Sample records for drug screening assay

  1. Development of an in vitro drug screening assay using Schistosoma haematobium schistosomula

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of novel antischistosomal drugs is crucial, as currently no vaccine and only a single drug is available for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Fast and accurate in vitro assays are urgently needed to identify new drug candidates and research efforts should include Schistosoma haematobium. The aim of the present study was to develop a S. haematobium drug sensitivity assay based on newly transformed schistosomula (NTS). Methods We first undertook comparative studies on the cercarial emergence rhythms of the intermediate host snails Biomphalaria glabrata (S. mansoni) and Bulinus truncatus (S. haematobium). Two transformation methods as well as three purification methods were studied on S. haematobium cercariae in order to produce a large number of viable and clean NTS. Known antischistosomal drugs were tested in the established NTS assay in vitro. Drug effects were evaluated either microscopically or fluorometrically, using a resazurin based viability marker. Microscopically obtained IC50 values were compared with results obtained for S. mansoni. Results A circadian rhythm existed in both snail species. Infected B. truncatus snails shed less cercariae than B. glabrata during the testing period. The highest transformation rate (69%) of S. haematobium cercariae into NTS was obtained with the vortex transformation (mechanical input) and the highest purification factor was observed using Percoll®. The fluorimetric readout based on resazurin was very precise in detecting dead or/and severely damaged schistosomula. Conclusions With the use of viability markers such as resazurin, drug screening assays using S. haematobium NTS can be efficiently performed. However, drugs acting on the morphology and motility of S. haematobium NTS, such as metrifonate are missed. Drug sensitivity assays with NTS of both species, S. haematobium and S. mansoni, showed very similar results using known antischistosomal drugs. The S. mansoni NTS assay might be more suitable as primary screen in drug discovery efforts, which ultimately aim for a broad-spectrum antischistosomal drug as a larger number of S. mansoni NTS can be generated. PMID:22876861

  2. The Phospholipid Vesicle-Based Drug Permeability Assay: 5. Development Toward an Automated Procedure for High-Throughput Permeability Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gøril Eide Flaten; Opeyemi Awoyemi; Kristina Luthman; Martin Brandl; Ulrich Massing

    2009-01-01

    In vitro screening for oral absorption has become an essential part of drug discovery and development. Recently, a new phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay was developed which has shown to satisfyingly predict passive absorption of drugs in humans. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the assay may be further developed into a high-throughput tool by automating its

  3. Improved toxicogenomic screening for drug-induced phospholipidosis using a multiplexed quantitative gene expression ArrayPlate assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Sawada; Keiko Taniguchi; Kenji Takami

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that a toxicogenomics analysis of drug-induced phospholipidosis enabled the identification of 12 specific gene markers and the establishment of an in vitro real-time PCR screening assay for the assessment of the phospholipidosis-inducing potential of compounds. The purpose of this study was to transfer our PCR-based assay into a 96-well microplate-based multiple mRNAs measuring assay (ArrayPlate™ assay) in

  4. Drug-induced liver steatosis and phospholipidosis: cell-based assays for early screening of drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Donato, M Teresa; Gómez-Lechón, M José

    2012-10-01

    The liver plays a key role in fat metabolism, and excessive lipid accumulation in liver cells is characterised by a large spectrum of lesions, e.g., steatosis and phospholipidosis. Steatosis is increased lipid accumulation, mainly as triglycerides, in the liver, while phospholipidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder characterised by intracellular accumulation of phospholipids. These alterations can be induced by several factors, including exposure to certain drugs. Drug-induced steatosis is often reversible, and prolonged exposure to certain drugs can cause macrovacuolar steatosis, a benign hepatic lesion, that can evolve into steatohepatitis and cirrhosis in some patients. Some drugs may acutely induce microvesicular steatosis which, despite having a good short-term prognosis, can lead to chronic lipid peroxidation and to the development of steatohepatitis lesions with time. Over 50 marketed drugs have been reported to induce phospholipidosis in different tissues, including the liver. Although drug-induced phospholipidosis is often reversible and there is no definitive evidence for its toxicological implications, it is considered an adverse side finding by regulatory agencies. As developing new drugs is a complex, lengthy and expensive process that aims to identify pharmacologically active, low-toxicity drug candidates among closely related compounds, it could be advantageous to determine which drugs are able to induce lipid metabolic disorders in early developmental stages. To this end, in vitro predictive screening assays, particularly cell-based approaches in which many drug candidates are evaluated, have been developed to identify and rule out compounds with a strong liver steatosis and/or phospholipidosis-inducing potential. PMID:22746303

  5. Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis: An in vitro assay using the expression of GFP for screening of antileishmanial drug

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Rubén Eduardo M; Muñoz, Diana Lorena; Robledo, Sara M.; Kolli, Bala K.; Dutta, Sujoy; Chang, Kwang Poo; Muskus, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis were successfully transfected with p6.5-egfp to express green fluorescent protein. The transfectants remained infective to macrophages, providing an in vitro model for screening antileishmanial drugs. This was demonstrated by flow cytometry of macrophage-associated GFP after exposure of infected cultures to known anti-leishmanial drugs, i. e. amphotericin B and glucantime®. Fluorescence of GFP diminished progressively from infected cells with increasing drug concentrations used in both cases. The availability of this fluorescent assay for infection of macrophages by L. (V.) panamensis facilitates drug discovery program for the Viannia species, which differ significantly from those of the Leishmania subgenus. PMID:19303871

  6. Screening for phospholipidosis induced by central nervous drugs: comparing the predictivity of an in vitro assay to high throughput in silico assays.

    PubMed

    Mesens, Natalie; Steemans, Margino; Hansen, Erik; Verheyen, Geert R; Van Goethem, Freddy; Van Gompel, Jaques

    2010-08-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis is a side effect for which drug candidates can be screened in the drug discovery phase. The numerous in silico models that have been developed as a first line of screening are based on the characteristic physicochemical properties of phospholipidosis-inducing drugs, e.g. high logP and pK(b) values. However, applying these models on a predominantly high lipophilic, basic CNS chemistry results in a high false positive rate and consequently in a wrong classification of a large number of valuable drug candidates. Here, we tested 33 CNS-compounds (24 in vivo negative and 9 in vivo positive phospholipidosis-inducers) in our in house developed in vitro phospholipidosis screening assay (Mesens et al., 2009) and compared its predictivity with the outcome of three different, well established in silico prediction models. Our in vitro assay demonstrates an increased specificity of 79% over the in silico models (29%). Moreover, by considering the proposed plasma concentration at the efficacious dose we can show a clear correlation between the in vitro and in vivo occurrence of phospholipidosis, improving the specificity of prediction to 96%. Through its high predictive value, the in vitro low throughput assay is thus preferred above high throughput in silico assays, characterized by a high false positive rate. PMID:20430096

  7. Improved toxicogenomic screening for drug-induced phospholipidosis using a multiplexed quantitative gene expression ArrayPlate assay.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Keiko; Takami, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    We previously showed that a toxicogenomics analysis of drug-induced phospholipidosis enabled the identification of 12 specific gene markers and the establishment of an in vitro real-time PCR screening assay for the assessment of the phospholipidosis-inducing potential of compounds. The purpose of this study was to transfer our PCR-based assay into a 96-well microplate-based multiple mRNAs measuring assay (ArrayPlate assay) in order to increase throughput. Specifically, we determined the expression of the 12 marker genes using real-time PCR and ArrayPlate in human hepatoma HepG2 cells that were treated for 24h with each of amiodarone and 80 proprietary compounds. The following three performance criteria were satisfied in the ArrayPlate analysis: 1. Sensitivity-the expression of mRNA for all target genes was detected at quantifiable levels. 2. Repeatability-signal intensities and fold change values of each marker gene were highly repeatable. 3. Correlation-fold change values and their average values, which were used as indices of phospholipidosis induction potential, showed apparent correlation between the ArrayPlate and real-time PCR assays. Thus, the in vitro screening assay for compound-induced phospholipidosis should be transferable from a PCR-based assay to the higher-throughput ArrayPlate-based method. PMID:16919414

  8. Optimization of a Fluorescence-Based Assay for Large-Scale Drug Screening against Babesia and Theileria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Terkawi, Mohamed Alaa; Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; El Said, El Said El Shirbini; Elsayed, Gehad; El-Khodery, Sabry; El-Ashker, Maged; Elsify, Ahmed; Omar, Mosaab; Salama, Akram; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and accurate assay for evaluating antibabesial drugs on a large scale is required for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia parasites. In the current study, we evaluated the usefulness of a fluorescence-based assay for determining the efficacies of antibabesial compounds against bovine and equine hemoparasites in in vitro cultures. Three different hematocrits (HCTs; 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) were used without daily replacement of the medium. The results of a high-throughput screening assay revealed that the best HCT was 2.5% for bovine Babesia parasites and 5% for equine Babesia and Theileria parasites. The IC50 values of diminazene aceturate obtained by fluorescence and microscopy did not differ significantly. Likewise, the IC50 values of luteolin, pyronaridine tetraphosphate, nimbolide, gedunin, and enoxacin did not differ between the two methods. In conclusion, our fluorescence-based assay uses low HCT and does not require daily replacement of culture medium, making it highly suitable for in vitro large-scale drug screening against Babesia and Theileria parasites that infect cattle and horses. PMID:25915529

  9. A Novel High Throughput Assay for Anthelmintic Drug Screening and Resistance Diagnosis by Real-Time Monitoring of Parasite Motility

    PubMed Central

    Smout, Michael J.; Kotze, Andrew C.; McCarthy, James S.; Loukas, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence) that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and –resistant isolates of H. contortus. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing. PMID:21103363

  10. Development of High-throughput and Robust Microfluidic Live Cell Assay Platforms for Combination Drug and Toxin Screening 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Han

    2012-02-14

    unique combinations of two cancer drugs at different concentrations to an 8 by 8 cell culture chamber array. We have developed the system into a fully automated microfluidic live cell screening platform with uniform cell seeding capability and pair...

  11. A 96-well flow cytometric screening assay for detecting in vitro phospholipidosis-induction in the drug discovery phase.

    PubMed

    Natalie, Mesens; Margino, Steemans; Erik, Hansen; Annelieke, Peters; Geert, Verheyen; Philippe, Vanparys

    2009-03-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis is caused by lysosomal accumulation of the drug, resulting in the disturbance of phospholipid degradation and a consequent excessive phospholipid accumulation. Depending on the type and number of tissues affected, phospholipidosis occurrence in test animals can raise safety issues, which may be critical for the risk assessment. Safety profiling of potential phospholipidosis-inducing drugs in the drug discovery phase can predict these late obstructions of drug development. For this purpose, a flow cytometric assay based on the difference in fluorescent phospholipid accumulation in a human monocyte cell line was initially established. Modifying the assay studying degradation of the fluorescent phospholipids instead of accumulation drastically improved sensitivity. By testing various phospholipidosis-inducers and negative compounds, it was found that the assay could detect the occurrence of phospholipidosis by a 2-fold difference in fluorescence compared to control cells, demonstrating the superior sensitivity of the novel approach. Implementation of a higher throughput 96-well flow cytometric set up did not affect the sensitivity of detection or the reproducibility of the assay. Based on an extended test set of reference compounds a profiling approach was introduced, by which we show we can rank our drug candidates according to their phospholipidosis-inducing potential. PMID:19101623

  12. Detectability of new psychoactive substances, 'legal highs', in CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunochemical screening assays for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Rausberg, Linnea; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Villen, Tomas; Karlsson, Lennart; Hansson, Therese; Helander, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing may become less effective due to an increased occurrence of false negative and false positive screening results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge about analytical cross-reactivity of new substances in selected CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunoassays for drugs-of-abuse screening. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with 45 new substances. Authentic urine samples from intoxication cases identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were also studied. Several new psychoactive substances were demonstrated to display cross-reactivity in the immunoassays. CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy and EMIT d.a.u. Amphetamine Class tests showed the highest reactivity towards the new drugs, which was expected since many have amphetamine-like structure and activity. In the samples from authentic cases, five new substances displayed 100% detection rate in the CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy test. In conclusion, cross-reactivity data in routine urine drug screening immunoassays for a number of new psychoactive substances not studied before were reported. In both spiked and authentic urine samples, some new substances showed significant cross-reactivity and are thus detectable in the routine screening methods. PMID:24665024

  13. Application of Cell-Based Assay Systems for the Early Screening of Human Drug Hepatotoxicity in the Discovery Phase of Drug Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jalal Pourahmad; Peter J O'Brien; Parivash Eftekhari

    2005-01-01

    While drug toxicity (especially hepatotoxicity) is the most frequent reason cited for withdrawal of an approved drug, no simple solution exists to adequately predict such adverse events. Simple cytotoxicity assays in HepG2 cells are relatively insensitive to human hepatotoxic drugs in a retrospective analysis of marketed pharmaceuticals. In comparison, a panel of pre-lethal mechanistic cellular assays hold the promise to

  14. A High-Throughput Screening Assay for the Identification of Flavivirus NS5 Capping Enzyme GTP-Binding Inhibitors: Implications for Antiviral Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    GEISS, BRIAN J.; STAHLA-BEEK, HILLARY J.; HANNAH, AMANDA M.; GARI, HAMID H.; HENDERSON, BRITTNEY R.; SAEEDI, BEJAN J.; KEENAN, SUSAN M.

    2012-01-01

    There are no effective antivirals currently available for the treatment of flavivirus infection in humans. As such, the identification and characterization of novel drug target sites are critical to developing new classes of antiviral drugs. The flavivirus NS5 N-terminal capping enzyme (CE) is vital for the formation of the viral RNA cap structure, which directs viral polyprotein translation and stabilizes the 5? end of the viral genome. The structure of the flavivirus CE has been solved, and a detailed understanding of the CE–guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and CE–RNA cap interactions is available. Because of the essential nature of the interaction for viral replication, disrupting CE–GTP binding is an attractive approach for drug development. The authors have previously developed a robust assay for monitoring CE–GTP binding in real time. They adapted this assay for high-throughput screening and performed a pilot screen of 46 323 commercially available compounds. A number of small-molecule inhibitors capable of displacing a fluorescently labeled GTP in vitro were identified, and a second functional assay was developed to identify false positives. The results presented indicate that the flavivirus CE cap-binding site is a valuable new target site for antiviral drug discovery and should be further exploited for broad-spectrum anti-flaviviral drug development. PMID:21788392

  15. Evaluation of the Vitotox™ and RadarScreen assays for the rapid assessment of genotoxicity in the early research phase of drug development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter M. A. Westerink; Joe C. R. Stevenson; Annick Lauwers; Gerard Griffioen; G. Jean Horbach; Willem G. E. J. Schoonen

    2009-01-01

    The Vitotox™ and RadarScreen assays were evaluated as early screens for mutagenicity and clastogenicity, respectively. The Vitotox™ assay is a bacterial reporter assay in Salmonella typhimurium based on the SOS–response, and it contains a luciferase gene under control of the recN promoter. The RadarScreen assay is a RAD54 promoter-linked ?-galactosidase reporter assay in yeast. The expression of this ?-galactosidase can

  16. Hydrogel-based diffusion chip with Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) integration for cell viability assay and drug toxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong Binh; Cho, Sungbo; Min, Junhong

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we have provided a novel analytical integration between hydrogel-based cell chip and Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) technique to apply to a high-throughput, real-time cell viability assay and drug screening. For simulating the drug diffusion model, we have developed a hydrogel-based tissue-mimicking structure with microfluidic channel, without unwanted flow, to generate a gradient concentration with long-term stability. Along the gradient line, four individual micro-electrodes were installed to record the impedance signal changes, which result from the cell viability under drug effects. By watching for cellular impedance changes, we successfully estimated the cytotoxicity of the treatment corresponding to the various concentration values of stimuli, generated by the diffusion process along the channel. Reliable IC50 values and time-dose relationships were also achieved. With the feature of real-time monitoring capability, the advantages of non-invasion, label-free detection, time saving and simple manipulation, our integrative device has become a promising high throughput cell-based on-chip platform for cell viability assay and drug screening. PMID:23911660

  17. A radiometric assay for antigiardial drugs.

    PubMed

    Inge, P M; Farthing, M J

    1987-01-01

    Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia trophozoites to 3 antigiardial drugs was determined morphologically by 24h parasite counts and radiometrically by uptake of [3H]thymidine and by rapid 4h microassays of motility and viability. Growth of Giardia trophozoites in liquid culture correlated well with uptake of [3H]thymidine during a 72h period (r = 0.91, P less than 0.01). ED50 and MIC for metronidazole, mepacrine and sodium fusidate were similar in both morphological and radiometric growth assays and, except for mepacrine, results were similar to previously reported drug efficacies obtained with more labour intensive methods. Motility and viability 4h microassays were insensitive and time-consuming and cannot be recommended for routine screening of antigiardial drugs. The radiometric growth assay is therefore a simple, objective measure of antigiardial drug activity which could be used to determine drug sensitivity profiles of clinical isolates or for screening new antigiardial drugs. PMID:3617202

  18. Time-lapse imaging assay using the BioStation CT: A sensitive drug-screening method for three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ruriko; Rahman, M Mamunur; Shimomura, Manami; Itoh, Manabu; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is beneficial for physiological studies of tumor cells, due to its potential to deliver a high quantity of cell culture information that is representative of the cancer microenvironment and predictive of drug responses in vivo. Currently, gel-associated or matrix-associated 3D cell culture is comprised of intricate procedures that often result in experimental complexity. Therefore, we developed an innovative anti-cancer drug sensitivity screening technique for 3D cell culture on NanoCulture Plates (NCP) by employing the imaging device BioStation CT. Here, we showed that the human breast cancer cell lines BT474 and T47D form multicellular spheroids on NCP plates and compared their sensitivity to the anti-cancer drugs trastuzumab and paclitaxel using the BioStation CT. The anticancer drugs reduced spheroid migration velocity and suppressed spheroid fusion. In addition, primary cells derived from the human breast cancer tissues B58 and B61 grown on NCP plates also exhibited similar drug sensitivity. These results were in good agreement with the conventional assay method using ATP quantification. We confirmed the antitumor effects of the drugs on cells seeded in 96-well plates using the BioStation CT imaging technique. We expect this method to be useful in research for new antitumor agents and for drug sensitivity tests in individually-tailored cancer treatments. PMID:25865675

  19. A 96-well flow cytometric screening assay for detecting in vitro phospholipidosis-induction in the drug discovery phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mesens Natalie; Steemans Margino; Hansen Erik; Peters Annelieke; Verheyen Geert; Vanparys Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis is caused by lysosomal accumulation of the drug, resulting in the disturbance of phospholipid degradation and a consequent excessive phospholipid accumulation. Depending on the type and number of tissues affected, phospholipidosis occurrence in test animals can raise safety issues, which may be critical for the risk assessment. Safety profiling of potential phospholipidosis-inducing drugs in the drug discovery phase

  20. Fluorescence Polarization Assays in Small Molecule Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Wendy A.; Simeonov, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Fluorescence polarization (FP) is a homogeneous method that allows rapid and quantitative analysis of diverse molecular interactions and enzyme activities. This technique has been widely utilized in clinical and biomedical settings, including the diagnosis of certain diseases and monitoring therapeutic drug levels in body fluids. Recent developments in the field has been symbolized by the facile adoption of FP in high-throughput screening (HTS) and small molecule drug discovery of an increasing range of target classes. Areas covered in this review The article provides a brief overview on the theoretical foundation of FP, followed by updates on recent advancements in its application for various drug target classes, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), enzymes and protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The strengths and weaknesses of this method, practical considerations in assay design, novel applications, and future directions are also discussed. What the reader will gain The reader will be informed of the most recent advancements and future directions of FP application to small molecule screening. Take home message In addition to its continued utilization in high-throughput screening, FP has expanded into new disease and target areas and has been marked by increased use of labeled small molecule ligands for receptor binding studies. PMID:22328899

  1. Assessing the Maximum Predictive Validity for Neuropharmacological Anxiety Screening Assays

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Chapter 15 Assessing the Maximum Predictive Validity for Neuropharmacological Anxiety Screening, such as the zebrafish, to demonstrate predictive validity for a specific set of drug classes. A popular assay used or anxiogenic drug exposure. However, predictive validity may fail to provide crucial information about

  2. Feasibility of Drug Screening with Panels of Human Tumor Cell Lines Using a Microculture Tetrazolium Assay1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Alley; Dominic A. Scudiere; Anne Monks; Miriam L. Hursey; Maciej J. Czerwinski; Donald L. Fine; Betty J. Abbott; Joseph G. Mayo; Robert H. Shoemaker; Michael R. Boyd

    1988-01-01

    For the past 30 years strategies for the prcclinical discovery and development of potential anticancer agents have been based largely upon the testing of agents in mice bearing transplantable leukemias and solid tumors derived from a limited number of murine as well as human sources. The feasibility of implementing an alternate approach, namely combined in vitro\\/in vivo screening for selective

  3. Mass receptor screening for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Burch, R M; Kyle, D J

    1991-02-01

    Mass receptor screening is capable of identifying drug candidates in large compound libraries. Our laboratory has developed a mass screening technology by standardizing assay protocols that can be transferred from receptor to receptor. The entire operation, from disbursement of compounds to data analysis, is computerized to handle vast numbers of experimental results. The success of this method depends upon strict definitions of compound activity, with rapid elimination of compounds that do not fulfill all criteria. Finally, we approach automation with caution. While certain items, such as automatic harvesters, are essential for high-throughput screening, much time can be spent optimizing gadgets instead of gathering data. PMID:1850826

  4. TOXICITY SCREENING WITH ZEBRAFISH ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed toxicity screening will help EPA to prioritize chemicals for further testing, and it may also alert chemical manufacturers that some of their commercial products may be toxic. The proposed toxicity pathway studies will improve the research community’s abi...

  5. Screening Assay for Promigratory\\/Antimigratory Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Will L. Rust; Janice L. Huff; George E. Plopper

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale screening strategies aimed at finding anticancer drugs traditionally focus on identifying cytotoxic compounds that attack actively dividing cells. Because progression to malignancy involves acquisition of an aggressively invasive phenotype in addition to hyperproliferation, simple and effective screening strategies for finding compounds that target the invasive aspects of cancer progression may prove valuable for identifying alternative and preventative cancer therapies.

  6. Screening of Antifungal Azole Drugs and Agrochemicals with an Adapted alamarBlue-Based Assay Demonstrates Antibacterial Activity of Croconazole against Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Röltgen, Katharina; Witschel, Matthias; Pluschke, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    An alamarBlue-based growth inhibition assay has been adapted for the thermosensitive and slow-growing pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. The standardized test procedure enables medium-throughput screening of preselected compound libraries. Testing of a set of 48 azoles with known antifungal activity led to the identification of an imidazole antifungal displaying an inhibitory dose (ID) of 9 ?M for M. ulcerans. PMID:23006761

  7. Image-Based Screening of Signal Transduction Assays

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Ramm (Brock University; Imaging Research REV)

    2003-04-08

    Imaging techniques have played a vital role in signal transduction research over several decades. Recently, industrialized macro- and micro-imaging systems have found application in drug discovery laboratories, where they increase the throughput and efficiency of drug screening. Macro-imagers are used for primary screening, where they favor compound conservation (through assay miniaturization), and achieve unprecedented rates of throughput. Micro-imaging systems achieve relatively high throughput, at the same time providing sub-cellular resolution with fixed or living cells. These micro-imaging analyses were previously conducted at very low throughput and, typically, were the sole domain of the academic researcher. Although both macro and micro forms of image-based screening remain technologies in development, they have already made substantial contributions to screening programs and will continue to do so.

  8. Cell Migration and Invasion Assays as Tools for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hulkower, Keren I.; Herber, Renee L.

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration and invasion are processes that offer rich targets for intervention in key physiologic and pathologic phenomena such as wound healing and cancer metastasis. With the advent of high-throughput and high content imaging systems, there has been a movement towards the use of physiologically relevant cell-based assays earlier in the testing paradigm. This allows more effective identification of lead compounds and recognition of undesirable effects sooner in the drug discovery screening process. This article will review the effective use of several principle formats for studying cell motility: scratch assays, transmembrane assays, microfluidic devices and cell exclusion zone assays. PMID:24310428

  9. A RAINBOW TROUT TISSUE SLICE ASSAY FOR SCREENING ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vitro fish liver tissue assay has been developed to test for estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects of xenobiotics. The assay is part of a broader effort to provide multi-level screening of chemicals to enhance......

