for performance monitoring within one country/region over time; to establish societal benefit of drug policies as expressed in social costs saved; to compare countries or regions; or for comparative policy analysis. Clarity of purpose is important in how an Index is used. The consequences or outcomes that can be combined into a single Index include health consequences, crime consequences, public amenity, pain and suffering, labour market outcomes, and drug manufacture and trafficking activity. The choice of outcomes for inclusion is driven by the purpose but also often by practical considerations, such as data availability. The weighting of the consequences is an important consideration in translating the outcomes into a common metric. A monetary unit has a number of advantages: it is a unit that can be measured across diverse impacts; it gives implicit "weighting" of harms; and it is intuitive for policy makers and community. On the other hand, it represents an economic perspective. No one Index will be regarded as suitable and appropriate by every stakeholder and ongoing research effort on Indexes is an important foundational research activity to advance illicit drug policy. PMID:19356915

  1. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  2. Costs and Benefits of Eyewitness Identification Reform: Psychological Science and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E

    2012-05-01

    Psychological science has come to play an increasingly important role in the legal system by informing the court through expert testimony and by shaping public policy. In recent years, psychological research has driven a movement to reform the procedures that police use to obtain eyewitness identification evidence. This reform movement has been based in part on an argument suggesting that recommended procedures reduce the risk of false identifications with little or no reduction in the rate of correct identifications. A review of the empirical literature, however, challenges this no-cost view. With only one exception, changes in eyewitness identification procedures that reduce the risk of false identification of the innocent also reduce the likelihood of correct identification of the guilty. The implication that criminals may escape prosecution as a result of procedures implemented to protect the innocent makes policy decisions far more complicated than they would otherwise be under the no-cost view. These costs (correct identifications lost) and benefits (false identifications avoided) are discussed in terms of probative value and expected utility. PMID:26168461

  3. Drug Policy and Rationality: An Exploration of the Research-Policy Interface in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study which aimed to explore the extent to which drug policy making in Ireland might be deemed to be a rational, evidence-based process. The research was completed during the first half of 2008, as the National Drug Strategy 2001-2008--which explicitly claimed to have research as one of its main "pillars"--was coming to…

  4. Multisource drug policies in Latin America: survey of 10 countries.

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Essential drug lists and generic drug policies have been promoted as strategies to improve access to pharmaceuticals and control their rapidly escalating costs. This article reports the results of a preliminary survey conducted in 10 Latin American countries. The study aimed to document the experiences of different countries in defining and implementing generic drug policies, determine the cost of registering different types of pharmaceutical products and the time needed to register them, and uncover the incentives governments have developed to promote the use of multisource drugs. The survey instrument was administered in person in Chile, Ecuador and Peru and by email in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Uruguay. There was a total of 22 respondents. Survey responses indicated that countries use the terms generic and bioequivalence differently. We suggest there is a need to harmonize definitions and technical concepts. PMID:15682251

  5. Clarifying the Multiple Linkages between Curriculum and Instruction in Programs of Urban Teacher Preparation and State Educational Policy Promoting School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Lois; Bloom, Arlene; Hall, Althea; Juncker, JoAnne; Obi, Roselynn; Pagano, Alicia; Rand, Muriel

    This paper examines interrelationships between curriculum and instruction in an urban teacher education program and state educational policies promoting school reform. It notes how national policy talk and organizational strategies promoting systemic reform in schools serving low-income students influence the work of teacher educators preparing…

  6. [Drug addiction: between classification and social and health policies].

    PubMed

    Amato, Laura; Davoli, Marina

    2014-03-01

    Recent changes in Italian legislation about drug use suggest a reflection, in order to plan health policies useful to reducing the magnitude of the problem. On the one hand, the classification between soft and hard drugs is misleading: it is not the substance but the consumption habits that can be considered light or heavy. On the other hand, the adoption of strict regulations inattentive to harm reduction has not yielded positive results in terms of drug use spreading. Finally, the association between cannabis use and the onset of psychotic disorders deserve to be confirmed by further studies. PMID:24675448

  7. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  8. Towards an "Americanization" of Dutch Drug Policy? [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ineke Haen; And Others

    Historically, the Netherlands liberal approach to the problems related to drug use has been based on tolerance and a pragmatic concern for "harm reduction." Since the early 1980s, however, a shift has taken place in the direction of a tougher policy. This document describes: (1) the main features of the Dutch approach to the control of…

  9. Guide to Ideas on Drug Abuse Programs and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula, Comp.; And Others

    The "GUIDE" was conceived as a way of accelerating the process of finding and working out viable approaches to solving the drug abuse problem. Policy changes are suggested which would recognize the necessity of medical and educational interventions. The wide variety of material, which was compiled, included: (1) summaries of currently operating…

  10. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University Drug Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welborne, Sullivan; And Others

    This drug education policy statement for North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University establishes two educational objectives: to develop an educational program that increases the university community's knowledge and competency regarding controlled substances and to increase the skills required to take corrective action for potential…

  11. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and...

  12. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and...

  13. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and...

  14. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and...

  15. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and...

  16. Stories of Reform in Science Education: Commentary on Opp(reg)ressive Policies and Tempered Radicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This response to the two papers (by Rodriguez and Carlone et al.) on science education reform acknowledges first the coherence of the arguments presented around four reform narratives; that of the process of becoming science-enthusiastic, the nature of beliefs of science reform teachers, the barriers to reform, and the institutional expressions of…

  17. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate. PMID:26371707

  18. Drug utilisation study in a tertiary care center: recommendations for improving hospital drug dispensing policies.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R; Singh, I; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S

    2014-07-01

    Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

  19. Alcohol policy reform in Australia: what can we learn from the evidence?

    PubMed

    Doran, Christopher M; Hall, Wayne D; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Vos, Theo; Cobiac, Linda J

    2010-04-19

    Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor contributing to the burden of disease in Australia. The National Preventative Health Taskforce recommends the long-term goal of reshaping Australia's drinking culture to produce healthier and safer outcomes. A study of the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm in Australia suggests that policymakers could achieve over 10 times the health gain if they reallocated the current level of investment. The optimal package of interventions identified in the study comprises, in order of cost-effectiveness, volumetric taxation, advertising bans, an increase in the minimum legal drinking age to 21 years, brief intervention by primary care practitioners, licensing controls, a drink-driving mass media campaign, and random breath testing. Australia has a window of opportunity to significantly expand activities to reduce alcohol-related harm. It is important that federal and state governments take this opportunity to reform alcohol policy in Australia. PMID:20402613

  20. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is…

  1. Past/Forward Policy-Making: Transforming Chinese Engineering Education since the Reform and Opening-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K.; Gong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Although engineering education has played important roles in China's growing power and influence on the world stage, engineering education policy since the Reform and Opening-up in the late 1970s has not been well documented in current English-language scholarship. Informed by historical and sociological studies of education, engineering and…

  2. Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from around the World. International Summit on the Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    If the quality of an education system can never exceed the quality of its teachers, then countries need to do all they can to build a high-quality teaching force. "Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from around the World," the background report to the sixth International Summit on the Teaching…

  3. Curriculum Testing on the Persistent Fringes: Neoliberal Policy and the New Regime of Title I High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Neoliberal policies have opened the door to a steady stream of contract providers who assist struggling schools while producing market-ready reforms. This ethnographic example of Allport High School illustrates how constant aid, in combination with internal market expansion, destabilizes school structures, obscures curricula, and transfers local…

  4. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  5. Health care policy issues in the drug abuser treatment field.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, W E

    1990-01-01

    As we enter the 1990s drug abuse has once again become a major health concern, and for the first time the drug treatment field has had to address many of the policy, regulation, and planning issues resulting from cost inflation that have become commonplace in other parts of the health care field. To avoid serious errors and confusion, drug abuse health policies must recognize the very different needs of the public and private sectors. The public sector, where poor addicts receive drug treatment provided or purchased by the government, has long suffered from chronically inadequate funding. Although responses to several epidemics (heroin, crack, and AIDS) have produced periods of increased allocations for drug abuse treatment, more often than not long waiting lists at programs have rationed treatment to lower-income addicts seeking care. Low salary levels have limited the quality of public treatment services, and the absence of resources has hindered the development of programs that respond to new technical developments and drug abuse problems, such as the crack epidemic. Despite severe resource shortages, the public drug treatment system has sometimes used resources inefficiently, with little attention to appropriateness of admissions, lengths of stay, ambulatory treatment modalities, or varying levels of care. Public sector goals for the 1990s should include filling current shortages in drug treatment services, developing adequate long-term funding for treating addicts who lack third-party coverage, modernizing the treatment system, developing new patterns of practice that use existing resources more efficiently, and developing a plan for treating intravenous drug users infected with the AIDS virus. In the private sector, the advent of working- and middle-class demand for drug treatment in the 1970s and 1980s has produced a new drug treatment system that suffers from many of the policy problems common to the rest of health care. Drug abuse in the workplace has

  6. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... New drug status opinions; statement of policy. (a) Over the years since 1938 the Food and...

  7. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  8. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  9. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  10. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  11. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... New drug status opinions; statement of policy. (a) Over the years since 1938 the Food and...

  12. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 310.100 New drug status opinions; statement of...

  13. Policy trends and reforms in the German DRG-based hospital payment system.

    PubMed

    Klein-Hitpaß, Uwe; Scheller-Kreinsen, David

    2015-03-01

    A central structural point in all DRG-based hospital payment systems is the conversion of relative weights into actual payments. In this context policy makers need to address (amongst other things) (a) how the price level of DRG-payments from one period to the following period is changed and (b) whether and how hospital payments based on DRGs are to be differentiated beyond patient characteristics, e.g. by organizational, regional or state-level factors. Both policy problems can be and in international comparison often are empirically addressed. In Germany relative weights are derived from a highly sophisticated empirical cost calculation, whereas the annual changes of DRG-based payments (base rates) as well as the differentiation of DRG-based hospital payments beyond patient characteristics are not empirically addressed. Rather a complex set of regulations and quasi-market negotiations are applied. There were over the last decade also timid attempts to foster the use of empirical data to address these points. However, these reforms failed to increase the fairness, transparency and rationality of the mechanism to convert relative weights into actual DRG-based hospital payments. PMID:25638648

  14. Problems in the regulatory policy of the drug market

    PubMed Central

    Miziara, Nathália Molleis; Coutinho, Diogo Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the implementation of drug price regulation policy by the Drug Market Regulation Chamber. METHODS This is an interview-based study, which was undertaken in 2012, using semi-structured questionnaires with social actors from the pharmaceutical market, the pharmaceuticals industry, consumers and the regulatory agency. In addition, drug prices were compiled based on surveys conducted in the state of Sao Paulo, at the point of sale, between February 2009 and May 2012. RESULTS The mean drug prices charged at the point of sale (pharmacies) were well below the maximum price to the consumer, compared with many drugs sold in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2012, 44 of the 129 prices, corresponding to 99 drugs listed in the database of compiled prices, showed a variation of more than 20.0% in the mean prices at the point of sale and the maximum price to the consumer. In addition, many laboratories have refused to apply the price adequacy coefficient in their sales to government agencies. CONCLUSIONS The regulation implemented by the pharmaceutical market regulator was unable to significantly control prices of marketed drugs, without succeeding to push them to levels lower than those determined by the pharmaceutical industry and failing, therefore, in its objective to promote pharmaceutical support for the public. It is necessary reconstruct the regulatory law to allow market prices to be reduced by the regulator as well as institutional strengthen this government body. PMID:26083945

  15. Generic drugs: international trends and policy developments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Public and private third-party payers in many countries encourage or mandate the use of generic drugs. This article examines the development of generics policy in Australia, against the background of a description of international trends in this area, and related experiences of reference pricing programs. The Australian generics market remains underdeveloped due to a historical legacy of small Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme price differentials between originator brands and generics. It is argued that policy measures open to the Australian government can be conceived as clustering around two different approaches: incremental changes within the existing regulatory framework, or a shift towards a high volume/low price role of generics which would speed up the delivery of substantial cost savings, and could provide enhanced scope for the financing of new, patented drugs. PMID:15362295

  16. Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    The guide presents facts and issues concerning drug and alcohol abuse so that college and university administration and governing boards can make informed decisions about programs, policy, and procedures to minimize their occurrence on campus. Chapter 1 examines issues related to substance abuse on campus: risk factors in the campus community; the…

  17. 78 FR 16679 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy Council; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy... interested organizations, on medical policy issues that may be considered by the CDER Medical Policy Council (Council) in FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). These comments will help the...

  18. Educational Reform in China: Tensions in National Policy and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yujin; Dunne, Mairead

    2009-01-01

    In the post-Mao era, the Chinese government carried out a series of education reforms to modernise education provision. This paper explores two related aspects of these reforms through comparative case study research in three different school locations within the same region in China. The first focus is upon system reform initiated through…

  19. How Do Standards Matter? Linking Policy to Practice in Four Cities Implementing Systemic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M.; Kromrey, Jeffrey; Katzenmeyer, William; Della Piana, Gabriel

    This paper reports on some early findings from an assessment of the impact of mathematics and science reforms in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, Miami, Florida, and El Paso, Texas. These reforms have been part of the National Science Foundation's Urban Systemic Reform program. Standards-based curriculum and instructional approaches with a…

  20. Legislative and policy analysis of HIV prevention, treatment and care for people who use drugs and incarcerated people in Central Asia and Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Cozac, David; Elliott, Richard

    2011-04-01

    In January 2011, the Regional Office for Central Asia of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released an extensive report assessing the legislative and policy environment affecting the response to HIV in six countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The report, which draws in part upon the work of a national expert group in each country, puts forward dozens of recommendations for legislative and policy reform, including recommendations for specific reform tailored to the situation in each of the participating countries, with a particular focus on addressing the fast-growing HIV epidemic linked to injection drug use and in prisons. PMID:21688698

  1. [The therapeutic community for recuperation from addiction to alcohol and other drugs in Brasil: in line with or running counter to psychiatric reform?].

    PubMed

    Perrone, Pablo Andrés Kurlander

    2014-02-01

    In the second half of the last century a revolutionary movement began in the world mental health scenario, namely Psychiatric Reform. At the same juncture, the concept was also put forward for Therapeutic Communities, which would later become the tried and tested model for treatment of addiction to alcohol and other drugs. However, due to the alarming increase of this problem in Brazil, as well as the absence of public policies to address the problem, there was an indiscriminate proliferation of chemical dependency internment locations that, despite calling themselves Therapeutic Communities, in no way resembled the initial model proposed. These places featured inhuman and iatrogenic practices, very similar to those criticized by the Psychiatric Reform movement, which consequently discredited the Therapeutic Community model. This article seeks to demonstrate, through bibliographic research, how the conceptual and methodological bases of Psychiatric Reform closely resemble the Therapeutic Communities movement, having appeared at the same time and for the same reason, and how the lack of control and regulation of chemical dependency internment locations in Brazil has contributed to the current disrepute of this model. PMID:24863833

  2. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions §...

  3. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions §...

  4. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery. PMID:26683746

  5. Retaining Teacher Talent: Convergence and Contradictions in Teachers' Perceptions of Policy Reform Ideas. A Retaining Teacher Talent Report from Learning Point Associates and Public Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggshall, Jane G.; Ott, Amber

    2010-01-01

    As a new decade dawns, teachers stand at the center of a policy vortex. They serve as the primary focus of one of the Obama administration's four pillars of educational reform--effective teachers and leaders. Educational reformers of all stripes have focused tremendous energy on thinking of ways to identify effective teachers and in turn recruit,…

  6. Standards-Driven Reform Policies at the Local Level: Report on a Survey of Local Special Education Directors in Large Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Joseph C.; McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Rhim, Lauren Morando; Davis, Gayle A.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 34 special education directors in large school districts that concerned how current education reforms are applied to children with disabilities examined academic content standards, assessments, and graduation and diplomas. Results indicate students with disabilities are differentially considered within specific reform policies and a…

  7. Science as an early driver of policy: child labor reform in the early Progressive Era, 1870-1900.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica

    2014-10-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children's biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children's health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children's environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  8. [Gender equity in health sector reform policies in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elsa Gómez

    2002-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly being acknowledged as an essential aspect of sustainable development and more specifically, of health development. The Pan American Health Organization's Program for Women, Health, and Development has been piloting for a year now a project known as Equidad de género en las políticas de reforma del sector de salud, whose objective is to promote gender equity in the health sector reform efforts in the Region. The first stage of the project is being conducted in Chile and Peru, along with some activities throughout the Region. The core of the project is the production and use of information as a tool for introducing changes geared toward achieving greater gender equity in health, particularly in connection with malefemale disparities that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair in health status, access to health care, and participation in decision-making within the health system. We expect that in three years the project will have brought about changes in the production of information and knowledge, advocacy, and information dissemination, as well as in the development, appropriation, and identification of intersectoral mechanisms that will make it possible for key figures in government and civil society to work together in setting and surveying policy on gender equity in health. PMID:12162842

  9. The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A; Field, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

  10. Drug use and policy in Poland in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Watson, M

    1989-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the recent changes in patterns of drug use in Poland in the light of available data. A much higher incidence of use has been seen in the 1980s, and there are indications that this can be accounted for by increased use among young people from the manual working class. Social deprivation may play a part in the etiology of the 1980s "epidemic," and evidence is put forward in support of this view. Both patterns of use and the policies that have been introduced to deal with them are viewed in terms of the political, economic, and social context of post-Solidarity perestroika. PMID:2787787

  11. Attitude of the Norwegian population to drug policy and drug-offences.

    PubMed

    Skretting, A

    1993-01-01

    A national survey on people's conceptions of various intoxicants and their attitudes towards such substances shows a high degree of support in Norway for the current very restrictive drug policy. Only 6% were in favour of a more liberal practice with regard to use of cannabis. The attitudes had changed little from 1968, when a similar study was carried out. Even a majority of those who reported having used cannabis themselves said that all use should be prohibited. A comparison of the crime of possessing quite a small quantity of cannabis with other commonplace violations of the law showed that the drug offence was considered a serious crime. Although the penalties for drug offences have been raised dramatically several times since the end of the 1960s, a majority still said that the punishment prescribed by the Norwegian law for being involved with drugs is too mild. PMID:8448503

  12. The policy of school autonomy and the reform of educational administration Hungarian changes in an East European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halász, Gábor

    1993-11-01

    The paper presents the background, the main elements and the contradictions of the reform of educational administration in Hungary in the late '80s in a Central and East European perspective. It also tries to provide an analysis of the challenges that have emerged with the political changes of the '90s. The introductory part of the paper analyses the differences between policies of decentralization in Eastern and Western Europe. In the second part, the most important changes introduced by the 1985 Hungarian Education Act are summarized, and the policy background of these changes is presented. It is assumed that the policy behind the decentralization measures had a negative character: it intended more to abolish the existing structures of control than to establish new ones. In the final part of the paper those factors are presented which may play a role in the future for or against the policy of decentralization.

