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1

Assay to Screen Anti-metastatic Drugs  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at the NCI's Mouse Cancer Genetics Program have developed a research tool, a murine cell line model (JygMC(A)) with a reporter construct, of spontaneous metastatic mammary carcinoma that resembles the human breast cancer metastatic process in a triple negative mammary tumor. The assay is useful for screening compounds that specifically inhibit pathways involved in mammary carcinoma and can improve clinical management of of triple negative breast cancer that are greatly refractory to conventional chemo and radiotherapy.

2

Screening for drugs of abuse with the Roche ONTRAK assays.  

PubMed

A family of manual, qualitative, latex agglutination inhibition immunoassay screening tests (ONTRAK, Roche) for amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine, marijuana, morphine, and phencyclidine were evaluated. The assays are inexpensive, rapid, portable, and easy to perform, requiring little training to obtain proficiency. The tests are sensitive to drug concentrations at or around the stated cutoff values. The ONTRAK results agree well with the results obtained from fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) or radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening and GC/MS confirmation. Potential drawbacks of the test kits include the subjective nature of the qualitative assays and the lack of a positive control. The ONTRAK system provides a reasonable means of conducting field testing for drugs of abuse. PMID:1522711

Armbruster, D A; Krolak, J M

1992-01-01

3

Application of a Human Tumor Colony-forming Assay to New Drug Screening1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of a human tumor colony-forming assay to drug screening was investigated in terms of feasibility, validity, and potential for discovering new antitumor drugs. Feasibility was addressed in a pilot study during which basic methods, appropriate assay quality controls, and a standardized protocol for screening were developed. Considerable variability was noted in the availability and colony growth of different

Robert H. Shoemaker; Mary K. Wolpert-DeFilippes; David H. Kern; Michael M. Lieber; Robert W. Makuch; Marmette R. Melnick; William T. Miller; Sydney E. Salmon; Richard M. Simon; John M. Venditti; Daniel D. Von Hoff

4

An instrument-based screening assay for DNA-targeted anticancer drugs using resonance light scattering.  

PubMed

DNA is a valid drug target for development of target-based therapeutics against cancer. Screening DNA-targeted anticancer drugs is a key process for the research and development of new anticancer drugs. The traditional anticancer drug screening methods, including animal experiments and cell-based screening assays, have unavoidable drawbacks. In this contribution, the new instrument-based screening assay for DNA-targeted anticancer drugs in vitro using resonance light scattering (RLS) technique was proposed. The experiments suggested that the increment of RLS intensity was directly proportional to the antitumor effect of anticancer drugs. Therefore, it was intuitive to obtain the sequence of the antitumor activity of four anticancer drugs without data processing as follows: mitoxantrone (MIT) > pirarubicin (PIR) > daunorubicin (DAU) > doxorubicin (DOX) by RLS screening spectra. Moreover, the apparent equilibrium constant (K) was 1.23 x 10(4), 2.22 x 10(4), 4.66 x 10(4) L/mol for DOX, DAU, and PIR, respectively. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was 0.148, 0.102, 0.025, 0.013 micromol/L for DOX, DAU, PIR, MIT, respectively. Therefore, the antitumor effect of four drugs was as follows: MIT > PIR > DAU > DOX, which was in good agreement with the result obtained from RLS screening assays. The mechanism between DNA and anthracycline drugs was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and electrophoresis experiments. The proposed assay is a rapid, intuitive, and easy-to-conduct bioassay with good accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:20156144

Chen, Zhanguang; Liu, Guoliang; Chen, Maohuai; Chen, Xi; Wu, Mingyao; Chen, Xingtong

2010-06-01

5

Advantages of cell-based high-volume screening assays to assess nuclear receptor activation during drug discovery.  

PubMed

Introduction: Adverse drug effects and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can be elicited by the activation of several nuclear receptors (NRs). Of the NRs that regulate expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters and alter cellular processes, the most important are pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Screening for the activation of these receptors can be achieved during drug discovery by using various high-throughput analyses including ligand binding and transactivation assays. Areas covered: This review focuses on the importance of screening for NR activation during drug discovery and includes a discussion of the various assays to evaluate activation of NRs by xenobiotics. It also describes screening for species-specific NR activation to attenuate the use of animals in toxicology studies and to identify complications associated with drug metabolism and clearance that may occur during pharmacokinetic analyses. Expert opinion: Given the potential for adverse drug effects and DDIs during all phases of drug elimination, NR screening should occur early in drug discovery. Such screening could be used in structure-activity relationship studies to guide chemists in altering compound structures to eliminate the NR-binding and activation properties on priority compounds. Early screening can also reduce the risk of adverse drug effects, identify novel therapeutic agents and decrease the number of animals used in drug development. Overall, performing these types of assays described here could decrease drug development costs, alleviate the liability associated with drugs that activate NR and prevent unsafe drugs from entering the marketplace. PMID:24819724

Pinne, Marija; Raucy, Judy L

2014-06-01

6

Assay development and high throughput antiviral drug screening against Bluetongue virus  

PubMed Central

Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection is one of the most important diseases of domestic livestock. There are no antivirals available against BTV disease. In this paper, we present the development, optimization and validation of an in vitro cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using the luminescent-based CellTiter-Glo reagent to identify novel antivirals against BTV. Conditions of the cytopathic effect (CPE)-based assay were optimized at cell density of 5 000 cells/well in medium containing 1% FBS and a multiplicity of infection at 0.01 in 384-well plate, with Z'-values ? 0.70, Coefficient of Variations ? 5.68 and signal-to-background ratio ? 7.10. This assay was further validated using a 9 532 compound library. The fully validated assay was then used to screen the 194 950 compound collection, which identified 693 compounds with > 30% CPE inhibition. The ten-concentration dose response assay identified 185 structures with IC50 ? 100 ?M, out of which 42 compounds were grouped into six analog series corresponding to six scaffolds enriched within the active set compared to their distribution in the library. The CPE-based assay development demonstrated its robustness and reliability, and its application in the HTS campaign will make significant contribution to the antiviral drug discovery against BTV disease.

Li, Qianjun; Maddox, Clinton; Rasmussen, Lynn; Hobrath, Judith V.; White, Lucile E.

2009-01-01

7

Optimization of the Caco-2 permeability assay to screen drug compounds for intestinal absorption and efflux.  

PubMed

In vitro permeability assays are a valuable tool for scientists during lead compound optimization. As a majority of discovery projects are focused on the development of orally bioavailable drugs, correlation of in vitro permeability data to in vivo absorption results is critical for understanding the structural-physicochemical relationship (SPR) of drugs exhibiting low levels of absorption. For more than a decade, the Caco-2 screening assay has remained a popular, in vitro system to test compounds for both intestinal permeability and efflux liability. Despite advances in artificial membrane technology and in silico modeling systems, drug compounds still benefit from testing in cell-based epithelial monolayer assays for lead optimization. This chapter provides technical information for performing and optimizing the Caco-2 assay. In addition, techniques are discussed for dealing with some of the most pressing issues surrounding in vitro permeability assays (i.e., low aqueous solubility of test compounds and low postassay recovery). Insights are offered to help researchers avoid common pitfalls in the interpretation of in vitro permeability data, which can often lead to the perception of misleading results for correlation to in vivo data. PMID:21874449

Press, Barry

2011-01-01

8

Improved toxicogenomic screening for drug-induced phospholipidosis using a multiplexed quantitative gene expression ArrayPlate assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously showed that a toxicogenomics analysis of drug-induced phospholipidosis enabled the identification of 12 specific gene markers and the establishment of an in vitro real-time PCR screening assay for the assessment of the phospholipidosis-inducing potential of compounds. The purpose of this study was to transfer our PCR-based assay into a 96-well microplate-based multiple mRNAs measuring assay (ArrayPlate™ assay) in

Hiroshi Sawada; Keiko Taniguchi; Kenji Takami

2006-01-01

9

Assessment and Continued Validation of the Malaria SYBR Green I-Based Fluorescence Assay for Use in Malaria Drug Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several new fluorescence malaria in vitro drug susceptibility microtiter plate assays that detect the presence of malarial DNA in infected erythrocytes have recently been reported, in contrast to traditional isotopic screens that involve radioactive substrate incorporation to measure in vitro malaria growth inhibition. We have assessed and further characterized the malaria SYBR Green I-based fluorescence (MSF) assay for its ability

Jacob D. Johnson; Richard A. Dennull; Lucia Gerena; Miriam Lopez-Sanchez; Norma E. Roncal; Norman C. Waters

2007-01-01

10

Drug-induced liver steatosis and phospholipidosis: cell-based assays for early screening of drug candidates.  

PubMed

The liver plays a key role in fat metabolism, and excessive lipid accumulation in liver cells is characterised by a large spectrum of lesions, e.g., steatosis and phospholipidosis. Steatosis is increased lipid accumulation, mainly as triglycerides, in the liver, while phospholipidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder characterised by intracellular accumulation of phospholipids. These alterations can be induced by several factors, including exposure to certain drugs. Drug-induced steatosis is often reversible, and prolonged exposure to certain drugs can cause macrovacuolar steatosis, a benign hepatic lesion, that can evolve into steatohepatitis and cirrhosis in some patients. Some drugs may acutely induce microvesicular steatosis which, despite having a good short-term prognosis, can lead to chronic lipid peroxidation and to the development of steatohepatitis lesions with time. Over 50 marketed drugs have been reported to induce phospholipidosis in different tissues, including the liver. Although drug-induced phospholipidosis is often reversible and there is no definitive evidence for its toxicological implications, it is considered an adverse side finding by regulatory agencies. As developing new drugs is a complex, lengthy and expensive process that aims to identify pharmacologically active, low-toxicity drug candidates among closely related compounds, it could be advantageous to determine which drugs are able to induce lipid metabolic disorders in early developmental stages. To this end, in vitro predictive screening assays, particularly cell-based approaches in which many drug candidates are evaluated, have been developed to identify and rule out compounds with a strong liver steatosis and/or phospholipidosis-inducing potential. PMID:22746303

Donato, M Teresa; Gómez-Lechón, M José

2012-10-01

11

Simple Colorimetric Trypanothione Reductase-Based Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Drugs against Leishmania Intracellular Amastigotes  

PubMed Central

Critical to the search for new anti-leishmanial drugs is the availability of high-throughput screening (HTS) methods to test chemical compounds against the relevant stage for pathogenesis, the intracellular amastigotes. Recent progress in automated microscopy and genetic recombination has produced powerful tools for drug discovery. Nevertheless, a simple and efficient test for measuring drug activity against Leishmania clinical isolates is lacking. Here we describe a quantitative colorimetric assay in which the activity of a Leishmania native enzyme is used to assess parasite viability. Enzymatic reduction of disulfide trypanothione, monitored by a microtiter plate reader, was used to quantify the growth of Leishmania parasites. An excellent correlation was found between the optical density at 412 nm and the number of parasites inoculated. Pharmacological validation of the assay was performed against the conventional alamarBlue method for promastigotes and standard microscopy for intracellular amastigotes. The activity of a selected-compound panel, including several anti-leishmanial reference drugs, demonstrated high consistency between the newly developed assay and the reference method and corroborated previously published data. Quality assessment with standard measures confirmed the robustness and reproducibility of the assay, which performed in compliance with HTS requirements. This simple and rapid assay provides a reliable, accurate method for screening anti-leishmanial agents, with high throughput. The basic equipment and manipulation required to perform the assay make it easy to implement, simplifying the method for scoring inhibitor assays.

Schoone, Gerard J.; England, Paul; Faber, Dorien; Orrling, Kristina M.; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Sundar, Shyam; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Adams, Emily R.

2014-01-01

12

Screening for phospholipidosis induced by central nervous drugs: comparing the predictivity of an in vitro assay to high throughput in silico assays.  

PubMed

Drug-induced phospholipidosis is a side effect for which drug candidates can be screened in the drug discovery phase. The numerous in silico models that have been developed as a first line of screening are based on the characteristic physicochemical properties of phospholipidosis-inducing drugs, e.g. high logP and pK(b) values. However, applying these models on a predominantly high lipophilic, basic CNS chemistry results in a high false positive rate and consequently in a wrong classification of a large number of valuable drug candidates. Here, we tested 33 CNS-compounds (24 in vivo negative and 9 in vivo positive phospholipidosis-inducers) in our in house developed in vitro phospholipidosis screening assay (Mesens et al., 2009) and compared its predictivity with the outcome of three different, well established in silico prediction models. Our in vitro assay demonstrates an increased specificity of 79% over the in silico models (29%). Moreover, by considering the proposed plasma concentration at the efficacious dose we can show a clear correlation between the in vitro and in vivo occurrence of phospholipidosis, improving the specificity of prediction to 96%. Through its high predictive value, the in vitro low throughput assay is thus preferred above high throughput in silico assays, characterized by a high false positive rate. PMID:20430096

Mesens, Natalie; Steemans, Margino; Hansen, Erik; Verheyen, Geert R; Van Goethem, Freddy; Van Gompel, Jaques

2010-08-01

13

Development of specific dengue virus 2'-O- and N7-methyltransferase assays for antiviral drug screening.  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 carries two mRNA cap methyltransferase (MTase) activities involved in the synthesis of a cap structure, (7Me)GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA, at the 5'-end of the viral mRNA. The methylation of the cap guanine at its N7-position (N7-MTase, (7Me)GpppA-RNA) is essential for viral replication. The development of high throughput methods to identify specific inhibitors of N7-MTase is hampered by technical limitations in the large scale synthesis of long capped RNAs. In this work, we describe an efficient method to generate such capped RNA, GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA??, by ligation of two RNA fragments. Then, we use GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA?? as a substrate to assess DENV N7-MTase activity and to develop a robust and specific activity assay. We applied the same ligation procedure to generate (7Me)GpppA-RNA?? in order to characterize the DENV 2'-O-MTase activity specifically on long capped RNA. We next compared the N7- and 2'-O-MTase inhibition effect of 18 molecules, previously proposed to affect MTase activities. These experiments allow the validation of a rapid and sensitive method easily adaptable for high-throughput inhibitor screening in anti-flaviviral drug development. PMID:23769894

Barral, K; Sallamand, C; Petzold, C; Coutard, B; Collet, A; Thillier, Y; Zimmermann, J; Vasseur, J-J; Canard, B; Rohayem, J; Debart, F; Decroly, E

2013-09-01

14

The BlueScreen-384 assay as an indicator of genotoxic hazard potential in early-stage drug discovery.  

PubMed

High-throughput cell-based techniques that permit early detection of compound-induced genotoxic damage have recently become available. Methods based on induction of the GADD45a?promoter are attractive because multiple intracellular mechanisms that detect genetic damage intersect at this checkpoint gene. Consequently, assays such as GreenScreen HC, which uses p53-competant human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells and a GADD45a-GFP reporter, have been developed. GreenScreen HC allows weekly testing of dozens of compounds using 96-well microplates, with high interassay consistency. BlueScreen HC is a recent advancement, coupling GADD45a to Gaussia luciferase, with several advantages over GADD45a-GFP including the potential for miniaturization. Here we describe implementation of a 384-well BlueScreen assay. For drug discovery programs carrying out iterative analogue synthesis around a chemical lead series, these assays permit assessment of compound genotoxic potential in parallel to, rather than subsequent to, determination of activity at a therapeutic target. We demonstrate comparability of BlueScreen-384 to GreenScreen HC and illustrate the use of BlueScreen-384 to explore the structure-activity relationship around a genotoxic lead molecule to identify nongenotoxic analogues. BlueScreen-384 can reduce the need for costly and time-consuming analogue testing in more traditional genotoxicity tests, such as the Ames test. PMID:23264450

Simpson, Kate; Bevan, Nicola; Hastwell, Paul; Eidam, Patrick; Shah, Poonam; Gogo, Elke; Rees, Steve; Brown, Andrew

2013-04-01

15

Original Fluorescent Ligand-Based Assays Open New Perspectives in G-Protein Coupled Receptor Drug Screening  

PubMed Central

The identification of new drugs exhibiting reduced adverse side-effects constitutes a great challenge for the next decade. Various steps are needed to screen for good ligand candidates and one of them is the evaluation of their binding properties. New strategies based on fluorescence measurement constitute excellent alternatives to the traditional radioactive assays. Less hazardous, faster and cheaper, these methods also exhibit very good sensitivity and can be used on various biological models such as heterologous expression systems or native tissues.

Cottet, Martin; Faklaris, Orestis; Zwier, Jurriaan M.; Trinquet, Eric; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Durroux, Thierry

2011-01-01

16

Model for high-throughput screening of multitarget drugs in chemical neurosciences: synthesis, assay, and theoretic study of rasagiline carbamates.  

PubMed

The disappointing results obtained in recent clinical trials renew the interest in experimental/computational techniques for the discovery of neuroprotective drugs. In this context, multitarget or multiplexing QSAR models (mt-QSAR/mx-QSAR) may help to predict neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs in multiple assays, on drug targets, and in model organisms. In this work, we study a data set downloaded from CHEMBL; each data point (>8000) contains the values of one out of 37 possible measures of activity, 493 assays, 169 molecular or cellular targets, and 11 different organisms (including human) for a given compound. In this work, we introduce the first mx-QSAR model for neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs based on the MARCH-INSIDE (MI) method. First, we used MI to calculate the stochastic spectral moments (structural descriptors) of all compounds. Next, we found a model that classified correctly 2955 out of 3548 total cases in the training and validation series with Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity values>80%. The model also showed excellent results in Computational-Chemistry simulations of High-Throughput Screening (CCHTS) experiments, with accuracy=90.6% for 4671 positive cases. Next, we reported the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of new rasagiline derivatives. We carried out three different experimental tests: assay (1) in the absence of neurotoxic agents, assay (2) in the presence of glutamate, and assay (3) in the presence of H2O2. Compounds 11 with 27.4%, 8 with 11.6%, and 9 with 15.4% showed the highest neuroprotective effects in assays (1), (2), and (3), respectively. After that, we used the mx-QSAR model to carry out a CCHTS of the new compounds in >400 unique pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally. Consequently, this model may become a promising auxiliary tool for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23855599

Alonso, Nerea; Caamaño, Olga; Romero-Duran, Francisco J; Luan, Feng; D S Cordeiro, M Natália; Yañez, Matilde; González-Díaz, Humberto; García-Mera, Xerardo

2013-10-16

17

Cryopreserved human hepatocytes: characterization of drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and applications in higher throughput screening assays for hepatotoxicity, metabolic stability, and drug-drug interaction potential.  

PubMed

Cryopreserved human hepatocytes were extensively characterized in our laboratory. The post-thaw viability, measured via dye exclusion, ranged from 55 to 83%, for hepatocytes cryopreserved from 17 donors. Post-thaw viability and yield (viable cells per vial) were found to be stable up to the longest storage duration evaluated of 120 days. Drug-metabolizing enzyme activities of the cryopreserved hepatocytes (mean of ten donors) as percentages of the freshly isolated cells were: 97%, for cytochrome P450 isoform (CYP) 1A2, 78% for CYP2A6, 96% for CYP2C9. 86% for CYP2Cl9, 90% for CYP2D6, 164% for CYP3A4, 76% for UDP-glucuronidase, and 88% for umbelliferone sulfotransferase. Known species-differences in 7-ethoxycoumarin (7-EC) metabolism were reproduced by cryopreserved hepatocytes from human, rat, rabbit, dog, and monkey, illustrating the utility of cryopreserved hepatocytes from multiple animal species in the evaluation of species-differences in drug metabolism. Higher throughput screening (HTS) assays were developed using cryopreserved human hepatocytes for hepatotoxicity, metabolic stability, and inhibitory drug-drug interactions. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity, measured using MTT metabolism as an endpoint, was observed for the known hepatotoxic chemicals tamoxifen, clozapine, cadmium chloride, diclofenac, amiodarone, tranylcypromine, precocene II, but not for 2-thiouracil. Cell density- and time-dependent metabolism of 7-EC and dextromethorphan were observed in the HTS assay for metabolic stability. Known CYP isoform-specific inhibitors were evaluated in the HTS assay for inhibitory drug-drug interactions. Furafylline, sulfaphenazole, quinidine, and ketoconazole were found to be specific inhibitors of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, respectively. Tranylcypromine and diethyldithiocarbamate were found to be less specific, with inhibitory effects towards several CYP isoforms, including CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1. These results suggest that cryopreserved human hepatocytes represent a useful experimental tool for the evaluation of drug metabolism, toxicity, and inhibitory drug-drug interaction potential. PMID:10418968

Li, A P; Lu, C; Brent, J A; Pham, C; Fackett, A; Ruegg, C E; Silber, P M

1999-06-01

18

A real-time impedance-based screening assay for drug-induced vascular leakage.  

PubMed

Vascular leakage is a serious side effect of therapies based on monoclonal antibodies or cytokines which may lead to life-threatening situations. With the steady increase of new drug development programs for large molecules, there is an urgent need for reliable tools to assess this potential liability of new medicines in a rapid and cost-effective manner. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model for endothelium, we established an impedance-based assay measuring the integrity of the endothelial cell monolayer in real time. We could demonstrate that the HUVEC monolayer in our system was a relevant model as cells expressed major junctional proteins known to be responsible for maintaining tightness as well as receptors targeted by molecules known to induce vascular leakage in vivo. We assessed the time-dependent loss of barrier function using impedance and confirmed that signals obtained corresponded well to those from standard transwell assays. We assayed a series of reference molecules which led to the expected change of barrier integrity. A nonspecific cytotoxic effect could be excluded by using human fibroblasts as a nonresponder cell line. Finally, we could show reversibility of vascular permeability induced by histamine, IL-1?, or TNF-? by coincubation with established antagonists, further demonstrating relevance of this new model. Taken together, our results suggest that impedance in combination with HUVECs as a specific model can be applied to assess clinically relevant vascular leakage on an in vitro level. PMID:24385420

Kustermann, Stefan; Manigold, Tobias; Ploix, Corinne; Skubatz, Marion; Heckel, Tobias; Hinton, Heather; Weiser, Thomas; Singer, Thomas; Suter, Laura; Roth, Adrian

2014-04-01

19

A Novel High Throughput Assay for Anthelmintic Drug Screening and Resistance Diagnosis by Real-Time Monitoring of Parasite Motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHelminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed

Michael J. Smout; Andrew C. Kotze; James S. McCarthy; Alex Loukas

2010-01-01

20

Development, validation and pilot screening of an in vitro multi-cellular three-dimensional cancer spheroid assay for anti-cancer drug testing.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cancer cell proliferation assay for anti-cancer drug screening is a very artificial model and cannot represent the characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) solid tumors. The multi-cellular in vitro 3D tumor spheroid model is of intermediate complexity, and can provide a bridge to the gap between the complex in vivo tumors and simple in vitro monolayer cell cultures. In this study, a simple and cost-effective cancer 3D spheroid assay suitable for small molecule anti-cancer compound screening was developed, standardized and validated on H292 non-small lung cancer cell line. A pilot screening with this assay was performed utilizing a compound library consisting of 41 anti-cancer agents. The traditional 2D monolayer cell proliferation assay was also performed with the same cell line and compounds. A correlational study based on the IC(50) values from the 2D and 3D assays was conducted. There is low correlation with the two sets of biological data, suggesting the two screening methods provide different information regarding the potency of the tested drug candidates. PMID:23306053

Lama, Rati; Zhang, Lin; Naim, Janine M; Williams, Jennifer; Zhou, Aimin; Su, Bin

2013-02-15

21

Detectability of new psychoactive substances, 'legal highs', in CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunochemical screening assays for drugs of abuse.  

PubMed

The increasing number of new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing may become less effective due to an increased occurrence of false negative and false positive screening results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge about analytical cross-reactivity of new substances in selected CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunoassays for drugs-of-abuse screening. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with 45 new substances. Authentic urine samples from intoxication cases identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were also studied. Several new psychoactive substances were demonstrated to display cross-reactivity in the immunoassays. CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy and EMIT d.a.u. Amphetamine Class tests showed the highest reactivity towards the new drugs, which was expected since many have amphetamine-like structure and activity. In the samples from authentic cases, five new substances displayed 100% detection rate in the CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy test. In conclusion, cross-reactivity data in routine urine drug screening immunoassays for a number of new psychoactive substances not studied before were reported. In both spiked and authentic urine samples, some new substances showed significant cross-reactivity and are thus detectable in the routine screening methods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24665024

Beck, Olof; Rausberg, Linnea; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Villen, Tomas; Karlsson, Lennart; Hansson, Therese; Helander, Anders

2014-05-01

22

A 96-well flow cytometric screening assay for detecting in vitro phospholipidosis-induction in the drug discovery phase.  

PubMed

Drug-induced phospholipidosis is caused by lysosomal accumulation of the drug, resulting in the disturbance of phospholipid degradation and a consequent excessive phospholipid accumulation. Depending on the type and number of tissues affected, phospholipidosis occurrence in test animals can raise safety issues, which may be critical for the risk assessment. Safety profiling of potential phospholipidosis-inducing drugs in the drug discovery phase can predict these late obstructions of drug development. For this purpose, a flow cytometric assay based on the difference in fluorescent phospholipid accumulation in a human monocyte cell line was initially established. Modifying the assay studying degradation of the fluorescent phospholipids instead of accumulation drastically improved sensitivity. By testing various phospholipidosis-inducers and negative compounds, it was found that the assay could detect the occurrence of phospholipidosis by a 2-fold difference in fluorescence compared to control cells, demonstrating the superior sensitivity of the novel approach. Implementation of a higher throughput 96-well flow cytometric set up did not affect the sensitivity of detection or the reproducibility of the assay. Based on an extended test set of reference compounds a profiling approach was introduced, by which we show we can rank our drug candidates according to their phospholipidosis-inducing potential. PMID:19101623

Natalie, Mesens; Margino, Steemans; Erik, Hansen; Annelieke, Peters; Geert, Verheyen; Philippe, Vanparys

2009-03-01

23

Selection of drugs to test the specificity of the Tg.AC assay by screening for induction of the gadd153 promoter in vitro.  

PubMed

Short-term assays for carcinogenicity testing of chemicals that use transgenic mice designed to have altered expression of genes mechanistically relevant to carcinogenesis are attractive alternatives to two-year dosing studies in rodents. The models that have been the received the greatest level of performance evaluation include p53(+/-), rasH2, Xpa/p53(+/-), and Tg.AC mice. For use of these models in a regulatory setting to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals, it is important to establish an assurance of assay specificity and positive predictivity based on studies using drugs with a wide spectrum of pharmacologic activity. For this purpose, 99 noncarcinogenic drugs were prioritized based on their activity in an in vitro induction assay correlative with a positive response in the Tg.AC assay (induction of the gadd153 promoter in HepG2 cells). Activities in two assays less predictive of Tg.AC activity (induction of c-fos and zeta-globin gene promoters) were also measured. Nine percent of the screened drugs induced the gadd153 promoter by at least fourfold. Several criteria were used to select candidates for subsequent in vivo testing in the Tg.AC assay: (1) sufficient drug solubility in appropriate skin paint vehicles to elicit systemic toxicity, (2) the level of induction of the gadd153 promoter by the drug, (3) the in vitro potency of the drug, and (4) the cost of the drug required for a 6-month study. Based on these criteria, amiloride, dipyridamole, and pyrimethamine were selected from 99 rodent noncarcinogens in a drug database for testing the specificity of the Tg.AC assay. PMID:12730611

Thompson, Karol L; Sistare, Frank D

2003-08-01

24

A testing strategy to predict risk for drug-induced liver injury in humans using high-content screen assays and the 'rule-of-two' model.  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of drug failures in both the preclinical and clinical phase. Consequently, improving prediction of DILI at an early stage of drug discovery will reduce the potential failures in the subsequent drug development program. In this regard, high-content screening (HCS) assays are considered as a promising strategy for the study of DILI; however, the predictive performance of HCS assays is frequently insufficient. In the present study, a new testing strategy was developed to improve DILI prediction by employing in vitro assays that was combined with the RO2 model (i.e., 'rule-of-two' defined by daily dose ?100 mg/day & logP ?3). The RO2 model was derived from the observation that high daily doses and lipophilicity of an oral medication were associated with significant DILI risk in humans. In the developed testing strategy, the RO2 model was used for the rational selection of candidates for HCS assays, and only the negatives predicted by the RO2 model were further investigated by HCS. Subsequently, the effects of drug treatment on cell loss, nuclear size, DNA damage/fragmentation, apoptosis, lysosomal mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, and steatosis were studied in cultures of primary rat hepatocytes. Using a set of 70 drugs with clear evidence of clinically relevant DILI, the testing strategy improved the accuracies by 10 % and reduced the number of drugs requiring experimental assessment by approximately 20 %, as compared to the HCS assay alone. Moreover, the testing strategy was further validated by including published data (Cosgrove et al. in Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 237:317-330, 2009) on drug-cytokine-induced hepatotoxicity, which improved the accuracies by 7 %. Taken collectively, the proposed testing strategy can significantly improve the prediction of in vitro assays for detecting DILI liability in an early drug discovery phase. PMID:24958025

Chen, Minjun; Tung, Chun-Wei; Shi, Qiang; Guo, Lei; Shi, Leming; Fang, Hong; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

2014-07-01

25

High-speed solubility screening assay using ultra-performance liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry in drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was investigated as an alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analyzing pharmaceutical drug candidates. We previously developed a 96-well-based high-speed solubility assay system (HSSOL) using HPLC\\/UV and a LogD assay system (HSLogD) using HPLC\\/MS [Y. Dohta, T. Yamashita, S. Horiike, T. Nakamura, T. Fukami, Anal. Chem. 79 (2007) 8312]. We have introduced the UPLC\\/MS system

Taro Yamashita; Yukifumi Dohta; Tatsuji Nakamura; Takehiro Fukami

2008-01-01

26

A High-Throughput Screening Assay for the Identification of Flavivirus NS5 Capping Enzyme GTP-Binding Inhibitors: Implications for Antiviral Drug Development  

PubMed Central

There are no effective antivirals currently available for the treatment of flavivirus infection in humans. As such, the identification and characterization of novel drug target sites are critical to developing new classes of antiviral drugs. The flavivirus NS5 N-terminal capping enzyme (CE) is vital for the formation of the viral RNA cap structure, which directs viral polyprotein translation and stabilizes the 5? end of the viral genome. The structure of the flavivirus CE has been solved, and a detailed understanding of the CE–guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and CE–RNA cap interactions is available. Because of the essential nature of the interaction for viral replication, disrupting CE–GTP binding is an attractive approach for drug development. The authors have previously developed a robust assay for monitoring CE–GTP binding in real time. They adapted this assay for high-throughput screening and performed a pilot screen of 46 323 commercially available compounds. A number of small-molecule inhibitors capable of displacing a fluorescently labeled GTP in vitro were identified, and a second functional assay was developed to identify false positives. The results presented indicate that the flavivirus CE cap-binding site is a valuable new target site for antiviral drug discovery and should be further exploited for broad-spectrum anti-flaviviral drug development.

GEISS, BRIAN J.; STAHLA-BEEK, HILLARY J.; HANNAH, AMANDA M.; GARI, HAMID H.; HENDERSON, BRITTNEY R.; SAEEDI, BEJAN J.; KEENAN, SUSAN M.

2012-01-01

27

A high-throughput screening assay for the identification of flavivirus NS5 capping enzyme GTP-binding inhibitors: implications for antiviral drug development.  

PubMed

There are no effective antivirals currently available for the treatment of flavivirus infection in humans. As such, the identification and characterization of novel drug target sites are critical to developing new classes of antiviral drugs. The flavivirus NS5 N-terminal capping enzyme (CE) is vital for the formation of the viral RNA cap structure, which directs viral polyprotein translation and stabilizes the 5' end of the viral genome. The structure of the flavivirus CE has been solved, and a detailed understanding of the CE-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and CE-RNA cap interactions is available. Because of the essential nature of the interaction for viral replication, disrupting CE-GTP binding is an attractive approach for drug development. The authors have previously developed a robust assay for monitoring CE-GTP binding in real time. They adapted this assay for high-throughput screening and performed a pilot screen of 46 323 commercially available compounds. A number of small-molecule inhibitors capable of displacing a fluorescently labeled GTP in vitro were identified, and a second functional assay was developed to identify false positives. The results presented indicate that the flavivirus CE cap-binding site is a valuable new target site for antiviral drug discovery and should be further exploited for broad-spectrum anti-flaviviral drug development. PMID:21788392

Geiss, Brian J; Stahla-Beek, Hillary J; Hannah, Amanda M; Gari, Hamid H; Henderson, Brittney R; Saeedi, Bejan J; Keenan, Susan M

2011-09-01

28

Antibody binding shift assay for rapid screening of drug interactions with the human ABCG2 multidrug transporter.  

PubMed

The ABCG2 multidrug transporter protein has been identified as a key player in cancer drug resistance and xenobiotic elimination, as its actively transported substrates include anticancer drugs, intermediates of heme metabolism, xenobiotics, and also drug conjugates. Several transported substrates at higher concentrations, and some anticancer agents even at low concentrations directly inhibit the ABCG2 transporter, thus it is difficult to provide estimation for pharmacologically important ABCG2-dependent interactions. In addition, as documented here, in mutant variants of the transporter, inhibitors of the wild-type ABCG2 may become actively transported substrates. In this paper we describe a rapid in vitro assay to identify transport modulation by measuring the cell surface interaction of a conformation sensitive monoclonal antibody (5D3) with ABCG2 in intact cells. As documented, in conjunction with membrane ATPase, transport and cytotoxicity measurements, this assay provides a reliable estimate of concentration-dependent modulation of ABCG2 by newly emerging pharmacophores. A high-throughput, 96-well plate assay platform is also provided. PMID:22115866

Telbisz, Ágnes; Hegedüs, Csilla; Özvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Goda, Katalin; Várady, György; Takáts, Zoltán; Szabó, Eszter; Sorrentino, Brian P; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs

2012-01-23

29

Drug-induced sensitization of adenylyl cyclase: assay streamlining and miniaturization for small molecule and siRNA screening applications.  

PubMed

Sensitization of adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurologic disorders including substance abuse and Parkinson's disease. Acute activation of G?i/o-linked receptors inhibits AC activity, whereas persistent activation of these receptors results in heterologous sensitization of AC and increased levels of intracellular cAMP. Previous studies have demonstrated that this enhancement of AC responsiveness is observed both in vitro and in vivo following the chronic activation of several types of G?i/o-linked receptors including D2 dopamine and ? opioid receptors. Although heterologous sensitization of AC was first reported four decades ago, the mechanism(s) that underlie this phenomenon remain largely unknown. The lack of mechanistic data presumably reflects the complexity involved with this adaptive response, suggesting that nonbiased approaches could aid in identifying the molecular pathways involved in heterologous sensitization of AC. Previous studies have implicated kinase and Gb? signaling as overlapping components that regulate the heterologous sensitization of AC. To identify unique and additional overlapping targets associated with sensitization of AC, the development and validation of a scalable cAMP sensitization assay is required for greater throughput. Previous approaches to study sensitization are generally cumbersome involving continuous cell culture maintenance as well as a complex methodology for measuring cAMP accumulation that involves multiple wash steps. Thus, the development of a robust cell-based assay that can be used for high throughput screening (HTS) in a 384 well format would facilitate future studies. Using two D2 dopamine receptor cellular models (i.e. CHO-D2L and HEK-AC6/D2L), we have converted our 48-well sensitization assay (>20 steps 4-5 days) to a five-step, single day assay in 384-well format. This new format is amenable to small molecule screening, and we demonstrate that this assay design can also be readily used for reverse transfection of siRNA in anticipation of targeted siRNA library screening. PMID:24514897

Conley, Jason M; Brust, Tarsis F; Xu, Ruqiang; Burris, Kevin D; Watts, Val J

2014-01-01

30

A High-Throughput Fluorescence-Based Assay System for Appetite-Regulating Gene and Drug Screening  

PubMed Central

The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish). This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1), and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant) revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.

Shimada, Yasuhito; Hirano, Minoru; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

2012-01-01

31

A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.  

PubMed

The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish). This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1), and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant) revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers. PMID:23300705

Shimada, Yasuhito; Hirano, Minoru; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

2012-01-01

32

Screening Compounds with a Novel High-Throughput ABCB1-Mediated Efflux Assay Identifies Drugs with Known Therapeutic Targets at Risk for Multidrug Resistance Interference  

PubMed Central

ABCB1, also known as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), is a membrane-associated multidrug transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. It is one of the most widely studied transporters that enable cancer cells to develop drug resistance. Reliable high-throughput assays that can identify compounds that interact with ABCB1 are crucial for developing new therapeutic drugs. A high-throughput assay for measuring ABCB1-mediated calcein AM efflux was developed using a fluorescent and phase-contrast live cell imaging system. This assay demonstrated the time- and dose-dependent accumulation of fluorescent calcein in ABCB1-overexpressing KB-V1 cells. Validation of the assay was performed with known ABCB1 inhibitors, XR9576, verapamil, and cyclosporin A, all of which displayed dose-dependent inhibition of ABCB1-mediated calcein AM efflux in this assay. Phase-contrast and fluorescent images taken by the imaging system provided additional opportunities for evaluating compounds that are cytotoxic or produce false positive signals. Compounds with known therapeutic targets and a kinase inhibitor library were screened. The assay identified multiple agents as inhibitors of ABCB1-mediated efflux and is highly reproducible. Among compounds identified as ABCB1 inhibitors, BEZ235, BI 2536, IKK 16, and ispinesib were further evaluated. The four compounds inhibited calcein AM efflux in a dose-dependent manner and were also active in the flow cytometry-based calcein AM efflux assay. BEZ235, BI 2536, and IKK 16 also successfully inhibited the labeling of ABCB1 with radiolabeled photoaffinity substrate [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin. Inhibition of ABCB1 with XR9576 and cyclosporin A enhanced the cytotoxicity of BI 2536 to ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells, HCT-15-Pgp, and decreased the IC50 value of BI 2536 by several orders of magnitude. This efficient, reliable, and simple high-throughput assay has identified ABCB1 substrates/inhibitors that may influence drug potency or drug-drug interactions and predict multidrug resistance in clinical treatment.

Ansbro, Megan R.; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Li, Luowei

2013-01-01

33

Bioluminescent assays for high-throughput screening.  

PubMed

In the development of high throughput screening (HTS) as a central paradigm of drug discovery, fluorescence has generally been adopted as the favored methodology. Nevertheless, luminescence has maintained a prominent position among certain assay formats, most notably genetic reporters. Recently, there has been growing partiality for luminescent assays across a wider range of applications due to their sensitivity, broad linearity, and robustness to library compounds and complex biological samples. This trend has been fostered by the development of several new assay designs for diverse targets such as kinases, cytochrome p450s, proteases, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. This review addresses recent progress made in the use of bioluminescent assays for HTS, highlighting new detection capabilities brought about by engineering luciferase genes, enzymes, and substrates. In genetic reporter applications, modifications to the luciferase genes have improved assay sensitivity by substantially increasing expression efficiency and enhanced response dynamics by reducing expression lifetime. The performance of assays based on detection of ATP and luciferin has been enhanced by modifications to the luciferase enzyme that increase its chemical and physical stability. Detection of ATP allows rapid analysis of cell metabolism and enzymatic processes coupled to ATP metabolism. Because luciferins are not naturally associated with mammalian physiology, assays for luciferin detection utilize synthetic derivatives designed to yield luminescence only when coupled with specific target enzymes. Finally, new methods for modulating the specific activity of luciferases are leading to the development of intracellular biosensors for dynamic detection of physiological processes. PMID:17355205

Fan, Frank; Wood, Keith V

2007-02-01

34

LC-MS vs. GC-MS, online extraction systems, advantages of technology for drug screening assays.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews recent applications of mass spectrometry to systematic toxicological analysis (STA), where extended lists of compounds of toxicological interest are screened, as well as to the general unknown screening (GUS), where all exogenous compounds present in a sample are tentatively detected and identified, without any preselection. Many recent improvements in sample preparation, chromatographic separation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and above all liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques are described, which are applicable or have been applied to STA and/or GUS, generally with promising results. These improvements come from miniaturization and automation of solid-phase extraction, turbulent-flow or ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography, linear ion traps, accurate (e.g., time of flight or orbital trap) mass spectrometry, as well as software refinements to alternate between different ionization modes or automatically interpret the results. It also shows that robust LC-MS/MS techniques already exist for STA or GUS, which are at least as efficient as the traditional techniques used in most toxicology laboratories, such as GC-MS or high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection, as shown by three comparative studies. However, the major drawback of LC-MS/MS in the full-scan mode for STA or GUS is that it still lacks universal reference libraries due to insufficient reproducibility of LC-MS(/MS) mass spectra obtained with different instrument types. PMID:22767104

Marquet, Pierre

2012-01-01

35

Screening of Antifungal Azole Drugs and Agrochemicals with an Adapted alamarBlue-Based Assay Demonstrates Antibacterial Activity of Croconazole against Mycobacterium ulcerans  

PubMed Central

An alamarBlue-based growth inhibition assay has been adapted for the thermosensitive and slow-growing pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. The standardized test procedure enables medium-throughput screening of preselected compound libraries. Testing of a set of 48 azoles with known antifungal activity led to the identification of an imidazole antifungal displaying an inhibitory dose (ID) of 9 ?M for M. ulcerans.

Roltgen, Katharina; Witschel, Matthias; Pluschke, Gerd

2012-01-01

36

Screening assays using intramitochondrial calcium  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides methods for screening for agents that modulate mitochondrial function and in particular mitochondrial regulation of intracellular calcium. The methods may be used to detect agents that bind to a mitochondrial calcium uniporter and may also detect inhibitors or uncouplers of mitochondrial respiration. Agents identified using the screens provided herein have application in the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases associated with abnormal mitochondrial function.

2004-10-26

37

Design and Implementation of High Throughput Screening Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

High throughput screening (HTS) is at the core of the drug discovery process, and so it is critical to design and implement\\u000a HTS assays in a comprehensive fashion involving scientists from the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, and informatics.\\u000a This requires careful analysis of many variables, starting with the choice of assay target and ending with the discovery of\\u000a lead

Ricardo Macarrón; Robert P. Hertzberg

2011-01-01

38

Non-Invasive Screening Techniques for Drugs of Abuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of current drug of abuse screening methods available in Canada in 1982 is presented. These methods include classical thin-layer chromatography (TLC), the commercially available Toxi-Lab assay technique (EMIT), and radioimmunoassay (RIA - Aburscre...

L. J. McBurney

1982-01-01

39

Image-Based Screening of Signal Transduction Assays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imaging techniques have played a vital role in signal transduction research over several decades. Recently, industrialized macro- and micro-imaging systems have found application in drug discovery laboratories, where they increase the throughput and efficiency of drug screening. Macro-imagers are used for primary screening, where they favor compound conservation (through assay miniaturization), and achieve unprecedented rates of throughput. Micro-imaging systems achieve relatively high throughput, at the same time providing sub-cellular resolution with fixed or living cells. These micro-imaging analyses were previously conducted at very low throughput and, typically, were the sole domain of the academic researcher. Although both macro and micro forms of image-based screening remain technologies in development, they have already made substantial contributions to screening programs and will continue to do so.

Peter Ramm (Brock University;Imaging Research REV); Nick Thomas (Whitchurch;Amersham Biosciences, The Maynard Centre, Forest Farm REV)

2003-04-08

40

Screening and Evaluation of Experimental Antiparasitic Drugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigations undertaken during this report period included two primary and one secondary drug screening program in malaria, along with a primary and secondary drug screening program in African trypanosomiasis. The malarial system used Plasmodium ber...

A. L. Ager

1979-01-01

41

Screening assay for blood vessel maturation inhibitors  

PubMed Central

In cancer patients, the development of resistance to anti-angiogenic agents targeting the VEGF pathway is common. Increased pericyte coverage of the tumor vasculature undergoing VEGF targeted therapy has been suggested to play an important role in resistance. Therefore, reducing the pericytes coverage of the tumor vasculature has been suggested to be a therapeutic approach in breaking the resistance to and increasing the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies. To screen compound libraries, a simple in vitro assay of blood vessel maturation demonstrating endothelial cells and pericytes association while forming lumenized vascular structures is needed. Unfortunately, previously described 3-dimensional, matrix based assays are laborious and challenging from an image and data acquisition perspective. For these reasons they generally lack the scalability needed to perform in a high-throughput environment. With this work, we have developed a novel in vitro blood vessel maturation assay, in which lumenized, vascular structures form in one optical plane and mesenchymal progenitor cells (10T1/2) differentiate into pericyte-like cells, which associate with the endothelial vessels (HUVECs). The differentiation of the 10T1/2 cells into pericyte-like cells is visualized using a GFP reporter controlled by the alpha smooth muscle actin promoter (SMP-8). The organization of these vascular structures and their recruited mural cells in one optical plane allows for automated data capture and subsequent image analysis. The ability of this assay to screen for inhibitors of pericytes recruitment was validated. In summary, this novel assay of in vitro blood vessel maturation provides a valuable tool to screen for new agents with therapeutic potential.

Fu, Chenglai; van der Zwan, Anita; Gerber, Stephanie; Van Den Berg, Susan; No, Elisa; Wang, Wayne C.H.; Sheibani, Nader; Carducci, Michael A.; Kachhap, Sushant; Hammers, Hans J.

2014-01-01

42

In vitro screening for drug-induced depression and/or suicidal adverse effects: a new toxicogenomic assay based on CE-SSCP analysis of HTR2C mRNA editing in SH-SY5Y cells.  

PubMed

Many drugs in clinical trials, or already on the market, can have psychiatric side effects, independently of their therapeutic indication (e.g., Acomplia, Taranabant, and Roaccutane). There is currently no in vitro or in vivo approved test for the detection/prediction of such adverse effects, and the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) can only issue general alerts on specific therapeutic classes. The development of a screening assay is therefore of real interest. The anti-viral and anti-tumor action of human interferon-alpha (hIFN?) is associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric side effects, including major depression, suicidal ideation and suicide. RNA editing of the serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C) by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) is a post-transcriptional modification, the regulation of which is altered in depressed suicide victims. In this study, we show that in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line, hIFN? specifically activates the ADAR1a isoform and thereby modifies the HTR2C mRNA editing profile. As this hIFN?-induced altered profile partly overlaps with that observed in the brain of depressed suicide victims, we investigated whether it could be used as a signature to identify drugs with depression and/or suicidal side effects. By means of the Biocortech proprietary screening assay, which allows the relative quantification of all the edited HTR2C isoforms in a sample, we blind-tested the effect of 50 marketed molecules on HTR2C mRNA editing in SH-SY5Y cells and identified 17 compounds with an IFN-like editing profile. This new toxicogenomic assay can identify compounds with potential psychiatric adverse events with a positive predictive value of 90 %. PMID:22528247

Cavarec, Laurent; Vincent, Laurent; Le Borgne, Claudia; Plusquellec, Camille; Ollivier, Nathalie; Normandie-Levi, Priscilla; Allemand, Frédéric; Salvetat, Nicolas; Mathieu-Dupas, Eve; Molina, Franck; Weissmann, Dinah; Pujol, Jean-François

2013-01-01

43

Zebrafish assays as early safety pharmacology screens: Paradigm shift or red herring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent flurry of interest in the potential use of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Drug Discovery has also led to the development of a range of assays purported to be useful as early screens in safety pharmacology. The purpose of this commentary is to take stock of the available zebrafish assays in the context of alternative mammalian cell-based assays,

William S. Redfern; Gareth Waldron; Matthew J. Winter; Paul Butler; Mark Holbrook; Rob Wallis; Jean-Pierre Valentin

2008-01-01

44

Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against glutathione-S-transferase of filarial nematodes.  

PubMed

Glutathione-S-transferase(s) (GST) enzyme from Brugia malayi has been exploited as a target in lymphatic filariasis therapeutics. An active GST is a homodimer of a 208 residue long monomer consisting of two domains, a smaller ?/? domain and a larger ? domain. The components of the glutathione (GSH) system, mainly GST enzymes, are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for the long-term existence of filarial worms in mammalian host; hence they are major chemotherapeutic targets in filarial species. In the present study, 58 phytochemicals from 10 plants, predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity and ADMET satisfaction, have been docked to GST enzyme of B. malayi to assess their binding affinity and consequently their inhibitory activity. A comparative study has been made with commonly employed chemotherapeutic GST inhibitors such as cibacron-blue, butylated hydroxyanisole, hexyl glutathione and ethacrynic acid. In vitro effects of potential drug like compound from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies. In vitro assay revealed efficacy in GST inhibition in the following compounds: linalool (97.50%), alpha-pinene (90.00%), strychnine (87.49%), vanillin (84.99%), piperine (79.99%), isoeugenol (62.49%), curcumin (57.49%), beta-caryophyllene (39.50%), cinnamic acid (27.49%), capsaicin (19.99%), citronellol (19.99%) and geraniol (17.49%). An online database ( www.spicebioinfo.res.in/gstleadbase ) has been developed, which will serve as a useful repository of information on GST inhibitors for future development of drugs against filarial nematodes. These findings thus suggest that the above phytochemicals could be potentially developed as lead molecules for targeting GST of lymphatic filarial parasites. PMID:21523552

Azeez, Shamina; Babu, Rosana O; Aykkal, Riju; Narayanan, Reena

2012-01-01

45

Screening of fullerene toxicity by hemolysis assay.  