  10. Two High Throughput Screen Assays for Measurement of TNF-? in THP-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Leister, Kristin P; Huang, Ruili; Goodwin, Bonnie L; Chen, Andrew; Austin, Christopher P; Xia, Menghang

    2011-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?), a secreted cytokine, plays an important role in inflammatory diseases and immune disorders, and is a potential target for drug development. The traditional assays for detecting TNF-?, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay, are not suitable for the large size compound screens. Both assays suffer from a complicated protocol, multiple plate wash steps and/or excessive radioactive waste. A simple and quick measurement of TNF-? production in a cell based assay is needed for high throughput screening to identify the lead compounds from the compound library. We have developed and optimized two homogeneous TNF-? assays using the HTRF (homogeneous time resolved fluorescence) and AlphaLISA assay formats. We have validated the HTRF based TNF-? assay in a 1536-well plate format by screening a library of 1280 pharmacologically active compounds. The active compounds identified from the screen were confirmed in the AlphaLISA TNF-? assay using a bead-based technology. These compounds were also confirmed in a traditional ELISA assay. From this study, several beta adrenergic agonists have been identified as TNF-? inhibitors. We also identified several novel inhibitors of TNF-?, such as BTO-1, CCG-2046, ellipticine, and PD 169316. The results demonstrated that both homogeneous TNF-? assays are robust and suitable for high throughput screening. PMID:21643507

  11. A Flow Cytometry-Based Quantitative Drug Sensitivity Assay for All Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Stages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zenglei; Liu, Min; Liang, Xiaoying; Siriwat, Salil; Li, Xiaolian; Chen, Xiaoguang; Parker, Daniel M.; Miao, Jun; Cui, Liwang

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria elimination/eradication campaigns emphasize interruption of parasite transmission as a priority strategy. Screening for new drugs and vaccines against gametocytes is therefore urgently needed. However, current methods for sexual stage drug assays, usually performed by counting or via fluorescent markers are either laborious or restricted to a certain stage. Here we describe the use of a transgenic parasite line for assaying drug sensitivity in all gametocyte stages. Methods A transgenic parasite line expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) under the control of the gametocyte-specific gene ?-tubulin II promoter was generated. This parasite line expresses GFP in all gametocyte stages. Using this transgenic line, we developed a flow cytometry-based assay to determine drug sensitivity of all gametocyte stages, and tested the gametocytocidal activities of four antimalarial drugs. Findings This assay proved to be suitable for determining drug sensitivity of all sexual stages and can be automated. A Z’ factor of 0.79±0.02 indicated that this assay could be further optimized for high-throughput screening. The daily sensitivity of gametocytes to three antimalarial drugs (chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin and pyronaridine) showed a drastic decrease from stage III on, whereas it remained relatively steady for primaquine. Conclusions A drug assay was developed to use a single transgenic parasite line for determining drug susceptibility of all gametocyte stages. This assay may be further automated into a high-throughput platform for screening compound libraries against P. falciparum gametocytes. PMID:24736563

  12. Histoculture drug response assay to monitor chemoresponse.

    PubMed

    Ohie, Shinji; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Aoki, Daisuke; Nozawa, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    We provide a detailed explanation of the procedure of the histoculture drug response assay (HDRA) with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) end point among several modified HDRA procedures. Fresh surgical specimens are cut into approx 1- to 2-mm3 pieces and put on a gelatin sponge infiltrated with culture medium containing a test drug. After incubation for 7 d, cell viability is assessed by the MTT assay. HDRA uses cancer tissue fragments with cells growing in three dimensions, with maintenance of intercellular contact and interactions with stromal cells. Therefore, it seems that HDRA can assess the sensitivity of tumor cells to anticancer drugs in conditions similar to those in vivo and, consequently, shows high prediction rate. PMID:15901929

  13. Comprehensive drug screening in blood for detecting abused drugs or drugs potentially hazardous for traffic safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirjo Lillsunde; Leena Michelson; Tarja Forsström; Taimi Korte; Eija Schultz; Kari Ariniemi; Maria Portman; Marja-Liisa Sihvonen; Timo Seppälä

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive drug screening procedure for detecting drugs in the blood samples of car drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs, is presented. Amphetamines, cannabinoids, opioids, cocaine and benzodiazepines were screened by an immunological EMIT ETS system after acetone precipitation. Gas chromatographic methods were used to screen and quantitate basic, neutral and acidic drugs. The free amino groups

  14. Selection of Drugs to Test the Specificity of the Tg.AC Assay by Screening for Induction of the gadd153 Promoter in Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karol L. Thompson; Frank D. Sistare

    2003-01-01

    Short-term assays for carcinogenicity testing of chemicals that use transgenic mice designed to have altered expression of genes mechanistically relevant to carcinogenesis are attractive alterna- tives to two-year dosing studies in rodents. The models that have been the received the greatest level of performance evaluation include p53(\\/-), rasH2, Xpa\\/p53(\\/-), and Tg.AC mice. For use of these models in a regulatory

  15. In vitro assays and biomarkers for drug-induced phospholipidosis.

    PubMed

    Monteith, David K; Morgan, Ryan E; Halstead, Bartley

    2006-10-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis is the cytoplasmic accumulation of phospholipids as a result of xenobiotic exposure. This accumulation results in a unique histological effect in cells noted as electron-dense lamellar inclusions or whorls in the cytoplasm when observed with transmission electron microscopy. Electron microscopy has been the widely accepted standard for classification of the phospholipidosis effect. Molecules that have been prone to induce such an effect are made up of a lipophilic region and a positively charged region. Phospholipidosis has most commonly been associated with drugs that are cationic, amphiphilic drugs and can occur in a variety of tissues. Although phospholipidosis is not considered adverse in isolation, depending on the tissue affected or the occasional circumstance of concurrent toxicity, phospholipidosis can be perplexing if identified in early drug development. In most circumstances, characterisation of the effect with in vivo studies allows for determination of exposure and the magnitude of the effect. On occasion in drug development, there may be an interest to screen early stage compounds to minimise phospholipidosis. In such circumstances, in silico and in vitro assays can be employed in a strategy with in vivo assessments. In addition, there may be an interest to monitor for the potential development of phospholipidosis in longer-term animal studies. In such cases, biomarker approaches could be used. The challenge in the overall assessment of phospholipidosis remains the question of the possible relevance to any toxicity, and, therefore, any screening approach, while assessing the potential to induce phospholipidosis, must be considered in relation to prediction of findings in vivo. The status of current assays and biomarkers is presented with strategies for screening. PMID:17014389

  16. The use of cold plasma technology to reduce carryover in screening assays.

    PubMed

    Akhlaq, Mohammed; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Sattikar, Afrah; Kent, Toby C

    2013-08-01

    The accurate transfer of biological reagents represents a fundamental step in the drug screening process, and the elimination of carryover is critical for the generation of accurate measurements of biological activity. The introduction of automated liquid robotics into screening laboratories has transformed the drug screening process, enabling accurate and reproducible transfer of liquids to become a high-throughput activity, but has also introduced a new challenge for drug discoverers: to establish screening workflows that limit analyte carryover for the generation of high-quality screening data. The widespread use of pipetting tips on automated liquid handlers often necessitates the use of optimized wash protocols for removing contaminants and frequently requires the use and disposal of large quantities of organic solvents. Furthermore, many chemical and biological reagents are recalcitrant to removal from pipetting tips by treatment with organic solvents. The use of cold atmospheric plasma technology provides an alternative approach for removal of contaminants and offers many advantages over traditional decontamination protocols commonly used during biological screening. This report describes the evaluation of a cold plasma tip-cleaning system for reducing carryover in a range of biological screening assays requiring the transfer of low molecular weight compound, nucleic acid, and bacterial liquid transfers. The validation of this technology for biological screening assays is presented, and the impact of this technology for screening workflows is discussed. PMID:22983566

  17. High quality drug screening by capillary electrophoresis: a review.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Meera; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2013-04-22

    High quality assays are needed in drug discovery to reduce the high attrition rate of lead compounds during primary screening. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) represents a versatile micro-separation technique for resolution of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, including substrate(s), product(s), cofactor(s) and their stereoisomers, which is needed for reliable characterization of biomolecular interactions in free solution. This review article provides a critical overview of new advances in CE for drug screening over the past five years involving biologically relevant enzymes of therapeutic interest, including transferases, hydrolases, oxidoreductases, and isomerases. The basic principles and major configurations in CE, as well as data processing methods needed for rigorous characterization of enzyme inhibition are described. New developments in functional screening of small molecules that modulate the activity of disease-related enzymes are also discussed. Although inhibition is a widely measured response in most enzyme assays, other important outcomes of ligand interactions on protein structure/function that impact the therapeutic potential of a drug will also be highlighted, such as enzyme stabilization, activation and/or catalytic uncoupling. CE offers a selective platform for drug screening that reduces false-positives while also enabling the analysis of low amounts of complex sample mixtures with minimal sample handling. PMID:23561903

  18. Improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay using the MultiScreen® Assay System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Janssen; K. Ensing; R. A. de Zeeuw

    1999-01-01

    In this article, an improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay is described, which allows substantial reduction in assay time. The filtration in this method was performed by using the MultiScreen® Assay System. The latter consists of a 96-well plate with glass fibre filters sealed at the bottom, which allows both the incubation and the filtration of the specimen in the same plate.

  19. Adolescents and Drug Abuse: Clinical Use of Urine Drug Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, William H.; Moore, David D.

    1997-01-01

    Study examines the use of urine screening as a clinical diagnostic procedure to assess and monitor adolescents in a school-based outpatient program (N=296). Random screening provides little information regarding diagnostic level and pattern of drug use; however it may be helpful in bringing about positive behavior change. (EMK)

  20. A Simple Assay for Screening Microorganisms for Chalkophore Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukhwan Yoon; Alan A. DiSpirito; Stephan M. Kraemer; Jeremy D. Semrau

    2011-01-01

    Recently, methanotrophs were found to exude a chalkophore, that is, a metal ligand with great affinity and specificity to copper. A rapid screening method for chalkophore expression was developed by adopting the chrome azurol S (CAS) assay originally used for detecting siderophore production in diverse groups of bacteria and fungi. In this assay, iron(III) chloride was replaced with copper(II) chloride.

  1. A simple assay for screening microorganisms for chalkophore production.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sukhwan; Dispirito, Alan A; Kraemer, Stephan M; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2011-01-01

    Recently, methanotrophs were found to exude a chalkophore, that is, a metal ligand with great affinity and specificity to copper. A rapid screening method for chalkophore expression was developed by adopting the chrome azurol S (CAS) assay originally used for detecting siderophore production in diverse groups of bacteria and fungi. In this assay, iron(III) chloride was replaced with copper(II) chloride. Both liquid and agar plate versions of the Cu-CAS assay can be used to examine the activity of either isolated methanobactin or to screen organisms for production of a chalkophore. Although here we describe the use of this assay to screen methanotrophs for chalkophore production, it can be modified as necessary to screen other organisms for chalkophore production as well. Many siderophores can also bind copper in the presence of CAS. Therefore, this assay should be done in conjunction with the original iron-CAS assay to determine if any positive Cu-CAS assay results are due to nonspecific binding of copper by a siderophore. This inexpensive assay may also aid in analyses of the genetics of chalkophore synthesis. PMID:21419926

  2. Synthetic tumor networks for screening drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Shen, Ming-Che; Nichols, Joseph B; Garson, Charles J; Mills, Ivy R; Matar, Majed M; Fewell, Jason G; Pant, Kapil

    2015-03-10

    Tumor drug delivery is a complex phenomenon affected by several elements in addition to drug or delivery vehicle's physico-chemical properties. A key factor is tumor microvasculature with complex effects including convective transport, high interstitial pressure and enhanced vascular permeability due to the presence of "leaky vessels". Current in vitro models of the tumor microenvironment for evaluating drug delivery are oversimplified and, as a result, show poor correlation with in vivo performance. In this study, we report on the development of a novel microfluidic platform that models the tumor microenvironment more accurately, with physiologically and morphologically realistic microvasculature including endothelial cell lined leaky capillary vessels along with 3D solid tumors. Endothelial cells and 3D spheroids of cervical tumor cells were co-cultured in the networks. Drug vehicle screening was demonstrated using GFP gene delivery by different formulations of nanopolymers. The synthetic tumor network was successful in predicting in vivo delivery efficiencies of the drug vehicles. The developed assay will have critical applications both in basic research, where it can be used to develop next generation delivery vehicles, and in drug discovery where it can be used to study drug transport and delivery efficacy in realistic tumor microenvironment, thereby enabling drug compound and/or delivery vehicle screening. PMID:25599856

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL SCREENING ASSAY FOR TYLOSIN IN POLLEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tylosin residues have been isolated from pollen samples by adsorption on acidic solid-phase extraction cartridges, with subsequent determination using a disk-diffusion microbiological assay. While not providing identification of individual antibiotics present, the presence of a zone of inhibition pr...

  4. Biomimetic three-dimensional tissue models for advanced high-throughput drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Smith, Alec S.T.; Lone, Saifullah; Kwon, Sunghoon; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Most current drug screening assays used to identify new drug candidates are 2D cell-based systems, even though such in vitro assays do not adequately recreate the in vivo complexity of 3D tissues. Inadequate representation of the human tissue environment during a preclinical test can result in inaccurate predictions of compound effects on overall tissue functionality. Screening for compound efficacy by focusing on a single pathway or protein target, coupled with difficulties in maintaining long-term 2D monolayers, can serve to exacerbate these issues when utilizing such simplistic model systems for physiological drug screening applications. Numerous studies have shown that cell responses to drugs in 3D culture are improved from those in 2D, with respect to modeling in vivo tissue functionality, which highlights the advantages of using 3D-based models for preclinical drug screens. In this review, we discuss the development of microengineered 3D tissue models which accurately mimic the physiological properties of native tissue samples, and highlight the advantages of using such 3D micro-tissue models over conventional cell-based assays for future drug screening applications. We also discuss biomimetic 3D environments, based-on engineered tissues as potential preclinical models for the development of more predictive drug screening assays for specific disease models. PMID:25385716

  5. Establishing Assay Cutoffs for HLA Antibody Screening of Apheresis Donors

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Danielle M.; Norris, Philip J.; Endres, Robert O.; Pandey, Suchitra; Kleinman, Steven H.; Wright, David; Sun, Yu; Busch, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related deaths. Donor HLA antibodies have been implicated in TRALI cases. Blood centers are implementing TRALI risk reduction strategies based on HLA antibody screening of some subpopulations of ever-pregnant apheresis platelet donors. However, if screening assay cutoffs are too sensitive, donation loss may adversely impact blood availability. STUDY DESIGN Pregnancy history and HLA antibody screening and single antigen bead (SAB) data from blood donors in the REDS-II Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study (LAPS) were evaluated for correlations between assay screening values, HLA antibody titer, and number of HLA antigen specificities. The probabilities of matching a cognate antigen in a recipient were calculated and examined in association with total number of specificities observed and screening values. The relative impact of imposing various screening assay cutoffs or pregnancy stratification was examined in relation to detection of HLA antibody reactive donations and loss of donors and donations. RESULTS We provide evidence that higher HLA Ab screening assay values are associated with maintaining higher screening signals upon dilution and an increased breadth of specificities compared with lower screening values; the latter correlated with an increased risk of a cognate antigen match in potential recipients. Depending upon the TRALI risk reduction strategy used, the potential loss of donations ranged between 0.9 and 6.0%. CONCLUSION This analysis should enable blood centers to decide upon a TRALI risk reduction strategy for apheresis platelets that is consistent with how much donation loss the blood center can tolerate. PMID:21332726

  6. Fluorescent and Lanthanide Labeling for Ligand Screens, Assays, and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Josan, Jatinder S.; De Silva, Channa R.; Yoo, Byunghee; Lynch, Ronald M.; Pagel, Mark D.; Vagner, Josef; Hruby, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorescent (or luminescent) and metal contrast agents in high-throughput screens, in vitro assays, and molecular imaging procedures has rapidly expanded in recent years. Here we describe the development and utility of high-affinity ligands for cancer theranostics and other in vitro screening studies. In this context, we also illustrate the syntheses and use of heteromultivalent ligands as targeted imaging agents. PMID:21318902

  7. Development of assay platforms for in vitro screening of Treg modulating potential of pharmacological compounds.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Holmstrøm, Kim; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jensen, Simon S; Gad, Monika

    2015-02-01

    CD4?+?CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are believed to be pivotal in controlling chronic inflammation as well as in opposing the effect of cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, identification of novel drug compounds that interfere with Treg function is of high priority together with research that investigates Treg modulation by current drugs. For such research as well as for novel cell based therapies based on Treg infusions, rapid in vitro assays as well as functional assays based on inhibitory capacity of Tregs are required. Here, we report on such assays using highly pure fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) sorted CD4?+?CD25(high)CD127(dim/-)CD45RA+ naïve Treg cells followed by in vitro expansion. We report on the use of these cells in a short-term assay based on Treg mediated inhibition of the early effector T cell activation markers CD69 and CD154. Additionally, we investigate the use of highly pure Tregs in a functional assay based on Treg mediated inhibition of effector T cell proliferation. We report highly reproducible Treg function in assays that test the effect of well-known model compounds such as CpG-A, anti-IL-6R (tocilizumab), anti-TNF-? (adalimumab) or a combination of IL-6 and TNF-?. In conclusion, these assays have the potential for use in pharmacological screening and discovery in relation to drug development in immunology. PMID:25367176

  8. Assay development and high-throughput screening of caspases in microfluidic format.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ge; Irvine, Jennifer; Luft, Chris; Pressley, David; Hodge, C Nicholas; Janzen, Bill

    2003-06-01

    Caspase proteases are familiar targets in drug discovery. A common format for screening to identify caspase inhibitors employs fluorogenic or colorimetric tetra-peptide substrates in 96, 384, or 1536 -well microtiter plates. The primary motivation for increasing the number of wells per plate is to reduce the reagent cost per test and increase the throughput of HTS operations. There are significant challenges, however, to moving into or beyond the 1536-well format, such as submicroliter liquid handling, liquid evaporation, increased surface area-to-volume ratios, and the potential for artifacts and interference from small air-borne particles such as lint. Therefore, HTS scientists remain keenly interested in technologies that offer alternatives to the ever-shrinking microtiter plate well. Microfluidic assay technology represents an attractive option that, in theory, consumes only subnanoliter volumes of reagents per test. We have successfully employed a microfluidic assay technology in fluorogenic screening assays for several caspase isoforms utilizing the Caliper Technologies Labchip platform. Caspase-3 is used as a representative case to describe microfluidic assay development and initial high-throughput screening results. In addition, microfluidic screening and plate-based screening are compared in terms of reagent consumption, data quality, and ease of operation. PMID:12769673

  9. An assay for screening microbial cultures for chalkophore production.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sukhwan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Dispirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2010-04-01

    Methanotrophs, bacteria that utilize methane as their sole carbon and energy source, are known to have high requirements for copper. These bacteria have recently been found to synthesize a copper-chelating agent, or chalkophore, termed methanobactin. To aid in screening methanobactin production by methanotrophs, a plate assay developed from the chrome azurol S (CAS) assay for siderophore production, was modified. In the typical CAS assay, a colour change from blue to orange in iron-CAS plates is observed as iron (III) ion weakly bound to CAS is sequestered by siderophores with higher affinities. In our modified assay, iron (III) chloride of the original CAS solution was substituted with copper (II) chloride, and removal of copper from CAS caused a colour change from blue to yellow. Assay results indicated that of the four tested methanotrophs (Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, Methylomicrobium album BG8 and Methylocystis parvus OBBP), only M. trichosporium OB3b, M. capsulatus Bath and M. album BG8 produced chalkophores capable of competing with CAS for copper, while M. parvus OBBP did not or did not export sufficient concentrations of methanobactin for detection by this assay. It was also found using Fe-CAS plates that at least M. trichosporium OB3b and M. album BG8 produce siderophores. These results may be expanded for the detection of chalkophores in other microorganisms as well as for screening of putative mutants of chalkophore synthesis. PMID:23766081

  10. An evaluation of protein assays for quantitative determination of drugs.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katherine M; Arthur, Sarah J; Burrell, Gillian; Kelly, Fionnuala; Phillips, Darren W; Marshall, Thomas

    2003-07-31

    We have evaluated the response of six protein assays [the biuret, Lowry, bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), Pyrogallol Red-Molybdate (PRM), and benzethonium chloride (BEC)] to 21 pharmaceutical drugs. The drugs evaluated were analgesics (acetaminophen, aspirin, codeine, methadone, morphine and pethidine), antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, penicillin G and vancomycin), antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, prochlorperazine, promazine and thioridazine) and water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, niacinamide, pantothenic acid and pyridoxine). The biuret, Lowry and BCA assays responded strongly to most of the drugs tested. The PRM assay gave a sensitive response to the aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and neomycin) and the antipsychotic drugs. In contrast, the CBB assay showed little response to the aminoglycosides and gave a relatively poor response with the antipsychotics. The BEC assay did not respond significantly to the drugs tested. The response of the protein assays to the drugs was further evaluated by investigating the linearity of the response and the combined response of drug plus protein. The results are discussed with reference to drug interference in protein assays and the development of new methods for the quantification of drugs in protein-free solution. PMID:12834962

  11. Statistical evaluation of several methods for cut-point determination of immunogenicity screening assay.

    PubMed

    Shen, Meiyu; Dong, Xiaoyu; Tsong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The cut point of the immunogenicity screening assay is the level of response of the immunogenicity screening assay at or above which a sample is defined to be positive and below which it is defined to be negative. The Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Assay Development for Immunogenicity Testing of Therapeutic recommends the cut point to be an upper 95 percentile of the negative control patients. In this article, we assume that the assay data are a random sample from a normal distribution. The sample normal percentile is a point estimate with a variability that decreases with the increase of sample size. Therefore, the sample percentile does not assure at least 5% false-positive rate (FPR) with a high confidence level (e.g., 90%) when the sample size is not sufficiently enough. With this concern, we propose to use a lower confidence limit for a percentile as the cut point instead. We have conducted an extensive literature review on the estimation of the statistical cut point and compare several selected methods for the immunogenicity screening assay cut-point determination in terms of bias, the coverage probability, and FPR. The selected methods evaluated for the immunogenicity screening assay cut-point determination are sample normal percentile, the exact lower confidence limit of a normal percentile (Chakraborti and Li, 2007) and the approximate lower confidence limit of a normal percentile. It is shown that the actual coverage probability for the lower confidence limit of a normal percentile using approximate normal method is much larger than the required confidence level with a small number of assays conducted in practice. We recommend using the exact lower confidence limit of a normal percentile for cut-point determination. PMID:25356783

  12. Mass screening for coeliac disease using antihuman transglutaminase antibody assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Tommasini; V Kiren; V Baldas; D Santon; C Trevisiol; I Berti; E Neri; T Gerarduzzi; I Bruno; A Lenhardt; E Zamuner; A Spano?; S Crovella; S Martellossi; G Torre; D Sblattero; R Marzari; A Bradbury; G Tamburlini; A Ventura

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine coeliac disease prevalence by an anti-transglutaminase antibody assay in a large paediatric population; to evaluate acceptance of the screening programme, dietary compliance, and long term health effects.Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 3188 schoolchildren (aged 6–12) and prospective follow up of diagnosed cases. Main outcome measures were: prevalence of coeliac disease defined by intestinal biopsy or positivity to both

  13. A novel microplate-based assay for screening radioprotectors and its validation based on DNA and membrane system.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul A

    2012-12-12

    Ionizing radiation leads to damage at various cellular and sub-cellular levels and can be prevented by radioprotectors. There are many in vitro and in vivo but rather expensive assays for screening of radioprotectors from natural and synthetic sources. We have developed a cell free radioprotector screening assay which involves bleaching of crocin pigment, isolated from saffron by radiolytic products of water. Any molecules/compounds which can inhibit the bleaching of the crocin will act as a radioprotector. The developed assay was further validated by the existing in vitro assays. Different radioprotectors have different level for inhibition of bleaching of crocin. The trends of radioprotection offered by crocin bleaching assay, plasmid relaxation and lipid peroxidation are TMG>FA>VA>Amifos>Trox, TMG>VA>FA>Amifos>Trox, and TMG>FA>Trox>VA>Amifos, respectively. We are getting different trends for different assays. This is because different drugs have different mechanisms of radioprotection in different assay systems. In conclusion, the crocin bleaching assay developed here is a simple, fast and economical screening assay and it will have great value in radioprotection programme for screening many potential compounds for radioprotection. PMID:22989745

  14. Inhibition of Microglia Activation as a Phenotypic Assay in Early Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Figuera-Losada, Mariana; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S.

    2014-01-01

    Complex biological processes such as inflammation, cell death, migration, proliferation, and the release of biologically active molecules can be used as outcomes in phenotypic assays during early stages of drug discovery. Although target-based approaches have been widely used over the past decades, a disproportionate number of first-in-class drugs have been identified using phenotypic screening. This review details phenotypic assays based on inhibition of microglial activation and their utility in primary and secondary screening, target validation, and pathway elucidation. The role of microglia, both in normal as well as in pathological conditions such as chronic neurodegenerative diseases, is reviewed. Methodologies to assess microglia activation in vitro are discussed in detail, and classes of therapeutic drugs known to decrease the proinflammatory and cytotoxic responses of activated microglia are appraised, including inhibitors of glutaminase, cystine/glutamate antiporter, nuclear factor ?B, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. PMID:23945875

  15. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. 862.3645 Section...3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device...