  13. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug

  14. Questioning the method and utility of ranking drug harms in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Rolles, Stephen; Measham, Fiona

    2011-07-01

    In a 2010 Lancet paper Nutt et al. propose a model for evaluating and ranking drug harms, building on earlier work by incorporating multi criteria decision analysis. It is argued that problems arise in modelling drug harms using rankable single figure indices when determinants of harm reflect pharmacology translated through a complex prism of social and behavioural variables, in turn influenced by a range of policy environments. The delphic methodolgy used is highly vulnerable to subjective judgements and even the more robust measures, such as drug related death and dependence, can be understood as socially constructed. The failure of the model to dissaggregate drug use harms from those related to the policy environment is also highlighted. Beyond these methodological challenges the utility of single figure index harm rankings is questioned, specifically their role in increasingly redundant legal frameworks utilising a harm-based hierarchy of punitive sanctions. If analysis is to include the capacity to capture the complexity relating to drug using behaviours and environments; specific personal and social risks for particular using populations; and the broader socio-cultural context to contemporary intoxication, there will need to be acceptance that analysis of the various harm vectors must remain separate - the complexity of such analysis is not something that can or should be over generalised to suit political discourse or outdated legal frameworks. PMID:21652195

  15. 21 CFR 369.4 - Warnings suggested for drugs by formal or informal statements of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warnings suggested for drugs by formal or informal statements of policy. 369.4 Section 369.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.4 Warnings suggested for drugs...

  16. What Educational Reform Means: Lessons from Teachers, Research and Policy Working Together for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airini; McNaughton, Stuart; Langley, John; Sauni, Pale

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes education reform projects designed to bring about major improvements in school and tertiary student outcomes. Individually the projects illustrate characteristics of educational reform in local contexts for primary, secondary and tertiary education. In combination they signal key components essential to getting large scale…

  17. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  18. Looking at Local Districts' Capacity for Ambitious Reform. CPRE Policy Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Thompson, Charles L.

    The notion of local district capacity needs to be rethought in light of the extraordinary demands for learning imposed on teachers and others by the current wave of reform in science, mathematics, and other subjects. In this article, a district's capacity to support ambitious instructional reform is viewed primarily as a capacity to learn the…

  19. The New Victors: A Progressive Policy Analysis of Work Reform for People with Very Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Ferguson, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Current efforts to reform vocational services for severely disabled adults are examined in the context of past reform efforts, the meaning of work, and the status of the labor force. Proposed solutions should avoid exclusion of the severely disabled due to reliance on economic utility as the price of social integration. (Author/DB)

  20. Exploring Motivational Factors for Educational Reform: Do International Comparisons Dictate Educational Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachelek, AJ

    2010-01-01

    In mathematics education, utilizing international comparisons to support implementation of educational reforms has become increasingly common. With the advent of "Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study" (TIMSS), educational reform seems to have transitioned to a reactionary process rather than a calculated adaptation of…

  1. School Reforms in England, Japan, Korea and the U.S.: Policy Variation and Educational Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    Education reform during the last 2 decades has been shaped by the forces of growing public distrust of educational bureaucracies in a climate of rapid political change and growing international competition in the context of a global economy. Major school reforms in four selected industrial countries that differ significantly in terms of…

  2. Reform of the College Entrance Examination: Ideology, Principles, and Policy Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Haifeng

    2013-01-01

    Reform of the College Entrance Examination is trending toward simultaneous unification and diversification. The objective of reforming the entrance exam is to establish a college enrollment examination system that is primarily based on a unified test, which would assess students' abilities, appraise them on multiple levels, and classify them.…

  3. Children and Welfare Reform: A Guide to Evaluating the Effects of State Welfare Policies on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Although targeted explicitly at changing adult behaviors and outcomes, welfare reform has direct implications for children. This guidebook details the results of the Project on State-Level Child Outcomes, designed to assist states in measuring child outcomes in the context of welfare reform programs. The guidebook is presented in three sections.…

  4. Irrational Exuberance for Market-Based Reform: How Federal Turnaround Policies Thwart Democratic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Obama Administration announced its intention to rapidly "turn around" 5,000 of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To do so, it relied on the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program to provide temporary funding for states and schools, and to mandate drastic, school-level reforms. Most of these reforms require…

  5. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but much vaunted…

  6. 77 FR 20025 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Compliance Policy for Reporting Drug Sample Distribution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... (42 U.S.C. 1320a-7i). This new section requires the submission of certain drug sample information to... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Compliance Policy for... guidance for industry entitled ``Compliance Policy on Reporting Drug Sample Distribution Information...

  7. Policy options for deploying anti-malarial drugs in endemic countries: a population genetics approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anti-malarial drugs are constantly exposed to the threat of evolving drug resistance so good stewardship of existing therapy is an essential component of public health policy. However, the widespread availability of numerous different drugs through informal providers could undermine official drug deployment policies. A policy of multiple first-line therapy (MFT) is compared with the conventional policy of sequential drug deployment, i.e., where one drug is used until resistance evolves and then replaced by the next drug in the sequence. Methods Population genetic models of drug resistance are used to make the comparison; this methodology explicitly tracks the genetics of drug resistance (including, importantly, recombination in the sexual stage, intrahost dynamics, and direction of linkage disequilibrium). Results A policy of MFT outlasts sequential application providing drug usages are low to moderate, and appears not to drive widespread multi-drug resistance. Inadequate dosing is an even more potent driver of drug resistance than the MFT/sequential policy decision. Conclusions The provision of MFT as a deliberate policy can be encouraged provided overall treatment rates are low or moderate (less than around half of malaria infections are treated) and the ad hoc provision of MFT through the private sector may be tolerated. This must be fully supported by education to ensure people take adequate doses of each of the drugs. PMID:23244624

  8. Early adoption of cyclosporine and recombinant human erythropoietin: clinical, economic, and policy issues with emergence of high-cost drugs.

    PubMed

    Powe, N R; Eggers, P W; Johnson, C B

    1994-07-01

    The discovery of new drugs and their introduction into US markets will become an intense area of focus should health care reform result in Medicare insurance coverage for prescription drugs. Particular attention will be focused on high-cost drugs. Two high-cost drugs, cyclosporine and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), introduced into the clinical management of patients with kidney disease during the past decade, provide some experience concerning the forces affecting the use of expensive drugs in a cost-conscious health care system. The decision to prescribe a drug will depend on provider's judgements of the drug's clinical benefits and costs compared with those of other possible therapies. It may also depend on payment policy. Both cyclosporine and rHuEPO were adopted rapidly and extensively by providers of end-stage renal disease care following US Food and Drug Administration approval, despite their high costs. Both drugs were remarkably effective, relatively safe, and able to be administered without great difficulty compared with the therapies they have replaced. There was no additional payment to hospitals for the initial use of cyclosporine, which was introduced in 1983 at the time when Medicare's prospective payment was established, since choice of immunosuppressive agent did not affect the fixed, per-admission payment determined by the diagnosis-related group for kidney transplantation. Medicare coverage for continuing outpatient use of cyclosporine was not initially provided, in contrast to rHuEPO, which was introduced in 1989 with Medicare outpatient coverage and payment of 80% of the allowed charge. Despite their high costs and different methods of insurance payment both drugs achieved a rather quick and high penetration rate into their respective populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8023822

  9. Digital Social Media, Youth, and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs: The Need for Reform

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    The tragic death of 18-year-old Ryan Haight highlighted the ethical, public health, and youth patient safety concerns posed by illicit online nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NUPM) sourcing, leading to a federal law in an effort to address this concern. Yet despite the tragedy and resulting law, the NUPM epidemic in the United States has continued to escalate and represents a dangerous and growing trend among youth and adolescents. A critical point of access associated with youth NUPM is the Internet. Internet use among this vulnerable patient group is ubiquitous and includes new, emerging, and rapidly developing technologies—particularly social media networking (eg, Facebook and Twitter). These unregulated technologies may pose a potential risk for enabling youth NUPM behavior. In order to address limitations of current regulations and promote online safety, we advocate for legislative reform to specifically address NUPM promotion via social media and other new online platforms. Using more comprehensive and modernized federal legislation that anticipates future online developments is critical in substantively addressing youth NUPM behavior occurring through the Internet. PMID:23892156

  10. Education Reform Policy and Early Childhood Teacher Education in Hong Kong before and after the Transfer of Sovereignty to China in 1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Built on a sociocultural framework of policy analysis and Wertsch's concept of mediation, the present study examines how early childhood teacher education has changed as a result of interactions between reform policy and the action of teacher educators. Ten teacher educators participated in the study, along with eight early childhood leaders, 15…

  11. The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.

    PubMed

    Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability. PMID:25217142

  12. A system dynamics model for national drug policy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data modeling techniques can create a virtual world to analyze decision systems. National drug authorities can use such techniques to take care of their deficiencies in decision making processes. This study was designed to build a system dynamics model to simulate the effects of market mix variables (5 P’s) on the national drug policy (NDP) indicators including availability, affordability, quality, and rationality. This was aimed to investigate how to increase the rationality of decision making, evaluate different alternatives, reduce the costs and identify the system obstacles. System dynamics is a computer-based approach for analyzing and designing complex systems over time. In this study the cognitive casualty map was developed to make a concept about the system then the stock-flow model was set up based on the market demand and supply concept. Results The model demonstrates the interdependencies between the NDP variables through four cognitive maps. Some issues in availability, willingness to pay, rational use and quality of medicines are pointed in the model. The stock-flow diagram shows how the demand for a medicine is formed and how it is responded through NDP objectives. The effects of changing variables on the other NDP variables can be studied after running the stock-flow model. Conclusion The model can initiate a fundamental structure for analyzing NDP. The conceptual model made a cognitive map to show many causes’ and effects’ trees and reveals some relations between NDP variables that are usually forgotten in the medicines affairs. The model also provides an opportunity to be expanded with more details on a specific disease for better policy making about medication. PMID:24690531

  13. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions. PMID:21692242

  14. Holding Policy-Makers to Account: Exploring "Soft" and "Hard" Policy and the Implications for Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Chan, Jacqueline Kin-sang; Fok, Ping Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum implementation as both an educational practice and a policy conundrum has been the focus of academic research since the 1970s. A new perspective is taken in this article by borrowing from the literature on policy implementation in multilevel systems of government. The concepts of "hard" and "soft" policy are used to show that…

  15. Mobilizing Drug Consumption Rooms: inter-place networks and harm reduction drug policy.

    PubMed

    McCann, Eugene; Temenos, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the learning and politics involved in spreading Drug Consumption Rooms (DCRs) globally. DCRs are health facilities, operating under a harm reduction philosophy, where people consume illicit drugs in a supervised setting. Approximately 90 are located in almost 60 cities in 11 countries. They are intensely local attempts to improve the lives of specific populations and urban neighborhoods. DCRs are also global models that travel. This article examines the relationship between DCRs as facilities that are fixed in place and DCRs as globally-mobilized models of drug policy and public health practice. Drawing on research from seven countries, we apply concepts from the policy mobilities literature to analyze the travels of the DCR model and the political strategies involved in the siting of these public health service facilities. We detail the networked mobilization of the DCR model from Europe to Canada and Australia, the learning among facilities, the strategies used to mold the DCR model to local contexts, and the role of DCR staff in promoting continued proliferation of DCRs. We conclude by identifying some immobilities of DCRs to identify questions about practices, principles and future directions of harm reduction. PMID:25576837

  16. Science education reform for the 21st century: Analyzing policy imperatives for effective teaching through recruitment, renewal, and retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeaux, Amy Venning

    2002-09-01

    Concern with science education reform and how to achieve it has a long history in our education system. In recent years, national reports have targeted enhancing teaching quality as the number one priority in the list of research-based education reform efforts that will have the most impact on promoting student achievement (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). However, defining the policy imperatives and delineating the priorities must occur before reform can be achieved. Using the Delphi Technique, a total of 33 expert panelists representing universities, K--12 educators, informal science education organizations, national and federal organizations such as NSF, NASA, and the Department of Education, and parents grappled with policy imperatives needed for effective science teaching. Through a series of three iterative questionnaires, panelists had the opportunity to build consensus, pool judgments, and forecast themes that could potentially influence policymakers in science education for the "Three R's" of professional development---renewal, retention, and recruitment. The study focused on the following three objectives: (1) analyzing feedback from panelists regarding issues and strategies identified in the Glenn Commission Report for enhancing teaching quality, (2) building group consensus regarding visions, actions, and strategies for effective science teaching and professional development, and (3) moving from rhetoric to reality in addressing the policy imperatives needed in the next 10 years for policymakers to instigate at the national, state and local levels for enhancing effective science teaching practice. The results of this study validated the findings in the Glenn Commission Report and identified five major priorities. The priorities identified policy imperatives for upgrading the quality of undergraduate and graduate science education programs, changing the reward system and career ladder for teachers, designing systemic and sustained professional

  17. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  18. Assessing the Rationales for Educational Reforms: A Test of the Professional Development, Comprehensive Reform, and Direct Instruction Hypotheses. Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Manset, Genevieve; Chung, Choong-Geun; Worthington, Kimberly

    Educational reforms are advocated based on rationales that emerge from the research literature. However, evaluation studies seldom examine whether the rationales used to argue for a reform actually hold up when empirical evidence is examined after the reform has been implemented. This paper examines survey data from 3 years of analyses of early…

  19. Policy and the Re-Formation of Hospice: Lessons from the Past for the Future of Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Buck, Joy

    2011-11-01

    During the twentieth-century, dramatic changes in the manner and location of care for the dying resulted in the conception and birth of the modern American hospice movement. Idealistic nurses, clergy, and others concerned about the plight of terminally ill cancer patients launched hospice as a necessary health care reform. As new hospice programs opened across the country, the idealism of the early leaders gave way to more pragmatic issues such as program viability. As hospice was studied and integrated into the health care system, it came to be redefined by the politics of health policy and the health care industry. As a result, there is a disarticulation between the needs of seriously ill persons and their families and the health care that is available to them. Important lessons can be learned from the history of the Medicare hospice benefit to help guide current palliative care policy initiatives. While formalized reimbursement for hospice enhanced organizational sustainability, many critical issues remain. PMID:22184500

  20. Policy and the Re-Formation of Hospice: Lessons from the Past for the Future of Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Joy

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth-century, dramatic changes in the manner and location of care for the dying resulted in the conception and birth of the modern American hospice movement. Idealistic nurses, clergy, and others concerned about the plight of terminally ill cancer patients launched hospice as a necessary health care reform. As new hospice programs opened across the country, the idealism of the early leaders gave way to more pragmatic issues such as program viability. As hospice was studied and integrated into the health care system, it came to be redefined by the politics of health policy and the health care industry. As a result, there is a disarticulation between the needs of seriously ill persons and their families and the health care that is available to them. Important lessons can be learned from the history of the Medicare hospice benefit to help guide current palliative care policy initiatives. While formalized reimbursement for hospice enhanced organizational sustainability, many critical issues remain. PMID:22184500

  1. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is your policy on illegal... NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  2. Local Implementation of Drug Policy and Access to Treatment Services for Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; McBride, Duane C.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is a vigorous national debate regarding effective drug policy, such policies are implemented at the local level. Using a national sample of prosecutors, we examine reported typical processing for first-time juvenile marijuana, cocaine, or crack possession/sales offenders. The relationship between drug offense charge and adjudication…

  3. Policies and Procedures Concerning Illegal Drug Use by Students. Higher Education Surveys Report, Survey Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Bradford W.; Farris, Elizabeth

    Procedures concerning illegal drug use by college students were investigated at 546 colleges and universities in the fall 1986 Higher Education Survey. Seventy-three percent of the institutions had a written policy on illegal drug use by students, and more than half of them established or revised their policy within the last 5 years. Three-fourths…

  4. Market- and Performance-Based Reforms of Teacher Compensation: A Review of Recent Practices, Policies, and Research. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael J.; Springer, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent policy initiatives to reform teacher compensation systems and evidence regarding the effect of these policies. The first section examines the current structure of teacher compensation in the U.S. K-12 public education system. The compensation "system" for teachers is fragmented and uncoordinated. Teacher…

  5. Mental health policy and development in Egypt - integrating mental health into health sector reforms 2001-9

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen) 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the mental health reforms and mental health policy in Egypt 2002-2009. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of each level (national, governorate, district and primary care); development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at each level; integration of mental health into health management systems; and dedicated efforts to improve forensic services, rehabilitation services, and child psychiatry services. Results The project has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, mental health masterplan (policy guidelines) to accompany the general health policy, updated Egyptian mental health legislation, Code of Practice, adaptation of the WHO primary care guidelines, primary care training, construction of a quality system of roles and responsibilities, availability of medicines at primary care level, public education about mental health, and a research programme to inform future developments. Intersectoral liaison with education, social welfare, police and prisons at national level is underway, but has not yet been established for governorate and district levels, nor mental health training for police, prison staff and teachers. Conclusions The bilateral collaboration programme initiated a reform programme

  6. [The War on "Red Drugs": Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960].