PubMed

Fullerene is a compound formed during carbon burst that has been produced synthetically starting from the 1990s. The spherical shape and the characteristic carbon bonds of this allotrope (C(60)) have made it a suitable molecule for many applications. During the last decade, the low aqueous solubility of this molecule has been improved by chemical functionalization allowing the use of fullerene derivatives in biological fluids. The characterization of the toxicity potential of fullerenes is therefore of growing interest for any biomedical application. Intravenous injection is one of the possible routes of their administrations and therefore red blood cells are among the first targets of fullerene cytotoxicity. Human red blood cells are easily available and separated from plasma. Membrane disruption by toxic compounds is easily detected in red blood cells as release of hemoglobin in the cell medium, which can be assayed spectrophotometrically at ? = 415 nm. Due to the high molar extinction coefficient of hemoglobin, the assay can be performed on a small amount of both red blood cells and the test compounds, which might be available only in small quantities. So, the hemolysis assay is a simple screening test, whose results can guide further investigations on cytotoxicity in more complex experimental models. PMID:22975967

Tramer, Federica; Da Ros, Tatiana; Passamonti, Sabina

2012-01-01

46

High-throughput screening assays for cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase, the targets for inflammatory disorders.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) involves testing of compound libraries against validated drug targets using quantitative bioassays to identify 'hit' molecules that modulate the activity of target, which forms the starting point of a drug discovery effort. Eicosanoids formed via cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways are major players in various inflammatory disorders. As the conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that inhibit both the constitutive (COX-1) and the inducible (COX-2) isoforms have gastric and renal side effects and the recently developed COX-2 selective anti-inflammatory drugs (COXIBs) have cardiac side effects, efforts are being made to develop more potent and safer antiinflammatory drugs. Current assay methods for these enzymes, such as oxygraphic, radioisotopic, spectrophotometric etc. are not compatible for screening of large number of compounds as in drug discovery programs. In the present study, HTS-compatible assays for COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LOX were developed for screening of compound libraries with the view to identify potential anti-inflammatory drug candidates. A spectrophotometric assay involving co-oxidation of tetramethyl-p-phenylene diamine (TMPD) during the reduction of prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) to PGH2 was adopted and standardized for screening of compounds against COX-1 and COX-2. Similarly, the HTS-compatible FOX (ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange) based spectrophotometric assay involving the formation of Fe3+/xylenol orange complex showing absorption in the visible range was developed for screening of compounds against 5-LOX. PMID:22053694

Kumar, K Anil; Reddy, T Chandramohan; Reddy, Gorla V; Reddy, D Bharat Kumar; Mahipal, S V K; Sinha, Sudhir; Gaikwad, Anil N; Reddanna, P

2011-08-01

47

Selection of Drugs to Test the Specificity of the Tg.AC Assay by Screening for Induction of the gadd153 Promoter in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term assays for carcinogenicity testing of chemicals that use transgenic mice designed to have altered expression of genes mechanistically relevant to carcinogenesis are attractive alterna- tives to two-year dosing studies in rodents. The models that have been the received the greatest level of performance evaluation include p53(\\/-), rasH2, Xpa\\/p53(\\/-), and Tg.AC mice. For use of these models in a regulatory

Karol L. Thompson; Frank D. Sistare

2003-01-01

48

Comparison of alamar blue and MTT assays for high through-put screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of alamar blue and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assays in a high through-put format were compared. A total of 117 drugs chosen for their wide range of therapeutic areas were screened at 10 ?M using both assays in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Except for terfenadine and astemizole, which performed consistently in both assays, the alamar

R Hamid; Y Rotshteyn; L Rabadi; R Parikh; P Bullock

2004-01-01

49

A Flow Cytometry-Based Quantitative Drug Sensitivity Assay for All Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Stages  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria elimination/eradication campaigns emphasize interruption of parasite transmission as a priority strategy. Screening for new drugs and vaccines against gametocytes is therefore urgently needed. However, current methods for sexual stage drug assays, usually performed by counting or via fluorescent markers are either laborious or restricted to a certain stage. Here we describe the use of a transgenic parasite line for assaying drug sensitivity in all gametocyte stages. Methods A transgenic parasite line expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) under the control of the gametocyte-specific gene ?-tubulin II promoter was generated. This parasite line expresses GFP in all gametocyte stages. Using this transgenic line, we developed a flow cytometry-based assay to determine drug sensitivity of all gametocyte stages, and tested the gametocytocidal activities of four antimalarial drugs. Findings This assay proved to be suitable for determining drug sensitivity of all sexual stages and can be automated. A Z’ factor of 0.79±0.02 indicated that this assay could be further optimized for high-throughput screening. The daily sensitivity of gametocytes to three antimalarial drugs (chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin and pyronaridine) showed a drastic decrease from stage III on, whereas it remained relatively steady for primaquine. Conclusions A drug assay was developed to use a single transgenic parasite line for determining drug susceptibility of all gametocyte stages. This assay may be further automated into a high-throughput platform for screening compound libraries against P. falciparum gametocytes.

Wang, Zenglei; Liu, Min; Liang, Xiaoying; Siriwat, Salil; Li, Xiaolian; Chen, Xiaoguang; Parker, Daniel M.; Miao, Jun; Cui, Liwang

2014-01-01

50

The photo comet assay--a fast screening assay for the determination of photogenotoxicity in vitro.  

PubMed

Different classes of chemicals can induce a phototoxic effect by absorbing light energy within the wavelength range of sunlight. The assessment of photo-safety is therefore an obligatory part of the development of new drugs. Ten UV-vis (280-800nm)-absorbing compounds (ketoprofen, promazine, chlorpromazine, dacarbazine, acridine, lomefloxacin, 8-methoxypsoralen, chlorhexidine, titanium dioxide, octylmethoxycinnamate) were tested for their photogenotoxic potential in the alkaline comet assay in the presence and absence of UV-vis. In order to establish an easy and timesaving protocol for a photo comet assay screening test, the application of 96-well plates was essential. The use of mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells, a cell line growing in suspension, allowed the determination of photocytotoxicity with the Alamar Blue assay and of photogenotoxicity with the alkaline comet assay in parallel. L5178Y cells were incubated with the test compounds for 20min and irradiated with simulated sunlight in the wavelength range from 280 to 800nm. The applied UV dose was 600mJ/cm(2) UV-A and 30mJ/cm(2) UV-B. After a post-incubation of 10min, the Alamar Blue assay and the alkaline comet assay were performed. All of the compounds which are known to be photogenotoxic (8-methoxypsoralen, acridine, chlorpromazine, dacarbazine, ketoprofen, lomefloxacin) showed a positive effect under our assay conditions. Furthermore, four UV-vis absorbing chemicals which are known to be not photogenotoxic (promazine, chlorhexidine, titanium dioxide, octylmethoxycinnamate) were analysed. For none of them an increase of the DNA damage following irradiation was observed in this study. In conclusion, all of the chemical compounds tested were classified in agreement with published data. From the data presented it is concluded that the photo comet assay with L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells is a reliable model to assess photochemical genotoxicity in vitro. PMID:17572134

Struwe, Melanie; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Suter, Willi; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla

2007-08-15

51

Screening of anti-cancer agent using zebrafish: comparison with the MTT assay.  

PubMed

The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay is a classical method for screening cytotoxic anti-cancer agents. Candidate drugs from the MTT assay need in vivo models to test their efficiency and to assess the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of the drugs. An in vivo screening model could increase the rate of development of anti-cancer drugs. Here, we used zebrafish to screen a library of 502 natural compounds and compared the results with those from an MTT assay of the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We identified 59 toxic compounds in the zebrafish screen, 21 of which were also identified by the MTT assay, and 28 of which were already known for their anti-cancer and apoptosis-inducing effects. These compounds induced apoptosis and activated the p53 pathway in zebrafish within 3h treatment. Our results indicate that zebrafish is a simple, reliable and highly efficient in vivo tool for cancer drug screening, and could complement the MTT assay. PMID:22560901

Li, Yigen; Huang, Wenjin; Huang, Shenyuan; Du, Jiulin; Huang, Cheng

2012-05-25

52

Microfluidic assay without blocking for rapid HIV screening and confirmation.  

PubMed

The essential step for HIV spreading limitation is the screening tests. However, there are multiple disadvantages in current screening assays which need further confirmation test. Herein we developed a rapid HIV assay combining screening and confirmation test by using the microfluidic network assay. Meanwhile, the assay is accelerated by bypassing the step of blocking. We call this method as microfluidic assay without blocking (MAWB). Both the limit of detection and reagent incubation time of MAWB are determined by screening of one model protein pair: ovalbumin and its antibody. The assay time is accelerated about 25% while the limit of detection (LOD) is well kept. Formatting the method in for both HIV screening (testing 8 HIV-related samples) and confirmation (assaying 6 kinds of HIV antibodies of each sample) within 30 min was successful. Fast HIV screening and confirmation of 20 plasma samples were also demonstrated by this method. MAWB improved the assay speed while keeping the LOD of conventional ELISA. Meanwhile, both the accuracy and throughput of MAWB were well improved, which made it an excellent candidate for a quick HIV test for both screening and confirmation. Methods like this one will find wide applications in clinical diagnosis and biochemical analysis based on the interactions between pairs of molecules. PMID:22374476

Song, Lusheng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wenjun; Ma, Liying; Liu, Yong; Hao, Yanlin; Shao, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

2012-08-01

53

Microfluidic cell culture systems with integrated sensors for drug screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell-based testing is a key step in drug screening for cancer treatments. A microfluidic platform can permit more precise control of the cell culture microenvironment, such as gradients in soluble factors. These small-scale devices also permit tracking of low cell numbers. As a new screening paradigm, a microscale system for integrated cell culture and drug screening promises to provide a simple, scalable tool to apply standardized protocols used in cellular response assays. With the ability to dynamically control the microenvironment, we can create temporally varying drug profiles to mimic physiologically measured profiles. In addition, low levels of oxygen in cancerous tumors have been linked with drug resistance and decreased likelihood of successful treatment and patient survival. Our work also integrates a thin-film oxygen sensor with a microfluidic oxygen gradient generator which will in future allow us to create spatial oxygen gradients and study effects of hypoxia on cell response to drug treatment. In future, this technology promises to improve cell-based validation in the drug discovery process, decreasing the cost and increasing the speed in screening large numbers of compounds.

Grist, Samantha; Yu, Linfen; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

2012-02-01

54

The use of cold plasma technology to reduce carryover in screening assays.  

PubMed

The accurate transfer of biological reagents represents a fundamental step in the drug screening process, and the elimination of carryover is critical for the generation of accurate measurements of biological activity. The introduction of automated liquid robotics into screening laboratories has transformed the drug screening process, enabling accurate and reproducible transfer of liquids to become a high-throughput activity, but has also introduced a new challenge for drug discoverers: to establish screening workflows that limit analyte carryover for the generation of high-quality screening data. The widespread use of pipetting tips on automated liquid handlers often necessitates the use of optimized wash protocols for removing contaminants and frequently requires the use and disposal of large quantities of organic solvents. Furthermore, many chemical and biological reagents are recalcitrant to removal from pipetting tips by treatment with organic solvents. The use of cold atmospheric plasma technology provides an alternative approach for removal of contaminants and offers many advantages over traditional decontamination protocols commonly used during biological screening. This report describes the evaluation of a cold plasma tip-cleaning system for reducing carryover in a range of biological screening assays requiring the transfer of low molecular weight compound, nucleic acid, and bacterial liquid transfers. The validation of this technology for biological screening assays is presented, and the impact of this technology for screening workflows is discussed. PMID:22983566

Akhlaq, Mohammed; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Sattikar, Afrah; Kent, Toby C

2013-08-01

55

In vivo zebrafish assays for analyzing drug toxicity.  

PubMed

Introduction: Off-target effects represent one of the major concerns in the development of new pharmaceuticals, requiring large-scale animal toxicity testing. Faster, cheaper and more reliable assays based on zebrafish embryos (ZE) are being developed as major tools for assessing toxicity of chemicals during the drug-discovery process. Areas covered: This paper reviews techniques aimed to the analysis of in vivo sublethal toxic effects of drugs on major physiological functions, including the cardiovascular, nervous, neuromuscular, gastrointestinal and thyroid systems among others. Particular emphasis is placed on high-throughput screening techniques (HTS), including robotics, imaging technologies and image-analysis software. Expert opinion: The analysis of off-target effects of candidate drugs requires systemic analyses, as they often involve the complete organism rather than specific, tissue- or cell-specific targets. The unique physical and physiological characteristics of ZE make this system an essential tool for drug discovery and toxicity assessment. Different HTS methodologies applicable to ZE allow the screening of large numbers of different chemicals for many diverse and relevant toxic endpoints. PMID:24617455

Raldúa, Demetrio; Piña, Benjamin

2014-05-01

56

Screening cellular feature measurements for image-based assay development.  

PubMed

The typical "design" approach to image-based assay development involves choosing measurements that are likely to correlate with the phenotype of interest, based on the researcher's intuition and knowledge of image analysis. An alternate "screening" approach is to measure a large number of cellular features and systematically test each feature to identify those that are best able to distinguish positive and negative controls while taking precautions to avoid overfitting the available data. The cell measurement software the authors previously developed, CellProfiler, makes both approaches straightforward, easing the process of assay development. Here, they demonstrate the use of the screening approach to image assay development to select the best measures for scoring publicly available image sets of 2 cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation assays and 2 Transfluor assays. The authors present the resulting assay quality measures as a baseline for future algorithm comparisons, and all software, methods, and images they present are freely available. PMID:20516293

Logan, David J; Carpenter, Anne E

2010-08-01

57

[Application of zebrafish models in drug screening].  

PubMed

Due to its small size, fast external development, transparent embryos, and amenability to genetic analysis, zebrafish has become an ideal vertebrate animal model. In addition to studies in genetics and developmental biology, zebrafish has also been widely used in human disease modeling and drug screening. As a small whole-organism model, zebrafish can be used to comprehensively test and evaluate the activity and side effect of a compound at the same time, fulfilling high content screening. Recently, new zebrafish disease models and screening technologies have been developed. A number of active compounds were identified and most of them have similar functions in mammal models. One compound prostaglandin E2 has been subjected to clinical trial to test if it can promote the growth of umbilical cord blood units after transplantation. Another compound leflunomide has also been approved in clinical trial to cure melanoma in combination with vemurafenib. These findings demonstrate that zebrafish model is appropriate for drug screening. This review summarizes the unique features of zebrafish model and the recent progresses of zebrafish based drug screening. PMID:23017455

Xin, Sheng-Chang; Zhao, Yan-Qiu; Li, Song; Lin, Shuo; Zhong, Han-Bing

2012-09-01

58

Screening of antipsychotic drugs in animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral models of antipsychotic drug (APD) action in the rat are widely used for the screening and developing APDs. Valid models are not only required to be selective and specific for APDs, but also to be able to dissociate between typical and atypical APDs. In recent years, newer models have been developed that are claimed to model processes impaired in

Ina Weiner; Inna Gaisler; Daniela Schiller; Amit Green; Lee Zuckerman; Daphna Joel

2000-01-01

59

A High-Throughput, Multiplex Cell Death Assay Using an RNAi Screening Approach.  

PubMed

This protocol outlines a high-throughput, multiplex cell death assay and its use in conjunction with a genome-scale siRNA screen to identify genes that cooperate with a drug to induce apoptosis. The assay, ApoLive-Glo (Promega), measures viability of drug-treated, reverse-transfected cells via the fluorescent CellTiter-Fluor reagent, which includes a substrate that is cleaved by a live cell protease. ApoLive-Glo also quantitates cell death by the amount of cleaved caspases 3 and 7 using a luminescent Caspase-Glo 3/7 caspase activation assay. The advantage of the multiplex assay is that it distinguishes rapid cell death from the slower activation of caspase activity, permitting measurement of different stages of cell death in the same sample at a single time point. In parallel, a high-content imaging protocol involving 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained nuclei is used as a cost-effective way to quantitate viability of vehicle-treated control cells. Automation and robotic liquid handling are built into the protocol to increase speed of workflow and improve reproducibility. A screen using these assays will identify gene targets that are essential for viability irrespective of drug treatment and gene targets that cause a synergistic enhancement of cell death in the presence of drug. Candidate target activity can then be validated by conventional flow cytometry-based assays. PMID:24890208

Falkenberg, Katrina J; Saunders, Darren N; Simpson, Kaylene J

2014-01-01

60

Detecting drug promiscuity using Gaussian ensemble screening.  

PubMed

Polypharmacology describes the binding of a ligand to multiple protein targets (a promiscuous ligand) or multiple diverse ligands binding to a given target (a promiscuous target). Pharmaceutical companies are discovering increasing numbers of both promiscuous drugs and drug targets. Hence, polypharmacology is now recognized as an important aspect of drug design. Here, we describe a new and fast way to predict polypharmacological relationships between drug classes quantitatively, which we call Gaussian Ensemble Screening (GES). This approach represents a cluster of molecules with similar spherical harmonic surface shapes as a Gaussian distribution with respect to a selected center molecule. Calculating the Gaussian overlap between pairs of such clusters allows the similarity between drug classes to be calculated analytically without requiring thousands of bootstrap comparisons, as in current promiscuity prediction approaches. We find that such cluster similarity scores also follow a Gaussian distribution. Hence, a cluster similarity score may be transformed into a probability value, or "p-value", in order to quantify the relationships between drug classes. We present results obtained when using the GES approach to predict relationships between drug classes in a subset of the MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR) database. Our results indicate that GES is a useful way to study polypharmacology relationships, and it could provide a novel way to propose new targets for drug repositioning. PMID:22747187

Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I; Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Mavridis, Lazaros; Ritchie, David W

2012-08-27

61

Streamlining the Drug Discovery Process by Integrating Miniaturization, High Throughput Screening, High Content Screening, and Automation on the CellChip™ System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major bottleneck to the early stages of drug discovery is the absence of integration of high throughput screening (HTS) with smarter assays that screen “hits” from HTS to identify leads (High content screening, HCS). We propose a solution using novel fluorescent engineered protein biosensors integrated into a miniaturized live-cell-based screening platform (CellChip™ System) that markedly shortens the early drug

Ravi Kapur; Kenneth A. Giuliano; Martha Campana; Terri Adams; Keith Olson; David Jung; Milan Mrksich; Chandrasekaran Vasudevan; D. Lansing Taylor

1999-01-01

62

Adaptation of aequorin functional assay to high throughput screening.  

PubMed

AequoScreen, a cellular aequorin-based functional assay, has been optimized for luminescent high-throughput screening (HTS) of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs). AequoScreen is a homogeneous assay in which the cells are loaded with the apoaequorin cofactor coelenterazine, diluted in assay buffer, and injected into plates containing the samples to be tested. A flash of light is emitted following the calcium increase resulting from the activation of the GPCR by the sample. Here we have validated a new plate reader, the Hamamatsu Photonics FDSS6000, for HTS in 96- and 384-well plates with CHO-K1 cells stably coexpressing mitochondrial apoaequorin and different GPCRs (AequoScreen cell lines). The acquisition time, plate type, and cell number per well have been optimized to obtain concentration-response curves with 4000 cells/well in 384-well plates and a high signal:background ratio. The FDSS6000 and AequoScreen cell lines allow reading of twenty 96- or 384-well plates in 1 h with Z' values of 0.71 and 0.78, respectively. These results bring new insights to functional assays, and therefore reinforce the interest in aequorin-based assays in a HTS environment. PMID:11897056

Le Poul, Emmanuel; Hisada, Sunao; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori; Dupriez, Vincent J; Burgeon, Emmanuel; Detheux, Michel

2002-02-01

63

Sulfonylureas and Glinides as New PPAR? Agonists:. Virtual Screening and Biological Assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work combines the predictive power of computational drug discovery with experimental validation by means of biological assays. In this way, a new mode of action for type 2 diabetes drugs has been unvealed. Most drugs currently employed in the treatment of type 2 diabetes either target the sulfonylurea receptor stimulating insulin release (sulfonylureas, glinides), or target PPAR? improving insulin resistance (thiazolidinediones). Our work shows that sulfonylureas and glinides bind to PPAR? and exhibit PPAR? agonistic activity. This result was predicted in silico by virtual screening and confirmed in vitro by three biological assays. This dual mode of action of sulfonylureas and glinides may open new perspectives for the molecular pharmacology of antidiabetic drugs, since it provides evidence that drugs can be designed which target both the sulfonylurea receptor and PPAR?. Targeting both receptors could in principle allow to increase pancreatic insulin secretion, as well as to improve insulin resistance.

Scarsi, Marco; Podvinec, Michael; Roth, Adrian; Hug, Hubert; Kersten, Sander; Albrecht, Hugo; Schwede, Torsten; Meyer, Urs A.; Rücker, Christoph

2007-12-01

64

Fluorescent and Lanthanide Labeling for Ligand Screens, Assays, and Imaging  

PubMed Central

The use of fluorescent (or luminescent) and metal contrast agents in high-throughput screens, in vitro assays, and molecular imaging procedures has rapidly expanded in recent years. Here we describe the development and utility of high-affinity ligands for cancer theranostics and other in vitro screening studies. In this context, we also illustrate the syntheses and use of heteromultivalent ligands as targeted imaging agents.

Josan, Jatinder S.; De Silva, Channa R.; Yoo, Byunghee; Lynch, Ronald M.; Pagel, Mark D.; Vagner, Josef; Hruby, Victor J.

2012-01-01

65

Screening Hybridoma Culture Supernatants Using SolidPhase Radiobinding Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A large number of hybridoma culture supernatants (up to 200) need to be screened for antibodies at one time. The assay must\\u000a be reliable so that it can accurately identify positive lines, and it must be relatively quick so that the positive lines,\\u000a which are 75–100% confluent, can be fed and expanded as soon as possible after the assay results

Mark Page; Robin Thorpe

66

Screening Hybridoma Culture Supernatants Using SolidPhase Radiobinding Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A large number of hybridoma culture supernatants (up to 200) need to be screened for antibodies at one time. The assay must\\u000a be reliable so that it can accurately identify positive lines, and it must be relatively quick so that the positive lines,\\u000a which are 75-100% confluent, can be fed and expanded as soon as possible after the assay results

Mark Page; Robin Thorpe

67

A colorimetric assay optimization for high-throughput screening of dihydroorotase by detecting ureido groups.  

PubMed

Dihydroorotase (DHOase) is the third enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway and is a potential new antibacterial drug target. No target-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for this enzyme has been reported to date. Here, we optimized two colorimetric-based enzymatic assays that detect the ureido moiety of the DHOase substrate, carbamyl-aspartate (Ca-asp). Each assay was developed in a 40-?l assay volume using 384-well plates with a different color mix, diacetylmonoxime (DAMO)-thiosemicarbazide (TSC) or DAMO-antipyrine. The sensitivity and color interference of both color mixes were compared in the presence of common HTS buffer additives, including dimethyl sulfoxide, reducing agents, detergents, and bovine serum albumin. DAMO-TSC (Z'-factors 0.7-0.8) was determined to be superior to DAMO-antipyrine (Z'-factors 0.5-0.6) with significantly less variability within replicates. An HTS pilot screening with 29,552 compounds from four structurally diverse libraries confirmed the quality of our newly optimized colorimetric assay with DAMO-TSC. This robust method has no heating requirement, which was the main obstacle to applying previous assays to HTS. More important, this well-optimized HTS assay for DHOase, the first of its kind, should make it possible to screen large-scale compound libraries to develop new inhibitors against any enzymes that produce ureido functional groups. PMID:23769705

Rice, Amy J; Truong, Lena; Johnson, Michael E; Lee, Hyun

2013-10-01

68

Zebrafish embryos and larvae: a new generation of disease models and drug screens.  

PubMed

Technological innovation has helped the zebrafish embryo gain ground as a disease model and an assay system for drug screening. Here, we review the use of zebrafish embryos and early larvae in applied biomedical research, using selected cases. We look at the use of zebrafish embryos as disease models, taking fetal alcohol syndrome and tuberculosis as examples. We discuss advances in imaging, in culture techniques (including microfluidics), and in drug delivery (including new techniques for the robotic injection of compounds into the egg). The use of zebrafish embryos in early stages of drug safety-screening is discussed. So too are the new behavioral assays that are being adapted from rodent research for use in zebrafish embryos, and which may become relevant in validating the effects of neuroactive compounds such as anxiolytics and antidepressants. Readouts, such as morphological screening and cardiac function, are examined. There are several drawbacks in the zebrafish model. One is its very rapid development, which means that screening with zebrafish is analogous to "screening on a run-away train." Therefore, we argue that zebrafish embryos need to be precisely staged when used in acute assays, so as to ensure a consistent window of developmental exposure. We believe that zebrafish embryo screens can be used in the pre-regulatory phases of drug development, although more validation studies are needed to overcome industry scepticism. Finally, the zebrafish poses no challenge to the position of rodent models: it is complementary to them, especially in early stages of drug research. PMID:21671352

Ali, Shaukat; Champagne, Danielle L; Spaink, Herman P; Richardson, Michael K

2011-06-01

69

A novel screening assay for hydroxynitrile lyases suitable for high-throughput screening.  

PubMed

Hydroxynitrile lyases (Hnls) are important biocatalysts for the synthesis of optically pure cyanohydrins, which are used as precursors and building blocks for a wide range of high price fine chemicals. Although two Hnl enzymes, from the tropical rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis and from the almond tree Prunus amygdalus, are already used for large scale industrial applications, the enzymes still need to be improved and adapted to the special demands of industrial processes. In many cases directed evolution has been the method of choice to improve enzymes, which are applied as industrial biocatalysts. The screening procedure is the most crucial point in every directed evolution experiment. Herein, we describe the successful development of a novel screening assay for Hnls and its application in high-throughput screening of Escherichia coli mutant libraries. The new assay allows rapid screening of mutant libraries and facilitates the discovery of improved enzyme variants. Hnls catalyze the cleavage of cyanohydrins to hydrocyanic acid and the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. The enzyme assay is based on the detection of hydrocyanic acid produced, making it an all-purpose screening assay, without restriction to any kind of substrate. The gaseous HCN liberated within the Hnl reaction is detected by a visible colorimetric reaction. The facile, highly sensitive and reproducible screening method was validated by identifying new enzyme variants with novel substrate specificities. PMID:17157404

Krammer, B; Rumbold, K; Tschemmernegg, M; Pöchlauer, P; Schwab, H

2007-03-30

70

Screening and Evaluation of Experimental Antiparasitic Drugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigations undertaken during this report period included three antimalarial screens, two african trypanosome screens, and an american trypanosome screen. The three antimalarial screens were; a primary blood schizonticidal test using Plasmodium ber...

A. L. Ager

1983-01-01

71

Novel Screening Assay for the Selective Detection of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Heteromer Signaling  

PubMed Central

Drugs targeting G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up more than 25% of all prescribed medicines. The ability of GPCRs to form heteromers with unique signaling properties suggests an entirely new and unexplored pool of drug targets. However, current in vitro assays are ill equipped to detect heteromer-selective compounds. We have successfully adapted an approach, using fusion proteins of GPCRs and chimeric G proteins, to create an in vitro screening assay (in human embryonic kidney cells) in which only activated heteromers are detectable. Here we show that this assay can demonstrate heteromer-selective G-protein bias as well as measure transinhibition. Using this assay, we reveal that the ?-opioid receptor agonist ADL5859, which is currently in clinical trials, has a 10-fold higher potency against ?-opioid receptor homomers than ?/?-opioid receptor heteromers (pEC50 = 6.7 ± 0.1 versus 5.8 ± 0.2). The assay enables the screening of large compound libraries to identify heteromer-selective compounds that could then be used in vivo to determine the functional role of heteromers and develop potential therapeutic agents.

Harvey, Jessica H.; Brissett, Daniela I.; DeFriel, Julia N.; Whistler, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

72

Zebrafish assays as early safety pharmacology screens: paradigm shift or red herring?  

PubMed

The recent flurry of interest in the potential use of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Drug Discovery has also led to the development of a range of assays purported to be useful as early screens in safety pharmacology. The purpose of this commentary is to take stock of the available zebrafish assays in the context of alternative mammalian cell-based assays, and of the validation outcomes to date. In addition, we report the results of a recent survey of the membership of the Safety Pharmacology Society regarding their views on zebrafish assays. The survey data indicate that the preferred way forward would be a collaborative effort between the pharmaceutical/biotechnology industry (as potential/eventual customers), and the zebrafish contract research companies (as suppliers), alongside expert input from academia and regulatory authorities. PMID:18603451

Redfern, William S; Waldron, Gareth; Winter, Matthew J; Butler, Paul; Holbrook, Mark; Wallis, Rob; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

2008-01-01

73

The NCI60 human tumour cell line anticancer drug screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 human tumour cell line anticancer drug screen (NCI60) was developed in the late 1980s as an in vitro drug-discovery tool intended to supplant the use of transplantable animal tumours in anticancer drug screening. This screening model was rapidly recognized as a rich source of information about the mechanisms of growth inhibition and tumour-cell

Robert H. Shoemaker

2006-01-01

74

Inhibition of Microglia Activation as a Phenotypic Assay in Early Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Complex biological processes such as inflammation, cell death, migration, proliferation, and the release of biologically active molecules can be used as outcomes in phenotypic assays during early stages of drug discovery. Although target-based approaches have been widely used over the past decades, a disproportionate number of first-in-class drugs have been identified using phenotypic screening. This review details phenotypic assays based on inhibition of microglial activation and their utility in primary and secondary screening, target validation, and pathway elucidation. The role of microglia, both in normal as well as in pathological conditions such as chronic neurodegenerative diseases, is reviewed. Methodologies to assess microglia activation in vitro are discussed in detail, and classes of therapeutic drugs known to decrease the proinflammatory and cytotoxic responses of activated microglia are appraised, including inhibitors of glutaminase, cystine/glutamate antiporter, nuclear factor ?B, and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

Figuera-Losada, Mariana; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S.

2014-01-01

75

High throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling in drug discovery.  

PubMed

Current advances of new technologies with robotic automated assays combined with highly selective and sensitive LC-MS enable high-speed screening of lead series libraries in many in vitro assays. In this review, we summarize state of the art high throughput assays for screening of key physicochemical properties such as solubility, lipophilicity, pKa, drug-plasma protein binding and brain tissue binding as well as in vitro ADME profiling. We discuss two primary approaches for high throughput screening of solubility, i.e. an automated 96-well plate assay integrated with LC-MS and a rapid multi-wavelength UV plate reader. We address the advantages of newly developed miniaturized techniques for high throughput pKa screening by capillary electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry (CE-MS) with automated data analysis flow. Several new lipophilicity approaches other than octanol-water partitioning are critically reviewed, including rapid liquid chromatographic retention based approach, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) partitioning and liposome, and potential microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) for accurate screening of LogP. We highlight the sample pooling (namely cassette dosing, all-in-one, cocktail) as an efficient approach for high throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling with emphasis on the benefit of on-line quality control. This cassette dosing approach has been widely adapted in drug discovery for rapid screening of in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters with significantly increased capacity and dramatically reduced animal usage. PMID:19275537

Wan, Hong; Holmén, Anders G

2009-03-01

76

Signify ER Drug Screen Test evaluation: comparison to Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus tricyclic antidepressants.  

PubMed

Signify ER Drug Screen Test (Signify ER) and Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus TCA (Triage DOA Panel) rapid drug screening devices were compared at four laboratories. Both assay systems are point of care immunoassays, measuring phencyclidine, barbiturates, amphetamine, cocaine metabolite, methamphetamine, tricyclic antidepressants, opiates, marijuana metabolite, and benzodiazepines in human urine. The performance of these two assay systems, including a cutoff verification and cross-reactivity using spiked urine specimens and accuracy using clinical urine samples, was investigated. The cutoff verification study showed that the Signify ER had 95.4% precision for all drugs tested at concentrations of 50%, 75%, 125%, 150%, and 200% of cutoffs compared to 90% precision obtained with Triage DOA Panel. Accuracy studies testing 53 negative urine samples demonstrated that both Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have 100% specificity. Testing of 693 positive urine samples demonstrated that Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have sensitivities of 99.8% and 99.3%, respectively, with an accuracy of 99.9% and 99.6%. A total of 527 compounds were tested for the cross-reactivity study. Eighty-seven structurally related drugs and metabolites were found to cross-react with at least one of the nine tests of the Signify ER. Four hundred forty structurally unrelated compounds that can be found in human urine were shown not to cross-react with the Signify ER. In terms of operating characteristics, the Signify ER device is simpler since only a single pipetting step is required, and reaction completed within 8 min. PMID:12559596

Phillips, Jane Ellen; Bogema, Stuart; Fu, Paul; Furmaga, Wieslaw; Wu, Alan H B; Zic, Vlasta; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine

2003-02-01

77

A novel microplate-based assay for screening radioprotectors and its validation based on DNA and membrane system.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation leads to damage at various cellular and sub-cellular levels and can be prevented by radioprotectors. There are many in vitro and in vivo but rather expensive assays for screening of radioprotectors from natural and synthetic sources. We have developed a cell free radioprotector screening assay which involves bleaching of crocin pigment, isolated from saffron by radiolytic products of water. Any molecules/compounds which can inhibit the bleaching of the crocin will act as a radioprotector. The developed assay was further validated by the existing in vitro assays. Different radioprotectors have different level for inhibition of bleaching of crocin. The trends of radioprotection offered by crocin bleaching assay, plasmid relaxation and lipid peroxidation are TMG>FA>VA>Amifos>Trox, TMG>VA>FA>Amifos>Trox, and TMG>FA>Trox>VA>Amifos, respectively. We are getting different trends for different assays. This is because different drugs have different mechanisms of radioprotection in different assay systems. In conclusion, the crocin bleaching assay developed here is a simple, fast and economical screening assay and it will have great value in radioprotection programme for screening many potential compounds for radioprotection. PMID:22989745

Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul A

2012-12-12

78

Multiparametric immunotoxicity screening in mice during early drug development.  

PubMed

Evaluation of potential adverse effects on the immune system should be incorporated into drug development prior to phase III clinical trials. In addition to standard toxicity results, T-dependent antibody response (TDAR) assays are widely used to evidence impaired immune function. The present study was aimed at validating a multiparametric screening approach in mice to investigate exaggerated pharmacologic or unintended immunosuppressive effects in early drug development. Male CD1 mice injected with a single IV dose of 2mg KLH displayed a robust anti-KLH IgM response that peaked on day +5. Anti-KLH IgM response, standard haematology parameters, and thymus/spleen weight and histology were examined in mice treated once daily for 4 days with cyclophosphamide (CY; 5-20mg/kg/day), cyclosporine (CS; 10-90mg/kg/day), dexamethasone (DX; 5-20mg/kg/day), prednisolone (PR; 3-30mg/kg/day) or chlorpromazine (CZ; 10-30mg/kg/day). CY and CS decreased anti-KLH IgM response at all dose levels. CY induced a marked decrease in WBC count and thymus/spleen weight with histological changes in both lymphoid organs. CS mainly decreased thymus weight (highest dose), which was associated with lymphoid depletion, without relevant effects on haematology parameters. Neither DX nor PR nor CZ induced significant changes in anti-KLH IgM response. DX and PR decreased lymphocyte counts and thymus/spleen weight, and induced histological changes in both lymphoid organs. CZ (higher doses) decreased lymphocyte count and thymus weight, and induced consistent histological changes in the thymus. This multiparametric study was able to detect 5 human drugs with variable immunosuppressive potency and thus may prove to be a useful early screening tool for predicting drug immunotoxicity. PMID:22944472

Aulí, M; Domènech, A; Andrés, A; Orta, M; Salvà, M; Descotes, J; Prats, N

2012-10-17

79

Efficient technique for screening drugs for activity against Trypanosoma cruzi using parasites expressing beta-galactosidase.  

PubMed Central

A new drug screening method was devised utilizing Trypanosoma cruzi cells that express the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene. Transfected parasites catalyze a colorimetric reaction with chlorophenol red beta-D-galactopyranoside as substrate. Parasite growth in the presence of drugs in microtiter plates was quantitated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader. The assay was performed with the mammalian form of T. cruzi that requires intracellular growth on a monolayer of fibroblast cells. To determine if selective toxicity to the parasites was occurring, the viability of the host cells in the drug was assayed with AlamarBlue. The drugs benznidazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B were shown to inhibit the parasites at concentrations similar to those previously reported. Several compounds were tested that are inhibitors of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of the related organisms Leishmania mexicana and Trypanosoma brucei. One of these compounds, 2-guanidino-benzimidazole, had an 50% inhibitory concentration of 10 microM in our assay. Two derivatives of this compound were identified with in vitro activity at even lower concentrations. In addition, the assay was modified for testing compounds for lytic activity against the bloodstream form of the parasite under conditions used for storing blood products. Thus, an assay with beta-galactosidase-expressing T. cruzi greatly simplifies screening drugs for selective anti-T. cruzi activity, and three promising new compounds have been identified.

Buckner, F S; Verlinde, C L; La Flamme, A C; Van Voorhis, W C

1996-01-01

80

Feeder layer-free in vitro assay for screening antitrypanosomal compounds against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and T. b. evansi.  

PubMed Central

A drug-susceptible Trypanosoma brucei brucei stock, a multidrug-resistant T. b. brucei stock, and a T. b. evansi stock resistant to two commercial trypanocides were adapted to a feeder layer-free culture system. Bloodstream forms were grown continuously in a liquid medium at 37 degrees C in 4% CO2 in air. Samples of trypanosome populations in the logarithmic growth phase were incubated with various concentrations of commercial and experimental compounds. Growth inhibition was monitored after a 24-h incubation and quantified by comparing the number of generations between control and drug-treated cultures. Some of the experimental compounds [taxol, formicin B, thioridazine, Ro 15-0216, and DL-alpha-(difluoromethyl)ornithine hydrochloride monohydrate] showed activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant trypanosomes. Other compounds [sinefungin, 1,3,5-triacetylbenzene tris(guanylhydrazone)trimethanesulfonate hydrate, and 9-deazainosine] which inhibited the growth of drug-susceptible trypanosomes showed little or no effect upon drug-resistant parasites. Gossypol, however, had no antitrypanosomal effect on either trypanosome stock. The results obtained in this study correlate with observations obtained from drug screening in mice. The main advantages of the described in vitro screening assay are as follows: (i) lower amounts of drugs are required, (ii) results are obtained more rapidly, (iii) animals are not necessary, and (iv) the method is less labor intensive. These advantages result in an economical and rapid assay for primary drug screening.

Kaminsky, R; Zweygarth, E

1989-01-01

81

Feeder layer-free in vitro assay for screening antitrypanosomal compounds against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and T. b. evansi.  

PubMed

A drug-susceptible Trypanosoma brucei brucei stock, a multidrug-resistant T. b. brucei stock, and a T. b. evansi stock resistant to two commercial trypanocides were adapted to a feeder layer-free culture system. Bloodstream forms were grown continuously in a liquid medium at 37 degrees C in 4% CO2 in air. Samples of trypanosome populations in the logarithmic growth phase were incubated with various concentrations of commercial and experimental compounds. Growth inhibition was monitored after a 24-h incubation and quantified by comparing the number of generations between control and drug-treated cultures. Some of the experimental compounds [taxol, formicin B, thioridazine, Ro 15-0216, and DL-alpha-(difluoromethyl)ornithine hydrochloride monohydrate] showed activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant trypanosomes. Other compounds [sinefungin, 1,3,5-triacetylbenzene tris(guanylhydrazone)trimethanesulfonate hydrate, and 9-deazainosine] which inhibited the growth of drug-susceptible trypanosomes showed little or no effect upon drug-resistant parasites. Gossypol, however, had no antitrypanosomal effect on either trypanosome stock. The results obtained in this study correlate with observations obtained from drug screening in mice. The main advantages of the described in vitro screening assay are as follows: (i) lower amounts of drugs are required, (ii) results are obtained more rapidly, (iii) animals are not necessary, and (iv) the method is less labor intensive. These advantages result in an economical and rapid assay for primary drug screening. PMID:2764539

Kaminsky, R; Zweygarth, E

1989-06-01

82

Cross-reactivity of designer drugs, including cathinone derivatives, in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of synthetic heroin, designer drugs have been increasing in prevalence in the United States drug market over the past few decades. Recently, 'legal highs' sold as 'bath salts' have become a household term for one such class of designer drugs. While a number of federal and state bans have been enacted, the abuse of these designer drugs still continues. Few assays have been developed for the comprehensive detection of such compounds, so it is important to investigate how they may or may not react in presumptive screens, i.e. pre-existing commercial immunoassays. In this experiment, 16 different ELISA reagents were evaluated to determine the cross-reactivity of 30 designer drugs, including 24 phenylethylamines (including 8 cathinone derivatives), 3 piperazines, and 3 tryptamines. Cross-reactivity towards most drugs was <4% in assays targeting amphetamine or methamphetamine. Compounds such as MDA, MDMA, ethylamphetamine, and ?-methyltryptamine demonstrated cross-reactivities in the range of 30-250%, but data were consistent with both manufacturer's inserts and published literature. When tested against the Randox Mephedrone/Methcathinone kit, cathinone derivatives demonstrated cross-reactivity at concentrations as low as 150 ng/ml. Since this same reagent did not cross-react with other amphetamine-like compounds, it opens the possibility to screen post-mortem specimens without the interference of putrefactive amines. All other assays demonstrated essentially no cross-reactivity towards any of the analytes evaluated. Given these results, a great need exists for more broad-range screening techniques to be applied when analyzing biological specimens by immunoassays for drugs of abuse, specifically the more recent designer drugs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23677923

Swortwood, Madeleine J; Hearn, W Lee; DeCaprio, Anthony P

2014-07-01

83

Robust Analysis of High Throughput Screening (HTS) Assay Data  

PubMed Central

Quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) assays use cells or tissues to screen thousands of compounds in a short period of time. Data generated from qHTS assays are then evaluated using nonlinear regression models, such as the Hill model, and decisions regarding toxicity are made using the estimates of the parameters of the model. For any given compound, the variability in the observed response may either be constant across dose groups (homoscedasticity) or vary with dose (heteroscedasticity). Since thousands of compounds are simultaneously evaluated in a qHTS assay, it is not practically feasible for an investigator to perform residual analysis to determine the variance structure before performing statistical inferences on each compound. Since it is well-known that the variance structure plays an important role in the analysis of linear and nonlinear regression models it is therefore important to have practically useful and easy to interpret methodology which is robust to the variance structure. Furthermore, given the number of chemicals that are investigated in the qHTS assay, outliers and influential observations are not uncommon. In this article we describe preliminary test estimation (PTE) based methodology which is robust to the variance structure as well as any potential outliers and influential observations. Performance of the proposed methodology is evaluated in terms of false discovery rate (FDR) and power using a simulation study mimicking a real qHTS data. Of the two methods currently in use, our simulations studies suggest that one is extremely conservative with very small power in comparison to the proposed PTE based method whereas the other method is very liberal. In contrast, the proposed PTE based methodology achieves a better control of FDR while maintaining good power. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a data set obtained from the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Additional information, simulation results, data and computer code are available online as supplementary materials.

Lim, Changwon; Sen, Pranab K.; Peddada, Shyamal D.

2013-01-01

84

A simple assay to screen antimicrobial compounds potentiating the activity of current antibiotics.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30%) in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics. PMID:23865073

Iqbal, Junaid; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2013-01-01

85

Development of an in vitro drug sensitivity assay based on newly excysted larvae of Echinostoma caproni  

PubMed Central

Background Echinostomiasis is one of the major food-borne trematodiases and the species Echinostoma caproni serves as a useful model for trematocidal drug discovery. The current in vitro drug sensitivity assay uses adult E. caproni worms that are incubated with candidate drugs and scored microscopically for viability at 72 hrs. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of newly excysted larvae (NEL) of E. caproni for in vitro drug testing, which would be faster, more cost effective and more ethical compared to adult worm assays. Methods Larvae were obtained by collecting metacercariae from snails and triggering their excystation using the trypsin-bile salt excystation method. Studies concerning various parameters of this chemical transformation process as well as appropriate NEL culturing conditions were carried out and findings evaluated. NEL and adult worms were incubated with praziquantel, tribendimidine, albendazole and quinine and evaluated microscopically 72 hrs post-incubation. In addition, the colorimetric markers resazurin, CellTiter-Glo® and Vybrant® were tested as an alternative assay read-out method. Results The chemical excystation method successfully induced E. caproni metacercariae to excyst at a rate of about 20-60%. NEL remained viable in culture medium for 5–7 days. The results of an in vitro drug assay using NEL mirrored the results of an assay using adult worms incubated with the same drugs. None of the markers could reliably produce signals proportional to NEL viability or cytotoxicity without significant complications. Conclusion NEL are adequate for in vitro drug testing. Challenges remain in further improving the excystation yield and the practicability of the assay setup. Resolving these issues could also improve read-outs using colorimetric markers. Using NEL is in alignment with the 3 R rules of the ethical use of laboratory animals and can greatly increase the rate and affordability with which drugs are screened in vitro against this intestinal trematode.

2013-01-01

86

Low-Oxygen-Recovery Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Compounds against Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Screening for new antimicrobial agents is routinely conducted only against actively replicating bacteria. However, it is now widely accepted that a physiological state of nonreplicating persistence (NRP) is responsible for antimicrobial tolerance in many bacterial infections. In tuberculosis, the key to shortening the 6-month regimen lies in targeting this NRP subpopulation. Therefore, a high-throughput, luminescence-based low-oxygen-recovery assay (LORA) was developed to screen antimicrobial agents against NRP Mycobacterium tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis H37Rv containing a plasmid with an acetamidase promoter driving a bacterial luciferase gene was adapted to low oxygen conditions by extended culture in a fermentor with a 0.5 headspace ratio. The MICs of 31 established antimicrobial agents were determined in microplate cultures maintained under anaerobic conditions for 10 days and, for comparative purposes, under aerobic conditions for 7 days. Cultures exposed to drugs under anaerobic conditions followed by 28 h of “recovery” under ambient oxygen produced a luminescent signal that was, for most compounds, proportional to the number of CFU determined prior to the recovery phase. No agents targeting the cell wall were active against NRP M. tuberculosis, whereas drugs hitting other cellular targets had a range of activities. The calculated Z? factor was in the range of 0.58 to 0.84, indicating the suitability of the use of LORA for high-throughput assays. This LORA is sufficiently robust for use for primary high-throughput screening of compounds against NRP M. tuberculosis.

Cho, Sang Hyun; Warit, Saradee; Wan, Baojie; Hwang, Chang Hwa; Pauli, Guido F.; Franzblau, Scott G.

2007-01-01

87

Evaluation of a recombinant yeast cell estrogen screening assay.  

PubMed Central

A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures derived from plant and environmental origins are reported to have hormonal activity. The potential for appreciable exposure of humans to such substances prompts the need to develop sensitive screening methods to quantitate and evaluate the risk to the public. Yeast cells transformed with plasmids encoding the human estrogen receptor and an estrogen responsive promoter linked to a reporter gene were evaluated for screening compounds for estrogenic activity. Relative sensitivity to estrogens was evaluated by reference to 17 beta-estradiol (E2) calibration curves derived using the recombinant yeast cells, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and a prepubertal mouse uterotrophic bioassay. The recombinant yeast cell bioassay (RCBA) was approximately two and five orders of magnitude more sensitive to E2 than MCF-7 cells and the uterotrophic assay, respectively. The estrogenic potency of 53 chemicals, including steroid hormones, synthetic estrogens, environmental pollutants, and phytoestrogens, was measured using the RCBA. Potency values produced with the RCBA relative to E2 (100) included estrone (9.6), diethylstilbestrol (74.3), tamoxifen (0.0047), alpha-zearalanol (1.3), equol (0.085), 4-nonylphenol (0.005), and butylbenzyl phathalate (0.0004), which were similar to literature values but generally higher than those produced by the uterotrophic assay. Exquisite sensitivity, absence of test compound biotransformation, ease of use, and the possibility of measuring antiestrogenic activity are important attributes that argue for the suitability of the RCBA in screening for potential xenoestrogens to evaluate risk to humans, wildlife, and the environment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.

Coldham, N G; Dave, M; Sivapathasundaram, S; McDonnell, D P; Connor, C; Sauer, M J

1997-01-01

88

Safety Screening of Drugs in Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of new drugs requires a thorough investigation of efficacy and safety of pharmaceuticals. The potential risks and benefits of drugs used in chemotherapy are carefully considered such that the benefits of using a new drug outweigh the risks in terms of the side effects caused by the drug. Damage to normal cells, tissues, organs and\\/or the whole organism is

J. Nath; G. Krishna

1998-01-01

89

A novel high throughput screening assay for HCV NS3 serine protease inhibitors.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide health problem, causing chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancer (Hepatocellular carcinoma). HCV encodes a precursor polyprotein that is enzymatically cleaved to release the individual viral proteins. The viral non-structural proteins are cleaved by the HCV NS3 serine protease. NS3 is regarded currently as a potential target for anti-viral drugs thus specific inhibitors of its enzymatic activity should be of importance. A prime requisite for detailed biochemical studies of the protease and its potential inhibitors is the availability of a rapid reliable in vitro assay of enzyme activity. A novel assay for measurement of HCV NS3 serine protease activity was developed for screening of HCV NS3 serine protease potential inhibitors. Recombinant NS3 serine protease was isolated and purified, and a fluorometric assay for NS3 proteolytic activity was developed. As an NS3 substrate we engineered a recombinant fusion protein where a green fluorescent protein is linked to a cellulose-binding domain via the NS5A/B site that is cleavable by NS3. Cleavage of this substrate by NS3 results in emission of fluorescent light that is easily detected and quantitated by fluorometry. Using our system we identified NS3 serine protease inhibitors from extracts obtained from natural Indian Siddha medicinal plants. Our unique fluorometric assay is very sensitive and has a high throughput capacity making it suitable for screening of potential NS3 serine protease inhibitors. PMID:12505640

Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zemel, Romy; Bachmatov, Larisa; Abramovich, Alex; Koren, Ruth; Sathiyamoorthy, Peramachi; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi; Tur-Kaspa, Ran; Benhar, Itai

2003-02-01

90

A phenotypic screening assay for modulators of huntingtin-induced transcriptional dysregulation.  

PubMed

Huntington's Disease is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of CAG repeats encoding polyglutamine in the first exon of the huntingtin gene. N-terminal fragments containing polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences aggregate and can bind to cellular proteins, resulting in several pathophysiological consequences for affected neurons such as changes in gene transcription. One transcriptional pathway that has been implicated in HD pathogenesis is the CREB binding protein (CBP)/cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) pathway. We developed a phenotypic assay to screen for compounds that can reverse the transcriptional dysregulation of the pathway caused by induced mutated huntingtin protein (µHtt). 293/T-REx cells were stably co-transfected with an inducible full-length mutated huntingtin gene containing 138 glutamine repeats and with a reporter gene under control of the cAMP responsive element (CRE). One clone, which showed reversible inhibition of µHtt-induced reporter activity upon treatment with the neuroprotective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, was used for the development of a high-throughput phenotypic assay suitable for a primary screening campaign, which was performed on a library of 24,000 compounds. Several hit compounds were identified and validated further in a cell viability adenosine triphosphate assay. The assay has the potential for finding new drug candidates for the treatment of HD. PMID:23562876

Lazzeroni, Giulia; Benicchi, Tiziana; Heitz, Freddy; Magnoni, Letizia; Diamanti, Daniela; Rossini, Lara; Massai, Luisa; Federico, Cesare; Fecke, Wolfgang; Caricasole, Andrea; La Rosa, Salvatore; Porcari, Valentina

2013-10-01

91

A systems approach for analysis of high content screening assay data with topic modeling  

PubMed Central

Background High Content Screening (HCS) has become an important tool for toxicity assessment, partly due to its advantage of handling multiple measurements simultaneously. This approach has provided insight and contributed to the understanding of systems biology at cellular level. To fully realize this potential, the simultaneously measured multiple endpoints from a live cell should be considered in a probabilistic relationship to assess the cell's condition to response stress from a treatment, which poses a great challenge to extract hidden knowledge and relationships from these measurements. Method In this work, we applied a text mining method of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to analyze cellular endpoints from in vitro HCS assays and related to the findings to in vivo histopathological observations. We measured multiple HCS assay endpoints for 122 drugs. Since LDA requires the data to be represented in document-term format, we first converted the continuous value of the measurements to the word frequency that can processed by the text mining tool. For each of the drugs, we generated a document for each of the 4 time points. Thus, we ended with 488 documents (drug-hour) each having different values for the 10 endpoints which are treated as words. We extracted three topics using LDA and examined these to identify diagnostic topics for 45 common drugs located in vivo experiments from the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project (TGP) observing their necrosis findings at 6 and 24 hours after treatment. Results We found that assay endpoints assigned to particular topics were in concordance with the histopathology observed. Drugs showing necrosis at 6 hour were linked to severe damage events such as Steatosis, DNA Fragmentation, Mitochondrial Potential, and Lysosome Mass. DNA Damage and Apoptosis were associated with drugs causing necrosis at 24 hours, suggesting an interplay of the two pathways in these drugs. Drugs with no sign of necrosis we related to the Cell Loss and Nuclear Size assays, which is suggestive of hepatocyte regeneration. Conclusions The evidence from this study suggests that topic modeling with LDA can enable us to interpret relationships of endpoints of in vitro assays along with an in vivo histological finding, necrosis. Effectiveness of this approach may add substantially to our understanding of systems biology.