  16. High Content Screening as High Quality Assay for Biological Evaluation of Photosensitizers In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Gisela M. F.; Paszko, Edyta; Davies, Anthony M.; Senge, Mathias O.

    2013-01-01

    A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT) compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA) technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4). The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT). The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells). A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS) and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR) study for photosensitizer libraries. PMID:23923014

  17. Bioluminescent whole-cell reporter gene assays as screening tools in the identification of antimicrobial natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    Nybond, Susanna; Karp, Matti; Yrjönen, Teijo; Tammela, Päivi

    2015-07-01

    We describe novel tools, bioluminescent whole-cell reporter gene assays, for facilitating the use of natural products in antimicrobial drug discovery. As proof-of-concept, a plant extract library was screened and follow-up experiments were carried out. Primary results can be obtained in 2-4h with high sensitivity, leading to significant improvements of the process. PMID:25937087

  18. Multiple animal studies for medical chemical defense program in soldier\\/patient decontamination and drug development on task 88-36: Development of in vitro screening assays for candidate pretreatment and treatment compounds. Final report, 1 July 1988-1 July 1989

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Joiner; G. Dill; D. Hobson; J. Blank

    1990-01-01

    A task was instituted at the Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) to develop in vitro assays to screen pretreatment and treatment compounds for their ability to protect or reverse the toxic effects of organophosphates and vesicants. Four vesicant assays and three nerve agent assays were developed. Two of the vesicant assays were for cell viability of keratinocyte, one in

  19. A simple assay to screen antimicrobial compounds potentiating the activity of current antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Junaid; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30%) in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics. PMID:23865073

  20. Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse\\/toxicology screening in emergency medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D Krasowski; Anthony F Pizon; Mohamed G Siam; Spiros Giannoutsos; Manisha Iyer; Sean Ekins

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laboratory tests for routine drug of abuse and toxicology (DOA\\/Tox) screening, often used in emergency medicine, generally utilize antibody-based tests (immunoassays) to detect classes of drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and tricyclic antidepressants, or individual drugs such as cocaine, methadone, and phencyclidine. A key factor in assay sensitivity and specificity is the drugs or drug metabolites that

  1. Development of an in vitro drug sensitivity assay based on newly excysted larvae of Echinostoma caproni

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Echinostomiasis is one of the major food-borne trematodiases and the species Echinostoma caproni serves as a useful model for trematocidal drug discovery. The current in vitro drug sensitivity assay uses adult E. caproni worms that are incubated with candidate drugs and scored microscopically for viability at 72 hrs. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of newly excysted larvae (NEL) of E. caproni for in vitro drug testing, which would be faster, more cost effective and more ethical compared to adult worm assays. Methods Larvae were obtained by collecting metacercariae from snails and triggering their excystation using the trypsin-bile salt excystation method. Studies concerning various parameters of this chemical transformation process as well as appropriate NEL culturing conditions were carried out and findings evaluated. NEL and adult worms were incubated with praziquantel, tribendimidine, albendazole and quinine and evaluated microscopically 72 hrs post-incubation. In addition, the colorimetric markers resazurin, CellTiter-Glo® and Vybrant® were tested as an alternative assay read-out method. Results The chemical excystation method successfully induced E. caproni metacercariae to excyst at a rate of about 20-60%. NEL remained viable in culture medium for 5–7 days. The results of an in vitro drug assay using NEL mirrored the results of an assay using adult worms incubated with the same drugs. None of the markers could reliably produce signals proportional to NEL viability or cytotoxicity without significant complications. Conclusion NEL are adequate for in vitro drug testing. Challenges remain in further improving the excystation yield and the practicability of the assay setup. Resolving these issues could also improve read-outs using colorimetric markers. Using NEL is in alignment with the 3 R rules of the ethical use of laboratory animals and can greatly increase the rate and affordability with which drugs are screened in vitro against this intestinal trematode. PMID:23941505

  2. An evaluation of protein assays for quantitative determination of drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine M. Williams; Sarah J. Arthur; Gillian Burrell; Fionnuala Kelly; Darren W. Phillips; Thomas Marshall

    2003-01-01

    We have evaluated the response of six protein assays [the biuret, Lowry, bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), Pyrogallol Red–Molybdate (PRM), and benzethonium chloride (BEC)] to 21 pharmaceutical drugs. The drugs evaluated were analgesics (acetaminophen, aspirin, codeine, methadone, morphine and pethidine), antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, penicillin G and vancomycin), antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, prochlorperazine, promazine and thioridazine) and water-soluble

  3. Image-based cell-resolved screening assays in flow.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Man Ching; McKenna, Brian; Wang, Steve S; Wolf, Dane; Ehrlich, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    A parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) is based on a one-dimensional (1D) scanning detector, a parallel array of flow channels, and new multiparameter analysis algorithms that operate on low-pixel-count 1D images. In this article, we explore a series of image-based live- and fixed-cell screening assays, including two NF-kB nuclear translocations and T-cell capping. We then develop a new multiparametric linear weighted classifier that achieves a Z' factor sufficient for scaled pharmaceutical discovery with Jurkat cells in suspension. We conclude that the PMC should have the throughput and statistical power to permit a new capability for image-based high-sample-number pharmaceutical screening with suspension samples. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515084

  4. Phenotypic Drug Susceptibility Assay for Influenza Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. McSharry; Ann C. McDonough; Betty A. Olson; George L. Drusano

    2004-01-01

    A flow cytometric (fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)) assay was developed for analysis of the drug susceptibilities of wild-type and drug-resistant influenza A and B virus laboratory strains and clinical isolates for the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors oseltamivir carboxylate, zanamivir, and peramivir. The drug suscepti- bilities of wild-type influenza viruses and those with mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) and\\/or NA genes rendering

  5. High throughput optical sensor arrays for drug screening

    E-print Network

    Harjes, Daniel I

    2006-01-01

    In the world of drug discovery, high throughput whole cell assays are a critical step in discovering therapeutically relevant drug compounds [1]. This report details the development of several novel sensor systems capable ...

  6. Development of a semi-automated colorimetric assay for screening anti-leishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Sudipto; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Sarkar, Arup; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2006-07-01

    MTS or {3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl}-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) is converted into soluble formazan by mitochondrial dehydrogenase of viable cells, thus serving as an indicator of cell viability. Accordingly, a MTS-based assay was developed to evaluate anti-leishmanial activity in Leishmania promastigotes from strains responsible for visceral, cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The assay was initially optimized for the appropriate wavelength (490 nm), culture medium (M-199), incubation time (3 h) and temperature (37 degrees C). Increasing absorbance with increasing cell density confirmed linearity of the assay that was maintained up to 2.5 x 10(6) cells/200 microl. The growth kinetics of six L. donovani strains and six non-L. donovani strains consistently indicated higher absorbances in the L. donovani strains highlighting the importance of strain-specific customization of the MTS assay. The IC(50) values (i.e., the concentration at which 50% of growth was inhibited) of amphotericin B, miltefosine and pentamidine isethionate obtained by the MTS assay corroborated with previously published data. Taken together, the MTS assay thus permits a simple, reproducible and reliable semi-automated method for evaluating cell viability, effective for drug-screening and growth kinetic studies. PMID:16316700

  7. Development of a Fluorescent Quenching Based High Throughput Assay to Screen for Calcineurin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Abhisek; Syeb, Kathleen; Concannon, John; Callegari, Keri; Soto, Claudio; Glicksman, Marcie A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no effective treatment available for major neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's disease. One of most promising therapeutic approaches under development focuses on inhibiting the misfolding and aggregation pathway. However, it is likely that by the time clinical symptoms appear, there is a large accumulation of misfolded aggregates and a very substantial damage to the brain. Thus, it seems that at the clinical stage of the disease it is necessary also to develop strategies aiming to prevent the neuronal damage produced by already formed misfolded aggregates. Chronic activation of calcineurin (CaN), a type IIB phosphatase, has been implicated as a pivotal molecule connecting synaptic loss and neuronal damage to protein misfolding. The fact that the crystal structure of CaN is also well established makes it an ideal target for drug discovery. CaN activity assays for High Throughput Screening (HTS) reported so far are based on absorbance. In this article we report the development of a fluorescent quenching based CaN activity assay suitable for robotic screening of large chemical libraries to find novel inhibitors. The assay yielded a Z score of 0.84 with coefficient of variance ? 15%. Our results also show that this assay can be used to identify CaN inhibitors with a wide range of potencies. PMID:26176772

  8. Fluorine local environment: from screening to drug design.

    PubMed

    Vulpetti, Anna; Dalvit, Claudio

    2012-08-01

    Fluorine is widely used in the lead optimization phase of drug discovery projects. More recently, fluorine NMR-based spectroscopy has emerged as a versatile, reliable and efficient tool for performing binding and biochemical assays. Different libraries of fluorinated compounds, designed by maximizing the chemical space around the fluorine atom, are screened for identifying binding fragments and for detecting putative fluorophilic hot spots on the desired macromolecular target. A statistical analysis of the fluorine NMR chemical shift, which is a marker of the fluorine local environment, and of the X-ray structures of fluorinated molecules has resulted in the development of the 'rule of shielding'. This method could become a useful tool for lead optimization and for designing novel chemical scaffolds that recognize distinct protein structural motifs. PMID:22480871

  9. Screening for drugs of abuse. I: Opiates, amphetamines and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, R A; Jarvie, D R; Minty, P S; Simpson, D; Widdop, B

    1995-03-01

    (1) In order to provide an efficient and reliable service for drugs of abuse screening in urine, the laboratory should analyse 20-30 samples per week, and the staff should include a scientist with special expertise in the subject. (2) Turnaround times should be between 2-3 days of sample collection. To achieve this aim it may be necessary to make special arrangements for the delivery of samples to the laboratory. Results should preferably be transmitted by electronic mail or facsimile with the necessary precautions for security and confidentiality: hardcopy reports may also be required. (3) Good communications between the requesting clinician and the laboratory are essential. An advisory service should be provided by the laboratory and clinicians should be encouraged to discuss requests and results with laboratory staff. It is important that the laboratory inform doctors of the range of substances detected and the sensitivity and specificity of laboratory assays. (4) Assays should be performed according to the manufacturer's protocols, or by modified methods that have been rigorously validated. Quality control samples should be included in each analytical run and participation in an external quality assessment scheme, e.g. UKNEQAS, is essential to provide independent confirmation and confidence that results compare with those from other laboratories. Other requirements include adequate training and supervision of staff, and careful recording of samples and results. (5) Drugs to be tested will depend on the drug 'scene' in the area but should include those drugs regularly prescribed for maintenance therapy (e.g. methadone, dihydrocodeine, benzodiazepines), and drugs frequently misused (e.g. heroin, buprenorphine, amphetamines, cocaine). (6) Positive results obtained by preliminary screening methods e.g. EMIT, should be confirmed by another analytical technique, e.g. TLC, GC or GC-MS. If there are potentially serious or legal implications, and in employment and preemployment testing, confirmation of positive results is mandatory. In some cases, e.g. checking for methadone or benzodiazepine compliance, it may be considered unnecessary to confirm positive results although possible spiking of samples cannot be excluded without checking for the presence of metabolites by a chromatographic procedure. PMID:7785941

  10. High-throughput screening assays for antibacterial and antifungal activities of Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Inglin, Raffael C; Stevens, Marc J A; Meile, Lukas; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2015-07-01

    We describe high-throughput screening techniques to rapidly detect either antimicrobial activity, using an agar-well diffusion assay in microtiter plates, or antifungal activity using an agar-spot assay in 24-well plates. 504 Lactobacillus isolates were screened with minimal laboratory equipment and screening rates of 2000-5000 individual antimicrobial interactions. PMID:25937247

  11. High-content screening technology for studying drug-induced hepatotoxicity in cell models.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Donato, M Teresa

    2015-07-01

    High-content screening is the application of automated microscopy and image analysis to both cell biology and drug discovery. Over the last decade, this technique has emerged as a useful technology that allows the simultaneous measurement of different parameters at a single-cell level. Hepatotoxicity is a compelling reason for drug nonapprovals and withdrawals. It is recognized that the safety of a compound cannot be based on a single in vitro assay, and existing methods are not predictive of drug-induced toxicity. However, different HCS assays have been recently demonstrated as being powerful for identifying different mechanisms implicated in drug-induced toxicity with high sensitivity and specificity. These assays integrate the data obtained from different cell function indicators and can be easily incorporated into basic screening processes for the safety evaluation and selection of drug candidates; thus, they contribute greatly to lessen the likelihood of drug failure. Exploring the use of cellular imaging technology in drug-induced liver injury by reviewing the different tests proposed provides evidence that this technology has a strong impact on drug discovery. PMID:25787152

  12. Development and application of an automated solution stability assay for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Di, Li; Kerns, Edward H; Chen, Hong; Petusky, Susan L

    2006-02-01

    Screening of solution stability provides an early alert on potential liabilities of drug candidates so that strategies can be developed to overcome the challenges. A fully automated solution stability assay has been developed to accelerate traditional manual operation. The assay uses the advanced capabilities of a high-performance liquid chromatography instrument that is present in many pharmaceutical research laboratories. The samples are prepared automatically by a temperature-controlled autosampler. The samples are delivered to the stability matrices, mixed, incubated, and injected at selected time points during the reaction time course. This automated process occurs without operator intervention, thus allowing 96 experiments to be run with 0.5 h of a scientist's time compared to 8 h for the same study when performed manually. Automation not only eliminates the manual operation but also improves accuracy and throughput. The assay protocol has been optimized to achieve homogenous mixing and eliminate carryover. The assay is robust, flexible, and high throughput. It can be used to study stability for a large number of samples under multiple incubation conditions and has a wide range of applications in drug discovery and development, such as screening compound stability in biological assay media, obtaining a stability-pH profile, surveying compound stability in physiological fluids, and performing development forced degradation and excipient compatibility. PMID:16234336

  13. The role of matrix compliance on cell responses to drugs and toxins: towards predictive drug screening platforms.

    PubMed

    Zustiak, Silviya Petrova

    2015-05-01

    Since the birth of tissue engineering, it has been redefined to include not only the development of tissues for clinical use, but also in vitro models for the study of tissue physiology and pathology. Great strides have been accomplished in the design of in vitro tissue models, yet one area in which they are underrepresented, but where they can have an immediate impact, is the development of platforms for drug screening. By providing more in vivo-like cell environments, such models could address the growing concerns about drug failures due to lack of efficacy or unexpected side effects. This review aims to address the interface between substrate compliance and cell responsiveness to toxins and drugs since compliance has been established as a major determinate of overall cell fate. Here, results from 2D substrates and 3D matrices are discussed. Additionally, examples of biomaterial-based high-throughput stiffness assays in drug screening are presented. PMID:25654999

  14. High-throughput screening of FDA-approved drugs using oxygen biosensor plates reveals secondary mitofunctional effects

    PubMed Central

    Sahdeo, Sunil; Tomilov, Alexey; Komachi, Kelly; Iwahashi, Christine; Datta, Sandipan; Hughes, Owen; Hagerman, Paul; Cortopassi, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Repurposing of FDA-approved drugs with effects on mitochondrial function might shorten the critical path to mitochondrial disease drug development. We improved a biosensor-based assay of mitochondrial O2 consumption, and identified mitofunctional defects in cell models of LHON and FXTAS. Using this platform, we screened a 1600-compound library of clinically used drugs. The assay identified drugs known to affect mitochondrial function, such as metformin and decoquinate. We also identified several drugs not previously known to affect mitochondrial respiration including acarbose, metaraminol, gallamine triethiodide, and acamprosate. These previously unknown ‘mitoactives’ represent novel links to targets for mitochondrial regulation and potentially therapy, for mitochondrial disease. PMID:25034306

  15. Development of an in vitro drug sensitivity assay for Trichuris muris first-stage larvae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trichuriasis represents a major public health problem in the developing world and is regarded as a neglected disease. Albendazole and mebendazole, the two drugs of choice against trichuriasis display only moderate cure rates, hence alternative drugs are needed. To identify candidate compounds, in vitro drug sensitivity testing currently relies on the adult Trichuris muris motility assay. The objective of the present study was to develop a simple and cost-effective drug sensitivity assay using Trichuris muris first-stage larvae (L1). Methods Several potential triggers that induce hatching of T. muris were studied, including gastrointestinal enzymes, acidic environment and intestinal microflora. Next, optimal culture conditions for T. muris L1 were determined assessing a wide range of culture media. T. muris L1 were incubated in the presence of mebendazole, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, levamisole or oxantel pamoate at 37°C. The viability of the parasites was evaluated microscopically after 24 hours. The usefulness of fluorescent markers (resazurin, calcein AM, ethidium homodimer-1 or fluorescein-conjugated albumin) in drug sensitivity testing was also assessed. Results The established L1 motility assay provided accurate and reproducible drug effect data in vitro. IC50 values for oxantel pamoate, levamisole and nitazoxanide were 0.05, 1.75 and 4.43 ?g/mL, respectively. Mebendazole and ivermectin failed to show any trichuricidal effect on L1. No correlation was found between data from the four fluorescent markers and the comparative motility assay. Conclusions The motility assay based on L1 was found suitable for drug sensitivity screening. It is rather simple, cost-effective, time-saving and sustains medium-throughput testing. Furthermore, it greatly reduces the need for the animal host and is therefore more ethical. None of the viability markers assessed in this study were found to be satisfactory. PMID:23433224

  16. The validation of an invitro colonic motility assay as a biomarker for gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Christopher, E-mail: C.Keating@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Martinez, Vicente; Ewart, Lorna [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Gibbons, Stephen; Grundy, Luke [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Valentin, Jean-Pierre [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Grundy, David [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Motility-related gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (GADRs), such as constipation and diarrhea, are some of the most frequently reported adverse events associated with the clinical development of new chemical entities, and for marketed drugs. However, biomarkers capable of detecting such GADRs are lacking. Here, we describe an in vitro assay developed to detect and quantify changes in intestinal motility as a surrogate biomarker for constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. In vitro recordings of intraluminal pressure were used to monitor the presence of colonic peristaltic motor complexes (CPMCs) in mouse colonic segments. CPMC frequency, contractile and total mechanical activity were assessed. To validate the assay, two experimental protocols were conducted. Initially, five drugs with known gastrointestinal effects were tested to determine optimal parameters describing excitation and inhibition as markers for disturbances in colonic motility. This was followed by a 'blinded' evaluation of nine drugs associated with or without clinically identified constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. Concentration-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the effects were compared with their maximal free therapeutic plasma concentration in humans. The assay detected stimulatory and inhibitory responses, likely correlating to the occurrence of diarrhea or constipation. Concentration-related effects were identified and potential mechanisms of action were inferred for several drugs. Based on the results from the fourteen drugs assessed, the sensitivity of the assay was calculated at 90%, with a specificity of 75% and predictive capacity of 86%. These results support the potential use of this assay in screening for motility-related GADRs during early discovery phase, safety pharmacology assessment.

  17. Granulocyte chemotaxis: multiple assay screening using a raft technique.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaswal, U; Roper, S; Roath, S

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of granulocyte chemotaxis is complicated by the difficulty of precisely reproducing results in serial estimations and deciding on the best end point which would reflect most accurately the degree of travel taken by the cells under observation. The methods in use are generally based on the Boyden chamber, following this, we have further developed the principle of the "raft" technique of chamber based migration. In order to overcome the problems associated with reproducibility of results when performing multiple assays of chemotaxis, especially when sera of widely differing activity are encountered in the screening procedure, we have used a "batching" system and a simple method of presenting the results so that they are comparable. Images PMID:7068908

  18. Assays for the Identification and Prioritization of Drug Candidates for Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Jonathan J.; Kobayashi, Dione T.; Lynes, Maureen M.; Naryshkin, Nikolai N.; Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Zaworski, Phillip G.; Rubin, Lee L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder resulting in degeneration of ?-motor neurons of the anterior horn and proximal muscle weakness. It is the leading cause of genetic mortality in children younger than 2 years. It affects ?1 in 11,000 live births. In 95% of cases, SMA is caused by homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. In addition, all patients possess at least one copy of an almost identical gene called SMN2. A single point mutation in exon 7 of the SMN2 gene results in the production of low levels of full-length survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein at amounts insufficient to compensate for the loss of the SMN1 gene. Although no drug treatments are available for SMA, a number of drug discovery and development programs are ongoing, with several currently in clinical trials. This review describes the assays used to identify candidate drugs for SMA that modulate SMN2 gene expression by various means. Specifically, it discusses the use of high-throughput screening to identify candidate molecules from primary screens, as well as the technical aspects of a number of widely used secondary assays to assess SMN messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression, localization, and function. Finally, it describes the process of iterative drug optimization utilized during preclinical SMA drug development to identify clinical candidates for testing in human clinical trials. PMID:25147906

  19. Microchip assays for screening monoclonal antibody product quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Tang, Kaiyan; Lee, Maximilian; Flynn, Gregory C

    2008-12-01

    Microchip CE-SDS was evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to conventional CE-SDS for monitoring monoclonal antibody protein quality. A commercial instrument (LabChip) 90) was used to separate dodecyl sulfate coated proteins through a sieving polymer based on the proteins' sizes. Under reducing conditions, the microchip CE-SDS separation was similar to that of conventional CE-SDS, providing reasonable resolution of the non-glycosylated and the glycosylated heavy chains. The fluorescence detection on LabChip 90 using non-covalent fluorescent labeling method was about as sensitive as the 220 nm UV detection used in a conventional CE instrument. A simple glycan typing assay was developed for the reducing microchip CE-SDS format. Antibodies, either pure or in crude cell culture media are treated with Endoglycosidase H, which specifically cleaves the hybrid and high mannose type glycans. A heavy chain migration shift on reducing CE-SDS resulting from the loss of glycan is used to measure the level of high mannose/hybrid type glycans as a percentage of the total glycans. Microchip CE-SDS, under both non-reducing and reducing conditions, can be used in a variety of antibody product screening assays. The microchip analyses provide sufficient resolution and sensitivity for this purpose but on a time scale approximately 70 times faster (41 s versus 50 min per sample) than conventional CE separation under typical operational conditions. PMID:19130579

  20. Chemical chaperone therapy: luciferase assay for screening of ?-galactosidase mutations.

    PubMed

    Li, Linjing; Higaki, Katsumi; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Luan, Zhuo; Iida, Masami; Ogawa, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Kousaku; Nanba, Eiji

    2010-12-01

    ?-Galactosidosis is a group of disorder based on heterogeneous mutations of GLB1 gene coding for the lysosomal acid ?-galactosidase (?-gal). A decrease of the ?-gal enzyme activity results in progressive accumulation of substrates in somatic cells, particularly in neurons, leading to severe neuronal dysfunction. We have previously reported that N-octyl-4-epi-?-valienamine (NOEV), a chemical chaperone compound, stabilized various mutant human ?-gal proteins and increased residual enzyme activities in cultured fibroblasts from human patients. These data proved a potential therapeutic benefit of chemical chaperone therapy for patients with missense ?-gal. This effect is mutation specific. In this study, we have established a sensitive luciferase-based assay for measuring chaperone effect on mutant human ?-gal. A dinoflagellate luciferase (Dluc) cDNA was introduced to the C-terminus of human ?-gal. When COS7 cells expressing the Dluc-tagged human R201C ?-gal was treated with NOEV, there happened a remarkable increase of the mutant ?-gal activity. In the presence of NH(4)Cl, luciferase level in the medium increased in parallel with the enzyme activity in cell lysates. We also found that proteasome inhibitors enhance chaperone effect of NOEV. These results demonstrate that the luciferase-based assay is a reliable and convenient method for screening and evaluation of chaperone effects on human ?-gal mutants, and that it will be a useful tool for finding novel chaperone compounds in the future study. PMID:20826101

  1. "Dilute-and-inject" multi-target screening assay for highly polar doping agents using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    In the field of LC-MS, reversed phase liquid chromatography is the predominant method of choice for the separation of prohibited substances from various classes in sports drug testing. However, highly polar and charged compounds still represent a challenging task in liquid chromatography due to their difficult chromatographic behavior using reversed phase materials. A very promising approach for the separation of hydrophilic compounds is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Despite its great potential and versatile advantages for the separation of highly polar compounds, HILIC is up to now not very common in doping analysis, although most manufacturers offer a variety of HILIC columns in their portfolio. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on HILIC high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for various polar stimulants, stimulant sulfo-conjugates, glycerol, AICAR, ethyl glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, and myo-inositol trispyrophosphate after direct injection of diluted urine specimens. The usage of an effective online sample cleanup and a zwitterionic HILIC analytical column in combination with a new generation Hybrid Quadrupol-Orbitrap® mass spectrometer enabled the detection of highly polar analytes without any time-consuming hydrolysis or further purification steps, far below the required detection limits. The methodology was fully validated for qualitative and quantitative (AICAR, glycerol) purposes considering the parameters specificity; robustness (rRT??0.99); intra- and inter-day precision at low, medium, and high concentration levels (CV?