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs. PMID:27301856

  7. Decolonizing the Evidence-Based Education and Policy Movement: Revealing the Colonial Vestiges in Educational Policy, Research, and Neoliberal Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature discussing evidence-based education, practice, policy, and decision-making from a critical perspective. In this article, drawing on the literature and policy documents related to evidence-based education in the USA, Britain, and Canada, I join this critique and offer an anticolonial perspective. I argue that…

  8. Alcohol and Other Drugs: Policy Development for Trustees of New Jersey Colleges and Universities. Resource File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Michael

    There is a great deal of disagreement about what it means to have a comprehensive policy dealing with alcohol and other drugs. This publication is designed to address the very basic issues of policy development, to offer broad guidelines in policy development, to provide resources in this area, and to encourage the development of comprehensive…

  9. Teacher Education Policies, Practices, and Reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are…

  10. The Structure of the TANF Block Grant. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Kent

    The 1996 welfare reform legislation replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with a new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. This new program has a fixed funding level that is not altered by inflation or economic cycles or caseload size. Individual states' shares are based on the amount they…

  11. State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

  12. Learning from Leaders: Welfare Reform Politics and Policy in Five Midwestern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissert, Carol S., Ed.

    This book examines welfare reform, occasioned by the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which abolished Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). It is based on research in Ohio, Kansas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan that…

  13. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  14. Sustaining Higher Education Reforms: Knowledge and Policy Implications Learned from Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phusavat, Kongkiti; Ketsarapong, Suphattra; Ooi, Keng-Boon; Shyu, Stacy H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to share experiences in Thailand's higher educational reforms in which academic excellence cannot be sustained without proper financial and fiscal consideration. The overall goal is to disclose the experiences and future issues facing public universities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on actual involvement…

  15. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research…

  16. Unfinished Business: More Measured Approaches in Standards-Based Reform. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to help in the evolution of these systems by examining the measures used, including, but not limited to, tests. The author asks: Are these the best measures? Are they used right? Are there other measures that should be employed? It is the model of reform itself that is examined, and the report does not address…

  17. Success for All and Comprehensive School Reform: Evidence-Based Policies for Urban Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.

    This paper discusses comprehensive school reform (CSR), which accepts the importance of standards and accountability but adds to these strategies for introducing innovations in curriculum, instruction, school organization, governance, parent interactions, and other core features of practice. The paper reviews research on the nature and quality of…

  18. High School Reform and Work: Facing Labor Market Realities. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the current high school reform movement goes beyond qualifying students to enter college. It extends to raising the rigor of coursework so that students are prepared for college-level classes, rather than forced to enter remedial courses. This need is based on extensive study of the gap between college admissions criteria and the more…

  19. Evaluation and Follow-Up of Policies, Plans and Reforms of Education: Round Table V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Educational Policy and Planning.

    The proceedings from a round table held at an international symposium focuses on the planning and management of educational development. The following papers are included in this document: "Overall View on the Evaluation of Educational Plans and Reforms (Ingemar Fagerlind); "Evaluation and Research Capacity-Building in Education Meeting the Needs…

  20. A Learning-Centered Framework for Education Reform: What Does It Mean for National Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demarest, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    In her new book, Betty Demarest describes a bold agenda for education reform--one that is firmly grounded in a synthesis of educational research about learning, teaching, and the contexts of education. The author's "learning-centered" framework includes: (1) a broad and balanced set of education goals, (2) a multi-faceted concept of achievement,…

  1. Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shober, Arnold F.

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

  2. Regulation and Deregulation in Education Policy: New Reforms and School Sports in Swedish Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, neoliberal reforms in Sweden increased local school actors' possibilities to develop school profiles regarding both organization and content. This restructuring has increased the total number of school sports programs as well as the possibilities for upper secondary schools and sports clubs to develop elite and amateur…

  3. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  4. Educational Policy Reform As a Result of a Failed Political Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ravelle Lyn; Dutton, Jo Sargent

    Most political scientists argue that the term "public policy" encompasses both the actions of government and the intentions that determine those actions. This paper presents an overview of theories about the sources of impetus for policy changes, reviews public policy formation about school choice at the national level and in California, and…

  5. Travelling Policy Reforms Reconfiguring the Work of Early Childhood Educators in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise; Wood, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Interventions in the field of early childhood education policy, drawn from global policy flows, are reconfiguring the work of early childhood educators in Australia. One such intervention is the requirement to designate an "educational leader" (EL) in each service for young children and their families. This policy intervention has its…

  6. Multiple drug cost containment policies in Michigan's Medicaid program saved money overall, although some increased costs.

    PubMed

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Michigan's Medicaid program implemented four cost containment policies--preferred drug lists, joint and multistate purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost--during 2002-04. The goal was to control growth of drug spending for beneficiaries who were enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare and taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic prescription drugs. We analyzed the impact of each policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred drug lists increased both preferred and generic drugs' market share and reduced daily cost--the cost per day for each prescription provided to a beneficiary. In contrast, the maximum allowable cost policy increased daily cost and was the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multistate arrangements did not affect daily cost. Despite these policy trade-offs, the cumulative effect was a 10 percent decrease in daily cost and a total cost savings of $46,195 per year. Our findings suggest that policy makers need to evaluate the impact of multiple policies aimed at restraining drug spending, and further evaluate the policy trade-offs, to ensure that scarce public dollars achieve the greatest return for money spent. PMID:22492899

  7. A Profile of Substance Abuse, Gender, Crime, and Drug Policy in the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The climate of domestic drug policy in the United States as it pertains to both women and men at the beginning of the 21st century is the criminalization mode of regulation--a mode that is based on the model of addiction as a crime and one that is used to prohibit the use of illegal drugs. In Canada, drug policy is based mainly on the harm…

  8. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  9. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  10. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  11. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  12. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  13. Latin American health policy and additive reform: the case of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, J L

    1985-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, the market-based, dependent-development-conditioned structure of Latin American health systems reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most (including government) health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. But for many countries of the area, the 1964 PAHO-led efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a first step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Since then, this commitment has been reaffirmed in the Latin American Ministers of Health's 1973 adoption of the primary care approach as the cornerstone of their national health plans, and their ongoing endorsement and pursuit of "Health For All by 2000." Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Guatemalan technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively. But, far more fundamentally, the Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built, and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed "additive reform." Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these "reforms" will prove evanescent. PMID:3888870

  14. Teachers and Educational Reforms: Teachers' Response to Policy Changes in England and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia; And Others

    This paper assesses how French and English elementary school teachers have responded to broad, radical educational policy changes affecting individual teachers and schools. The paper uses findings from two linked studies, the Primary Assessment Curriculum and Experience (PACE) project in England and the Primary Teachers and Policy Change (STEP)…

  15. Knowing and Doing Vocational Education and Training Reform: Evidence, Learning and the Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; Lugg, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Much of VET policy internationally draws on a toolkit that has been seriously questioned for its logic, international relevance and effectiveness by considerable amounts of academic research. Reflecting primarily on our experiences of leading a complex, multi-country policy study, we develop an account that seeks to explore ways in which the…

  16. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  17. Policy Intermediaries and the Reform of e-Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Thirusellvan

    2015-01-01

    Utilising a case study approach and backward mapping principles to policy implementation, this study set out to explore how well district and province's e-learning officials are equipped for the task of implementing the national e-Education policy. Qualitative methods were employed to capture data through interviews and document analysis. Data…

  18. The Open Society and Coach Education: A Philosophical Agenda for Policy Reform and Future Sociological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggott, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: The realisation of the strategic importance of high quality coaching to the achievement of national sport policy objectives is resulting in extensive movements to professionalise the coaching industry. Interest in coach education is therefore growing among academics and policy-makers alike. A recent review of literature in this field,…

  19. The Rise of School Choice in Education Funding Reform: An Analysis of Two Policy Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the analysis of the global spread of support for school choice and to the understanding of how a particular form of policy development reflects and cements this support. It maps the growing dominance of school choice within a reconfiguration of politics, policy making, and research. To establish the nature of this…

  20. Basic Writing and Policy Reform: Why We Keep Talking Past Each Other.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Stanford T.

    2002-01-01

    Explores some of the differences between faculty and policy advocates by analyzing spatial/directional metaphors used by individuals in each professional domain to describe notions of access and standards. Notes that advocates in the policy-oriented discourse tend to use vertical metaphors, while educators engaged in pedagogical discourse tend to…

  1. Why Do Policy Frames Change? Actor-Idea Coevolution in Debates over Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steensland, Brian

    2008-01-01

    One shortcoming in the literature on policy framing has been the absence of analytic models through which to explicate change. This paper advances research in this area in three related ways. First, it links policy frames to the actors who employ them. Second, based upon this linkage it proposes two complementary approaches for examining…

  2. Testimony of Edwin Meese III, Attorney General and Chairman, National Drug Policy Board, before U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Regarding Coordination of National Drug Policy and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    The testimony of the United States Attorney General which appears in this document concentrates on three areas: (1) the coordination of federal drug control efforts and the reorganization of the National Drug Policy Board; (2) the performance of the National Drug Policy Board; and (3) the Administration's views on the proposed "Drug Czar" bill, S.…

  3. Using Feminist Critical Policy Analysis in the Realm of Higher Education: The Case of Welfare Reform as Gendered Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article is an attempt to provide a partial corrective to more traditional analyses of higher education policy that most often obscure broader social factors that contribute to unequal power relations and educational outcomes related to social class, gender, and race/ethnicity. This article focuses specifically on gender issues and employs a…

  4. School Development Planning in England and Wales (1988-1992): An Insight into the Impact of Policy Recontextualization on the Initiation and Early Implementation of Decentralized Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Corrie

    2006-01-01

    The predictable failure of reform has been a characteristic of education systems for some years. However, the tendency of policy makers to attribute blame for any implementation deficit solely to schools and school systems is somewhat at odds with the historical evidence presented in this article. Through the lens of school development planning,…

  5. Beyond Random Acts: Family, School, and Community Engagement as an Integral Part of Education Reform. National Policy Forum for Family, School, & Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Heather B.; Lopez, M. Elena; Rosenberg, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The policy forum brought to the center what is now on the periphery of education reform: family, school, and community engagement (FSCE) as a strategy to support student success. The forum sought to serve as a catalyst for reframing what FSCE should look like in the twenty--first century, and for repositioning this engagement as a major…

  6. ETF Yearbook 2012: Evaluation and Monitoring of Vocational Education and Training Systems and the Role of Evidence-Based Policy in Their Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "ETF Yearbook 2012" continues the tradition of highlighting a thematic field of particular importance to the work of the European Training Foundation (ETF). The theme of this yearbook is evaluation and monitoring of vocational education and training (VET) systems and the role of evidence-based policy in VET reforms in ETF partner countries. As…

  7. Hearing on Telecommunications Policy Reform. Hearing of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This document presents witness testimony and supplemental materials from a Congressional hearing regarding legislation to reform national telecommunications policy. Most of the proposed changes would allow Americans greater freedom to choose among communication products and services. Among the topics this hearing addresses are increasing…

  8. Hearing on Telecommunications Policy Reform. Hearing of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This document presents witness testimony and supplemental materials from a Congressional hearing regarding reform to national telecommunications policy, namely, replacing a regime of heavy regulation with a true market system. Statements are featured by Senators John Ashcroft, Conrad Burns, Ernest Hollings, Kay Baily Hutchison, John D. Rockefeller…

  9. Social Security reform: evaluating current proposals. Latest results of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model.

    PubMed

    Copeland, C; VanDerhei, J; Salisbury, D L

    1999-06-01

    The present Social Security program has been shown to be financially unsustainable in the future without modification to the current program. The purpose of this Issue Brief, EBRI's fourth in a series on Social Security reform, is threefold: to illustrate new features of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model not available in earlier EBRI publications, to expand quantitative analysis to specific proposals, and to evaluate the uncertainty involved in proposals that rely on equity investment. This analysis compares the Gregg/Breaux-Kolbe/Stenholm (GB-KS) and Moynihan/Kerrey proposals with three generic or "traditional" reforms: increasing taxes, reducing benefits, and/or increasing the retirement age. Both proposals would create individual accounts by "carving out" funds from current Social Security payroll taxes. This analysis also examines other proposed changes that would "add on" to existing Social Security funds through the use of general revenue transfers and/or investment in the equities market. President Clinton has proposed a general revenue transfer and the collective investment of some of the OASDI trust fund assets in equities. Reps. Archer and Shaw have proposed a general revenue tax credit to establish individual accounts that would be invested partially in the equities markets. When comparing Social Security reform proposals that would specifically alter benefit levels, the Moynihan/Kerrey bill compares quite favorably with the other proposals in both benefit levels and payback ratios, when individuals elect to use the individual account option. In contrast, the GB-KS bills do not compare quite as favorably for their benefit levels, but do compare favorably in terms of payback ratios. An important comparison in these bills is the administrative costs of managing the individual accounts, since benefits can be lowered by up to 23 percent when going from the assumed low to high administrative costs. Moreover, allowing individuals to decide whether to

  10. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  11. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  13. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  16. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in America: Policies for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together Policy Panel on Preventing Substance Abuse has formulated six recommendations that can facilitate community efforts to prevent substance abuse. These recommendations are directed to federal, state, and local policymakers and the communities they serve. The recommendations are: (1) federal, state, and local policies should…

  17. Developing a policy for second-generation antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, Robert A; Sernyak, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have replaced older drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia; their costs in the United States have reached $13 billion a year. Recent research, however, shows that their net risk/benefit profiles are no better than some older, cheaper drugs. Stepped therapy, allowing exceptions with prior authorization and giving preference to generic drugs with low risk of both neurologic and metabolic side effects, could increase the cost-effectiveness and safety of antipsychotic drugs. Educational preparation and monitoring of adverse events would foster better acceptance of such procedures among providers, patients, and families. Research to evaluate these interventions would ideally precede their widespread implementation. PMID:19622538

  18. What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs. An Office of National Drug Control Policy Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of illicit drugs consumed and available for consumption in the United States. Estimates of the number of drug users were multiplied by estimates of the average amount of drugs consumed. Then the supply of drugs available for consumption was examined by estimating the amount of drugs that enters the…

  19. Urging College Alcohol and Drug Policies That Target Adverse Behavior, Not Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Although zero tolerance policies are being enacted on campuses nationwide, they may not be the most effective means of creating safer and healthier environments for students. Many historical precedents illustrate the value of moderation over prohibition. College drug and alcohol policies should focus primarily on dysfunctional and disruptive…

  20. Educational Policy and the Drug Problem--A Redistributive Politics Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P.

    1975-01-01

    The drug problem exists as a cluster of problems affecting broad interests or groups. The issues are redistributive in that everything relates to everything else. It seems apparent that a cluster of policies and programs need development as well as genuine citizen participation in the formulation of these policies. (Author)

  1. Tax reform and physician services. American Medical Association Center for Health Policy Research.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    Reform of the federal income tax system that eliminated the current subsidies for health insurance purchases would likely alter both the magnitude and form of the demand for physician services. Although quantitative estimates of the effects are yet to be made, it is possible to make qualitative predictions using economic theory. Changes in the type of insurance purchased by consumers would likely lead to changes in the mix of services away from highly predictable, low cost services and toward less predictable, high cost services as well as more consultations. The physician specialty mix may well change in the long run, as will the size of the physician workforce relative to the population. Eventually, the financial attractiveness of medicine may not differ greatly from what it is now. PMID:9114672

  2. Policy reform as creative destruction: political and administrative challenges in preserving the public-private mix.

    PubMed

    Brown, L D

    1992-01-01

    As political pressure for affordable universal coverage intensifies, various proposals have been crafted to improve the system without sacrificing the role of the private sector. Some analysts view the preservation of a mixed public-private system as an exercise in incrementalism, avoiding disquieting departures from familiar arrangements. A review of the political and administrative challenges of several main options--market innovation, tax credits, play or pay, and Medicaid expansion--suggests that the path to true reform is a slippery slope. Over time, changes in particular sectors, such as insurance, employers, government, and providers, will very likely implicate the others too. Although redefining the public-private mix may be more incremental than (say) adoption of a Canadian model, it will also entail considerable "creative destruction" of existing patterns and cannot fail to disturb the institutional status quo substantially. PMID:1612719

  3. Implementing Family Health Nursing in Tajikistan: from policy to practice in primary health care reform.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Barbara Ann; Cornish, Flora

    2007-10-01

    The health systems of former Soviet Union countries are undergoing reform away from the highly centralised, resource-intensive, specialised and hierarchical Soviet system, towards a more generalist, efficient health service with greater focus on primary health care. Family Health Nursing is a new model designed by WHO Europe in which skilled generalist community nurses deliver primary health care to local communities. This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of the implementation of Family Health Nursing in Tajikistan. Using Stufflebeam's 'Context, Input, Process, and Product' model, the paper aims to evaluate the progress of this reform, and to understand the factors that help or hinder its implementation. A four-phase research design investigates the development of the Family Health Nurse role over time. In 5 rural areas, 6 focus groups and 18 interviews with Family Health Nurses, 4 observations of their practice, 7 interviews with families and 9 interviews with physicians were carried out. Data were analysed according to the components of Stufflebeam's model. Although the legacy of the Soviet health system did not set a precedent for a nurse who is capable of decision-making and who works in partnership with the physician, Family Health Nurses were successfully implementing new practices. Crucial to their ability to do so were the co-operation of physicians and families. Physicians were impressed by the nurses' development of knowledge, and families were impressed that the nurses could offer real solutions to their problems. However, failure to pay the nurses regular salaries had led to serious attrition of the workforce. We conclude that the success of the Family Health Nurse role in other countries will depend upon its position in relation to the historical health care system. PMID:17651876

  4. The Chinese government's response to drug use and HIV/AIDS: A review of policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use has become popular in China. Acknowledging the challenge of illicit drug use, China has adopted several new policies on the management of illicit drug use in recent years. This study reviews the current policies on drug use and assesses the harm reduction interventions among drug users in China. The review documents that the new policies on drug use provide a variety of choices of detoxification treatment for drug users. The methadone maintenance treatment and needle exchange programs have been adopted as harm reduction models in China. Most of the reviewed harm reduction programs have been successfully implemented and yielded positive effects in reducing drug related risk behaviors among drug users. Although there remain barriers to the effective implementation of policies on drug use and harm reduction programs, Chinese government has shown their commitment to support the expansion of harm reduction interventions for drug users throughout the country. PMID:20205729

  5. The Drug Question: The Constitution and Public Policy. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This document presnts a series of lesson plans on the subject of illegal drugs. Each lesson plan includes readings, discussion questions, and other activities that teachers can use to help students understand the problems surrounding drugs and to work toward solutions. Units include: (1) "Problems and Proposals"; (2) "Assessing Public Opinion:…

  6. Hospitalization due to drug use did not change after a decade of the Psychiatric Reform

    PubMed Central

    Balbinot, Alexandre Dido; Horta, Rogério Lessa; da Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias; Araújo, Renata Brasil; Poletto, Simone; Teixeira, Marina Bressaneli

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the psychiatric hospitalization rates due to use of psychoactive substances and average time of hospitalization suffered any changes after the first decade of effective implementation of the psychiatric reform in Brazil. METHODS This article examines the evolution of hospitalizations due to disorders arising from the use of alcohol or other substances in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2012. This is an ecological, time-series study, which uses data from admissions obtained by the Informatics Service of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Hospitalization rates by 100,000 inhabitants and average time of occupancy of beds were estimated. Coefficients of variation of these rates were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The total and male hospitalization rates did not vary (p = 0.056 and p = 0.244, respectively). We observed an increase of 3.0% for the female sex (p = 0.049). We did not observe any significant variation for occupancy time of beds. CONCLUSIONS The deployment of services triggered by the Brazilian psychiatric reform was not accompanied by a reduction of hospitalization rates or mean occupancy time of hospitalized patients during this first decade of implementation of the reform. PMID:27253902

  7. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Office of the General Counsel, publishes and provides interpretations of rules related to 49 CFR... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol...