2013-01-01

92

Simple and sensitive antimalarial drug screening in vitro and in vivo using transgenic luciferase expressing Plasmodium berghei parasites.  

PubMed

We report two improved assays for in vitro and in vivo screening of chemicals with potential anti-malarial activity against the blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodiumberghei. These assays are based on the determination of luciferase activity (luminescence) in small blood samples containing transgenic blood stage parasites that express luciferase under the control of a promoter that is either schizont-specific (ama-1) or constitutive (eef1alphaa). Assay 1, the in vitro drug luminescence (ITDL) assay, measured the success of schizont maturation in the presence of candidate drugs quantifying luciferase activity in mature schizonts only (ama-1 promoter). The ITDL assay generated drug-inhibition curves and EC(50) values comparable to those obtained with standard in vitro drug-susceptibility assays. The second assay, the in vivo drug-luminescence (IVDL) assay, measured parasite growth in vivo in a standard 4-day suppressive drug test, monitored by measuring the constitutive luciferase activity of circulating parasites (eef1alphaa promoter). The IVDL assay generates growth-curves that are identical to those obtained by manual counting of parasites in Giemsa-stained smears. The reading of luminescence assays is rapid, requires a minimal number of handling steps and no experience with parasite morphology or handling fluorescence-activated cell sorters, produces no radioactive waste and test-plates can be stored for prolonged periods before processing. Both tests are suitable for use in larger-scale in vitro and in vivo screening of drugs. The standard methodology of anti-malarial drug screening and validation, which includes testing in rodent models of malaria, can be improved by the incorporation of such assays. PMID:18590736

Franke-Fayard, B; Djokovic, D; Dooren, M W; Ramesar, J; Waters, A P; Falade, M O; Kranendonk, M; Martinelli, A; Cravo, P; Janse, C J

2008-12-01

93

A screen for drugs that protect against the cytotoxicity of polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor.  

PubMed

Spinobulbar muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of a CAG triplet repeat sequence encoding a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor. It has been shown that the mutant protein is toxic in cell culture and triggers an apoptotic cascade resulting in activation of caspase-3. We developed an assay of caspase-3 activation in cells expressing the mutant androgen receptor. This assay was used to screen 1040 drugs, most of which are approved for clinical use. Drugs that inhibit polyglutamine-dependent activation of caspase-3 were subjected to follow-up screens to identify compounds that reproducibly prevent polyglutamine-induced cytotoxicity. Four drugs satisfied these criteria. Three of these (digitoxin, nerifolin and peruvoside) are structurally and functionally related compounds of the cardiac glycoside class and known inhibitors of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase. The fourth compound, suloctidil, is a calcium channel blocker. PMID:14709594

Piccioni, Federica; Roman, Benjamin R; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Taylor, J Paul

2004-02-15

94

Drug Use During Pregnancy: Validating the Drug Abuse Screening Test Against Physiological Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the ability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) to identify prenatal drug use using hair and urine samples as criterion variables. In addition, this study was the first to use \\

Emily R. Grekin; Dace S. Svikis; Phebe Lam; Veronica Connors; James M. LeBreton; David L. Streiner; Courtney Smith; Steven J. Ondersma

2010-01-01

95

An LC-MS assay for the screening of cardiovascular medications in human samples.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular drugs are the most commonly prescribed medications. Some prior assays successfully detect cardiovascular drugs among multiple classes using a single sample. Here, we develop an assay to detect a broad range of cardiovascular drug classes to include commonly used cardiovascular drugs and evaluate the assay's analytical and statistical properties in a clinical setting. We describe a protocol for drug detection that encompasses 34 commonly prescribed cardiovascular drugs or drug metabolites with a single LC-MS/MS method using 100?L of serum or plasma. Drug classes monitored by this assay include: anticoagulants, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, statins, and vasodilators, as well as digoxin, fenofibrate, and niacin. Analytical accuracy and precision for each drug were evaluated by repeating the assay on spiked samples at low, medium, and high concentrations. In 294 clinical samples obtained from hospitalized patients for whom medication administration was recorded, we evaluated the assay's statistical sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. For the 34 drugs or drug metabolites, the assay was statistically sensitive (>0.90) for all drugs except captopril (0.25), isosorbide (0.81), and niacin (0.89). The assay was statistically specific for all drugs, with a minimum specificity of 0.94 (aspirin). To our knowledge, this method is the first method of simultaneous analysis of 34 cardiovascular drugs or drug metabolites from nine drug classes evaluated using clinical samples from hospitalized patients. PMID:24013190

Dias, Eduardo; Hachey, Brian; McNaughton, Candace; Nian, Hui; Yu, Chang; Straka, Brittany; Brown, Nancy J; Caprioli, Richard M

2013-10-15

96

The validation of an invitro colonic motility assay as a biomarker for gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions  

SciTech Connect

Motility-related gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (GADRs), such as constipation and diarrhea, are some of the most frequently reported adverse events associated with the clinical development of new chemical entities, and for marketed drugs. However, biomarkers capable of detecting such GADRs are lacking. Here, we describe an in vitro assay developed to detect and quantify changes in intestinal motility as a surrogate biomarker for constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. In vitro recordings of intraluminal pressure were used to monitor the presence of colonic peristaltic motor complexes (CPMCs) in mouse colonic segments. CPMC frequency, contractile and total mechanical activity were assessed. To validate the assay, two experimental protocols were conducted. Initially, five drugs with known gastrointestinal effects were tested to determine optimal parameters describing excitation and inhibition as markers for disturbances in colonic motility. This was followed by a 'blinded' evaluation of nine drugs associated with or without clinically identified constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. Concentration-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the effects were compared with their maximal free therapeutic plasma concentration in humans. The assay detected stimulatory and inhibitory responses, likely correlating to the occurrence of diarrhea or constipation. Concentration-related effects were identified and potential mechanisms of action were inferred for several drugs. Based on the results from the fourteen drugs assessed, the sensitivity of the assay was calculated at 90%, with a specificity of 75% and predictive capacity of 86%. These results support the potential use of this assay in screening for motility-related GADRs during early discovery phase, safety pharmacology assessment.

Keating, Christopher, E-mail: C.Keating@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Martinez, Vicente; Ewart, Lorna [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Gibbons, Stephen; Grundy, Luke [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Valentin, Jean-Pierre [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Grundy, David [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15

97

An assay for human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA binding drugs.  

PubMed

Compounds that stabilize the G-quadruplexes formed by human telomeres can inhibit the telomerase activity and are potential cancer therapies. We have developed an assay for the screening of compounds with high affinity for human telomeric G-quadruplexes (HTG). The assay uses a thiazole orange fluorescent reporter molecule conjugated to the aminoglycoside, neomycin, as a probe in a fluorescence displacement assay. The conjugation of the planar base stacking thiazole orange with the groove binding neomycin results in high affinity probe that can determine the relative binding affinity of high affinity HTG binding drugs in a high throughput format. The robust assay is applicable for the determination of the binding affinity of HTG in the presence of K(+) or Na(+). PMID:24246738

Watkins, Derrick; Ranjan, Nihar; Kumar, Sunil; Gong, Changjun; Arya, Dev P

2013-12-15

98

Convenient cell fusion assay for rapid screening for HIV entry inhibitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV)-induced cell fusion is a critical pathway of HIV spread from infected cells to uninfected cells. A rapid and simple assay was established to measure HIV-induce cell fusion. This study is particularly useful to rapid screen for HIV inhibitors that block HIV cell-to-cell transmission. Present study demonstrated that coculture of HIV-infected cells with uninfected cells at 37 degree(s)C for 2 hours resulted in the highest cell fusion rate. Using this cell fusion assay, we have identified several potent HIV inhibitors targeted to the HIV gp41 core. These antiviral agents can be potentially developed as antiviral drugs for chemotherapy and prophylaxis of HIV infection and AIDS.

Jiang, Shibo; Radigan, Lin; Zhang, Li

2000-03-01

99

Zebrafish-based small molecule screens for novel cardiovascular drugs.  

PubMed

The zebrafish is increasingly being adopted as an in vivo model of high throughput drug screening. In this brief review we outline the advantages and disadvantages of this approach and summarize recent screens that have attempted to identify novel small molecules with activity on the cardiovascular system. PMID:24050238

Novodvorsky, Peter; Da Costa, Marc M J; Chico, Timothy J A

2013-01-01

100

Differential determinants of cancer cell insensitivity to antimitotic drugs discriminated by a one-step cell imaging assay.  

PubMed

Cancer cells can be drug resistant due to genetic variation at multiple steps in the drug response pathway, including drug efflux pumping, target mutation, and blunted apoptotic response. These are not discriminated by conventional cell survival assays. Here, we report a rapid and convenient high-content cell-imaging assay that measures multiple physiological changes in cells responding to antimitotic small-molecule drugs. Our one-step, no-wash assay uses three dyes to stain living cells and is much more accurate for scoring weakly adherent mitotic and apoptotic cells than conventional antibody-based assays. We profiled responses of 33 cell lines to 8 antimitotic drugs at multiple concentrations and time points using this assay and deposited our data and assay protocols into a public database (http://lincs.hms.harvard.edu/). Our data discriminated between alternative mechanisms that compromise drug sensitivity to paclitaxel and revealed an unexpected bell-shaped dose-response curve for BI2536, a highly selective inhibitor of Polo-like kinases. Our approach can be generalized, is scalable, and should therefore facilitate identification of molecular biomarkers for mechanisms of drug insensitivity in high-throughput screens and other assays. PMID:23788527

Tang, Yangzhong; Xie, Tiao; Florian, Stefan; Moerke, Nathan; Shamu, Caroline; Benes, Cyril; Mitchison, Timothy J

2013-10-01

101

Apoptosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay distinguishes anticancer drugs from toxic chemicals and predicts drug synergism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of anticancer drugs and toxic compounds on leukemic cells in culture were evaluated by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the detection of apoptotic cells by a monoclonal antibody against single-stranded DNA. The concentrations of 13 anticancer drugs, which increased apoptosis ELISA absorbance, were similar to the concentrations decreasing long-term cell survival. Short-term metabolic tetrazolium-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyformazan bromide (MTT) assay

Oskar S Frankfurt; Awtar Krishan

2003-01-01

102

Microengineering Methods for Cell Based Microarrays and High-Throughput Drug Screening Applications  

PubMed Central

Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time-consuming and often face ethical concerns due to extensive use of animals. To improve cost-effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems have facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell based drug-screening models, which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell based drug screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds a great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility.

Xu, Feng; Wu, JinHui; Wang, ShuQi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

2011-01-01

103

Development and Optimization of a Novel 384-Well Anti-Malarial Imaging Assay Validated for High-Throughput Screening  

PubMed Central

With the increasing occurrence of drug resistance in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, there is a great need for new and novel anti-malarial drugs. We have developed a 384-well, high-throughput imaging assay for the detection of new anti-malarial compounds, which was initially validated by screening a marine natural product library, and subsequently used to screen more than 3 million data points from a variety of compound sources. Founded on another fluorescence-based P. falciparum growth inhibition assay, the DNA-intercalating dye 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, was used to monitor changes in parasite number. Fluorescent images were acquired on the PerkinElmer Opera High Throughput confocal imaging system and analyzed with a spot detection algorithm using the Acapella data processing software. Further optimization of this assay sought to increase throughput, assay stability, and compatibility with our high-throughput screening equipment platforms. The assay typically yielded Z'-factor values of 0.5–0.6, with signal-to-noise ratios of 12.

Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M.

2012-01-01

104

Efficient drug screening and gene correction for treating liver disease using patient-specific stem cells.  

PubMed

Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a potential source for developing novel drug and cell therapies. Although increasing numbers of disease-specific iPSCs have been generated, there has been limited progress in iPSC-based drug screening/discovery for liver diseases, and the low gene-targeting efficiency in human iPSCs warrants further improvement. Using iPSC lines from patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, for which there is currently no drug or gene therapy available, we established a platform to discover new drug candidates and correct disease-causing mutation with a high efficiency. A high-throughput format screening assay, based on our hepatic differentiation protocol, was implemented to facilitate automated quantification of cellular AAT accumulation using a 96-well immunofluorescence reader. To expedite the eventual application of lead compounds to patients, we conducted drug screening utilizing our established library of clinical compounds (the Johns Hopkins Drug Library) with extensive safety profiles. Through a blind large-scale drug screening, five clinical drugs were identified to reduce AAT accumulation in diverse patient iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells. In addition, using the recently developed transcription activator-like effector nuclease technology, we achieved high gene-targeting efficiency in AAT-deficiency patient iPSCs with 25%-33% of the clones demonstrating simultaneous targeting at both diseased alleles. The hepatocyte-like cells derived from the gene-corrected iPSCs were functional without the mutant AAT accumulation. This highly efficient and cost-effective targeting technology will broadly benefit both basic and translational applications. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the feasibility of effective large-scale drug screening using an iPSC-based disease model and highly robust gene targeting in human iPSCs, both of which are critical for translating the iPSC technology into novel therapies for untreatable diseases. PMID:23325555

Choi, Su Mi; Kim, Yonghak; Shim, Joong Sup; Park, Joon Tae; Wang, Rui-Hong; Leach, Steven D; Liu, Jun O; Deng, Chuxia; Ye, Zhaohui; Jang, Yoon-Young

2013-06-01

105

BioAssay Ontology Annotations Facilitate Cross-Analysis of Diverse High-throughput Screening Data Sets  

PubMed Central

High-throughput screening data repositories, such as PubChem, represent valuable resources for the development of small molecule chemical probes and can serve as entry points for drug discovery programs. While the loose data format offered by PubChem allows for great flexibility, important annotations, such as the assay format and technologies employed, are not explicitly indexed. We have previously developed a BioAssay Ontology (BAO) and curated over 350 assays with standardized BAO terms. Here we describe the use of BAO annotations to analyze a large set of assays that employ luciferase- and ?-lactamase-based technologies. We identified promiscuous chemotypes pertaining to different sub-categories of assays and specific mechanisms by which these chemotypes interfere in reporter gene assays. Our results show that the data in PubChem can be used to identify promiscuous compounds that interfere non-specifically with particular technologies. Furthermore, we show that BAO is a valuable toolset for the identification of related assays and for the systematic generation of insights that are beyond the scope of individual assays or screening campaigns.

Schurer, Stephan C.; Vempati, Uma; Smith, Robin; Southern, Mark; Lemmon, Vance

2011-01-01

106

EFFICIENT DRUG SCREENING AND GENE CORRECTION FOR TREATING LIVER DISEASE USING PATIENT-SPECIFIC STEM CELLS  

PubMed Central

Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a potential source for developing novel drugand cell- therapies. Although increasing numbers of disease-specific iPSCs have been generated, there has been limited progress in iPSC-based drug screening/discovery for liver diseases, and the low gene targeting efficiency in human iPSCs warrants further improvement. Using iPSC lines from patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, for which there is currently no drug- or gene- therapy available, we established a platform to discover new drug candidates and to correct disease-causing mutation with a high efficiency. A high-throughput format screening assay based on our hepatic differentiation protocol was implemented to facilitate automated quantification of cellular AAT accumulation using a 96-well immunofluorescence reader. To expedite the eventual application of lead compounds to patients, we conducted drug screening utilizing our established library of clinical compounds, the Johns Hopkins Drug Library, with extensive safety profiles. Through a blind large-scale drug screening, five clinical drugs were identified to reduce AAT accumulation in diverse patient iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells. In addition, using the recently developed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technology, we achieved high gene targeting efficiency in AAT-deficiency patient iPSCs with 25–33% of the clones demonstrating simultaneous targeting at both diseased alleles. The hepatocyte-like cells derived from the gene-corrected iPSCs were functional without the mutant AAT accumulation. This highly efficient and cost-effective targeting technology will broadly benefit both basic and translational applications. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the feasibility of effective large-scale drug screening using an iPSC-based disease model and highly robust gene targeting in human iPSCs; both of which are critical for translating the iPSC technology into novel therapies for untreatable diseases.

Choi, Su Mi; Kim, Yonghak; Shim, Joong Sup; Park, Joon Tae; Wang, Rui-Hong; Leach, Steven D; Liu, Jun O.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Ye, Zhaohui; Jang, Yoon-Young

2013-01-01

107

Microplate Alamar Blue Assay versus BACTEC 460 System for High-Throughput Screening of Compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the need for rapid, inexpensive, high-throughput assays for antimycobacterial drug screening, a microplate-based assay which uses Alamar blue reagent for determination of growth was evaluated. MICs of 30 antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, and Mycobacterium avium were determined in the microplate Alamar blue assay (MABA) with both visual and fluorometric readings and compared

LISA A. COLLINS; SCOTT G. FRANZBLAU

1997-01-01

108

Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MAMEF) with silver colloids in 96-well plates: Application to ultra fast and sensitive immunoassays, High Throughput Screening and drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence detection is the basis of most assays used in drug discovery and High Throughput Screening (HTS) today. In all of these assays, assay rapidity and sensitivity is a primary concern, the sensitivity determined by both the quantum yield of the fluorophores and efficiency of the detection system, while rapidity is determined by the physical and biophysical parameters of temperature,

Kadir Aslan; Patrick Holley; Chris D. Geddes

2006-01-01

109

An Image-Based High-Content Screening Assay for Compounds Targeting Intracellular Leishmania donovani Amastigotes in Human Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease threatening 350 million people from endemic regions. The available drugs for treatment are inadequate, with limitations such as serious side effects, parasite resistance or high cost. Driven by this need for new drugs, we developed a high-content, high-throughput image-based screening assay targeting the intracellular amastigote stage of different species of Leishmania in infected human macrophages. The in vitro infection protocol was adapted to a 384-well-plate format, enabling acquisition of a large amount of readouts by automated confocal microscopy. The reading method was based on DNA staining and required the development of a customized algorithm to analyze the images, which enabled the use of non-modified parasites. The automated analysis generated parameters used to quantify compound activity, including infection ratio as well as the number of intracellular amastigote parasites and yielded cytotoxicity information based on the number of host cells. Comparison of this assay with one that used the promastigote form to screen 26,500 compounds showed that 50% of the hits selected against the intracellular amastigote were not selected in the promastigote screening. These data corroborate the idea that the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite is the most appropriate to be used in primary screening assay for Leishmania.

Yang, Gyongseon; Lee, Changbok; Moon, Hong Kee; Chatelain, Eric; Genovesio, Auguste; Cechetto, Jonathan; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H.

2012-01-01

110

Establishment of a pancreatic ? cell proliferation model in vitro and a platform for diabetes drug screening.  

PubMed

Diabetes, a disease resulting from loss of functional ? cells, is globally an increasingly important condition. Based on the islet-differentiation ability of ductal epithelial cells and stimulating ? cell proliferation ability of the Reg I? gene, we aimed to establish an in vitro pancreatic ? cell proliferation model for screening therapeutic drugs of diabetes in the future. Pancreatic ductal epithelial cells were isolated from male Wistar rats, and induced to differentiate into pancreatic ? cells. Immunofluorescence staining assay, western blot, RT-PCR analysis, and dithizone staining were used to characterize the cells. Rat Reg I? protein was transiently expressed in vitro by transfection of HEK 293 cells with the PCMV6-entry-REG Ia plasmid, and expression was verified by RT-PCR analysis, proliferation assay, and apoptosis assay. The pancreatic ? cell proliferation model was further validated by a proliferation assay using differentiated pancreatic ? cells treated with transfection supernatant. Finally, we have successfully established an in vitro pancreatic ? cells proliferation model using transiently expressed rat Reg I? protein and differentiated pancreatic ? cells from pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. This model could be used as a platform to screen new drugs for islet neogenesis to cure diabetes, especially Chinese herbal drugs in the future. PMID:23979319

Jia, Jing; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Yongxia; Zheng, Xiaoliang; Tu, Linglan; Huang, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaoju

2014-08-01

111

Rapid Diagnosis of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis by Use of a Reverse Line Blot Hybridization Assay?†  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is a matter of grave concern for TB control programs, as there is currently no cure for some extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. There is concern that this resistance could transmit, stressing the need for additional control measures, rapid diagnostic methods, and newer drugs for treatment. We developed an in-house assay that can rapidly detect resistance to drugs involved in the definition of XDR-TB directly from smear-positive specimens. Two hundred fifteen phenotypically XDR-TB isolates and 50 pansusceptible isolates were analyzed using a reverse line blot hybridization (RLBH) assay. The assay was also successfully applied to 73 smear-positive clinical specimens. The RLBH assay exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of resistance to isoniazid (99%), rifampin (99%), fluoroquinolones (95.3%), and second-line aminoglycosides (94.8%). The results from application of this assay on direct smear-positive clinical specimens revealed 93% concordance with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test (DST) results for the above-mentioned drugs. The time to accurate DST results was significantly reduced from weeks to 3 days. This molecular assay is a highly accurate tool for screening for XDR-TB, which achieves a substantial reduction in diagnostic delays.

Ajbani, Kanchan; Shetty, Anjali; Mehta, Ajita; Rodrigues, Camilla

2011-01-01

112

Rapid diagnosis of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis by use of a reverse line blot hybridization assay.  

PubMed

Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is a matter of grave concern for TB control programs, as there is currently no cure for some extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. There is concern that this resistance could transmit, stressing the need for additional control measures, rapid diagnostic methods, and newer drugs for treatment. We developed an in-house assay that can rapidly detect resistance to drugs involved in the definition of XDR-TB directly from smear-positive specimens. Two hundred fifteen phenotypically XDR-TB isolates and 50 pansusceptible isolates were analyzed using a reverse line blot hybridization (RLBH) assay. The assay was also successfully applied to 73 smear-positive clinical specimens. The RLBH assay exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of resistance to isoniazid (99%), rifampin (99%), fluoroquinolones (95.3%), and second-line aminoglycosides (94.8%). The results from application of this assay on direct smear-positive clinical specimens revealed 93% concordance with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test (DST) results for the above-mentioned drugs. The time to accurate DST results was significantly reduced from weeks to 3 days. This molecular assay is a highly accurate tool for screening for XDR-TB, which achieves a substantial reduction in diagnostic delays. PMID:21613436

Ajbani, Kanchan; Shetty, Anjali; Mehta, Ajita; Rodrigues, Camilla

2011-07-01

113

Predicting phospholipidosis: a fluorescence noncell based in vitro assay for the determination of drug-phospholipid complex formation in early drug discovery.  

PubMed

This paper describes for the first time, a high-throughput fluorescence noncell based assay to screen for the drug-phospholipid interaction, which correlates to phospholipidosis. Anionic amphiphilic phospholipids can form complexes in aqueous solution, and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) can be determined using the fluorescence probe N,N-dimethyl-6-propionyl-2-naphthylamine (Prodan). Upon interaction with drug candidates, this CMC may shift to a lower value due to the association between lipids and drug candidates, the stronger the interaction, the greater the shift. Metabolism of a drug can change the degree of phospholipidosis depending on the rate of metabolism and the nature of the metabolite(s). Our data from 45 drugs and metabolites of 10 drugs using this fluorescence approach demonstrate a good correlation with phospholipidosis as reported with human studies, in vivo testing, and cellular assays. This assay therefore offers a fast, reliable, and cost-effective screening tool for early prediction of the phospholipidosis-inducing potential of drug candidates. PMID:21790130

Zhou, Liping; Geraci, Gina; Hess, Sloan; Yang, Linhong; Wang, Jianling; Argikar, Upendra

2011-09-15

114

A high-throughput drug screen for Entamoeba histolytica identifies a new lead and target.  

PubMed

Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan intestinal parasite, is the causative agent of human amebiasis. Amebiasis is the fourth leading cause of death and the third leading cause of morbidity due to protozoan infections worldwide(1), resulting in ~70,000 deaths annually. E. histolytica has been listed by the National Institutes of Health as a category B priority biodefense pathogen in the United States. Treatment relies on metronidazole(2), which has adverse effects(3), and potential resistance of E. histolytica to the drug is an increasing concern(4,5). To facilitate drug screening for this anaerobic protozoan, we developed and validated an automated, high-throughput screen (HTS). This screen identified auranofin, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug used therapeutically for rheumatoid arthritis, as active against E. histolytica in culture. Auranofin was ten times more potent against E. histolytica than metronidazole. Transcriptional profiling and thioredoxin reductase assays suggested that auranofin targets the E. histolytica thioredoxin reductase, preventing the reduction of thioredoxin and enhancing sensitivity of trophozoites to reactive oxygen-mediated killing. In a mouse model of amebic colitis and a hamster model of amebic liver abscess, oral auranofin markedly decreased the number of parasites, the detrimental host inflammatory response and hepatic damage. This new use of auranofin represents a promising therapy for amebiasis, and the drug has been granted orphan-drug status from the FDA. PMID:22610278

Debnath, Anjan; Parsonage, Derek; Andrade, Rosa M; He, Chen; Cobo, Eduardo R; Hirata, Ken; Chen, Steven; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Orozco, Esther; Martínez, Máximo B; Gunatilleke, Shamila S; Barrios, Amy M; Arkin, Michelle R; Poole, Leslie B; McKerrow, James H; Reed, Sharon L

2012-06-01

115

Small molecule drug screening in Drosophila identifies the 5HT2A receptor as a feeding modulation target  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of eating behavior can lead to obesity, which affects 10% of the adult population worldwide and accounts for nearly 3 million deaths every year. Despite this burden on society, we currently lack effective pharmacological treatment options to regulate appetite. We used Drosophila melanogaster larvae to develop a high-throughput whole organism screen for drugs that modulate food intake. In a screen of 3630 small molecules, we identified the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) receptor antagonist metitepine as a potent anorectic drug. Using cell-based assays we show that metitepine is an antagonist of all five Drosophila 5-HT receptors. We screened fly mutants for each of these receptors and found that serotonin receptor 5-HT2A is the sole molecular target for feeding inhibition by metitepine. These results highlight the conservation of molecular mechanisms controlling appetite and provide a method for unbiased whole-organism drug screens to identify novel drugs and molecular pathways modulating food intake.

Gasque, Gabriel; Conway, Stephen; Huang, Juan; Rao, Yi; Vosshall, Leslie B.

2013-01-01

116

Microfluidics: Emerging prospects for anti-cancer drug screening  

PubMed Central

Cancer constitutes a heterogenic cellular system with a high level of spatio-temporal complexity. Recent discoveries by systems biologists have provided emerging evidence that cellular responses to anti-cancer modalities are stochastic in nature. To uncover the intricacies of cell-to-cell variability and its relevance to cancer therapy, new analytical screening technologies are needed. The last decade has brought forth spectacular innovations in the field of cytometry and single cell cytomics, opening new avenues for systems oncology and high-throughput real-time drug screening routines. The up-and-coming microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technology and micro-total analysis systems (?TAS) are arguably the most promising platforms to address the inherent complexity of cellular systems with massive experimental parallelization and 4D analysis on a single cell level. The vast miniaturization of LOC systems and multiplexing enables innovative strategies to reduce drug screening expenditures while increasing throughput and content of information from a given sample. Small cell numbers and operational reagent volumes are sufficient for microfluidic analyzers and, as such, they enable next generation high-throughput and high-content screening of anti-cancer drugs on patient-derived specimens. Herein we highlight the selected advancements in this emerging field of bioengineering, and provide a snapshot of developments with relevance to anti-cancer drug screening routines.

Wlodkowic, Donald; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

2010-01-01

117

Efficient Screening of Marine Extracts for Protease Inhibitors by Combining FRET Based Activity Assays and Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy Based Binding Assays  

PubMed Central

The screening of extracts from marine organisms is a widely used strategy to discover new drug leads. A common problem in the screening process is the generation of false positive hits through unspecific effects from the complex chemical composition of the crude extracts. In this study, we explored a combination of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based activity assay and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based binding assay to avoid this problem. An aqueous extract was prepared from rest raw material of the Norwegian spring spawning herring, and further fractionated by methanol solubility and solid phase extraction. FRET based activity assays were used to determine the influence of each extract on the activity of different proteases. Several extracts showed more than 50% inhibition. The inhibition mechanisms were elucidated by SPR based competition experiments with known inhibitors. For the secreted aspartic proteases 1, 2, 3 and HIV-1 protease, the results indicated that some extracts contain inhibitors interacting specifically with the active site of the enzymes. The study shows that a combination of an activity assay and an SPR based binding assay is a powerful tool to identify potent inhibitors in marine extracts. Furthermore, the study shows that marine vertebrates offer an interesting source for new bioactive compounds, although they have rarely been explored for this purpose.

Christopeit, Tony; ?verb?, Kersti; Danielson, U. Helena; Nilsen, Inge W.

2013-01-01

118

High-throughput and in silico screenings in drug discovery.  

PubMed

Background: In the current situation of weak drug pipelines, impending patent expiration of several blockbuster drugs, industry consolidation and changing business models that target special diseases like cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's and obesity, the pharmaceutical industry is under intense pressure to generate a strong drug pipeline distinguished by better productivity, diversity and cost effectiveness. The goal is discovering high-quality leads in the initial stages of the development cycle, to minimize the costs associated with failures at later ones. Objective: Thus, there is a great amount of interest in further developing and optimizing high-throughput screening and in silico screening, the two methods responsible for generating most of the lead compounds. Although high-throughput screening is the predominant starting point for discovery programs, in silico methods have gradually made inroads by their more rational approach, to expedite the drug discovery and development process. Conclusion: Modern drug discovery strategies include both methods in tandem or in an iterative way. This review primarily provides a succinct overview and comparison of experimental and in silico screening techniques, selected case studies where both methods were used in concert to investigate their performance and complementary nature and a statement on the developments in experimental and in silico approaches in the near future. PMID:23480542

Phatak, Sharangdhar S; Stephan, Clifford C; Cavasotto, Claudio N

2009-09-01

119

Screening for Small Molecules' Bilayer-Modifying Potential Using a Gramicidin-Based Fluorescence Assay  

PubMed Central

Abstract Many drugs and other small molecules used to modulate biological function are amphiphiles that adsorb at the bilayer/solution interface and thereby alter lipid bilayer properties. This is important because membrane proteins are energetically coupled to their host bilayer by hydrophobic interactions. Changes in bilayer properties thus alter membrane protein function, which provides a possible mechanism for “off-target” drug effects. We have previously shown that channels formed by the linear gramicidins are suitable probes for changes in lipid bilayer properties, as experienced by bilayer-spanning proteins. We now report a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay for changes in bilayer properties. The assay is based on measuring the time course of fluorescence quenching in fluorophore-loaded large unilamellar vesicles, due to entry of a gramicidin channel-permeable quencher. The method is scalable and suitable for both mechanistic studies and high-throughput screening for bilayer-perturbing, potential off-target effects, which we illustrate using capsaicin (Cap) and other compounds.

Ingolfsson, Helgi I.

2010-01-01

120

High-throughput screening assays for the identification of chemical probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-throughput screening (HTS) assays enable the testing of large numbers of chemical substances for activity in diverse areas of biology. The biological responses measured in HTS assays span isolated biochemical systems containing purified receptors or enzymes to signal transduction pathways and complex networks functioning in cellular environments. This Review addresses factors that need to be considered when implementing assays for

Ronald L Johnson; Anton Simeonov; Menghang Xia; Wei Zheng; Christopher P Austin; Douglas S Auld; James Inglese

2007-01-01

121

Screening for alcohol and drug use during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The use of alcohol and other substances is not infrequent during pregnancy and may be associated with adverse effects on pregnancy outcome. Many pregnant women may continue these practices throughout pregnancy and even after delivery, unless they are recognized and assessed. Screening may be one way to achieve consistent and early identification. Prenatal health care providers may wish to screen all pregnant patients for their use of alcohol and other drugs using an approach that works best in their setting. A positive screen is an opportunity for the clinician and patient to discuss health practices and behaviors. PMID:24845485

Chang, Grace

2014-06-01

122

A Different Approach to Validating Screening Assays for Developmental Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: There continues to be many efforts around the world to develop assays that are shorter than the traditional embryofetal developmental toxicity assay, or use fewer or no mammals, or use less compound, or have all three attributes. Each assay developer needs to test th...

123

A programmable microfluidic cell array for combinatorial drug screening.  

PubMed

We describe the development of a fully automatic and programmable microfluidic cell culture array that integrates on-chip generation of drug concentrations and pair-wise combinations with parallel culture of cells for drug candidate screening applications. The device has 64 individually addressable cell culture chambers in which cells can be cultured and exposed either sequentially or simultaneously to 64 pair-wise concentration combinations of two drugs. For sequential exposure, a simple microfluidic diffusive mixer is used to generate different concentrations of drugs from two inputs. For generation of 64 pair-wise combinations from two drug inputs, a novel time dependent variable concentration scheme is used in conjunction with the simple diffusive mixer to generate the desired combinations without the need for complex multi-layer structures or continuous medium perfusion. The generation of drug combinations and exposure to specific cell culture chambers are controlled using a LabVIEW interface capable of automatically running a multi-day drug screening experiment. Our cell array does not require continuous perfusion for keeping cells exposed to concentration gradients, minimizing the amount of drug used per experiment, and cells cultured in the chamber are not exposed to significant shear stress continuously. The utility of this platform is demonstrated for inducing loss of viability of PC3 prostate cancer cells using combinations of either doxorubicin or mitoxantrone with TRAIL (TNF-alpha Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand) either in a sequential or simultaneous format. Our results demonstrate that the device can capture the synergy between different sensitizer drugs and TRAIL and demonstrate the potential of the microfluidic cell array for screening and optimizing combinatorial drug treatments for cancer therapy. PMID:22456798

Kim, Jeongyun; Taylor, David; Agrawal, Nitin; Wang, Han; Kim, Hyunsoo; Han, Arum; Rege, Kaushal; Jayaraman, Arul

2012-04-24

124

High throughput automated chromatin immunoprecipitation as a platform for drug screening and antibody validation†,‡  

PubMed Central

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an assay for interrogating protein–DNA interactions that is increasingly being used for drug target discovery and screening applications. Currently the complexity of the protocol and the amount of hands-on time required for this assay limits its use to low throughput applications; furthermore, variability in antibody quality poses an additional obstacle in scaling up ChIP for large scale screening purposes. To address these challenges, we report HTChIP, an automated microfluidic-based platform for performing high-throughput ChIP screening measurements of 16 different targets simultaneously, with potential for further scale-up. From chromatin to analyzable PCR results only takes one day using HTChIP, as compared to several days up to one week for conventional protocols. HTChIP can also be used to test multiple antibodies and select the best performer for downstream ChIP applications, saving time and reagent costs of unsuccessful ChIP assays as a result of poor antibody quality. We performed a series of characterization assays to demonstrate that HTChIP can rapidly and accurately evaluate the epigenetic states of a cell, and that it is sensitive enough to detect the changes in the epigenetic state induced by a cytokine stimulant over a fine temporal resolution. With these results, we believe that HTChIP can introduce large improvements in routine ChIP, antibody screening, and drug screening efficiency, and further facilitate the use of ChIP as a valuable tool for research and discovery.

Wu, Angela R.; Kawahara, Tiara L.A.; Rapicavoli, Nicole A.; van Riggelen, Jan; Shroff, Emelyn H.; Xu, Liwen; Felsher, Dean W.; Chang, Howard Y.; Quake, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

125

A Cell-based PDE4 Assay in 1536-well Plate format for High Throughput Screening  

PubMed Central

The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are intracellular enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotides, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), to their corresponding 5'-nucleotide monophosphates. These enzymes play an important role in controlling cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thus regulate a variety of cellular signaling events. PDEs are emerging as drug targets for several diseases including asthma, cardiovascular disease, ADHD, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Though biochemical assays with purified recombinant PDE enzymes and cAMP or cGMP substrate are commonly used for compound screening, cell-based assays would provide a better assessment of compound activity in a more physiological context. Here we report the development and validation of a new cell-based PDE4 assay using a constitutively active GPCR as a driving force for cAMP production and a cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) cation channel as a biosensor in 1536-well plates.

Titus, Steven A.; Li, Xiao; Southall, Noel; Lu, Jianming; Inglese, James; Brasch, Michael; Austin, Christopher P.; Zheng, Wei

2009-01-01

126

Potential High-Throughput Assay for Screening Inhibitors of West Nile Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Prevention and treatment of infection by West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses are public health priorities. We describe a reporting cell line that can be used for high-throughput screening of inhibitors against all targets involved in WNV replication. Dual reporter genes, encoding Renilla luciferase (Rluc) and neomycin phosphotransferase (Neo), were engineered into a WNV subgenomic replicon, resulting in Rluc/NeoRep. Geneticin selection of BHK-21 cells transfected with Rluc/NeoRep yielded a stable cell line that contains persistently replicating replicons. Incubation of the reporting cells with known WNV inhibitors decreased Rluc activity, as well as the replicon RNA level. The efficacies of the inhibitors, as measured by the depression of Rluc activity in the reporting cells, are comparable to those derived from authentic viral infection assays. Therefore, the WNV reporting cell line can be used as a high-throughput assay for anti-WNV drug discovery. A similar approach should be applicable to development of genetics-based antiviral assays for other flaviviruses.

Lo, Michael K.; Tilgner, Mark; Shi, Pei-Yong

2003-01-01

127

Zebrafish based small molecule screens for novel DMD drugs.  

PubMed

Recently, a number of chemical and drug screens using zebrafish embryos have been published. Using zebrafish dystrophin mutants, we screened a chemical library for small molecules that modulate the muscle phenotype and identified seven small molecules that influence muscle pathology in dystrophin-null zebrafish. One chemical, aminophylline, which is known to be a non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, had the greatest ability to restore normal muscle structure and to up-regulate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in treated dystrophin deficient fish. Our methodologies, which combine drug screening with assessment of the chemical effects by genotyping and staining with anti-dystrophin, provide a powerful means to identify template structures potentially relevant to the development of novel human muscular dystrophies therapeutics. PMID:24050235

Kawahara, Genri; Kunkel, Louis M

2013-01-01

128

Zebrafish based small molecule screens for novel DMD drugs.  

PubMed

Recently, a number of chemical and drug screens using zebrafish embryos have been published. Using zebrafish dystrophin mutants, we screened a chemical library for small molecules that modulate the muscle phenotype and identified seven small molecules that influence muscle pathology in dystrophin-null zebrafish. One chemical, aminophylline, which is known to be a non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, had the greatest ability to restore normal muscle structure and to up-regulate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in treated dystrophin deficient fish. Our methodologies, which combine drug screening with assessment of the chemical effects by genotyping and staining with anti-dystrophin, provide a powerful means to identify template structures potentially relevant to the development of novel human muscular dystrophies therapeutics. PMID:23646060

Kawahara, Genri; Kunkel, Louis M

2013-01-01

129

Development of High Throughput Screening Assays Using Fluorescence Polarization: Nuclear Receptor-Ligand-Binding and Kinase\\/Phosphatase Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence polarization (FP) has been used to develop high throughput screening (HTS) assays for nuclear receptor-ligand displacement and kinase inhibition. FP is a solution-based, homogeneous technique requiring no immobilization or separation of reaction components. The FP-based estrogen receptor (ER) assay is based on the competition of fluorescein-labeled estradiol and estrogen-like compounds for binding to ER. These studies determined the Kd

Gregory J. Parker; Tong Lin Law; Francis J. Lenoch; Randall E. Bolger

2000-01-01

130

Development and Implementation of a High-Throughput Compound Screening Assay for Targeting Disrupted ER Calcium Homeostasis in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Disrupted intracellular calcium homeostasis is believed to occur early in the cascade of events leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Particularly familial AD mutations linked to Presenilins result in exaggerated agonist-evoked calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we report the development of a fully automated high-throughput calcium imaging assay utilizing a genetically-encoded FRET-based calcium indicator at single cell resolution for compound screening. The established high-throughput screening assay offers several advantages over conventional high-throughput calcium imaging technologies. We employed this assay for drug discovery in AD by screening compound libraries consisting of over 20,000 small molecules followed by structure-activity-relationship analysis. This led to the identification of Bepridil, a calcium channel antagonist drug in addition to four further lead structures capable of normalizing the potentiated FAD-PS1-induced calcium release from ER. Interestingly, it has recently been reported that Bepridil can reduce A? production by lowering BACE1 activity. Indeed, we also detected lowered A?, increased sAPP? and decreased sAPP? fragment levels upon Bepridil treatment. The latter findings suggest that Bepridil may provide a multifactorial therapeutic modality for AD by simultaneously addressing multiple aspects of the disease.

Honarnejad, Kamran; Daschner, Alexander; Giese, Armin; Zall, Andrea; Schmidt, Boris; Szybinska, Aleksandra; Kuznicki, Jacek; Herms, Jochen

2013-01-01

131

High-Content, Image-Based Screening for Drug Targets in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Drug discovery and development are predicated on elucidation of the potential mechanisms of action and cellular targets of candidate chemical compounds. Recent advances in high-content imaging techniques allow simultaneous analysis of a range of cellular events. In this study, we propose a novel strategy to identify drug targets by combining genetic screening and high-content imaging in yeast. Methodology In this approach, we infer the cellular functions affected by candidate drugs by comparing morphologic changes induced by the compounds with the phenotypes of yeast mutants. Conclusions Using this method and four well-characterized reagents, we successfully identified previously known target genes of the compounds as well as other genes involved with functionally related cellular pathways. This is the first demonstration of a genetic high-content assay that can be used to identify drug targets based on morphologic phenotypes of a reference mutant panel.

Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Oka, Satomi; Nogami, Satoru; Ohya, Yoshikazu

2010-01-01

132

Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To screen commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for\\u000a up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case–control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched\\u000a controls per case, with lag of at least 2 years between

Gary D. Friedman; Natalia Udaltsova; James Chan; Charles P. Quesenberry Jr; Laurel A. Habel

2009-01-01

133

Development of a Flow Cytometry Live Cell Assay for the Screening of Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Replication  

PubMed Central

In this study, we established a flow cytometry live cell-based assay that permits the screening of hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors. Specifically, we created a stable cell line, which harbors a subgenomic replicon encoding an NS5A-YFP fusion protein. This system allows direct measurement of YFP fluorescence in live hepatoma cells in which the HCV replicon replicates. We demonstrated that this stable fluorescent system permits the rapid and sensitive quantification of HCV replication inhibition by direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) including protease and NS5A inhibitors and host-targeting antiviral agents (HTA) including cyclophilin inhibitors. This flow cytometry-based live cell assay is well suited for multiple applications such as the evaluation of HCV replication as well as antiviral drug screening.

Garcia-Rivera, Jose A; Lin, Kai; Hopkins, Sam; Gregory, Matthew A; Wilkinson, Barrie; Gallay, Philippe A

2012-01-01

134

Development of a flow cytometry live cell assay for the screening of inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication.  

PubMed

In this study, we established a flow cytometry live cell-based assay that permits the screening of hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors. Specifically, we created a stable cell line, which harbors a subgenomic replicon encoding an NS5A-YFP fusion protein. This system allows direct measurement of YFP fluorescence in live hepatoma cells in which the HCV replicon replicates. We demonstrated that this stable fluorescent system permits the rapid and sensitive quantification of HCV replication inhibition by direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) including protease and NS5A inhibitors and host-targeting antiviral agents (HTA) including cyclophilin inhibitors. This flow cytometry-based live cell assay is well suited for multiple applications such as the evaluation of HCV replication as well as antiviral drug screening. PMID:23230455

Garcia-Rivera, Jose A; Lin, Kai; Hopkins, Sam; Gregory, Matthew A; Wilkinson, Barrie; Gallay, Philippe A

2012-01-01

135

AlphaLISA-based high-throughput screening assay to measure levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein ?.  

PubMed

Activation of nonamyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been hypothesized to be a viable approach for Alzheimer's disease drug discovery. However, until recently, the lack of HTS-compatible assay technologies precluded large scale screening efforts to discover molecules that potentiate nonamyloidogenic pathways. We have developed an HTS-compatible assay based on AlphaLISA technology that quantitatively detects soluble APP? (sAPP?), a marker of nonamyloidogenic processing of APP, released from live cells in low volume, 384-well plates. The assay exhibited good QC parameters (Z'>0.5, S/B>2). A pilot screen of 801 compounds yielded a novel chemotype that increased the release of sAPP? 2-fold at 5?M. These results suggest that the AlphaLISA-based HTS assay is robust and sensitive and can be used to screen large compound collections to discover molecules that potentiate the release of sAPP?. Additionally, we demonstrated that increase of APP processing by nonamyloidogenic pathways will result in decrease of release of amyloidogenic A?40 fragments. PMID:24857774

Wang, Hongjie; Nefzi, Adel; Fields, Gregg B; Lakshmana, Madepalli K; Minond, Dmitriy

2014-08-15

136

Current status of drug screening and disease modelling in human pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

The emphasis in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technologies has shifted from cell therapy to in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. This review examines why this shift has occurred, and how current technological limitations might be overcome to fully realise the potential of hPSCs. Details are provided for all disease-specific human induced pluripotent stem cell lines spanning a dozen dysfunctional organ systems. Phenotype and pharmacology have been examined in only 17 of 63 lines, primarily those that model neurological and cardiac conditions. Drug screening is most advanced in hPSC-cardiomyocytes. Responses for almost 60 agents include examples of how careful tests in hPSC-cardiomyocytes have improved on existing in vitro assays, and how these cells have been integrated into high throughput imaging and electrophysiology industrial platforms. Such successes will provide an incentive to overcome bottlenecks in hPSC technology such as improving cell maturity and industrial scalability whilst reducing cost.

Rajamohan, Divya; Matsa, Elena; Kalra, Spandan; Crutchley, James; Patel, Asha; George, Vinoj; Denning, Chris

2013-01-01

137

Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489

Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

2013-02-01

138

Quantitative Screening for Anticestode Drugs Based on Changes in Baseline Enzyme Secretion by Taenia crassiceps  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents.

Madrid, Elise M.; Nash, Theodore E.

2013-01-01

139

[Development of solubility screening methods in drug discovery].  

PubMed

We developed two methods for solubility screening of drug candidates in drug discovery. The first is a solution-precipitation (SP) method, in which the sample solutions are prepared by adding the drug solution in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to buffers followed by filtering off the precipitate using 96-well filterplate. The second is a powder-dissolution (PD) method, in which the solid samples are dissolved to the buffer in the HPLC vial equipped with the filter membrane in the HPLC autosampler. An HPLC equipped with a photodiode array detector is used to measure the concentration of the sample solutions in both methods. The SP method was used for high throughput screening the solvating process of the candidates in aqueous solutions with lower sample consumption, and the PD method was used for screening both inter-molecular interaction in solid state and solvation in aqueous solution with more sample amount than that of SP method. Therefore, the solubility screening from early to final stage of lead optimization process would be successfully accomplished by using both methods complementarily. PMID:11905048

Sugaya, Yukiko; Yoshiba, Takako; Kajima, Takashi; Ishihama, Yasushi

2002-03-01

140

Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 ?g /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

2014-03-01

141

Drosophila modifier screens to identify novel neuropsychiatric drugs including aminergic agents for the possible treatment of Parkinson's disease and depression.  

PubMed

Small molecules that increase the presynaptic function of aminergic cells may provide neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Model genetic organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster may enhance the detection of new drugs via modifier or 'enhancer/suppressor' screens, but this technique has not been applied to processes relevant to psychiatry. To identify new aminergic drugs in vivo, we used a mutation in the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (dVMAT) as a sensitized genetic background and performed a suppressor screen. We fed dVMAT mutant larvae ? 1000 known drugs and quantitated rescue (suppression) of an amine-dependent locomotor deficit in the larva. To determine which drugs might specifically potentiate neurotransmitter release, we performed an additional secondary screen for drugs that require presynaptic amine storage to rescue larval locomotion. Using additional larval locomotion and adult fertility assays, we validated that at least one compound previously used clinically as an antineoplastic agent potentiates the presynaptic function of aminergic circuits. We suggest that structurally similar agents might be used to development treatments for PD, depression and ADHD, and that modifier screens in Drosophila provide a new strategy to screen for neuropsychiatric drugs. More generally, our findings demonstrate the power of physiologically based screens for identifying bioactive agents for select neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23229049

Lawal, H O; Terrell, A; Lam, H A; Djapri, C; Jang, J; Hadi, R; Roberts, L; Shahi, V; Chou, M-T; Biedermann, T; Huang, B; Lawless, G M; Maidment, N T; Krantz, D E

2014-02-01

142

Risk Minimization Measures for Blood Screening HIV-1 Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique Assays in Germany  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Several publications describe HIV-1 RNA false-negative results or viral load underquantitation associated with Communauté Européenne(CE)-marked qualitative or quantitative nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT) assays. 6 cases occurred during blood screening in Germany, with 2 of them causing HIV-1 transmissions to recipients of blood components. The implicated NAT assays were mono-target assays amplifying in different viral genome regions (gag or long terminal repeat). Methods Specimens characterized by HIV-1 NAT underquantitation or false-negative NAT results were comparatively investigated in CE-marked HIV-1 NAT systems of different design to identify potential reasons. The target regions of the viral nucleic acids were sequenced and these sequences compared to primers and probes of the assays. Potential risk minimization measures were considered for quantitative and blood-screening HIV-1 NAT systems. Results Nucleotide sequencing of the viral target region in cases of HIV-1 RNA underquantitation or false-negative test results revealed new HIV-1 variants that were mismatched with primers and probes used in some mono-target assays. So far, dualtarget NAT assays have not been associated with mismatch-based false-negative test results. From 2015, the Paul Ehrlich Institute will request HIV-1 NAT assays of dual-target design or an analogous solution for further reducing the risk in blood screening. Conclusion HIV differs from other blood-borne viruses with regard to its fast evolution of new viral variants. The evolution of new sequences is hardly predictable; therefore, NAT assays with only 1 target region appear to be more vulnerable to sequence variations than dual-target assays. The associated risk may be higher for HIV-1 NAT assays used for blood screening compared to quantitative assays used for monitoring HIV-1-infected patients. In HIV-1 screening NAT assays of dual-target design may adequately address the risk imposed by new HIV-1 variants.