  2. Establishment of an in vitro high-throughput screening assay for detecting phospholipidosis-inducing potential.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Toshihiko; Tomita, Kazuo; Murano, Hiroyuki; Harada, Tsuyoshi; Tsubakimoto, Keisuke; Ogihara, Takuo; Ohnishi, Syuhei; Kakinuma, Chihaya

    2006-03-01

    Excessive accumulation of phospholipids results in phospholipidosis (PL), which may interfere with cellular functions, leading to acute or chronic disease or even death. Electron-microscopic detection of cytoplasmic lamellar bodies is often used as a diagnostic criterion of PL, but a faster, more convenient procedure is required for high-throughput assay of the PL-inducing potential of candidate drugs. We have developed a 96-well microplate cell-culture method for detecting PL, using a phosphatidylcholine-conjugated dye (NBD-PC) and a fluoro-microplate reader. The fluorescence intensity due to NBD-PC was normalized to that of Hoechst33342, used as an indicator of cell number, to obtain the amount of NBD-PC taken up per living cell. To select a suitable cell type, we examined the PL-detection sensitivity of five cell lines, as well as human and rat primary hepatocyte cultures, with five cationic amphiphilic drugs (CAD) as PL inducers and a negative control compound. The cell lines CHO-K1 and CHL/IU gave the best results. The NBD-PC uptake per CHO-K1 cell showed a high correlation with the pathological score of PL for 24 compounds, including PL-positive and negative compounds. This high-throughput screening assay for PL-inducing potential (HTS-PL assay) offers high sensitivity and accuracy, and it allows simultaneous determination of cytotoxicity. PMID:16338956

  3. Evaluation of cellular impedance measures of cardiomyocyte cultures for drug screening applications.

    PubMed

    Peters, Matthew F; Scott, Clay W; Ochalski, Rafal; Dragan, Yvonne P

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity is a leading contributor to drug withdrawal and late-stage attrition. Earlier and broader screening is a validated approach to build-in cardiovascular safety as demonstrated with human Ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) screening to reduce drug-induced arrhythmia. There is an urgent need for novel in vitro assays to address other mechanistic aspects of cardiovascular function, including contractility, heart rate, toxicity, hypertrophy, and non-hERG arrhythmia. Recent advances in label-free cellular impedance technology now enable tracking of spontaneous, synchronized beating of cultured cardiomyocytes. Analysis of beating allows integrated detection that is downstream of electrical and mechanical aspects of contraction. Here, we evaluate impedance-based cardiomyocyte responses against criteria required for drug screening. The throughput and sensitivity allowed for rapid assay development. Critical variables for rat neonatal cardiomyocyte assays included cell density and serum levels. Once optimized, consistent, stable beating for at least 3 days was straight-forward to achieve. In tests of compounds spanning a breadth of target classes, the potency values showed excellent precision, wide dynamic range, and consistency across multiple experiments. Cardiomyocyte impedance assays can extract multiple beat-related parameters. In these experiments, rate, amplitude, and rise slope were examined and each yielded acceptable precision. Potency values calculated by beat rate and amplitude were highly correlated for most compounds although selected compounds displayed unique profiles indicative of different mechanisms. Tests with known cardiovascular active drugs revealed concordance with clinical findings. Thus, impedance assays combine novel features including sensitivity to contractile activity, versatile data analysis, and robust/translatable data in a format with sufficient throughput to become a valuable addition to the cardiovascular in vitro screening arsenal. PMID:22574652

  4. Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MAMEF) with silver colloids in 96-well plates: Application to ultra fast and sensitive immunoassays, High Throughput Screening and drug discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kadir Aslan; Patrick Holley; Chris D. Geddes

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescence detection is the basis of most assays used in drug discovery and High Throughput Screening (HTS) today. In all of these assays, assay rapidity and sensitivity is a primary concern, the sensitivity determined by both the quantum yield of the fluorophores and efficiency of the detection system, while rapidity is determined by the physical and biophysical parameters of temperature,

  5. An Image-Based High-Content Screening Assay for Compounds Targeting Intracellular Leishmania donovani

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An Image-Based High-Content Screening Assay for Compounds Targeting Intracellular Leishmania of Leishmania in infected human macrophages. The in vitro infection protocol was adapted to a 384-well in primary screening assay for Leishmania. Citation: Siqueira-Neto JL, Moon S, Jang J, Yang G, Lee C, et al

  6. Microengineering methods for cell-based microarrays and high-throughput drug-screening applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Wu, JinHui; Wang, ShuQi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-09-01

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time consuming, and often faces concerns due to the extensive use of animals. To improve cost effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems has facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell-based drug-screening models which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell-based drug-screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell-based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility. PMID:21725152

  7. Microengineering Methods for Cell Based Microarrays and High-Throughput Drug Screening Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Wu, JinHui; Wang, ShuQi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time-consuming and often face ethical concerns due to extensive use of animals. To improve cost-effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems have facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell based drug-screening models, which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell based drug screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds a great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility. PMID:21725152

  8. Development of phenotypic screening assays for ?-globin induction using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Xie, Wensheng; Gore, Elizabeth R; Montoute, Monica N; Bee, Weilin Tiger; Zappacosta, Francesca; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Zining; Kallal, Lorena; Ames, Robert S; Pope, Andrew J; Benowitz, Andrew; Erickson-Miller, Connie L

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder of the ?-globin gene. SCA results in chronic ischemia with pain and tissue injury. The extent of SCA symptoms can be ameliorated by treatment with drugs, which result in increasing the levels of ?-globin in patient red blood cells. Hydroxyurea (HU) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for SCA, but it has dose-limiting toxicity, and patients exhibit highly variable treatment responses. To identify compounds that may lead to the development of better and safer medicines, we have established a method using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) to screen for compounds that induce ?-globin production. First, human marrow CD34(+) cells were cultured and expanded for 7 days and characterized for the expression of erythroid differentiation markers (CD71, CD36, and CD235a). Second, fresh or cryopreserved EPCs were treated with compounds for 3 days in 384-well plates followed by ?-globin quantification by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was validated using HU and decitabine. From the 7408 compounds screened, we identified at least one new compound with confirmed ?-globin-inducing activity. Hits are undergoing analysis in secondary assays. In this article, we describe the method of generating fit-for-purpose EPCs; the development, optimization, and validation of the ELISA and secondary assays for ?-globin detection; and screening results. PMID:24163393

  9. Identification of 53 compounds that block Ebola virus-like particle entry via a repurposing screen of approved drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Sun, Wei; Martínez-Romero, Carles; Tawa, Gregory; Shinn, Paul; Chen, Catherine Z; Schimmer, Aaron; Sanderson, Philip; McKew, John C; Zheng, Wei; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    In light of the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapeutics to treat Ebola infection, and drug repurposing screening is a potentially rapid approach for identifying such therapeutics. We developed a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) 1536-well plate assay to screen for entry inhibitors of Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) containing the glycoprotein (GP) and the matrix VP40 protein fused to a beta-lactamase reporter protein and applied this assay for a rapid drug repurposing screen of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. We report here the identification of 53 drugs with activity of blocking Ebola VLP entry into cells. These 53 active compounds can be divided into categories including microtubule inhibitors, estrogen receptor modulators, antihistamines, antipsychotics, pump/channel antagonists, and anticancer/antibiotics. Several of these compounds, including microtubule inhibitors and estrogen receptor modulators, had previously been reported to be active in BSL-4 infectious Ebola virus replication assays and in animal model studies. Our assay represents a robust, effective and rapid high-throughput screen for the identification of lead compounds in drug development for the treatment of Ebola virus infection. PMID:26038505

  10. A High Throughput Screening Assay for Anti-Mycobacterial Small Molecules Based on Adenylate Kinase Release as a Reporter of Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Lauren; Ebsworth-Mojica, Katherine; DiDone, Louis; Li, Shao-Gang; Freundlich, Joel S.; Connell, Nancy; Dunman, Paul M.; Krysan, Damian J.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is well-established to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens for which new antimicrobial therapies are needed. Herein, we describe the development of a high throughput screening assay for the identification of molecules that are bactericidal against Mycobacteria. The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. We demonstrate that the assay is selective for mycobactericidal molecules and detects anti-mycobacterial activity at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration of many molecules. Thus, the AK assay is more sensitive than traditional growth assays. We have validated the AK assay in the HTS setting using the Mtb surrogate organism M. smegmatis and libraries of FDA approved drugs as well as a commercially available Diversity set. The screen of the FDA-approved library demonstrated that the AK assay is able to identify the vast majority of drugs with known mycobactericidal activity. Importantly, our screen of the Diversity set revealed that the increased sensitivity of the AK assay increases the ability of M. smegmatis-based screens to detect molecules with relatively poor activity against M. smegmatis but good to excellent activity against Mtb. PMID:26098625

  11. Hematin Polymerization Assay as a High-Throughput Screen for Identification of New Antimalarial Pharmacophores

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Yae; Dorn, Arnulf; Kitsuji-Shirane, Michiko; Shimada, Hisao; Satoh, Tomoko; Matile, Hugues; Hofheinz, Werner; Masciadri, Raffaello; Kansy, Manfred; Ridley, Robert G.

    2000-01-01

    Hematin polymerization is a parasite-specific process that enables the detoxification of heme following its release in the lysosomal digestive vacuole during hemoglobin degradation, and represents both an essential and a unique pharmacological drug target. We have developed a high-throughput in vitro microassay of hematin polymerization based on the detection of 14C-labeled hematin incorporated into polymeric hemozoin (malaria pigment). The assay uses 96-well filtration microplates and requires 12 h and a Wallac 1450 MicroBeta liquid scintillation counter. The robustness of the assay allowed the rapid screening and evaluation of more than 100,000 compounds. Random screening was complemented by the development of a pharmacophore hypothesis using the “Catalyst” program and a large amount of data available on the inhibitory activity of a large library of 4-aminoquinolines. Using these methods, we identified “hit” compounds belonging to several chemical structural classes that had potential antimalarial activity. Follow-up evaluation of the antimalarial activity of these compounds in culture and in the Plasmodium berghei murine model further identified compounds with actual antimalarial activity. Of particular interest was a triarylcarbinol (Ro 06-9075) and a related benzophenone (Ro 22-8014) that showed oral activity in the murine model. These compounds are chemically accessible and could form the basis of a new antimalarial medicinal chemistry program. PMID:10991837

  12. Dynamic optical tweezers based assay for monitoring early drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuquan; Min, Changjun; Zhu, Siwei; Feng, Jie; Yuan, X.-C.

    2013-06-01

    In this letter, a dynamic optical tweezers based assay is proposed and investigated for monitoring early drug resistance with Pemetrexed-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The validity and stability of the method are verified experimentally in terms of the physical parameters of the optical tweezers system. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is more convenient and faster than traditional techniques when the capability of detecting small variations of the response of cells to a drug is maintained.

  13. Phenotypic screening with human iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes: HTS-compatible assays for interrogating cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Coby; Koonce, Chad; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Einhorn, Shannon; Fiene, Steve; Thompson, Arne; Swanson, Brad; Anson, Blake; Kattman, Steven

    2013-12-01

    A major hurdle for cardiovascular disease researchers has been the lack of robust and physiologically relevant cell-based assays for drug discovery. Derivation of cardiomyocytes from human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at high purity, quality, and quantity enables the development of relevant models of human cardiac disease with source material that meets the demands of high-throughput screening (HTS). Here we demonstrate the utility of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes as an in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to endothelin 1 (ET-1) leads to reactivation of fetal genes, increased cell size, and robust expression of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Using this system, we developed a suite of assays focused on BNP detection, most notably a high-content imaging-based assay designed for phenotypic screening. Miniaturization of this assay to a 384-well format enabled the profiling of a small set of tool compounds known to modulate the hypertrophic response. The assays described here provide consistent and reliable results and have the potential to increase our understanding of the many mechanisms underlying this complex cardiac condition. Moreover, the HTS-compatible workflow allows for the incorporation of human biology into early phases of drug discovery and development. PMID:24071917

  14. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid reagent primers and probes together with software for predicting drug resistance/susceptibility based on...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid reagent primers and probes together with software for predicting drug resistance/susceptibility based on...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid reagent primers and probes together with software for predicting drug resistance/susceptibility based on...

  17. Predicting phospholipidosis: a fluorescence noncell based in vitro assay for the determination of drug-phospholipid complex formation in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liping; Geraci, Gina; Hess, Sloan; Yang, Linhong; Wang, Jianling; Argikar, Upendra

    2011-09-15

    This paper describes for the first time, a high-throughput fluorescence noncell based assay to screen for the drug-phospholipid interaction, which correlates to phospholipidosis. Anionic amphiphilic phospholipids can form complexes in aqueous solution, and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) can be determined using the fluorescence probe N,N-dimethyl-6-propionyl-2-naphthylamine (Prodan). Upon interaction with drug candidates, this CMC may shift to a lower value due to the association between lipids and drug candidates, the stronger the interaction, the greater the shift. Metabolism of a drug can change the degree of phospholipidosis depending on the rate of metabolism and the nature of the metabolite(s). Our data from 45 drugs and metabolites of 10 drugs using this fluorescence approach demonstrate a good correlation with phospholipidosis as reported with human studies, in vivo testing, and cellular assays. This assay therefore offers a fast, reliable, and cost-effective screening tool for early prediction of the phospholipidosis-inducing potential of drug candidates. PMID:21790130

  18. Accelerating Biomedical Research in Designing Diagnostic Assays, Drugs, and Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Wallqvist; Nela Zavaljevski; Ravi Vijaya Satya; Rajkumar Bondugula; Valmik Desai; Xin Hu; Kamal Kumar; Michael S. Lee; In-Chul Yeh; Chenggang Yu; Jaques Reifman

    2010-01-01

    The US Department of Defense Biotechnology High-Performance Computing Software Applications Institute for Force Health Protection develops state-of-the-art high-performance computing applications that accelerate biomedical research in the development of diagnostic assays, drugs, and vaccines. The BHSAI works together with DoD life scientists to develop and integrate HPC software applications into DoD biomedical research programs.

  19. Drug screening for hearing loss: Using the zebrafish lateral line to screen for drugs that prevent and cause hearing loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry C. Ou; Felipe Santos; David W. Raible; Julian A. Simon; Edwin W. Rubel

    2010-01-01

    Several animal models have been used for the study of mechanosensory hair cells and hearing loss. Because of the difficulty of tissue acquisition and large animal size, these traditional models are impractical for high-throughput screening. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful animal model for screening drugs that cause and Q1 prevent hair cell death. The unique characteristics of the

  20. A high-content screening assay in transgenic zebrafish identifies two novel activators of FGF signaling

    PubMed Central

    Saydmohammed, Manush; Vollmer, Laura L.; Onuoha, Ezenwa Obi; Vogt, Andreas; Tsang, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish have become an invaluable vertebrate animal model to interrogate small molecule libraries for modulators of complex biological pathways and phenotypes. We have recently described the implementation of a quantitative, high-content imaging assay in multi-well plates to analyze the effects of small molecules on Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling in vivo. Here we have evaluated the ability of the assay to identify compounds that hyperactivate FGF signaling from a test cassette of agents with known biological activities. Using a transgenic zebrafish reporter line for FGF activity, we screened 1040 compounds from an annotated library of known bioactive agents including FDA approved drugs. The assay identified two molecules, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate and pyrithione zinc that enhanced FGF signaling in specific areas of the brain. Subsequent studies revealed that both compounds specifically expanded FGF target gene expression. Furthermore, treatment of early stage embryos with either compound resulted in dorsalized phenotypes characteristic of hyperactivation of FGF signaling in early development. Documented activities for both agents included activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), consistent with FGF hyperactivation. To conclude, we demonstrate the power of automated quantitative high-content imaging to identify small molecule modulators of FGF. PMID:21932436

  1. Rapid quantitative screening assay of trace benzimidazole residues in milk by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fletouris, D; Botsoglou, N; Psomas, I; Mantis, A

    1996-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) assay for quantitative screening of albendazole 2-aminosulfone, albendazole sulfoxide, oxibendazole, oxfendazole, albendazole sulfone, p-hydroxyfenbendazole, albendazole, mebendazole, fenbendazole sulfone, and fenbendazole residues in milk was developed. Samples are made basic (pH 10) and extracted with ethyl acetate. Extracts are partitioned with water, evaporated to dryness, reconstituted with mobile phase, and analyzed isocratically by ion-pair reversed-phase LC at 292 nm. Overall recoveries ranged from 79 to 100%. Linearity was excellent in the fortification range examined (5.3-200 ng/mL). Precision data, based on within- and between-days variations, suggested an overall relative standard deviation of 2.0 to 5.8%. The method was successfully used to quantitate albendazole and fenbendazole and metabolites in milk from 2 drug-treated dairy cows. PMID:8946705

  2. A Different Approach to Validating Screening Assays for Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: There continues to be many efforts around the world to develop assays that are shorter than the traditional embryofetal developmental toxicity assay, or use fewer or no mammals, or use less compound, or have all three attributes. Each assay developer needs to test th...

  3. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  4. Comparison of four commercial screening assays for the diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Berini, Carolina A; Susana Pascuccio, M; Bautista, Christian T; Gendler, Silvina A; Eirin, Maria E; Rodriguez, Claudia; Pando, Maria A; Biglione, Mirna M

    2008-02-01

    Serological assays for human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) are widely used in routine screening of blood donors. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of four commercial screening assays for HTLV-1/2 infection frequently used in South America. A total of 142 HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 seropositive and 336 seronegative samples were analyzed by using four commercial tests (BioKit, Vironostika, Murex and Fujirebio). These tests are commonly used for HTLV-1/2 detection in blood banks in Argentina. A nested-PCR was used as the reference standard. The most sensitive tests for HTLV-1/2 were Fujirebio and Biokit (98.6%) followed by Murex (97.2%) and Vironostika (96.5%). The most specific test was Murex (99.7%), followed by Biokit (97.0%), Fujirebio (95.8%), and Vironostika (92.9%). The kappa index of agreement was higher for Murex (kappa=0.97), followed by BioKit (kappa=0.94), Fujirebio (kappa=0.92), and Vironostika (kappa=0.86). The highest index of agreement was shown by Murex test while Vironostika had the lowest performance. Of the four tests evaluated, only the Vironostika assay is approved by the Food and Drug Administration. These results should be considered for choosing the most accurate serological screening assays in order to obtain an optimal efficiency of the current algorithm for HTLV-1/2 diagnosis. PMID:17977605

  5. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug...Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug...assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype...

  6. Discovery of FDA-approved drugs as inhibitors of fatty acid binding protein 4 using molecular docking screening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Law, Wai-Kit; Hu, Jian-Shu; Lin, Huang-Quan; Ip, Tsz-Ming; Wan, David Chi-Cheong

    2014-11-24

    We first identified fluorescein, ketazolam, antrafenine, darifenacin, fosaprepitant, paliperidone, risperidone, pimozide, trovafloxacin, and levofloxacin as inhibitors of fatty acid binding protein 4 using molecular docking screening from FDA-approved drugs. Subsequently, the biochemical characterizations showed that levofloxacin directly inhibited FABP4 activity in both the in vitro ligand displacement assay and cell-based function assay. Furthermore, levofloxacin did not induce adipogenesis in adipocytes, which is the major adverse effect of FABP4 inhibitors. PMID:25360897

  7. Risk Minimization Measures for Blood Screening HIV-1 Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique Assays in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chudy, Michael; Kress, Julia; Halbauer, Jochen; Heiden, Margarethe; Funk, Markus B.; Nübling, C. Micha

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Several publications describe HIV-1 RNA false-negative results or viral load underquantitation associated with Communauté Européenne(CE)-marked qualitative or quantitative nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT) assays. 6 cases occurred during blood screening in Germany, with 2 of them causing HIV-1 transmissions to recipients of blood components. The implicated NAT assays were mono-target assays amplifying in different viral genome regions (gag or long terminal repeat). Methods Specimens characterized by HIV-1 NAT underquantitation or false-negative NAT results were comparatively investigated in CE-marked HIV-1 NAT systems of different design to identify potential reasons. The target regions of the viral nucleic acids were sequenced and these sequences compared to primers and probes of the assays. Potential risk minimization measures were considered for quantitative and blood-screening HIV-1 NAT systems. Results Nucleotide sequencing of the viral target region in cases of HIV-1 RNA underquantitation or false-negative test results revealed new HIV-1 variants that were mismatched with primers and probes used in some mono-target assays. So far, dualtarget NAT assays have not been associated with mismatch-based false-negative test results. From 2015, the Paul Ehrlich Institute will request HIV-1 NAT assays of dual-target design or an analogous solution for further reducing the risk in blood screening. Conclusion HIV differs from other blood-borne viruses with regard to its fast evolution of new viral variants. The evolution of new sequences is hardly predictable; therefore, NAT assays with only 1 target region appear to be more vulnerable to sequence variations than dual-target assays. The associated risk may be higher for HIV-1 NAT assays used for blood screening compared to quantitative assays used for monitoring HIV-1-infected patients. In HIV-1 screening NAT assays of dual-target design may adequately address the risk imposed by new HIV-1 variants. PMID:24659947

  8. Screening for alcohol and drug use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Grace

    2014-06-01

    The use of alcohol and other substances is not infrequent during pregnancy and may be associated with adverse effects on pregnancy outcome. Many pregnant women may continue these practices throughout pregnancy and even after delivery, unless they are recognized and assessed. Screening may be one way to achieve consistent and early identification. Prenatal health care providers may wish to screen all pregnant patients for their use of alcohol and other drugs using an approach that works best in their setting. A positive screen is an opportunity for the clinician and patient to discuss health practices and behaviors. PMID:24845485

  9. Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of nontargeted libraries.

    PubMed

    Morisseau, Christophe; Sahdeo, Sunil; Cortopassi, Gino; Hammock, Bruce D

    2013-03-01

    The EPXH2 gene encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which has two distinct enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (Cterm-EH) and phosphatase (Nterm-phos). The Cterm-EH is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid epoxides that play important roles in blood pressure, cell growth, inflammation, and pain. While recent findings suggested complementary biological roles for Nterm-phos, research is limited by the lack of potent bioavailable inhibitors of this phosphatase activity. Also, a potent bioavailable inhibitor of this activity could be important in the development of therapy for cardiovascular diseases. We report herein the development of an HTS enzyme-based assay for Nterm-phos (Z'>0.9) using AttoPhos as the substrate. This assay was used to screen a wide variety of chemical entities, including a library of known drugs that have reached through clinical evaluation (Pharmakon 1600), as well as a library of pesticides and environmental toxins. We discovered that ebselen inhibits sEH phosphatase activity. Ebselen binds to the N-terminal domain of sEH (K(I)=550 nM) and chemically reacts with the enzyme to quickly and irreversibly inhibit Nterm-phos, and subsequently Cterm-EH, and thus represents a new class of sEH inhibitor. PMID:23219563

  10. Development of a thyroperoxidase inhibition assay for high-throughput screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTPS) assays to detect inhibitors of thyroperoxidase (TPO), the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, are not currently available. Herein we describe the development of a HTPS TPO inhibition assay. Rat thyroid microsomes and a fluores...

  11. COMPARISON OF AN IN VIVO FISH VTG ASSAY WITH YES AND E-SCREEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compares the efficacy of two in vitro, estrogen-sensitive bioassays to rank the "relative estrogenicity" of five natural, pharmaceutical and xenoestrogens with a newly developed in vivo bioassay. The E-SCREEN (MCF-7 tumor cells) and YES (Yeast Estrogen Screen) assays w...

  12. Sandwich ELISA Microarrays: Generating Reliable and Reproducible Assays for High-Throughput Screens

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2009-05-11

    The sandwich ELISA microarray is a powerful screening tool in biomarker discovery and validation due to its ability to simultaneously probe for multiple proteins in a miniaturized assay. The technical challenges of generating and processing the arrays are numerous. However, careful attention to possible pitfalls in the development of your antibody microarray assay can overcome these challenges. In this chapter, we describe in detail the steps that are involved in generating a reliable and reproducible sandwich ELISA microarray assay.