  8. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Office of the General Counsel, publishes and provides interpretations of rules related to 49 CFR... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol...

  9. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  10. 71 FR 34249 - Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements; Effective Date and Compliance Policy Guide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-06-14

    ...), 1988N-0258 (Formerly 88N- 0258), 2006D-0226] Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements... provisions of the final regulation published in the Federal Register of ] December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). The... of a new compliance policy guide (CPG) 160.900 entitled ``Prescription Drug Marketing Act...

  11. San Diego City Schools: Comprehensive Reform Strategies at Work. Teaching Quality Policy Briefs. Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, 2002

    2002-01-01

    The optimum situation for a school system is one in which bureaucratic influences and practices support classroom learning. The study reported in this policy brief examines a transformation toward this state of affairs in the country's eighth largest school district, the 140,000-student San Diego City Schools. An unusual leadership arrangement…

  12. Alternatively Certified Teachers in Urban Small Schools: Where Policy Reform Meets the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie H.; Keiler, Leslie S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the experiences of new teachers in urban schools at the intersection of three major policy agendas--alternative certification, new teacher retention, and the small schools movement. We examine alternatively certified teachers' perceptions of the rewards and challenges of teaching in small schools, the support neophyte…

  13. Evidence, Policy and the Reform of Primary Education: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Here, at "FORUM's" invitation, is the text of the 2014 Godfrey Thomson Trust public lecture at the University of Edinburgh. Its backdrop is the centralisation of educational decision-making in England since 1988 and the power and patronage exercised by the Secretary of State. Taking as examples recent policies on childhood,…

  14. The Medicalization of Current Educational Research and Its Effects on Education Policy and School Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tröhler, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption of the emergence of an educationalized culture over the last 200 years according to which perceived social problems are translated into educational challenges. As a result, both educational institutions and educational research grew, and educational policy resulted from negotiations between professionals,…

  15. Rhode Island Pension Reform: Implications and Opportunities for Education. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2011-01-01

    On August 24, 2010, the state of Rhode Island received some outstanding news. Its yearlong, bipartisan effort to develop new policies to spur educational improvement was about to pay off. The state, along with eight others and the District of Columbia, was named a winner of the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top grant competition. The…

  16. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  17. Education Policy and "Friedmanomics": Free Market Ideology and Its Impact on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiala, Thomas J.; Owens, Deborah Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of neoliberal ideology, and in particular, the economic and social theories of Milton Friedman on education policy. The paper takes a critical theoretical approach in that ultimately the paper is an ideological critique of conservative thought and action that impacts twenty-first century education…

  18. The Radical Reform of Administrative Policies in New South Wales School Education: Practical and Theoretical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    The government of New South Wales (Australia) is attempting to enhance the quality of public education by radically altering management structures and practices. Despite some popular objections, political intervention was mandated and warranted due to excessive centralization in administrative policy making, curriculum development, and resource…

  19. The Role of Learning Progressions in Standards-Based Education Reform. Policy Brief. RB-52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Frederic A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "learning progressions" has begun to show up in discussions of education policy and research as a potential answer to the question of how to specify what being "on track" might mean. A number of recent NRC (National Research Council) reports on science education highlight the concept (National Research Council, 2001; National…

  20. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  1. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  2. An Exploration of E-Learning Benefits for Saudi Arabia: Toward Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrashidi, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine policies and solutions addressing (a) improving education for citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and (b) providing alternative instructional delivery methods, including e-learning for those living in remote areas. Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework of this study was based on the…

  3. Teacher Learning: New Policies, New Practices. The Series on School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey W., Ed.; Oberman, Ida, Ed.

    This collection of articles focuses on the practice and policy of staff development in terms of recent developments in teacher learning. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into five parts. Part 1: New Perspectives on Practice contains three chapters: (1) "Reconceptualizing Teaching: Moving toward the Creation of…

  4. Community Schools as Urban District Reform: Analyzing Oakland's Policy Landscape through Oral Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina M.; Hernández, Laura E.; Jarrell, Tonja; Kissell, René

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the multiple political histories that have coalesced to produce support for or resistance to the Oakland Unified School District's full-service community schools policy. It analyzes oral history interview data from eight stakeholders who represent the district's major constituencies to…

  5. The Impact of 2002 National Teacher Contract Policy Reform on Teacher Absenteeism in Lahore, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Masooma

    2010-01-01

    Teacher absenteeism is a persistent problem in Pakistani government schools. Under a new policy, teachers hired in Pakistani schools after 2002 are hired on fixed term contracts that are renewed, in part, based on low absenteeism. This study uses qualitative analysis techniques to assess the impact of contractual hiring on teacher absenteeism…

  6. Radical Reform or Incremental Change? Student Loan Policy Alternatives for the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladieux, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The federal student loan program is examined with focus on how well it will serve the country's needs in the 1990s and beyond. A series of papers are presented in two parts. Part one, Student Loan Policy and Proposals for Change, includes the following papers: "Appearance and Reality in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program" (M. McPherson); "Neither…

  7. Early Childhood Education Policy Reform in Hong Kong: Challenges in Effecting Change in Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Emma; Rao, Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    The same factors appear to drive early childhood policy in all parts of the world, including the importance accorded to early childhood education, national goals, governments' beliefs about their role in the early care and education of young children, governments' regulations of early childhood services, and the background and characteristics of…

  8. The Struggle To Reform Education: Exploring the Limits of Policy Metaphors. CSE Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This paper explores three metaphors guiding current educational policy and considers their various interpretations. The first is that "all children can learn." This statement has been interpreted in various ways, but is probably best interpreted by saying that "all children" means that educators intend to reduce the predictive value of race,…

  9. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  10. Malaria treatment policies and drug efficacy in Haiti from 1955-2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Chloroquine (CQ), after 67 years of use in Haiti, is still part of the official treatment policy for malaria. Several countries around the world have used CQ in the past due to its low incidence of adverse events, therapeutic efficacy, and affordability, but were forced to switch treatment policy due to the development of widespread CQ resistance. The purpose of this paper was to compile literature on malaria treatment policies and antimalarial drug efficacy in Haiti over 67-year period. Methods A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Armed Forces Pest Management Board, was conducted to find pertinent documents on national malaria treatment policies and antimalarial drug efficacy studies in Haiti between 1955 and 2012. A total of 329 citations and abstracts were reviewed independently by two researchers, of which thirty three met the final inclusion criteria of studies occurring in Haiti between 1955 and 2012 which specifically discuss malaria treatment policies and drug efficacy. Results Results suggest that CQ has been the predominant antimalarial drug in use from 1955 to 2012. In 2010 single dose primaquine (PQ) was added to the national treatment policy, however it is not clear whether this new policy has been put into practice. Conclusions Although no widespread CQ resistance has been reported, some studies have detected low levels of CQ resistance. Increased surveillance and monitoring for CQ resistance should be implemented in Haiti. PMID:25848539

  11. The impact of 1990 Medicaid drug rebates policy on access to prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Okunade, A A

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Congress passed a new law (PL 101-508) in 1990 requiring the pharmaceutical manufacturers to grant rebates on prescription drugs sold at retail under the federal Medicaid program. The goals include containing Medicaid program costs and expanding access of the indigent to ethical drug treatments. This paper evaluates the impact of HCFA's mandatory federal upper limit (FUL) prices on the retail sales volume of prescription drugs during 1994. Data of the most frequently dispensed drugs, as measured by the National Prescription Audit of IMS America, are used. Regression model results suggest that the competing drug prices impact sales significantly, and Medicaid drug rebates expand access to drug interventions by stimulating retail transactions. Prescription sales are also own-price insensitive (inelastic) in Medicaid and non-Medicaid market segments. The implications of extending Medicaid prescription drug rebates policy to enrollees in the traditional Medicare program are examined. PMID:11146982

  12. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. National institute on alcohol and drugs policies, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin

    2012-04-01

    The National Institute of Public Policy for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INPAD) is based at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil, and was created to collect scientific evidence regarding epidemiology, develop new therapeutic approaches, study health economics and provide education to subsidize the proper measures to change the Brazilian scenario of alcohol and drug consumption. Policies directed towards the control of alcohol and drugs in Brazil are fragmented, poorly enforced and therefore ineffective. The unregulated market of alcohol in Brazil has contributed to the worsening health of the Brazilian population. Since 1994, INPAD has participated actively in academic debates and discussions about alcohol and drug policies and their effects on the political welfare of the country. Many scientific papers and books have been published on this subject, and the internet and other media have provided excellent opportunities for the dissemination of specialized information to the general population. PMID:21382116

  13. The anatomy of a malaria disaster: drug policy choice and mortality in African children.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Ian M; Korenromp, Eline L; Bloland, Peter B

    2007-11-01

    Drug-resistant malaria is a substantial problem throughout Africa and most countries must regularly adapt their antimalarial drug policies to ensure a continued coverage of effective antimalarial treatment. The timing of drug policy change can be guided by several sources of data: molecular markers of resistance, in-vitro parasite sensitivity, parasitological and clinical failure rates, and community morbidity and mortality rates. Through mathematical simulations of the spread of parasite mutations through a population exposed to high-endemic malaria, we explore the causal and chronological relations between these indicators and show which of them are obscured or confounded by other factors. Taking into account the logistical and practical advantages and disadvantages of each type of data collection, we critically appraise the value of each indicator. A major problem is shown to be that drug efficacy as perceived by people at risk will remain high even after drugs have become almost completely ineffective, resulting in a lack of community pressure for drug policy change. We show that parasitological failure is the most sensitive and timely indicator, which allows around 2-3 years for drug policy change to be implemented, so as to prevent the most rapid rise in malaria-related mortality. PMID:17884732

  14. Binarisms, regressive outcomes and biases in the drug policy interventions: a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József

    2005-01-01

    The golden age of drug policy was characterized by the informal regulation of drug use. Formalization of the control over regulation and its increasingly strict, aggressive character led to the emergence of a binary attitude. The main binarisms: pharmaceutical or drug; ban or tolerance; punishment or treatment; psychopathological or pathopsychological approach; subjective or objective knowledge; traditional or alternative. On the basis of Kuhn's paradigm theory, these binarisms can be integrated. Drug policy interventions based on the binary attitude have had regressive effects. Using the work of Sam Sieber, the author distinguishes nine regressive influences: functional imbalance, perverse diagnosis, ricochet, overload, goal displacement, exploitation, provocation, classification, and placation. The regressive influences have caused the escalation of "the drug problem," which in turn has led to further regressive interventions. This vicious circle could be broken by eliminating the four biases--the paternalistic, elitist, rationalist, and activist biases--underlying the regressive interventions. PMID:15830729

  15. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm. PMID:23809914

  16. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors. PMID:25975381

  17. A window of opportunity for reform in post-conflict settings? The case of Human Resources for Health policies in Sierra Leone, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is recognized that decisions taken in the early recovery period may affect the development of health systems. Additionally, some suggest that the immediate post-conflict period may allow for the opening of a political ‘window of opportunity’ for reform. For these reasons, it is useful to reflect on the policy space that exists in this period, by what it is shaped, how decisions are made, and what are their long-term implications. Examining the policy trajectory and its determinants can be helpful to explore the specific features of the post-conflict policy-making environment. With this aim, the study looks at the development of policies on human resources for health (HRH) in Sierra Leone over the decade after the conflict (2002–2012). Methods Multiple sources were used to collect qualitative data on the period between 2002 and 2012: a stakeholder mapping workshop, a document review and a series of key informant interviews. The analysis draws from political economy and policy analysis tools, focusing on the drivers of reform, the processes, the contextual features, and the actors and agendas. Findings Our findings identify three stages of policy-making. At first characterized by political uncertainty, incremental policies and stop-gap measures, the context substantially changed in 2009. The launch of the Free Health Care Initiative provided to be an instrumental event and catalyst for health system, and HRH, reform. However, after the launch of the initiative, the pace of HRH decision-making again slowed down. Conclusions Our study identifies the key drivers of HRH policy trajectory in Sierra Leone: (i) the political situation, at first uncertain and later on more defined; (ii) the availability of funding and the stances of agencies providing such funds; (iii) the sense of need for radical change – which is perhaps the only element related to the post-conflict setting. It also emerges that a ‘windows of opportunity’ for reform did not open

  18. Comprehensive Legislative Reform to Protect the Integrity of the 340B Drug Discount Program.

    PubMed

    Zeta, Lowell M

    2015-01-01

    The 40B Drug Discount Program (340B Program) is a federally facilitated program that requires drug manufacturers to provide steep discounts on outpatient prescription drugs to qualifying safety net health care providers. The federal program is intended as a safeguard to ensure access to affordable drugs to the indigeut. However, over the last two decades safety net health care providers have exploited financial incentives under the 340B Program at the expense of drug manufacturers and patients, including the most needy and vulnerable populations-they are committed to serve. Although the federal government has been applauded for increasing effortsto combat health care fraud and abuse including recovering $3.3 billion in 2014, federal officials and the general public have paid markedly less attention to pervasive abuse of the 340B Program. In 2014, drug purchases of 340B-designated drugs totaled $7 billion and are expected to increase to $12 billion: by 2016 as a result of the expansion of the program under the Affordable Care Act. The 340B Program has completely lost its way, and comprehensive legislation is necessary to realign the program with its intent. PMID:26827389

  19. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities.

    PubMed

    Nay, Olivier; Béjean, Sophie; Benamouzig, Daniel; Bergeron, Henri; Castel, Patrick; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-05-28

    Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently as the French model. In this paper, the first in The Lancet's Series on France, we challenge conventional wisdom about health care in France. First, we focus on policy and institutional transformations that have affected deeply the governance of health care over past decades. We argue that the health system rests on a diversity of institutions, policy mechanisms, and health actors, while its governance has been marked by the reinforcement of national regulation under the aegis of the State. Second, we suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France. PMID:27145707

  20. Justice Implications of a Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the…

  1. Tobacco, the Common Enemy and a Gateway Drug: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Jun, Mi Kyung; Nowicke, Carole; Seitz de Martinez, Barbara; Gassman, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    For the four leading causes of death in the United States (heart disease, cancer, stroke and chronic respiratory disease), tobacco use is a common risk factor. Tobacco use is responsible for almost 450,000 deaths per year and impacts the health of every member of our society. Tobacco is a gateway drug for substance abuse. That role is critical to…

  2. The Drug Question: The Constitution and Public Policy. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This teacher's guide complements the student text's presentation of lesson plans on the subject of illegal drug use. The booklet begins with an explanation of the benefits of law-related education (LRE) for democratic education. The guide then outlines suggestions for handling controversy; directing discussion; organizing cooperative and small…

  3. Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems through Drug Education. Policy Bulletin No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.