Chudy, Michael; Kress, Julia; Halbauer, Jochen; Heiden, Margarethe; Funk, Markus B.; Nubling, C. Micha

2014-01-01

143

In vitro high throughput screening of compounds for favorable metabolic properties in drug discovery.  

PubMed

Drug metabolism can have profound effects on the pharmacological and toxicological profile of therapeutic agents. In the pharmaceutical industry, many in vitro techniques are in place or under development to screen and optimize compounds for favorable metabolic properties in the drug discovery phase. These in vitro technologies are meant to address important issues such as: (1) is the compound a potent inhibitor of drug metabolising enzymes (DMEs)? (2) does the compound induce the expression of DMEs? (3) how labile is the compound to metabolic degradation? (4) which specific enzyme(s) is responsible for the compound's biotransformation? and (5) to which metabolites is the compound metabolized? Answers to these questions provide a basis for judging whether a compound is likely to have acceptable pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. To address these issues on the increasing number of compounds inundating the drug discovery programs, high throughput assays are essential. A combination of biochemical advances in the understanding of the function and regulation of DMEs (in particular, cytochromes P450, CYPs) and automated analytical technologies are revolutionizing drug metabolism research. Automated LC-MS based metabolic stability, fluorescence, radiometric and LC-MS based CYP inhibition assays are now in routine use. Automatible models for studying CYP induction based on enzyme activity, quantitative RT-PCR and reporter gene systems are being developed. We will review the utility and limitations of these HTS approaches and highlight on-going developments and emerging technologies to answer metabolism questions at the different stages of the drug discovery process. PMID:11375740

Masimirembwa, C M; Thompson, R; Andersson, T B

2001-05-01

144

Chemical & RNAi screening at MSKCC: a collaborative platform to discover & repurpose drugs to fight disease  

PubMed Central

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution’s commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator’s research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia.

Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P.; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibanez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A.; Djaballah, Hakim

2014-01-01

145

Chemical & RNAi Screening at MSKCC: A Collaborative Platform to Discover & Repurpose Drugs to Fight Disease.  

PubMed

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution's commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator's research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia. PMID:24661215

Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibanez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A; Djaballah, Hakim

2014-05-01

146

Improving method capability of a drug substance HPLC assay.  

PubMed

The assay of a drug substance (DS) is one of the tests required to confirm the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) quality at release. In the past, usually volumetric titration methods were performed, that were precise, but often non-specific. Nowadays specific chromatographic assay procedures are preferred. However, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods, the way they are usually executed, tend to be less precise and have a larger total method variation compared to titration methods. The capabilities of fully validated titration and HPLC assay methods were determined and compared. It was studied which factors had the largest effects on the capability of chromatographic HPLC methods in order to improve their precision and precision-to-tolerance ratio. This was done using multiple Gage R&R (repeatability & reproducibility) studies and an experimental design approach. The investigations showed that it was feasible to define an HPLC method with a similar capability as the titration method. The most important factor determining the precision was demonstrated to be higher sample and reference material weights. When low weights are to be used, increasing the number of sample preparations and the number of reference solutions may enhance the method capability. PMID:16621413

Dejaegher, B; Jimidar, M; De Smet, M; Cockaerts, P; Smeyers-Verbeke, J; Vander Heyden, Y

2006-09-18

147

Comparison of SYBR Green I-, PicoGreen-, and [ 3 H]-hypoxanthine-based assays for in vitro antimalarial screening of plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard method for in vitro antimalarial drug screening is based on the isotopic assay which is expensive and utilizes\\u000a radioactive materials with limited availability, safety, and disposal problems in developing countries. The use of non-radioactive\\u000a DNA stains SYBR Green I (SG) and PICO green® (PG) for antimalarial screening had been reported. However, the use of the two\\u000a DNA stains

Oyindamola O. Abiodun; Grace O. Gbotosho; Edith O. Ajaiyeoba; Christian T. Happi; Sandra Hofer; Sergio Wittlin; Akin Sowunmi; Reto Brun; Ayoade M. J. Oduola

2010-01-01

148

Sulfonylureas and Glinides as New PPARgamma Agonists:. Virtual Screening and Biological Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work combines the predictive power of computational drug discovery with experimental validation by means of biological assays. In this way, a new mode of action for type 2 diabetes drugs has been unvealed. Most drugs currently employed in the treatment of type 2 diabetes either target the sulfonylurea receptor stimulating insulin release (sulfonylureas, glinides), or target PPARgamma improving insulin

Marco Scarsi; Michael Podvinec; Adrian Roth; Hubert Hug; Sander Kersten; Hugo Albrecht; Torsten Schwede; Urs A. Meyer; Christoph Rücker

2007-01-01

149

Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of nontargeted libraries.  

PubMed

The EPXH2 gene encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which has two distinct enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (Cterm-EH) and phosphatase (Nterm-phos). The Cterm-EH is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid epoxides that play important roles in blood pressure, cell growth, inflammation, and pain. While recent findings suggested complementary biological roles for Nterm-phos, research is limited by the lack of potent bioavailable inhibitors of this phosphatase activity. Also, a potent bioavailable inhibitor of this activity could be important in the development of therapy for cardiovascular diseases. We report herein the development of an HTS enzyme-based assay for Nterm-phos (Z'>0.9) using AttoPhos as the substrate. This assay was used to screen a wide variety of chemical entities, including a library of known drugs that have reached through clinical evaluation (Pharmakon 1600), as well as a library of pesticides and environmental toxins. We discovered that ebselen inhibits sEH phosphatase activity. Ebselen binds to the N-terminal domain of sEH (K(I)=550 nM) and chemically reacts with the enzyme to quickly and irreversibly inhibit Nterm-phos, and subsequently Cterm-EH, and thus represents a new class of sEH inhibitor. PMID:23219563

Morisseau, Christophe; Sahdeo, Sunil; Cortopassi, Gino; Hammock, Bruce D

2013-03-01

150

A microfluidic-based platform for tumour spheroid culture, monitoring and drug screening.  

PubMed

The development of novel cellular models that can replace animals in preclinical trials of drug candidates is one of the major goals of cell engineering. Current in vitro screening methods hardly correspond with the in vivo situation, whereas there is a lack of assays for more accurate cell culture models. Therefore, development of automated assays for 3D cell culture models is urgently required. In this work, we present a SpheroChip system: a microfluidic-based platform for long-term 3D cell culture and analysis. The system is compatible with commercially available microplate readers and provides continuous, in situ monitoring of tumour spheroids cultured on a chip. The microfluidic chip consists of cell culture microchambers and hemispherical microwells connected with a concentration gradient generator. HT-29 and Hep-G2 cells were successfully cultured as tumour spheroids in the SpheroChip, and metabolic activity of cells was monitored for up to two weeks by in situ fluorimetric measurements. Cellular response to an anticancer drug was observed using the SpheroChip. The experimental setup provided the unique possibility of observing dynamic changes in metabolic activity of one culture during sequencing days after drug dosage. According to this new approach, unknown phenomena of cellular response to the anticancer drug were observed, such as increase of metabolic activity shortly after drug dosage. Moreover, the influence of a second dose of a drug was evaluated. The SpheroChip system can be used by researchers working on drug screening, evaluation of anticancer procedures and chemoresistance phenomena. PMID:24800721

Kwapiszewska, K; Michalczuk, A; Rybka, M; Kwapiszewski, R; Brzózka, Z

2014-06-21

151

Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

1978-01-01

152

Activity of Clinically Relevant Antimalarial Drugs on Plasmodium falciparum Mature Gametocytes in an ATP Bioluminescence "Transmission Blocking" Assay  

PubMed Central

Background Current anti-malarial drugs have been selected on the basis of their activity against the symptom-causing asexual blood stage of the parasite. Which of these drugs also target gametocytes, in the sexual stage responsible for disease transmission, remains unknown. Blocking transmission is one of the main strategies in the eradication agenda and requires the identification of new molecules that are active against gametocytes. However, to date, the main limitation for measuring the effect of molecules against mature gametocytes on a large scale is the lack of a standardized and reliable method. Here we provide an efficient method to produce and purify mature gametocytes in vitro. Based on this new procedure, we developed a robust, affordable, and sensitive ATP bioluminescence-based assay. We then assessed the activity of 17 gold-standard anti-malarial drugs on Plasmodium late stage gametocytes. Methods and Findings Difficulties in producing large amounts of gametocytes have limited progress in the development of malaria transmission blocking assays. We improved the method established by Ifediba and Vanderberg to obtain viable, mature gametocytes en masse, whatever the strain used. We designed an assay to determine the activity of antimalarial drugs based on the intracellular ATP content of purified stage IV–V gametocytes after 48 h of drug exposure in 96/384-well microplates. Measurements of drug activity on asexual stages and cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells were also obtained to estimate the specificity of the active drugs. Conclusions The work described here represents another significant step towards determination of the activity of new molecules on mature gametocytes of any strain with an automated assay suitable for medium/high-throughput screening. Considering that the biology of the forms involved in the sexual and asexual stages is very different, a screen of our 2 million-compound library may allow us to discover novel anti-malarial drugs to target gametocyte-specific metabolic pathways.

Lozano, Sonia; Miguel, Celia; Franco, Virginia; Leroy, Didier; Herreros, Esperanza

2012-01-01

153

Multiple animal studies for medical chemical defense program in soldier/patient decontamination and drug development on task 88-36: Development of in vitro screening assays for candidate pretreatment and treatment compounds. Final report, 1 July 1988-1 July 1989  

SciTech Connect

A task was instituted at the Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) to develop in vitro assays to screen pretreatment and treatment compounds for their ability to protect or reverse the toxic effects of organophosphates and vesicants. Four vesicant assays and three nerve agent assays were developed. Two of the vesicant assays were for cell viability of keratinocyte, one in the presence of distilled mustard and one lewisite. One assay determines the effect of vesicants on keratinocyte reproduction and the other the effect of distilled mustard on cellular coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide content. The organophosphate assays measure the effects on acetylcholinesterase of selected compounds measured by ability to reactivate, effect on aging rate, and directly. In vitro screen; HD; L; Cellular NAD+ cellular viability; GA; GD; VX; Acetylcholinesterase inhibition; Reactivators; RA 5; Aging rate; Keratinocytes; Treatment and pretreatments; Assaying; Tabun (GA); Sarin (GB); Soman (GD); Organoarsenic; Organophosphates; Chemical Surety Material (CSM); Blisters; Toxicity; Toxic agents; Nerve agents; Chemical warfare agents; G Agents; V Agents; Vesicants; Mustard agents.

Joiner, R.; Dill, G.; Hobson, D.; Blank, J.

1990-03-01

154

Screening for noise in gene expression identifies drug synergies.  

PubMed

Stochastic fluctuations are inherent to gene expression and can drive cell-fate specification. We used such fluctuations to modulate reactivation of HIV from latency-a quiescent state that is a major barrier to an HIV cure. By screening a diverse library of bioactive small molecules, we identified more than 80 compounds that modulated HIV gene-expression fluctuations (i.e., "noise"), without changing mean expression. These noise-modulating compounds would be neglected in conventional screens, and yet, they synergized with conventional transcriptional activators. Noise enhancers reactivated latent cells significantly better than existing best-in-class reactivation drug combinations (and with reduced off-target cytotoxicity), whereas noise suppressors stabilized latency. Noise-modulating chemicals may provide novel probes for the physiological consequences of noise and an unexplored axis for drug discovery, allowing enhanced control over diverse cell-fate decisions. PMID:24903562

Dar, Roy D; Hosmane, Nina N; Arkin, Michelle R; Siliciano, Robert F; Weinberger, Leor S

2014-06-20

155

New screens and targets in antibacterial drug discovery.  

PubMed

As the supply of effective antibiotics dwindles and the emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria becomes more commonplace, there is an urgent need to identify novel antibacterial targets and leads with new mechanisms of action. Among the strategies to bolster our current scarcity of effective antibiotics are biochemical and phenotype-based screens, and the rational design of inhibitors. In this review we highlight some recent contributions that these methodologies have yielded, placing particular emphasis on screens capable of identifying novel leads involved in such processes as virulence; underexploited targets that reside in bacterial cell surfaces; the use of bacteriophage as antibiotic adjuvants; and novel targets of essential pathways. We discuss these findings in the context of the field of antibiotic drug discovery and how such discoveries position us to begin to fill the antibiotic gap that has been widening for the last half century. PMID:19651534

Falconer, Shannon B; Brown, Eric D

2009-10-01

156

Effective strategies for the development of specific, sensitive and rapid multiple-component assays for cassette dosing pharmacokinetic screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enabled by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) based multiple-component assays, cassette dosing is an effective tool to significantly improve the throughput for pharmacokinetic (PK) screening. However, this higher throughput approach also carries its limitations. In addition to potential drug-drug interactions, the multiple-component assays used to analyze cassette-dosing samples are also subject to potentially serious errors. In this work, a systematic approach has been taken to investigate each critical step in the development of a specific, accurate, and rapid multiple-component assay. These steps include pool selection, sample preparation, chromatographic separation and assay qualification. Based on the results, effective strategies for the development of multiple-component assays are proposed which involve proactive pool assignment, on-line extraction, monolithic-column separation and cassette/discrete response comparison. The effectiveness of these strategies was evaluated by comparing the pharmacokinetic results between discrete and cassette studies for over 20 compounds. Statistically good correlation between discrete and cassette data was established.

Huang, Ron; Qian, Mark; Chen, Susan; Lodenquai, Peter; Zeng, Hang; Wu, Jing-Tao

2004-11-01

157

Sandwich ELISA Microarrays: Generating Reliable and Reproducible Assays for High-Throughput Screens  

SciTech Connect

The sandwich ELISA microarray is a powerful screening tool in biomarker discovery and validation due to its ability to simultaneously probe for multiple proteins in a miniaturized assay. The technical challenges of generating and processing the arrays are numerous. However, careful attention to possible pitfalls in the development of your antibody microarray assay can overcome these challenges. In this chapter, we describe in detail the steps that are involved in generating a reliable and reproducible sandwich ELISA microarray assay.

Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

2009-05-11

158

A chromogenic cephalosporin for ?-lactamase inhibitor screening assays.  

PubMed

Production of ?-lactamases is the primary mechanism of antibiotic resistance employed by gram-negative pathogens. Chromogenic ?-lactams are important reagents for detection and assay of ?-lactamases, but limited commercial availability and exorbitant pricing of these compounds are prohibitive. Here we describe a straightforward synthesis of a chromogenic cephalosporin for ?-lactamase assay that gives an overall yield of 74%. On hydrolysis, its ?(max) undergoes a bathochromic shift that is easy to see and measure spectrophotometrically with a ??(442 nm) of 14,500 cm?¹ M?¹. This compound was shown to be a substrate for a variety of ?-lactamases. PMID:22709853

Yu, Sophia; Vosbeek, Amy; Corbella, Katherine; Severson, Jonathan; Schesser, Jacob; Sutton, Larry D

2012-09-15

159

Chemogenomics profiling of drug targets of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway in Leptospira interrogans by virtual screening approaches.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis of global concern caused by Leptospira interrogans. The availability of ligand libraries has facilitated the search for novel drug targets using chemogenomics approaches, compared with the traditional method of drug discovery, which is time consuming and yields few leads with little intracellular information for guiding target selection. Recent subtractive genomics studies have revealed the putative drug targets in peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathways in Leptospira interrogans. Aligand library for the murD ligase enzyme in the peptidoglycan pathway has also been identified. Our approach in this research involves screening of the pre-existing ligand library of murD with related protein family members in the putative drug target assembly in the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. A chemogenomics approach has been implemented here, which involves screening of known ligands of a protein family having analogous domain architecture for identification of leads for existing druggable protein family members. By means of this approach, one murC and one murF inhibitor were identified, providing a platform for developing an antileptospirosis drug targeting the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. Given that the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway is exclusive to bacteria, the in silico identified mur ligase inhibitors are expected to be broad-spectrum Gram-negative inhibitors if synthesized and tested in in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:23676922

Bhattacharjee, Biplab; Simon, Rose Mary; Gangadharaiah, Chaithra; Karunakar, Prashantha

2013-06-28

160

Identification of Rift Valley Fever Virus Nucleocapsid Protein-RNA Binding Inhibitors Using a High-Throughput Screening Assay  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging infectious pathogen that causes severe disease in humans and livestock and has the potential for global spread. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment for RVFV infection and there is no licensed vaccine. Inhibition of RNA binding to the essential viral nucleocapsid (N) protein represents a potential anti-viral therapeutic strategy because all of the functions performed by N during infection involve RNA binding. To target this interaction, we developed a fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput drug screening assay and tested 26,424 chemical compounds for their ability to disrupt an N-RNA complex. From libraries of FDA approved drugs, drug-like molecules and natural products extracts we identified several lead compounds that are promising candidates for medicinal chemistry.

Ellenbecker, Mary; Lanchy, Jean-Marc; Lodmell, J. Stephen

2012-01-01

161

Screening of Dengue Virus Antiviral Activity of Marine Seaweeds by an In Situ Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa) were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization.

Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Zanello, Paula Rodrigues; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Bordignon, Juliano; Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Claudia

2012-01-01

162

Development of an AlphaScreen-based HIV-1 integrase dimerization assay for discovery of novel allosteric inhibitors.  

PubMed

In recent years, HIV-1 integrase (IN) has become an established target in the field of antiretroviral drug discovery. However, its sole clinically approved inhibitor, the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) raltegravir, has a surprisingly low genetic barrier for resistance. Furthermore, the only two other integrase inhibitors currently in advanced clinical trials, elvitegravir and dolutegravir, share its mechanism of action and certain resistance pathways. To maintain a range of treatment options, drug discovery efforts are now turning toward allosteric IN inhibitors, which should be devoid of cross-resistance with INSTIs. As IN requires a precise and dynamic equilibrium between several oligomeric species for its activities, the modulation of this equilibrium presents an interesting allosteric target. We report on the development, characterization, and validation of an AlphaScreen-based assay for high-throughput screening for modulators of HIV-1 IN dimerization. Compounds identified as hits in this assay proved to act as allosteric IN inhibitors. Additionally, the assay offers a flexible platform to study IN dimerization. PMID:22337657

Demeulemeester, Jonas; Tintori, Cristina; Botta, Maurizio; Debyser, Zeger; Christ, Frauke

2012-06-01

163

Development of a high-throughput screening method for LIM kinase 1 using a luciferase-based assay of ATP consumption  

PubMed Central

Kinases are attractive drug targets because of the central roles they play in signal transduction pathways and human diseases. Their well-formed ATP-binding pockets make ideal targets for small molecule inhibitors. For drug discovery purposes, many peptide-based kinase assays have been developed that measure substrate phosphorylation using fluorescence-based readouts. However, for some kinases these assays may not be appropriate. In the case of the LIM kinases (LIMK), an inability to phosphorylate peptide substrates resulted in previous high-throughput screens (HTS) using radioactive labeling of recombinant cofilin protein as the readout. We describe the development of a HTS-compatible assay that measures relative ATP levels using luciferase-generated luminescence as a function of LIMK activity. The assay was inexpensive to perform and proof-of-principle screening of kinase inhibitors demonstrated that compound potency against LIMK could be determined; ultimately the assay was used for successful prosecution of automated HTS. Following HTS, the secondary assay format was changed to obtain more accurate measures of potency and mechanism of action using more complex (and expensive) assays. The luciferase assay nonetheless provides an inexpensive and reliable primary assay for HTS that allowed for the identification of LIMK inhibitors to initiate discovery programs for the eventual treatment of human diseases.

Mezna, Mokdad; Wong, Ai Ching; Ainger, Margaret; Scott, Rebecca W; Hammonds, Tim; Olson, Michael F

2014-01-01

164

Optimisation of cell-based assays for medium throughput screening of oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Identification and development of cell-based assays adapted to medium throughput screening requirements is important when screening chemicals for their potential toxic properties. We describe here rapid fluorometer-based and spectrophotometer-based microplate assays which allow for the evaluation of oxidative stress in hepatocyte cell cultures by measurement of three markers: production of hydroperoxide assessed by the DCFH-DA probe, cellular antioxidant status by measurement of reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage by evaluation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential with rhodamine 123 fluorescent dye. The assays described here are rapid, simple and inexpensive, which are desirable when setting up screening assays. This system should be useful in selecting candidate compounds during the pre-development phase of agrochemicals or pharmaceuticals. It should also be of interest for retrospective and explanatory studies of mechanisms underlying toxicity observed in vivo. PMID:12650675

Lautraite, S; Bigot-Lasserre, D; Bars, R; Carmichael, N

2003-04-01

165

A phenotypic high throughput screening assay for the identification of pharmacoperones for the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor.  

PubMed

Abstract We describe a phenotypic high throughput screening (HTS) calcium flux assay designed to identify pharmacoperones for the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR). Pharmacoperones are target-specific, small molecules that diffuse into cells, rescue misfolded protein mutants, and restore them to function. Rescue is based on correcting the trafficking of mutants that would otherwise be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and unable to function correctly. This approach identifies drugs with a significant degree of novelty, relying on cellular mechanisms that are not currently exploited. Development of such assays is important, since the extensive use of agonist/antagonist screens alone means that useful chemical structures may be present in existing libraries but have not been previously identified using existing methods. Our assay utilizes cell lines stably expressing a GnRHR mutant under the control of a tetracycline (OFF) transactivator. This allows us to quantitate the level of functional and properly trafficked G protein coupled receptors present in each test well. Furthermore, since we are able to turn receptor expression on and off, we can rapidly eliminate the majority of false positives from our screening results. Our data show that this approach is likely to be successful in identifying hits from large chemical libraries. PMID:24831790

Conn, P Michael; Smith, Emery; Spicer, Timothy; Chase, Peter; Scampavia, Louis; Janovick, Jo Ann

2014-05-01

166

Quantum dot approaches for target-based drug screening and multiplexed active biosensing.  

PubMed

Biomolecule detection using quantum dots (Qdots), nanometer-sized semiconductor crystals, effectively addresses the limitations associated with conventional optical and biochemical techniques, as Qdots offer several key advantages over traditional fluorophores. In this minireview, we discuss the role of Qdots as a central nanoscaffold for the polyvalent assembly of multifunctional biomolecular probes and describe recent advances in Qdot-based biorecognition. Specifically, we focus on Qdot applications in target-based, drug screening assays and real-time active biosensing of cellular processes. PMID:23946011

Kovtun, Oleg; Arzeta-Ferrer, Xochitl; Rosenthal, Sandra J

2013-12-21

167

Development of a thyroperoxidase inhibition assay for high-throughput screening.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTPS) assays to detect inhibitors of thyroperoxidase (TPO), the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, are not currently available. Herein, we describe the development of a HTPS TPO inhibition assay. Rat thyroid microsomes and a fluorescent peroxidase substrate, Amplex UltraRed (AUR), were employed in an end-point assay for comparison to the existing kinetic guaiacol (GUA) oxidation assay. Following optimization of assay metrics, including Z', dynamic range, and activity, using methimazole (MMI), the assay was tested with a 21-chemical training set. The potency of MMI-induced TPO inhibition was greater with AUR compared to GUA. The dynamic range and Z' score with MMI were as follows: 127-fold and 0.62 for the GUA assay, 18-fold and 0.86 for the 96-well AUR assay, and 11.5-fold and 0.93 for the 384-well AUR assay. The 384-well AUR assay drastically reduced animal use, requiring one-tenth of the rat thyroid microsomal protein needed for the GUA 96-well format assay. Fourteen chemicals inhibited TPO, with a relative potency ranking of MMI > ethylene thiourea > 6-propylthiouracil > 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-benzophenone > 2-mercaptobenzothiazole > 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole > genistein > 4-propoxyphenol > sulfamethazine > daidzein > 4-nonylphenol > triclosan > iopanoic acid > resorcinol. These data demonstrate the capacity of this assay to detect diverse TPO inhibitors. Seven chemicals acted as negatives: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, dibutylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, diethylphthalate, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole-1-methanol, methyl 2-methyl-benzoate, and sodium perchlorate. This assay could be used to screen large numbers of chemicals as an integral component of a tiered TH-disruptor screening approach. PMID:24383450

Paul, Katie B; Hedge, Joan M; Rotroff, Daniel M; Hornung, Michael W; Crofton, Kevin M; Simmons, Steven O

2014-03-17

168

Biomimetic membrane platform containing hERG potassium channel and its application to drug screening.  

PubMed

The hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) potassium channel has been extensively studied by both academia and industry because of its relation to inherited or drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS). Unpredicted hERG and drug interaction affecting channel activity is of main concern for drug discovery. Although there are several methods to test hERG and drug interaction, it is still necessary to develop some efficient and economic ways to probe hERG and drug interactions. To contribute this aim, we have developed a biomimetic lipid membrane platform into which the hERG channel can be folded. Expression and integration of the hERG channel was achieved using a cell-free (CF) expression system. The folding of hERG in the biomimetic membrane system was investigated using Surface Plasmon Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (SPFS) and Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance (iSPR). In addition, the hERG channel folded into our biomimetic membrane platform was used for probing the channel and drug interactions through fluorescence polarization (FP) assay. Our results suggest that the biomimetic system employed is capable of detecting the interaction between hERG and different channel blockers at varied concentrations. We believe that our current approach could be applied to other membrane proteins for drug screening or other protein-related interactions. PMID:23423263

Arslan Yildiz, Ahu; Kang, CongBao; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin

2013-04-01

169

Drug abuse in the workplace: employee screening techniques  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies show that as many as three to five percent of the employees of a medium- to large-sized plant may be dependent on drugs as a way of life. The detrimental effects of drug abuse in the workplace can be measured in lost productivity, poor quality control and other areas at an annual cost to the American economy of $30 billion. However, a price tag cannot be attached to the lives affected by this unrelenting problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the employee screening and hiring techniques available to industry to detect and eliminate potentially dangerous or fatal situations involving drug abuse in the workplace. The techniques are universal and can be effectively applied by the nuclear industry as well as other businesses to ensure that its work force is a reputable and reliable one.

Buzzeo, R.W.

1984-07-01

170

A 1536-Well Fluorescence Polarization Assay to Screen for Modulators of the MUSASHI Family of RNA-Binding Proteins.  

PubMed

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) can act as stem cell modulators and oncogenic drivers, but have been largely ignored by the pharmaceutical industry as potential therapeutic targets for cancer. The MUSASHI (MSI) family has recently been demonstrated to be an attractive clinical target in the most aggressive cancers. Therefore, the discovery and development of small molecule inhibitors could provide a novel therapeutic strategy. In order to find novel compounds with MSI RNA binding inhibitory activity, we have developed a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay and optimized it for high throughput screening (HTS) in a 1536-well microtiter plate format. Using a chemical library of 6,208 compounds, we performed pilot screens, against both MSI1 and MSI2, leading to the identification of 7 molecules for MSI1, 15 for MSI2 and 5 that inhibited both. A secondary FP dose-response screen validated 3 MSI inhibitors with IC50 below 10 ?M. Out of the 25 compounds retested in the secondary screen only 8 demonstrated optical interference due to high fluorescence. Utilizing a SYBR-based RNA electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA), we further verified MSI inhibition of the top 3 compounds. Surprisingly, even though several aminoglycosides were present in the library, they failed to demonstrate MSI inhibitor activity challenging the concept that these compounds are pan-active against RBPs. In summary, we have developed an in vitro strategy to identify MSI specific inhibitors using an FP HTS platform, which will facilitate novel drug discovery for this class of RBPs. PMID:24912481

Minuesa, Gerard; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Li, Yueming; Djaballah, Hakim; Kharas, Michael G

2014-01-01

171

Miniature short hairpin RNA screens to characterize antiproliferative drugs.  

PubMed

The application of new proteomics and genomics technologies support a view in which few drugs act solely by inhibiting a single cellular target. Indeed, drug activity is modulated by complex, often incompletely understood cellular mechanisms. Therefore, efforts to decipher mode of action through genetic perturbation such as RNAi typically yields "hits" that fall into several categories. Of particular interest to the present study, we aimed to characterize secondary activities of drugs on cells. Inhibiting a known target can result in clinically relevant synthetic phenotypes. In one scenario, drug perturbation could, for example, improperly activate a protein that normally inhibits a particular kinase. In other cases, additional, lower affinity targets can be inhibited as in the example of inhibition of c-Kit observed in Bcr-Abl-positive cells treated with Gleevec. Drug transport and metabolism also play an important role in the way any chemicals act within the cells. Finally, RNAi per se can also affect cell fitness by more general off-target effects, e.g., via the modulation of apoptosis or DNA damage repair. Regardless of the root cause of these unwanted effects, understanding the scope of a drug's activity and polypharmacology is essential for better understanding its mechanism(s) of action, and such information can guide development of improved therapies. We describe a rapid, cost-effective approach to characterize primary and secondary effects of small-molecules by using small-scale libraries of virally integrated short hairpin RNAs. We demonstrate this principle using a "minipool" composed of shRNAs that target the genes encoding the reported protein targets of approved drugs. Among the 28 known reported drug-target pairs, we successfully identify 40% of the targets described in the literature and uncover several unanticipated drug-target interactions based on drug-induced synthetic lethality. We provide a detailed protocol for performing such screens and for analyzing the data. This cost-effective approach to mammalian knockdown screens, combined with the increasing maturation of RNAi technology will expand the accessibility of similar approaches in academic settings. PMID:23797109

Kittanakom, Saranya; Arnoldo, Anthony; Brown, Kevin R; Wallace, Iain; Kunavisarut, Tada; Torti, Dax; Heisler, Lawrence E; Surendra, Anuradha; Moffat, Jason; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

2013-08-01

172

A New In Vivo Screening Paradigm to Accelerate Antimalarial Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

The emergence of resistance to available antimalarials requires the urgent development of new medicines. The recent disclosure of several thousand compounds active in vitro against the erythrocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum has been a major breakthrough, though converting these hits into new medicines challenges current strategies. A new in vivo screening concept was evaluated as a strategy to increase the speed and efficiency of drug discovery projects in malaria. The new in vivo screening concept was developed based on human disease parameters, i.e. parasitemia in the peripheral blood of patients on hospital admission and parasite reduction ratio (PRR), which were allometrically down-scaled into P. berghei-infected mice. Mice with an initial parasitemia (P0) of 1.5% were treated orally for two consecutive days and parasitemia measured 24 h after the second dose. The assay was optimized for detection of compounds able to stop parasite replication (PRR?=?1) or induce parasite clearance (PRR >1) with statistical power >99% using only two mice per experimental group. In the P. berghei in vivo screening assay, the PRR of a set of eleven antimalarials with different mechanisms of action correlated with human-equivalent data. Subsequently, 590 compounds from the Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set with activity in vitro against P. falciparum were tested at 50 mg/kg (orally) in an assay format that allowed the evaluation of hundreds of compounds per month. The rate of compounds with detectable efficacy was 11.2% and about one third of active compounds showed in vivo efficacy comparable with the most potent antimalarials used clinically. High-throughput, high-content in vivo screening could rapidly select new compounds, dramatically speeding up the discovery of new antimalarial medicines. A global multilateral collaborative project aimed at screening the significant chemical diversity within the antimalarial in vitro hits described in the literature is a feasible task.

Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Viera, Sara; Ibanez, Javier; Mulet, Teresa; Magan-Marchal, Noemi; Garuti, Helen; Gomez, Vanessa; Cortes-Gil, Lorena; Martinez, Antonio; Ferrer, Santiago; Fraile, Maria Teresa; Calderon, Felix; Fernandez, Esther; Shultz, Leonard D.; Leroy, Didier; Wilson, David M.; Garcia-Bustos, Jose Francisco; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Angulo-Barturen, Inigo

2013-01-01

173

The development of a high-content screening binding assay for the smoothened receptor.  

PubMed

In this study, the development of an image-based high-content screening (HCS) binding assay for the seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptor Smoothened (Smo) is described. Using BacMam-based gene delivery of Smo, BODIPY-cyclopamine as a fluorescent probe, and a confocal imaging system, a robust 384-well assay that could be used for high-throughput compound profiling activities was developed. The statistically robust HCS binding assay was developed through optimization of multiple parameters, including cell transduction conditions, Smo expression levels, the image analysis algorithm, and staining procedures. Evaluation of structurally diverse compounds, including functional Smo activators, inhibitors, and related analogs, demonstrated good compound potency correlations between high-content imaging binding, membrane fluorescence polarization binding, and gene reporter assays. Statistical analysis of data from a screening test set of compounds at a single 10-µM concentration suggested that the high-content imaging Smo binding assay is amenable for use in hit identification. The 384-well HCS assay was rapidly developed and met statistical assay performance targets, thus demonstrating its utility as a fluorescent whole-cell binding assay suitable for compound screening and profiling. PMID:22644265

Bee, Weilin Tiger; Xie, Wensheng; Truong, Maggie; Will, Matthew; Turunen, Brandon; Zuercher, William J; McMillan, Lynette; Li, Hu; Hornberger, Keith R; Davenport, Elizabeth A; Ames, Robert S; Kallal, Lorena A

2012-08-01

174

Development of a high throughput screening assay for inhibitors of small ubiquitin-like modifier proteases  

PubMed Central

Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO1-3) is a small group of proteins that are ligated to lysine residues in target proteins. SUMO conjugation is a highly dynamic process, as SUMOylated proteins are rapidly deconjugated by SUMO proteases. SUMO conjugation/deconjugation plays pivotal roles in major cellular pathways, and is associated with a number of pathological conditions. It is therefore of significant clinical interest to develop new strategies to screen for compounds to specifically interfere with SUMO conjugation/deconjugation. Here, we describe a novel high throughput screening-compatible assay to identify inhibitors of SUMO proteases. The assay is based on AlphaScreen technology and uses His-tagged SUMO2 conjugated to Strep-tagged SUMO3 as a SUMO protease substrate. A bacterial SUMOylation system was used to generate this substrate. A three-step purification strategy was employed to yield substrate of high quality. Our data indicated that this unique substrate can be readily detected in the AlphaScreen assays in a dose-dependent manner. Cleavage reactions by SUMO protease with or without inhibitor were monitored based on AlphaScreen signals. Furthermore, the assay was adapted to a 384-well format, and the interplate and interday variability was evaluated in eight 384-well plates. The average Z’ factor was 0.83±0.04, confirming the suitability for high throughput screening applications.

Yang, Wei; Wang, Liangli; Paschen, Wulf

2013-01-01

175

Homogeneous assays for single-nucleotide polymorphism typing using AlphaScreen.  

PubMed

AlphaScreen technology allows the development of high-throughput homogeneous proximity assays. In these assays, signal is generated when 680 nm laser light irradiates a donor bead in close proximity to an acceptor bead. For the detection of nucleic acids, donor and acceptor beads are brought into proximity by two bridging probes that hybridize simultaneously to a common target and to the generic oligonucleotides attached covalently to the beads. This method allows the detection of as little as 10 amole of a single-stranded DNA target. The combination of AlphaScreen with allele-specific amplification (ASA) and allele-specific hybridization (ASH) has allowed the development of two homogenous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms. Both types of assay are very robust, routinely giving accurate genotyping results with < 2 ng of genomic DNA per genotype. An AlphaScreen validation study was performed for 12 SNPs by using ASA assays and seven SNPs by using ASH assays. More than 580 samples were genotyped with accuracy >99%. The two assays are remarkably simple, requiring no post-PCR manipulations. Genotyping has been performed successfully in 96- and 384-well formats with volumes as small as 2 microL, allowing a considerable reduction in the amount of reagents and genomic DNA necessary for genotyping. These results show that the AlphaScreen technology can be successfully adapted to high-throughput genotyping. PMID:11282975

Beaudet, L; Bédard, J; Breton, B; Mercuri, R J; Budarf, M L

2001-04-01

176

21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...is intended for use in detecting HIV genomic mutations that confer...specific antiretroviral drugs, as an aid in monitoring and treating HIV infection. (b)...

2012-04-01

177

21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid reagent primers and probes together with software for predicting drug resistance/susceptibility based on results obtained with these primers and...

2009-04-01

178

Disease modeling and drug screening for neurological diseases using human induced pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

With the general decline of pharmaceutical research productivity, there are concerns that many components of the drug discovery process need to be redesigned and optimized. For example, the human immortalized cell lines or animal primary cells commonly used in traditional drug screening may not faithfully recapitulate the pathological mechanisms of human diseases, leading to biases in assays, targets, or compounds that do not effectively address disease mechanisms. Recent advances in stem cell research, especially in the development of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, provide a new paradigm for drug screening by permitting the use of human cells with the same genetic makeup as the patients without the typical quantity constraints associated with patient primary cells. In this article, we will review the progress made to date on cellular disease models using human stem cells, with a focus on patient-specific iPSCs for neurological diseases. We will discuss the key challenges and the factors that associated with the success of using stem cell models for drug discovery through examples from monogenic diseases, diseases with various known genetic components, and complex diseases caused by a combination of genetic, environmental and other factors.

Xu, Xiao-hong; Zhong, Zhong

2013-01-01

179

Engineering Xenopus embryos for phenotypic drug discovery screening.  

PubMed

Many rare human inherited diseases remain untreatable despite the fact that the disease causing genes are known and adequate mouse disease models have been developed. In vivo phenotypic drug screening relies on isolating drug candidates by their ability to produce a desired therapeutic phenotype in whole organisms. Embryos of zebrafish and Xenopus frogs are abundant, small and free-living. They can be easily arrayed in multi-well dishes and treated with small organic molecules. With the development of novel genome modification tools, such a zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas, it is now possible to efficiently engineer non-mammalian models of inherited human diseases. Here, we will review the rapid progress made in adapting these novel genome editing tools to Xenopus. The advantages of Xenopus embryos as in vivo models to study human inherited diseases will be presented and their utility for drug discovery screening will be discussed. Being a tetrapod, Xenopus complements zebrafish as an indispensable non-mammalian animal model for the study of human disease pathologies and the discovery of novel therapeutics for inherited diseases. PMID:24576445

Schmitt, Stefan M; Gull, Mazhar; Brändli, André W

2014-04-01

180

Facilitating drug discovery: an automated high-content inflammation assay in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Zebrafish larvae are particularly amenable to whole animal small molecule screens due to their small size and relative ease of manipulation and observation, as well as the fact that compounds can simply be added to the bathing water and are readily absorbed when administered in a <1% DMSO solution. Due to the optical clarity of zebrafish larvae and the availability of transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins in leukocytes, zebrafish offer the unique advantage of monitoring an acute inflammatory response in vivo. Consequently, utilizing the zebrafish for high-content small molecule screens aiming at the identification of immune-modulatory compounds with high throughput has been proposed, suggesting inflammation induction scenarios e.g. localized nicks in fin tissue, laser damage directed to the yolk surface of embryos or tailfin amputation. The major drawback of these methods however was the requirement of manual larva manipulation to induce wounding, thus preventing high-throughput screening. Introduction of the chemically induced inflammation (ChIn) assay eliminated these obstacles. Since wounding is inflicted chemically the number of embryos that can be treated simultaneously is virtually unlimited. Temporary treatment of zebrafish larvae with copper sulfate selectively induces cell death in hair cells of the lateral line system and results in rapid granulocyte recruitment to injured neuromasts. The inflammatory response can be followed in real-time by using compound transgenic cldnB::GFP/lysC::DsRED2 zebrafish larvae that express a green fluorescent protein in neuromast cells, as well as a red fluorescent protein labeling granulocytes. In order to devise a screening strategy that would allow both high-content and high-throughput analyses we introduced robotic liquid handling and combined automated microscopy with a custom developed software script. This script enables automated quantification of the inflammatory response by scoring the percent area occupied by red fluorescent leukocytes within an empirically defined area surrounding injured green fluorescent neuromasts. Furthermore, we automated data processing, handling, visualization, and storage all based on custom developed MATLAB and Python scripts. In brief, we introduce an automated HC/HT screen that allows testing of chemical compounds for their effect on initiation, progression or resolution of a granulocytic inflammatory response. This protocol serves a good starting point for more in-depth analyses of drug mechanisms and pathways involved in the orchestration of an innate immune response. In the future, it may help identifying intolerable toxic or off-target effects at earlier phases of drug discovery and thereby reduce procedural risks and costs for drug development. PMID:22825322

Wittmann, Christine; Reischl, Markus; Shah, Asmi H; Mikut, Ralf; Liebel, Urban; Grabher, Clemens

2012-01-01

181

Mind the gap: Concerns using endpoints from endocrine screening assays in risk assessment.  

PubMed

Endocrine screening assays not only provide mechanistic information on the potential of a substance to interact with the endocrine system, but also data potentially relevant for risk assessment. However, these screening assays have a number of limitations that should be considered before the direct use of such data for risk assessment purposes. This paper discusses the limitations that should be considered for both human and environmental risk assessment. A proposal is made to provide an objective and transparent process in order to consider which endpoint(s) might be incorporated into a risk assessment, and when more definitive studies may be of value. The proposal is complemented with an easy-to-follow flowchart to aid industry scientists and regulators when evaluating the relevance of these data. Such an approach is necessary to ensure the appropriate use of screening data to further our understanding of the eco/toxicological profile of substances undergoing screening. PMID:24887212

Wheeler, James R; Weltje, Lennart; Green, Richard M

2014-08-01

182

A Novel Multiplex Cell Viability Assay for High-Throughput RNAi Screening  

PubMed Central

Cell-based high-throughput RNAi screening has become a powerful research tool in addressing a variety of biological questions. In RNAi screening, one of the most commonly applied assay system is measuring the fitness of cells that is usually quantified using fluorescence, luminescence and absorption-based readouts. These methods, typically implemented and scaled to large-scale screening format, however often only yield limited information on the cell fitness phenotype due to evaluation of a single and indirect physiological indicator. To address this problem, we have established a cell fitness multiplexing assay which combines a biochemical approach and two fluorescence-based assaying methods. We applied this assay in a large-scale RNAi screening experiment with siRNA pools targeting the human kinome in different modified HEK293 cell lines. Subsequent analysis of ranked fitness phenotypes assessed by the different assaying methods revealed average phenotype intersections of 50.7±2.3%–58.7±14.4% when two indicators were combined and 40–48% when a third indicator was taken into account. From these observations we conclude that combination of multiple fitness measures may decrease false-positive rates and increases confidence for hit selection. Our robust experimental and analytical method improves the classical approach in terms of time, data comprehensiveness and cost.

Gilbert, Daniel F.; Erdmann, Gerrit; Zhang, Xian; Fritzsche, Anja; Demir, Kubilay; Jaedicke, Andreas; Muehlenberg, Katja; Wanker, Erich E.; Boutros, Michael

2011-01-01

183

A novel multiplex cell viability assay for high-throughput RNAi screening.  

PubMed

Cell-based high-throughput RNAi screening has become a powerful research tool in addressing a variety of biological questions. In RNAi screening, one of the most commonly applied assay system is measuring the fitness of cells that is usually quantified using fluorescence, luminescence and absorption-based readouts. These methods, typically implemented and scaled to large-scale screening format, however often only yield limited information on the cell fitness phenotype due to evaluation of a single and indirect physiological indicator. To address this problem, we have established a cell fitness multiplexing assay which combines a biochemical approach and two fluorescence-based assaying methods. We applied this assay in a large-scale RNAi screening experiment with siRNA pools targeting the human kinome in different modified HEK293 cell lines. Subsequent analysis of ranked fitness phenotypes assessed by the different assaying methods revealed average phenotype intersections of 50.7±2.3%-58.7±14.4% when two indicators were combined and 40-48% when a third indicator was taken into account. From these observations we conclude that combination of multiple fitness measures may decrease false-positive rates and increases confidence for hit selection. Our robust experimental and analytical method improves the classical approach in terms of time, data comprehensiveness and cost. PMID:22162763

Gilbert, Daniel F; Erdmann, Gerrit; Zhang, Xian; Fritzsche, Anja; Demir, Kubilay; Jaedicke, Andreas; Muehlenberg, Katja; Wanker, Erich E; Boutros, Michael

2011-01-01

184

Assays for prostate cancer : changing the screening paradigm?  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa) screening and detection have changed dramatically since the introduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Despite the resulting improvement in early PCa detection and stage migration, in clinical practice the use of PSA testing may cause overdetection and ultimately overtreatment. As a consequence, novel biomarkers are needed to increase the specificity of PCa detection. The aim of this article is to present an overview of novel blood- and urine-based biomarkers that may optimize PCa detection, with improved identification of patients with significant PCa and avoidance of unnecessary prostate biopsies. A systematic and comprehensive PubMed search was performed using the MeSH search terms 'prostate cancer', 'biomarker', 'marker', and 'detection'. Results were restricted to the English language. Several blood- and urine-based biomarkers have the potential to improve prediction of the presence and/or significance of PCa. Ideally, biomarkers should be used in combination within multivariate models, leading to superior accuracy for prediction of any PCa or clinically significant PCa, compared with the use of a single marker. PMID:23355098

Hansen, Jens; Rink, Michael; Graefen, Markus; Shariat, Shahrokh; Chun, Felix K-H

2013-02-01

185

A microscopic phenotypic assay for the quantification of intracellular mycobacteria adapted for high-throughput/high-content screening.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of therapy and vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly and widespread bacterial infections in the world. Since several decades, the sudden burst of multi- and extensively-drug resistant strains is a serious threat for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, it is essential to identify new targets and pathways critical for the causative agent of the tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and to search for novel chemicals that could become TB drugs. One approach is to set up methods suitable for the genetic and chemical screens of large scale libraries enabling the search of a needle in a haystack. To this end, we developed a phenotypic assay relying on the detection of fluorescently labeled Mtb within fluorescently labeled host cells using automated confocal microscopy. This in vitro assay allows an image based quantification of the colonization process of Mtb into the host and was optimized for the 384-well microplate format, which is proper for screens of siRNA-, chemical compound- or Mtb mutant-libraries. The images are then processed for multiparametric analysis, which provides read out inferring on the pathogenesis of Mtb within host cells. PMID:24473237

Queval, Christophe J; Song, Ok-Ryul; Delorme, Vincent; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Deboosère, Nathalie; Landry, Valérie; Baulard, Alain; Brodin, Priscille

2014-01-01

186

Multiplex inhibitor screening and kinetic constant determinations for yeast hexokinase using mass spectrometry based assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrospray ionization mass spectrometry based assay was developed for kinetic measurements and inhibitor screening of\\u000a yeast hexokinase. There is considerable discrepancy in the literature as to the accuracy of kinetic data obtained for hexokinase.\\u000a In the assay described herein, the product, glucose 6-phosphate was directly monitored by ion trap mass spectrometry and quantified\\u000a using an internal standard, 2 deoxy-glucose

Hong Gao; Julie A. Leary

2003-01-01

187

Application of the ferrous oxidation–xylenol orange assay for the screening of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme involved in leukotriene synthesis and its improper regulation is implicated in several inflammatory diseases. A rapid and sensitive assay for 5-LO activity suitable for high-throughput format is not yet available. In this study, we examined whether the ferrous oxidation–xylenol orange (FOX) assay could be applicable for the high-throughput screening of 5-LO inhibitors. Using insect

Young Sik Cho; Hyo Sun Kim; Chi Hyun Kim; Hyae Gyeong Cheon

2006-01-01

188

Miniaturisation and validation of a cell-based assay for screening of Ca 2+ channel modulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) play a significant role in the regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations in cardiovascular, neuronal and skeletal tissues. Therefore, physiologically relevant screening methods for calcium channel modulators are required. A 45Ca2+ uptake assay based on clonal rat pituitary cell line GH4C1, possessing L-type VOCCs, was miniaturised into a 96-well plate format. The assay was validated by known

Päivi Tammela; Pia Vuorela

2004-01-01

189

Investigation of the incidence of "undesirable" molecular moieties for high-throughput screening compound libraries in marketed drug compounds.  

PubMed

A database of 1070 marketed drug compounds was compiled and analyzed in order to assess the occurrence of moieties described in the literature as "undesirable" for high-throughput screening compound libraries due to their ability to perturb assay formats. The study revealed a total of 277 compounds, 26% of the database, contained at least one of the moieties. As some of the drug compounds contained more than one "undesirable" moiety, the total number was 352. Electrophilic reactive groups, particularly aliphatic esters, were the most abundant type with 55% of the total. Half of the drug compounds incorporating the "undesirable" moieties were synthetic organic molecules. These findings suggest that "undesirable" moieties do not pose a major hindrance during clinical trials, the most expensive phase of drug development. In addition, their early elimination in the preclinical stage excludes large regions of known drug space due to the reliance on biochemical and cell-based assays. In general, it can be concluded that compounds with "undesirable" moieties should not simply be eliminated from compound screening libraries but rather be flagged as potentially problematic. A possible solution is to segregate the compounds containing suspect moieties and screen them when deemed appropriate. PMID:18692938

Axerio-Cilies, Peter; Castañeda, Ivan P; Mirza, Amin; Reynisson, Jóhannes

2009-03-01

190

A novel gamma-fitting statistical method for anti-drug antibody assays to establish assay cut points for data with non-normal distribution.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been growing recognition of the impact of anti-drug or anti-therapeutic antibodies (ADAs, ATAs) on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of the drug, which ultimately affects drug exposure and activity. These anti-drug antibodies can also impact safety of the therapeutic by inducing a range of reactions from hypersensitivity to neutralization of the activity of an endogenous protein. Assessments of immunogenicity, therefore, are critically dependent on the bioanalytical method used to test samples, in which a positive versus negative reactivity is determined by a statistically derived cut point based on the distribution of drug naïve samples. For non-normally distributed data, a novel gamma-fitting method for obtaining assay cut points is presented. Non-normal immunogenicity data distributions, which tend to be unimodal and positively skewed, can often be modeled by 3-parameter gamma fits. Under a gamma regime, gamma based cut points were found to be more accurate (closer to their targeted false positive rates) compared to normal or log-normal methods and more precise (smaller standard errors of cut point estimators) compared with the nonparametric percentile method. Under a gamma regime, normal theory based methods for estimating cut points targeting a 5% false positive rate were found in computer simulation experiments to have, on average, false positive rates ranging from 6.2 to 8.3% (or positive biases between +1.2 and +3.3%) with bias decreasing with the magnitude of the gamma shape parameter. The log-normal fits tended, on average, to underestimate false positive rates with negative biases as large a -2.3% with absolute bias decreasing with the shape parameter. These results were consistent with the well known fact that gamma distributions become less skewed and closer to a normal distribution as their shape parameters increase. Inflated false positive rates, especially in a screening assay, shifts the emphasis to confirm test results in a subsequent test (confirmatory assay). On the other hand, deflated false positive rates in the case of screening immunogenicity assays will not meet the minimum 5% false positive target as proposed in the immunogenicity assay guidance white papers. PMID:19891969

Schlain, Brian; Amaravadi, Lakshmi; Donley, Jean; Wickramasekera, Ananda; Bennett, Donald; Subramanyam, Meena

2010-01-31

191

DEVELOPMENT, STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF THE MAMMALIAN IN VIVO ASSAYS IN THE PROPOSED TIER I SCREENING BATTERY FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research directly supports the development, standardization and validation of several Tier 1 screening mammalian in vivo assays. Through the development and use of many of these assays for testing specific hypothesis in their respective research programs, these investigato...