  13. Genotoxicity screening via the ?H2AX by flow assay.

    PubMed

    Smart, D J; Ahmedi, K P; Harvey, J S; Lynch, A M

    2011-10-01

    The measurement of serine139-phosphorylated histone H2AX (?H2AX) provides a biomarker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and may identify potential genotoxic activity. In order to evaluate a flow cytometry assay for ?H2AX detection (hereafter termed the ?H2AX by flow assay), 6 prototypical (3 pro- and 3 proximate) genotoxins, i.e. dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), methyl nitrosourea (MNU) and 4-nitroquinoline oxide (4NQO), were selected to define assay evaluation criteria. In addition, 3 non-genotoxic cytotoxins (phthalic anhydride, n-butyl chloride and hexachloroethane) were included to investigate the influence of cytotoxicity on assay performance. At similar cytotoxicity levels (relative cell counts; RCC 75-40%) all prototypical genotoxins induced marked concentration-dependent increases in ?H2AX compared with the non-genotoxins. As a result, assay evaluation criteria for a positive effect were defined as >1.5-fold ?H2AX @ RCC >25%. Twenty five additional chemicals with diverse structures and genotoxic activity were selected to evaluate the ?H2AX by flow assay. Results were compared with Ames bacterial and in vitro mammalian genotoxicity tests (mouse lymphoma assay and/or chromosome aberration assay). ?H2AX by flow assay results were highly predictive of Ames (sensitivity 100%; specificity 67%; concordance 82%) and in vitro mammalian genotoxicity tests (sensitivity 91%; specificity 89%; concordance 91%) and provide additional evidence that ?H2AX is a biomarker of potential genotoxic activity, underpinned mechanistically by the cellular response to DSBs. Discordant findings were predominately attributed to differences in specificity for some mammalian cell genotoxins that are Ames non-mutagens or for "biologically-irrelevant" positives in the mammalian tests. Simple anilines were classified as genotoxic following rat liver S9-mediated bioactivation, however, effects on ?H2AX were atypical and limited to a small sub-population of S-phase nuclei. Nevertheless, the ?H2AX by flow assay represents a novel genotoxicity assay with the potential to flag both pro- and proximate genotoxins. PMID:21824484

  14. Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489

  15. Drosophila modifier screens to identify novel neuropsychiatric drugs including aminergic agents for the possible treatment of Parkinson's disease and depression.

    PubMed

    Lawal, H O; Terrell, A; Lam, H A; Djapri, C; Jang, J; Hadi, R; Roberts, L; Shahi, V; Chou, M-T; Biedermann, T; Huang, B; Lawless, G M; Maidment, N T; Krantz, D E

    2014-02-01

    Small molecules that increase the presynaptic function of aminergic cells may provide neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Model genetic organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster may enhance the detection of new drugs via modifier or 'enhancer/suppressor' screens, but this technique has not been applied to processes relevant to psychiatry. To identify new aminergic drugs in vivo, we used a mutation in the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (dVMAT) as a sensitized genetic background and performed a suppressor screen. We fed dVMAT mutant larvae ? 1000 known drugs and quantitated rescue (suppression) of an amine-dependent locomotor deficit in the larva. To determine which drugs might specifically potentiate neurotransmitter release, we performed an additional secondary screen for drugs that require presynaptic amine storage to rescue larval locomotion. Using additional larval locomotion and adult fertility assays, we validated that at least one compound previously used clinically as an antineoplastic agent potentiates the presynaptic function of aminergic circuits. We suggest that structurally similar agents might be used to development treatments for PD, depression and ADHD, and that modifier screens in Drosophila provide a new strategy to screen for neuropsychiatric drugs. More generally, our findings demonstrate the power of physiologically based screens for identifying bioactive agents for select neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23229049

  16. Screening of Dengue Virus Antiviral Activity of Marine Seaweeds by an In Situ Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Zanello, Paula Rodrigues; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Bordignon, Juliano; Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa) were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization. PMID:23227238

  17. Human stem cells and drug screening: opportunities and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison D. Ebert; Clive N. Svendsen

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput screening technologies are widely used in the early stages of drug discovery to rapidly evaluate the properties of thousands of compounds. However, they generally rely on testing compound libraries on highly proliferative immortalized or cancerous cell lines, which do not necessarily provide an accurate indication of the effects of compounds in normal human cells or the specific cell type

  18. Chemical & RNAi screening at MSKCC: a collaborative platform to discover & repurpose drugs to fight disease.

    PubMed

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibanez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A; Djaballah, Hakim

    2014-05-01

    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution's commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator's research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia. PMID:24661215

  19. An Escherichia coli Expression Assay and Screen for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Variants with Decreased Susceptibility to Indinavir

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Laurence; Yang, Shiow-Shong; Rossi, Rick; Zepp, Charlie; Heefner, Donald

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a recombinant Escherichia coli screening system for the rapid detection and identification of amino acid substitutions in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease associated with decreased susceptibility to the protease inhibitor indinavir (MK-639; Merck & Co.). The assay depends upon the correct processing of a segment of the HIV-1 HXB2 gag-pol polyprotein followed by detection of HIV reverse transcriptase activity by a highly sensitive, colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highly sensitive system detects the contributions of single substitutions such as I84V, L90M, and L63P. The combination of single substitutions further decreases the sensitivity to indinavir. We constructed a library of HIV protease variant genes containing dispersed mutations and, using the E. coli recombinant system, screened for mutants with decreased indinavir sensitivity. The discovered HIV protease variants contain amino acid substitutions commonly associated with indinavir resistance in clinical isolates, including the substitutions L90M, L63P, I64V, V82A, L24I, and I54T. One substitution, W6R, is also frequently found by the screen and has not been reported elsewhere. Of a total of 12,000 isolates that were screened, 12 protease variants with decreased sensitivity to indinavir were found. The L63P substitution, which is also associated with indinavir resistance, increases the stability of the isolated protease relative to that of the native HXB2 protease. The rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this screen also make it useful for screening for novel inhibitors. We have found the approach described here to be useful for the detection of amino acid substitutions in HIV protease that have been associated with drug resistance as well as for the screening of novel compounds for inhibitory activity. PMID:9835523

  20. High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Hidenori [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi [Radioisotope Center, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Miyata, Ryo [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Tsuneda, Satoshi [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Igarashi, Masayuki [Microbial Chemistry Research Center, 3-14-23 Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Yuji [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Noda, Naohiro [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan)], E-mail: noda-naohiro@aist.go.jp

    2009-02-20

    We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

  1. Development of a Practical Complete-Kill Assay to Evaluate Anti-Acanthamoeba Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Regis P.; Abdel Aziz, Salwa; Romanowski, Eric G.; Shanks, RobertM. Q.; Nau, Amy C.; Raju, Leela V.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Acanthamoeba keratitis is a debilitating eye disease that requires effective topical drugtherapy. Currently, there is no standard in vitro test to evaluate anti-Acanthamoeba drugs. OBJECTIVE To develop a practical in vitro complete-kill assay to assess anti-Acanthamoeba drugs. DESIGN AND SETTING Isolates of Acanthamoeba strains (n = 15) evaluated in a clinical laboratory. An in vitro laboratory assay was created to determine whether polyhexamethylene biguanide, 0.02%, chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.02%, hexamidine diisethioonate, 0.1%, and voriconazole, 1.0%, were effective in completely killing 15 different isolates of Acanthamoeba at time points of 24, 48, and 72 hours in comparison with a saline control. Each 0.5-mL volume of drug was inoculated with 0.1 mL of Acanthamoeba cysts (range, 1–3×106/mL) (determined with a hemacytometer) and allowed to incubate at 30°C. At the time points listed, 0.05 mL from each treatment group was inoculated onto nonnutrient agar overlaid with Enterobacter aerogenes. The plates were microscopically examined for growth 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation. At 2 weeks, all plates were subcultured onto a fresh medium. At another 7 days, the growth in subculture at each time point was graded "1" for growth and "0" for no growth. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The cumulative grades of 3 time points (range, 0–3) for each drug and isolate were nonparametrically compared to determine differences in growth between the drugs. The "kill" incidence rates over the 3 time points were also compared. RESULTS In vitro testing determined that antiacanthamoebal efficacy (determined by the median growth grade and the kill incidence rate) was more prominent for hexamidine diisethioonate (median growth grade, 0.0; kill incidence rate, 93% [14 of 15 isolates]) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (median growth grade, 0.0; kill incidence rate, 80% [12 of 15 isolates]) than for chlorhexidine digluconate (median growth grade, 1.0; kill incidence rate, 40% [6 of 15 isolates]), voriconazole (median growth grade, 2.0; kill incidence rate, 13% [2 of 15 isolates]), and saline (median growth grade, 3.0; kill incidence rate, 0% [0 of 15 isolates]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The complete-kill assay appears to provide separation in the effectiveness of different antiamoebic drug solutions. This assay may be helpful for guiding topical Acanthamoeba therapy and providing a practical method to evaluate and screen new anti-infectives in the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:24077460

  2. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Friedman; Natalia Udaltsova; James Chan; Charles P. Quesenberry Jr; Laurel A. Habel

    2009-01-01

    Objective  To screen commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for\\u000a up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case–control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched\\u000a controls per case, with lag of at least 2 years between

  3. Toxicity screenings of nanomaterials: challenges due to interference with assay processes and components of classic in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Guadagnini, Rina; Halamoda Kenzaoui, Blanka; Walker, Laura; Pojana, Giulio; Magdolenova, Zuzana; Bilanicova, Dagmar; Saunders, Margaret; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Marcomini, Antonio; Huk, Anna; Dusinska, Maria; Fjellsbø, Lise M; Marano, Francelyne; Boland, Sonja

    2015-05-01

    Given the multiplicity of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a requirement to develop screening strategies to evaluate their toxicity. Within the EU-funded FP7 NanoTEST project, a panel of medically relevant NPs has been used to develop alternative testing strategies of NPs used in medical diagnostics. As conventional toxicity tests cannot necessarily be directly applied to NPs in the same manner as for soluble chemicals and drugs, we determined the extent of interference of NPs with each assay process and components. In this study, we fully characterized the panel of NP suspensions used in this project (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene oxide [PLGA-PEO], TiO2, SiO2, and uncoated and oleic-acid coated Fe3O4) and showed that many NP characteristics (composition, size, coatings, and agglomeration) interfere with a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (WST-1, MTT, lactate dehydrogenase, neutral red, propidium iodide, (3)H-thymidine incorporation, and cell counting), pro-inflammatory response evaluation (ELISA for GM-CSF, IL-6, and IL-8), and oxidative stress detection (monoBromoBimane, dichlorofluorescein, and NO assays). Interferences were assay specific as well as NP specific. We propose how to integrate and avoid interference with testing systems as a first step of a screening strategy for biomedical NPs. PMID:23889211

  4. A chromogenic cephalosporin for ?-lactamase inhibitor screening assays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sophia; Vosbeek, Amy; Corbella, Katherine; Severson, Jonathan; Schesser, Jacob; Sutton, Larry D

    2012-09-15

    Production of ?-lactamases is the primary mechanism of antibiotic resistance employed by gram-negative pathogens. Chromogenic ?-lactams are important reagents for detection and assay of ?-lactamases, but limited commercial availability and exorbitant pricing of these compounds are prohibitive. Here we describe a straightforward synthesis of a chromogenic cephalosporin for ?-lactamase assay that gives an overall yield of 74%. On hydrolysis, its ?(max) undergoes a bathochromic shift that is easy to see and measure spectrophotometrically with a ??(442 nm) of 14,500 cm?¹ M?¹. This compound was shown to be a substrate for a variety of ?-lactamases. PMID:22709853

  5. Fluorimetric screening assay for protein carbonyl evaluation in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Stocker, P; Ricquebourg, E; Vidal, N; Villard, C; Lafitte, D; Sellami, L; Pietri, S

    2015-08-01

    Many assays are available for the detection of protein carbonyls (PCs). Currently, the measurement of PC groups after their derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenol hydrazine (DNPH) is widely used for measuring protein oxidation in biological samples. However, this method includes several washing steps. In this context, we have developed a rapid, sensitive, and accurate fluorimetric method adapted to 96-well microplates for the convenient assessment of protein carbonyl level in biological samples. The method reported here is based on the reaction of carbonyl content in proteins with 7-hydrazino-4-nitrobenzo-2,1,3-oxadiazole (NBDH) to form highly fluorescent derivatives via hydrazone formation. PCs were determined using the DNPH and NBDH assays in fully reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) and plasma and liver homogenates obtained from healthy control rats up the addition of various amounts of HOCl-oxidized BSA (OxBSA). Using the NBDH assay, PC concentrations as low as 0.2nmol/mg were detected with precision as low as 5%. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy was used to successfully identify the formation of the NBDH adducts after derivatization with standard oxidized peptides. Finally, the two methods were further used for PC determination in plasma and liver samples from diabetic and normal rats, showing that the NBDH assay can be reliably used in biological experiments. PMID:25933703

  6. Electrochemical Biochip for Drug Screening At Cellular Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Cui, Hui-fang; Ye, Jian-shan; Chong, Ser-choong; Lim, Tit-meng; Sheu, Fwu-shan; Hui, Wing-cheong

    2006-04-01

    Drug screening at cellular level has becomes an attractive field of research. Different researchers have tried to record cellular response to drugs by electrical or optical approach using both invasive and non-invasive methods. Silicon-based microelectrode integrated microchips are useful tools for in situ temporal recording of neurotransmitter releasing from neural cells. A microfabricated electrochemical biochip is presented in this paper. Using dopaminergic cells grown on the chip, the dopamine excytosis can be electrochemical amperomatric detected non-invasively from drug incubated dopaminegic cells by the microelectrode integrated on chip. This silicon-based electrochemical chip has been designed with an electrode array located on the cell culture chamber bottom. Each electrode is individually electrical controlled. MN9D and PC12 dopaminergic cell lines have been demonstrated on this chip for drug effects study. This silicon-based electrochemical microchip provides a non-invasive, in situ, temporal detection of dopamine exocytosis from dopaminegic cells, and holds the potential for applications in studying the mechanisms of dopamine exocytosis and drug screening. It is also extendable for other cell culture and drug effects study.

  7. Approaches for high-throughput pharmacokinetic screening of low-molecular-weight drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In the face of advancing technology in combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening, the drug discovery process continues to evolve. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) studies play a key role in lead identification and optimization. This fast-paced development process has imposed an enormous burden on the analytical chemist to design faster and more sensitive assay techniques to aid the drug discovery and development. Various strategies aimed at increasing the throughput and reducing sample numbers in discovery DMPK have been developed for both in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, quantity and speed, often associated with technology development, do not always guarantee quality but a clear strategic focus in the spirit of 'Fit for Purpose' approach is required to implement systems to generate high-quality data and to drive research in new directions. PMID:24329157

  8. Orthotopic transplantation of retinoblastoma cells into vitreous cavity of zebrafish for screening of anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With high throughput screening, novel therapeutic agents can be efficiently identified. Unfortunately, researchers only resort to in vitro cell viability assays for screening of anticancer drugs for retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer in the childhood. Current available animal models of retinoblastoma require more than 2 weeks for tumour formation and the investigation of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. In this study, we established a novel orthotopic transplantation model of retinoblastoma in zebrafish as an in vivo animal model for screening of anticancer drugs. Methods We injected retinoblastoma cells into the vitreous cavity of zebrafish at 48 hours after fertilization. Eyeballs of zebrafish were scanned daily under the confocal laser microscope, and the tumor population was quantitatively analyzed by measuring the mean intensity of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Transplanted retinoblastoma cells were isolated to perform further analyses including Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to confirm that retinoblastoma cells maintained their characteristics as tumor cells even after transplantation and further isolation. To figure out the potential of this model for screening of anticancer drugs, zebrafish were cultured in Ringer’s solution containing carboplatin and melphalan after the injection of retinoblastoma cells. Results The degree of the tumor population was dependent on the number of retinoblastoma cells injected and maintained stably for at least 4 days. Transplanted retinoblastoma cells maintain their proliferative potential and characteristics as retinoblastoma cells after isolation. Interestingly, systemic application of carboplatin and melphalan demonstrated significant reduction in the tumor population, which could be quantitatively analyzed by the estimation of the mean intensity of GFP. Conclusions This orthotopic retinoblastoma model in zebrafish is expected to be utilized for the screening of anticancer drugs for the treatment of retinoblastoma. PMID:23835085

  9. Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse/toxicology screening in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Pizon, Anthony F; Siam, Mohamed G; Giannoutsos, Spiros; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Background Laboratory tests for routine drug of abuse and toxicology (DOA/Tox) screening, often used in emergency medicine, generally utilize antibody-based tests (immunoassays) to detect classes of drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and tricyclic antidepressants, or individual drugs such as cocaine, methadone, and phencyclidine. A key factor in assay sensitivity and specificity is the drugs or drug metabolites that were used as antigenic targets to generate the assay antibodies. All DOA/Tox screening immunoassays can be limited by false positives caused by cross-reactivity from structurally related compounds. For immunoassays targeted at a particular class of drugs, there can also be false negatives if there is failure to detect some drugs or their metabolites within that class. Methods Molecular similarity analysis, a computational method commonly used in drug discovery, was used to calculate structural similarity of a wide range of clinically relevant compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target ('antigenic') molecules of DOA/Tox screening tests. These results were compared with cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for clinical testing. The causes for false positives for phencyclidine and tricyclic antidepressant screening immunoassays were investigated at the authors' medical center using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a confirmatory method. Results The results illustrate three major challenges for routine DOA/Tox screening immunoassays used in emergency medicine. First, for some classes of drugs, the structural diversity of common drugs within each class has been increasing, thereby making it difficult for a single assay to detect all compounds without compromising specificity. Second, for some screening assays, common 'out-of-class' drugs may be structurally similar to the target compound so that they account for a high frequency of false positives. Illustrating this point, at the authors' medical center, the majority of positive screening results for phencyclidine and tricyclic antidepressants assays were explained by out-of-class drugs. Third, different manufacturers have adopted varying approaches to marketed immunoassays, leading to substantial inter-assay variability. Conclusion The expanding structural diversity of drugs presents a difficult challenge for routine DOA/Tox screening that limit the clinical utility of these tests in the emergency medicine setting. PMID:19400959

  10. GMO detection in food and feed through screening by visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Li, Rong; Quan, Sheng; Shen, Ping; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    Isothermal DNA/RNA amplification techniques are the primary methodology for developing on-spot rapid nucleic acid amplification assays, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has been developed and applied in the detection of foodborne pathogens, plant/animal viruses, and genetically modified (GM) food/feed contents. In this study, one set of LAMP assays targeting on eight frequently used universal elements, marker genes, and exogenous target genes, such as CaMV35S promoter, FMV35S promoter, NOS, bar, cry1Ac, CP4 epsps, pat, and NptII, were developed for visual screening of GM contents in plant-derived food samples with high efficiency and accuracy. For these eight LAMP assays, their specificity was evaluated by testing commercial GM plant events and their limits of detection were also determined, which are 10 haploid genome equivalents (HGE) for FMV35S promoter, cry1Ac, and pat assays, as well as five HGE for CaMV35S promoter, bar, NOS terminator, CP4 epsps, and NptII assays. The screening applicability of these LAMP assays was further validated successfully using practical canola, soybean, and maize samples. The results suggested that the established visual LAMP assays are applicable and cost-effective for GM screening in plant-derived food samples. PMID:25822163

  11. Using Multiple Phenotype Assays and Epistasis Testing to Enhance the Reliability of RNAi Screening and Identify Regulators of Muscle Protein Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Susann; Shephard, Freya; Jacobson, Lewis A.; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    RNAi is a convenient, widely used tool for screening for genes of interest. We have recently used this technology to screen roughly 750 candidate genes, in C. elegans, for potential roles in regulating muscle protein degradation in vivo. To maximize confidence and assess reproducibility, we have only used previously validated RNAi constructs and have included time courses and replicates. To maximize mechanistic understanding, we have examined multiple sub-cellular phenotypes in multiple compartments in muscle. We have also tested knockdowns of putative regulators of degradation in the context of mutations or drugs that were previously shown to inhibit protein degradation by diverse mechanisms. Here we discuss how assaying multiple phenotypes, multiplexing RNAi screens with use of mutations and drugs, and use of bioinformatics can provide more data on rates of potential false positives and negatives as well as more mechanistic insight than simple RNAi screening. PMID:23152949

  12. Performance characteristics of an ELISA screening assay for urinary synthetic cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Eliani; Barnes, Allan J; Young, Sheena; Castaneto, Marisol S; Martin, Thomas M; Klette, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are marketed as legal alternatives to cannabis, as routine urine cannabinoid immunoassays do not detect synthetic cannabinoids. Laboratories are challenged to identify these new designer drugs that are widely available and represent a major public health and safety problem. Immunoassay testing offers rapid separation of presumptive positive and negative specimens, prior to more costly and time-consuming chromatographic confirmation. The Neogen SPICE ELISA kit targets JWH-018?N-pentanoic acid as a marker for urinary synthetic cannabinoids. Assay performance was evaluated by analyzing 2469 authentic urine samples with the Neogen immunoassay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two immunoassay cut-off concentrations, 5 and 10?µg/L, classified samples as presumptive positive or negative, followed by qualitative LC-MS/MS confirmation for 29 synthetic cannabinoids markers with limits of detection of 0.5-10?µg/L to determine the assay's sensitivity, specificity and efficacy. Challenges at ±25% of each cut-off also were investigated to determine performance around the cut-off and intra- and inter-plate imprecision. The immunoassay was linear from 1 to 250?µg/L (r(2) ?=?0.992) with intra- and inter-plate imprecision of ?5.3% and <9%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency results with the 5?µg/L cut-off were 79.9%, 99.7%, and 97.4% and with the 10?µg/L cut-off 69.3%, 99.8%, and 96.3%, respectively. Cross-reactivity was shown for 18 of 73 synthetic cannabinoids markers evaluated. Good sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency, lack of sample preparation requirements, and rapid semi-automation documented that the Neogen SPICE ELISA kit is a viable method for screening synthetic cannabinoids in urine targeting JWH-018?N-pentanoic acid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25167963

  13. Mind the gap: Concerns using endpoints from endocrine screening assays in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Weltje, Lennart; Green, Richard M

    2014-08-01

    Endocrine screening assays not only provide mechanistic information on the potential of a substance to interact with the endocrine system, but also data potentially relevant for risk assessment. However, these screening assays have a number of limitations that should be considered before the direct use of such data for risk assessment purposes. This paper discusses the limitations that should be considered for both human and environmental risk assessment. A proposal is made to provide an objective and transparent process in order to consider which endpoint(s) might be incorporated into a risk assessment, and when more definitive studies may be of value. The proposal is complemented with an easy-to-follow flowchart to aid industry scientists and regulators when evaluating the relevance of these data. Such an approach is necessary to ensure the appropriate use of screening data to further our understanding of the eco/toxicological profile of substances undergoing screening. PMID:24887212

  14. A microscopic phenotypic assay for the quantification of intracellular mycobacteria adapted for high-throughput/high-content screening.

    PubMed

    Queval, Christophe J; Song, Ok-Ryul; Delorme, Vincent; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Deboosère, Nathalie; Landry, Valérie; Baulard, Alain; Brodin, Priscille

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of therapy and vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly and widespread bacterial infections in the world. Since several decades, the sudden burst of multi- and extensively-drug resistant strains is a serious threat for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, it is essential to identify new targets and pathways critical for the causative agent of the tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and to search for novel chemicals that could become TB drugs. One approach is to set up methods suitable for the genetic and chemical screens of large scale libraries enabling the search of a needle in a haystack. To this end, we developed a phenotypic assay relying on the detection of fluorescently labeled Mtb within fluorescently labeled host cells using automated confocal microscopy. This in vitro assay allows an image based quantification of the colonization process of Mtb into the host and was optimized for the 384-well microplate format, which is proper for screens of siRNA-, chemical compound- or Mtb mutant-libraries. The images are then processed for multiparametric analysis, which provides read out inferring on the pathogenesis of Mtb within host cells. PMID:24473237

  15. The microculture-kinetic (MiCK) assay: the role of a drug-induced apoptosis assay in drug development and clinical care.