    Public schools have a responsibility to educate students about drug abuse, and states have a responsibility to assist schools in their efforts. Properly designed and implemented drug education programs are the most cost-effective means of preventing alcohol and other drug problems. Poorly designed and implemented programs, on the other hand, can…

  4. Public policy update. Welfare reform and teen parents: are we missing the point?

    PubMed

    Wacker, B L; Gambrell, A E

    1994-01-01

    The aim of teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives should be to provide sexuality education that is age-appropriate, medically accurate, and available at each grade level with a positive view of sexuality and information and skills that contribute to sexual health and the ability to make decisions. Abstinence should be included as long as it is not fear-based and is part of the promotion of responsible sexuality. Contraceptive information must be available to those already sexually active. Subsidized day care for children of poor adolescent mothers must be at the top of the agenda of services integrated with job programs and school-to-work initiatives. Quality child care can provide a solid foundation in personal health, negotiation, self-esteem, and individual rights and responsibilities. Quick-fix and punitive measures are out of place in programs that rely on growth in individual responsibility. An innovative approach to social welfare programming would include comprehensive sexuality education, reproductive health services, child care, health insurance, and job training. The Clinton welfare reform drafts combine elements of teen pregnancy prevention with punitive action. What is needed is greater investment in programs enhancing sexuality education, acceptance and understanding of sexuality, and access to affordable reproductive health services. The Clinton plan focuses primarily on the National Mobilization for Youth Opportunity and Responsibility, which is a national media campaign to educate youth about responsibility and the benefits of staying in school and delaying childbearing. About 1000 middle and high schools in high-poverty areas would be targeted. Opportunities would be offered to go to college or have access to job training. Controls would be placed on adolescents by requiring minor parents to live with a responsible adult, minor mothers to stay in school, and to limit disbursements for additional children while on Aid to Families with Dependent

  5. Why Do Policy Leaders Adopt Global Education Reforms? A Political Analysis of SBM Reform Adoption in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a political analysis of school-based management reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). School-based management (SBM), based on the principle of school autonomy and community participation, is a school governance system introduced in many parts of the world, including post-conflict nations. Such a phenomenon seems to follow the…

  6. [Trends and reforms in long-term care policies for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Matus-López, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    One of the main public health concerns in medium and high-income countries is how to deal with problems of functional dependency of a growing number of elderly individuals. This study aimed to identify converging issues in 30 countries with formal long-term care systems. A systematic review included articles, studies, and comparative international reports published from 2010 to 2015. The results show three trends in the design and development of these policies: (a) focus on the oldest or most dependent elderly, (b) expansion of financing based on individual contribution, and (c) promotion of home care and financial benefits for care in specialized centers (nursing homes and similar establishments). All three have positive effects on cost containment, despite limited evidence of impacts on people's health. PMID:26872224

  7. Has United States Drug Policy Failed? And How Could We Know?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Rossi, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of drug policy tend not to consider whether the stated goals of policies are an accurate statement of what they are meant to do and also may not consider the fact that what benefits some people may harm others. We explore these issues and present an agenda for research in this area that, while not eliminating these difficulties, both illuminates them and can help guide actors toward more effective action. PMID:23186421

  8. [The list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program and the Brazilian National Pharmaceutical Care Policy].

    PubMed

    Yamauti, Sueli Miyuki; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program in Brazil (PFPB) in relation to the country's pharmaceutical care policy. The list of drugs in the PFPB was compared to the Brazilian and international reference lists of essential medicines, the components of pharmaceutical care in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), and drug production by the country's government pharmaceutical laboratories. The PFPB list includes 119 drugs, of which 19.3% and 47.1% were not selected on the Brazilian and international reference lists, respectively; 16.8% are not used in primary care, and 40.3% are not produced by the country's government laboratories. A revision of the PFPB list based on the essential medicines concept (World Health Organization), alignment of pharmaceutical care policies, and production by government laboratories are essential to improve quality of health care, management, training of prescribers, and information for the population. PMID:26375644

  9. Psychedelics and cognitive liberty: Reimagining drug policy through the prism of human rights.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This paper reimagines drug policy--specifically psychedelic drug policy--through the prism of human rights. Challenges to the incumbent prohibitionist paradigm that have been brought from this perspective to date--namely by calling for exemptions from criminalisation on therapeutic or religious grounds--are considered, before the assertion is made that there is a need to go beyond such reified constructs, calling for an end to psychedelic drug prohibitions on the basis of the more fundamental right to cognitive liberty. This central concept is explicated, asserted as being a crucial component of freedom of thought, as enshrined within Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It is argued that the right to cognitive liberty is routinely breached by the existence of the system of drug prohibition in the United Kingdom (UK), as encoded within the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (MDA). On this basis, it is proposed that Article 9 could be wielded to challenge the prohibitive system in the courts. This legal argument is supported by a parallel and entwined argument grounded in the political philosophy of classical liberalism: namely, that the state should only deploy the criminal law where an individual's actions demonstrably run a high risk of causing harm to others. Beyond the courts, it is recommended that this liberal, rights-based approach also inform psychedelic drug policy activism, moving past the current predominant focus on harm reduction, towards a prioritization of benefit maximization. How this might translate in to a different regulatory model for psychedelic drugs, a third way, distinct from the traditional criminal and medical systems of control, is tentatively considered. However, given the dominant political climate in the UK--with its move away from rights and towards a more authoritarian drug policy--the possibility that it is only through underground movements that cognitive liberty will be assured in the foreseeable future is

  10. Policy advocacy for female injecting drug users in eastern and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Zakowicz, Anna

    2010-10-01

    A key reason for hosting AIDS 2010 in Vienna was to highlight the spread of HIV through injecting drug use, something that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In this article, based on a presentation at the conference, Anna Zakowicz discusses the options for promoting policy advocacy for female injecting drug users (IDUs) in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:21413621

  11. Improving community health and safety in Canada through evidence-based policies on illegal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Evan; McKinnon, Moira; Strang, Robert; Kendall, Perry R

    2012-01-01

    Illegal drug use remains a serious threat to community health in Canada, yet there has been a remarkable discordance between scientific evidence and policy in this area, with most resources going to drug use prevention and drug law enforcement activities that have proven ineffective. Conversely, evidence-based drug treatment programs have been chronically underfunded, despite their cost-effectiveness. Similarly, various harm reduction strategies, such as needle exchange, supervised injecting programs and opioid substitution therapy, have also proven effective at reducing drug-related harm but receive limited government support. Accordingly, Canadian society would greatly benefit from reorienting its drug policies on addiction, with consideration of addiction as a health issue, rather than primarily a criminal justice issue. In this context, and in light of the simple reality that drug prohibition has not effectively reduced the availability of most illegal drugs and has instead contributed to a vast criminal enterprise and related violence, among other harms, alternatives should be prioritized for evaluation. PMID:22567081

  12. 77 FR 52741 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 420.300 Changes in Compendial Specifications and New Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 420.300 Changes in Compendial Specifications and New Drug Application Supplements; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  13. Switzerland, HIV and the power of pragmatism: lessons for drug policy development.

    PubMed

    Csete, Joanne; Grob, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Switzerland in the 1980s was an epicentre of HIV as open drug injection became part of the urban scene, especially in Zurich. Cracks appeared in Switzerland's long commitment to policing as the main drug-control strategy as law enforcement was unable to contain the health and social consequences of the rapid spread of drug injection. In the early stages of the epidemic, the pioneering health care providers who brought technically illegal harm reduction services into the open drug scene in Zurich helped open the exploration at the federal level of more balanced drug policy. Carefully evaluated pilot experiences in low-threshold methadone, needle exchange, and eventually heroin-assisted therapy yielded evidence of significant HIV prevention and crime reduction that was convincing not only to policy-makers but also to a skeptical Swiss public. Whilst not all countries have Switzerland's resource base, the Swiss experience still holds many useful lessons for establishing evidence-based policy on illicit drugs. PMID:21852097

  14. Stigma, Discrimination, Treatment Effectiveness and Policy Support: Comparing Public Views about Drug Addiction with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Pescosolido, Bernice; Goldman, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compares current public attitudes about drug addiction with attitudes about mental illness. Methods A web-based national public opinion survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support. Results Respondents hold significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction compared to those with mental illness. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them on a job. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices, more skeptical about the effectiveness of available treatments, and more likely to oppose public policies aimed at helping persons with drug addiction. Conclusions Drug addiction is often treated as a sub-category of mental illness, and health insurance benefits group these conditions together under the rubric of behavioral health. Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches for advancing stigma reduction and public policy. PMID:25270497

  15. Double Jeopardy: An Assessment of the Felony Drug Provision of the Welfare Reform Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rukaiyah; Onek, David; Riker, Alissa

    In 1996 the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program was replaced with a federal block grant program called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which imposed time limits and work requirements on welfare recipients. The welfare legislation placed a lifetime ban on TANF and food stamp benefits for convicted drug felons, although…

  16. Longitudinal Effects of School Drug Policies on Student Marijuana Use in Washington State and Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the longitudinal effect of schools’ drug policies on student marijuana use. Methods. We used data from the International Youth Development Study, which surveyed state-representative samples of students from Victoria, Australia, and Washington State. In wave 1 (2002), students in grades 7 and 9 (n = 3264) and a school administrator from each participating school (n = 188) reported on school drug policies. In wave 2 (2003), students reported on their marijuana use. We assessed associations between student-reported and administrator-reported policy and student self-reported marijuana use 1 year later. Results. Likelihood of student marijuana use was higher in schools in which administrators reported using out-of-school suspension and students reported low policy enforcement. Student marijuana use was less likely where students reported receiving abstinence messages at school and students violating school policy were counseled about the dangers of marijuana use. Conclusions. Schools may reduce student marijuana use by delivering abstinence messages, enforcing nonuse policies, and adopting a remedial approach to policy violations rather than use of suspensions. PMID:25790384

  17. Impact of Drug Policy on Regional Trends in Ezetimibe Use

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lingyun; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Tu, Jack V.; Ross, Joseph S.; Ko, Dennis T.; Jackevicius, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ezetimibe use has steadily increased in Canada during the past decade even in the absence of evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on clinical outcomes. Among the 4 most populated provinces in Canada, there is a gradient in the restrictiveness of ezetimibe in public-funded formularies (most to least strict: British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec and Ontario). The impact of formulary policy on the utilization of ezetimibe over time is unknown. Methods and Results We conducted a population-level cohort study using IMS Health Canada’s data from June 2003 to December 2012 to examine ezetimibe use in these 4 provinces to better understand the association between use and formulary restrictiveness. We found regional variations in the patterns of ezetimibe use. From June 2003 to December 2012, British Columbia(most restrictive) had the lowest monthly increasing rate from $261 to $21,926 ($190/100,000 population/month), whereas Ontario (least restrictive) had the most rapid monthly increase from $223 to $74,030 ($ 647/100,000 population/month); Quebec from $130 to $59,690 ($522/100,000 population/month) and Alberta from $356 to $ 37604 ($327/100,000 population/month) were intermediate. (P<0.001) Conclusions Ezetimibe use remains common, increasing over the past decade. Use steadily increased in provinces with the most lenient formularies. In contrast, use was lower, plateauing since 2008 in British Columbia and Alberta, which have more restrictive formularies. The gradient in ezetimibe use was related to variability in restrictiveness of the provincial formularies, illustrating the potential of a policy-response gradient that may be used to more effectively manage medication use. PMID:24895451

  18. US Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Medical Devices and Radiation Oncology: Can Reform Improve Safety?

    PubMed Central

    Hattangadi, Jona A.; O'Reilly, James T.; Recht, Abram

    2012-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is highly safe and effective in treating cancer, recent reports of dangerous radiation-related errors have focused a national spotlight on the field of radiation oncology and, more specifically, on the rapidly evolving and complex nature of radiation devices and how they are regulated. The purpose of this review is to explore the issues involved in medical device regulation in radiation oncology. We start with a general review of federal medical device regulation, including explanations of the legal and regulatory framework, and then discuss issues specific to radiation oncology with real-world examples. We also provide our thoughts on potential solutions and reforms to the current system, including better reporting of radiation-related errors in a centralized database, well-defined criteria for establishing substantial equivalence of a new device, and standard postmarket surveillance of radiation devices. Modern radiation therapy is a powerful tool that can help cure many patients' cancers and alleviate others' suffering with limited adverse effects. We must ensure that this promise is never compromised by avoidable mistakes. PMID:22548012

  19. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    policy reforms necessary: to codify clearly defined roles and functions of community representation; to outline how communities engage with government through effective and accountable channels for participation; and to ensure extensive training and capacity building of community representatives. Given the public health importance of structured and effective policies for community participation, and the normative importance of participation in realizing a rights-based approach to health, this analysis informs researchers on the challenges to institutionalizing participation in health systems policy and provides practitioners with a research base to frame future policy reforms. PMID:22920557

  20. Policy Reforms, Trojan Horses, and Imaginary Friends: The Role of External Stakeholders in Internal Quality Assurance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria João; Teixeira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The governance of higher education has been changing across Europe, most notably in response to the reform agenda that has been pervading many higher education systems. This wave of reforms has given enhanced visibility to external stakeholders, which has been often received with contrasting views. Some regarded it as a factor that would undermine…

  1. Walking a Policy Tightrope: The Dilemma of Balancing Diversification and Equality in Chinese College Entrance Examination Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Zhuran; Hu, Yingzi

    2013-01-01

    The past decade or so has witnessed a large-scale reform of the Chinese national college entrance exam (the gaokao) system, which nonetheless has been trapped within a dilemma of balancing diversification and equality. Specifically speaking, the reform needs to reconcile the clash between adopting diverse and holistic college admissions to fix the…

  2. Public and private sector responses to essential drugs policies: a multilevel analysis of drug prescription and selling practices in Mali.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Fatoumata Ina; Haddad, Slim; Fournier, Pierre; Gauvin, Lise

    2003-09-01

    Many African countries have introduced cost recovery mechanisms based on the sale of drugs and measures aimed at improving drug supply. This study compares prescribing and selling practices in Mali, in 3 cities where the public sector contributes differentially to the supply of drugs on the market. Multilevel models are used to analyse the content and cost of 700 medication transactions observed in 14 private and public legal points of sale. Results show that the objective of improving access to drugs seems to have been achieved in the sites studied. Costs of prescriptions were lower where public health services had been revitalized. Affordable generic drugs were accessible and widely used, even in the private sector. However, measures intended to rationalize the prescription and delivery of drugs did not always have the desired effect. While agents in the public sector tended to prescribe fewer antibiotics, injectables, or brand-name drugs, the data confirm the virtual absence of advice concerning the use or the side effects of the drugs in both public and private sectors. In addition, data supported the notion that the public and private sectors are closely intertwined. Notably, availability of drugs in the public sector contributed to diminishing the prices charged in the private sector. Similarly, the use that agents in the public sector made of the opportunities afforded by the presence of the private pharmaceutical sector provided another illustration of interrelatedness. Finally, the data showed that the presence of a private sector, which has not been affected by measures aimed at rationalizing prescription and sales practices, limits the effects of measures implemented in the public sector. More assertive policies, based on strategies encompassing actors in the private sector, are needed to increase the safety and effectiveness of prescription and sales practices. PMID:12850118

  3. The effect of welfare reform on SSA's disability programs: design of policy evaluation and early evidence.

    PubMed

    Davies, P; Iams, H; Rupp, K

    2000-01-01

    During the past several years, the U.S. social safety net has gone through substantial changes involving an emphasis on personal responsibility and incentives, the shift of certain responsibilities to the states, and new limits on entitlements for benefits. Two pieces of recent legislation affected the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) disability programs. Section 105 of Public Law 104-121, enacted on March 29, 1996, mandated the removal of persons from the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) rolls for whom drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) were material to the determination of disability. It eliminated allowances on the basis of DA&A immediately and required the termination of benefits to all persons receiving benefits at the time of enactment. The other major piece of legislation was the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, which was later amended by the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997. PRWORA converted the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program from an open-ended entitlement program into a block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), incorporating time limits on the receipt of benefits as well as strict work requirements. PRWORA also tightened child eligibility for SSI, narrowed eligibility for noncitizens, and reduced funding for food stamps. The BBA restored SSI eligibility for noncitizens receiving SSI prior to August 1996 and for legal noncitizens residing in the United States prior to August 1996 who become disabled in the future. SSA designed three studies to assess the effects of this legislation. Two of the studies focused on direct effects on SSA's disabled beneficiary population, targeting drug addicts and alcoholics and SSI children. The third study focused on the indirect effects of PRWORA, particularly the replacement of AFDC with TANF, on SSA's programs. The three studies were tied together by a concern of the

  4. “Budget Impact Analyses”: A Practical Policy Making Tool for Drug Reimbursement Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Hamid Reza; Foroutan, Naghmeh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, Budget Impact Analysis as an effective, practical financial tool has been introduced to the policy makers for improving drug formulary and reimbursement decision making. In Iran, Ministry of Health (MOH), health insurance organizations, and health care providers such as hospitals could take the most advantage of the BIAs reports. PMID:25276214

  5. "Budget impact analyses": a practical policy making tool for drug reimbursement decisions.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Hamid Reza; Foroutan, Naghmeh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, Budget Impact Analysis as an effective, practical financial tool has been introduced to the policy makers for improving drug formulary and reimbursement decision making. In Iran, Ministry of Health (MOH), health insurance organizations, and health care providers such as hospitals could take the most advantage of the BIAs reports. PMID:25276214

  6. 76 FR 40921 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Enforcement Policy for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Radiology Devices; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... ``Enforcement Policy for Premarket Notification Requirements for Certain In Vitro Diagnostic and Radiology...(k)) requirements for certain in vitro diagnostic and radiology devices under the regulations....