192

Using in Vitro High Throughput Screening Assays to Identify Potential Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 20 years, an increased focus on detecting environmental chemicals that pose a risk of adverse effects due to endocrine disruption has driven the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Thousands of chemicals are subject to the EDSP; thus, processing these chemicals using current test batteries could require millions of dollars and decades. A need for increased throughput and efficiency motivated the development of methods using in vitro high throughput screening (HTS) assays to prioritize chemicals for EDSP Tier 1 screening (T1S). Objective: In this study we used U.S. EPA ToxCast HTS assays for estrogen, androgen, steroidogenic, and thyroid-disrupting mechanisms to classify compounds and compare ToxCast results to in vitro and in vivo data from EDSP T1S assays. Method: We implemented an iterative model that optimized the ability of endocrine-related HTS assays to predict components of EDSP T1S and related results. Balanced accuracy was used as a measure of model performance. Results: ToxCast estrogen receptor and androgen receptor assays predicted the results of relevant EDSP T1S assays with balanced accuracies of 0.91 (p < 0.001) and 0.92 (p < 0.001), respectively. Uterotrophic and Hershberger assay results were predicted with balanced accuracies of 0.89 (p < 0.001) and 1 (p < 0.001), respectively. Models for steroidogenic and thyroid-related effects could not be developed with the currently published ToxCast data. Conclusions: Overall, results suggest that current ToxCast assays can accurately identify chemicals with potential to interact with the estrogenic and androgenic pathways, and could help prioritize chemicals for EDSP T1S assays.

Rotroff, Daniel M.; Dix, David J.; Houck, Keith A.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Martin, Matthew T.; McLaurin, Keith W.; Reif, David M.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Singh, Amar V.; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili

2012-01-01

193

A Systematic Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Biological Threat Agents  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid development of effective medical countermeasures against potential biological threat agents is vital. Repurposing existing drugs that may have unanticipated activities as potential countermeasures is one way to meet this important goal, since currently approved drugs already have well-established safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in patients, as well as manufacturing and distribution networks. Therefore, approved drugs could rapidly be made available for a new indication in an emergency. Methodology/Principal Findings A large systematic effort to determine whether existing drugs can be used against high containment bacterial and viral pathogens is described. We assembled and screened 1012 FDA-approved drugs for off-label broad-spectrum efficacy against Bacillus anthracis; Francisella tularensis; Coxiella burnetii; and Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fever viruses using in vitro cell culture assays. We found a variety of hits against two or more of these biological threat pathogens, which were validated in secondary assays. As expected, antibiotic compounds were highly active against bacterial agents, but we did not identify any non-antibiotic compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Lomefloxacin and erythromycin were found to be the most potent compounds in vivo protecting mice against Bacillus anthracis challenge. While multiple virus-specific inhibitors were identified, the most noteworthy antiviral compound identified was chloroquine, which disrupted entry and replication of two or more viruses in vitro and protected mice against Ebola virus challenge in vivo. Conclusions/Significance The feasibility of repurposing existing drugs to face novel threats is demonstrated and this represents the first effort to apply this approach to high containment bacteria and viruses.

Madrid, Peter B.; Chopra, Sidharth; Manger, Ian D.; Gilfillan, Lynne; Keepers, Tiffany R.; Shurtleff, Amy C.; Green, Carol E.; Iyer, Lalitha V.; Dilks, Holli Hutcheson; Davey, Robert A.; Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L.; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G.; Warren, Travis K.; Wells, Jay B.; Moos, Walter H.; Burke, RaeLyn L.; Tanga, Mary J.

2013-01-01

194

Screening for personality disorder in drug and alcohol dependence.  

PubMed

Comorbidity of personality disorders in addiction is common, and there is a need for efficient detection methods. This study describes the use of two quick screening instruments: the self-reported versions of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS-SR) and the Standardised Assessment of Personality Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS-SR). The sample included 53 inpatients dependent on alcohol and/or drugs, with a 42% prevalence of any DSM-IV personality disorder. The Personality Assessment Schedule (PAS) was used as gold standard. Receiver-Operant-Characteristic (ROC) was used for analysis. The Area Under the Curve for the IPDS-SR was 0.84 (95% CI 0.72-0.93) and for the SAPAS-SR was 0.82 (95% CI 0.70-0.93). An IPDS-SR score of 5 or more correctly classified 77.4% of patients, with a sensitivity of 86.4% and a specificity of 71%. A SAPAS-SR score of 4 or more correctly classified 73.6% of patients, with a sensitivity of 81.8% and a specificity of 67.7%. Both instruments were quick, easy to administer, and acceptable to use by this population. They can be implemented in routine clinical practice in busy substance misuse departments. However further research into the implications of positive screenings is required. PMID:24680874

Gonzalez, Carlos

2014-06-30

195

A rapid and simple MTT-based spectrophotometric assay for determining drug sensitivity in monolayer cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric assay for determining viability in monolayer cultured cell lines, with specific applications in normal and drug resistant cell line determinations, is described. The assay involves conversion of the tetrazolium salt MTT by viable proliferating cells to an insoluble product, purple formazan. The chief advantage of this assay is that it requires fewer cells than

Jeffrey M. Edmondson; Linda S. Armstrong; Andrew O. Martinez

1988-01-01

196

Development of novel, 384-well high-throughput assay panels for human drug transporters: drug interaction and safety assessment in support of discovery research.  

PubMed

Transporter proteins are known to play a critical role in affecting the overall absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics of drug candidates. In addition to efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, etc.) that limit absorption, there has been a renewed interest in influx transporters at the renal (OATs, OCTs) and hepatic (OATPs, BSEP, NTCP, etc.) organ level that can cause significant clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Several of these transporters are also critical for hepatobiliary disposition of bilirubin and bile acid/salts, and their inhibition is directly implicated in hepatic toxicities. Regulatory agencies took action to address transporter-mediated DDI with the goal of ensuring drug safety in the clinic and on the market. To meet regulatory requirements, advanced bioassay technology and automation solutions were implemented for high-throughput transporter screening to provide structure-activity relationship within lead optimization. To enhance capacity, several functional assay formats were miniaturized to 384-well throughput including novel fluorescence-based uptake and efflux inhibition assays using high-content image analysis as well as cell-based radioactive uptake and vesicle-based efflux inhibition assays. This high-throughput capability enabled a paradigm shift from studying transporter-related issues in the development space to identifying and dialing out these concerns early on in discovery for enhanced mechanism-based efficacy while circumventing DDIs and transporter toxicities. PMID:24062352

Tang, Huaping; Shen, Ding Ren; Han, Yong-Hae; Kong, Yan; Balimane, Praveen; Marino, Anthony; Gao, Mian; Wu, Sophie; Xie, Dianlin; Soars, Matthew G; O'Connell, Jonathan C; Rodrigues, A David; Zhang, Litao; Cvijic, Mary Ellen

2013-10-01

197

Surface specific peptide immobilization on radiografted polymers as potential screening assays for antiangiogenic immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis is a key process of cancer development and metastasis. It’s inhibition is an important and promising strategy to block tumor growth and invasion. One of these approaches, based on antiangiogenic immunotherapy, is the recognition of a specific region of an angiogenic growth factor, called VEGF-A, by monoclonal antibodies. Thus, we aimed to design a novel assay to screen potential

M.-Cl. Clochard; O. Cuscito; T. Berthelot; N. Betz; C. Bittencourt; J.-J. Pireaux; M. Goncalves; K. Gionnet; G. Déléris

2008-01-01

198

DNA Comet Assay––a rapid screening method for detection of irradiated cereals and tree nuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole grains of some important cereals (wheat, buckwheat, maize, millet and oat) and some whole tree nuts (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, peanuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, pistachio nuts and pine nuts) have been investigated for the identification of radiation treatment using microgel electrophoresis of single cells. This DNA Comet Assay is proposed as a rapid screening method for detection of irradiated

Ashfaq A. Khan; Hasan M. Khan; Henry Delincée

2005-01-01

199

MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES  

EPA Science Inventory

MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES. Authors: L E Gray 1 , J Furr 1 , M G Price 2 , C J Wolf 3 and J S Ostby 1 Institutions: 1. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NH...

200

Analysis of a High-Throughput HLA Antibody Screening Assay for Use with Platelet Donors  

PubMed Central

Background Passive infusion of HLA antibodies has been implicated in transfusion reactions. A rapid, inexpensive method of screening blood donors for HLA antibodies might reduce the incidence of reactions. A high-throughput microbead-flow analyzer HLA antibody detection technique was compared with an ELISA method. Materials and Method 96 apheresis platelet donors were tested for antibodies to Class I and II HLA antigens using mixed antigen microbead-flow analyzer and ELISA assays. For both assays, samples reactive in the mixed antigen assay were tested with a panel reactive antibody (PRA) assay. Samples reactive in both the mixed antigen and PRA assays were considered positive. Results In the mixed antigen microbead assay 46 (48%) samples were reactive to Class I antigens and 20 (21%) to Class II. Further testing in the microbead PRA assay revealed that 34 (35%) had antibodies to Class I antigens, 18 (19%) to Class II, and 42 (44%) to either Class I or II. Class I antibodies were present in 56% of females and 36% of males. In the mixed antigen ELISA assay 4 samples were reactive with Class I antigens; 4 with Class II antigens, and 5 with Class I or Class II. All 5 reactive samples were also reactive in the ELISA PRA assay and were from females. Conclusion The microbead assay was more sensitive than the ELISA assay and detected antibodies in a large proportion of donors. Samples reactive in the mixed antigen microbead assay should be confirmed by a second assay before concluding that antibodies are present.

Fadeyi, Emmanuel; Adams, Sharon; Peterson, Brett; Hackett, Julia; Byrne, Phyllis; Klein, Harvey G.; Marincola, Francesco M.; Leitman, Susan F.; Stroncek, David F.

2009-01-01

201

Development of a high-throughput three-dimensional invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery.  

PubMed

The lack of three-dimensional (3-D) high-throughput (HT) screening assays designed to identify anti-cancer invasion drugs is a major hurdle in reducing cancer-related mortality, with the key challenge being assay standardization. Presented is the development of a novel 3-D invasion assay with HT potential that involves surrounding cell-collagen spheres within collagen to create a 3-D environment through which cells can invade. Standardization was achieved by designing a tooled 96-well plate to create a precisely designated location for the cell-collagen spheres and by using dialdehyde dextran to inhibit collagen contraction, maintaining uniform size and shape. This permits automated readout for determination of the effect of inhibitory compounds on cancer cell invasion. Sensitivity was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish varying levels of invasiveness of cancer cell lines, and robustness was determined by calculating the Z-factor. A Z-factor of 0.65 was obtained by comparing the effects of DMSO and anti-?1-integrin antibody, an inhibitory reagent, on the invasion of Du145 cancer cells, suggesting this novel assay is suitable for large scale drug discovery. As proof of principle, the NCI Diversity Compound Library was screened against human invasive cancer cells. Nine compounds exhibiting high potency and low toxicity were identified, including DX-52-1, a compound previously reported to inhibit cell migration, a critical determinant of cancer invasion. The results indicate that this innovative HT platform is a simple, precise, and easy to replicate 3-D invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:24349367

Evensen, Nikki A; Li, Jian; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaojun; Sampson, Nicole S; Zucker, Stanley; Cao, Jian

2013-01-01

202

Development of a High-Throughput Three-Dimensional Invasion Assay for Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

The lack of three-dimensional (3-D) high-throughput (HT) screening assays designed to identify anti-cancer invasion drugs is a major hurdle in reducing cancer-related mortality, with the key challenge being assay standardization. Presented is the development of a novel 3-D invasion assay with HT potential that involves surrounding cell-collagen spheres within collagen to create a 3-D environment through which cells can invade. Standardization was achieved by designing a tooled 96-well plate to create a precisely designated location for the cell-collagen spheres and by using dialdehyde dextran to inhibit collagen contraction, maintaining uniform size and shape. This permits automated readout for determination of the effect of inhibitory compounds on cancer cell invasion. Sensitivity was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish varying levels of invasiveness of cancer cell lines, and robustness was determined by calculating the Z-factor. A Z-factor of 0.65 was obtained by comparing the effects of DMSO and anti-?1-integrin antibody, an inhibitory reagent, on the invasion of Du145 cancer cells, suggesting this novel assay is suitable for large scale drug discovery. As proof of principle, the NCI Diversity Compound Library was screened against human invasive cancer cells. Nine compounds exhibiting high potency and low toxicity were identified, including DX-52-1, a compound previously reported to inhibit cell migration, a critical determinant of cancer invasion. The results indicate that this innovative HT platform is a simple, precise, and easy to replicate 3-D invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery.

Evensen, Nikki A.; Li, Jian; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaojun; Sampson, Nicole S.; Zucker, Stanley; Cao, Jian

2013-01-01

203

Screening assay of residual antibiotics in livestock samples by LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A LC-MS/MS screening assay of multi-class antibiotics was developed for 19 residual antibiotics in livestock samples. Sample preparation employed the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach using 0.5% formic acid in acetonitrile-methanol (8 : 2), with salting-out using magnesium sulfate, trisodium citrate and sodium chloride. Recovery values from 5 different livestock samples ranged from 45.5 to 121.6%, and the RSDs were under 18% at two concentration levels. The limit of quantification values of 19 analytes were under 10 µg/kg in all livestock samples, and the procedure can detect almost all analytes under the MRL. Screening capability was confirmed by employing spiked samples. This new screening assay for residual antibiotics in livestock samples is expected to be useful for routine laboratory tests. PMID:22688024

Nakajima, Takayuki; Sasamoto, Takeo; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Kanda, Maki; Takeba, Kazue; Kanai, Setsuko; Kusano, Tomoko; Matsushima, Yoko; Takano, Ichiro

2012-01-01

204

Rapid throughput solubility screening method for BCS class II drugs in animal GI fluids and simulated human GI fluids using a 96-well format.  

PubMed

A rapid solubility-screening assay was developed with a focus on Biopharmaceutic Classification Scheme (BCS) class II drug solubility in animal and simulated human gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. The assay enables biologically promising drug leads to be evaluated for solubility limitations earlier in the drug development process, minimizes GI fluid needs, and produces in vitro solubility information with potential in vivo implications. A number of BCS II drugs were dissolved in DMSO at approximately 40 mM, and robotically distributed to a 96-well plate. The DMSO was evaporated and drugs were equilibrated with selected GI fluids, both fed and fasted states. After equilibration, precipitated wells were subjected to HPLC analysis. A spreadsheet calculated solubility automatically from HPLC output. Intra-day, inter-day, and inter-plate reproducibility were within 15% RSTD for the tested drugs with the primary source of variability being injection precision of our injector system. The reported solubility from screening assays was well correlated with literature data (r(2) = 0.80) with a slope of 0.86 and (r(2) = 0.99) with a slope of 0.89. This screening assay converts conventional solubility measurements to a 96-well format for increased throughput (>12 samples/h), reduces fluid needs, and minimizes drug consumption. PMID:17724660

Guo, Jeremy; Elzinga, Paul A; Hageman, Michael J; Herron, James N

2008-04-01

205

Recombinant virus assay: a rapid, phenotypic assay for assessment of drug susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates.  

PubMed Central

Antiviral drug susceptibility assays for clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates are required to monitor the development of drug resistance during clinical trials and antiretroviral drug therapy. First-generation phenotypic assays possess a number of drawbacks, not least the selection of unrepresentative virus populations during cocultivation. Here we describe a rapid phenotypic assay for the assessment of the susceptibility of clinical isolates to reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. This procedure, called the recombinant virus assay, allows the generation of viable virus by homologous recombination of a PCR-derived pool of RT coding sequences into an RT-deleted, noninfectious proviral clone, pHIV delta BstEII. A nested PCR procedure has been optimized to allow the amplification of an RT pool from both uncultured and cocultured infected patient peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) DNA for subsequent use in the creation of recombinant viruses. Analysis of two patients during the course of zidovudine therapy showed that this approach produced viruses which accurately exhibited the same genotype and phenotype as that of the original infected PBL DNA. The recombinant virus assay can be performed in approximately 3 weeks without the use of donor PBLs and therefore represents a rapid, nonselective procedure for the assay of clinical isolates. Images

Kellam, P; Larder, B A

1994-01-01

206

Immunochemical screening for antimicrobial drug residues in commercial honey.  

PubMed

Honey samples (n = 100; origin: various countries from Eurasia, Oceania, and the Americas) were analysed by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for tetracyclines, streptomycin, and sulfathiazole. Considering antibody specificity, these EIAs are either quantitative (streptomycin) or qualitative (tetracyclines, sulfathiazole) tests. Honey extract purification was achieved by liquid-liquid partition (tetracyclines), and by solid phase extraction-immunoaffinity chromatography (streptomycin, sulfathiazole). Detection limits were 20 micrograms kg-1 (tetracycline equivalents), 10 micrograms kg-1 (streptomycin), and 50 micrograms kg-1 (sulfathiazole equivalents), with mean recoveries of 100-117%. A total of 42% of the samples was found positive by EIA; 25% were positive in one assay, 13% in two, and 3% were positive in all three tests. In the EIA for tetracyclines, 26% were positive, with 12 samples exceeding a level of 50 micrograms kg-1 (tetracycline equivalents). In the EIA for streptomycin, 19% were positive, with a mean concentration of 19 +/- 12 micrograms kg-1. In the sulfathiazole EIA, 16% of the samples were positive, with 13 samples exceeding a level of 100 micrograms kg-1 (sulfathiazole equivalents). However, when samples which were positive in the sulfathiazole EIA were reanalysed for sulfonamides by HPLC, no sulfa drugs could be detected. Experimental heating (40 degrees C) of honey spiked with sulfathiazole indicated that the sulfa drug(s) responsible for positive EIA results could be present a sugar derivatives. PMID:10435339

Heering, W; Usleber, E; Dietrich, R; Märtlbauer, E

1998-12-01

207

Direct and metabolism-dependent cytochrome P450 inhibition assays for evaluating drug-drug interactions.  

PubMed

We developed methods for evaluating the ntial inhibition of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2?C9, CYP2?C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). The CYP inhibition assay used substrate cocktail sets [set A: phenacetin for CYP1A2, coumarin for CYP2A6, (S)-(+)-mephenytoin for CYP2C19, dextromethorphan for CYP2D6 and midazolam for CYP3A4; set B: bupropion for CYP2B6, tolbutamide for CYP2C9, chlorzoxazone for CYP2E1, and testosterone for CYP3A4] with quantitation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A direct inhibition assay was performed with the substrate cocktails without ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pre-incubation, and a metabolism-dependent inhibition (MDI) assay was performed after 30 min of pre-incubation with NADPH in HLMs. MDI was identified based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) shifts. The IC(50) values of the direct inhibitors determined using the probe substrate cocktails were in good agreement with previously reported values. Eight metabolism-dependent inhibitors including furafylline, 8-methoxypsoralen, tienilic acid, ticlopidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, disulfiram and verapamil against CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, respectively, resulted in significant IC(50) shifts (?2.5-fold) after pre-incubation. Thus, these CYP inhibition assays are considered to be useful tools for evaluating both direct inhibition and MDI at an early stage of the drug discovery and development process. PMID:21915887

Lee, Kye Sook; Kim, Sang Kyum

2013-02-01

208

A Parasite Rescue and Transformation Assay for Antileishmanial Screening Against Intracellular Leishmania donovani Amastigotes in THP1 Human Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, largely affecting the poorest of the poor, mainly in developing countries. Over 350 million people are considered at risk of contracting leishmaniasis, and approximately 2 million new cases occur yearly1. Leishmania donovani is the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most fatal form of the disease. The choice of drugs available to treat leishmaniasis is limited 2;current treatments provide limited efficacy and many are toxic at therapeutic doses. In addition, most of the first line treatment drugs have already lost their utility due to increasing multiple drug resistance 3. The current pipeline of anti-leishmanial drugs is also severely depleted. Sustained efforts are needed to enrich a new anti-leishmanial drug discovery pipeline, and this endeavor relies on the availability of suitable in vitro screening models. In vitro promastigotes 4 and axenic amastigotes assays5 are primarily used for anti-leishmanial drug screening however, may not be appropriate due to significant cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular differences in comparison to intracellular amastigotes. Assays with macrophage-amastigotes models are considered closest to the pathophysiological conditions of leishmaniasis, and are therefore the most appropriate for in vitro screening. Differentiated, non-dividing human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP1) (make an attractive) alternative to isolated primary macrophages and can be used for assaying anti-leishmanial activity of different compounds against intracellular amastigotes. Here, we present a parasite-rescue and transformation assay with differentiated THP1 cells infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani for screening pure compounds and natural products extracts and determining the efficacy against the intracellular Leishmania amastigotes. The assay involves the following steps: (1) differentiation of THP1 cells to non-dividing macrophages, (2) infection of macrophages with L. donovani metacyclic promastigotes, (3) treatment of infected cells with test drugs, (4) controlled lysis of infected macrophages, (5) release/rescue of amastigotes and (6) transformation of live amastigotes to promastigotes. The assay was optimized using detergent treatment for controlled lysis of Leishmania-infected THP1 cells to achieve almost complete rescue of viable intracellular amastigotes with minimal effect on their ability to transform to promastigotes. Different macrophage:promastigotes ratios were tested to achieve maximum infection. Quantification of the infection was performed through transformation of live, rescued Leishmania amastigotes to promastigotes and evaluation of their growth by an alamarBlue fluorometric assay in 96-well microplates. This assay is comparable to the currently-used microscopic, transgenic reporter gene and digital-image analysis assays. This assay is robust and measures only the live intracellular amastigotes compared to reporter gene and image analysis assays, which may not differentiate between live and dead amastigotes. Also, the assay has been validated with a current panel of anti-leishmanial drugs and has been successfully applied to large-scale screening of pure compounds and a library of natural products fractions (Tekwani et al. unpublished).

Jain, Surendra K.; Sahu, Rajnish; Walker, Larry A.; Tekwani, Babu L.

2012-01-01

209

Exploration of novel in vitro assays to study drugs against Trichuris spp.  

PubMed

Though trichuriasis is a significant public health problem, few effective drugs are available underscoring the need for new drug therapies. For the evaluation of trichuricidal activity of test compounds in vitro an accurate, reliable, sensitive, fast and cheap drug sensitivity assay is essential. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the performance of different in vitro drug sensitivity assays in comparison to the standard motility assay. Trichuris muris L4 larvae or adult worms were isolated from the intestinal tract from infected female C57BL/10 mice and incubated in the presence of ivermectin, levamisole and nitazoxanide (200, 100 and 50 ?g/ml) for 72 h. The health status of the worms was either evaluated microscopically using a motility scale from 0 to 3 (motility assay), by examination of absorbance or emission in response to metabolic activity (MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) and Alamar Blue assay), through analysis of absorbance of an enzyme-substrate reaction (acid phosphatase activity assay), by measuring the noise amplitudes (isothermal microcalorimetry and xCELLigence System) or the heat flow (isothermal microcalorimetry) of T. muris. The Alamar Blue assay, xCELLigence and microcalorimetry compared favorably to the standard motility assay. These three assays precisely determined the trichuricidal activity of the three test drugs. The acid phosphatase and the MTT assays showed a poorer performance than the motility assay. In conclusion, the colorimetric Alamar Blue in vitro assay is a good alternative to the motility assay to study drug effects against T. muris L4 and adults, since it is easy to perform, precise and of low cost. PMID:21889548

Silbereisen, Angelika; Tritten, Lucienne; Keiser, Jennifer

2011-11-01

210

Miniaturisation and validation of a cell-based assay for screening of Ca2+ channel modulators.  

PubMed

Voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) play a significant role in the regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations in cardiovascular, neuronal and skeletal tissues. Therefore, physiologically relevant screening methods for calcium channel modulators are required. A 45Ca2+ uptake assay based on clonal rat pituitary cell line GH4C1, possessing L-type VOCCs, was miniaturised into a 96-well plate format. The assay was validated by known Ca2+ channel blockers, verapamil and nimodipine (IC50 values 3.4 and 0.007 microM, respectively) and by a set of natural compounds and their synthetic derivatives. The results were consistent with our previous data and demonstrated the reliability of the assay. The signal-to-background ratio was 3.9 +/- 0.4, signal-to-noise ratio 10.3 +/- 2.3, Z' factor 0.59 +/- 0.10, and day-to-day variability in positive control values 5%. Furthermore, experiments were also made on a Biomek FX workstation to evaluate the suitability of the assay for automation. With minor modifications the assay is applicable, e.g. for studying possible Ca2+ channel activators in detail. The established 96-well plate assay modification for screening of calcium channel modulators reduces considerably the time, labour and resources needed for cell culture and experiments, and has significant advantages in terms of automation suitability and overall cost-efficiency. PMID:15165754

Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Pia

2004-06-30

211

CYP2C9-mediated metabolic activation of losartan detected by a highly sensitive cell-based screening assay.  

PubMed

Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a major problem in drug development, and reactive metabolites generated by cytochrome P450s are suggested to be one of the causes. CYP2C9 is one of the major enzymes in hepatic drug metabolism. In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive cell-based screening system for CYP2C9-mediated metabolic activation using an adenovirus vector expressing CYP2C9 (AdCYP2C9). Human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells infected with our constructed AdCYP2C9 for 2 days at multiplicity of infection 10 showed significantly higher diclofenac 4'-hydroxylase activity than human hepatocytes. AdCYP2C9-infected cells were treated with several hepatotoxic drugs, resulting in a significant increase in cytotoxicity by treatment with losartan, benzbromarone, and tienilic acid. Metabolic activation of losartan by CYP2C9 has never been reported, although the metabolic activations of benzbromarone and tienilic acid have been reported. To identify the reactive metabolites of losartan, the semicarbazide adducts of losartan were investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Two CYP2C9-specific semicarbazide adducts of losartan (S1 and S2) were detected. S2 adduct formation suggested that a reactive metabolite was produced from the aldehyde metabolite E3179, but a possible metabolite from S1 adduct formation was not produced via E3179. In conclusion, a highly sensitive cell-based assay to evaluate CYP2C9-mediated metabolic activation was established, and we found for the first time that CYP2C9 is involved in the metabolic activation of losartan. This cell-based assay system would be useful for evaluating drug-induced cytotoxicity caused by human CYP2C9. PMID:21321060

Iwamura, Atsushi; Fukami, Tatsuki; Hosomi, Hiroko; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

2011-05-01

212

Drug Screen Targeted at Plasmodium Liver Stages Identifies a Potent Multistage Antimalarial Drug  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium parasites undergo a clinically silent and obligatory developmental phase in the host’s liver cells before they are able to infect erythrocytes and cause malaria symptoms. To overcome the scarcity of compounds targeting the liver stage of malaria, we screened a library of 1037 existing drugs for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium hepatic development. Decoquinate emerged as the strongest inhibitor of Plasmodium liver stages, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, decoquinate kills the parasite’s replicative blood stages and is active against developing gametocytes, the forms responsible for transmission. The drug acts by selectively and specifically inhibiting the parasite’s mitochondrial bc1 complex, with little cross-resistance with the antimalarial drug atovaquone. Oral administration of a single dose of decoquinate effectively prevents the appearance of disease, warranting its exploitation as a potent antimalarial compound.

da Cruz, Filipa P.; Martin, Cecilie; Buchholz, Kathrin; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Sonnichsen, Birte; Moreira, Rui; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Marti, Matthias; Mota, Maria M.; Hannus, Michael

2012-01-01

213

A screening study of drug-drug interactions in cerivastatin users: an adverse effect of clopidogrel  

PubMed Central

An analysis of a case-control study of rhabdomyolysis was conducted to screen for previously unrecognized CYP2C8 inhibitors that may cause other clinically important drug-drug interactions. Cases of rhabdomyolysis using cerivastatin (n=72) were compared with controls using atorvastatin (n=287) between 1998–2001. The use of clopidogrel (OR 29.6; 95% CI, 6.1–143) was strongly associated with rhabdomyolysis. In a replication effort that used the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), clopidogrel was used more commonly by rhabdomyolysis cases using cerivastatin (17%) than by rhabdomyolysis cases using atorvastatin (0%, OR infinity; 95% CI = 5.2-infinity). Several medications were tested in vitro for their potential to cause drug-drug interactions. Clopidogrel, rosiglitazone and montelukast were the most potent inhibitors of cerivastatin metabolism. Clopidogrel and its metabolites also inhibited cerivastatin metabolism in human hepatocytes. These epidemiological and in-vitro findings suggest that clopidogrel may cause clinically important, dose dependent, drug-drug interactions with other medications metabolized by CYP2C8.

Floyd, James S.; Kaspera, Rudiger; Marciante, Kristin D.; Weiss, Noel S.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lumley, Thomas; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Tamraz, Bani; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Totah, Rheem A.; Psaty, Bruce M.

2013-01-01

214

Effects of Genetic Mutations and Chemical Exposures on Caenorhabditis elegans Feeding: Evaluation of a Novel, High-Throughput Screening Assay  

PubMed Central

Background Government agencies have defined a need to reduce, refine or replace current mammalian-based bioassays with testing methods that use alternative species. Invertebrate species, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, provide an attractive option because of their short life cycles, inexpensive maintenance, and high degree of evolutionary conservation with higher eukaryotes. The C. elegans pharynx is a favorable model for studying neuromuscular function, and the effects of chemicals on neuromuscular activity, i.e., feeding. Current feeding methodologies, however, are labor intensive and only semi-quantitative. Methodology/Principal Findings Here a high-throughput assay is described that uses flow cytometry to measure C. elegans feeding by determining the size and intestinal fluorescence of hundreds of nematodes after exposure to fluorescent-labeled microspheres. This assay was validated by quantifying fluorescence in feeding-defective C. elegans (eat mutants), and by exposing wild-type nematodes to the neuroactive compounds, serotonin and arecoline. The eat mutations previously determined to cause slow pumping rates exhibited the lowest feeding levels with our assay. Concentration-dependent increases in feeding levels after serotonin exposures were dependent on food availability, while feeding levels decreased in arecoline-exposed nematodes regardless of the presence of food. The effects of the environmental contaminants, cadmium chloride and chlorpyrifos, on wild-type C. elegans feeding were then used to demonstrate an application of the feeding assay. Cadmium exposures above 200 µM led to a sharp drop in feeding levels. Feeding of chlorpyrifos-exposed nematodes decreased in a concentration-dependent fashion with an EC50 of 2 µM. Conclusions/Significance The C. elegans fluorescence microsphere feeding assay is a rapid, reliable method for the assessment of neurotoxic effects of pharmaceutical drugs, industrial chemicals or environmental agents. This assay may also be applicable to large scale genetic or RNAi screens used to identify genes that are necessary for the development or function of the pharynx or other neuromuscular systems.

Boyd, Windy A.; McBride, Sandra J.; Freedman, Jonathan H.

2007-01-01

215

An antioxidant screening assay based on oxidant-induced growth arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

This report describes a biological screening system to measure the antioxidant capacity of compounds using the oxidant-induced growth arrest response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alternative methods using the nonphysiological free radical compounds such as diphenylpicrylhydrazyl and azinobis ethylbenzothiaziline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) only provide an indication of the ability of a compound to scavenge oxidants. In contrast, this yeast-based method can also measure the ability of a compound to induce cellular resistance to the damaging effects of oxidants. The screening assay was established against a panel of six physiologically relevant oxidants ranging from reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide, cumene peroxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide), to a superoxide-generating agent (menadione), reactive nitrogen species (peroxynitrite) and a thiol-oxidizing agent (diamide). The antioxidants ascorbate and gallic acid displayed scavenging activity and induced the resistance of cells against a broad range of oxidants using this assay. Lipoic acid, which showed no scavenging activity and thus would not be detected as an antioxidant using a nonphysiological screen was, however, identified in this assay as providing resistance to cells against a range of oxidants. This assay is high throughput, in the format of a 96-well microtitre plate, and will greatly facilitate the search for effective antioxidants. PMID:21375688

Wu, Ming J; O'Doherty, Patrick J; Fernandez, Harvey R; Lyons, Victoria; Rogers, Peter J; Dawes, Ian W; Higgins, Vincent J

2011-06-01

216

High-content screening assay for identification of chemicals impacting cardiovascular function in zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

Targeted assays are needed to better evaluate effects of chemicals on organogenesis and begin classification of chemicals by toxicologically relevant modes-of-action. Using transgenic zebrafish (fli1:egfp) that stably express eGFP within vascular endothelial cells, we have developed and optimized a 384-well-based high-content screening (HCS) assay that enables us to screen and identify chemicals affecting cardiovascular function at sublethal, nonteratogenic concentrations. Following static exposure of one embryo per well from 5 to 72 h postfertilization (hpf), automated image acquisition procedures and custom image analysis protocols are used to quantify body length, circulation, heart rate, pericardial area (a biomarker for cardiac looping defects), and intersegmental vessel area within freshly hatched live embryos. After optimizing 72 hpf anesthetization procedures, we evaluated each end point across four independent control plates containing 384 initial embryos per plate. Survival and imaging success rates across these plates ranged from 93 to 99% and 42 to 74%, respectively. Criteria were then defined for assay success and analysis of treatments, and 10 chemicals were screened for targeted effects on cardiovascular function. Compared to existing zebrafish-based assays, this method provides a comprehensive discovery platform with (1) increased sample sizes; (2) broad concentration-response format; and (3) the ability to identify chemicals that target cardiovascular function at nonteratogenic concentrations. PMID:24015875

Yozzo, Krystle L; Isales, Gregory M; Raftery, Tara D; Volz, David C

2013-10-01

217

The GADD45a-GFP GreenScreen HC assay.  

PubMed

Mutagens, clastogens, and aneugens cause increased expression of the human GADD45a gene. This has been exploited in the GreenScreen HC genotoxicity assay in which the gene's expression is linked to the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The host for the reporter construct is the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. It was chosen for its growth as a cell suspension, which allows simple pipette transfers, and for its wild-type p53 competent status. P53 is required for proper GADD45a expression, and more generally for genome stability. TK6 is a karyotypically stable cell line.The GreenScreen assays were designed to facilitate screening, and this is reflected in its microplate format and low compound requirement. Protocols are available for testing with and without S9 as a source of exogenous metabolic activation. Data is collected either spectrophotometrically or by flow cytometry, and a simple spreadsheet converts raw data into dose-response curves, and provides a statistically significant positive or negative result. Extensive validation has demonstrated that in contrast to other in vitro mammalian genotoxicity assays, the GADD45a assays have both high sensitivity and specificity - they very rarely produce misleading positive results. PMID:22147576

Walmsley, Richard M; Tate, Matthew

2012-01-01

218

Assay development and high-throughput screening of small molecular c-Abl kinase activators.  

PubMed

A 2-step kinase assay was developed and used in a high-throughput screen (HTS) of more than 1 million compounds in an effort to identify c-Abl tyrosine kinase activators. This assay employed a 2-step phosphorylation reaction: in the first step, purified recombinant c-Abl was activated by incubating with compound in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In the second step, the TAMRA-labeled IMAP Abltide substrate was added to allow phosphorylation of the substrate to occur. The assay was calibrated such that inactive c-Abl protein was activated by ATP alone to a degree that it not only demonstrated a measurable c-Abl activity but also maintained a robust assay window for screening. The screen resulted in 8624 primary hits with >30% response. Further analysis showed that 1024 had EC(50) <10 µM with a max % response of >50%. These hits were structurally and chemically diverse with possibly different mechanisms for activating c-Abl. In addition, selective hits were shown to be cell permeable and were able to induce c-Abl activation as determined by In-Cell Western (ICW) analysis of HEK-MSRII cells transduced with BacMam virus expressing full-length c-Abl. PMID:20938045

Cottom, Josh; Hofmann, Glenn; Siegfried, Brett; Yang, Jingsong; Zhang, Hong; Yi, Tracey; Ho, Thau F; Quinn, Chad; Wang, Da-Yuan; Johanson, Kyung; Ames, Robert S; Li, Hu

2011-01-01

219

Development of a high throughput equilibrium solubility assay using miniaturized shake-flask method in early drug discovery.  

PubMed

Increasingly, pharmaceutical and biotech companies have begun to realize the importance of obtaining solubility information in early drug discovery as it is one of the critical parameters for lead selection and optimization. This report introduces a high-throughput equilibrium solubility (HT-Eq sol) assay using a novel miniaturized shake-flask approach and streamlined HPLC analysis. The new HT-Eq sol assay, validated and optimized via a test set of 85 marketed drugs and Novartis internal compounds, shows an excellent correlation to the conventional shake-flask thermodynamic solubility data generated in-house and the equilibrium solubility results reported in literature. It therefore offers a fast, reliable and cost-effective screening tool for solubility assessment in early drug discovery, allowing for prioritization of drug candidates using aqueous solubility in conjunction with other profiling information and efficacy data. Our work demonstrates that presence of a small amount of DMSO (0.5-5%) will result in significant overstimation of equilibrium solubility (up to 6 folds). In addition, monitoring of drug dissolution process using the current approach as well as the interplay between equilibrium solubility data and those from kinetic solubility are discussed. PMID:17722003

Zhou, Liping; Yang, Linhong; Tilton, Suzanne; Wang, Jianling

2007-11-01

220

Automated High-Content Live Animal Drug Screening Using C. elegans Expressing the Aggregation Prone Serpin ?1-antitrypsin Z  

PubMed Central

The development of preclinical models amenable to live animal bioactive compound screening is an attractive approach to discovering effective pharmacological therapies for disorders caused by misfolded and aggregation-prone proteins. In general, however, live animal drug screening is labor and resource intensive, and has been hampered by the lack of robust assay designs and high throughput work-flows. Based on their small size, tissue transparency and ease of cultivation, the use of C. elegans should obviate many of the technical impediments associated with live animal drug screening. Moreover, their genetic tractability and accomplished record for providing insights into the molecular and cellular basis of human disease, should make C. elegans an ideal model system for in vivo drug discovery campaigns. The goal of this study was to determine whether C. elegans could be adapted to high-throughput and high-content drug screening strategies analogous to those developed for cell-based systems. Using transgenic animals expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins, we first developed a high-quality, high-throughput work-flow utilizing an automated fluorescence microscopy platform with integrated image acquisition and data analysis modules to qualitatively assess different biological processes including, growth, tissue development, cell viability and autophagy. We next adapted this technology to conduct a small molecule screen and identified compounds that altered the intracellular accumulation of the human aggregation prone mutant that causes liver disease in ?1-antitrypsin deficiency. This study provides powerful validation for advancement in preclinical drug discovery campaigns by screening live C. elegans modeling ?1-antitrypsin deficiency and other complex disease phenotypes on high-content imaging platforms.

Gosai, Sager J.; Kwak, Joon Hyeok; Luke, Cliff J.; Long, Olivia S.; King, Dale E.; Kovatch, Kevin J.; Johnston, Paul A.; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S.; Perlmutter, David H.; Silverman, Gary A.; Pak, Stephen C.

2010-01-01

221

A Cellular Screening Assay Using Analysis of Metal-Modified Fluorescence Lifetime  

PubMed Central

Abstract Current methods for screening cell receptor internalization often require complex image analysis with limited sensitivity. Here we describe a novel bioassay based on detection of changes in global fluorescence lifetime above a gold substrate, with superresolution axial sensitivity and no need for image analysis. We show that the lifetime of enhanced green fluorescent protein expressed in a cellular membrane is greatly reduced in close proximity to the gold, resulting in a distance-dependent lifetime distribution throughout the cell. We demonstrate the application of this phenomenon in a screening assay by comparing the efficacies of two small molecule inhibitors interfering with the internalization process of a G protein-coupled receptor.

Cade, Nicholas I.; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Archibald, Stephen J.; Ng, Tony; Richards, David

2010-01-01

222

Tissue spheroid fusion-based in vitro screening assays for analysis of tissue maturation.  

PubMed

Organ printing or computer-aided robotic layer-by-layer additive biofabrication of thick three-dimensional (3D) living tissue constructs employing self-assembling tissue spheroids is a rapidly evolving alternative to classic solid scaffold-based approaches in tissue engineering. However, the absence of effective methods of accelerated tissue maturation immediately after bioprinting is the main technological imperative and potential impediment for further progress in the development of this emerging organ printing technology. Identification of the optimal combination of factors and conditions that accelerate tissue maturation ('maturogenic' factors) is an essential and necessary endeavour. Screening of maturogenic factors would be most efficiently accomplished using high-throughput quantitative in vitro tissue maturation assays. We have recently reviewed the formation of solid scaffold-free tissue constructs through the fusion of bioprinted tissue spheroids that have measurable material properties. We hypothesize that the fusion kinetics of these tissue spheroids will provide an efficacious in vitro assay of the level of tissue maturation. We report here the results of experimental testing of two simple quantitative tissue spheroid fusion-based in vitro high-throughput screening assays of tissue maturation: (a) a tissue spheroid envelopment assay; and (b) a tissue spheroid fusion kinetics assay. PMID:20603872

Hajdu, Zoltan; Mironov, Vladimir; Mehesz, Agnes Nagy; Norris, Russell A; Markwald, Roger R; Visconti, Richard P

2010-12-01

223

A complementary pair of rapid molecular screening assays for RecA activities  

PubMed Central

The bacterial RecA protein has been implicated in the evolution of antibiotic resistance in pathogens, which is an escalating problem worldwide. The discovery of small molecules that can selectively modulate RecA’s activities can be exploited to tease apart its roles in the de novo development and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes. Toward the goal of discovering small-molecule ligands that can prevent either assembly of an active RecA-DNA filament or its subsequent ATP-dependent motor activities, we report the design and initial validation of a pair of rapid and robust screening assays suitable for the identification of inhbitors of RecA activities. One assay is based on established methods for monitoring ATPase enzyme activity and the second is a novel assay for RecA-DNA filament assembly using fluorescence polarization. Taken together, the assay results reveal complementary sets of agents that can either selectively suppress only the ATP-driven motor activities of the RecA-DNA filament or prevent assembly of active RecA-DNA filaments altogether. The screening assays can be readily configured for use in future automated HTS projects to discover potent inhibitors that may be developed into novel adjuvants for antibiotic chemotherapy that moderate the development and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes and increase the antibiotic therapeutic index.

Lee, Andrew M.; Wigle, Tim J.; Singleton, Scott F.

2007-01-01

224

Rapid screening assay for toxic shock syndrome toxin production by Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

A rapid immunoblot assay (TST-blot) was developed and used to screen Staphylococcus aureus isolates for toxic shock syndrome toxin (TST) production. Growth from an 18-h stab inoculum of S. aureus on brain heart infusion agar was transferred directly to a nitrocellulose sheet. Nonspecific protein binding sites were blocked with bovine serum albumin, and the nitrocellulose sheet was incubated with affinity-purified antibody to TST, followed by incubation with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated protein A. Toxin was visualized by detection of the peroxidase-conjugated protein A-anti TST-TST complex with 4-chloro-1-napthol. The sensitivities and specificities of the TST-blot and Ouchterlony microslide immunodiffusion assay were compared by screening 141 S. aureus isolates for TST production. In both assays, 53 of 141 isolates produced detectable levels of TST, whereas 88 isolates produced no toxin. A 100% concordance was found between the two assays. The TST-blot yielded the same results in less than 24 h as those yielded by the 3-day immunodiffusion assay. Thus, this rapid method for detection of TST in multiple samples appears to be well suited for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. Furthermore, it would appear to be ideal for use in TST genetics research. Images

Weckbach, L S; Thompson, M R; Staneck, J L; Bonventre, P F

1984-01-01

225

Overcoming compound fluorescence in the FLiK screening assay with red-shifted fluorophores.  

PubMed

In the attempt to discover novel chemical scaffolds that can modulate the activity of disease-associated enzymes, such as kinases, biochemical assays are usually deployed in high-throughput screenings. First-line assays, such as activity-based assays, often rely on fluorescent molecules by measuring a change in the total emission intensity, polarization state, or energy transfer to another fluorescent molecule. However, under certain conditions, intrinsic compound fluorescence can lead to difficult data analysis and to false-positive, as well as false-negative, hits. We have reported previously on a powerful direct binding assay called fluorescent labels in kinases ('FLiK'), which enables a sensitive measurement of conformational changes in kinases upon ligand binding. In this assay system, changes in the emission spectrum of the fluorophore acrylodan, induced by the binding of a ligand, are translated into a robust assay readout. However, under the excitation conditions of acrylodan, intrinsic compound fluorescence derived from highly conjugated compounds complicates data analysis. We therefore optimized this method by identifying novel fluorophores that excite in the far red, thereby avoiding compound fluorescence. With this advancement, even rigid compounds with multiple ?-conjugated ring systems can now be measured reliably. This study was performed on three different kinase constructs with three different labeling sites, each undergoing distinct conformational changes upon ligand binding. It may therefore serve as a guideline for the establishment of novel fluorescence-based detection assays. PMID:23672540

Schneider, Ralf; Gohla, Anne; Simard, Jeffrey R; Yadav, Dharmendra B; Fang, Zhizhou; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Rauh, Daniel

2013-06-01

226

Improvement of the green fluorescent protein reporter system in Leishmania spp. for the in vitro and in vivo screening of antileishmanial drugs.  

PubMed

Development of new therapeutic approaches for leishmaniasis treatment requires new high throughput screening methodologies for the antileishmanial activity of the new compounds both in vitro and in vivo. Reporter genes as the GFP have become one of the most promissory and widely used tools for drug screening in several models, since it offers live imaging, high sensibility, specificity and flexibility; additionally, the use of GFP as a reporter gene in screening assays eliminates all the drawbacks presented in conventional assays and also those technical problems found using other reporter genes. The utility of the GFP as a reporter gene in drug screening assays with Leishmania parasites depends on the homogeneity and stability of the GFP transfected strains. Stable expression of the GFP in the Old World Leishmania species has been demonstrated using integration vectors; however, no reports exist yet about the success of this methodology in the New World species. Here we report the generation of New World Leishmania strains expressing the GFP protein from an integration vector, which replaces one copy of the 18S RNA in the chromosome with the GFP coding sequence by homologous recombination. We also prove that the expression of the integrated GFP is stable and homogeneous in the transfected parasites after months in culture without selective pressure or during its use in hamster infection assays. The fluorescent strains are useful for in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo drug screening assays since no considerable variations in virulence or infectivity where seen attributable to the genetic manipulation during both in vitro and in vivo infection experiments. The platform described here for drug testing assays based on the use of stable fluorescent Leishmania strains coupled to flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy is more sensitive, more specific and faster than conventional assays used normally for the evaluation of compounds with potential antileishmanial activity. PMID:22155571

Pulido, Sergio A; Muñoz, Diana L; Restrepo, Adriana M; Mesa, Carol V; Alzate, Juan F; Vélez, Iván D; Robledo, Sara M

2012-04-01

227

Establishment of an In Vitro Assay for Assessing the Effects of Drugs on the Liver Stages of Plasmodium vivax Malaria  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is the second most important human malaria parasite. Recent data indicate that the impact of Pv malaria on the health and economies of the developing world has been dramatically underestimated. Pv has a unique feature in its life cycle. Uninucleate sporozoites (spz), after invasion of human hepatocytes, either proceed to develop into tens of thousands of merozoites within the infected hepatocytes or remain as dormant forms called hypnozoites, which cause relapses of malaria months to several years after the primary infection. Elimination of malaria caused by Pv will be facilitated by developing a safe, highly effective drug that eliminates Pv liver stages, including hypnozoites. Identification and development of such a drug would be facilitated by the development of a medium to high throughput assay for screening drugs against Pv liver stages. We undertook the present pilot study to (1) assess the feasibility of producing large quantities of purified, vialed, cryopreserved Pv sporozoites and (2) establish a system for culturing the liver stages of Pv in order to assess the effects of drugs on the liver stages of Pv. We used primaquine (PQ) to establish this assay model, because PQ is the only licensed drug known to clear all Pv hepatocyte stages, including hypnozoites, and the effect of PQ on Pv hepatocyte stage development in vitro has not previously been reported. We report that we have established the capacity to reproducibly infect hepatoma cells with purified, cyropreserved Pv spz from the same lot, quantitate the primary outcome variable of infected hepatoma cells and demonstrate the inhibitory activity of primaquine on the infected hepatoma cells. We have also identified small parasite forms that may be hypnozoites. These data provide the foundation for finalizing a medium throughput, high content assay to identify new drugs for the elimination of all Pv liver stages.

Chattopadhyay, Rana; Velmurugan, Soundarapandian; Chakiath, Chinnamma; Andrews Donkor, Lucy; Milhous, Wilbur; Barnwell, John W.; Collins, William E.; Hoffman, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

228

A pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars based on fluorescence in situ hybridization assay.  

PubMed

For efficient transgenic herd expansion, only the transgenic animals that possess the ability to transmit transgene into next generation are considered for breeding. However, for transgenic pig, practically lacking a pre-breeding screening program, time, labor and money is always wasted to maintain non-transgenic pigs, low or null transgenic transmission pigs and the related fruitless gestations. Developing a pre-breeding screening program would make the transgenic herd expansion more economical and efficient. In this technical report, we proposed a three-step pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars simply through combining the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay with the common pre-breeding screening workflow. In the first step of screening, combined with general transgenic phenotype analysis, FISH is used to identify transgenic boars. In the second step of screening, combined with conventional semen test, FISH is used to detect transgenic sperm, thus to identify the individuals producing high quality semen and transgenic sperm. In the third step of screening, FISH is used to assess the in vitro fertilization embryos, thus finally to identify the individuals with the ability to produce transgenic embryos. By this three-step screening, the non-transgenic boars and boars with no ability to produce transgenic sperm or transgenic embryos would be eliminated; therefore only those boars could produce transgenic offspring are maintained and used for breeding and herd expansion. It is the first time a systematic pre-breeding screening program is proposed for transgenic pigs. This program might also be applied in other transgenic large animals, and provide an economical and efficient strategy for herd expansion. PMID:24788205

Bou, Gerelchimeg; Sun, Mingju; Lv, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Juan; Li, Lu; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Zhong; He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

2014-08-01

229

iRFP Is a Real Time Marker for Transformation Based Assays in High Content Screening  

PubMed Central

Anchorage independent growth is one of the hallmarks of oncogenic transformation. Here we show that infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) based assays allow accurate and unbiased determination of colony formation and anchorage independent growth over time. This protocol is particularly compatible with high throughput systems, in contrast to traditional methods which are often labor-intensive, subjective to bias and do not allow further analysis using the same cells. Transformation in a single layer soft agar assay could be documented as early as 2 to 3 days in a 96 well format, which can be easily combined with standard transfection, infection and compound screening setups to allow for high throughput screening to identify therapeutic targets.