    PubMed

    Bosserman, Linda; Prendergast, Franklyn; Herbst, Roy; Fleisher, Martin; Salom, Emery; Strickland, Steven; Raptis, Anastasios; Hallquist, Allan; Perree, Mathieu; Rajurkar, Swapnil; Karimi, Misagh; Rogers, Karl; Davidson, Dirk; Willis, Carl; Penalver, Manuel; Homesley, Howard; Burrell, Matthew; Garrett, Audrey; Rutledge, James; Chernick, Michael; Presant, Cary A

    2012-08-15

    A drug-induced apoptosis assay, termed the microculture-kinetic (MiCK) assay, has been developed. Blinded clinical trials have shown higher response rates and longer survival in groups of patients with acute myelocytic leukemia and epithelial ovarian cancer who have been treated with drugs that show high apoptosis in the MiCK assay. Unblinded clinical trials in multiple tumor types have shown that the assay will be used frequently by clinicians to determine treatment, and when used, results in higher response rates, longer times to relapse, and longer survivals. Model economic analyses suggest possible cost savings in clinical use based on increased generic drug use and single-agent substitution for combination therapies. Two initial studies with drugs in development are promising. The assay may help reduce costs and speed time to drug approval. Correlative studies with molecular biomarkers are planned. This assay may have a role both in personalized clinical therapy and in more efficient drug development. PMID:22865459

  16. Facilitating drug discovery: an automated high-content inflammation assay in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Christine; Reischl, Markus; Shah, Asmi H; Mikut, Ralf; Liebel, Urban; Grabher, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae are particularly amenable to whole animal small molecule screens due to their small size and relative ease of manipulation and observation, as well as the fact that compounds can simply be added to the bathing water and are readily absorbed when administered in a <1% DMSO solution. Due to the optical clarity of zebrafish larvae and the availability of transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins in leukocytes, zebrafish offer the unique advantage of monitoring an acute inflammatory response in vivo. Consequently, utilizing the zebrafish for high-content small molecule screens aiming at the identification of immune-modulatory compounds with high throughput has been proposed, suggesting inflammation induction scenarios e.g. localized nicks in fin tissue, laser damage directed to the yolk surface of embryos or tailfin amputation. The major drawback of these methods however was the requirement of manual larva manipulation to induce wounding, thus preventing high-throughput screening. Introduction of the chemically induced inflammation (ChIn) assay eliminated these obstacles. Since wounding is inflicted chemically the number of embryos that can be treated simultaneously is virtually unlimited. Temporary treatment of zebrafish larvae with copper sulfate selectively induces cell death in hair cells of the lateral line system and results in rapid granulocyte recruitment to injured neuromasts. The inflammatory response can be followed in real-time by using compound transgenic cldnB::GFP/lysC::DsRED2 zebrafish larvae that express a green fluorescent protein in neuromast cells, as well as a red fluorescent protein labeling granulocytes. In order to devise a screening strategy that would allow both high-content and high-throughput analyses we introduced robotic liquid handling and combined automated microscopy with a custom developed software script. This script enables automated quantification of the inflammatory response by scoring the percent area occupied by red fluorescent leukocytes within an empirically defined area surrounding injured green fluorescent neuromasts. Furthermore, we automated data processing, handling, visualization, and storage all based on custom developed MATLAB and Python scripts. In brief, we introduce an automated HC/HT screen that allows testing of chemical compounds for their effect on initiation, progression or resolution of a granulocytic inflammatory response. This protocol serves a good starting point for more in-depth analyses of drug mechanisms and pathways involved in the orchestration of an innate immune response. In the future, it may help identifying intolerable toxic or off-target effects at earlier phases of drug discovery and thereby reduce procedural risks and costs for drug development. PMID:22825322

  17. Cell-Based Potassium Ion Channel Screening Using the FluxOR™ Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. Beacham; Trillium Blackmer; Michael O Grady; George T. Hanson

    2010-01-01

    FluxOR™ technology is a cell-based assay used for high-throughput screening measurements of potassium channel activity. Using thallium influx as a surrogate indicator of potassium ion channel activity, the FluxOR™ Potassium Ion Channel Assay is based on the activation of a novel fluorescent dye. This indicator reports channel activity with a large fluorogenic response and is proportional to the number of

  18. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P; Burnett, James C; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D; Bavari, Sina

    2014-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons and stem cell-derived neurons have been established. Stem cell-derived neurons are highly sensitive to BoNT intoxication and represent an ideal model to study the biological effects of BoNTs. Robust immunoassays are used to quantify BoNT activity and play a central role during inhibitor screening. In this review, we examine recent progress in physiologically relevant cell-based assays and high-throughput screening approaches for the identification of both direct and indirect BoNT inhibitors. PMID:24450833

  19. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for Botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P.; Burnett, James C.; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D.; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons, and stem-cell derived neurons have been established. Stem cell-derived neurons are highly sensitive to BoNT intoxication and represent an ideal model to study the biological effects of BoNTs. Robust immunoassays are used to quantify BoNT activity and play a central role during inhibitor screening. In this review, we examine recent progress in physiologically relevant cell-based assays and high-throughput screening approaches for the identification of both direct and indirect BoNT inhibitors. PMID:24450833

  20. Miniature Short Hairpin RNA Screens to Characterize Antiproliferative Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kittanakom, Saranya; Arnoldo, Anthony; Brown, Kevin R.; Wallace, Iain; Kunavisarut, Tada; Torti, Dax; Heisler, Lawrence E.; Surendra, Anuradha; Moffat, Jason; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2013-01-01

    The application of new proteomics and genomics technologies support a view in which few drugs act solely by inhibiting a single cellular target. Indeed, drug activity is modulated by complex, often incompletely understood cellular mechanisms. Therefore, efforts to decipher mode of action through genetic perturbation such as RNAi typically yields “hits” that fall into several categories. Of particular interest to the present study, we aimed to characterize secondary activities of drugs on cells. Inhibiting a known target can result in clinically relevant synthetic phenotypes. In one scenario, drug perturbation could, for example, improperly activate a protein that normally inhibits a particular kinase. In other cases, additional, lower affinity targets can be inhibited as in the example of inhibition of c-Kit observed in Bcr-Abl?positive cells treated with Gleevec. Drug transport and metabolism also play an important role in the way any chemicals act within the cells. Finally, RNAi per se can also affect cell fitness by more general off-target effects, e.g., via the modulation of apoptosis or DNA damage repair. Regardless of the root cause of these unwanted effects, understanding the scope of a drug’s activity and polypharmacology is essential for better understanding its mechanism(s) of action, and such information can guide development of improved therapies. We describe a rapid, cost-effective approach to characterize primary and secondary effects of small-molecules by using small-scale libraries of virally integrated short hairpin RNAs. We demonstrate this principle using a “minipool” composed of shRNAs that target the genes encoding the reported protein targets of approved drugs. Among the 28 known reported drug?target pairs, we successfully identify 40% of the targets described in the literature and uncover several unanticipated drug?target interactions based on drug-induced synthetic lethality. We provide a detailed protocol for performing such screens and for analyzing the data. This cost-effective approach to mammalian knockdown screens, combined with the increasing maturation of RNAi technology will expand the accessibility of similar approaches in academic settings. PMID:23797109

  1. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; De Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Fat, Elisa M Tjon Kon; Wilson, R Alan; Kariuki, Thomas M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; Loverde, Philip T; Abrams, William R; Tanke, Hans J; Van Lieshout, Lisette; Deelder, André M; Van Dam, Govert J

    2014-12-01

    The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring. PMID:24932595

  2. Simultaneous detection of four nitrofuran metabolites in honey using a multiplexing biochip screening assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O’Mahony; Mary Moloney; Robert I. McConnell; El O. Benchikh; Philip Lowry; Ambrose Furey; Martin Danaher

    2011-01-01

    A chemiluminescence-based biochip array sensing technique has been developed and applied to the screening of honey samples for residues of banned nitrofuran antibiotics. Using a multiplex approach, metabolites of the four main nitrofuran antibiotics could be simultaneously detected. Individual antibodies specific towards the metabolites were spotted onto biochips. A competitive assay format, with chemiluminescent response, was employed. The method was

  3. Development of a potato seedling assay to screen for resistance to Verticillium dahliae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seedling assay was developed for Verticillium wilt (VW) resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum) in order to provide efficient and rapid screening to identify resistant clones in segregating populations. The method provides uniform inoculum to avoid false negatives and reduces the confusion of sy...

  4. Novel Phenotypic Outcomes Identified for a Public Collection of Approved Drugs from a Publicly Accessible Panel of Assays

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Sarah; Willard, Francis S.; Heidler, Steven; Peery, Robert B.; Oler, Jennifer; Chu, Shaoyou; Southall, Noel; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Smallwood, Jeffrey; Huang, Ruili; Guha, Rajarshi; Jadhav, Ajit; Cox, Karen; Austin, Christopher P.; Simeonov, Anton; Sittampalam, G. Sitta; Husain, Saba; Franklin, Natalie; Wild, David J.; Yang, Jeremy J.; Sutherland, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic assays have a proven track record for generating leads that become first-in-class therapies. Whole cell assays that inform on a phenotype or mechanism also possess great potential in drug repositioning studies by illuminating new activities for the existing pharmacopeia. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) pharmaceutical collection (NPC) is the largest reported collection of approved small molecule therapeutics that is available for screening in a high-throughput setting. Via a wide-ranging collaborative effort, this library was analyzed in the Open Innovation Drug Discovery (OIDD) phenotypic assay modules publicly offered by Lilly. The results of these tests are publically available online at www.ncats.nih.gov/expertise/preclinical/pd2 and via the PubChem Database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) (AID 1117321). Phenotypic outcomes for numerous drugs were confirmed, including sulfonylureas as insulin secretagogues and the anti-angiogenesis actions of multikinase inhibitors sorafenib, axitinib and pazopanib. Several novel outcomes were also noted including the Wnt potentiating activities of rotenone and the antifolate class of drugs, and the anti-angiogenic activity of cetaben. PMID:26177200

  5. Optimization of Fluorescence Assay of Cellular Manganese Status for High Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Aboud, Asad A.; Patel, Devin K.; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high throughput screening (HTS) technology permits identification of compounds that influence various cellular phenotypes. However, screening for small molecule chemical modifiers of neurotoxicants has been limited by the scalability of existing phenotyping assays. Furthermore, the adaptation of existing cellular assays to HTS format requires substantial modification of experimental parameters and analysis methodology to meet the necessary statistical requirements. Here we describe the successful optimization of the Cellular Fura-2 Manganese Extraction Assay (CFMEA) for HTS. By optimizing cellular density, manganese (Mn) exposure conditions, and extraction parameters, the sensitivity and dynamic range of the fura-2 Mn response was enhanced to permit detection of positive and negative modulators of cellular manganese status. Finally, we quantify and report strategies to control sources of intra-and inter-plate variability by batch level and plate-geometric level analysis. Our goal is to enable HTS with the CFMEA to identify novel modulators of Mn transport. PMID:23169769

  6. Development of HTS Assays and Pilot Screen for Inhibitors of Metalloproteases Meprin ? and ?

    PubMed Central

    Madoux, Franck; Tredup, Claudia; Spicer, Timothy P.; Scampavia, Louis; Chase, Peter S.; Hodder, Peter S.; Fields, Gregg B.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Minond, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Zinc metalloproteinases meprin ? and meprin ? are implicated in a variety of diseases, such as fibrosis, inflammation and neurodegeneration, however, there are no selective small molecule inhibitors that would allow to study their role in these processes. To address this lack of molecular tools we have developed high throughput screening (HTS) assays to enable discovery of inhibitors of both meprin ? and meprin ? and screened a collection of well characterized pharmaceutical agents (LOPAC, n = 1,280 compounds). Two compounds (PPNDS, NF449) confirmed their activity and selectivity for meprin ?. Kinetic studies revealed competitive (PPNDS) and mixed competitive/non-competitive (NF449) inhibition mechanisms suggesting that binding occurs in meprin ? active site. Both PPNDS and NF449 exhibited low nanomolar IC50 and Ki values making them the most potent and selective inhibitors of meprin ? reported to the date. These results demonstrate the ability of meprin ? and ? assays to identify selective compounds and discard artifacts of primary screening. PMID:25048711

  7. A high throughput screening assay for identifying glycation inhibitors on MALDI-TOF target.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuting; Tu, Zongcai; Wang, Hui; Fan, Liangliang; Huang, Xiaoqin; Xiao, Hui

    2015-03-01

    The Maillard reaction plays an important role in the food industry, however, the deleterious effects generated by the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been well recognized. Many efforts have been made to seek new AGE inhibitors, in particular those natural ones without adverse effect. We have developed a rapid, mass spectrometry based, on-plate screening assay for novel AGE inhibitors. The glycation reaction, inhibition feedback as well as the subsequent MALDI mass spectrometric analysis occurred on one single MALDI plate. At 1:10 M ratio of peptide to sugar, as little as 4h incubation time allowed the screening test to be ready for analysis. DSP, inhibition and IC50 were calculated to evaluate selected inhibitors and resulting inhibition efficiencies were consistent with available references. We demonstrated that this method provide a potential high throughput screening assay to analyze and identify the anti-glycation agents. PMID:25306331

  8. High-Throughput Screening Assay for the Identification of Compounds Regulating Self-Renewal and Differentiation in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina C. Desbordes; Dimitris G. Placantonakis; Anthony Ciro; Nicholas D. Socci; Gabsang Lee; Hakim Djaballah; Lorenz Studer

    SUMMARY High-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical librar- ies has become a critical tool in basic biology and drug discovery. However, its implementation and the adaptation of high-content assays to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been hampered by multiple technical challenges. Here we present a strategy to adapt hESCs to HTS conditions, result- inginanassaysuitableforthediscoveryofsmallmol- eculesthat drivehESCself-renewalor differentiation. Use of this

  9. A Systematic Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Biological Threat Agents

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Peter B.; Chopra, Sidharth; Manger, Ian D.; Gilfillan, Lynne; Keepers, Tiffany R.; Shurtleff, Amy C.; Green, Carol E.; Iyer, Lalitha V.; Dilks, Holli Hutcheson; Davey, Robert A.; Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L.; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G.; Warren, Travis K.; Wells, Jay B.; Moos, Walter H.; Burke, RaeLyn L.; Tanga, Mary J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rapid development of effective medical countermeasures against potential biological threat agents is vital. Repurposing existing drugs that may have unanticipated activities as potential countermeasures is one way to meet this important goal, since currently approved drugs already have well-established safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in patients, as well as manufacturing and distribution networks. Therefore, approved drugs could rapidly be made available for a new indication in an emergency. Methodology/Principal Findings A large systematic effort to determine whether existing drugs can be used against high containment bacterial and viral pathogens is described. We assembled and screened 1012 FDA-approved drugs for off-label broad-spectrum efficacy against Bacillus anthracis; Francisella tularensis; Coxiella burnetii; and Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fever viruses using in vitro cell culture assays. We found a variety of hits against two or more of these biological threat pathogens, which were validated in secondary assays. As expected, antibiotic compounds were highly active against bacterial agents, but we did not identify any non-antibiotic compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Lomefloxacin and erythromycin were found to be the most potent compounds in vivo protecting mice against Bacillus anthracis challenge. While multiple virus-specific inhibitors were identified, the most noteworthy antiviral compound identified was chloroquine, which disrupted entry and replication of two or more viruses in vitro and protected mice against Ebola virus challenge in vivo. Conclusions/Significance The feasibility of repurposing existing drugs to face novel threats is demonstrated and this represents the first effort to apply this approach to high containment bacteria and viruses. PMID:23577127

  10. Cellular LanthaScreen and beta-lactamase reporter assays for high-throughput screening of JAK2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Robers, Matthew B; Machleidt, Thomas; Carlson, Coby B; Bi, Kun

    2008-08-01

    The Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 pathway is responsible for regulation of cellular responses to a number of cytokines and growth factors. In hematopoietic cells, growth factors such as granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, interleukin-3, and erythropoietin induce the activation of JAK2, which leads to the phosphorylation, dimerization, and transactivation of STAT5 proteins. Dysregulation of JAK2 by activating mutations such as JAK2V617F results in constitutive phosphorylation of STAT5 and has been linked to numerous myeloproliferative disorders such as polycythemia vera. A cellular LanthaScreen (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA) time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer assay for wild-type JAK2 activity was developed. This assay utilized the growth factor-dependent human erythroleukemia TF1 cell line engineered to express a green fluorescent protein-STAT5 fusion protein. Furthermore, a complementary beta-lactamase reporter gene assay was developed to analyze the transcriptional activity of STAT5 downstream of JAK2 in TF1 cells. The same technologies were applied to the development of cellular assays for the interrogation of the disease-relevant JAK2V617F activating mutant. A small molecule inhibitor and Stealth (Invitrogen Corp.) RNA interference oligonucleotides were used to confirm the involvement of JAK2. Our results suggest that these cellular assays and validation tools represent powerful integrated methods for the analysis of physiological and disease-relevant JAK/STAT pathways within the physiological cellular context. PMID:18694336

  11. Microplate alamar blue assay versus BACTEC 460 system for high-throughput screening of compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, L; Franzblau, S G

    1997-01-01

    In response to the need for rapid, inexpensive, high-throughput assays for antimycobacterial drug screening, a microplate-based assay which uses Alamar blue reagent for determination of growth was evaluated. MICs of 30 antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, and Mycobacterium avium were determined in the microplate Alamar blue assay (MABA) with both visual and fluorometric readings and compared to MICs determined in the BACTEC 460 system. For all three mycobacterial strains, there was < or = 1 dilution difference between MABA and BACTEC median MICs in four replicate experiments for 25 to 27 of the 30 antimicrobics. Significant differences between MABA and BACTEC MICs were observed with 0, 2, and 5 of 30 antimicrobial agents against H37Rv, H37Ra, and M. avium, respectively. Overall, MICs determined either visually or fluorometrically in MABA were highly correlated with those determined in the BACTEC 460 system, and visual MABA and fluorometric MABA MICs were highly correlated. MICs of rifampin, rifabutin, minocycline, and clarithromycin were consistently lower for H37Ra compared to H37Rv in all assays but were similar for most other drugs. M. tuberculosis H37Ra may be a suitable surrogate for the more virulent H37Rv strain in primary screening of compounds for antituberculosis activity. MABA is sensitive, rapid, inexpensive, and nonradiometric and offers the potential for screening, with or without analytical instrumentation, large numbers of antimicrobial compounds against slow-growing mycobacteria. PMID:9145860

  12. Attitudes of Matriculating First-Year Pharmacy Students Toward a Mandatory, Random Drug-Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Maggee; Hogue, Michael D.; Alverson, Susan P.; Woolley, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the attitudes of incoming pharmacy students toward a mandatory, random urine drug-screening program. Methods. This was an anonymous, voluntary survey of students at the McWhorter School of Pharmacy (MSOP) using an instrument composed of 40 items. The instrument was administered during orientation week prior to the session during which the policies and procedures of MSOP's drug-screening program were to be discussed. Results. The survey instrument was completed by all 129 (100%) students in the class. Two-thirds of the students were aware of MSOP's drug-screening program prior to applying, but only a few felt uneasy about applying to the school because of the program. The greatest concerns expressed by the students included what would happen if a student unintentionally missed a drug screen or was busy with other matters when called for screening, how much time a drug-screening would take, and the possibility of false-positive drug screen results. The vast majority of students agreed with statements regarding the potential benefits of drug testing. Students who consumed alcohol in a typical week and those with current or past use of an illegal substance held less favorable attitudes toward MSOP’s mandatory drug-screening program compared with students who did not share those characteristics. Conclusion. Although there were definite concerns expressed regarding pragmatic issues surrounding drug screening, the first-year pharmacy students held generally favorable opinions about the school's mandatory drug-screening program. PMID:23193335

  13. A Male and Female Gametocyte Functional Viability Assay To Identify Biologically Relevant Malaria Transmission-Blocking Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ruecker, A.; Mathias, D. K.; Straschil, U.; Churcher, T. S.; Dinglasan, R. R.; Leroy, D.; Sinden, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria elimination will require interventions that prevent parasite transmission from the human host to the mosquito. Experimentally, this is usually determined by the expensive and laborious Plasmodium falciparum standard membrane feeding assay (PfSMFA), which has limited utility for high-throughput drug screening. In response, we developed the P. falciparum dual gamete formation assay (PfDGFA), which faithfully simulates the initial stages of the PfSMFA in vitro. It utilizes a dual readout that individually and simultaneously reports on the functional viability of male and female mature stage V gametocytes. To validate, we screen the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box library with the PfDGFA. Unique to this assay, we find compounds that target male gametocytes only and also compounds with reversible and irreversible activity. Most importantly, we show that compound activity in the PfDGFA accurately predicts activity in PfSMFAs, which validates and supports its adoption into the transmission-stage screening pipeline. PMID:25267664

  14. A male and female gametocyte functional viability assay to identify biologically relevant malaria transmission-blocking drugs.

    PubMed

    Ruecker, A; Mathias, D K; Straschil, U; Churcher, T S; Dinglasan, R R; Leroy, D; Sinden, R E; Delves, M J

    2014-12-01

    Malaria elimination will require interventions that prevent parasite transmission from the human host to the mosquito. Experimentally, this is usually determined by the expensive and laborious Plasmodium falciparum standard membrane feeding assay (PfSMFA), which has limited utility for high-throughput drug screening. In response, we developed the P. falciparum dual gamete formation assay (PfDGFA), which faithfully simulates the initial stages of the PfSMFA in vitro. It utilizes a dual readout that individually and simultaneously reports on the functional viability of male and female mature stage V gametocytes. To validate, we screen the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box library with the PfDGFA. Unique to this assay, we find compounds that target male gametocytes only and also compounds with reversible and irreversible activity. Most importantly, we show that compound activity in the PfDGFA accurately predicts activity in PfSMFAs, which validates and supports its adoption into the transmission-stage screening pipeline. PMID:25267664

  15. Application of the mirrorball high-sensitivity cytometer to multiplexed assays for antibody drug discovery.

    PubMed

    England, Elizabeth; Newton, Philip; Neal, Frances; Kitching, Lisa; Colley, Caroline; Rossant, Christine J

    2015-04-01

    Highly sensitive, high-throughput assay technologies are required for the identification of antibody therapeutics. Multiplexed assay systems are particularly advantageous because they allow evaluation of several parameters within 1 well, increasing throughput and reducing hands-on laboratory time. The mirrorball (TTP Labtech), using high-throughput fluorometric microvolume assay technology, offers simultaneous scanning with up to 3 lasers as well as laser scatter detection. This makes the mirrorball especially suitable for the development of highly sensitive and multiplexed assays. We have developed bead- and cell-based binding assays that demonstrate how the multilaser capability of the mirrorball can be exploited to enhance assay sensitivity. In addition, using the multilaser simultaneous scanning capability, we have established multiplexed cytokine quantitation assays and antibody-cell binding assays. Our results demonstrate the potential utility of this technology to improve the sensitivity and efficiency of biologics screening, resulting in streamlining of the lead antibody selection process. PMID:25381256

  16. An Enzymatic Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Cytidine-Producing Microbial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Liu, Yongfei; Zu, Xin; Li, Ning; Li, Feiran; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Cytidine is an industrially useful precursor for the production of antiviral compounds and a variety of industrial compounds. Interest in the microbial production of cytidine has grown recently and high-throughput screening of cytidine over-producers is an important approach in large-scale industrial production using microorganisms. An enzymatic assay for cytidine was developed combining cytidine deaminase (CDA) and indophenol method. CDA catalyzes the cleavage of cytidine to uridine and NH3, the latter of which can be accurately determined using the indophenol method. The assay was performed in 96-well plates and had a linear detection range of cytidine of 0.058 - 10 mM. This assay was used to determine the amount of cytidine in fermentation flasks and the results were compared with that of High Perfomance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The detection range of the CDA method is not as wide as that of the HPLC, furthermore the correlation factor of CDA method is not as high as that of HPLC. However, it was suitable for the detection of large numbers of crude samples and was applied to high-throughput screening for high cytidine-producing strains using 96-well deep-hole culture plates. This assay was proved to be simple, accurate, specific and suitable for cytidine detection and high-throughput screening of cytidine-producing strains in large numbers of samples (96 well or more). PMID:25816248

  17. Potencies of estrogenic compounds in in vitro screening assays and in life cycle tests with zebrafish in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Segner; J. M Navas; C Schäfers; A Wenzel

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the estrogenic potency of environmental estrogens at two testing tiers: at the initial level of in vitro screening assays, and at the level of definitive fish reproduction tests in vivo. The in vitro tests included a recombinant yeast estrogen receptor (ER) assay, a competitive radioreceptor assay using the hepatic ER of carp

  18. The human tumor cloning assay in cancer drug development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Agre; Thomas E. Williams

    1983-01-01

    Animal studies with transplantable tumor cell lines suggested that the sensitivities of the in vitro tumor cultures to certain anticancer drugs agreed with the drug sensitivities of the same tumors in vivo. Soft agar cloning techniques have been established for human myeloma and ovarian cancer cells. Refinement of the techniques now permits cloning of most human malignancies. Drug sensitivity studies

  19. Tissue spheroid fusion-based in vitro screening assays for analysis of tissue maturation

    PubMed Central

    Hajdu, Zoltan; Mironov, Vladimir; Mehesz, Agnes Nagy; Norris, Russell A.; Markwald, Roger R.; Visconti, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Organ printing or computer-aided robotic layer by-layer additive biofabrication of thick three-dimensional living tissue constructs employing self-assembling tissue spheroids is a rapidly evolving alternative to classic solid scaffold-based approaches in tissue engineering. However, the absence of effective methods of accelerated tissue maturation immediately after bioprinting is the main technological imperative and potential impediment for further progress in the development of this emerging organ printing technology. Identification of the optimal combination of factors and conditions that accelerate tissue maturation (“maturogenic” factors) is an essential and necessary endeavor. Screening of maturogenic factors would be most efficiently accomplished using high throughput quantitative in vitro tissue maturation assays. We have recently reviewed the formation of solid scaffold-free tissue constructs through fusion of bioprinted tissue spheroids that have measurable material properties. We hypothesize that the fusion kinetics of these tissue spheroids will provide an efficacious in vitro assay of the level of tissue maturation. Herein, we report the results of experimental testing of two simple quantitative tissue spheroid fusion-based in vitro high throughput screening assays of tissue maturation: i) a tissue spheroid envelopment assay; and ii) a tissue spheroid fusion kinetics assay. PMID:20603872

  20. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    PubMed

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. PMID:25972403

  1. Identification of Inhibitors of a Bacterial Sigma Factor Using a New High-Throughput Screening Assay

    PubMed Central

    El-Mowafi, S. A.; Alumasa, J. N.; Nicoloff, H.; Tomsho, J. W.; Ades, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are formidable pathogens because their cell envelope presents an adaptable barrier to environmental and host-mediated challenges. The stress response pathway controlled by the alternative sigma factor ?E is critical for maintenance of the cell envelope. Because ?E is required for the virulence or viability of several Gram-negative pathogens, it might be a useful target for antibiotic development. To determine if small molecules can inhibit the ?E pathway, and to permit high-throughput screening for antibiotic lead compounds, a ?E activity assay that is compatible with high-throughput screening was developed and validated. The screen employs a biological assay with positive readout. An Escherichia coli strain was engineered to express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under negative regulation by the ?E pathway, such that inhibitors of the pathway increase the production of YFP. To validate the screen, the reporter strain was used to identify ?E pathway inhibitors from a library of cyclic peptides. Biochemical characterization of one of the inhibitory cyclic peptides showed that it binds ?E, inhibits RNA polymerase holoenzyme formation, and inhibits ?E-dependent transcription in vitro. These results demonstrate that alternative sigma factors can be inhibited by small molecules and enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of the ?E pathway. PMID:25331704

  2. Bringing the light to high throughput screening: use of optogenetic tools for the development of recombinant cellular assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, Viviana; Di Silvio, Alberto; Rolland, Jean Francois; Mondini, Anna; Tremolada, Sara; Montag, Katharina; Scarabottolo, Lia; Redaelli, Loredana; Lohmer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The use of light-activated proteins represents a powerful tool to control biological processes with high spatial and temporal precision. These so called "optogenetic" technologies have been successfully validated in many recombinant systems, and have been widely applied to the study of cellular mechanisms in intact tissues or behaving animals; to do that, complex, high-intensity, often home-made instrumentations were developed to achieve the optimal power and precision of light stimulation. In our study we sought to determine if this optical modulation can be obtained also in a miniaturized format, such as a 384-well plate, using the instrumentations normally dedicated to fluorescence analysis in High Throughput Screening (HTS) activities, such as for example the FLIPR (Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader) instrument. We successfully generated optogenetic assays for the study of different ion channel targets: the CaV1.3 calcium channel was modulated by the light-activated Channelrhodopsin-2, the HCN2 cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel was modulated by the light activated bPAC adenylyl cyclase, and finally the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight was efficiently used to measure potassium, sodium or chloride channel activity. Our results showed that stable, robust and miniaturized cellular assays can be developed using different optogenetic tools, and efficiently modulated by the FLIPR instrument LEDs in a 384-well format. The spatial and temporal resolution delivered by this technology might enormously advantage the early stages of drug discovery, leading to the identification of more physiological and effective drug molecules.