  7. The challenges of changing national malaria drug policy to artemisinin-based combinations in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Abdinasir A; Zurovac, Dejan; Kangwana, Beth B; Greenfield, Joanne; Otieno, Dorothy N; Akhwale, Willis S; Snow, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Backgound Sulphadoxine/sulphalene-pyrimethamine (SP) was adopted in Kenya as first line therapeutic for uncomplicated malaria in 1998. By the second half of 2003, there was convincing evidence that SP was failing and had to be replaced. Despite several descriptive investigations of policy change and implementation when countries moved from chloroquine to SP, the different constraints of moving to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Africa are less well documented. Methods A narrative description of the process of anti-malarial drug policy change, financing and implementation in Kenya is assembled from discussions with stakeholders, reports, newspaper articles, minutes of meetings and email correspondence between actors in the policy change process. The narrative has been structured to capture the timing of events, the difficulties and hurdles faced and the resolutions reached to the final implementation of a new treatment policy. Results Following a recognition that SP was failing there was a rapid technical appraisal of available data and replacement options resulting in a decision to adopt artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as the recommended first-line therapy in Kenya, announced in April 2004. Funding requirements were approved by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) and over 60 million US$ were agreed in principle in July 2004 to procure AL and implement the policy change. AL arrived in Kenya in May 2006, distribution to health facilities began in July 2006 coincidental with cascade in-service training in the revised national guidelines. Both training and drug distribution were almost complete by the end of 2006. The article examines why it took over 32 months from announcing a drug policy change to completing early implementation. Reasons included: lack of clarity on sustainable financing of an expensive therapeutic for a common disease, a delay in release of funding, a lack of comparative efficacy data between AL and

  8. Engaging people who use drugs in policy and program development: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Health policies and programs are increasingly being driven by people from the community to more effectively address their needs. While a large body of evidence supports peer engagement in the context of policy and program development for various populations, little is known about this form of engagement among people who use drugs (PWUD). Therefore, a narrative literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of this topic. Searches of PubMed and Academic Search Premier databases covering 1995–2010 were conducted to identify articles assessing peer engagement in policy and program development. In total, 19 articles were included for review. Our findings indicate that PWUD face many challenges that restrict their ability to engage with public health professionals and policy makers, including the high levels of stigma and discrimination that persist among this population. Although the literature shows that many international organizations are recommending the involvement of PWUD in policy and program development, our findings revealed a lack of published data on the implementation of these efforts. Gaps in the current evidence highlight the need for additional research to explore and document the engagement of PWUD in the areas of policy and program development. Further, efforts to minimize stigmatizing barriers associated with illicit drug use are urgently needed to improve the engagement of PWUD in decision making processes. PMID:23176382

  9. Urineschool: A Study of the Impact of the Earls Decision on High School Random Drug Testing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Cynthia Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Examines impact of Supreme Court's 2002 decision in "Board of Education v. Earls" on high school random drug-testing policies and practices. Court held that random drug-testing policy at Tecumseh, Oklahoma, school district did not violate students' Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable searches. (Contains 46 references.) (PKP)

  10. Doctors commitment and long-term effectiveness for cost containment policies: lesson learned from biosimilar drugs

    PubMed Central

    Menditto, Enrica; Orlando, Valentina; Coretti, Silvia; Putignano, Daria; Fiorentino, Denise; Ruggeri, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Background Agency is a pervasive feature of the health care market, with doctors acting as agents for both patients and the health care system. In a context of scarce resources, doctors are required to take opportunity cost into account when prescribing treatments, while cost containment policies cannot overlook their active role in determining health care resource allocation. This paper addresses this issue, investigating the effects of cost containment measures in the market of biosimilar drugs that represent a viable and cost-saving strategy for the reduction of health care expenditure. The analysis focuses on a particular region in Italy, where several timely policies to incentivize biosimilar prescribing were launched. Methods Drugs were identified by the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Information about biosimilar drugs and their originator biological products was extracted from the IMS Health regional database. Drug consumption was expressed in terms of counting units, while expenditure was evaluated in Euro (€). The market penetration of biosimilars was analyzed by year and quarterly. Results In the Campania region of Italy, the effects of cost containment policies, launched between 2009 and 2013, showed the prescription of biosimilars strongly increasing in 2010 until prescribing levels reached and exceeded the market share of the reference biological products in 2012. After a slight reduction, a plateau was observed at the beginning of 2013. At the same time, the use of the originator products had been decreasing until the first quarter of 2011. However, after a 1-year plateau, this trend was reversed, with a new increase in the consumption of the originators observed. Conclusion Results show that the cost containment policies, applied to cut health expenditure “to cure and not to care”, did not produce the cultural change necessary to make these policies effective in the long run. Therefore, top-down policies for cost

  11. State mental health policy: It's never too late to do it right: lessons from behavioral health reform in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Semansky, Rafael M

    2010-07-01

    This column describes an initiative to reform the public behavioral health system in New Mexico, which has placed publicly funded services under the management of a single for-profit private corporation. The authors discuss problems that they attribute to the state's "top-down model of planning and implementation": complex documentation requirements that increase administrative burden on providers, unrealistically high expectations for a comprehensive information technology system, inadequate monitoring that hampers assessment of reform, and insufficient attention to the rural safety net. They call on other states to better incorporate experiences of those delivering and receiving services into the design and timing of reform initiatives. PMID:20591994

  12. In Defense of the Alien. Volume VII. Immigration Reform and Refugee Developments. Proceedings of the Center for Migration Studies Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy (7th, Washington, DC, March 29-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 1984 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy are collected in this book. Following a brief introduction, 16 papers are presented under three major headings: Immigration Legislation Reform; Immigration Legislation Practice; and Refugees: Policy and Legal Developments. The papers (and their authors)…

  13. Paradigms of public policies for licit and illicit drugs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Analice; Ribeiro, Marcelo; Tapia Aguilera, Amarílis; Rezende, Elton; Ogata Perrenoud, Luciane

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions that, over the last 3 decades, has been making increased efforts to develop effective public policies for controlling the use of both licit and illicit psychoactive substances. In the case of licit drugs, Brazil was a pioneer in following the guidance of the World Health Organization for tobacco control and has witnessed surprising results relating to reduction of smoking prevalence and correlated morbidity and mortality. Today, Brazil has a national structure for organizing, applying, and monitoring laws relating to tobacco. However, in the field of illicit drugs, with crack consumption as a paradigm, the situation is the opposite: its use has been increasing year by year and is being consumed at increasingly young ages and by all social classes. Thus, it is becoming an enormous challenge for public policies relating to prevention and treatment. In this context, the aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological data relating to tobacco and crack use in Brazil, with an analysis on the impact of public policies for controlling consumption over recent years. Despite the efforts made over the last 3 decades, Brazil still has a long way to go in order to construct a consistent and effective national drugs policy. PMID:24869455

  14. The Effects of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Giron, Graciela; De-La-Luz-Arellano, Ivan; Ayon-Bañuelos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform implies questions of social production and of state regulation that are the key words in educational reform, education and educational policies. These reforms are always on the political agenda of countries and involve international organisms, since education is a vehicle of development for social progress. A point of departure…

  15. Decline in drug overdose deaths after state policy changes - Florida, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hal; Paulozzi, Leonard; Porucznik, Christina; Mack, Karin; Herter, Blake

    2014-07-01

    During 2003-2009, the number of deaths caused by drug overdose in Florida increased 61.0%, from 1,804 to 2,905, with especially large increases in deaths caused by the opioid pain reliever oxycodone and the benzodiazepine alprazolam. In response, Florida implemented various laws and enforcement actions as part of a comprehensive effort to reverse the trend. This report describes changes in overdose deaths for prescription and illicit drugs and changes in the prescribing of drugs frequently associated with these deaths in Florida after these policy changes. During 2010-2012, the number of drug overdose deaths decreased 16.7%, from 3,201 to 2,666, and the deaths per 100,000 persons decreased 17.7%, from 17.0 to 14.0. Death rates for prescription drugs overall decreased 23.2%, from 14.5 to 11.1 per 100,000 persons. The decline in the overdose deaths from oxycodone (52.1%) exceeded the decline for other opioid pain relievers, and the decline in deaths for alprazolam (35.6%) exceeded the decline for other benzodiazepines. Similar declines occurred in prescribing rates for these drugs during this period. The temporal association between the legislative and enforcement actions and the substantial declines in prescribing and overdose deaths, especially for drugs favored by pain clinics, suggests that the initiatives in Florida reduced prescription drug overdose fatalities. PMID:24990490

  16. A decade of controversy: balancing policy with evidence in the regulation of prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; Grande, David; Tarn, Derjung M; Kravitz, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has remained controversial since regulations were liberalized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997. We reviewed empirical evidence addressing the claims made in the policy debate for and against DTCA. This advertising has some benefits, but significant risks are evident as well, magnified by the prominence of DTCA in population-level health communications. To minimize potential harm and maximize the benefits of DTCA for population health, the quality and quantity of information should be improved to enable consumers to better self-identify whether treatment is indicated, more realistically appraise the benefits, and better attend to the risks associated with prescription drugs. We propose guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:19910354

  17. A Decade of Controversy: Balancing Policy With Evidence in the Regulation of Prescription Drug Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Grande, David; Tarn, Derjung M.; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has remained controversial since regulations were liberalized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997. We reviewed empirical evidence addressing the claims made in the policy debate for and against DTCA. This advertising has some benefits, but significant risks are evident as well, magnified by the prominence of DTCA in population-level health communications. To minimize potential harm and maximize the benefits of DTCA for population health, the quality and quantity of information should be improved to enable consumers to better self-identify whether treatment is indicated, more realistically appraise the benefits, and better attend to the risks associated with prescription drugs. We propose guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:19910354

  18. Research influence on antimalarial drug policy change in Tanzania: case study of replacing chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as the first-line drug

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Research is an essential tool in facing the challenges of scaling up interventions and improving access to services. As in many other countries, the translation of research evidence into drug policy action in Tanzania is often constrained by poor communication between researchers and policy decision-makers, individual perceptions or attitudes towards the drug and hesitation by some policy decision-makers to approve change when they anticipate possible undesirable repercussions should the policy change as proposed. Internationally, literature on the role of researchers on national antimalarial drug policy change is limited. Objectives To describe the (a) role of researchers in producing evidence that influenced the Tanzanian government replace chloroquine (CQ) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the first-line drug and the challenges faced in convincing policy-makers, general practitioners, pharmaceutical industry and the general public on the need for change (b) challenges ahead before a new drug combination treatment policy is introduced in Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews were held with national-level policy-makers, malaria control programme managers, pharmaceutical officers, general medical practitioners, medical research library and publications officers, university academicians, heads of medical research institutions and district and regional medical officers. Additional data were obtained through a review of malaria drug policy documents and participant observations were also done. Results In year 2001, the Tanzanian Government officially changed its malaria treatment policy guidelines whereby CQ – the first-line drug for a long time was replaced with SP. This policy decision was supported by research evidence indicating parasite resistance to CQ and clinical CQ treatment failure rates to have reached intolerable levels as compared to SP and amodiaquine (AQ). Research also indicated that since SP was also facing rising resistance trend

  19. Early Childhood Reform in Seven Communities: Front-Line Practice, Agency Management, and Public Policy. Volume II: Case Studies. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Tom; And Others

    The administration and funding of early childhood education programs has been the focus of recent policy debates. This volume is the second report of three, which are derived from a study that examined how local organizations implement complex government programs for early childhood education. The study analyzed and documented significant local…

  20. Early Childhood Reform in Seven Communities: Front-Line Practice, Agency Management, and Public Policy. Volume III: Technical Appendix--Research Design and Methodology. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Elena

    The administration and funding of early childhood education programs has engendered recent federal policy debates. This volume is the third report in a series of three, which are derived from a study that examined how local organizations implement complex government programs for early childhood education. The study analyzed and documented…

  1. Policy and Practice Model of Public-Private Partnership in Public Hospitals during the New Medical Reform Period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets. PMID:27273961

  2. Drug policy and global regulatory capitalism: the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS).

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2014-09-01

    The recent emergence of vibrant markets in 'new psychoactive substances' or 'legal highs' has posed significant new challenges for drug policy. These partly concern what to do about them but the speed and complexity of change has also raised difficulties for how policy responses should be developed. Existing drug policy systems appear too slow and cumbersome to keep up with the pace of change, remaining locked in large part within 'old' ways of thinking that centre almost exclusively around the deployment (or not) of the criminal law and its related enforcement apparatus. In this paper, it is argued that we need to rethink the problem through the lens of regulation, in order to learn lessons from other sectors where more agile responses to changing markets and business innovation have often proved possible. By examining examples drawn from these other areas, an alternative policy-making framework can be developed, involving a more flexible mix of state regulation, civil society action and private law mechanisms. This new approach is founded on a recognition of the networked and polycentric character of effective market governance in an era of global regulatory capitalism. PMID:24768473

  3. 76 FR 58398 - Revised Guidance on Marketed Unapproved Drugs; Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100; Marketed New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a revised guidance entitled ``Marketed Unapproved Drugs--Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100, Marketed New Drugs Without Approved NDAs or ANDAs'' (CPG 440.100). CPG 440.100 describes how FDA intends to exercise its enforcement discretion with regard to drug products marketed in the United States that do not have required......

  4. A review of drug policy in the Golden Crescent: towards the development of more effective solutions.

    PubMed

    Talpur, Anushka; George, Tony P

    2014-12-01

    There is a high prevalence of drug trafficking and misuse in Asia. Drugs grown in Afghanistan are trafficked through Iran and Pakistan to the rest of the world. This has led to an increase in the prevalence of drug use disorders in these regions, especially heroin. This has in turn led to an increase in the use of syringes and syringe sharing which has resulted in the exponential spread of blood borne diseases such as HIV/AIDS. A lack of awareness of the detrimental use of heroin, syringe sharing and the concept of HIV has been revealed. The literature reviewed provides evidence for a change in policy with an increase in epidemiological and clinical research in these regions as well as an increase in public awareness. PMID:25440559

  5. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

  6. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

    The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

  7. Why Shouldn't Rural Kids Have It All? Place-Conscious Leadership in an Era of Extralocal Reform Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school and community leaders' beliefs about standards-based reform and the purposes of local schooling in a single rural community in the western United States. The study used interviews of 11 community and school leaders in the community. Participants engage in a balancing act between serving local interests and satisfying…

  8. The Audacity to Teach: An Examination of Reform Policy, School Leadership, and Their Relationships Mediated by Instructional Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Jacob, II

    2016-01-01

    The state of educational effectiveness and student success are of paramount concern in the United States. Concerted efforts have been made to close the achievement gap among White and Black groups. These efforts have occurred both nationally and locally as exemplified by attention to school turnaround and teacher quality. Reform, particularly for…

  9. The Future of Vouchers as Educational Reform, Political Strategy, Economic Solution, and Public Policy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan Brown, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the burden of vouchers to be all things to all constituencies. Proponents and opponents envision vouchers as accomplishing many objectives. To some, vouchers represent an educational reform that brings change to public schools and saves children from monopolistic bureaucrats. To others, they signify a threat to the very…

  10. Financial Policies for Education in the "National Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Guideline (2010-20)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liansheng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The "National Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Guideline (2010-20)" (hereafter abbreviated as the "Guideline"), formulated by the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and the State Council, posits the basic completion of the modernization of China's education and other development targets by 2020. As measures to…

  11. Tracking the implementation of green credit policy in China: top-down perspective and bottom-up reform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Yang, Yan; Bi, Jun

    2011-04-01

    The Chinese government has introduced the green credit policy to mitigate the environmental impact of industrialization by reining in credit loans to companies and projects with poor environmental performance. This research investigated the implementation of the green credit policy both at the national and provincial levels. Our results show that the green credit policy is not fully implemented. The wide-ranging impact on high-polluting and high energy-consuming industries, vague policy details unclear implementing standards, and lack of environmental information are the main problems in the implementation of the green credit policy in China. On the other hand, the practice at local level (Jiangsu Province) is more practical by integrating green credit policy with the environmental performance rating system. Finally, suggestions are outlined to improve China's green credit policy. PMID:21220183

  12. Examining Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K., Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Urban school reformers for decades have tried to improve educational outcomes for underserved and disadvantaged students, with the assistance of constantly evolving federal and state policies. In recent years, education policies have shifted from targeting individual students to developing universal standards for teaching and learning, and…

  13. Health promotion interventions and policies addressing excessive alcohol use: A systematic review of national and global evidence as a guide to health-care reform in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Babor, Thomas F.; Zeigler, Donald; Xuan, Ziming; Morisky, Donald; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nelson, Toben F.; Shen, Weixing; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Aims Steady increases in alcohol consumption and related problems are likely to accompany China's rapid epidemiologic transition and profit-based marketing activities. We reviewed research on health promotion interventions and policies to address excessive drinking and to guide health-care reform. Methods We searched in Chinese and English language databases and included 21 studies in China published between 1980 and 2013 that covered each policy area from the WHO Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. We evaluated and compared preventive interventions to the global alcohol literature for cross-national applicability. Results In contrast with hundreds of studies in the global literature, 11 of 12 studies from mainland China were published in Chinese; six of ten in English were on taxation from Taiwan or Hong Kong. Most studies demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excessive drinking, and some reported the reduction of health problems. Seven were randomized controlled trials. Studies targeted schools, drink-driving, workplaces, the health sector, and taxation. Conclusions China is the world's largest alcohol market, yet there has been little growth in alcohol policy research related to health promotion interventions over the past decade. Guided by a public health approach, the WHO Global Strategy, and health reform experience in Russia, Australia, Mexico, and the USA, China could improve its public health response through better coordination and implementation of surveillance and evidence-based research, and through programmatic and legal responses such as public health law research, screening and early intervention within health systems, and the implementation of effective alcohol control strategies. PMID:25533866

  14. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem. PMID:16451717

  15. Mandatory Drug Testing of Student Athletes: A Policy Response to "Vernonia School District, 47J v. Acton."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMitchell, Todd A.; Carroll, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Vernonia (Oregon) School District passed a mandatory random drug testing policy for student athletes that was later upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. A survey of randomly selected superintendents in five geographic regions disclosed that a majority of respondents who knew about the case were leaning toward not adopting a similar policy. (28…

  16. 77 FR 48159 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... draft guidance entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for 510(k)s.'' The purpose of this document is to... (510(k)) submission is administratively complete, which determines whether it should be accepted...