Paulus-Hock, Viola; Cheung, Eric C.; Roxburgh, Patricia; Vousden, Karen H.; Hock, Andreas K.

2014-01-01

230

A rapid in vitro screening system for the identification and evaluation of anticancer drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of an in vitro screening system that can be used to identify new anticancer drugs that are specifically cytotoxic for dividing cells. The screening system takes advantage of the potential of many cell lines, including tumor cells, to stop dividing when they are plated at high cell density. The cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs on dividing

Janet Wen-Yun Kao; John Leslie Collins

1989-01-01

231

Comparison of Washed and Unwashed Specimens in the 'Plasmodium falciparum' in vitro Microculture Drug Assay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dose response of Plasmodium falciparum isolates in the standard in vitro assay for drug resistance was compared using blood specimens which were centrifuged using blood specimens which were centrifuged and washed before cultivation. Washing of the cul...

G. W. Long S. Mama N. Sy R. P. Sangalang C. P. Ranoa

1987-01-01

232

Comparison of three assays for genetic effects of antineoplastic drugs on cancer patients and their nurses  

SciTech Connect

Three assays have been compared for their ability to detect genetic damage caused by antineoplastic drugs in cancer patients and possible damage in the nurses who administered these drugs. The assays were sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay on urine. Three comparisons were made: (1) patients before versus after treatment; (2) the administering nurses immediately after their work period versus after a few days off that followed (work and off-work); (3) the exposed nurses versus other nurses who did not administer antineoplastic drugs (controls). The SCE assay did not distinguish between the work and off-work samples in either the exposed or control nurses. Chromosomal aberration was the only assay which showed significant difference between the two samples of the exposed nurses and, consequently, between the exposed and control nurses. There is no evidence that the increase was connected to occupational exposure.

Krepinsky, A. (Bio-Mutatech Inc., Toronto, Quebec (Canada)); Bryant, D.W.; Davison, L.; McCalla, D.R. (McMaster Univ. Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Young, B. (Toronto General Hospital, Quebec (Canada)); Heddle, J. (York Univ., Toronto, Quebec (Canada)); Douglas, G. (Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Michalko, K. (Drugs Directorate, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1990-01-01

233

A multiparameter screening assay to assess the cytokine-induced expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules.  

PubMed

Compounds which inhibit endothelial cell inflammatory responses are believed to be of therapeutic value. The cell adhesion molecules E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 play important roles in inflammatory reactions by mediating leukocyte-endothelial interactions. To identify compounds which inhibit the expression of these adhesion molecules following cytokine stimulation we developed an assay which measures E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in the same experiment. For this, we have taken advantage of the technology of time-resolved fluorimetry, which allows detection of several parameters in parallel, employing anti-E-selectin antibody labeled with europium, and anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 labeled with samarium and terbium, respectively. These antibodies were used to detect the respective antigens in human endothelial cells stimulated with TNFalpha or IL-1beta. In cross-competition assays these antibodies were found to bind specifically to TNF- or IL-1-stimulated cells. This assay, in which three parameters are measured in the same experiment, proved to be robust with signal to noise ratios of 25-35 for E-Selectin, 4-8 for ICAM-1, and 3-9 for VCAM-1. The assay proved to be reproducible in high-throughput screening. The experience with this assay demonstrates that multiple parameters can be measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-type assay on cells by using time-resolved fluorimetry. The possibility of obtaining several parameters from one experiment is feasible under high-throughput screening conditions and is of interest for other experimental setups in which the simultaneous measurement of several parameters is desired. PMID:12009692

Zerwes, Hans-Günter; Peter, Jürg C; Link, Marion; Gubler, Hanspeter; Scheel, Günther

2002-05-15

234

Novel Yeast Cell-Based Assay To Screen for Inhibitors of Human Cytomegalovirus Protease in a High-Throughput Format  

PubMed Central

The protease encoded by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an attractive target for antiviral drug development because of its essential function in viral replication. We describe here a cellular assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the identification of small molecule inhibitors of HCMV protease by conditional growth in selective medium. In this system, the protease cleavage sequence is inserted into the N-(5?-phosphoribosyl)anthranilate isomerase (Trp1p), a yeast protein essential for cell proliferation in the absence of tryptophan. Coexpression of HCMV protease with the engineered Trp1p substrate in yeast cells results in site-specific cleavage and functional inactivation of the Trp1p enzyme, thereby leading to an arrest of cell proliferation. This growth arrest can be suppressed by the addition of validated HCMV protease inhibitors. The growth selection system presented here provides the basis for a high-throughput screen to identify HCMV protease inhibitors that are active in eukaryotic cells.

Cottier, Valerie; Barberis, Alcide; Luthi, Urs

2006-01-01

235

Time?Resolved Luminescence Screening Assay for Tetracyclines in Chicken Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time?resolved luminescence (TRL) assay was developed for effective screening of tetracyclines in chicken muscle at the European Union (EU) maximum residue level of 100 ng g. The method involves extraction of the tetracyclines with McIlvaine–ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffer, centrifugation, solid?phase extraction (SPE) clean?up, formation of an Eu(III) complex, and then measurement of the TRL signal at 615 nm (excitation at 388 nm).

Marilyn J. Schneider; Guoying Chen

2004-01-01

236

High-throughput Assay to Identify New Cancer Drugs  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology seeks parties interested in collaborative research to evaluate or commercialize a diagnostic tool that can identify new drugs that increase chromosome instability.

237

A TR-FRET based functional assay for screening activators of CARM1  

PubMed Central

Epigenome is an emerging field that demands selective cell-permeable chemical probes to perturb, especially in vivo, the activity of specific enzymes involved in modulating the epigenetic codes. Coactivator Associated Arginine (R) Methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a coactivator of estrogen receptor ? (ER?), the main target in human breast cancer. We previously showed that overexpression of CARM1 by two-fold in MCF7 breast cancer cells increased the expression of ER?-target genes involved in differentiation and reduced cell proliferation, leading to the hypothesis that activating CARM1 by chemical activators may be therapeutically effective in breast cancer. Selective, potent, cell-permeable CARM1 activators will be essential to test this hypothesis. Here we report the development of a cell-based, time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay using poly (A) binding protein 1 (PABP1) methylation to monitor cellular activity of CARM1. The LanthaScreen® TR-FRET assay utilizes MCF7 cells expressing GFP-PABP1 fusion protein via BacMam gene delivery system, methyl-PABP1 specific antibody and terbium-labeled secondary antibody. This assay has been validated to reflect the expression and/or activity of CARM1 and optimized for high throughput screening to identify CARM1 allosteric activators. This TR-FRET platform serves as a generic tool for functional screening of cell-permeable, chemical modulators of CARM1 for elucidation of its in vivo functions.

Zeng, Hao; Wu, Jiacai; Bedford, Mark T.; Sbardella, Gianluca; Hoffmann, F. Michael; Bi, Kun; Xu, Wei

2013-01-01

238

A TR-FRET-based functional assay for screening activators of CARM1.  

PubMed

Epigenetics is an emerging field that demands selective cell-permeable chemical probes to perturb, especially in vivo, the activity of specific enzymes involved in modulating the epigenetic codes. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a coactivator of estrogen receptor ? (ER?), the main target in human breast cancer. We previously showed that twofold overexpression of CARM1 in MCF7 breast cancer cells increased the expression of ER?-target genes involved in differentiation and reduced cell proliferation, thus leading to the hypothesis that activating CARM1 by chemical activators might be therapeutically effective in breast cancer. Selective, potent, cell-permeable CARM1 activators will be essential to test this hypothesis. Here we report the development of a cell-based, time-resolved (TR) FRET assay that uses poly(A) binding protein 1 (PABP1) methylation to monitor cellular activity of CARM1. The LanthaScreen TR-FRET assay uses MCF7 cells expressing GFP-PABP1 fusion protein through BacMam gene delivery system, methyl-PABP1 specific antibody, and terbium-labeled secondary antibody. This assay has been validated as reflecting the expression and/or activity of CARM1 and optimized for high throughput screening to identify CARM1 allosteric activators. This TR-FRET platform serves as a generic tool for functional screening of cell-permeable, chemical modulators of CARM1 for elucidation of its in vivo functions. PMID:23585185

Zeng, Hao; Wu, Jiacai; Bedford, Mark T; Sbardella, Gianluca; Hoffmann, F Michael; Bi, Kun; Xu, Wei

2013-05-10

239

Evaluation of a fluorescence-based method for antibabesial drug screening.  

PubMed

In vitro evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia and Theileria parasites has become routine, and the effectiveness of these chemicals is usually determined by comparing the parasitemia dynamics of untreated and treated parasites. Although microscopy is widely used to calculate parasitemia, several disadvantages are associated with this technique. The present study evaluated a fluorescence-based method using SYBR green I stain (SG I) to screen antibabesial agents in in vitro cultures of Babesia bovis. The linearity between relative fluorescence units (RFU) and parasitemia was found to be well correlated with a 0.9944 goodness-of-fit (r(2)) value. Subsequently, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated for 3 antiprotozoan agents, diminazene aceturate, nimbolide, and gedunin, by this method. For diminazene aceturate and nimbolide, the IC50s determined by the fluorescence-based method (408 nM and 8.13 ?M, respectively) and microscopy (400.3 nM and 9.4 ?M, respectively) were in agreement. Furthermore, the IC50 of gedunin determined by the fluorescence-based method (19 ?M) was similar to the recently described microscopy-based value (21.7 ?M) for B. bovis. Additionally, the Z' factor (0.80 to 0.90), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio (44.15 to 87.64), coefficient of variation at the maximum signal (%CVmax) (0.50 to 2.85), and coefficient of variation at the minimum signal (%CVmin) (1.23 to 2.21) calculated for the fluorescence method using diminazene aceturate were comparable to those previously determined in malaria research for this assay. These findings suggest that the fluorescence-based method might be useful for antibabesial drug screening and may have potential to be developed into a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay. PMID:24914124

Guswanto, Azirwan; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; Elsayed, Shimaa Abd Elsalam; Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; ElSaid, ElSaid El Shirbini; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

2014-08-01

240

Validation of a High-Content Screening Assay Using Whole-Well Imaging of Transformed Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Automated microscopy was introduced two decades ago and has become an integral part of the discovery process as a high-content screening platform with noticeable challenges in executing cell-based assays. It would be of interest to use it to screen for reversers of a transformed cell phenotype. In this report, we present data obtained from an optimized assay that identifies compounds that reverse a transformed phenotype induced in NIH-3T3 cells by expressing a novel oncogene, KP, resulting from fusion between platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), that was identified in human glioblastoma. Initial image acquisitions using multiple tiles per well were found to be insufficient as to accurately image and quantify the clusters; whole-well imaging, performed on the IN Cell Analyzer 2000, while still two-dimensional imaging, was found to accurately image and quantify clusters, due largely to the inherent variability of their size and well location. The resulting assay exhibited a Z? value of 0.79 and a signal-to-noise ratio of 15, and it was validated against known effectors and shown to identify only PDGFR? inhibitors, and then tested in a pilot screen against a library of 58 known inhibitors identifying mostly PDGFR? inhibitors as reversers of the KP induced transformed phenotype. In conclusion, our optimized and validated assay using whole-well imaging is robust and sensitive in identifying compounds that reverse the transformed phenotype induced by KP with a broader applicability to other cell-based assays that are challenging in HTS against chemical and RNAi libraries.

Ramirez, Christina N.; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Takagi, Toshimitsu; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Graves, Robert; Holland, Eric C.

2011-01-01

241

Quantitative microtiter fibronectin fibrillogenesis assay: use in high throughput screening for identification of inhibitor compounds  

PubMed Central

Fibronectin (FN) is a plasma glycoprotein that circulates in the near micromolar concentration range and is deposited along with locally produced FN in the extracellular matrices of many tissues. Control of FN deposition is tightly controlled by cells. Agents that modulate FN assembly may be useful therapeutically in conditions characterized by excessive FN deposition, such as fibrosis, inflammatory diseases, and malignancies. To identify such agents by high throughput screening (HTS), we developed a microtiter assay of FN deposition by human fibroblasts. The assay provides a robust read-out of FN assembly. Alexa 488-FN (A488-FN) was added to cell monolayers, and the total fluorescence intensity of deposited A488-FN was quantified. The fluorescence intensity of deposited A488-FN correlated with the presence of FN fibrils visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The assay Z’ values were 0.67 or 0.54, respectively, when using background values of fluorescence either with no added A488-FN or with A488-FN added together with a known inhibitor of FN deposition. The assay was used to screen libraries comprising 4160 known bioactive compounds. Nine compounds were identified as non- or low-cytotoxic inhibitors of FN assembly. Four (ML-9, HA-100, tyrphostin and imatinib mesylate) are kinase inhibitors, a category of compounds known to inhibit FN assembly; two (piperlongumine and cantharidin) are promoters of cancer cell apoptosis; and three (maprotiline, CGS12066B, and aposcopolamine) are modulators of biogenic amine signaling. The latter six compounds have not been recognized heretofore as affecting FN assembly. The assay is straight-forward, adapts to 96- and 384-well formats, and should be useful for routine measurement of FN deposition and HTS. Screening of more diverse chemical libraries and identification of specific and efficient modulators of FN fibrillogenesis may result in therapeutics to control excessive connective tissue deposition.

Tomasini-Johansson, Bianca R.; Johnson, Ian A.; Hoffmann, F. Michael; Mosher, Deane F.

2012-01-01

242

A genome scale overexpression screen to reveal drug activity in human cells  

PubMed Central

Target identification is a critical step in the lengthy and expensive process of drug development. Here, we describe a genome-wide screening platform that uses systematic overexpression of pooled human ORFs to understand drug mode-of-action and resistance mechanisms. We first calibrated our screen with the well-characterized drug methotrexate. We then identified new genes involved in the bioactivity of diverse drugs including antineoplastic agents and biologically active molecules. Finally, we focused on the transcription factor RHOXF2 whose overexpression conferred resistance to DNA damaging agents. This approach represents an orthogonal method for functional screening and, to our knowledge, has never been reported before.

2014-01-01

243

Off-Target Effects of Psychoactive Drugs Revealed by Genome-Wide Assays in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand off-target effects of widely prescribed psychoactive drugs, we performed a comprehensive series of chemogenomic screens using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. Because the known human targets of these drugs do not exist in yeast, we could employ the yeast gene deletion collections and parallel fitness profiling to explore potential off-target effects in a

Elke Ericson; Marinella Gebbia; Lawrence E. Heisler; Jan Wildenhain; Mike Tyers; Guri Giaever; Corey Nislow

2008-01-01

244

Universal Screening for Alcohol and Drug Use and Racial Disparities in Child Protective Services Reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines racial disparities in Child Protective Services (CPS) reporting at delivery in a county with universal\\u000a screening for alcohol\\/drug use in prenatal care. It also explores two mechanisms through which universal screening could reduce\\u000a reporting disparities: Equitable Surveillance and Effective Treatment. Equitable Surveillance is premised on the assumptions that identification of drug use through screening in prenatal care

Sarah C. M. Roberts; Amani Nuru-Jeter

245

Evaluation of commercial screening tests and blot assays for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis.  

PubMed

The performance of 4 screening tests and 10 blot assays for the serologic diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in a Belgian population was evaluated. A total of 196 sera were tested: 36 Lyme borreliosis at different stages of the disease, 50 healthy blood donors, and 110 representing various clinical circumstances. The DiaSorin Liaison and Euroimmun Anti-Borrelia screening tests were evaluated. The tested blot assays were Virotech Borrelia LINE tests WE222, WE225, and WE224, as well as Mikrogen recomLine Borrelia and Viramed ViraStripe. The specificity of IgG was acceptable for the different assays. For IgM, DiaSorin Liaison Borrelia IgM Quant, Mikrogen recomLine, and Viramed ViraStripe lacked specificity. Interestingly, a higher rate of falsely reactive samples was observed in the group of patients suffering from malaria. Serological diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis remains challenging; assays should be evaluated in the population where they are intended to be used. PMID:22560168

Busson, Laurent; Reynders, Marijke; Van den Wijngaert, Sigi; Dahma, Hafid; Decolvenaer, Marc; Vasseur, Liesbet; Vandenberg, Olivier

2012-07-01

246

Silicon microphysiometer for high-throughput drug screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a micromachined silicon chip that is capable of providing a high-throughput functional assay based on calorimetry. A prototype twin microcalorimeter based on the Seebeck effect has been fabricated by IC technology and micromachined postprocessing techniques. A biocompatible liquid rubber membrane supports two identical 0.5 X 2 cm2 measurement chambers, situated at the cold and hot junction of a 666-junction aluminum/p+-polysilicon thermopile. The chambers can house up to 106 eukaryotic cells cultured to confluence. The advantage of the device over microcalorimeters on the market, is the integration of the measurement channels on chip, rendering microvolume reaction vessels, ranging from 10 to 600 (mu) l, in the closest possible contact with the thermopile sensor (no springs are needed). Power and temperature sensitivity of the sensor are 23 V/W and 130 mV/K, respectively. The small thermal inertia of the microchannels results in the short response time of 70 s, when filled with 50 (mu) l of water. Biological experiments were done with cultured kidney cells of Xenopus laevis (A6). The thermal equilibration time of the device is 45 min. Stimulation of transport mechanisms by reducing bath osmolality by 50% increased metabolism by 20%. Our results show that it is feasible to apply this large-area, small- volume whole-cell biosensor for drug discovery, where the binding assays that are commonly used to provide high- throughput need to be complemented with a functional assay. Solutions are brought onto the sensor by a simple pipette, making the use of an industrial microtiterplate dispenser feasible on a nx96-array of the microcalorimeter biosensor. Such an array of biosensors has been designed based on a new set of requirements as set forth by people in the field as this project moved on. The results obtained from the prototype large-area sensor were used to obtain an accurate model of the calorimeter, checked for by the simulation software ANSYS. At present, the sensor chip has been designed. Future publication(s) will deal with this part of the work.

Verhaegen, Katarina; Baert, Kris; Puers, Bob; Sansen, Willy; Simaels, Jeannine; van Driessche, Willy; Hermans, Lou; Mertens, Robert P.

1999-06-01

247

Adaptation of high-throughput screening in drug discovery-toxicological screening tests.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound's toxicity having only 1-3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study. PMID:22312262

Szyma?ski, Pawe?; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, El?bieta

2012-01-01

248

Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots  

PubMed Central

Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity < 30% of normal control was 20.3% and a prevalence of severe deficiency that would predispose to primaquine-induced hemolysis (WHO Class I-II) of 6.9%. Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration.

2010-01-01

249

Estrogenic activity of constituents of underarm deodorants determined by E-Screen assay.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether different kinds of underarm deodorants commercially available in Germany might contain substances with estrogenic potential which after use enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. Twenty five deodorants produced by ten different manufacturers in the form of sprays, roll-ons and sticks were investigated using an in vitro-test system (E-Screen assay) for the determination of estrogenic activity based on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Seven out of ten spray deodorant samples showed a quantifiable estrogenic activity. In the case of the sticks and roll-ons it was only one out of six and one out of nine, respectively. The 17?-estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs) of the samples ranged from 0.1ngg(-)(1) to 9ngg(-)(1) deodorant. Spray deodorant samples showed the highest activities in the E-Screen assay compared to the stick and roll-on deodorants. In order to identify substances possibly contributing to the observed biological activity the samples were additionally analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained results of this non-target screening led to the selection of 62 single substances present in the deodorants which for their part were analyzed by E-Screen assay. Eight of these single substances, all of them fragrances, showed estrogenic effects with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) similar to parabens, a group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters commonly used as preservatives in personal care products, which are known to have a slight estrogenic effect. Thus, these fragrances are obviously responsible to a substantial degree for the observed estrogenic activity of the deodorants. PMID:24875918

Lange, Claudia; Kuch, Bertram; Metzger, Jörg W

2014-08-01

250

Population quantile-quantile plots for monitoring assay performance in newborn screening.  

PubMed

Immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) used in screening for cystic fibrosis is heterogeneous, poorly characterized, and displays marked matrix effects when incorporated into blood spots, making long-term control of assay calibration difficult. The cut-off required to select a fixed proportion of samples (0.5% for the UK protocol) for second-tier mutation analysis varies over time, partly owing to slight differences in calibration of individual lots of assay kit. To investigate this and possible inter-laboratory differences in analytical performance, we developed a monitoring system based on the distribution of measured IRT concentrations in the screened samples. Results were collected fortnightly from five UK screening laboratories in the form of numbers of samples in histogram 'bins' of IRT concentration. These data were converted to cumulative percentages and the IRT concentrations at fixed centiles then approximated by triangulation. The quantile-quantile plot of any subset (by laboratory or by kit lot) of these data using pooled results (all-laboratories all-kit-lots, approximately 270,000 samples) as the reference distribution is analogous to a calibration curve and gives a measure of bias in terms of sensitivity (slope) and baseline (y-intercept). This allows a revised 99.5th centile cut-off for each subset to be calculated directly. A similar approach has allowed inter-laboratory comparison of tandem-mass spectrometric assays for free carnitine (with emphasis on low values) and phenylalanine and has demonstrated that apparently trivial differences in instrumentation and procedures have resulted in marked variation in resultant assay performance. PMID:17603757

Pollitt, R J; Matthews, A J

2007-08-01

251

Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay  

SciTech Connect

Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

Taxvig, Camilla, E-mail: camta@food.dtu.dk; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

2011-02-01

252

Development of an in vitro assay for the investigation of metabolism-induced drug hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a number of adverse drug reactions leading to hepatotoxicity drug metabolism is thought to be involved by generation of\\u000a reactive metabolites from nontoxic drugs. In this study, an in vitro assay was developed for measurement of the impact of metabolic activation of compound on the cytotoxicity toward a human\\u000a hepatic cell line. HepG2 cells were treated for 6 h with

M. Otto; S. H. Hansen; L. Dalgaard; J. Dubois; L. Badolo

2008-01-01

253

An MEKC assay for the therapeutic drug monitoring of cefepime.  

PubMed

The development of a robust assay based on MEKC for cefepime in human serum and plasma with internal quality assurance is reported. Sample preparation comprises protein precipitation in the presence of SDS at pH 4.5. This is a gentle approach for which decomposition of cefepime during sample handling is negligible. After hydrodynamic sample injection of the supernatant, analysis occurs in a phosphate/borate buffer at pH 9.1 with 75 mM SDS using normal polarity and analyte detection at 257 nm. The MEKC run time interval and throughput are about 5 min and seven samples per hour, respectively. The calibration range for cefepime is 1-60 ?g/mL, with 1 ?g/mL being the LOQ. The performance of the assay with multilevel internal calibration was assessed with calibration and control samples. The assay is shown to be simple, inexpensive, reproducible, and robust. It was applied to determine cefepime levels in the sera of critically ill patients and to assess the instability of cefepime in patient and control samples. Our data revealed that serum containing cefepime can be stored at -20°C for a short time, whereas for long-term storage, samples have to be kept at -70°C. PMID:23857909

Theurillat, Regula; Sendi, Parham; Thormann, Wolfgang

2013-09-01

254

An automated time-of-drug-addition assay to routinely determine the mode of action of HIV-1 inhibitors.  

PubMed

Cell-based high-throughput screening campaigns are widely used to identify novel antiviral compounds, for example, against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Typically, these assays enable identification of compounds that potentially target any viral or cellular factor involved in the viral replication cycle. Unraveling the mechanism of action of these active compounds is an important step to facilitate further drug development. Time-of-addition (TOA) assays are an elegant tool to achieve this goal by comparing the TOA profile of novel compounds with those of well-studied reference compounds. Downscaling to a 384-well format and automation significantly increase the capacity of the TOA assay, enabling compound handling around the clock. Mechanical liquid dispensing with optimized time points for compound addition ensures robustness (Z'>0.8) and maximal resolution in profiling novel antiviral compounds. The presented methodology has been optimized for routine use and allows for fully automated high-throughput screening to support the process in search for novel inhibitors of HIV-1. PMID:24144343

Van Loock, Marnix; Van den Eynde, Christel; Hansen, John; Geluykens, Peggy; Ivens, Tania; Sauviller, Sarah; Bunkens, Lieve; Van Acker, Koen; Nijs, Erik; Dams, Géry

2013-10-01

255

Cell-based potassium ion channel screening using the FluxOR assay.  

PubMed

FluxOR technology is a cell-based assay used for high-throughput screening measurements of potassium channel activity. Using thallium influx as a surrogate indicator of potassium ion channel activity, the FluxOR Potassium Ion Channel Assay is based on the activation of a novel fluorescent dye. This indicator reports channel activity with a large fluorogenic response and is proportional to the number of open potassium channels on the cell, making it extremely useful for studying K(+) channel targets. In contrast to BTC-AM ester, FluxOR dye is roughly 10-fold more thallium sensitive, requiring much lower thallium for a larger signal window. This also means that the assay is carried out in a physiological, normal-chloride saline. In this article, the authors describe how they used BacMam gene delivery to express Kv7.2 and 7.3 (KCNQ), Kir2.1, or Kv11.1 (hERG) potassium ion channels in U2-OS cells. Using these cells, they ran the FluxOR assay to identify and characterize channel-specific inhibitory compounds discovered within the library (Tocriscreen Mini 1200 and Sigma Sodium/Potassium Modulators Ligand set). The FluxOR assay was able to identify several known specific inhibitors of Kv7.2/7.3 or hERG, highlighting its potential to identify novel and more efficacious small-molecule modulators. PMID:20208034

Beacham, Daniel W; Blackmer, Trillium; O' Grady, Michael; Hanson, George T

2010-04-01

256

A 1,536-well [(35)S]GTPgammaS scintillation proximity binding assay for ultra-high-throughput screening of an orphan galphai-coupled GPCR.  

PubMed

Members of the superfamily of seven transmembrane receptors, known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are important targets for many therapeutic areas in drug discovery. A homogeneous guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) scintillation proximity assay (SPA) binding assay targeting a Galphai-coupled GPCR recombinantly expressed in membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was developed and miniaturized into 1,536-well plate format. The primary ultra-high-throughput screen of the entire compound collection was accomplished on the Kalypsys (San Diego, CA) robotic platform at a concentration of 8 muM using the 1,536-well [(35)S]GTPgammaS SPA binding functional assay. The signal-to-noise ratio of the primary screen was approximately 2.1-fold, and the plate coefficient of variation for the compound field was approximately 11%. The hit rate from the primary screen for receptor agonists at >35% activity was approximately 0.3%. Primary hits were cherry-picked, confirmed in triplicate, counterscreened against untransfected CHO cell membranes, and further analyzed in a cyclic AMP functional assay, resulting in 34 leads for optimization. PMID:18537464

Johnson, Eric N; Shi, Xiaoqing; Cassaday, Jason; Ferrer, Marc; Strulovici, Berta; Kunapuli, Priya

2008-06-01

257

Multiple Proteomic Approaches Screening for Novel Drug Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of novel drug targets plays vital role for the development of new classes of drugs to overcome drug resistance and replace less efficacious treatments. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics in combination with modern approaches, such as structure-based drug design and combinatorial chemistry to biology-based targets open opportunities for the high throughput identification of novel cellular targets for rational

Huang Canhua; Liu Rui; Jingyi Li; Tao Zhang; Bin Chen; Kai Huang; Yunlong Lei

258

Evaluation of a modified thromboelastography assay for the screening of von Willebrand disease.  

PubMed

Thromboelastography (TEG) has been shown to be a valuable point-of-care device for the rapid diagnosis of various bleeding disorders. However, TEG has thus far not been used for the screening for von Willebrand disease (VWD). We evaluated the performance of a modified TEG assay for the laboratory screening of VWD. Three hundred twenty-eight patients (148 male, 180 female, median age 8.4 years, range 0.1 - 72.7 years) were included in the study. The diagnosis and classification of patients was based on personal and familial case history, von Willebrand factor antigen, ristocetin cofactor levels, collagen binding assay, factor VIII coagulant activity and multimer analysis. The ratio of clot strength after preincubation with ristocetin, and without ristocetin, represents the component of clot strength that is formed by cross-linked fibrin fibres and is dependent on the agglutinated platelet fraction. The decrease of the maximum amplitude is a function of the ristocetin concentration and provides a diagnostic parameter able to differentiate between healthy individuals and patients having VWD. Based on a preliminary cut-off value of 25% for the area under the curve (AUC) ratio, the sensitivity varied from 53% to 100% for the different VWD patient groups. The test is suitable for use as a screening test using whole blood and has the additional benefit of being suitable as a point of care test. It appears also useful for monitoring responses to desmopressin (DDAVP) and infusion therapy. PMID:21505720

Topf, H-G; Weiss, D; Lischetzki, G; Strasser, E; Rascher, W; Rauh, M

2011-06-01

259

Identification of antifungal niphimycin from Streptomyces sp. KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay.  

PubMed

Microbial culture extracts are used for natural product screening to find antifungal lead compounds. A microbial culture extract library was constructed using 343 actinomycete isolates to examine the value of the adenylate kinase (AK) assay for screening to identify antifungal metabolites that disrupt cell integrity in plant pathogenic fungi. A culture extract of Streptomyces sp. strain KP6107 lysed cells of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici which resulted in high AK activity. The active ingredient N-1 was purified from the culture extract using various chromatographic procedures and identified to be the guanidyl-polyol macrolide antibiotic, niphimycin, which is a potent fungal cell membrane disruptor. Niphimycin showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Alternaria mali, Aspergillus oryzae, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cercospora canescens, Cylindrocarpon destructans, F. oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Rhizoctonia solani at concentrations of 8-64?µg?ml(-1). Anthracnose development in pepper plants was completely inhibited by treatment with 50 µg?ml(-1) niphimycin, which was as effective as chlorothalonil. These results show that the AK assay is an efficient and selective tool in screening for cell membrane/wall disruptors of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:22915202

Kim, Hye Yoon; Kim, Jeong Do; Hong, Jin Sung; Ham, Jong Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok

2013-07-01

260

Two high throughput screening assays for Aberrant RNA-protein interactions in Myotonic Dystrophy Type-1  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1), the most prevalent form of adult muscular dystrophy, is caused by expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3? untranslated region of the DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The pathogenic effects of the CTG expansion arise from the deleterious effects of the mutant transcript. RNA with expanded CUG tracts alters the activities of several RNA binding proteins, including muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1). MBNL1 becomes sequestered in nuclear foci in complex with the expanded CUG repeat RNA. The resulting loss of MBNL1 activity causes mis-regulated alternative splicing of multiple genes, leading to symptoms of DM1. The binding interaction between MBNL1 and mutant RNA could be a key step in the pathogenesis of DM1 and serves as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We have developed two high throughput screen (HTS) suitable assays using both homogenous time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer (HTRF) and AlphaScreen technologies to detect the binding of a C-terminally His-tagged MBNL1 and a biotinylated (CUG)12 RNA. These assays are homogenous and successfully miniaturized to 1536-well plate format. Both assays were validated and show robust signal-to-basal ratios and Z’ factors.

Chen, Catherine Z.; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Hoskins, Jason; Southall, Noel; Marugan, Juan J.; Zheng, Wei; Thornton, Charles A.; Austin, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

261

Colorimetric method for enzymatic screening assay of ATP using Fe(III)-xylenol orange complex formation.  

PubMed

In hygiene management, recently there has been a significant need for screening methods for microbial contamination by visual observation or with commonly used colorimetric apparatus. The amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can serve as the index of a microorganism. This paper describes the development of a colorimetric method for the assay of ATP, using enzymatic cycling and Fe(III)-xylenol orange (XO) complex formation. The color characteristics of the Fe(III)-XO complexes, which show a distinct color change from yellow to purple, assist the visual observation in screening work. In this method, a trace amount of ATP was converted to pyruvate, which was further amplified exponentially with coupled enzymatic reactions. Eventually, pyruvate was converted to the Fe(III)-XO complexes through pyruvate oxidase reaction and Fe(II) oxidation. As the assay result, yellow or purple color was observed: A yellow color indicates that the ATP concentration is lower than the criterion of the test, and a purple color indicates that the ATP concentration is higher than the criterion. The method was applied to the assay of ATP extracted from Escherichia coli cells added to cow milk. PMID:18726586

Ishida, Akihiko; Yamada, Yasuko; Kamidate, Tamio

2008-11-01

262

The Trade-Off between Accuracy and Accessibility of Syphilis Screening Assays  

PubMed Central

The availability of rapid and sensitive methods to diagnose syphilis facilitates screening of pregnant women, which is one of the most cost-effective health interventions available. We have evaluated two screening methods in Tanzania: an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and a point-of-care test (POCT). We evaluated the performance of each test against the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) as the reference method, and the accessibility of testing in a rural district of Tanzania. The POCT was performed in the clinic on whole blood, while the other assays were performed on plasma in the laboratory. Samples were also tested by the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR) test. With TPPA as reference assay, the sensitivity and specificity of EIA were 95.3% and 97.8%, and of the POCT were 59.6% and 99.4% respectively. The sensitivity of the POCT and EIA for active syphilis cases (TPPA positive and RPR titer ?1/8) were 82% and 100% respectively. Only 15% of antenatal clinic attenders in this district visited a health facility with a laboratory capable of performing the EIA. Although it is less sensitive than EIA, its greater accessibility, and the fact that treatment can be given on the same day, means that the use of POCT would result in a higher proportion of women with syphilis receiving treatment than with the EIA in this district of Tanzania.

Smit, Pieter W.; Mabey, David; Changalucha, John; Mngara, Julius; Clark, Benjamin; Andreasen, Aura; Todd, Jim; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Peeling, Rosanna W.

2013-01-01

263

Use of human neuroblastoma continuous cell lines for in vitro drug sensitivity screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used three continuous human neuroblastoma cell lines to establish patterns of in vitro drug sensitivities, as judged by clonogenic assay. We evaluated 12 ‘standard’ antitumor drugs already in clinical usage, and tested four newer analogues, one of cisplatin and three of doxorubicin, and the investigational agent desferrioxamine. A certain heterogeneity of drug sensitivities was noted amongst these three

Bridget T. Hill; R. D. H. Whelan; Louise K. Hosking

1988-01-01

264

Molecular modeling on streptolysin-O of multidrug resistant Streptococcus pyogenes and computer aided screening and in vitro assay for novel herbal inhibitors.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes is a notorious pathogenic bacterium which causes various human diseases ranging from localized infections to life threatening invasive diseases. Streptolysin-O (SLO), pore-forming thiol-activated cytolysin, is the major virulent factor for streptococcal infections. Present therapies against streptococcal infections are limited as most of the strains have developed multi-drug resistance to present generation of drugs. Hence, there is a need for alternative therapeutic substances. Structure based virtual screening is a novel platform to select lead molecules with better pharmacokinetic properties. The 3D structure of SLO (not available in native form), essential for such studies, was computationally generated and this homology model was used as probable drug target. Based on literature survey, several phytoligands from 25 medicinal plants were selected. Out of these, leads from 11 plants showed better pharmacokinetic properties. The best lead molecules were screened based on computer aided drug likeness and pharmacokinetic predictions. The inhibitory properties of selected herbal leads against SLO were studied by molecular docking. An in vitro assay was further carried out and variations observed were found to be significant (p<0.05). Antibiotic sensitivity testing was also performed with the clinical strain of Streptococcus pyogenes with conventional drugs. The clinical strain showed multi-drug resistance to conventional drugs. Our study revealed that numerous phytoligands have better inhibitory properties towards the toxin. We noticed that incorporation of selected herbal extracts in blood agar medium showed significant reduction in hemolysis (MIC 300?l/plate), indicating inhibition of SLO. Furthermore, the butanol extracts of selected herbal preparation based on computer aided screening showed significant inhibitory properties at 250 mcg/disc concentration. We also noticed that selected herbal formulations have better antimicrobial properties at MIC range of 300- 400?l. Hence, our study suggests that these herbal extracts have better inhibitory properties against the toxin as well as drug resistant Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:24694051

Skariyachan, Sinosh; Narayan, Naik Sowmyalaxmi; Aggimath, Tejaswini S; Nagaraj, Sushmitha; Reddy, Monika S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

2014-03-01

265

A new approach to drug discovery: high-throughput screening of microbial natural extracts against Aspergillus fumigatus using resazurin.  

PubMed

Natural products are an inexhaustible source for drug discovery. However, the validation and selection of primary screening assays are vital to guarantee a selection of extracts or molecules with relevant pharmacological action and worthy of following up. The assay must be rapid, simple, easy to implement, and produce quick results and preferably at a low cost. In this work, we developed and validated a colorimetric microtiter assay using the resazurin viability dye. The parameters of the resazurin method for high-throughput screening (HTS) using natural extracts against Aspergillus fumigatus were optimized and set up. The extracts plus RPMI-1640 modified medium containing the spores and 0.002% resazurin were added per well. The fluorescence was read after 24 to 30 h of incubation. The resazurin proved to be as suitable as Alamar Blue for determining the minimal inhibitory concentration of different antifungals against A. fumigatus and effective to analyze fungicidal and fungistatic compounds. An HTS of 12 000 microbial extracts was carried out against two A. fumigatus strains, and 2.7% of the extracts displayed antifungal activity. Our group has been the first to use this methodology for screening a collection of natural extracts to identify compounds with antifungal activity against the medically important human pathogen A. fumigatus. PMID:22233645

Monteiro, Maria Cândida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Cantizani, Juan; Moreno, Catalina; Tormo, José R; Mellado, Emilia; De Lucas, J Ramón; Asensio, Francisco; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca

2012-04-01

266

A Drug Screening Method Based on the Autophagy Pathway and Studies of the Mechanism of Evodiamine against Influenza A Virus  

PubMed Central

In this research, we have established a drug screening method based on the autophagy signal pathway using the bimolecular fluorescence complementation - fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BiFC-FRET) technique to develop novel anti-influenza A virus (IAV) drugs. We selected Evodia rutaecarpa Benth out of 83 examples of traditional Chinese medicine and explored the mechanisms of evodiamine, the major active component of Evodia rutaecarpa Benth, on anti-IAV activity. Our results showed that evodiamine could significantly inhibit IAV replication, as determined by a plaque inhibition assay, an IAV vRNA promoter luciferase reporter assay and the Sulforhodamine B method using cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction. Additionally, evodiamine could significantly inhibit the accumulation of LC3-II and p62, and the dot-like aggregation of EGFP-LC3. This compound also inhibited the formation of the Atg5-Atg12/Atg16 heterotrimer, the expressions of Atg5, Atg7 and Atg12, and the cytokine release of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8 after IAV infection. Evodiamine inhibited IAV-induced autophagy was also dependent on its action on the AMPK/TSC2/mTOR signal pathway. In conclusion, we have established a new drug screening method, and selected evodiamine as a promising anti-IAV compound.

Dai, Jian-Ping; Li, Wei-Zhong; Zhao, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ge-Fei; Yang, Jia-Cai; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Xiao-Xuan; Xu, Yan-Xuan; Li, Kang-Sheng

2012-01-01

267

Parallel screening of FDA-approved antineoplastic drugs for identifying sensitizers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic antibodies to death receptor 4 and 5 are promising candidates for cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a variety of human cancer cells, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity in normal cells. Although TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 and DR5 are considered safe and promising candidates in cancer therapy, many malignant cells are resistant to DR-mediated, TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the current work, we screened a small library of fifty-five FDA and foreign-approved anti-neoplastic drugs in order to identify candidates that sensitized resistant prostate and pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods FDA-approved drugs were screened for their ability to sensitize TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL using an MTT assay for cell viability. Analysis of variance was used to identify drugs that exhibited synergy with TRAIL. Drugs demonstrating the highest synergy were selected as leads and tested in different prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and one immortalized human pancreatic epithelial cell line. Sequential and simultaneous dosing modalities were investigated and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay, in concert with fluorescence microscopy, was employed to visualize cells undergoing apoptosis. Results Fourteen drugs were identified as having synergy with TRAIL, including those whose TRAIL sensitization activities were previously unknown in either prostate or pancreatic cancer cells or both. Five leads were tested in additional cancer cell lines of which, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and mithramycin demonstrated synergy in all lines. In particular, mitoxantrone and mithramycin demonstrated significant synergy with TRAIL and led to reduction of cancer cell viability at concentrations lower than 1 ?M. At these low concentrations, mitoxantrone demonstrated selectivity toward malignant cells over normal pancreatic epithelial cells. Conclusions The identification of a number of FDA-approved drugs as TRAIL sensitizers can expand chemotherapeutic options for combination treatments in prostate and pancreatic cancer diseases.

2011-01-01

268

In-silico drug screening and potential target identification for hepatocellular carcinoma using Support Vector Machines based on drug screening result.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a severe liver malignancy with few drug treatment options. In finding an effective treatment for HCC, screening drugs that are already FDA-approved will fast track the clinical trial and drug approval process. Connectivity Map (CMap), a large repository of chemical-induced gene expression profiles, provides the opportunity to analyze drug properties on the basis of gene expression. Support Vector Machines (SVM) were utilized to classify the effectiveness of drugs against HCC using gene expression profiles in CMap. The results of this classification will help us (1) identify genes that are chemically sensitive, and (2) predict the effectiveness of remaining chemicals in CMap in the treatment of HCC and provide a prioritized list of possible HCC drugs for biological verification. Four HCC cell lines were treated with 146 distinct chemicals, and cell viability was examined. SVM successfully classified the effectiveness of the chemicals with an average Area Under ROC Curve (AUROC) of 0.9. Using reported HCC patient samples, we identified chemically sensitive genes that may be possible HCC therapeutic targets, including MT1E, MYC, and GADD45B. Using SVM, several known HCC inhibitors, such as geldanamycin, alvespimycin (HSP90 inhibitors), and doxorubicin (chemotherapy drug), were predicted. Seven out of the 23 predicted drugs were cardiac glycosides, suggesting a link between this drug category and HCC inhibition. The study demonstrates a strategy of in silico drug screening with SVM using a large repository of microarrays based on initial in vitro drug screening. Verifying these results biologically would help develop a more accurate chemical sensitivity model. PMID:23220021

Yang, Wu-Lung R; Lee, Yu-En; Chen, Ming-Huang; Chao, Kun-Mao; Huang, Chi-Ying F

2013-04-10

269

A First Application of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening Cyclodiene Insecticides in Ground Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate kit for screening of cyclodiene insecticides (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, and heptachlor) was evaluated for sensitivity, cross reactivity, and overall performance using groundwater samples from a contaminated site. Ground-water contaminants included several pesticide compounds and their manufacturing byproducts, as well as many other organic and inorganic compounds. Cross-reactivity studies were carried out for the cyclodiene compounds, and results were compared to those listed by the manufacturer. Data obtained were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ELISA kit to the cyclodiene compounds in ground water samples with a contaminated matrix. The method quantitation limit for the ELISA kit was 15 ??g/L (as chlordane). Of the 56 ground-water samples analyzed using the ELISA plate kits, more than 85% showed cyclodiene insecticide contamination. The ELISA kit showed excellent potential as a screening tool for sites with suspected groundwater contamination by insecticides.

Dombrowski, T. R.; Thurman, E. M.; Mohrman, G. B.

1996-01-01

270

Evaluation of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for screening urinary tract infection in elderly people.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To evaluate the Uristat test, an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the qualitative detection of antibodies in urine, as a screening, and in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the elderly. METHODS: Semiquantitative culture was compared with conventional microscopy, dipstick analysis and the ELISA. In the ELISA, 371 urine samples were examined for antibodies to an antigen mixture of six common urinary pathogens. RESULTS: The sensitivity was 91% and the specificity 25% for the ELISA. The negative predictive value was 81% and the positive predictive value was 43%. CONCLUSIONS: In its present form the Uristat test has no clear advantages over conventional bacteriological techniques for screening urine samples for infection in an elderly population.

Michie, J R; Thakker, B; Bowman, A; McCartney, A C

1992-01-01

271

Screening and isolation of a natural dopamine D 1 receptor antagonist using cell-based assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a cell-based assay to screen for human dopamine D1 receptor agonists or antagonists from medicinal plant extracts, a stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (CHO-D1R) expressing the human dopamine D1 receptor was established using an expression vector containing a scaffold attachment region (SAR) element. CHO-D1R cells showed specific binding to [3H]-SCH23390 with high affinity (Kd=1.47±0.17nM) and dose-dependent

Sungryul Yu; Jeong Soo Park; Verenice Paredes; Myoung-Chong Song; Nam-In Baek; Sang-Ik Lee; Jong-Soon Lim; Nam-Young Cho; Jaeseung Yoon; Kwanghee Baek

2010-01-01

272

A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis  

PubMed Central

There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures.

Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

2013-01-01

273

A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis.  

PubMed

There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures. PMID:24141454

Timm, David M; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A; Haisler, William L; Neeley, Shane K; Raphael, Robert M; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Killian, T C; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R

2013-01-01

274

A high-throughput pH indicator assay for screening glycosyltransferase saturation mutagenesis libraries.  

PubMed

Protein engineering using directed evolution or saturation mutagenesis at hot spots is often used to improve enzyme properties such as their substrate selectivity or stability. This requires access to robust high-throughput assays to facilitate the analysis of enzyme libraries. However, relatively few studies on directed evolution or saturation mutagenesis of glycosyltransferases have been reported in part due to a lack of suitable screening methods. In the present study we report a general screening assay for glycosyltransferases that has been developed using the blood group alpha-(1-->3)-galactosyltransferase (GTB) as a model. GTB utilizes UDP-Gal as a donor substrate and alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-D-Galp-O-R (H antigen) as an acceptor substrate and synthesizes the blood group B antigen alpha-D-Galp-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)]-beta-D-Galp-O-R. A closely related alpha-(1-->3)-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) uses UDP-GalNAc as a donor with the same H acceptor, yielding the A antigen alpha-D-Galp-NAc-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-Fuc(1-->2)]-beta-D-Gal-O-R. GTA and GTB are highly homologous enzymes differing in only 4 of 354 amino acids, Arg/Gly-176, Gly/Ser-235, Leu/Met-266, and Gly/Ala-268. The screening assay is based on the color change of the pH indicator bromothymol blue when a proton is released during the transfer of Gal/GalNAc from UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc to the acceptor substrate. Saturation mutagenesis of GTB enzyme at M214, a hot spot adjacent to the (211)DVD(213) metal binding motif, was performed and the resulting library was screened for increases in UDP-GalNAc transfer activity. Two novel mutants, M214G and M214S, identified by pH indicator screening, were purified and kinetically characterized. M214S and M214G both exhibited two-fold higher k(cat) and specific activity than wild-type GTB for UDP-GalNAc. The results confirm the importance of residue M214 for donor enzyme specificity. PMID:18405657

Persson, Mattias; Palcic, Monica M

2008-07-01

275

Screening for the drug-phospholipid interaction: correlation to phospholipidosis.  

PubMed

Phospholipid bilayers represent a complex, anisotropic environment fundamentally different from bulk oil or octanol, for instance. Even "simple" drug association to phospholipid bilayers can only be fully understood if the slab-of-hydrocarbon approach is abandoned and the complex, anisotropic properties of lipid bilayers reflecting the chemical structures and organization of the constituent phospholipids are considered. The interactions of drugs with phospholipids are important in various processes, such as drug absorption, tissue distribution, and subcellular distribution. In addition, drug-lipid interactions may lead to changes in lipid-dependent protein activities, and further, to functional and morphological changes in cells, a prominent example being the phospholipidosis (PLD) induced by cationic amphiphilic drugs. Herein we briefly review drug-lipid interactions in general and the significance of these interactions in PLD in particular. We also focus on a potential causal connection between drug-induced PLD and steatohepatitis, which is induced by some cationic amphiphilic drugs. PMID:19551800

Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Vitovic, Pavol; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

2009-08-01

276

A high-throughput assay of yeast cell lysis for drug discovery and genetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of new antifungal molecules is an important goal of current anti-infective research. To achieve this goal, alternatives to traditional growth inhibition–based screening have been developed in recent years. In this study, we describe an assay to detect molecules that disrupt yeast cell integrity by using the release of adenylate kinase (AK) into culture medium as a reporter of

Louis DiDone; Thomas Scrimale; Bonnie K Baxter; Damian J Krysan

2010-01-01

277

Evaluating the 3C-like protease activity of SARS-Coronavirus: Recommendations for Standardized Assays for Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Although the initial outbreaks of the deadly coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) were controlled by public health measures, the development of vaccines and antiviral agents for SARS-CoV is essential for improving control and treatment of future outbreaks. One potential target for SARS-CoV antiviral drug development is the 3C-like protease (3CLpro). This enzyme is an attractive target since it is essential for viral replication, and since there are now a number of high resolution x-ray structures of SARS-CoV 3CLpro available making structure-based drug-design possible. As a result, SARS-CoV 3CLpro has become the focus of numerous drug discovery efforts worldwide, but as a consequence, a variety of different 3CLpro expression constructs and kinetic assays have been independently developed making evaluation and comparison between potential inhibitors problematic. Here, we review the literature focusing on different SARS-CoV 3CLpro expression constructs and assays used to measure enzymatic activity. Moreover, we provide experimental evidence showing that the activity of 3CLpro enzymatic is significantly reduced when non-native sequences or affinity-tags are added to the N- or C-termini of the enzyme, or when the enzyme used in assays is at concentrations below the equilibrium dissociation constant of the 3CLpro dimer. We demonstrate for the first time the utility of a highly sensitive and novel Alexa488-QSY7 FRET-based peptide substrate designed for routine analysis and high-throughput screening, and show that kinetic constants determined from FRET-based assays that are uncorrected for inner-filter effects can lead to artifacts. Finally, we evaluated the effects of common assay components including DTT, NaCl, EDTA and DMSO on enzymatic activity, and we recommend standardized assay conditions and constructs for routine SARS-CoV 3CLpro assays to facilitate direct comparisons between SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitors under development worldwide.