  3. Screening for drugs in oral fluid: illicit drug use and drug driving in a sample of Queensland motorists.

    PubMed

    Davey, J; Leal, N; Freeman, J

    2007-05-01

    Police Services in a number of Australian states have indicated random roadside drug testing will be implemented to target drug driving. This paper outlines research conducted to provide an estimate of the prevalence of drug driving in a sample of Queensland drivers. Oral fluid samples were collected from 781 drivers who volunteered to participate at Random Breath Testing (RBT) sites in a large Queensland regional area. Illicit substances tested for included cannabis (delta 9 tetrahydrocannibinol [THC]), amphetamine type substances, heroin and cocaine. Drivers also completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their drug-related driving behaviour. Samples that were drug-positive at initial screening were sent to a government laboratory for confirmation. Oral fluid samples from 27 participants (3.5%) were confirmed positive for at least one illicit substance. The most common drugs detected in oral fluid were cannabis (delta 9 THC) (n = 13) followed by amphetamine type substances (n = 11). A key finding was that cannabis was also confirmed as the most common self-reported drug combined with driving and that individuals who tested positive to any drug through oral fluid analysis were also more likely to report the highest frequency of drug driving. Furthermore, a comparison between drug vs drink driving detection rates for the study period revealed a higher detection rate for drug driving (3.5%) vs drink driving (0.8%). This research provides evidence that drug driving is relatively prevalent on Queensland Roads. The paper will further outline the study findings and present possible directions for future drug driving research. PMID:17454020

  4. Systematic Identification of Antiprion Drugs by High-Throughput Screening Based on Scanning for Intensely Fluorescent Targets

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Uwe; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Hirschberger, Thomas; Bieschke, Jan; Weber, Petra; Hartl, F. Ulrich; Tavan, Paul; Tatzelt, Jörg; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Giese, Armin

    2005-01-01

    Conformational changes and aggregation of specific proteins are hallmarks of a number of diseases, like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and prion diseases. In the case of prion diseases, the prion protein (PrP), a neuronal glycoprotein, undergoes a conformational change from the normal, mainly alpha-helical conformation to a disease-associated, mainly beta-sheeted scrapie isoform (PrPSc), which forms amyloid aggregates. This conversion, which is crucial for disease progression, depends on direct PrPC/PrPSc interaction. We developed a high-throughput assay based on scanning for intensely fluorescent targets (SIFT) for the identification of drugs which interfere with this interaction at the molecular level. Screening of a library of 10,000 drug-like compounds yielded 256 primary hits, 80 of which were confirmed by dose response curves with half-maximal inhibitory effects ranging from 0.3 to 60 ?M. Among these, six compounds displayed an inhibitory effect on PrPSc propagation in scrapie-infected N2a cells. Four of these candidate drugs share an N?-benzylidene-benzohydrazide core structure. Thus, the combination of high-throughput in vitro assay with the established cell culture system provides a rapid and efficient method to identify new antiprion drugs, which corroborates that interaction of PrPC and PrPSc is a crucial molecular step in the propagation of prions. Moreover, SIFT-based screening may facilitate the search for drugs against other diseases linked to protein aggregation. PMID:15919931

  5. A new assay for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) and identification of drugs that elevate CIN in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aneuploidy is a feature of most cancer cells that is often accompanied by an elevated rate of chromosome mis-segregation termed chromosome instability (CIN). While CIN can act as a driver of cancer genome evolution and tumor progression, recent findings point to the existence of a threshold level beyond which CIN becomes a barrier to tumor growth and therefore can be exploited therapeutically. Drugs known to increase CIN beyond the therapeutic threshold are currently few in number, and the clinical promise of targeting the CIN phenotype warrants new screening efforts. However, none of the existing methods, including the in vitro micronuclei (MNi) assay, developed to quantify CIN, is entirely satisfactory. Methods We have developed a new assay for measuring CIN. This quantitative assay for chromosome mis-segregation is based on the use of a non-essential human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a constitutively expressed EGFP transgene. Thus, cells that inherit the HAC display green fluorescence, while cells lacking the HAC do not. This allows the measurement of HAC loss rate by routine flow cytometry. Results Using the HAC-based chromosome loss assay, we have analyzed several well-known anti-mitotic, spindle-targeting compounds, all of which have been reported to induce micronuclei formation and chromosome loss. For each drug, the rate of HAC loss was accurately measured by flow cytometry as a proportion of non-fluorescent cells in the cell population which was verified by FISH analysis. Based on our estimates, despite their similar cytotoxicity, the analyzed drugs affect the rates of HAC mis-segregation during mitotic divisions differently. The highest rate of HAC mis-segregation was observed for the microtubule-stabilizing drugs, taxol and peloruside A. Conclusion Thus, this new and simple assay allows for a quick and efficient screen of hundreds of drugs to identify those affecting chromosome mis-segregation. It also allows ranking of compounds with the same or similar mechanism of action based on their effect on the rate of chromosome loss. The identification of new compounds that increase chromosome mis-segregation rates should expedite the development of new therapeutic strategies to target the CIN phenotype in cancer cells. PMID:23694679

  6. A microfluidic platform for high-sensitivity, real-time drug screening on C. elegans and parasitic nematodes†

    PubMed Central

    Carr, John A.; Parashar, Archana; Gibson, Richard; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.; Pandey, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new microfluidic platform for screening drugs and their dose response on the locomotion behavior of free living nematodes and parasitic nematodes. The system offers a higher sensitivity drug screening chip which employs a combination of existing and newly developed methods. Real-time observation of the entire drug application process (i.e. the innate pre-exposure locomotion, the transient response during drug exposure and the time-resolved, post-exposure behavior) at a single worm resolution is made possible. The chip enables the monitoring of four nematode parameters (number of worms responsive, number of worms leaving the drug well, average worm velocity and time until unresponsiveness). Each parameter generates an inherently different dose response; allowing for a higher resolution when screening for resistance. We expect this worm chip could be used as a robust cross species, cross drug platform. Existing nematode motility and migration assays do not offer this level of sophistication. The device comprises two principal components: behavioral microchannels to study nematode motility and a drug well for administering the dose and observing drug effects as a function of exposure time. The drug screening experiment can be described by three main steps: (i) ‘pre-exposure study’ – worms are inserted into the behavioral channels and their locomotion is characterized, (ii) ‘dose exposure’ – worms are guided from the behavioral microchannels into the drug well and held for a predefined time, during which time their transient response to the dose is characterized and (iii) ‘post-exposure study’ – worms are guided back into the behavioral microchannels where their locomotion (i.e. their time-resolved response to the dose) is characterized and compared to pre-exposure motility. The direction of nematodes’ movement is reliably controlled by the application of an electric field within a defined range. Control experiments (e.g. in the absence of any drug) confirm that the applied electric fields do not affect the worms’ motility or viability. We demonstrate the workability of the microfluidic platform on free living Caenorhabditis elegans (wild-type N2 and levamisole resistant ZZ15 lev-8) and parasitic Oesophagotomum dentatum (levamisole-sensitive, SENS and levamisole-resistant, LEVR) using levamisole (a well-studied anthelmintic) as the test drug. The proposed scheme of drug screening on a microfluidic device is expected to significantly improve the resolution, sensitivity and data throughput of in vivo testing, while offering new details on the transient and time-resolved exposure effects of new and existing anthelmintics. PMID:21647497

  7. Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

  8. Screening for genotoxicity using the DRAG assay: investigation of halogenated environmental contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Johansson; Annika Allkvist; Klaus Erixon; Anna Malmvärn; Robert Nilsson; Åke Bergman; Thomas Helleday; Dag Jenssen

    2004-01-01

    The DRAG test is a rapid high-throughput screening assay for detection of repairable adducts by growth inhibition of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) characterized by different defects in DNA repair. A more pronounced growth inhibition caused by a certain DNA-reactive substance in a repair-deficient cell line (EM9, UV4 and UV5) as compared to wild-type cells (AA8) is interpreted as a

  9. Quantitative microtiter fibronectin fibrillogenesis assay: use in high throughput screening for identification of inhibitor compounds.

    PubMed

    Tomasini-Johansson, Bianca R; Johnson, Ian A; Hoffmann, F Michael; Mosher, Deane F

    2012-07-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a plasma glycoprotein that circulates in the near micromolar concentration range and is deposited along with locally produced FN in the extracellular matrices of many tissues. The control of FN deposition is tightly controlled by cells. Agents that modulate FN assembly may be useful therapeutically in conditions characterized by excessive FN deposition, such as fibrosis, inflammatory diseases, and malignancies. To identify such agents by high throughput screening (HTS), we developed a microtiter assay of FN deposition by human fibroblasts. The assay provides a robust read-out of FN assembly. Alexa 488-FN (A488-FN) was added to cell monolayers, and the total fluorescence intensity of deposited A488-FN was quantified. The fluorescence intensity of deposited A488-FN correlated with the presence of FN fibrils visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The assay Z' values were 0.67 or 0.54, respectively, when using background values of fluorescence either with no added A488-FN or with A488-FN added together with a known inhibitor of FN deposition. The assay was used to screen libraries comprising 4160 known bioactive compounds. Nine compounds were identified as non- or low-cytotoxic inhibitors of FN assembly. Four (ML-9, HA-100, tyrphostin and imatinib mesylate) are kinase inhibitors, a category of compounds known to inhibit FN assembly; two (piperlongumine and cantharidin) are promoters of cancer cell apoptosis; and three (maprotiline, CGS12066B, and aposcopolamine) are modulators of biogenic amine signaling. The latter six compounds have not been recognized heretofore as affecting FN assembly. The assay is straight-forward, adapts to 96- and 384-well formats, and should be useful for routine measurement of FN deposition and HTS. Screening of more diverse chemical libraries and identification of specific and efficient modulators of FN fibrillogenesis may result in therapeutics to control excessive connective tissue deposition. PMID:22986508

  10. Continuous colorimetric assay that enables high-throughput screening of N-acetylamino acid racemases.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carrón, Guiomar; Fleming, Toni; Holt-Tiffin, Karen E; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    N-Acetyl amino acid racemases (NAAARs) have demonstrated their potential in the enzymatic synthesis of chiral amino acids, molecules of significant biotechnology interest. In order to identify novel activities and to improve these enzymes by engineering approaches, suitable screening methods are necessary. Previous engineering of the NAAAR from Amycolatopsis Ts-1-60 was achieved by relying on an in vivo selection system that linked the viability of an E. coli L-methionine auxotroph to the activity of the improved enzyme. However, this assay was only suitable for the screening of N-acetyl-D-methionine, therefore limiting the potential to evolve this enzyme toward other natural or non-natural acetylated amino acids. Here, we report the optimization and application of a spectrophotometric microtiter-plate-based assay for NAAAR. The assay is based on the detection of the amino acid reaction product formed by hydrolysis of the N-acylated substrate by an L-amino acid acylase and its subsequent oxidation by an FAD-dependent L-amino acid oxidase (L-AAO). Cofactor recycling of the L-AAO leads to the formation of hydrogen peroxide which is easily monitored using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and o-dianisidine. This method allowed for the determination of the kinetic parameters of NAAAR and led to the identification of N-acetyl-D-naphthylalanine as a novel NAAAR substrate. This robust method is also suitable for the high-throughput screening of NAAAR mutant gene libraries directly from cell lysates. PMID:25716802

  11. A Data Analysis Pipeline Accounting for Artifacts in Tox21 Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Sedykh, Alexander; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Tice, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    A main goal of the U.S. Tox21 program is to profile a 10K-compound library for activity against a panel of stress-related and nuclear receptor signaling pathway assays using a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) approach. However, assay artifacts, including nonreproducible signals and assay interference (e.g., autofluorescence), complicate compound activity interpretation. To address these issues, we have developed a data analysis pipeline that includes an updated signal noise-filtering/curation protocol and an assay interference flagging system. To better characterize various types of signals, we adopted a weighted version of the area under the curve (wAUC) to quantify the amount of activity across the tested concentration range in combination with the assay-dependent point-of-departure (POD) concentration. Based on the 32 Tox21 qHTS assays analyzed, we demonstrate that signal profiling using wAUC affords the best reproducibility (Pearson's r = 0.91) in comparison with the POD (0.82) only or the AC50 (i.e., half-maximal activity concentration, 0.81). Among the activity artifacts characterized, cytotoxicity is the major confounding factor; on average, about 8% of Tox21 compounds are affected, whereas autofluorescence affects less than 0.5%. To facilitate data evaluation, we implemented two graphical user interface applications, allowing users to rapidly evaluate the in vitro activity of Tox21 compounds. PMID:25904095

  12. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity < 30% of normal control was 20.3% and a prevalence of severe deficiency that would predispose to primaquine-induced hemolysis (WHO Class I-II) of 6.9%. Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration. PMID:20684792

  13. Reduction of Diagnostic Window by New Fourth-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Bernard; Mbargane Fall, El Hadji; Berger, Annemarie; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce the diagnostic window between the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory diagnosis, new screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) which permit the simultaneous detection of HIV antigen and antibody have been developed. Two fourth-generation assays, HIV DUO (Biomérieux) and HIV Combi (Boehringer Mannheim), for the combined detection of HIV antigen and antibody, were compared with a third-generation assay (HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus enzyme immunoassay [EIA]; Abbott) and a p24 antigen test (HIV-1 Ag monoclonal; Abbott). A total of 17 seroconversion panels, 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes, and 255 potentially cross-reactive serum samples were tested. Ten seroconversions were detected an average of 8.1 days earlier with HIV DUO and 7.5 days earlier with HIV Combi than with the third-generation ELISA. Overall, in the 17 seroconversion panels tested, HIV DUO detected HIV-1 infection an average of 4.8 days and HIV Combi detected infection an average of 4.4 days earlier than HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus EIA. HIV antigen was detected with HIV DUO and HIV Combi in all of the 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, including subtype O. With fourth-generation assays, considerably fewer false-positive results (n = 4 to 6) were obtained, in comparison with the third-generation EIA (n = 18). Fourth-generation assays permit an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than third-generation antibody screening assays through the detection of p24 antigen, which may be present in serum samples from individuals with recent HIV infection prior to seroconversion. PMID:9665998

  14. MICROSPHERE-BASED FLOW CYTOMETRY PROTEASE ASSAYS FOR USE IN PROTEASE ACTIVITY DETECTION AND HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Matthew J.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Zhu, Jingshu; Sklar, Larry A.; Graves, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes microsphere-based protease assays for use in flow cytometry and high-throughput screening. This platform measures a loss of fluorescence from the surface of a microsphere due to the cleavage of an attached fluorescent protease substrate by a suitable protease enzyme. The assay format can be adapted to any site or protein specific protease of interest and results can be measured in both real time and as end point fluorescence assays on a flow cytometer. End point assays are easily adapted to microplate format for flow cytometry high-throughput analysis and inhibitor screening. PMID:20938917

  15. A screening study of drug-drug interactions in cerivastatin users: an adverse effect of clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, James S.; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Marciante, Kristin D.; Weiss, Noel S.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lumley, Thomas; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Tamraz, Bani; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Totah, Rheem A.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of a case-control study of rhabdomyolysis was conducted to screen for previously unrecognized CYP2C8 inhibitors that may cause other clinically important drug-drug interactions. Cases of rhabdomyolysis using cerivastatin (n=72) were compared with controls using atorvastatin (n=287) between 1998–2001. The use of clopidogrel (OR 29.6; 95% CI, 6.1–143) was strongly associated with rhabdomyolysis. In a replication effort that used the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), clopidogrel was used more commonly by rhabdomyolysis cases using cerivastatin (17%) than by rhabdomyolysis cases using atorvastatin (0%, OR infinity; 95% CI = 5.2-infinity). Several medications were tested in vitro for their potential to cause drug-drug interactions. Clopidogrel, rosiglitazone and montelukast were the most potent inhibitors of cerivastatin metabolism. Clopidogrel and its metabolites also inhibited cerivastatin metabolism in human hepatocytes. These epidemiological and in-vitro findings suggest that clopidogrel may cause clinically important, dose dependent, drug-drug interactions with other medications metabolized by CYP2C8. PMID:22419147

  16. High-throughput screening-compatible assays of As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Xu, Wenzhong; Pillai, Jitesh K; Packianathan, Charles; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic is a naturally existing toxin and carcinogen. As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferases (AS3MT in mammals and ArsM in microbes) methylate As(III) three times in consecutive steps and play a central role in arsenic metabolism from bacteria to humans. Current assays for arsenic methylation are slow, laborious, and expensive. Here we report the development of two in vitro assays for AS3MT activity that are rapid, sensitive, convenient, and relatively inexpensive and can be adapted for high-throughput assays. The first assay measures As(III) binding by the quenching of the protein fluorescence of a single-tryptophan derivative of an AS3MT ortholog. The second assay utilizes time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer to directly measure the conversion of the AS3MT substrate, S-adenosylmethionine, to S-adenosylhomocysteine catalyzed by AS3MT. These two assays are complementary, one measuring substrate binding and the other catalysis, making them useful tools for functional studies and future development of drugs to prevent arsenic-related diseases. PMID:25866076

  17. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    SciTech Connect

    Taxvig, Camilla, E-mail: camta@food.dtu.dk; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  18. High-throughput Assay to Identify New Cancer Drugs

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology seeks parties interested in collaborative research to evaluate or commercialize a diagnostic tool that can identify new drugs that increase chromosome instability.

  19. Fluorometric assay for phenotypic differentiation of drug-resistant HIV mutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qinchang; Yu, Zhiqiang; Kabashima, Tsutomu; Yin, Sheng; Dragusha, Shpend; El-Mahdy, Ahmed F. M.; Ejupi, Valon; Shibata, Takayuki; Kai, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Convenient drug-resistance testing of viral mutants is indispensable to effective treatment of viral infection. We developed a novel fluorometric assay for phenotypic differentiation of drug-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus-I protease (HIV-PR) which uses enzymatic and peptide-specific fluorescence (FL) reactions and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of three HIV-PR substrates. This assay protocol enables use of non-purified enzyme sources and multiple substrates for the enzymatic reaction. In this study, susceptibility of HIV mutations to drugs was evaluated by selective formation of three FL products after the enzymatic HIV-PR reaction. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the present HPLC-FL method could be an alternative to current phenotypic assays for the evaluation of HIV drug resistance. PMID:25988960

  20. Shortcomings of Urine-Preferred Drug Screening on Post-Mortem Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. Carson; Mary H. Dudley; Steven W. Fleming; Donald J. Linder

    2011-01-01

    In counties with limited budgets, in order to save money on toxicology work, the request often comes from local medical examiners that screening for drugs on decedents be performed initially on urine and, if positive, to send blood for confirmation; negative urine results are not further evaluated. A study of known urine and blood drug screens was performed to evaluate

  1. Enhancement of cytotoxicity by electropermeabilization: an improved method for screening drugs.

    PubMed

    Gehl, J; Skovsgaard, T; Mir, L M

    1998-04-01

    Electropermeabilization (EPN), also termed electroporation, is a physical method to overcome the barrier of the cell membrane by applying short and intense electric pulses. It is the basis for a new cancer treatment modality, electrochemotherapy, where uptake of chemotherapeutics is enhanced by EPN. Preclinical and clinical trials have shown that application of electric pulses in vivo is feasible and that electrochemotherapy is highly efficient. The aim of this study was to develop an improved method of screening drugs on electropermeabilized versus non-electropermeabilized cells. In this study we describe an easy protocol which gives high cell viability, good reproducibility and a high rate of cell permeabilization. Cell cytotoxicity is simply determined by the MTT assay. Cell death due to the EPN procedure was less than 4% and more than 90% of cells were permeabilized. For daunorubicin, doxorubicin, etoposide and paclitaxel, no effect of EPN was found. For carboplatin and cisplatin the effect of EPN was a factor 3 and 2.3, respectively, on the IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%). For bleomycin we found a dramatic effect of EPN of the magnitude of a factor 300 on the IC50. In conclusion, we have established a new, easy and reliable protocol to test new drugs for cytotoxicity with or without the limitations of the cell membrane. Our data support the role of bleomycin as the drug of choice for electrochemotherapy. PMID:9635922

  2. High-throughput screening assay for the identification of compounds regulating self-renewal and differentiation in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Desbordes, Sabrina C; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Ciro, Anthony; Socci, Nicholas D; Lee, Gabsang; Djaballah, Hakim; Studer, Lorenz

    2008-06-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical libraries has become a critical tool in basic biology and drug discovery. However, its implementation and the adaptation of high-content assays to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been hampered by multiple technical challenges. Here we present a strategy to adapt hESCs to HTS conditions, resulting in an assay suitable for the discovery of small molecules that drive hESC self-renewal or differentiation. Use of this new assay has led to the identification of several marketed drugs and natural compounds promoting short-term hESC maintenance and compounds directing early lineage choice during differentiation. Global gene expression analysis upon drug treatment defines known and novel pathways correlated to hESC self-renewal and differentiation. Our results demonstrate feasibility of hESC-based HTS and enhance the repertoire of chemical compounds for manipulating hESC fate. The availability of high-content assays should accelerate progress in basic and translational hESC biology. PMID:18522853

  3. The trade-off between accuracy and accessibility of syphilis screening assays.

    PubMed

    Smit, Pieter W; Mabey, David; Changalucha, John; Mngara, Julius; Clark, Benjamin; Andreasen, Aura; Todd, Jim; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2013-01-01