  17. Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio

    2006-11-18

    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis. PMID:17113432

  18. [Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis. PMID:17469400

  19. Health care reform: informing difficult choices.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A; Bloor, K

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade, policy makers in a large number of countries have attempted various reforms of their health care systems. Health care reform has been described as a 'global epidemic' (Klein, 1993). All health care reforms consist of very complex policy choices, some of which are examined in this article. After an introductory exploration of ideological issues, the objectives of health care reformers are considered. Three major policy objectives of health care reform are examined: cost containment; efficiency; and, equity. Three types of reform which have been advocated are also considered: public planning; market regulation; and provider-advocated reforms such as a 'basic package' with copayments and alternative means of finance. Finally, appropriate features of efficient health care reform are suggested, addressing explicit policy goals. PMID:10154305

  20. Social determinants of drug use--barriers to translating research into policy.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Our understanding of the causes of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and harms has expanded in the past 20 years. In particular, aetiological theories have become substantially more complex, incorporating research on human development and social determinants of health. In this paper, factors that present challenges to the AOD sector translating this research into policy are considered. These include a) the complexity of social determinants, b) community attitudes, and c) governance and funding structures. It is concluded that the challenges are substantial, but not insurmountable. Research on social determinants of AOD use and harms is building an evidence base to inform policy. However, leadership is needed to transform funding priorities from single-issue, short-term projects focusing on individual-level changes to broader, longer-term approaches. PMID:19951237

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  6. Beyond America’s War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S.; Elliott, Luther

    2015-01-01

    This paper places America’s “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America’s experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America’s Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society. PMID:25893215

  7. Spatial Microsimulation for Rural Policy Analysis in Ireland: The Implications of CAP Reforms for the National Spatial Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballas, D.; Clarke, G. P.; Wiemers, E.

    2006-01-01

    Microsimulation attempts to describe economic and social events by modelling the behaviour of individual agents. These models have proved useful in evaluating the impact of policy changes at the micro level. Spatial microsimulation models contain geographic information and allow for a regional or local approach to policy analysis. This paper…

  8. The Contribution of European Vocational Training Policy to Reforms in the Partner Countries of the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent developments in EU vocational education and training (VET) policy, and of the issues and challenges faced by VET systems in the Western Balkans, Turkey, and other countries covered by the "wider European neighbourhood" policy. The purpose is to emphasise the relevance for these countries of the EU…

  9. Moving towards an Educational Policy for Inclusion? Main Reform Stages in the Development of the Norwegian Unitary School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to study the development of educational policy in Norway in the field of the unitary school system and to analyse whether the development can be seen as a move towards increasing inclusion. The educational policy, when seen over a long time span, has progressively aimed towards the development of a common compulsory…

  10. Playing Hopscotch in Inclusive Education Reform: Examining Promises and Limitations of Policy and Practice in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Thorius, Kathleen King

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide commentary on the "state of play" of inclusive education in the United States. We focus on the promises and limitations of inter-related accountability- and market-driven policies and Response to Intervention (RTI) (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003). We argue that these policies and practice have "hopscotched"…

  11. Exploring the impact of austerity-driven policy reforms on the quality of the long-term care provision for older people in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Janssen, David; Jongen, Wesley; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this case study, European quality benchmarks were used to explore the contemporary quality of the long-term care provision for older people in the Belgian region of Flanders and the Netherlands following recent policy reforms. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with various experts on the long-term care provision. The results show that in the wake of the economic crisis and the reforms that followed, certain vulnerable groups of older people in Belgium and the Netherlands are at risk of being deprived of long-term care that is available, affordable and person-centred. Various suggestions were provided on how to improve the quality of the long-term care provision. The main conclusion drawn in this study is that while national and regional governments set the stage through regulatory frameworks and financing mechanisms, it is subsequently up to long-term care organisations, local social networks and informal caregivers to give substance to a high quality long-term care provision. An increased reliance on social networks and informal caregivers is seen as vital to ensure the sustainability of the long-term care systems in Belgium and in the Netherlands, although this simultaneously introduces new predicaments and difficulties. Structural governmental measures have to be introduced to support and protect informal caregivers and informal care networks. PMID:27531456

  12. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. PMID:26403650

  13. What is substance use all about? Assumptions in New York’s drug policies and the perceptions of drug using low-income African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    The current paper uses intersectionality and standpoint theories to examine the social impact of solely relying on Eurocentric worldviews when developing drug policies that affect low-income African-American communities. It is argued that low-income African-Americans share a unique cultural and historical background that must be taken into account in the development and implementation of policies and interventions that impact this population. Analysis of longitudinal qualitative data will compare the assumptions informing New York’s Rockefeller Drug Laws with the worldviews of drug using and low-income African-Americans in New York City while examining the impact of these policies in participants’ lived experiences. PMID:20224744

  14. Review of Progress in Vocational Education and Training Reform of the Candidate Countries for Accession to the European Union in the Light of Developments in European Policy on Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reviews progress in vocational education and training (VET) reform in the candidate countries for accession to the European Union in light of developments in European policy on vocational training. The document consists of a cross-country overview and individual overviews of VET in 12 candidate countries: Bulgaria, the Czech…

  15. Welfare: Reform or Replacement? (Child Support Enforcement---II). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy of the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This transcript is from the third in a series of hearings before the Senate Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy focusing on whether the present welfare system should be reformed or replaced. A series of public officials, child and family advocates, and other interested parties testified on the issue of enforcement of child support…

  16. The Neo-Liberal Turn in Understanding Teachers' and School Leaders' Work Practices in Curriculum Innovation and Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Newly Proposed Reform Policy in Lower Secondary Education in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2014-01-01

    The study in this article involved a critical discourse analysis of five policy documents in relation to a curriculum reform proposed for lower secondary education in the Republic of Ireland. It examined the (re)positioning of governance in relation to curriculum and teacher education. Findings indicate a predominant clinical discourse closely…

  17. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  18. The global biopharma industry and the rise of Indian drug multinationals: implications for Australian generics policy

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Hans

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a synopsis of the new dynamics of the global biopharma industry. The emergence of global generics companies with capabilities approximating those of 'big pharma' has accelerated the blurring of boundaries between the innovator and generics sectors. Biotechnology-based products form a large and growing segment of prescription drug markets and regulatory pathways for biogenerics are imminent. Indian biopharma multinationals with large-scale efficient manufacturing plants and growing R&D capabilities are now major suppliers of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and generic drugs across both developed and developing countries. In response to generic competition, innovator companies employ a range of life cycle management techniques, including the launch of 'authorised generics'. The generics segment in Australia will see high growth rates in coming years but the prospect for local manufacturing is bleak. The availability of cheap generics in international markets has put pressure on Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) pricing arrangements, and a new policy direction was announced in November 2006. Lower generics prices will have a negative impact on some incumbent suppliers but industrial renewal policies for the medicines industry in Australia are better focused on higher value R&D activities and niche manufacturing of sophisticated products. PMID:17543115

  19. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-02-01

    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation. PMID:25480854

  20. Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association with Student Drug Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable recent public and judicial attention to the issue of drug testing, little empirical research has focused on the relationship between drug testing in schools and the actual use of illicit drugs by students. To explore this issue, we use school-level survey data about drug testing from the Youth, Education, and Society study and…

  1. Global Knowledge-Based Policy in Fragmented Societies: The Case of Curriculum Reform in French-Speaking Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangez, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between knowledge and policy in French-speaking Belgium. It starts by describing Belgium as a consociational democracy, i.e. a society that is largely organised around integrated pillars of society (Catholic, secular), each of which provides a wide range of services (educational, training, health, health…

  2. The No Child Left Behind Act and the Teacher Shortage. Policy Briefs: Education Reform. Volume 2, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Spurred on by regulations outlined in the No Child Left Behind Education Act of 2001 (NCLB), educators and policy makers are gearing up to solve the problem of producing enough highly qualified teachers to meet the country's rapidly growing demand. According to the U.S. Department of Education, rising enrollments and increasing teacher retirements…

  3. Single-Gender Public Education and Federal Policy: Implications of Gender-Based School Reforms in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Parochial and private schools in the United States have maintained opportunities for students to attend same-gender settings without interference from policies governing public education. The gender composition and curriculum of public schools, however, have been influenced by societal regulations and expectations that have often utilized…

  4. Austin, Texas: An Educator/Business Collaboration in Support of Teacher Compensation Reform. Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality: Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In its 2009 report "Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality," the Committee for Economic Development urged business leaders to be active participants in school district deliberations about teacher compensation policies. The Committee for Economic Development (CED) noted that "business leaders can make the case to the public that current policies…

  5. The Shaping of Federal Education Policy over Time. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 16, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of our nation's existence, the federal role in K-12 education has evolved many times. From an initial limited role to one that is more focused today on access and equity, the federal role in education policy has seldom been without controversy. During each twist and turn there has been ongoing debate over federal versus state…

  6. School Vouchers and Student Achievement: What We Know So Far. Policy Briefs: Education Reform. Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2003-01-01

    Although small, carefully managed voucher programs might provide a helpful safety valve for some disadvantaged children, policy makers should be under no illusion that such programs will address the fundamental challenge of providing an adequate education to the large numbers of such students in many urban centers. Contrary to the claims of many…

  7. Laboratories of Reform? Human Resource Management Strategies in Illinois Charter Schools. Policy Research: IERC 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bradford R.

    2016-01-01

    Charter schools are publicly-funded educational entities that operate independently from local school districts and are exempt from certain state and local requirements, particularly with regard to teacher personnel policy. In exchange for this flexibility, charter schools are held more accountable for results and may be shut down if they fail to…

  8. Middlemen and Midwives of Reform: The In-Between Worlds of Albanian Educational Policy-Makers and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardinier, Meg P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a vertical case study in post-communist Albania, this article examines how three local experts become "in-betweens" who strategically mediate processes of social change. For example, they negotiate constructions of time and place, East and West, policy and practice, state and society. As they localise global educational models,…

  9. Learning Organizations and Policy Transfer in the EU: Greece's State Scholarships Foundation in a Reform-Resistant Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavdas, Kostas A.; Papadakis, Nikos E.; Rigopoulou, Yiota G.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of policy change in the EU, lifelong-learning has acquired a growing significance due to its promise to foster both professional development and personal fulfillment and thus contribute to the enhancement of social inclusion, active citizenship, competitiveness, and employability. The need for developing a smart and sustainable…

  10. Controversies in knowledge translation for community-based drug treatment: the need to the end policies of the war on drugs and mass incarceration of drug offenders to achieve health equity.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Barbara C

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to discuss significant challenges to the achievement of urban health, specifically acknowledging numerous controversies in knowledge translation for community-based drug treatment that prevent the achievement of health equity. Seven specific controversies are analyzed in this article. The results of the analysis are recommendations for moving toward the resolution of each controversy. Among the most important recommendations is a call to end the policies of the war on drugs and mass incarceration of drug offenders-as policies reflecting how politics and the misuse of power may derail knowledge translation. The article provides justification for evidence-based policy that supports community-based drug treatment as a public health approach consistent with the goals of health equity, ethical practice, and effective knowledge translation. PMID:22566149

  11. Post-market safety warnings for drugs approved in Canada under the Notice of Compliance with conditions policy

    PubMed Central

    Lexchin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Aims Health Canada has developed a pathway to approve drugs that have limited efficacy and safety data, the Notice of Compliance with conditions (NOC/c) policy. Increased safety reporting is required for these drugs but there has not been any systematic review of their post-market safety. This study compares safety warnings for NOC/c drugs with drugs with a priority and a standard review. Methods A list of drugs approved between January 1 1998 and March 31 2013 was developed and serious safety warnings for these drugs were identified. Drugs were put into one of three groups based on the way that they were approved. Kaplan−Meier curves were generated to examine the likelihood of NOC/c drugs receiving a serious safety warning compared with drugs with a priority and a standard review. The time spent in the review process for each of the groups was also measured. Results Compared with drugs with a priority review, NOC/c drugs were not more likely to receive a serious safety warning (P = 0.5940) but were more likely than drugs with a standard review (P = 0.0113). NOC/c drugs spent less time in the review process compared with drugs with a standard review. Conclusions Possible reasons for the increase likelihood of a serious safety warning are the limited knowledge of the safety of NOC/c drugs when they are approved and the length of time that they spend in the review process. Health Canada should consider spending longer reviewing these drugs and monitor their post-market safety more closely. PMID:25393960

  12. Large-Scale Reform Comes of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the history of large-scale education reform and makes the case that large-scale or whole system reform policies and strategies are becoming increasingly evident. The review briefly addresses the pre 1997 period concluding that while the pressure for reform was mounting that there were very few examples of deliberate or…

  13. Articulating addiction in alcohol and other drug policy: A multiverse of habits.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Concepts of addiction differ across time and place. This article is based on an international research project currently exploring this variation and change in concepts of addiction, in particular in the field of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Taking AOD policy in Australia and Canada as its empirical focus, and in-depth interviews with policy makers, service providers and advocates in each country as its key method (N=60), the article compares the addiction concepts articulated by professionals working in each setting. Drawing on Bruno Latour's theoretical work on the body and his proposal for a better science based on the 'articulation of differences', it explores the accounts of addiction offered across the Australian and Canadian project sites, identifying a shared dynamic in all: the juggling of difference and unity in discussions of the nature of addiction, its composite parts and how best to respond to it. The article maps two simultaneous trajectories in the data - one moving towards difference in participants' insistence on the multitude and diversity of factors that make up addiction problems and solutions, and the other towards unity in their tendency to return to narrow disease models of addiction in uncomfortable, sometimes dissonant, strategic choices. As I will argue, the AOD professionals interviewed for my project operate in two modes treated as distinct in Latour's proposal: in turning to reifying disease labels of addiction they take for granted, and work within, a 'universe of essences', but in articulating the multiplicity and diversity of addiction, they grope towards a vision of a 'multiverse of habits'. The article concludes by addressing this tension directly, scrutinising its practical implications for the development of policy and delivery of services in the future, asking how new thinking, and therefore new opportunities, might be allowed to emerge. PMID:26656000

  14. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions. PMID:24437434

  15. Interactions: trade policy and healthcare reform after Chaoulli v. Quebec: is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    PubMed

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada's healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada's trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exemption of healthcare from trade treaties, but now the potential for private financing of essential medical services indicated by the Supreme Court's decision in Chaoulli v. Quebec has made that line of argument look risky as well. It is apparent that Canada failed to anticipate the possible interactions of domestic, international and constitutional law when it made commitments in the area of private health insurance at the WTO in 1997. Accordingly, the time has come to acknowledge the fragility of the boundary between health and trade policies, to take the risks and costs associated with trade treaty obligations fully into account when undertaking healthcare reform and to strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance. PMID:19305659

  16. Setting and Improving Policies for Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems on Campus. A Guide for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Langenbahn, Stacia

    This guide for administrators provides a step-by-step process for establishing new or revised policies to deal with student misuse of alcohol and other drugs on college campuses. Emphasis is on a new doctrine of environmental management which stresses the school's responsibility to take measures against foreseeable hazards and risks in the school…

  17. Participants’ Perceptions of a Multidisciplinary Training Program for Graduate and Postgraduate Students in Drug Use Management and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Patricia; Langille-Ingram, Ethel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine graduate and postgraduate students’ perceptions of a drug use management and policy program that applied wide-ranging policy research skills to inform pharmaceutical decision-making. Design. Nine cohorts of graduate and postgraduate students from diverse academic and professional backgrounds were paired with health-system preceptors for 4 months, and supported by faculty advisors and administrators, to complete research projects that generated evidence to inform policy decisions. Assessment. A self-administered survey instrument was sent to all alumni of the program over the previous 10 years. The majority of respondents indicated: their prior academic coursework could be applied to everyday life; service-learning projects complemented university programs; participation led to greater awareness of decision-makers’ needs and appreciation of their tacit knowledge; and communication abilities were enhanced with decision-makers, and academics. Many also reported personal desire to fulfill healthcare-system research needs; personal belief in their ability to make a difference; and increased postgraduation marketability. Conclusion. A drug use management and policy program allowed graduate students from various disciplines to develop new skills and collaborate with experts to produce research evidence that was relevant to drug policy that addressed real-world problems. PMID:23788813

  18. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-01-01

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies. PMID:26184252

  19. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-07-01

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people's expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies. PMID:26184252

  20. Methadone treatment providers’ views of drug court policy and practice: a case study of New York State

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Specialized drug treatment courts are a central part of drug-related policy and programs in the United States and increasingly outside the U.S. While in theory they offer treatment as a humane and pragmatic alternative to arrest and incarceration for certain categories of drug offenses, they may exclude some forms of treatment–notably methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We sought to understand from the perspective of treatment providers whether this exclusion existed and was of public health importance in New York State as a case example of a state heavily committed to drug courts and with varying court-level policies on MMT. Drug courts have been extensively evaluated but not with respect to exclusion of MMT and not from the perspective of treatment providers. Methods Qualitative structured interviews of 15 providers of MMT and 4 NGO advocates in counties with diverse court policies on MMT, with content analysis. Results Courts in some counties require MMT patients to “taper off” methadone in an arbitrary period or require that methadone be a “bridge to abstinence”. Treatment providers repeatedly noted that methadone treatment is stigmatized and poorly understood by some drug court personnel. Some MMT providers feared court practices were fueling non-medical use of prescription opiates. Conclusions Drug court practices in some jurisdictions are a barrier to access to MMT and may constitute discrimination against persons in need of MMT. These practices should be changed, and drug courts should give high priority to ensuring that treatment decisions are made by or in close consultation with qualified health professionals. PMID:24308548