Grum-Tokars, Valerie; Ratia, Kiira; Begaye, Adrian; Baker, Susan C.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

278

Bioluminescence-Based Neuraminidase Inhibition Assay for Monitoring Influenza Virus Drug Susceptibility in Clinical Specimens  

PubMed Central

The QFlu prototype bioluminescence-based neuraminidase (NA) inhibition (NI) assay kit was designed to detect NA inhibitor (NAI)-resistant influenza viruses at point of care. Here, we evaluated its suitability for drug susceptibility assessment at a surveillance laboratory. A comprehensive panel of reference viruses (n = 14) and a set of 90 seasonal influenza virus A and B isolates were included for testing with oseltamivir and/or zanamivir in the QFlu assay using the manufacturer-recommended protocol and a modified version attuned to surveillance requirements. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) generated were compared with those of NI assays currently used for monitoring influenza drug susceptibility, the fluorescent (FL) and chemiluminescent (CL) assays. To provide proof of principle, clinical specimens (n = 235) confirmed by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to contain influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 and prescreened for the oseltamivir resistance marker H275Y using pyrosequencing were subsequently tested in the QFlu assay. All three NI assays were able to discriminate the reference NA variants and their matching wild-type viruses based on the difference in their IC50s. Unless the antigenic types were first identified, certain NA variants (e.g., H3N2 with E119V) could be detected among seasonal viruses using the FL assays only. Notably, the QFlu assay identified oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses carrying the H275Y marker directly in clinical specimens, which is not feasible with the other two phenotypic assays, which required prior virus culturing in cells. Furthermore, The QFlu assay allows detection of the influenza virus A and B isolates carrying established and potential NA inhibitor resistance markers and may become a useful tool for monitoring drug resistance in clinical specimens.

Marjuki, Henju; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Sleeman, Katrina; Okomo-Adhiambo, Margaret; Sheu, Tiffany G.; Guo, Lizheng; Xu, Xiyan

2013-01-01

279

Use of Leishmania donovani Field Isolates Expressing the Luciferase Reporter Gene in In Vitro Drug Screening  

PubMed Central

Currently available primary screens for the selection of candidate antileishmanial compounds are not ideal. These techniques are time-consuming, laborious, and difficult to scale and require macrophages, which limit their use for high-throughput screening. We have developed Leishmania donovani field isolates that constitutively express the firefly luciferase reporter gene (luc) as a part of an episomal vector. An excellent correlation between parasite number and luciferase activity was observed. luc expression was stable, even in the absence of drug selection, for 4 weeks. The transfectants were infective to macrophages, and intracellular amastigotes exhibited luciferase activity. The suitability of these recombinant field isolates for in vitro screening of antileishmanial drugs was established. The luciferase-expressing sodium stibogluconate-resistant cell lines offer a model for the screening of compounds for resistance. The system is in routine use at the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India, for high-throughput screening of newly synthesized compounds.

Ashutosh; Gupta, Suman; Ramesh; Sundar, Shyam; Goyal, Neena

2005-01-01

280

Differentiation of drug and non-drug Cannabis using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis sativa is both an illegal drug and a legitimate crop. The differentiation of illegal drug Cannabis from non-drug forms of Cannabis is relevant in the context of the growth of fibre and seed oil varieties of Cannabis for commercial purposes. This differentiation is currently determined based on the levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult plants. DNA based methods have

D. Rotherham; S. A. Harbison

2011-01-01

281

Establishment of a secondary screening assay for P/Q-type calcium channel blockers.  

PubMed

Development of calcium channel blockers is attractive, but has in the past been hampered by lack of high throughput electrophysiological technology. This limitation has been overcome by the implementation of automated patch clamp systems that allow identification of state-dependent compounds, which preferentially target pathologically overactive channels. We recently presented a fluorescence-based high-throughput screen for P/Q-type calcium channels followed by automated electrophysiology. Here, we provide a detailed description of the development of the secondary screen, and show the full analysis of the inactivation kinetics of the recombinant P/Q channel that served as a basis for the automated patch clamp protocol. Increasing the length of pre-depolarization shifted the inactivation to more hyperpolarized potentials. No steady-state inactivation was reached up to pre-depolarization durations of 3 min, while stability of the recordings progressively declined. As a compromise, a 3s pre-depolarization protocol was proposed for functional screening. In order to validate the electrophysiological screening, we compared kinetics and pharmacology of recombinant P/Q-type channels between automated and manual patch clamp measurements. Channel activation was similar under both conditions. By contrast, inactivation occurred at more hyperpolarized potentials in the automated system. Therefore, P/Q-type calcium channel inactivation is sensitive to the applied technological platform and needs to be adjusted when performing automated patch clamp recordings. Our results indicate that a thorough analysis of the inactivation kinetics is mandatory, when establishing an electrophysiological screening protocol for calcium channel blockers. As some data obtained by automated recordings may not be identical to manual patch clamp analysis, we recommend a proper initial validation of the screening assay and--if necessary--a posthoc adjustment of automated patch clamp values. The protocol presented here supports hit-to-lead and lead optimization efforts during the development of novel P/Q-type calcium channel blockers, and may be valuable for the generation of assays in other ion channel programs. PMID:23228050

Hermann, David; Mezler, Mario; Swensen, Andrew M; Bruehl, Claus; Obergrußerger, Ali; Wicke, Karsten; Schoemaker, Hans; Gross, Gerhard; Draguhn, Andreas; Nimmrich, Volker

2013-03-01

282

77 FR 42323 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Screening and Eviction for Drug...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Eviction for Drug Abuse and Other Criminal Activity AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...screening requirements to obtain criminal conviction records from law enforcement agencies to prevent admission of criminals into the public housing and...

2012-07-18

283

Characterizing the Diversity and Biological Relevance of the MLPCN Assay Manifold and Screening Set  

PubMed Central

The NIH Molecular Libraries Initiative (MLI), launched in 2004 with initial goals of identifying chemical probes for characterizing gene function and druggability, has produced PubChem, a chemical genomics knowledgebase for fostering translation of basic research into new therapeutic strategies. This paper assesses progress toward these goals by evaluating MLI target novelty and propensity for undergoing biochemically or therapeutically relevant modulations and the degree of chemical diversity and biogenic bias inherent in the MLI screening set. Our analyses suggest that while MLI target selection has not yet been fully optimized for biochemical diversity, it covers biologically interesting pathway space that complements established drug targets. We find the MLI screening set to be chemically diverse and to have greater biogenic bias than comparable collections of commercially available compounds. Biogenic enhancements such as incorporation of more metabolite-like chemotypes are suggested.

Zhang, Jintao; Lushington, Gerald H.; Huan, Jun

2011-01-01

284

Detection, characterization, and screening of heme-binding molecules by mass spectrometry for malaria drug discovery.  

PubMed

Drug screening for antimalarials uses heme biocrystallization inhibition methods as an alternative to parasite cultures, but they involve complex processes and cannot detect artemisinin-like molecules. The described method detects heme-binding compounds by mass spectrometry, using dissociation of the drug-heme adducts to evaluate putative antiplasmodial activity. Applied to a chemical library, it showed a good hit-to-lead ratio and is an efficient early stage screening for complex mixtures like natural extracts. PMID:22409647

Muñoz-Durango, Katalina; Maciuk, Alexandre; Harfouche, Abha; Torijano-Gutiérrez, Sandra; Jullian, Jean-Christophe; Quintin, Jérôme; Spelman, Kevin; Mouray, Elisabeth; Grellier, Philippe; Figadère, Bruno

2012-04-01

285

Immobilized Enzyme Reactor in On-line LC and Its Application in Drug Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is to give a brief introduction of immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) in on-line LC and its application in drug\\u000a screening. The literature of immobilization techniques, immobilization supports and determination of immobilized enzyme activity\\u000a were reviewed; the application in the drug screening is briefly introduced. It was found that IMER increased the enzymatic\\u000a stabilization, strikingly shortens reaction time and

Ying-lan Nie; Wei-hong Wang

2009-01-01

286

Intracellular Mechanics-Based Drug Screening for Cancer Metastasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007 alone, close to 1.5 million new cancer cases and over half of a million deaths from cancer are projected to occur in US. In general, cancer is much easier to be successfully treated before metastasis; the five-year survival rates for most of the cancers in the metastatic stage are lower than 10%. The origin of cancer is due to genomic instability; however, the genomics or proteomics studies focus on this phenomenon cannot thoroughly elucidate how cancer metastasis proceeds. During this process, cancer cells protrude and conquer their physical barriers, resist shear stress, establish anchorages and finally settle in a new environment. Each development in this process involves mechanical forces. Thus, whether force generation and cancer cells' mechanical properties can be integrated into the current mainstream of cancer research and offer new insight is worthy of being investigated. To measure the change of cell mechanics, specifically intracellular mechanics, a tool that least disrupts the probed cell's behavior and, simultaneously, can obtain real time quantitative measurement is necessary. To satisfy these criteria, we have developed a technique, ballistic intracellular nanorheology (BIN), in which we trace and analyze the trajectories of nanospheres that have been ballistically bombarded into the cytoplasm of individual cells. This technique allows us to probe the effects of chemical or mechanical stimuli on intracellular mechanics in various types of cells, on culture dishes or in a three-dimensional matrix. BIN is, currently, the first and only method available that can be applied to perform such tasks. Using this technique, we have gained detailed information about how the cytoskeletal remodeling pathways control the intracellular mechanics. We have also obtained information on the tempo-correlation between agonists and intracellular mechanics and how cells utilize their intracellular mechanics to react extracellular shear stress. These studies have set the framework for us to understand the mechanical mechanism of cancer cell metastasis on a molecular level. In this talk, I will describe the working principal using this technique to screen cancer drugs that prevent cancer metastasis.

Tseng, Yilder

2008-03-01

287

Cell-based screening assay for anti-inflammatory activity of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

Excess dietary intake may induce metabolic inflammation which is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence indicates that dietary bioactive compounds may diminish metabolic inflammation. To identify anti-inflammatory bioactives, we developed a screening assay using the human H293-NF-?B-RE-luc2P reporter cell line. Under optimised conditions we determined the anti-inflammatory activity of vegetables and purified bioactives, by monitoring their potency to inhibit TNF-?-induced NF-?B activity, as assessed by sensitive chemiluminescence detection in a 96-well assay format. Minced broccoli seedlings reduced NF-?B activity by 16%, while sulphoraphane, the dominant bioactive in broccoli seedlings, inhibited NF-?B activity with an IC50 of 5.11?mol/l. Short-chain fatty acids also reduced NF-?B activity in the order butyrate>propionate?acetate with IC50 of 51, 223, and 1300?mol/l, respectively. The H293-NF-?B-RE-luc2P reporter cell line is a sensitive tool for rapid high-throughput screening for bioactives with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25053041

Meijer, Kees; Vonk, Roel J; Priebe, Marion G; Roelofsen, Han

2015-01-01

288

A High-throughput Screening Assay using Krabbe Disease Patient Cells  

PubMed Central

Globoid-cell leukodystrophy (GLD) or Krabbe disease is a lysosomal disease caused by ?-galactocerebrosidase (GALC) deficiency resulting in a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Unfortunately, the only available treatment is hematopoietic bone marrow transplantation, which prevents its fulminant manifestation but without treating further neurological manifestations. Here we describe the development of a cellular high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using GLD patient fibroblasts to screen for small molecules that enhance the residual mutant GALC enzymatic activity. Small molecules have substantial therapeutic potential in GLD as they are more prone to cross the blood-brain barrier, reaching the neuronal affected cells. The transformation of primary skin fibroblasts with SV40 large T antigen showed to maintain the biochemical characteristics of the GLD cells and generates sufficient cells for the HTS. Using a specific fluorescent substrate, residual GALC activity from a SV40-transformed GLD patient fibroblast was measurable in high-dense microplates plates. The pilot quantitative HTS against a small compound collection showed robust statistics. The small molecules that showed active concentration-response curves were further studied in primary GLD fibroblasts. This cell-based HTS assay demonstrates the feasibility of employing live-GLD patient cells to identify therapeutic agents that can be potentially be used for the treatment of this progressive neurodegenerative disease.

Ribbens, Jameson; Whiteley, Grace; Furuya, Hirokazu; Southall, Noel; Hu, Xin; Marugan, Juan; Ferrer, Marc; Maegawa, Gustavo H.B.

2013-01-01

289

Development and performance of a comprehensive targeted sequencing assay for pan-ethnic screening of carrier status.  

PubMed

Identifying individuals as carriers of severe disease traits enables informed decision making about reproductive options. Although carrier screening has traditionally been based on ethnicity, the increasing ethnic admixture in the general population argues for the need for pan-ethnic carrier screening assays. Highly multiplexed mutation panels allow for rapid and efficient testing of hundreds of mutations concurrently. We report the development of the Pan-Ethnic Carrier Screening assay, a targeted sequencing assay for routine screening that simultaneously detects 461 common mutations in 91 different genes underlying severe, early-onset monogenic disorders. Mutation selection was aided by the use of an extensive mutation database from a clinical laboratory with expertise in newborn screening and lysosomal storage disease testing. The assay is based on the Affymetrix GeneChip microarray platform but generates genomic DNA sequence as the output. Analytical sensitivity and specificity, using genomic DNA from archived control cultures and from clinical specimens, was found to be >99% for all mutation types. This targeted sequencing assay has advantages over multiplex PCR and next-generation sequencing assays, including accuracy of mutation detection over a range of mutation types and ease of analysis and reporting of results. PMID:24517888

Tanner, Alice K; Valencia, C Alexander; Rhodenizer, Devin; Espirages, Marina; Da Silva, Cristina; Borsuk, Lisa; Caldwell, Sara; Gregg, Edward; Grimes, Elizabeth; Lichanska, Agnieszka M; Morris, Leah; Purkayastha, Anjan; Weslowski, Brian; Tibbetts, Clark; Lorence, Matthew C; Hegde, Madhuri

2014-05-01

290

High-throughput screen using a single-cell tyrosine phosphatase assay reveals biologically active inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatase CD45  

PubMed Central

Many cellular signaling events are regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation and mediated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are emerging as drug targets, but poor cell permeability of inhibitors has limited the development of drugs targeting these enzymes [Tautz L, et al. (2006) Expert Opin Ther Targets 10:157–177]. Here we developed a method to monitor tyrosine phosphatase activity at the single-cell level and applied it to the identification of cell-permeable inhibitors. The method takes advantage of the fluorogenic properties of phosphorylated coumaryl amino propionic acid (pCAP), an analog of phosphotyrosine, which can be incorporated into peptides. Once delivered into cells, pCAP peptides were dephosphorylated by protein tyrosine phosphatases, and the resulting cell fluorescence could be monitored by flow cytometry and high-content imaging. The robustness and sensitivity of the assay was validated using peptides preferentially dephosphorylated by CD45 and T-cell tyrosine phosphatase and available inhibitors of these two enzymes. The assay was applied to high-throughput screening for inhibitors of CD45, an important target for autoimmunity and infectious diseases [Hermiston ML, et al. (2003) Annu Rev Immunol 21:107–137]. We identified four CD45 inhibitors that showed activity in T cells and macrophages. These results indicate that our assay can be applied to primary screening for inhibitors of CD45 and of other protein tyrosine phosphatases to increase the yield of biologically active inhibitors.

Stanford, Stephanie M.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Walker, Logan M.; Wu, Dennis J.; Falk, Matthew D.; Mitra, Sayantan; Damle, Sagar S.; Ruble, David; Kaltcheva, Teodora; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Bavari, Sina; Barrios, Amy M.; Bottini, Nunzio

2012-01-01

291

Implementing mental health screening within a youth alcohol and other drugs service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While clinical studies consistently demonstrate high rates of co-occurring mental health problems among young people with substance use disorders, mental health assessments are not routinely conducted within Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) settings.Aims: To describe the implementation of a universal mental health screening program within a youth AOD service. We report on the adoption of screening by AOD staff

Dan I. Lubman; Leanne Hides; Antonietta Scaffidi; Kathryn Elkins; Maria Stevens; Richard Marks

2008-01-01

292

Automated assay for screening the enzymatic release of reducing sugars from micronized biomass  

PubMed Central

Background To reduce the production cost of bioethanol obtained from fermentation of the sugars provided by degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., second generation bioethanol), it is necessary to screen for new enzymes endowed with more efficient biomass degrading properties. This demands the set-up of high-throughput screening methods. Several methods have been devised all using microplates in the industrial SBS format. Although this size reduction and standardization has greatly improved the screening process, the published methods comprise one or more manual steps that seriously decrease throughput. Therefore, we worked to devise a screening method devoid of any manual steps. Results We describe a fully automated assay for measuring the amount of reducing sugars released by biomass-degrading enzymes from wheat-straw and spruce. The method comprises two independent and automated steps. The first step is the making of "substrate plates". It consists of filling 96-well microplates with slurry suspensions of micronized substrate which are then stored frozen until use. The second step is an enzymatic activity assay. After thawing, the substrate plates are supplemented by the robot with cell-wall degrading enzymes where necessary, and the whole process from addition of enzymes to quantification of released sugars is autonomously performed by the robot. We describe how critical parameters (amount of substrate, amount of enzyme, incubation duration and temperature) were selected to fit with our specific use. The ability of this automated small-scale assay to discriminate among different enzymatic activities was validated using a set of commercial enzymes. Conclusions Using an automatic microplate sealer solved three main problems generally encountered during the set-up of methods for measuring the sugar-releasing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes: throughput, automation, and evaporation losses. In its present set-up, the robot can autonomously process 120 triplicate wheat-straw samples per day. This throughput can be doubled if the incubation time is reduced from 24 h to 4 h (for initial rates measurements, for instance). This method can potentially be used with any insoluble substrate that is micronizable. A video illustrating the method can be seen at the following URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFg6TxjuMWU

2010-01-01

293

GFP assay as a sensitive eukaryotic screening model to detect toxic and genotoxic activity of azaarenes.  

PubMed

Azaarenes are nitrogen-containing polyaromatic heterocyclic compounds (NPAHs). The majority of the azaarenes found in the environment originate from anthropogenic sources. Concentrations of NPAHs found in the environment are reported to be one to two orders of magnitude lower than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations, yet their biological effects can be of similar magnitude. Very few studies on the genotoxicity of azaarenes are available in the literature. In the present study, a preliminary profile of both the toxic and genotoxic potential of 5 PAHs and their 20 aza-analogues were investigated. To assess the toxic and genotoxic activity, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay based on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected. To compare the sensitivity of this eukaryotic short-term assay with bacterial screening tests, the Toxi-Chromotest for toxicity and SOS-Chromotest for genotoxicity assessment were also performed. This comparison indicates that in most cases, the yeast GFP assay is apparently of comparable specificity to the bacterial toxicity or genotoxicity tests with respect to the correlation of positive/negative responses, but much more sensitive with respect to the effective concentration values. In the cases of phenazine, phenanthridine, 1,10-phenanthroline, or 4,7-phenanthroline, one to two orders of magnitude lower IC20 and minimum genotoxic concentration values in the yeast GFP assay were observed. In this study, the authors present evidence that genotoxicity assessment using the yeast GFP assay can provide a simple system to monitor the activity of these environmental pollutants that could possess mutagenic potential at low concentrations. PMID:16841313

Bartos, T; Letzsch, S; Skarek, M; Flegrová, Z; Cupr, P; Holoubek, I

2006-08-01

294

The E-screen assay: a comparison of different MCF7 cell stocks.  

PubMed Central

MCF7 human breast cancer cells have been studied extensively as a model for hormonal effects on breast cancer cell growth and specific protein synthesis. Because the proliferative effect of natural estrogen is considered the hallmark of estrogen action, it was proposed that this property be used to determine whether a substance is an estrogen. The E-screen assay, developed for this purpose, is based on the ability of MCF7 cells to proliferate in the presence of estrogens. The aim of our study was to characterize the response of four MCF7 cell stocks (BUS, ATCC, BB, and BB104) and determine which of them performed best in the E-screen test. The four stocks assayed were distinguishable by their biological behavior. In the absence of estrogen, MCF7 BUS cells stopped proliferating and accumulated in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle; estrogen receptors increased, progesterone receptors decreased, and small amounts of pS2 protein were secreted. Of all the MCF7 stocks tested, MCF7 BUS cells showed the highest proliferative response to estradiol-17 beta: cell yields increased up to sixfold over those of nontreated cells in a 144-hr period. The differences between estrogen-supplemented and nonsupplemented MCF7 BUS cells were due mostly to G0/G1 proliferative arrest mediated by charcoal dextran-stripped serum. MCF7 BUS cell stocks and others showing a similar proliferative pattern should be chosen for use in the E-screen test, or whenever a proliferative effect of estrogen is to be demonstrated. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 5. D

Villalobos, M; Olea, N; Brotons, J A; Olea-Serrano, M F; Ruiz de Almodovar, J M; Pedraza, V

1995-01-01

295

Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing  

PubMed Central

Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. Results Here, we provide a cost effective method for the production of 96-well plate compatible zebrafish orientation tools using a desktop 3D printer. The printed tools enable the positioning and orientation of zebrafish embryos within cavities formed in agarose. Their applicability is demonstrated by acquiring lateral and dorsal views of zebrafish embryos arrayed within microtiter plates using an automated screening microscope. This enables the consistent visualization of morphological phenotypes and reporter gene expression patterns. Conclusions The designs are refined versions of previously demonstrated devices with added functionality and strongly reduced production costs. All corresponding 3D models are freely available and digital design can be easily shared electronically. In combination with the increasingly widespread usage of 3D printers, this provides access to the developed tools to a wide range of zebrafish users. Finally, the design files can serve as templates for other additive and subtractive fabrication methods.

2014-01-01

296

LCP-FRAP Assay for Pre-Screening Membrane Proteins for in Meso Crystallization  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was used to study the diffusion of two integral membrane proteins, bacteriorhodopsin and beta2-adrenergic receptor, in lipidic cubic phase (LCP). We found that the diffusion properties within the LCP matrix strongly depend on the protein construct and applied screening conditions. Common precipitants often induce restriction on diffusion of proteins in LCP and thereby impede their chances for crystallization. A high protein mobile fraction and a fast diffusion rate correlate very well with known crystallization conditions. Using this knowledge, one can now pre-screen precipitant conditions with microgram quantities of material to rule out conditions that are not conducive to diffusion, nucleation, and crystal growth. The results of this assay will narrow membrane protein crystallization space by identifying suitable protein constructs, stabilizing compounds and precipitant conditions amenable to in meso crystallization. Crystallization pre-screening will significantly increase the chances of obtaining initial crystal hits, expediting efforts in generating high-resolution structures of challenging membrane protein targets.

Cherezov, Vadim; Liu, Jeffrey; Griffith, Mark; Hanson, Michael A.; Stevens, Raymond C.

2009-01-01

297

Detection of resistance to second-line antituberculosis drugs by use of the genotype MTBDRsl assay: a multicenter evaluation and feasibility study.  

PubMed

The rate of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been steadily increasing in countries of the former USSR. The availability of rapid and reliable methods for the detection of drug resistance to second-line drugs is vital for adequate patient management. We evaluated the performance of the Genotype MTBDRsl assay compared to that of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (Becton Dickinson Bactec MGIT 960 system) with a test panel of 200 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates at four sites in Eastern Europe. The interpretability of the Genotype MTBDRsl assay was over 95%. The sensitivity for the detection of resistance to fluoroquinolones, ethambutol, amikacin, and capreomycin varied between 77.3% and 92.3%; however, it was much lower for kanamycin (42.7%). The sensitivity for the detection of XDR TB was 22.6%. The test specificity was over 82% for all drugs. The assay presents a good screening tool for the rapid detection of resistance to individual second-line drugs and can be recommended for use in countries with a high burden of MDR/XDR TB. The sensitivity for the detection of kanamycin resistance needs improvement. PMID:22378910

Ignatyeva, Olga; Kontsevaya, Irina; Kovalyov, Alexander; Balabanova, Yanina; Nikolayevskyy, Vladislav; Toit, Kadri; Dragan, Anda; Maxim, Daniela; Mironova, Svetlana; Kummik, Tiina; Muntean, Ionela; Koshkarova, Ekaterina; Drobniewski, Francis

2012-05-01

298

A new system for parallel drug screening against multiple-resistant HIV mutants based on lentiviral self-inactivating (SIN) vectors and multi-colour analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Despite progress in the development of combined antiretroviral therapies (cART), HIV infection remains a significant challenge for human health. Current problems of cART include multi-drug-resistant virus variants, long-term toxicity and enormous treatment costs. Therefore, the identification of novel effective drugs is urgently needed. Methods We developed a straightforward screening approach for simultaneously evaluating the sensitivity of multiple HIV gag-pol mutants to antiviral drugs in one assay. Our technique is based on multi-colour lentiviral self-inactivating (SIN) LeGO vector technology. Results We demonstrated the successful use of this approach for screening compounds against up to four HIV gag-pol variants (wild-type and three mutants) simultaneously. Importantly, the technique was adapted to Biosafety Level 1 conditions by utilising ecotropic pseudotypes. This allowed upscaling to a large-scale screening protocol exploited by pharmaceutical companies in a successful proof-of-concept experiment. Conclusions The technology developed here facilitates fast screening for anti-HIV activity of individual agents from large compound libraries. Although drugs targeting gag-pol variants were used here, our approach permits screening compounds that target several different, key cellular and viral functions of the HIV life-cycle. The modular principle of the method also allows the easy exchange of various mutations in HIV sequences. In conclusion, the methodology presented here provides a valuable new approach for the identification of novel anti-HIV drugs.

2013-01-01

299

Screening assay for small molecule inhibitors of synaptojanin 1, a synaptic phosphoinositide phosphatase  

PubMed Central

Elevation of amyloid ?-peptide (A?) is critically associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. A?-induced synaptic abnormalities, including altered receptor trafficking and synapse loss, have been linked to cognitive deficits in AD. Recent work implicates a lipid critical for neuronal function, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], in A?-induced synaptic and behavioral impairments. Synaptojanin 1 (Synj1), a lipid phosphatase mediating the breakdown of PI(4,5)P2, has been shown to play a role in synaptic vesicle recycling and receptor trafficking in neurons. Heterozygous deletion of Synj1 protected neurons from A?-induced synaptic loss and restored learning and memory in a mouse model of AD. Thus, inhibition of Synj1 may ameliorate A?-associated impairments, suggesting Synj1 as a potential therapeutic target. To this end, we developed a screening assay for Synj1 based on detection of inorganic phosphate liberation from a water-soluble, short chain PI(4,5)P2. The assay displayed saturable kinetics and detected Synj1’s substrate preference for PI(4,5)P2 over PI(3,4,5)P3. The assay will enable identification of novel Synj1 inhibitors which have potential utility as chemical probes to dissect the cellular role of Synj1 as well as potential to prevent or reverse AD-associated synaptic abnormalities.

McIntire, Laura Beth J.; Lee, Kyu-In; Chang-IIeto, Belle; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Kim, Tae-Wan

2014-01-01

300

A High-Throughput Screening Assay of Ascorbate in Brain Samples  

PubMed Central

Ascorbate is a vital reductant/free radical scavenger in the CNS, whose content defines – to a large extent - the redox status and the antioxidant reserves. Quick, reliable and specific methods for its measurement in brain samples are highly desirable. We have developed a new high-throughput screening assay for measurements of ascorbate using a fluorescence plate-reader. This assay is based on a direct reaction of ascorbate with a nitroxide radical conjugated with a fluorogenic acridine moiety, 4-((9-acridinecarbonyl)-amino)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (AC-TEMPO), yielding fluorescent hydroxylamine product (AC-TEMPO-H). The reaction was monitored over time using fluorescence and electron spin resonance techniques. The appearance of fluorescent AC-TEMPO-H was linear within the range of 3.75–75 ?M AscH- in the sample (0.5–10 ?M AscH- in the well). Assay was validated with high performance liquid chromatography method. The concentration of ascorbate in murine tissue samples, including brain samples after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, was measured.

Belikova, Natalia A.; Glumac, Ashley L.; Kapralova, Valentyna; Cheikhi, Amin; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Vagni, Vince A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Bayir, Hulya

2011-01-01

301

A New Resorufin-Based Alpha-Glucosidase Assay for High Throughput Screening  

PubMed Central

Mutations in ?-glucosidase cause accumulation of glycogen in lysosomes resulting in Pompe disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. Small molecule chaperones that bind to enzyme proteins and correct the misfolding and mistrafficking of mutant proteins have emerged as a new therapeutic approach for the lysosomal storage disorders. In addition, ?-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for type-ll diabetes, and ? -glucosidase inhibitors have been used in the clinic as alternative treatments for this disease. We have developed a new fluorogenic substrate for the ?-glucosidase enzyme assay, resorufin ?-D-glucopyranoside. The enzyme reaction product of this new substrate emits at a peak of 590 nm, reducing the interference from fluorescent compounds seen with the existing fluorogenic substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-?-D-glucopyranoside. Also, the enzyme kinetic assay can be carried out continuously without the addition of stop solution, due to the lower pKa of the product of this substrate. Therefore, this new fluorogenic substrate is a useful tool for the ?-glucosidase enzyme assay and will facilitate compound screening for the development of new therapies for Pompe disease.

Motabar, Omid; Shi, Zhen-Dan; Goldin, Ehud; Liu, Ke; Southall, Noel; Sidransky, Ellen; Austin, Christopher P.; Griffiths, Gary L.; Zheng, Wei

2009-01-01

302

High-Throughput Screening of Ototoxic and Otoprotective Pharmacological Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drug ototoxicity research has relied traditionally on animal models for the discovery and development of therapeutic interventions. More than 50 years of research, however, has delivered few--if any--successful clinical strategies for preventing or ameliorating the ototoxic effects of common pharmacological drugs such as aminoglycoside…

Kalinec, Federico

2005-01-01

303

Generation and utilization of anti-drug monoclonal antibodies for screening of 36 drug users by dot-ELISA.  

PubMed

In this study, we prepared monoclonal antibodies against morphine, methadone, babital, methamphetamine, and phencyclidine, then developed a dot-ELISA method by such antibodies to test their efficacy in clinical application and the screening of urine samples. It was found that there were 36 narcotics-positive drug users, including 28 morphine positive, six methamphetamine positive, and two positive for both. All the results were confirmed by commercial drug testing kits. PMID:19382846

Wang, Shuang; Wei, Yuzhi; Chen, Guangyu; Liu, Xiaowei; Jin, Haiming; Yan, Zhaoqi; Wu, Qiaowen; Du, Hongwu

2009-04-01

304

Direct Multiplex Assay of Lysosomal Enzymes in Dried Blood Spots for Newborn Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Newborn screening for deficiency in the lysosomal enzymes that cause Fabry, Gaucher, Krabbe, Niemann–Pick A/B, and Pompe diseases is warranted because treatment for these syndromes is now available or anticipated in the near feature. We describe a multiplex screening method for all five lysosomal enzymes that uses newborn-screening cards containing dried blood spots as the enzyme source. Methods We used a cassette of substrates and internal standards to directly quantify the enzymatic activities, and tandem mass spectrometry for enzymatic product detection. Rehydrated dried blood spots were incubated with the enzyme substrates. We used liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction with silica gel to remove buffer components. Acarbose served as inhibitor of an interfering acid ?-glucosidase present in neutrophils, which allowed the lysosomal enzyme implicated in Pompe disease to be selectively analyzed. Results We analyzed dried blood spots from 5 patients with Gaucher, 5 with Niemann–Pick A/B, 11 with Pompe, 5 with Fabry, and 12 with Krabbe disease, and in all cases the enzyme activities were below the minimum activities measured in a collection of heterozygous carriers and healthy noncarrier individuals. The enzyme activities measured in 5–9 heterozygous carriers were approximately one-half those measured with 15–32 healthy individuals, but there was partial overlap of each condition between the data sets for carriers and healthy individuals. Conclusion For all five diseases, the affected individuals were detected. The assay can be readily automated, and the anticipated reagent and supply costs are well within the budget limits of newborn-screening centers.

Li, Yijun; Scott, C. Ronald; Chamoles, Nestor A.; Ghavami, Ahmad; Pinto, B. Mario; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

2012-01-01

305

New drug susceptibility test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the hybridization protection assay.  

PubMed Central

We developed a novel method for early detection of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using the hybridization protection assay (HPA). The number of viable bacteria during the incubation period correlated well with the number of relative light units measured by the HPA. In addition, the relative light unit values of susceptible strains on the first, third and fifth days of incubation were significantly different from those of resistant strains for both isoniazid and rifampin. Our results suggest that after isolation of the organism from clinical specimens, drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis are accurately detected by the HPA even after 1 day of incubation with the drug.

Miyamoto, J; Koga, H; Kohno, S; Tashiro, T; Hara, K

1996-01-01

306

A Novel Phenotypic Drug Susceptibility Assay for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a considerable improvement in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the emergence of resistant virus is a significant obstacle to the effective management of HIV infection and AIDS. We have developed a novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay that may be useful in guiding therapy and improving long-term suppres-

CHRISTOS J. PETROPOULOS; NEIL T. PARKIN; KAY L. LIMOLI; YOLANDA S. LIE; TERRI WRIN; WEI HUANG; HUAN TIAN; DOUGLAS SMITH; GENINE A. WINSLOW; DANIEL J. CAPON; JEANNETTE M. WHITCOMB

2000-01-01

307

High content screening analysis of phospholipidosis: validation of a 96-well assay with CHO-K1 and HepG2 cells for the prediction of in vivo based phospholipidosis.  

PubMed

Drug-induced phospholipidosis is marked by an excessive accumulation of phospholipids in lysosomes which can occur after exposure to cationic amphiphilic drugs. Phospholipidosis is considered as an adverse side effect and may delay or negatively affect registration of drug candidates. Currently, the gold standard method of phospholipidosis detection is electron microscopy on tissue samples. This technique is time consuming and only performed relatively late in drug development. Therefore, in vitro screening methods for phospholipidosis are essential in early drug development. In this study, an in vitro phospholipidosis detection assay is developed with CHO-K1 and HepG2 cells by using the fluorescent marker NBD-PE and high content screening analysis. Lysosomal localization of NBD-PE was demonstrated by colocalization with Lysotracker and lamellar body formation by electron microscopy. Upon drug exposure, lysosomal NBD-PE accumulation can be visualized and quantified. Validation with 56 reference compounds, divided in 25 phospholipidosis inducers and 31 negative compounds, showed that this new in vitro assay has a high sensitivity (CHO-K1=92.0% and HepG2=88.0%) and specificity (CHO-K1=87.1% and HepG2=80.6%) for predicting phospholipidosis in vivo. Thus a selective screening tool has been developed for early selection of drug candidates with low probability for phospholipidosis. PMID:21651975

van de Water, F M; Havinga, J; Ravesloot, W T; Horbach, G J M J; Schoonen, W G E J

2011-12-01

308

Drug Screening Using a Library of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Reveals Disease Specific Patterns of Cardiotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiotoxicity is a leading cause for drug attrition during pharmaceutical development and has resulted in numerous preventable patient deaths. Incidents of adverse cardiac drug reactions are more common in patients with pre-existing heart disease than the general population. Here we generated a library of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from patients with various hereditary cardiac disorders to model differences in cardiac drug toxicity susceptibility for patients of different genetic backgrounds. Methods and Results Action potential duration (APD) and drug-induced arrhythmia were measured at the single cell level in hiPSC-CMs derived from healthy subjects and patients with hereditary long QT syndrome (LQT), familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Disease phenotypes were verified in LQT, HCM, and DCM iPSC-CMs by immunostaining and single cell patch clamp. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were used as controls. Single cell PCR confirmed expression of all cardiac ion channels in patient-specific hiPSC-CMs as well as hESC-CMs, but not in HEK293 cells. Disease-specific hiPSC-CMs demonstrated increased susceptibility to known cardiotoxic drugs as measured by APD and quantification of drug-induced arrhythmias such as early after depolarizations (EADs) and delayed after depolarizations (DADs). Conclusions We have recapitulated drug-induced cardiotoxicity profiles for healthy subjects, LQT, HCM, and DCM patients at the single cell level for the first time. Our data indicate that healthy and diseased individuals exhibit different susceptibilities to cardiotoxic drugs and that use of disease-specific hiPSC-CMs may predict adverse drug responses more accurately than standard hERG test or healthy control hiPSC-CM/hESC-CM screening assays.

Liang, Ping; Lan, Feng; Lee, Andrew S.; Gong, Tingyu; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Wang, Yongming; Diecke, Sebastian; Sallam, Karim; Knowles, Joshua W.; Wang, Paul J.; Nguyen, Patricia K.; Bers, Donald M.; Robbins, Robert C.; Wu, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

309

Experience with a drug screening program at a school of pharmacy.  

PubMed

Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's curriculum, and these training sites are starting to require drug testing of pharmacy students as part of their contractual agreements with schools of pharmacy. The authors describe the implementation of a mandatory random urine drug screening program at their school as well as the changes that occurred owing to assessment of the program. The authors report the basic results to date of the drug screening program. The authors also speculate on secondary benefits of the drug screening program. Finally, the authors describe current and future evaluations that they are undertaking regarding this program. PMID:22857140

Cates, Marshall E; Hogue, Michael D

2012-01-01

310

A GFP-tagged nucleoprotein-based aggregation assay for anti-influenza drug discovery and antibody development.  

PubMed

Influenza is a viral pandemic that affects millions of people worldwide. Seasonal variations due to genetic shuffling and antigenic drifts in the influenza viruses have necessitated continual updating of therapeutics. The growing resistance to current influenza drugs has increased demand for new antivirals. The highly conserved nature of NP, a multi-functional viral protein that is serotypically distinct and abundantly expressed during infection, has led to its use in developing universal biotherapeutics and vaccines that could be effective against the virus, irrespective of its strain variations. Compounds causing aggregation of NP have recently been shown to be potent antivirals but require the development of new high-throughput assays capable of screening compounds with similar modes of action. Here, we describe the development of a new bioassay for the Influenza A nucleoprotein (NP). The assay was developed to quantify ligand-induced aggregation of a GFP-tagged NP and was validated with aggregation-inducing compounds such as nucleozin and a NP-specific antibody. The new NP-GFP aggregation assay can be performed with partially purified or mixtures of proteins and is amenable to a high-throughput format. Using this assay, we demonstrate the potential of a new anti-NP polyclonal antibody that we have obtained from chicken. This cost-effective high-yield source of anti-NP IgY has potential for large-scale production and development of therapeutic antibodies. The simplicity, speed and flexibility of this assay make it an invaluable tool for timely development of effective antivirals that can help to control future epidemics. PMID:23961535

Antony, Helma; Schaeffer, Patrick M

2013-10-21

311

Identification of active Plasmodium falciparum calpain to establish screening system for Pf-calpain-based drug development  

PubMed Central

Background With the increasing resistance of malaria parasites to available drugs, there is an urgent demand to develop new anti-malarial drugs. Calpain inhibitor, ALLN, is proposed to inhibit parasite proliferation by suppressing haemoglobin degradation. This provides Plasmodium calpain as a potential target for drug development. Pf-calpain, a cysteine protease of Plasmodium falciparum, belongs to calpain-7 family, which is an atypical calpain not harboring Ca2+-binding regulatory motifs. In this present study, in order to establish the screening system for Pf-calpain specific inhibitors, the active form of Pf-calpain was first identified. Methods Recombinant Pf-calpain including catalytic subdomain IIa (rPfcal-IIa) was heterologously expressed and purified. Enzymatic activity was determined by both fluorogenic substrate assay and gelatin zymography. Molecular homology modeling was carried out to address the activation mode of Pf-calpain in the aspect of structural moiety. Results Based on the measurement of enzymatic activity and protease inhibitor assay, it was found that the active form of Pf-calpain only contains the catalytic subdomain IIa, suggesting that Pf-calpain may function as a monomeric form. The sequence prediction indicates that the catalytic subdomain IIa contains all amino acid residues necessary for catalytic triad (Cys-His-Asn) formation. Molecular modeling suggests that the Pf-calpain subdomain IIa makes an active site, holding the catalytic triad residues in their appropriate orientation for catalysis. The mutation analysis further supports that those amino acid residues are functional and have enzymatic activity. Conclusion The identified active form of Pf-calpain could be utilized to establish high-throughput screening system for Pf-calpain inhibitors. Due to its unique monomeric structural property, Pf-calpain could be served as a novel anti-malarial drug target, which has a high specificity for malaria parasite. In addition, the monomeric form of enzyme may contribute to relatively simple synthesis of selective inhibitors.

2013-01-01

312

Cell-based drug combination screening with a microfluidic droplet array system.  

PubMed

We performed cell-based drug combination screening using an integrated droplet-based microfluidic system based on the sequential operation droplet array (SODA) technique. In the system, a tapered capillary connected with a syringe pump was used for multistep droplet manipulations. An oil-covered two-dimensional droplet array chip fixed in an x-y-z translation stage was used as the platform for cell culture and analysis. Complex multistep operations for drug combination screening involving long-term cell culture, medium changing, schedule-dependent drug dosage and stimulation, and cell viability testing were achieved in parallel in the semiopen droplet array, using multiple droplet manipulations including liquid metering, aspirating, depositing, mixing, and transferring. Long-term cell culture as long as 11 days was performed in oil-covered 500 nL droplets by changing the culture medium in each droplet every 24 h. The present system was applied in parallel schedule-dependent drug combination screening for A549 nonsmall lung cancer cells with the cell cycle-dependent drug flavopiridol and two anticancer drugs of paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil. The highest inhibition efficiency was obtained with a schedule combination of 200 nM flavopiridol followed by 100 ?M 5-fluorouracil. The drug consumption for each screening test was substantially decreased to 5 ng-5 ?g, corresponding to 10-1000-fold reductions compared with traditional drug screening systems with 96-well or 384-well plates. The present work provides a novel and flexible droplet-based microfluidic approach for performing cell-based screening with complex and multistep operation procedures. PMID:23786644

Du, Guan-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Zhang; Zhao, Shi-Ping; Zhu, Ying; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Fang, Qun

2013-07-16

313

Methods, agents, and compound screening assays for inducing differentiation of undifferentiatied mammalian cells into osteoblasts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to methods, agents and compound screening assays for inducing differentiation of undifferentiated mammalian cells into osteoblasts. The invention thus provides a method, comprising contacting a compound with a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID No: 194-309; and measuring a compound-polypeptide property related to the differentiation of said cells. The invention further relates to a bone formation enhancing pharmaceutical composition, and the use thereof in treating and/or preventing a disease involving a systemic or local decrease in mean bone density in a subject. Furthermore, the invention relates to a method for the in vitro production of bone tissue.

2009-11-10

314

Development of screening assays and discovery of initial inhibitors of pneumococcal peptidoglycan deacetylase PgdA.  

PubMed

The essential cell wall peptidoglycan is the target of several components of the innate immune system and its disruption results in lysis of invading bacteria. The pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces a peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase, PgdA, to modify the peptidoglycan structure. The activity of PgdA contributes to the bacteria's resistance to lysozyme, which is an important antimicrobial factor of the human innate immune system. In this study we report on the activity of PgdA against natural and artificial substrates. We have also established a virtual high-throughput screening and a new enzyme assay to search for compounds inhibiting PgdA. Two compounds with IC(50) values in the micromolar range have been identified and they could serve as leads for the search of inhibitors of PgdA, an important pneumococcal virulence factor. PMID:21501597

Bui, Nhat Khai; Turk, Samo; Buckenmaier, Stephan; Stevenson-Jones, Flint; Zeuch, Benjamin; Gobec, Stanislav; Vollmer, Waldemar

2011-07-01

315

A high throughput screening assay system for the identification of small molecule inhibitors of gsp.  

PubMed

Mis-sense mutations in the ?-subunit of the G-protein, Gs?, cause fibrous dysplasia of bone/McCune-Albright syndrome. The biochemical outcome of these mutations is constitutively active Gs? and increased levels of cAMP. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that would allow the identification of small molecule inhibitors specific for the mutant Gs? protein, the so-called gsp oncogene. Commercially available Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with either wild-type (WT) or mutant Gs? proteins (R201C and R201H). Stable cell lines with equivalent transfected Gs? protein expression that had relatively lower (WT) or higher (R201C and R201H) cAMP levels were generated. These cell lines were used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP assay in 1536-well microplate format for high throughput screening of small molecule libraries. A small molecule library of 343,768 compounds was screened to identify modulators of gsp activity. A total of 1,356 compounds with inhibitory activity were initially identified and reconfirmed when tested in concentration dose responses. Six hundred eighty-six molecules were selected for further analysis after removing cytotoxic compounds and those that were active in forskolin-induced WT cells. These molecules were grouped by potency, efficacy, and structural similarities to yield 22 clusters with more than 5 of structurally similar members and 144 singleton molecules. Seven chemotypes of the major clusters were identified for further testing and analyses. PMID:24667240

Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Hu, Xin; Chen, Catherine Z; Mathews Griner, Lesley A; Zheng, Wei; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P; Marugan, Juan J; Southall, Noel; Neumann, Susanne; Northup, John K; Ferrer, Marc; Collins, Michael T

2014-01-01

316

Screening for von Willebrand disease: contribution of an automated assay for von Willebrand factor activity.  

PubMed

Measuring von Willebrand factor (VWF) activity is essential to the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD). The VWF activity is usually assessed based on measurement of the ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo). However, that test is technically challenging and has high intra- and inter-assay variabilities. The HemosIL VWF activity (VWF:AC) is a fully automated assay, recently proposed as a good alternative to VWF:RCo for VWD diagnosis. This study was undertaken to assess this new method. First, the analytical performance of VWF:AC on an automated coagulo-meter (ACLTop) was determined, and then this new method was compared with VWF:RCo and the platelet function analyzer (PFA100) for 160 patients referred for VWD screening. The VWF:AC achieved acceptable precision with within-run and between-run coefficients of variation ranging from 2.3% to 14.1%, and linearity from 10% to 100%. Despite some marked differences between VWF:AC and VWF:RCo for 10 plasmas tested, their agreement for VWD diagnosis was good. The VWF:AC had sensitivity similar to that of PFA100 (close to 100%), but better specificity (97.7% vs. 66% or 60%, depending on the cartridge used). The good analytical performance, and the sensitivity and specificity of VWF:AC to detect VWF deficiency renders it a suitable method for VWD screening. Our findings support VWF:AC use for the diagnostic work-up of VWD, paying close attention to concomitant clinical signs and bleeding score, as recommended for VWD. PMID:21951857

Lasne, D; Dey, C; Dautzenberg, M-D; Cherqaoui, Z; Monge, F; Aouba, A; Torchet, M-F; Geloen, D; Landais, P; Rothschild, C

2012-05-01

317

A High Throughput Screening Assay System for the Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of gsp  

PubMed Central

Mis-sense mutations in the ?-subunit of the G-protein, Gs?, cause fibrous dysplasia of bone/McCune-Albright syndrome. The biochemical outcome of these mutations is constitutively active Gs? and increased levels of cAMP. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that would allow the identification of small molecule inhibitors specific for the mutant Gs? protein, the so-called gsp oncogene. Commercially available Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with either wild-type (WT) or mutant Gs? proteins (R201C and R201H). Stable cell lines with equivalent transfected Gs? protein expression that had relatively lower (WT) or higher (R201C and R201H) cAMP levels were generated. These cell lines were used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)–based cAMP assay in 1536-well microplate format for high throughput screening of small molecule libraries. A small molecule library of 343,768 compounds was screened to identify modulators of gsp activity. A total of 1,356 compounds with inhibitory activity were initially identified and reconfirmed when tested in concentration dose responses. Six hundred eighty-six molecules were selected for further analysis after removing cytotoxic compounds and those that were active in forskolin-induced WT cells. These molecules were grouped by potency, efficacy, and structural similarities to yield 22 clusters with more than 5 of structurally similar members and 144 singleton molecules. Seven chemotypes of the major clusters were identified for further testing and analyses.

Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Hu, Xin; Chen, Catherine Z.; Mathews Griner, Lesley A.; Zheng, Wei; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Marugan, Juan J.; Southall, Noel; Neumann, Susanne; Northup, John K.; Ferrer, Marc; Collins, Michael T.

2014-01-01

318

Development of a biomimetic phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay for the estimation of intestinal drug permeability.  

PubMed

Permeability is a crucial property of orally administered drugs. Therefore, in drug discovery, it is important to employ methods suitable for rapidly and reliably screening the permeability of large numbers of new drug candidates. The phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay (PVPA), a model consisting of a tight layer of liposomes immobilized on a filter, offers potential advantages unmet by other methods and has been successfully used in permeability testing of novel active substances as well as formulations. In this study, the PVPA was developed into a more robust, biomimetic model by employing a lipid composition matching that of the intestinal permeation barrier and performing the experiments at the more biologically relevant pH 6.2. As expected, positively charged basic compounds demonstrated increased permeability through the negatively charged biomimetic barriers, and the degree of correct classification according to in vivo absorption was comparable between the original PVPA and the biomimetic PVPA. The biomimetic PVPA further proved to be tremendously more robust toward the presence of tensides compared with the original PVPA; this is a promising finding that renders the biomimetic PVPA an enhanced ability to estimate the permeability of poorly soluble compounds. Hence, the PVPA model developed in this study has evolved an important step forward. PMID:24665049

Naderkhani, Elenaz; Isaksson, Johan; Ryzhakov, Alexey; Flaten, Gøril Eide

2014-06-01

319

Single-bead, single-molecule, single-cell fluorescence: technologies for drug screening and target validation.  

PubMed

According to many current reports, the pharmaceutical business will hit a wall over the next few years. The generic competition is expected to wipe out a double-digit billion-dollar amount from top companies' annual sales between 2007 and 2012 (Wall Street Journal, online, December 6, 2007). The industry's science engine has stalled, new blockbusters are lacking, and patent expirations are a big problem. Also, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is pulling back on approvals, requesting larger safety studies. Among the different approaches taken throughout the industry to improve productivity and to reduce the attrition rate of compounds in the drug discovery process, an extended application of quantitative biology and biophysical methods is ranked very high. Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging represented the main detection technologies for assays and screening methods in recent years. Today, label-free detection methods, such as isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)), light scattering, or interferometry, start to provide viable alternative readouts for physicochemical characterization of leads and hit list triaging. However, the multidimensional nature of fluorescence along with its high sensitivity and single-molecule resolution remains an unparalleled source of molecular parameters to extract all different kinds of information on molecules and ligand-protein complexes in solution. Although fluorescence-based methods are currently applied throughout the different stages of the industrial drug discovery process, they are usually applied in an unconnected way. We have developed a fully integrated hit and lead discovery process combining bead-based synthesis and screening methods with confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy. The primary on-bead screening process provides fluorescent ligands that after a multistep characterization process ultimately leads to fully mechanistically characterized cellularly validated binders and inhibitors of target protein interactions. The unlabeled small-molecular inhibitors represent chemical starting points in drug discovery and target validation. PMID:18596327

Hintersteiner, Martin; Auer, Manfred

2008-01-01

320

In Silico Screening of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Their Combined Action on Prostaglandin H Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

The detailed kinetic model of Prostaglandin H Synthase-1 (PGHS-1) was applied to in silico screening of dose-dependencies for the different types of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as: reversible/irreversible, nonselective/selective to PGHS-1/PGHS-2 and time dependent/independent inhibitors (aspirin, ibuprofen, celecoxib, etc.) The computational screening has shown a significant variability in the IC50s of the same drug, depending on different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. To study this high heterogeneity in the inhibitory effects of NSAIDs, we have developed an in silico approach to evaluate NSAID action on targets under different PGHS-1 microenvironmental conditions, such as arachidonic acid, reducing cofactor, and peroxide concentrations. The designed technique permits translating the drug IC50, obtained in one experimental setting to another, and predicts in vivo inhibitory effects based on the relevant in vitro data. For the aspirin case, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the enhancement and reduction (aspirin resistance) of its efficacy, depending on PGHS-1 microenvironment in in vitro/in vivo experimental settings. We also present the results of the in silico screening of the combined action of sets of two NSAIDs (aspirin with ibuprofen, aspirin with celecoxib), and study the mechanism of the experimentally observed effect of the suppression of aspirin-mediated PGHS-1 inhibition by selective and nonselective NSAIDs. Furthermore, we discuss the applications of the obtained results to the problems of standardization of NSAID test assay, dependence of the NSAID efficacy on cellular environment of PGHS-1, drug resistance, and NSAID combination therapy.