  1. A fresh start for health reform?

    PubMed

    Kendall, D B

    1996-01-01

    Health reform isn't a popular subject in Washington these days, but problems of cost and access persist. The author, a senior health policy analyst for the Progressive Policy Institute, argues that in next year's debate of tax reform, a few modest changes could lead to a more effective and universal market for health care. PMID:10158552

  2. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  3. Satellite needle distribution among injection drug users: policy and practice in two canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Mark W; Bruneau, Julie; Brogly, Susan; Spittal, Patricia; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V; Schechter, Martin T

    2002-09-01

    Access to clean needles and syringes through needle exchange programs (NEPs) has reduced both high-risk behaviors and the transmission of blood-borne infections among injection drug users (IDUs). However, policies regarding "needle-for-needle" exchange versus unrestricted needle distribution remain controversial. The objective of this study was to compare sources of needles, trends in needle distribution, and the practice of satellite needle distribution (SND) among IDUs in Vancouver and Montreal. SND was defined as receiving a new syringe from another individual through trading, purchasing, borrowing, or being given the syringe outright, or supplying a syringe to another individual through trading, selling, lending, or giving a syringe outright. This was practiced by 46% of IDUs in Vancouver and 50% of IDUs in Montreal. SND was associated with borrowing used injection equipment (adjusted OR [AOR], 2.62; 95% CI: 1.85-3.71), conducting bulk needle exchanges (AOR, 1.85; 95% CI: 1.34-2.54), being married or in a common-law relationship (AOR, 1.85; 95% CI: 1.34-2.54), and regular visits to the NEP (> weekly) (AOR, 1.54; 95% CI: 1.17-2.13). In Vancouver, SND was also associated with borrowing used needles (AOR, 2.07; 95% CI: 1.22-3.52). In these two cities, despite different distribution policies, almost half of the participants reported SND, and this was associated with high risk sharing. The practice of SND appears to be an important mechanism for needle acquisition, especially for those at highest risk for HIV and hepatitis C transmission. PMID:12352156

  4. Hooking the big one: the potential of zebrafish xenotransplantation to reform cancer drug screening in the genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Veinotte, Chansey J.; Dellaire, Graham; Berman, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    The current preclinical pipeline for drug discovery can be cumbersome and costly, which limits the number of compounds that can effectively be transitioned to use as therapies. Chemical screens in zebrafish have uncovered new uses for existing drugs and identified promising new compounds from large libraries. Xenotransplantation of human cancer cells into zebrafish embryos builds on this work and enables direct evaluation of patient-derived tumor specimens in vivo in a rapid and cost-effective manner. The short time frame needed for xenotransplantation studies means that the zebrafish can serve as an early preclinical drug screening tool and can also help personalize cancer therapy by providing real-time data on the response of the human cells to treatment. In this Review, we summarize the use of zebrafish embryos in drug screening and highlight the potential for xenotransplantation approaches to be adopted as a preclinical tool to identify and prioritize therapies for further clinical evaluation. We also discuss some of the limitations of using zebrafish xenografts and the benefits of using them in concert with murine xenografts in drug optimization. PMID:24973744

  5. Different policy outcomes of the new drugs and currently listed drugs under the positive list system in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Mi-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Four years have passed since the positive list system was implemented in South Korea. The system was received well because it has fulfilled its intended objective of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of new drugs. With regard to currently listed drugs, however, debate has lingered since the reevaluation of the cost-effectiveness by therapeutic group. This study intended to review the lessons learned and compromises reached in implementing an evidence-based national formulary. Currently listed drugs are very different from new drugs. In terms of effectiveness, the level of existing evidence tends to be lower for currently listed drugs. Also, the evaluation plan was quite delayed because of the vast amount of literature. In the political decision-making process, a coalition was formed by the pharmaceutical companies with physicians, and the government had difficulty responding because of the strong resistance against the reevaluation of currently listed drugs. Although idealistic, it was an attempt to apply the same standard of cost-effectiveness for currently listed drugs as that for new drugs. To successfully implement the system, however, some factors that need to be considered were limitation of available evidence on currently listed drugs and specific strategies employed against political resistance. PMID:22265054

  6. Teachers' Response to Standards-Based Reform: Probing Reform Assumptions in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Hilary; Knapp, Michael S.; Elfers, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    Because teachers' efforts are central to the success of standards-based reform, it behooves the policy community to look carefully at the beliefs about instruction that are rooted in this reform theory. Building on teacher-centric research on standards-based reform and ideas about teaching practice from research on multicultural education, this…

  7. Availability and Rational Use of Drugs in Primary Healthcare Facilities Following the National Drug Policy of 1982: Is Bangladesh on Right Track?

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Qazi Shafayetul

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the National Drug Policy (NDP) 1982 was instrumental in improving the supply of essential drugs of quality at an affordable price, especially in the early years. However, over time, evidence showed that the situation deteriorated in terms of both availability of essential drugs and their rational use. The study examined the current status of the outcome of the NDP objectives in terms of the availability and rational use of drugs in the primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Bangladesh, including affordability by consumers. The study covered a random sample (n=30) of rural Upazila Health Complexes (UHCs) and a convenient sample (n=20) of urban clinics (UCs) in the Dhaka metropolitan area. Observations on prescribing and dispensing practices were made, and exit-interviews with patients and their attendants, and a mini-market survey were conducted to collect data on the core drug-use indicators of the World Health Organization from the health facilities. The findings revealed that the availability of essential drugs for common illnesses was poor, varying from 6% in the UHCs to 15% in the UCs. The number of drugs dispensed out of the total number of drugs prescribed was higher in the UHCs (76%) than in the UCs (44%). The dispensed drugs were not labelled properly, although >70% of patients/care-givers (n=1,496) reported to have understood the dosage schedule. The copy of the list of essential drugs was available in 55% and 47% of the UCs and UHCs respectively, with around two-thirds of the drugs being prescribed from the list. Polypharmacy was higher in the UCs (46%) than in the UHCs (33%). An antibiotic was prescribed in 44% of encounters (n=1,496), more frequently for fever (36-40%) and common cold (26-34%) than for lower respiratory tract infection, including pneumonia (10-20%). The prices of key essential drugs differed widely by brands (500% or more), seriously compromising the affordability of the poor people. Thus, the availability and rational

  8. How state and federal policies as well as advances in genome science contribute to the high cost of cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    During a time when cancer drug prices are increasing at an unprecedented rate, a debate has emerged as to whether these drugs continue to provide good value. In this article I argue that this debate is irrelevant because under today's highly distorted market, prices will not be set with value considerations in mind. As an alternative, I suggest considering the "value" of three policy changes—Medicare's "average sales price plus 6 percent" payment program, laws that require insurance coverage of all new cancer drugs, and the Affordable Care Act—that are fueling manufacturers' willingness to set higher prices. More important than these issues, however, is the revolution that is occurring in molecular biology and its impact on scientists' ability to detect changes in the cancer genome. The lowered cost of discovery is driving more competitors into the market, which under distorted pricing paradoxically encourages drug makers to charge ever higher prices for their products. PMID:25847638

  9. 21 CFR 1404.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Office of National Drug Control Policy agrees to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do other Federal agencies know if the Office of National Drug Control Policy agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1404.645 Section 1404.645 Food and Drugs... Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1404.645 Do other Federal agencies know if...

  10. From "Backwardness" to "At-Risk": Childhood Learning Difficulties and the Contradictions of School Reform. SUNY Series on Youth Social Services, Schooling, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Barry M.

    The joint efforts of twentieth-century public school administrators and private philanthropy in initiating reforms to provide for children with learning disabilities are examined. The development of these reforms is traced from the establishment of special classes for the backward to the creation of programs for the learning disabled. What this…

  11. The persistence of cliques in the post-communist state. The case of deniability in drug reimbursement policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ozierański, Piotr; King, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    This article explores a key question in political sociology: Can post-communist policy-making be described with classical theories of the Western state or do we need a theory of the specificity of the post-communist state? In so doing, we consider Janine Wedel's clique theory, concerned with informal social actors and processes in post-communist transition. We conducted a case study of drug reimbursement policy in Poland, using 109 stakeholder interviews, official documents and media coverage. Drawing on 'sensitizing concepts' from Wedel's theory, especially the notion of 'deniability', we developed an explanation of why Poland's reimbursement policy combined suboptimal outcomes, procedural irregularities with limited accountability of key stakeholders. We argue that deniability was created through four main mechanisms: (1) blurred boundaries between different types of state authority allowing for the dispersion of blame for controversial policy decisions; (2) bridging different sectors by 'institutional nomads', who often escaped existing conflicts of interest regulations; (3) institutional nomads' 'flexible' methods of influence premised on managing roles and representations; and (4) coordination of resources and influence by elite cliques monopolizing exclusive policy expertise. Overall, the greatest power over drug reimbursement was often associated with lowest accountability. We suggest, therefore, that the clique theory can be generalized from its home domain of explanation in foreign aid and privatizations to more technologically advanced policies in Poland and other post-communist countries. This conclusion is not identical, however, with arguing the uniqueness of the post-communist state. Rather, we show potential for using Wedel's account to analyse policy-making in Western democracies and indicate scope for its possible integration with the classical theories of the state. PMID:27206533

  12. Drug Testing Incoming Residents and Medical Students in Family Medicine Training: A Survey of Program Policies and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Paul F.; Semelka, Michael W.; Bigdeli, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite well-established negative consequences, high rates of substance use and related disorders continue to be reported. Physicians in training are not immune from this, or the associated risks to their health and careers, while impaired physicians are a threat to patient safety. Objective We surveyed family medicine residency programs' practices relating to drug testing of medical students and incoming residents. The survey asked about the extent to which residency programs are confronted with trainees testing positive for prohibited substances, and how they respond. Methods The survey was sent to the directors of family medicine residency programs. A total of 205 directors (47.2%) completed the survey. Results A majority of the responding programs required drug testing for incoming residents (143, 68.9%). Most programs did not require testing of medical students (161, 81.7%). Few programs reported positive drug tests among incoming residents (9, 6.5%), and there was only 1 reported instance of a positive result among medical students (1, 3.3%). Respondents reported a range of responses to positive results, with few reporting that they would keep open training spots or offer supportive services for a medical student who tested positive. Conclusions Changing laws legalizing certain drugs may require corresponding changes in the focus on drug testing and associated issues in medical training; however, many residency program directors were not aware of their institution's current policies. Programs will need to reexamine drug testing policies as new generations of physicians, growing up under altered legal circumstances concerning drug use, progress to clinical training. PMID:26217424

  13. Coca cultivation and crop eradication in Colombia: The challenges of integrating rural reality into effective anti-drug policy.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Ruiz, Alexander; Correa, Hyarold Leonardo; León, Daniel Oswaldo; Williams, Stewart

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the positive and negative (or intended and unintended) impacts of anti-drug policies such as the aerial spraying of coca crops in Colombia. It provides spatial analysis of coca cultivation and crop eradication at a fine scale of resolution using the latest UNODC data. The findings suggest that anti-drug policy in Colombia between 2001 and 2012 has had some success with a significant decrease in overall levels of coca cultivation, but that it has also led to the displacement of coca cultivation, notably to areas within the Colombian Pacific region. Negative impacts include continued deforestation and damage to ecosystems, and the further marginalization of Afro-Colombian communities whose collective territories have been subject to increased coca cultivation between 2001 and 2012. Alternative development programs have not been well aligned with such areas where other illegal activities such as mining as well as coca cultivation now occur. Hence the importance of designing anti-drug policy that comprehensively integrates the local nuances of those peoples and places affected by coca cultivation and crop eradication according to their particular contexts. PMID:27402468

  14. Black-White Disparities in HIV/AIDS:The Role of Drug Policy and the Corrections System

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Kim M.; Smoyer, Amy B.; Bray, Sarah J.; Mattocks, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We focus in this paper on the structural and contextual sources of HIV/AIDS risk, and suggest that among the most important of these sources are drug policy and the corrections system. In particular, high rates of exposure to the corrections system (including incarceration, probation, and parole) spurred in large part by federal and state governments’ self-styled war on drugs in the United States, have disproportionately affected African Americans. We review a wide range of research literature to suggest how exposure to the corrections system may affect the HIV/AIDS related risks of drug users in general, and the disproportionate HIV risk faced by African Americans in particular. We then discuss the implications of the information reviewed for structural interventions to address African American HIV-related risk. Future research must further our understanding of the relations among drug policy, corrections, and race-based disparities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:16327113

  15. Strategies against Drugs. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Birgit

    The abuse of addictive substances in Germany is a growing concern. Three strategies have been taken against drug abuse. They include: (1) prevention and education; (2) treatment and rehabilitation; and (3) criminal prosecution of drugs production and trade. Germany also cooperates in the fight against drugs in all leading international bodies.…

  16. The 3-metros study of drugs and crime in South Africa: findings and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Parry, Charles D; Plüddemann, Andreas; Louw, Antoinette; Leggett, Ted

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the drug-crime nexus by investigating the prevalence of recent drug use among persons arrested by the police. Data were gathered during August/September 2000 from 1050 adult arrestees in eight police stations in Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg (South Africa). Measures included urinalysis results for cannabis, methaqualone (Mandrax), opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and benzodizepines, and a questionnaire designed to assess socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds of arrestees, history of prior arrests and imprisonment, current arrest information, profile of substance use, etc. Results of the study show high levels of drug use among arrestees, with 45% testing positive for at least one drug (mainly cannabis and Mandrax). A greater proportion of arrestees in Cape Town tested positive for drugs than in the other sites. Data were also analyzed in terms of gender, age, race, location (site and police station), and offense category. Persons arrested on charges of housebreaking or for drugs/alcohol offenses were particularly likely to test positive for drugs. Drug positive arrestees were more likely to have had a prior arrest. Among the conclusions of the study are that 1) strategies to reduce drug use and drug related crime must be area specific, 2) particular attention needs to focus on young offenders, 3) police need to be trained to recognize particular symptoms and to establish protocols on handling arrestees under the influence of drugs, and 4) diversion to treatment of drug using offenders deserves more consideration. PMID:15083560

  17. 71 FR 66448 - Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements under 21 CFR Part 203 Compliance Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-11-15

    ... 92N-0297), 1988N-0258 (Formerly 88N- 0258), 2006D-0226] Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree... Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements Questions and Answers; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... ``Prescription Drug Marketing Act--Pedigree Requirements under 21 CFR Part 203'' (PDMA CPG). This CPG...

  18. Searching for Truth: Internet Search Patterns as a Method of Investigating Online Responses to a Russian Illicit Drug Policy Debate

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Background This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. Objective This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's adequacy for investigating online interest in a 2010 national debate over Russian illicit drug policy. We hoped to learn what search patterns and specific search terms could reveal about the relative importance and geographic distribution of interest in this debate. Methods A national drug debate, centering on the anti-drug campaigner Egor Bychkov, was one of the main Russian domestic news events of 2010. Public interest in this episode was accompanied by increased Internet search. First, we measured the search patterns for 13 search terms related to the Bychkov episode and concurrent domestic events by extracting data from Google Insights for Search (GIFS) and Yandex WordStat (YaW). We conducted Spearman Rank Correlation of GIFS and YaW search data series. Second, we coded all 420 primary posts from Bychkov's personal blog between March 2010 and March 2012 to identify the main themes. Third, we compared GIFS and Yandex policies concerning the public release of search volume data. Finally, we established the relationship between salient drug issues and the Bychkov episode. Results We found a consistent pattern of strong to moderate positive correlations between Google and Yandex for the terms "Egor Bychkov" (r s = 0.88, P < .001), “Bychkov” (r s = .78, P < .001) and “Khimki”(r s = 0.92, P < .001). Peak search volumes for the Bychkov episode were comparable to other prominent domestic political events during 2010. Monthly search counts were 146,689 for “Bychkov” and

  19. Border crossing to inject drugs in Mexico among injection drug users in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Garfein, Richard S; Patterson, Thomas L; Pollini, Robin A; Wagner, Karla D; Artamanova, Irina; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-04-01

    We examined correlates of ever injecting drugs in Mexico among residents of San Diego, California. From 2007 to 2010, injecting drug users (IDUs) in San Diego underwent an interviewer-administered survey. Logistic regression identified correlates of injection drug use in Mexico. Of 302 IDUs, 38% were Hispanic, 72% male and median age was 37; 27% ever injected in Mexico; 43% reported distributive syringe sharing there. Factors independently associated with ever injecting drugs in Mexico included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin, distributive syringe sharing at least half of the time, and transporting drugs over the last 6 months. One-quarter of IDUs reported ever injecting drugs in Mexico, among whom syringe sharing was common, suggesting possible mixing between IDUs in the Mexico-US border region. Prospective studies should monitor trends in cross-border drug use in light of recent Mexican drug policy reforms partially decriminalizing drug possession. PMID:21442300

  20. Policy feedbacks and the impact of policy designs on public opinion.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Andrea Louise

    2011-12-01

    A recently developed analytic approach--policy feedback effects--provides health policy analysts with a crucial new tool for understanding the politics of health policy. Three cases--senior citizens' opposition to the Obama health care reform, tax breaks for employer-provided health insurance, and the Medicare Part D prescription drug program--demonstrate how policy designs affect subsequent policy outcomes. To differing degrees, the three cases show how public policies can create constituencies with particular understandings of their benefits who attempt to thwart reform; can highlight or reduce the visibility of the government role in health care, shaping attitudes about the worth of government action; and can provide half solutions that fail to maximize beneficiary welfare but that deflate momentum for policy improvements. The cases illustrate a general pattern revealed by wide-ranging research on policy feedback effects: the designs of public policies influence preferences and alter patterns of political mobilization, effects that feed back into the political system, shaping the political environment and the possibilities for future policy making. PMID:22232420