Goltsov, Alexey; Lebedeva, Galina; Humphery-Smith, Ian; Goltsov, Gregory; Demin, Oleg; Goryanin, Igor

2010-01-01

321

Implementation of an interferon-gamma release assay to screen for tuberculosis in refugees and immigrants.  

PubMed

Despite increased use and accuracy of interferon-gamma release assays to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in foreign-born arrivals in the United States, risk characteristics associated with positive results are not well characterized. We conducted a retrospective record review of 541 refugees and immigrants screened for LTBI with QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) at the Spokane Public Health Clinic from January 2, 2008, through June 5, 2009. Overall, 24 % of the arrivals had a positive QFT-IT, with the greatest frequency of positive results occurring in arrivals from Liberia (100 %) and Bhutan (39 %). More than the expected number of Burmese had indeterminate QFT-IT results. A positive QFT-IT was associated with age, race, ethnicity, and extent of TB burden in the country of origin. QFT-IT is useful to screen for LTBI in foreign-born arrivals, particularly middle-aged adults from high-burden countries. However, the QFT-IT may not yield meaningful results in groups with significant immunocompromise. PMID:23179470

Simpson, Terri; Tomaro, Julie; Jobb, Cynthia

2013-08-01

322

Development of a dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) assay for high throughput chemical screening  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent signaling molecule that needs to be tightly regulated to maintain metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH)/Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) pathway is central to this regulation. Specifically, the small molecule ADMA competitively inhibits NOS, thus lowering NO levels. The majority of ADMA is physiologically metabolized by DDAH, thus maintaining NO levels at physiological concentration. However, under pathophysiological conditions, DDAH activity is impaired, in part as a result of its sensitivity to oxidative stress. Therefore, the application of high throughput chemical screening for the discovery of small molecules that could restore or enhance DDAH activity might have significant potential in treating metabolic and vascular diseases characterized by reduced NO levels, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and insulin resistance. By contrast, excessive generation of NO (primarily driven by iNOS) could play a role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), sepsis, migraine headaches, and some types of cancer. In these conditions, small molecules that inhibit DDAH activity might be therapeutically useful. Here, we describe optimization and validation of a highly reproducible and robust assay successfully used in a high throughput screen for DDAH modulators.

Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Erlanson, Daniel; Yamada, Keisuke; Cooke, John P

2013-01-01

323

Chemical library screening using a SPR-based inhibition in solution assay: simulations and experimental validation.  

PubMed

We have developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition in solution assay (ISA) to search for inhibitors of the medium affinity (KD = 0.8 ?M) interaction between an E6-derived peptide (E6peptide) immobilized on the sensor and a PDZ domain (MAGI-1 PDZ1) in the mobile phase. DZ domains are widespread protein-protein interaction modules that recognize the C-terminus of various partners. Simulations indicated that relatively low compound concentrations (10 ?M) and limited peptide densities (Rmax < 200 resonance units) should allow the detection of inhibitors with a target affinity close to 100 ?M, which was then demonstrated experimentally. ISA screening, carried out on the Prestwick Chemical Library® (1120 compounds), identified 36 compounds that inhibited the interaction by more than 5%. Concentration-dependent ISA, carried out on a subset of 19 potential inhibitors, indicated that 13 of these indeed affected the interaction between MAGI-1 PDZ1 and the E6peptide. No effect was observed for 84 compounds randomly chosen among noninhibitors. One of the four best inhibitors was a peptide binder, and three were PDZ binders with KD in the 10-50 ?M range. We propose that a medium (?M) affinity between the target and surface-bound partner is optimal for SPR-based ISA screening. PMID:23931734

Choulier, Laurence; Nominé, Yves; Zeder-Lutz, Gabrielle; Charbonnier, Sebastian; Didier, Bruno; Jung, Marie-Louise; Altschuh, Danièle

2013-09-17

324

Cost-effectiveness of interferon-gamma release assay for entry tuberculosis screening in prisons.  

PubMed

The incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in inmates and prison staff is higher than that in the general population. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) provide more accurate diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection with higher specificity than the tuberculin skin test (TST). To assess the cost effectiveness of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) compared to TST, TST followed by QFT and chest X-ray, we constructed Markov models using a societal perspective on the lifetime horizon. The main outcome measure of effectiveness was quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness was compared. The QFT-alone strategy was the most cost-effective for entry TB screening in prisons in developed countries. Cost-effectiveness was not sensitive to the rates of BCG vaccination, LTBI, TB, HIV infection and multidrug-resistant TB. Entry TB screening using an IGRA in prisons should be considered on the basis of its cost-effectiveness by public health intervention. PMID:23286364

Kowada, A

2013-10-01

325

Novel screening assay for in vivo selection of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes promoting gastrointestinal colonisation  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infections. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a key step in the development of infections; yet the specific factors important for K. pneumoniae to colonize and reside in the GI tract of the host are largely unknown. To identify K. pneumoniae genes promoting GI colonisation, a novel genomic-library-based approach was employed. Results Screening of a K. pneumoniae C3091 genomic library, expressed in E. coli strain EPI100, in a mouse model of GI colonisation led to the positive selection of five clones containing genes promoting persistent colonisation of the mouse GI tract. These included genes encoding the global response regulator ArcA; GalET of the galactose operon; and a cluster of two putative membrane-associated proteins of unknown function. Both ArcA and GalET are known to be involved in metabolic pathways in Klebsiella but may have additional biological actions beneficial to the pathogen. In support of this, GalET was found to confer decreased bile salt sensitivity to EPI100. Conclusions The present work establishes the use of genomic-library-based in vivo screening assays as a valuable tool for identification and characterization of virulence factors in K. pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens.

2012-01-01

326

GeneChip{sup {trademark}} screening assay for cystic fibrosis mutations  

SciTech Connect

GeneChip{sup {trademark}} assays are based on high density, carefully designed arrays of short oligonucleotide probes (13-16 bases) built directly on derivatized silica substrates. DNA target sequence analysis is achieved by hybridizing fluorescently labeled amplification products to these arrays. Fluorescent hybridization signals located within the probe array are translated into target sequence information using the known probe sequence at each array feature. The mutation screening assay for cystic fibrosis includes sets of oligonucleotide probes designed to detect numerous different mutations that have been described in 14 exons and one intron of the CFTR gene. Each mutation site is addressed by a sub-array of at least 40 probe sequences, half designed to detect the wild type gene sequence and half designed to detect the reported mutant sequence. Hybridization with homozygous mutant, homozygous wild type or heterozygous targets results in distinctive hybridization patterns within a sub-array, permitting specific discrimination of each mutation. The GeneChip probe arrays are very small (approximately 1 cm{sup 2}). There miniature size coupled with their high information content make GeneChip probe arrays a useful and practical means for providing CF mutation analysis in a clinical setting.

Cronn, M.T.; Miyada, C.G.; Fucini, R.V. [Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

327

Biotin-avidin interaction-based screening assay for Alzheimer's beta-peptide oligomer inhibitors.  

PubMed

In vitro testing for inhibitors of oligomer formation of pathologically misfolded proteins such as Alzheimer's beta-peptide (Abeta) has been limited by the lack of a suitably sensitive high-throughput method for measuring oligomers. Even with the development of oligomer-specific antibodies and a single-site antibody assay, there are multiple controls required to rule out false positives due to compound interactions with the epitopes on the peptide that are recognized by the antibodies or with the antibodies themselves, and the immunoreagents are expensive. A non-radioactive non-immunological method for the measurement of subnanomolar concentrations of Alzheimer's beta-peptide residues 1-42 [Abeta(1-42)] oligomers incorporating the biotin-avidin interaction that has been a workhorse for screening assays is applied here in a single-site NeutrAvidin capture/labeled streptavidin detection configuration to specifically recognize multimeric (>20kDa) oligomers of N-alpha-biotinyl-Abeta(1-42) (bio-Abeta42) but not monomeric bio-Abeta42. The high affinity and specificity of the biotin interaction with NeutrAvidin and streptavidin obviate interference by non-biotin-containing compounds. The reagents are inexpensive and can be applied to any misfolding/oligomerizing peptide or protein that can be biotinylated at a single site. PMID:16729955

LeVine, Harry

2006-09-15

328

Isoelectric point mobility shift assay for rapid screening of charged and uncharged ligands bound to proteins.  

PubMed

Three human proteins (hTAP1, hTAP2 and hTAP3) that are related to the yeast phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein SEC14p were recently cloned in our laboratory. These proteins contain a relatively large hydrophobic pocket, the so called CRAL-TRIO domain, which is present also in other human proteins, such as CRALBP, alpha-TTP and MEG2. The CRAL-TRIO domains in these proteins bind ligands such as retinaldehyde, tocopherols and polyphosphoinositides, respectively. To screen for potential hTAPs ligands, we developed a semi-quantitative isoelectric point mobility shift assay (IPMS-assay) that allows assessing the binding of potential hydrophobic ligands to proteins. Purified proteins occupied with a charged ligand migrate differently on isoelectric focusing gels when compared with free protein. Competition of bound charged ligands with uncharged ones reverses the mobility shift, so that the relative affinities of the two ligands to the protein can be estimated. PMID:12749692

Kempná, Petra; Cipollone, Rita; Villacorta, Luis; Ricciarelli, Roberta; Zingg, Jean-Marc

2003-02-01

329

Comparative evaluation of the nitrate reduction assay, the MTT test, and the resazurin microtitre assay for drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of three rapid low-cost methods for the detection of resistance to first-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: One hundred M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were tested by the nitrate reductase assay (NRA), the MTT test and the resazurin microtitre assay (REMA), and the results compared with those obtained with the gold standard proportion method (PM) on

Ernesto Montoro; Dihadenys Lemus; Miguel Echemendia; Anandi Martin

2005-01-01

330

A yeast-based assay identifies drugs that interfere with immune evasion of the Epstein-Barr virus  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is tightly associated with certain human cancers, but there is as yet no specific treatment against EBV-related diseases. The EBV-encoded EBNA1 protein is essential to maintain viral episomes and for viral persistence. As such, EBNA1 is expressed in all EBV-infected cells, and is highly antigenic. All infected individuals, including individuals with cancer, have CD8+ T cells directed towards EBNA1 epitopes, yet the immune system fails to detect and destroy cells harboring the virus. EBV immune evasion depends on the capacity of the Gly-Ala repeat (GAr) domain of EBNA1 to inhibit the translation of its own mRNA in cis, thereby limiting the production of EBNA1-derived antigenic peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway. Here we establish a yeast-based assay for monitoring GAr-dependent inhibition of translation. Using this assay we identify doxorubicin (DXR) as a compound that specifically interferes with the GAr effect on translation in yeast. DXR targets the topoisomerase-II–DNA complexes and thereby causes genomic damage. We show, however, that the genotoxic effect of DXR and various analogs thereof is uncoupled from the effect on GAr-mediated translation control. This is further supported by the observation that etoposide and teniposide, representing another class of topoisomerase-II–DNA targeting drugs, have no effect on GAr-mediated translation control. DXR and active analogs stimulate, in a GAr-dependent manner, EBNA1 expression in mammalian cells and overcome GAr-dependent restriction of MHC class I antigen presentation. These results validate our approach as an effective high-throughput screening assay to identify drugs that interfere with EBV immune evasion and, thus, constitute candidates for treating EBV-related diseases, in particular EBV-associated cancers.

Voisset, Cecile; Daskalogianni, Chrysoula; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Mazars, Anne; Arbach, Hratch; Le Cann, Marie; Soubigou, Flavie; Apcher, Sebastien; Fahraeus, Robin; Blondel, Marc

2014-01-01

331

[The usefulness of the nitrate reductase assay for detecting drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Introduction: The early detection of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of primary importance for both patient management and infection control. Objective: To evaluate nitrate reductase assay (NRA) performance for the testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug-resistance against first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, such as rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol (EMB). Materials and methods: Fifty isolates were tested by using both the proportion method and the nitrate reductase assay. Results: RIF, INH, STR and EMB sensitivity was found to be 92%, 91%, 63% and 80% and 100%, respectively, and a corresponding specificity of 100%, 100%, 100% and 98% by comparing NRA results to those obtained with the gold standard (i.e., the proportion method). The positive predictive values for RIF, INH, STR and EMB were 100%, 100%, 100% and 80% and the negative predictive values were 97%, 93%, 73% and 98%, respectively. The mean time for obtaining results was shorter when using the nitrate reductase assay (10 days) compared to using the proportion method (28 days). Excellent agreement was observed between both phenotypic tests: 98%, 96%, 81% and 96% for RIF, INH, STR and EMB, respectively . Conclusions: The results showed that the nitrate reductase assay is suitable for the early determination of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and is a useful tool for the quick and accurate determination of a rapid M. tuberculosis drug-sensitivity test in countries having low resources. PMID:24968055

González, Lorena; Sánchez, Ricardo; Murcia, Martha Isabel

2014-04-01

332

A Novel Fluorescence Intensity Screening Assay Identifies New Low-Molecular-Weight Inhibitors of the gp41 Coiled-Coil Domain of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1?  

PubMed Central

A metallopeptide-based fluorescence assay has been designed for the detection of small-molecule inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41, the viral protein involved in membrane fusion. The assay involves two peptides representing the inner N-terminal-heptad-repeat (HR1) coiled coil and the outer C-terminal-heptad-repeat (HR2) helical domains of the gp41 six-helix bundle which forms prior to fusion. The two peptides span a hydrophobic pocket previously defined in the literature. The HR1 peptide is modified with a metal-ligated dye complex, which maintains structural integrity and permits association with a fluorophore-labeled HR2 peptide to be followed by fluorescence quenching. Compounds able to disrupt six-helix bundle formation can act as fusion inhibitors, and we show that they can be detected in the assay from an increase in the fluorescence that is correlated with the potency of the compound. Assay optimization and validation have resulted in a simple quantitative competitive inhibition assay for fusion inhibitors that bind in the hydrophobic pocket. The assay has an assay quality factor (Z?) of 0.88 and can rank order inhibitors at 10 ?M concentration with Kis in the range of 0.2 ?M to 30 ?M, an ideal range for drug discovery. Screening of a small peptidomimetic library has yielded three new low-molecular-weight gp41 inhibitors. In vitro syncytium inhibition assays confirmed that the compounds inhibited cell-cell fusion in the low micromolar range. These lead compounds provide a new molecular scaffold for the development of fusion inhibitors.

Cai, Lifeng; Gochin, Miriam

2007-01-01

333

Application and validation of a clean-up tandem assay column for screening ochratoxin A in cocoa powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid antibody-based assay for the detection of ochratoxin A in cocoa powder is described, involving sequential clean-up and visual detection of the toxin (“clean-up tandem assay column”). The screening test was developed to have a cut-off level of 2?µg?kg and was shown to have false positive and false negative rates of 10 and 2%, respectively. Analysis of six samples

Marieke Lobeau; Sarah De Saeger; Liberty Sibanda; Ildiko Barna-Vetró; Carlos Van Peteghem

2007-01-01

334

Organ donor screening using parallel nucleic acid testing allows assessment of transmission risk and assay results in real time.  

PubMed

Expansion of the donor pool may lead to utilization of donors with risk factors for viral infections. Donor laboratory screening relies on serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT). The increased sensitivity of NAT in low prevalence populations may result in false-positive results (FPR) and may cause unnecessary discard of organs.We developed a screening algorithm to deal, in real time, with potential FPR. Three NAT assays: COBAS AmpliScreen assay (CAS), AmpliPrep Total Nucleic Acid Isolation/CAS, and AmpliPrep/TaqMan assays, were validated and used in parallel for prospective screening of increased-risk donors (IRD), and the probability of FPR was calculated. The lower limit of detection of this algorithm was 9.79, 21.02, and 4.31 IU/mL for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus, respectively, with an average turn-around-time of 7.67 h from sample receipt to result reporting. The probability that a donor is potentially infectious with two NAT concordant results was >90%. NAT screening of 35 IRD within 18 months resulted in transplantation of 102 additional organs that without screening would either not be used or used with restrictions in Australia. Using a parallel testing algorithm, real-time confirmation of seropositive donors allows use of organs from IRD and safer expansion of the donor pool. PMID:22519518

Baleriola, C; Tu, E; Johal, H; Gillis, J; Ison, M G; Law, M; Coghlan, P; Rawlinson, W D

2012-06-01

335

Development of a robust cell-based high-throughput screening assay to identify targets of HIV-1 viral protein R dimerization.  

PubMed

Targeting protein-protein interactions (PPI) is an emerging field in drug discovery. Dimerization and PPI are essential properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 proteins, their mediated functions, and virus biology. Additionally, dimerization is required for the functional interaction of HIV-1 proteins with many host cellular components. In this study, a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC)-based screening assay was developed that can quantify changes in dimerization, using HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) dimerization as a "proof of concept." Results demonstrated that Venus Vpr (generated by BiFC Vpr constructs) could be competed off in a dose-dependent manner using untagged, full-length Vpr as a competitor molecule. The change in signal intensity was measured quantitatively through flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy in a high content screening assay. High content imaging was used to screen a library of small molecules for an effect on Vpr dimerization. Among the tested molecules, a few of the small molecules demonstrate an effect on Vpr dimerization in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:23737660

Zych, Courtney; Domling, Alexander; Ayyavoo, Velpandi

2013-01-01

336

Evaluation of the Abbott ADx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II abused drug assay: comparison to TDx, EMIT, and GC/MS methods.  

PubMed

Although the legitimate clinical use of amphetamine and amphetamine congeners is declining, the illicit use of these drugs remains high. There is a need for a rapid and conclusive method for detecting these compounds in routine urine drug testing, drug screening in drug rehabilitation centers, and as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of potential overdoses. The Abbott ADx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II assay (A/M II), a fluorescence polarization Immunoassay (FPIA), was compared to the Abbott TDx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II assay (FPIA), the Syva enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) and a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Precision of the A/M II assay was evaluated on the ADx analyzer over a 14-day period in each of three modes of operation (batch, combination, and panel) and was based on within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CVs). Within-run CVs for all three controls (low [L], medium [M], and high [H]) ranged from 0.40% to 10.60% and between run CVs ranged from 3.96% to 7.92%. Data indicated that the calibration curve was stable for 16 days. Each of the six calibrators and three controls were within 10% of their labeled concentrations when analyzed by GC/MS. Fifty routine clinical specimens from our laboratory and 74 specimens screened as positive for amphetamine or related compounds from a rehabilitation center were screened by ADx, TDx, and EMIT. Any specimen yielding a positive result by any of these three methods was confirmed by GC/MS. In-house controls, as well as clinical samples, which contained both amphetamine and methamphetamine in the same sample produced results greater than two times the expected response on the ADx and TDx.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1779660

Przekop, M A; Manno, J E; Kunsman, G W; Cockerham, K R; Manno, B R

1991-01-01

337

Application of a resazurin-based high-throughput screening assay for the identification and progression of new treatments for human African trypanosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and the disease is fatal if untreated. There is an urgent need to develop new, safe and effective treatments for HAT because current drugs have extremely poor safety profiles and are difficult to administer. Here we report the development and application of a cell-based resazurin reduction assay for high throughput screening and identification of new inhibitors of T. b. brucei as starting points for the development of new treatments for human HAT. Active compounds identified in primary screening of ?48,000 compounds representing ?25 chemical classes were titrated to obtain IC50 values. Cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line was determined to provide indications of parasite versus host cell selectivity. Examples from hit series that showed selectivity and evidence of preliminary SAR were re-synthesized to confirm trypanocidal activity prior to initiating hit-to-lead expansion efforts. Additional assays such as serum shift, time to kill and reversibility of compound effect were developed and applied to provide further criteria for advancing compounds through the hit-to-lead phase of the project. From this initial effort, six distinct chemical series were selected and hit-to-lead chemistry was initiated to synthesize several key analogs for evaluation of trypanocidal activity in the resazurin-reduction assay for parasite viability. From the hit-to-lead efforts, a series was identified that demonstrated efficacy in a mouse model for T. b. brucei infection and was progressed into the lead optimization stage. In summary, the present study demonstrates the successful and effective use of resazurin-reduction based assays as tools for primary and secondary screening of a new compound series to identify leads for the treatment of HAT.

Bowling, Tana; Mercer, Luke; Don, Robert; Jacobs, Robert; Nare, Bakela

2012-01-01

338

Application of a resazurin-based high-throughput screening assay for the identification and progression of new treatments for human African trypanosomiasis.  

PubMed

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and the disease is fatal if untreated. There is an urgent need to develop new, safe and effective treatments for HAT because current drugs have extremely poor safety profiles and are difficult to administer. Here we report the development and application of a cell-based resazurin reduction assay for high throughput screening and identification of new inhibitors of T. b. brucei as starting points for the development of new treatments for human HAT. Active compounds identified in primary screening of ?48,000 compounds representing ?25 chemical classes were titrated to obtain IC50 values. Cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line was determined to provide indications of parasite versus host cell selectivity. Examples from hit series that showed selectivity and evidence of preliminary SAR were re-synthesized to confirm trypanocidal activity prior to initiating hit-to-lead expansion efforts. Additional assays such as serum shift, time to kill and reversibility of compound effect were developed and applied to provide further criteria for advancing compounds through the hit-to-lead phase of the project. From this initial effort, six distinct chemical series were selected and hit-to-lead chemistry was initiated to synthesize several key analogs for evaluation of trypanocidal activity in the resazurin-reduction assay for parasite viability. From the hit-to-lead efforts, a series was identified that demonstrated efficacy in a mouse model for T. b. brucei infection and was progressed into the lead optimization stage. In summary, the present study demonstrates the successful and effective use of resazurin-reduction based assays as tools for primary and secondary screening of a new compound series to identify leads for the treatment of HAT. PMID:24533287

Bowling, Tana; Mercer, Luke; Don, Robert; Jacobs, Robert; Nare, Bakela

2012-12-01

339

Karyotypic Complexity of the NCI60 Drug-Screening Panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used spectral karyotyping to provide a detailed analysis of karyo- typic aberrations in the diverse group of cancer cell lines established by the National Cancer Institute for the purpose of anticancer drug discov- ery. Along with the karyotypic description of these cell lines we defined and studied karyotypic complexity and heterogeneity (metaphase-to-met- aphase variations) based on three separate components

Anna V. Roschke; Giovanni Tonon; Kristen S. Gehlhaus; Nicolas McTyre; Kimberly J. Bussey; Samir Lababidi; Dominic A. Scudiero; John N. Weinstein; Ilan R. Kirsch

2003-01-01

340

Receptorome screening: a powerful, facile approach to better understand and engineer drugs.  

PubMed

Receptorome screening is the process of characterizing one or more compounds for pharmacological activity (e.g., inhibition of radioligand binding, positive or negative efficacy) at a large panel of 'targets' (e.g., biologically relevant recombinant G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels and small-molecule transporters). Recently, receptorome profiles have led to mechanistic insights into the actions -both intentional and adverse- of several drugs. In the present review, I discuss in detail how receptorome screening increased our understanding of three drugs (salvinorin A, amisulpride and fenfluramine) and a class of medications (atypical antipsychotics). The cases presented suggest that receptorome screening of current medications, as well as investigational drugs and future compounds destined for use in humans, might enable us to predict salutary effects, as well as side effects, at the preclinical stage, which would have important economic and public health implications. PMID:20016855

Setola, Vincent

2009-10-01

341

Finding a better drug for epilepsy: preclinical screening strategies and experimental trial design.  

PubMed

The antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) introduced during the past two decades have provided several benefits: they offered new treatment options for symptomatic treatment of seizures, improved ease of use and tolerability, and lowered risk for hypersensitivity reactions and detrimental drug-drug interactions. These drugs, however, neither attenuated the problem of drug-refractory epilepsy nor proved capable of preventing or curing the disease. Therefore, new preclinical screening strategies are needed to identify AEDs that target these unmet medical needs. New therapies may derive from novel targets identified on the basis of existing hypotheses for drug-refractory epilepsy and the biology of epileptogenesis; from research on genetics, transcriptomics, and epigenetics; and from mechanisms relevant for other therapy areas. Novel targets should be explored using new preclinical screening strategies, and new technologies should be used to develop medium- to high-throughput screening models. In vivo testing of novel drugs should be performed in models mimicking relevant aspects of drug refractory epilepsy and/or epileptogenesis. To minimize the high attrition rate associated with drug development, which arises mainly from a failure to demonstrate sufficient clinical efficacy of new treatments, it is important to define integrated strategies for preclinical screening and experimental trial design. An important tool will be the discovery and implementation of relevant biomarkers that will facilitate a continuum of proof-of-concept approaches during early clinical testing to rapidly confirm or reject preclinical findings, and thereby lower the risk of the overall development effort. In this review, we overview some of the issues related to these topics and provide examples of new approaches that we hope will be more successful than those used in the past. PMID:22708847

Simonato, Michele; Löscher, Wolfgang; Cole, Andrew J; Dudek, F Edward; Engel, Jerome; Kaminski, Rafal M; Loeb, Jeffrey A; Scharfman, Helen; Staley, Kevin J; Velíšek, Libor; Klitgaard, Henrik

2012-11-01

342

Development and model testing of antemortem screening methodology to predict required drug withholds in heifers.  

PubMed

A simple, cow-side test for the presence of drug residues in live animal fluids would provide useful information for tissue drug residue avoidance programs. This work describes adaptation and evaluation of rapid screening tests to detect drug residues in serum and urine. Medicated heifers had urine, serum, and tissue biopsy samples taken while on drug treatment. Samples were tested by rapid methods and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The adapted microbial inhibition method, kidney inhibition swab test, was useful in detecting sulfadimethoxine in serum, and its response correlated with the prescribed withdrawal time for the drug, 5 to 6 days posttreatment. The lateral flow screening method for flunixin and beta-lactams, adapted for urine, was useful in predicting flunixin in liver detected by HPLC, 96 h posttreatment. The same adapted methods were not useful to detect ceftiofur in serum or urine due to a lack of sensitivity at the levels of interest. These antemortem screening test studies demonstrated that the method selected, and the sampling matrix chosen (urine or serum), will depend on the drug used and should be based on animal treatment history if available. The live animal tests demonstrated the potential for verification that an individual animal is free of drug residues before sale for human consumption. PMID:24490924

Jones, Shuna A; Salter, Robert S; Goldsmith, Tim; Quintana, Julio; Rapnicki, Paul; Shuck, Karen; Wells, Jim E; Schneider, Marilyn J; Griffin, Dee

2014-02-01

343

Preventing drug interactions by online prescription screening in community pharmacies and medical practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drug interactions have been shown to be preventable by computerized prescription entry and screening only in hospitals and not in community-based practice.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the effect of online prescription screening in community pharmacies and physician offices of one health maintenance organization, phased in during 3 consecutive 6-month periods in 1998 to 1999 (period I, system active only in

Hillel Halkin; Itzhak Katzir; Irena Kurman; Joseph Jan; Becky Ben-Oz Malkin

2001-01-01

344

High-Content Screening: A New Approach to Easing Key Bottlenecks in the Drug Discovery Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in target discovery and high throughput screening (HTS) have increased the pressure at key points along the drug discovery pipeline. High-content screening (HCS) was developed to ease bottlenecks that have formed at target validation and lead optimization points in the pipeline. HCS defines the role of targets in cell functions by combining fluorescence-based reagents with the ArrayScan™ System

Kenneth A. Giuliano; Robbin L. DeBiasio; R. Terry Dunlay; Albert Gough; Joanne M. Volosky; Joseph Zock; George N. Pavlakis; D. Lansing Taylor

1997-01-01

345

Validated assay for studying activity profiles of human liver UGTs after drug exposure: inhibition and induction studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDP-glucuronsyltransferases (UGTs) are a family of conjugating enzymes that participate in the metabolism of many drugs. The\\u000a study of potential drug–drug interactions involving UGTs has been largely hindered by the limited availability of selective\\u000a functional assays for individual UGT enzymes. We propose a sensitive and reproducible procedure for the activity measurements\\u000a of four major human hepatic UGT forms. The assays

M. Teresa Donato; Sandra Montero; José V. Castell; M. José Gómez-Lechón; Agustín Lahoz

2010-01-01

346

Key learnings from performance of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 in vitro assays.  

PubMed

Tier 1 of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program comprises 11 studies: five in vitro assays, four in vivo mammalian assays, and two in vivo nonmammalian assays. The battery is designed to detect compounds with the potential to interact with the estrogen, androgen, or thyroid signaling pathways. This article examines the procedures, results, and data interpretation for the five Tier 1 in vitro assays: estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor binding assays, an ER transactivation assay, an aromatase assay, and a steroidogenesis assay. Data are presented from two laboratories that have evaluated approximately 11 compounds in the Tier 1 in vitro assays. Generally, the ER and androgen receptor binding assays and the aromatase assay showed good specificity and reproducibility. As described in the guideline for the ER transactivation assay, a result is considered positive when the test compound induces a reporter gene signal that reaches 10% of the response seen with 1 nM 17?-estradiol (positive control). In the experience of these laboratories, this cutoff criterion may result in false-positive responses. For the steroidogenesis assay, there is variability in the basal and stimulated production of testosterone and estradiol by the H295R cells. This variability in responsiveness, coupled with potential cell stress at high concentrations of test compound, may make it difficult to discern whether hormone alterations are specific steroidogenesis alterations (i.e., endocrine active). Lastly, both laboratories had difficulty meeting some recommended performance criteria for each Tier 1 in vitro assay. Data with only minor deviations were deemed valid. PMID:24515815

LeBaron, Matthew J; Coady, Katie K; O'Connor, John C; Nabb, Diane L; Markell, Lauren K; Snajdr, Suzanne; Sue Marty, M

2014-02-01

347

Screening for antimycotic properties of 56 traditional Chinese drugs.  

PubMed

In the present study we screened extracts of 56 widely used dried Chinese medical plants or their parts (TCD) for their antimycotic properties against pathological phyla of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Geotrichum candidum and Rhodotorula rubra. The highest activity against Aspergillus fumigatus was shown by Carthamus tinctorius L. (flos) and Rheum palmatum L. (radix et rhizoma) and against Candida albicans, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (radix) had the highest activity. The highest activity against Geotrichum candidum was shown by Agastache rugosa (Fisch et Mey.) O. Ktze. Herba Menthae has moderate antimycotic properties. PMID:10815018

Blaszczyk, T; Krzyzanowska, J; Lamer-Zarawska, E

2000-05-01

348

Trends in ion channel drug discovery: advances in screening technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion channels mediate and regulate crucial electrical functions throughout the body. They are therapeutic drug targets for a variety of disorders and, in some cases, the direct cause of unwanted side-effects. Advances in medical genetics have increased our knowledge of ion channel structure–function relationships and identified disease-causing mutations in ion channel genes. The recognized importance of these proteins in health

Paul B Bennett; Heather R. E Guthrie

2003-01-01

349

2 Quality Control, Screening, Toxicity, and Regulation of Herbal Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Medicinal plants constitute a source of raw materials for both traditional systems of medicine (e.g. Ayurvedic, Chinese, Unani, Homeopathy, and Siddha) and mod- ern medicine. Nowadays, plant materials are employed throughout the industrial- ized and developing world as home remedies, over-the-counter drugs, and ingre- dients for the pharmaceutical industry. As such, they represent a substantial pro- portion of the

Wickramasinghe M. Bandaranayake

350

A multiplex qPCR gene dosage assay for rapid genotyping and large-scale population screening for deletional ?-thalassemia.  

PubMed

The predominant determinants of ?-thalassemia are deletions in the human ?-globin gene cluster. A rapid DNA-based assay is needed for mass screening in thalassemia-prevention programs. Herein, we established a novel quadruplex TaqMan qPCR gene dosage assay with two separate combination reactions. The assay directly determined the copy number of human ?-globin genes based on relative quantitation of three target genes (HBA2, HBA1, and HBZ or HBPA1) versus a control gene (CREBBP). The assay showed good accuracy, with mean intra-assay and interassay variations of 3.31% ± 1.02% and 5.49% ± 0.32%, respectively. The assay was evaluated using 678 pretyped clinical DNA samples containing six ?-thalassemia deletions in 13 genotypes and 186 normal samples previously screened by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or gap PCR. As determined by the 2(-??Cq) method, deleted gene dosage ratios were 0.46 to 0.60 in heterozygotes, 0.0 in homozygotes, and 0.97 to 1.07 in nondeleted samples. We found 99.3% concordance between the quantitative PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or gap-PCR results. Furthermore, routine screening for ?-thalassemia deletions was performed on 3000 random samples in a blind analysis. Results for all 279 positives, which had different deletions, were fully coincident with results from standard methods. We also identified two novel deletions confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Assays using the novel method are simple and suitable for rapid genotyping and mass screening. PMID:23810501

Zhou, Wanjun; Wang, Ge; Zhao, Xuefeng; Xiong, Fu; Zhou, Shaoxiong; Peng, Jianming; Cheng, Youming; Xu, Shun; Xu, Xiangmin

2013-09-01

351

Development of a High-Throughput Screening-Compatible Assay for the Discovery of Inhibitors of the AF4-AF9 Interaction Using AlphaScreen Technology  

PubMed Central

Abstract Rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene occur predominately in pediatric leukemia cases and are generally predictors of a poor prognosis. These chromosomal rearrangements result in fusion of the protein MLL to one of more than 60 protein partners. MLL fusions are potent inducers of leukemia through activation of oncogene expression; therefore, targeting this transcriptional activation function may arrest MLL-rearranged (MLL-R) leukemia. Leukemic cell lines harboring the most common fusion protein, MLL-AF4, require the direct interaction of AF4 with the transcription factor AF9 to survive and self-renew; disrupting this interaction with a cell-penetrating AF4-derived peptide results in cell death, suggesting that the AF4-AF9 interaction could be a viable target for a novel MLL-R leukemia therapy. Here we describe the use of AlphaScreen technology to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to detect nonpeptidic inhibitors of AF4-AF9 binding. The assay is economical, requiring only low nanomolar concentrations of biotinylated AF4-derived peptide and FLAG-tagged AF9 in low-volume 384-well plates. A Z?-factor of 0.71 and a signal-to-background ratio of 21.3 showed the assay to be robust, and sensitivity to inhibition was demonstrated with competing AF4-derived peptides. Two pilot screens comprising 5,680 compounds served as validation for HTS at Nemours and the Broad Institute. Assay artifacts were excluded using a counterscreen comprising a biotinylated FLAG peptide. This is the first reported HTS-compatible assay to identify compounds that inhibit a key binding interaction of an MLL fusion partner, and the results presented here demonstrate suitability for screening large chemical libraries in high-density, low-volume plate formats.

Watson, Venita Gresham; Drake, Katherine M.; Peng, Yu

2013-01-01

352

Four clinically utilized drugs were identified and validated for treatment of adrenocortical cancer using quantitative high-throughput screening  

PubMed Central

Background Drug repurposing for cancer treatment is an emerging approach to discover clinically approved drugs that demonstrate antineoplastic effect. The effective therapeutics for patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma(ACC) are greatly needed. The objective of this study was to identify and validate drugs with antineoplastic effect in ACC cells using a novel quantitative high-throughput drug screening (qHTS) technique. Methods A quantitative high-throughput proliferation assay of 2,816 clinically approved drugs was performed in the NCI-H295R ACC cell line. We validated the antiproliferative effect of candidate compounds in NCI-H295R cells. Further validation was performed in 3-dimensional multicellular aggregates (MCA) of NCI-H295R and SW-13 cell lines. Results We identified 79 active compounds against ACC cells; 21 had an efficacy ?60% and IC50 <1 ?M. The top drug categories enriched were cardiotonic, antiseptic, and antineoplastic. We selected Bortezomib, ouabain, Methotrexate, pyrimethamine for validation. All had an antiproliferative effect in monolayer culture of NCI-H295R cells at clinical achievable serum level. Bortezomib and ouabain inhibited growth of MCA in both cell lines at a low concentration (10 fold below IC50). Methotrexate inhibited growth and caused disintegration of MCA in both cell lines at concentrations well below the maximum serum level (10 to 100 fold of IC50). Pyrimethamine caused growth inhibition in both cell lines at 10 fold of IC50 concentration. Conclusions qHTS of previously approved compounds is an effective and efficient method to identify anticancer drugs for a rare cancer such as ACC. We have validated the antineoplastic effect of Bortezomib, ouabain, Methotrexate and pyrimethamine, which could be translated into clinical trials in patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic ACC.

2012-01-01

353

Charge-Transfer Complexation for Spectrophotometric Assay of Certain Imidazole Antifungal Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of some antifungal agents containing an imidazole ring: clotrimazole, econazole, ketoconazole and miconazole. The method is based on the formation of a charge-transfer complex between the drug as n-electron donor and iodine as [sgrave]-acceptor. The product exhibited two absorption maxima at 290 and 377 nm; measurements are made at 290 nm. Beer's

Salwa R. El-Shabouri; Kamla M. Emara; Pakinaz Y. Khashaba; Ashraf M. Mohamed

1998-01-01

354

Screening ToxCast? Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) Assay  

EPA Science Inventory

An Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) in vitro assay with mouse embryonic stem cells was used to screen the ToxCast Phase I chemical library for effects on cellular differentiation and cell number. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ...

355

An Automated High-Throughput Screening Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Johne's Disease Antibodies in Bovine Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amanual Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (IDEXX Inc.) was fully automated using an automation workstation system (AWS). The IDEXX commercial kit is used to screen for exposure to the Johne's disease (JD) bacterium in cattle on a herd basis. Due to the large number of sera involved in this type of surveillance project, there is

John T. Y. Wu; Lester S. Y. Wong; Evelyn E. Bowlby

2006-01-01

356

Using adverse outcome pathway analysis to guide development of high-throughput screening assays for thyroid-disruptors  

EPA Science Inventory

Using Adverse Outcome Pathway Analysis to Guide Development of High-Throughput Screening Assays for Thyroid-Disruptors Katie B. Paul1,2, Joan M. Hedge2, Daniel M. Rotroff4, Kevin M. Crofton4, Michael W. Hornung3, Steven O. Simmons2 1Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Post...

357

Comparison of interferon-gamma release assay and tuberculin test for screening in healthcare workers.  

PubMed

Healthcare workers (HCWs) have an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). Screening for latent tuberculosis infection and active TB is therefore essential in infection control programs. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and Interferon -gamma Release Assay (IGRA) were used simultaneously in 1686 HCWs between May 2007 and April 2009. A chest X -ray was performed in order to exclude active TB when TST was >or=10mm or IGRA was positive and in HCWs with TB contact or symptoms. IGRA was positive in 33.1% and TST was >10mm in 78.3% of the HCWs. The proportion of positive IGRA results increased with the TST diameter. In those with a TST >15mm, 49.2% were IGRA positive. TST was more than twice as often positive than the IGRA. Therefore, TST+/IGRA- results were more often observed than concordant negative or positive results. In none of the HCWs with a TST+/IGRA- result active TB was diagnosed during the study period. Repeated BCG vaccination increased the number of TST+/IGRA- discordance. The smaller the interval after BCG vaccination, the higher was the TST+/IGRA- discordance. In the screened HCWs population, active TB was diagnosed in 9. At the time of diagnosis TST and IGRA were positive in all active TB cases. The study period covers 24 months, therefore the average annual incidence rate was 268/100 000. TB burden in HCWs in Portugal is high. Considering the limitations that TST and IGRA present, the best solution seems to be the use of both, using the IGRA higher specificity for confirming a positive TST, taking advantage of the best characteristics of each test. PMID:20437000

Costa, José Torres; Silva, Rui; Sá, Raul; Cardoso, Maria João; Ribeiro, Carla; Nienhaus, Albert

2010-01-01

358

Evaluation of California's Alcohol and Drug Screening and Brief Intervention Project for Emergency Department Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Visits to settings such as emergency departments (EDs) may present a “teachable moment” in that a patient may be more open to feedback and suggestions regarding their risky alcohol and illicit drug-use behaviors. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is an 'opportunistic' public health approach that targets low-risk users, in addition to those already dependent on alcohol and/or drugs. SBIRT programs provide patients with comprehensive screening and assessments, and deliver interventions of appropriate intensity to reduce risks related to alcohol and drug use. Methods: This study used a single group pre-post test design to assess the effect of the California SBIRT service program (i.e., CASBIRT) on 6 substance-use outcomes (past-month prevalence and number of days of binge drinking, illegal drug use, and marijuana use). Trained bilingual/bicultural Health Educators attempted to screen all adult patients in 12 EDs/trauma centers (regardless of the reason for the patient's visit) using a short instrument, and then delivered a brief motivational intervention matched to the patient's risk level. A total of 2,436 randomly selected patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or drug use consented to be in a 6-month telephone follow-up interview. Because of the high loss to follow-up rate, we used an intention-to-treat approach for the data analysis. Results: Results of generalized linear mixed models showed modest reductions in all 6 drug-and alcohol-use outcomes. Men (versus women), those at relatively higher risk status (versus lower risk), and those with only one substance of misuse (versus both alcohol and illicit drug misuse) tended to show more positive change. Conclusion: These results suggest that SBIRT services provided in acute care settings are associated with modest changes in self-reported recent alcohol and illicit drug use.

Woodruff, Susan I.; Eisenberg, Kimberly; McCabe, Cameron T.; Clapp, John D.; Hohman, Melinda

2013-01-01

359

A cell-based pharmacokinetics assay for evaluating tubulin-binding drugs.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence reveals that traditional pharmacokinetics parameters based on plasma drug concentrations are insufficient to reliably demonstrate accurate pharmacological effects of drugs in target organs or cells in vivo. This underscores the increasing need to improve the types and qualities of cellular pharmacokinetic information for drug preclinical screening and clinical efficacy assessments. Here we report a whole cell-based method to assess drugs that disturb microtubule dynamics to better understand different formulation-mediated intracellular drug release profiles. As proof of concept for this approach, we compared the well-known taxane class of anti-microtubule drugs based on paclitaxel (PTX), including clinically familiar albumin nanoparticle-based Abraxane™, and a polymer nanoparticle-based degradable paclitaxel carrier, poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel conjugate (PGA-PTX, also known as CT-2103) versus control PTX. This in vitro cell-based evaluation of PTX efficacy includes determining the cellular kinetics of tubulin polymerization, relative populations of cells under G2 mitotic arrest, cell proliferation and total cell viability. For these taxane tubulin-binding compounds, the kinetics of cell microtubule stabilization directly correlate with G2 arrest and cell proliferation, reflecting the kinetics and amounts of intracellular PTX release. Each individual cell-based dose-response experiment correlates with published, key therapeutic parameters and taken together, provide a comprehensive understanding of drug intracellular pharmacokinetics at both cellular and molecular levels. This whole cell-based evaluating method is convenient, quantitative and cost-effective for evaluating new formulations designed to optimize cellular pharmacokinetics for drugs perturbing tubulin polymerization as well as assisting in explaining drug mechanisms of action at cellular levels. PMID:24688312

Wang, Yuwei; Liu, Jihua; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liping; Chan, Jonathon; Wang, Hai; Jin, Yi; Yu, Lei; Grainger, David W; Ying, Wenbin

2014-01-01

360

A Cell-Based Pharmacokinetics Assay for Evaluating Tubulin-Binding Drugs  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence reveals that traditional pharmacokinetics parameters based on plasma drug concentrations are insufficient to reliably demonstrate accurate pharmacological effects of drugs in target organs or cells in vivo. This underscores the increasing need to improve the types and qualities of cellular pharmacokinetic information for drug preclinical screening and clinical efficacy assessments. Here we report a whole cell-based method to assess drugs that disturb microtubule dynamics to better understand different formulation-mediated intracellular drug release profiles. As proof of concept for this approach, we compared the well-known taxane class of anti-microtubule drugs based on paclitaxel (PTX), including clinically familiar albumin nanoparticle-based Abraxane™, and a polymer nanoparticle-based degradable paclitaxel carrier, poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel conjugate (PGA-PTX, also known as CT-2103) versus control PTX. This in vitro cell-based evaluation of PTX efficacy includes determining the cellular kinetics of tubulin polymerization, relative populations of cells under G2 mitotic arrest, cell proliferation and total cell viability. For these taxane tubulin-binding compounds, the kinetics of cell microtubule stabilization directly correlate with G2 arrest and cell proliferation, reflecting the kinetics and amounts of intracellular PTX release. Each individual cell-based dose-response experiment correlates with published, key therapeutic parameters and taken together, provide a comprehensive understanding of drug intracellular pharmacokinetics at both cellular and molecular levels. This whole cell-based evaluating method is convenient, quantitative and cost-effective for evaluating new formulations designed to optimize cellular pharmacokinetics for drugs perturbing tubulin polymerization as well as assisting in explaining drug mechanisms of action at cellular levels.

Wang, Yuwei; Liu, Jihua; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liping; Chan, Jonathon; Wang, Hai; Jin, Yi; Yu, Lei; Grainger, David W.; Ying, Wenbin

2014-01-01

361

Rapid and simple kinetics screening assay for electrophilic dermal sensitizers using nitrobenzenethiol.  

PubMed

The need for alternatives to animal-based skin sensitization testing has spurred research on the use of in vitro, in silico, and in chemico methods. Glutathione and other select peptides have been used to determine the reactivity of electrophilic allergens to nucleophiles, but these methods are inadequate to accurately measure rapid kinetics observed with many chemical sensitizers. A kinetic spectrophotometric assay involving the reactivity of electrophilic sensitizers to nitrobenzenethiol was evaluated. Stopped-flow techniques and conventional UV spectrophotometric measurements enabled the determination of reaction rates with half-lives ranging from 0.4 ms (benzoquinone) to 46.2 s (ethyl acrylate). Rate constants were measured for seven extreme, five strong, seven moderate, and four weak/nonsensitizers. Seventeen out of the 23 tested chemicals were pseudo-first order, and three were second order. In three out of the 23 chemicals, deviations from first and second order were apparent where the chemicals exhibited complex kinetics whose rates are mixed order. The reaction rates of the electrophiles correlated positively with their EC3 values within the same mechanistic domain. Nonsensitizers such as benzaldehyde, sodium lauryl sulfate, and benzocaine did not react with nitrobenzenethiol. Cyclic anhydrides, select diones, and aromatic aldehydes proved to be false negatives in this assay. The findings from this simple and rapid absorbance model show that for the same mechanistic domain, skin sensitization is driven mainly by electrophilic reactivity. This simple, rapid, and inexpensive absorbance-based method has great potential for use as a preliminary screening tool for skin allergens. PMID:20402462

Chipinda, Itai; Ajibola, Risikat O; Morakinyo, Moshood K; Ruwona, Tinashe B; Simoyi, Reuben H; Siegel, Paul D

2010-05-17

362

Efficacies of US Food and Drug Administration-licensed HIV-1-screening enzyme immunoassays for detecting antibodies to HIV-2.  

PubMed

To determine the efficacy of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for antibodies against HIV-1 in detecting HIV-2-infected blood, we tested 55 HIV-2-positive sera with seven Food and Drug Administration-licensed EIA kits. The percentage detection of HIV-2 sera giving positive reactions with these kits varied between the various manufacturers from 60 to 91%. Observations based on a small number of sera (n = 13), suggest that HIV-2-positive blood collected from apparently healthy people (blood donors, prenatal clinics) are detected with a greater frequency (means = 89%) than blood from AIDS patients or patients (n = 32) hospitalized with other infectious diseases (means = 72%). Based on these results and the low incidence of HIV-2 infection observed in the USA, it was concluded that screening with HIV-2-specific tests would not significantly increase the number of HIV-2-positive people detected by current screening programs. However, due to the poor sensitivity of certain HIV-1 assays for HIV-2 antibodies, HIV-2 sera without cross-reacting antibodies will escape detection. Surveillance for HIV-2 might then be improved by the availability of HIV-1 and HIV-2 combination assays. PMID:2350452

George, J R; Rayfield, M A; Phillips, S; Heyward, W L; Krebs, J W; Odehouri, K; Soudre, R; De Cock, K M; Schochetman, G

1990-04-01

363

A modified version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test among undergraduate students  

PubMed Central

The present study assesses the prevalence of items from a modified version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Form (DAST-10) for substances other than alcohol among undergraduate students. More than 4,500 undergraduate students at a large Midwestern research university completed a web-based survey in 2005. Nearly 1 every 10 undergraduate students experienced three or more DAST-10 items in the past 12 months. Although the prevalence of illicit drug use did not differ by gender, undergraduate men were significantly more likely than women to report DAST-10 items. Less than 6% of individuals who reported three or more drug DAST-10 items had ever used treatment services for substance use. As a brief screening instrument, the DAST-10 offers promise for detecting possible drug abuse among college students. Based on the prevalence of drug use, colleges and universities are encouraged to provide screening opportunities to identify and to provide services for students at high risk for drug abuse.

McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Cranford, James A.; Morales, Michele; Slayden, Janie

2006-01-01

364

A rapid in vitro screening system for the identification and evaluation of anticancer drugs  

SciTech Connect

We report the development of an in vitro screening system that can be used to identify new anticancer drugs that are specifically cytotoxic for dividing cells. The screening system takes advantage of the potential of many cell lines, including tumor cells, to stop dividing when they are plated at high cell density. The cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs on dividing (i.e., cells plated at low cell density) and nondividing cells (i.e., cells plated at high cell density) is measured by the incorporation of 51Cr. This in vitro system was evaluated by measuring the cytotoxic effects of the anticancer drugs cisplatin, thiotepa, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and vinblastine on the cell lines B/C-N, ME-180, and MCF-7. In this in vitro system the concentrations of the anticancer drugs that produced significant cytotoxicity on only dividing cells are similar to the concentrations that are used clinically. The fact that this in vitro system is rapid, simple, applicable to many cell types, and able to predict effective concentrations of anticancer drugs should make it useful for the screening of new anticancer drugs and for the design of preclinical studies.

Kao, J.W.; Collins, J.L. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

1989-01-01