    The availability of rapid and sensitive methods to diagnose syphilis facilitates screening of pregnant women, which is one of the most cost-effective health interventions available. We have evaluated two screening methods in Tanzania: an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and a point-of-care test (POCT). We evaluated the performance of each test against the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) as the reference method, and the accessibility of testing in a rural district of Tanzania. The POCT was performed in the clinic on whole blood, while the other assays were performed on plasma in the laboratory. Samples were also tested by the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR) test. With TPPA as reference assay, the sensitivity and specificity of EIA were 95.3% and 97.8%, and of the POCT were 59.6% and 99.4% respectively. The sensitivity of the POCT and EIA for active syphilis cases (TPPA positive and RPR titer ? 1/8) were 82% and 100% respectively. Only 15% of antenatal clinic attenders in this district visited a health facility with a laboratory capable of performing the EIA. Although it is less sensitive than EIA, its greater accessibility, and the fact that treatment can be given on the same day, means that the use of POCT would result in a higher proportion of women with syphilis receiving treatment than with the EIA in this district of Tanzania. PMID:24066175

  4. Validation of diagnostic assays to screen broodstock for Flavobacterium psychrophilum infections.

    PubMed

    Long, A; Polinski, M P; Call, D R; Cain, K D

    2012-06-01

    It is hypothesized that the frequency of bacterial coldwater disease outbreaks can be reduced through the detection of the aetiologic agent, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, in broodstock followed by culling of eggs from heavily infected broodstock. Before a culling programme can be instituted, however, it is necessary to determine the sensitivity and specificity of existing assays for the detection of F. psychrophilum. In this study, tissue and ovarian fluid samples were collected from 224 fish at five hatcheries and screened using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT), bacteriological culture and nested PCR. Latent class analysis was used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of kidney culture, kidney ELISA, nested PCR and MF-FAT. Analytical sensitivity of the ELISA varied but was greatest when bacteria were cultured under iron-limiting conditions. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates ranged from 0.02 (kidney culture) to 0.97 (kidney ELISA). Specificity estimates ranged from 0.02 (MF-FAT) to 0.98 (kidney ELISA). In a separate challenge experiment, the ELISA confirmed the presence of F. psychrophilum in sub-clinically infected fish. Results from this study demonstrate that the ELISA is an appropriate tool to screen broodstock and provides an indication of infection severity, which is crucial for implementation of a screening/culling programme. PMID:22486267

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening by Detection of Altered Human DNA in Stool: Feasibility of a Multitarget Assay Panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: Assay of altered DNA exfoliated into stool represents an intriguing approach to screen for colorectal neoplasia, but multiple markers must be targeted because of genetic heterogeneity. We explored the feasibility of a stool assay panel of selected DNA alterations in discriminating subjects with colorectal neoplasia from those without. Methods: Freezer-archived stools were analyzed in blinded fashion from

  6. Indeterminate Human Immunodeficiency Virus Western Blot Profiles in Ethiopians with Discordant Screening-Assay Results

    PubMed Central

    Meles, Hailu; Wolday, Dawit; Fontanet, Arnaud; Tsegaye, Aster; Tilahun, Tesfaye; Aklilu, Mathias; Sanders, Eduard; De Wit, Tobias F. Rinke

    2002-01-01

    The Western blot (WB) assay is the most widely accepted confirmatory assay for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, indeterminate WB reactivity to HIV-1 proteins may occur in individuals who do not appear to be infected with HIV. The profiles of WB reactivity among Ethiopians are hardly known. Here, we describe the profiles of indeterminate WB reactivity in Ethiopians with discordant screening assays. Between 1996 and 2000, a total of 12,124 specimens were tested for HIV-1 antibodies. Overall, 1,437 (11.9%) were positive for HIV-1 antibody. Ninety-one (?0.8%) gave equivocal results because of discordant results among the various screening assays and indeterminate WB profiles by the American Red Cross (ARC) criteria. Most (30.4%) of these indeterminate WB results were due to p24 reactivity. However, 12 samples (13.2%) displayed reactivity to p24 and gp41 or to p24 and gp120/160 proteins (positive by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] criteria). Only two samples (2.2%) were reactive to both env glycoproteins gp41 and gp120/160 (positive by the World Health Organization [WHO] criteria). Of 31 WB assays initially indeterminate by the ARC criteria and with follow-up samples, 29 (93.5%) became negative when retested subsequently while 2 (6.5%) remained indeterminate for more than a year and were thus considered negative. Using CDC and WHO criteria, 6 (19.4%) and 2 (6.5%), respectively, of these WB assays would have been considered falsely positive. In addition, 17 indeterminate samples were negative when assessed by a nucleic acid-based amplification assay for HIV-1 viremia. In general, there was 97.8% concordance between the ARC and WHO criteria and 85.7% concordance between the ARC and CDC criteria for an indeterminate WB result. The ARC criteria best met the specified objectives for diagnosis in our setting. PMID:11777847

  7. Detection of abused drugs in human blood by using the on-site drug-screening device Oratect® III.

    PubMed

    Toubou, Hirokazu; Namera, Akira; Arima, Yousuke; Uchida, Yukie; Torikoshi, Aiko; Moriya, Fumio; Nagao, Masataka

    2014-09-01

    A simple and precise drug screening method was developed for the detection of abused drugs in whole blood by using the Oratect® III device that is usually employed for the detection of drugs in saliva. Whole blood was acidified with phosphoric acid, following which the hemolyzed solution was filtered through the ultrafiltration column Vivaspin 2 Hydrosart®. The filtrate was then tested for the presence of drugs using Oratect III. The detection limit of the device for methamphetamine, amphetamine, morphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, diazepam, alprazolam, estazolam, and prazepam in whole blood was 125, 125, 50, 50, 50, 25, 60, 15, and 75ng/mL, respectively. The concentration range detected was between therapeutic and toxic drug levels; therefore, the proposed method can be applied for detecting the presence of abused drugs in blood. Our method is a novel, optimized technique for use in forensic laboratories to screen whole blood for drugs of abuse. PMID:24877596

  8. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. PMID:24894458

  9. Drug and bioactive molecule screening based on a bioelectrical impedance cell culture platform

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Sakthivel; Bennet, Devasier; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    This review will present a brief discussion on the recent advancements of bioelectrical impedance cell-based biosensors, especially the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system for screening of various bioactive molecules. The different technical integrations of various chip types, working principles, measurement systems, and applications for drug targeting of molecules in cells are highlighted in this paper. Screening of bioactive molecules based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing is a trial-and-error process toward the development of therapeutically active agents for drug discovery and therapeutics. In general, bioactive molecule screening can be used to identify active molecular targets for various diseases and toxicity at the cellular level with nanoscale resolution. In the innovation and screening of new drugs or bioactive molecules, the activeness, the efficacy of the compound, and safety in biological systems are the main concerns on which determination of drug candidates is based. Further, drug discovery and screening of compounds are often performed in cell-based test systems in order to reduce costs and save time. Moreover, this system can provide more relevant results in in vivo studies, as well as high-throughput drug screening for various diseases during the early stages of drug discovery. Recently, MEMS technologies and integration with image detection techniques have been employed successfully. These new technologies and their possible ongoing transformations are addressed. Select reports are outlined, and not all the work that has been performed in the field of drug screening and development is covered. PMID:25525360

  10. Drug and bioactive molecule screening based on a bioelectrical impedance cell culture platform.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sakthivel; Bennet, Devasier; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    This review will present a brief discussion on the recent advancements of bioelectrical impedance cell-based biosensors, especially the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system for screening of various bioactive molecules. The different technical integrations of various chip types, working principles, measurement systems, and applications for drug targeting of molecules in cells are highlighted in this paper. Screening of bioactive molecules based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing is a trial-and-error process toward the development of therapeutically active agents for drug discovery and therapeutics. In general, bioactive molecule screening can be used to identify active molecular targets for various diseases and toxicity at the cellular level with nanoscale resolution. In the innovation and screening of new drugs or bioactive molecules, the activeness, the efficacy of the compound, and safety in biological systems are the main concerns on which determination of drug candidates is based. Further, drug discovery and screening of compounds are often performed in cell-based test systems in order to reduce costs and save time. Moreover, this system can provide more relevant results in in vivo studies, as well as high-throughput drug screening for various diseases during the early stages of drug discovery. Recently, MEMS technologies and integration with image detection techniques have been employed successfully. These new technologies and their possible ongoing transformations are addressed. Select reports are outlined, and not all the work that has been performed in the field of drug screening and development is covered. PMID:25525360

  11. Use of hybridot assay to screen for BK and JC polyomaviruses in non-immunosuppressed patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, J J; Wickenden, C; Snell, M E; Hulme, B; Malcolm, A D; Coleman, D V

    1987-01-01

    Urine samples from 50 patients attending a genitourinary outpatient clinic and from 13 renal allograft recipients were investigated for evidence of infection with human BK and JC polyomaviruses using cytology and a new DNA hybridot assay. Forty four per cent of samples from the renal allograft recipients were positive by cytology and 75% by DNA hybridisation, indicating that hybridot assay is more sensitive than cytological screening. BK and JC viral DNA was found in 20% of the patients attending the genitourinary clinic, showing infection with BK virus and JC virus in a group of patients with clinical conditions not normally associated with immunological deficiency-a finding that has not been reported before. Images Figure PMID:3040812

  12. A First Application of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening Cyclodiene Insecticides in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Mohrman, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate kit for screening of cyclodiene insecticides (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, and heptachlor) was evaluated for sensitivity, cross reactivity, and overall performance using groundwater samples from a contaminated site. Ground-water contaminants included several pesticide compounds and their manufacturing byproducts, as well as many other organic and inorganic compounds. Cross-reactivity studies were carried out for the cyclodiene compounds, and results were compared to those listed by the manufacturer. Data obtained were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ELISA kit to the cyclodiene compounds in ground water samples with a contaminated matrix. The method quantitation limit for the ELISA kit was 15 ??g/L (as chlordane). Of the 56 ground-water samples analyzed using the ELISA plate kits, more than 85% showed cyclodiene insecticide contamination. The ELISA kit showed excellent potential as a screening tool for sites with suspected groundwater contamination by insecticides.

  13. A proposed screening paradigm for discovery of covalent inhibitor drugs.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Mehran F; Tang, Yang; O'Brien, Zhihong; Richardson, Samantha J; Bacolod, Maria; Chaturedi, Prasoon; Apuy, Julius; Kulkarni, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo preclinical ADME properties of 10 clinically late stage or marketed covalent inhibitors were evaluated in order to define advancement criteria for discovery of future drugs in this arena. Our studies revealed the following: After incubating with S9 fractions for 30 minutes, the rat and human in vitro stability for these compounds ranged from 1% to 100%. The blood stability ranged from 30% to 100%. There was a broad range of CYP inhibition with prevalence for time-dependent inhibition of at least one enzyme. The Caco-2 permeability (A?B) ranged from negligible (0.6 x 10(-6) cm/s) to highly permeable (31 x 10(-6) cm/s) and the efflux ratio also varied widely (0.2-30). Most of the compounds were highly protein bound in both rat and human with binding ? 90%. Rat plasma clearance for the 10 compounds ranged from slow (11 mL/min/kg) to very rapid (350 mL/min/kg). The Vss ranged from low (0.67 L/kg) to very high (115 L/kg). MRT's also ranged from short (0.5 hr) to long (7.4 hr). The oral exposures also showed a very broad range with CMax's ranging from 0.01-77 ?M and exposure levels ranging from 0.03-106 ?M.hr. In conclusion, the wide range in in vitro and in vivo ADME data makes these particular ADME assays non-discriminatory in the selection of promising compounds. In our opinion, non-traditional assays such as target mass modification, target confirmation by amino acid sequencing, cellular target occupancy, and target turnover rate data in combination with the pharmacokinetic profiles are the critical considerations for progression of irreversible compounds in early discovery. PMID:24628405

  14. Bioluminescence-Based Neuraminidase Inhibition Assay for Monitoring Influenza Virus Drug Susceptibility in Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Marjuki, Henju; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Sleeman, Katrina; Okomo-Adhiambo, Margaret; Sheu, Tiffany G.; Guo, Lizheng; Xu, Xiyan

    2013-01-01

    The QFlu prototype bioluminescence-based neuraminidase (NA) inhibition (NI) assay kit was designed to detect NA inhibitor (NAI)-resistant influenza viruses at point of care. Here, we evaluated its suitability for drug susceptibility assessment at a surveillance laboratory. A comprehensive panel of reference viruses (n = 14) and a set of 90 seasonal influenza virus A and B isolates were included for testing with oseltamivir and/or zanamivir in the QFlu assay using the manufacturer-recommended protocol and a modified version attuned to surveillance requirements. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) generated were compared with those of NI assays currently used for monitoring influenza drug susceptibility, the fluorescent (FL) and chemiluminescent (CL) assays. To provide proof of principle, clinical specimens (n = 235) confirmed by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to contain influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 and prescreened for the oseltamivir resistance marker H275Y using pyrosequencing were subsequently tested in the QFlu assay. All three NI assays were able to discriminate the reference NA variants and their matching wild-type viruses based on the difference in their IC50s. Unless the antigenic types were first identified, certain NA variants (e.g., H3N2 with E119V) could be detected among seasonal viruses using the FL assays only. Notably, the QFlu assay identified oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses carrying the H275Y marker directly in clinical specimens, which is not feasible with the other two phenotypic assays, which required prior virus culturing in cells. Furthermore, The QFlu assay allows detection of the influenza virus A and B isolates carrying established and potential NA inhibitor resistance markers and may become a useful tool for monitoring drug resistance in clinical specimens. PMID:23917311

  15. An in vitro high-throughput assay for screening reproductive and toxic effects of anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Vicki; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Young, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    An in vitro assay was developed that simultaneously tested the effects of anticancer drug candidates on cytotoxicity, hormone synthesis, and gonadotrophin responsiveness using the choriocarcinoma JAr cell line. JAr culture conditions were optimized and then cells were exposed to a marine mollusc extract in the presence and absence of hCG. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of the optimized 1 H thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay were 11.3% and 10.9%, respectively. hCG (1,000 mIU/mL) increased progesterone (P4) synthesis after 24 H (P<0.05). The mollusc extract significantly decreased cell viability, with the IC50 affected by incubation time, but not hCG. P4 synthesis was inhibited at low concentrations of the anticancer extract, but stimulated at the highest concentration, and complex interactions of P4 were also found with hCG. In conclusion, the optimized assay is useful to characterize the effects of novel drugs on cytotoxicity, basal, and gonadotrophin-stimulated P4 synthesis in vitro, and can be used to inform subsequent in vivo studies. PMID:24650341

  16. Protein-based fluorescent metal nanoclusters for small molecular drug screening.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; New, Siu Yee; Xie, Jianping; Su, Xiaodi; Tan, Yen Nee

    2014-11-18

    A facile drug screening method based on synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters inside albumin proteins loaded with small molecular drugs and comparing the relative fluorescence intensities of the resultant gold nanoclusters has been developed and successfully applied for the quantitative measurement of drug-protein binding constants. PMID:25253537

  17. Screening for urinary amphetamine in truck drivers and drug addicts.

    PubMed

    Pidetcha, P; Congpuong, P; Putriprawan, T; Rekakanakul, R; Suwanton, L; Tantrarongroj, S

    1995-10-01

    Sixty-two urine samples from truck drivers and drug addicts were analysed by TDx (Abbott Laboratories) for amphetamines. Eighteen samples were found to be positive while the rest were negative. The eighteen samples were simultaneously determined for amphetamines by EMIT (Syva Company). Sixteen samples were found to be positive and 2 of negative samples had amphetamines levels of 0.48-0.85 micrograms/mL. When the same samples were subjected to qualitative screening and some were found false negative as follows: 7 cases in Color Test by using test solution kits amphetamine in urine (the Department of Medical Science, Ministry of Public Health), 8 cases by Albuscreen Ontrax for amphetamine (Roche Diagnostic System), 5 cases by amphetamine Double Antibody 125I-RIA (Diagnostic Products Corporation-DPC) and 3 cases by the method of Ten-One (DPC) respectively. But when forty four samples which gave negative results by TDx were subjected to Testing by EMIT and Ontrax. The results of both EMIT and Ontrax were negative. Some of forty four samples were false positive by the Color Test solution kit amphetamines in urine and amphetamine Double Antibody 125I-RIA. Reliability of results reported not only depends on the methodology or principle but also the sensitivity of the method. PMID:8576663

  18. Screening of crude drug extracts for prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Y; Fan, W; Kasimu, R; Kadota, S

    1999-07-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26) is an enzyme to play a role in metabolism of proline-containing neuropeptides, such as vasopressin, substance P and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which were suggested to be involved with learning and memory processes. Then, specific inhibitor of PEP is expected to have antiamnesic effects, and thus we screened forty-six water- and methanol-extracts from crude drugs selected on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine theory, for Flavobacterium prolyl endopeptidase inhibition. Among them, the water-extracts of Rhodiola sacra (IC50, 0.77 microgram/ml) and the methanol-extracts of Lycopodium clavatum (IC50, 1.3 micrograms/ml), Paeonia lactiflora var. trichocarpa (IC50, 5.7 micrograms/ml), Paeonia veitchii (IC50, 2.4 micrograms/ml) and Rhodiola sacra (IC50, 0.67 microgram/ml) showed strong inhibitory activity. In addition, we also examined the PEP inhibitory activity of eleven compounds from Salvia deserta, and found that in addition to a catechol group alpha-hydroxy-para-quinone group may be related to the PEP inhibition. PMID:10439485

  19. Raman micro spectroscopy for in vitro drug screening: subcellular localisation and interactions of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Farhane, Z; Bonnier, F; Casey, A; Byrne, H J

    2015-06-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy, including Raman micro spectroscopy, has been widely used over the last few years to explore potential biomedical applications. Indeed, Raman micro spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a powerful non-invasive tool in cancer diagnosis and monitoring. In confocal microscopic mode, the technique is also a molecularly specific analytical tool with optical resolution which has potential applications in subcellular analysis of biochemical processes, and therefore as an in vitro screening tool of the efficacy and mode of action of, for example, chemotherapeutic agents. In order to demonstrate and explore the potential in this field, established, model chemotherapeutic agents can be valuable. In this study paper, Raman micro spectroscopy coupled with confocal microscopy were used for the localization and tracking of the commercially available drug, doxorubicin (DOX), in the intracellular environment of the lung cancer cell line, A549. Cytotoxicity assays were employed to establish clinically relevant drug doses for 24 h exposure, and Confocal Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy was conducted in parallel with Raman micro spectroscopy profiling to confirm the drug internalisation and localisation. Multivariate statistical analysis, consisting of PCA (principal components analysis) was used to highlight doxorubicin interaction with cancer cells and spectral variations due to its effects before and after DOX spectral features subtraction from nuclear and nucleolar spectra, were compared to non-exposed control spectra. Results show that Raman micro spectroscopy is not only able to detect doxorubicin inside cells and profile its specific subcellular localisation, but, it is also capable of elucidating the local biomolecular changes elicited by the drug, differentiating the responses in different sub cellular regions. Further analysis clearly demonstrates the early apoptotic effect in the nuclear regions and the initial responses of cells to this death process, demonstrating the potential of the technique to monitor the mechanisms of action and response on a molecular level, with subcellular resolution. PMID:25919793

  20. A High-throughput Screening Assay using Krabbe Disease Patient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ribbens, Jameson; Whiteley, Grace; Furuya, Hirokazu; Southall, Noel; Hu, Xin; Marugan, Juan; Ferrer, Marc; Maegawa, Gustavo H.B.

    2013-01-01

    Globoid-cell leukodystrophy (GLD) or Krabbe disease is a lysosomal disease caused by ?-galactocerebrosidase (GALC) deficiency resulting in a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Unfortunately, the only available treatment is hematopoietic bone marrow transplantation, which prevents its fulminant manifestation but without treating further neurological manifestations. Here we describe the development of a cellular high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using GLD patient fibroblasts to screen for small molecules that enhance the residual mutant GALC enzymatic activity. Small molecules have substantial therapeutic potential in GLD as they are more prone to cross the blood-brain barrier, reaching the neuronal affected cells. The transformation of primary skin fibroblasts with SV40 large T antigen showed to maintain the biochemical characteristics of the GLD cells and generates sufficient cells for the HTS. Using a specific fluorescent substrate, residual GALC activity from a SV40-transformed GLD patient fibroblast was measurable in high-dense microplates plates. The pilot quantitative HTS against a small compound collection showed robust statistics. The small molecules that showed active concentration-response curves were further studied in primary GLD fibroblasts. This cell-based HTS assay demonstrates the feasibility of employing live-GLD patient cells to identify therapeutic agents that can be potentially be used for the treatment of this progressive neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23138179

  1. Imaging-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay To Identify New Molecules with Transmission-Blocking Potential against Plasmodium falciparum Female Gamete Formation.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Blanco, Celia; Lelièvre, Joël; Delves, Michael J; Bardera, Ana I; Presa, Jesús L; López-Barragán, María José; Ruecker, Andrea; Marques, Sara; Sinden, Robert E; Herreros, Esperanza

    2015-06-01

    In response to a call for the global eradication of malaria, drug discovery has recently been extended to identify compounds that prevent the onward transmission of the parasite, which is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum stage V gametocytes. Lately, metabolic activity has been used in vitro as a surrogate for gametocyte viability; however, as gametocytes remain relatively quiescent at this stage, their ability to undergo onward development (gamete formation) may be a better measure of their functional viability. During gamete formation, female gametocytes undergo profound morphological changes and express translationally repressed mRNA. By assessing female gamete cell surface expression of one such repressed protein, Pfs25, as the readout for female gametocyte functional viability, we developed an imaging-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify transmission-blocking compounds. This assay, designated the P. falciparum female gametocyte activation assay (FGAA), was scaled up to a high-throughput format (Z' factor, 0.7 ± 0.1) and subsequently validated using a selection of 50 known antimalarials from diverse chemical families. Only a few of these agents showed submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations in the assay: thiostrepton, methylene blue, and some endoperoxides. To determine the best conditions for HTS, a robustness test was performed with a selection of the GlaxoSmithKline Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set (TCAMS) and the final screening conditions for this library were determined to be a 2 ?M concentration and 48 h of incubation with gametocytes. The P. falciparum FGAA has been proven to be a robust HTS assay faithful to Plasmodium transmission-stage cell biology, and it is an innovative useful tool for antimalarial drug discovery which aims to identify new molecules with transmission-blocking potential. PMID:25801574

  2. A Novel High-Throughput Screening Assay to Identify Inhibitors of HIV-1 gp120 Protein Interaction with DC-SIGN

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thuong H.; El Baz, Rasha; Cuconati, Andrea; Arthos, James; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 UNAIDS report states that approximately 34 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Despite being effective, ARV therapy has many disadvantages including a cost trajectory unsustainable for economically challenged countries, serious side effects, and the development of drug-resistant strains. Several measures are under way to develop alternatives for ARV therapy, particularly for the control of early HIV-1 infection, but lack of efficient drug targets and assays hinders the search of potential ARV molecules. The dendritic cells present in the mucosal tissue, together with CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages, are among the first cells to encounter HIV-1. The dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) molecule plays a crucial role in binding HIV-1 through high affinity interaction with viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. DC-SIGN, a mannose-binding C-type lectin expressed on cells in the mucosal tissue of the rectum, uterus and cervix, facilitates early HIV-1 infection after sexual transmission. In this study we report a novel target-specific high-throughput screening (HTS) assay capable of quantifying the binding as well as the inhibition of DC-SIGN and gp120. The specificity of the assay was determined through competitive inhibition while optimization occurred for DMSO tolerance (0.5%), Z’ factor (0.51), signal-to-noise ratio (3.26), and coefficient of variation (5.1%). For assay validation previously recognized antagonists of DC-SIGN/gp120 binding were tested to detect inhibition demonstrating the suitability of the assay for future HTS screen of potential inhibitors that block the binding between DC-SIGN and gp120 which may prevent early HIV-1 infection. PMID:22102941

  3. Automated assay for screening the enzymatic release of reducing sugars from micronized biomass

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To reduce the production cost of bioethanol obtained from fermentation of the sugars provided by degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., second generation bioethanol), it is necessary to screen for new enzymes endowed with more efficient biomass degrading properties. This demands the set-up of high-throughput screening methods. Several methods have been devised all using microplates in the industrial SBS format. Although this size reduction and standardization has greatly improved the screening process, the published methods comprise one or more manual steps that seriously decrease throughput. Therefore, we worked to devise a screening method devoid of any manual steps. Results We describe a fully automated assay for measuring the amount of reducing sugars released by biomass-degrading enzymes from wheat-straw and spruce. The method comprises two independent and automated steps. The first step is the making of "substrate plates". It consists of filling 96-well microplates with slurry suspensions of micronized substrate which are then stored frozen until use. The second step is an enzymatic activity assay. After thawing, the substrate plates are supplemented by the robot with cell-wall degrading enzymes where necessary, and the whole process from addition of enzymes to quantification of released sugars is autonomously performed by the robot. We describe how critical parameters (amount of substrate, amount of enzyme, incubation duration and temperature) were selected to fit with our specific use. The ability of this automated small-scale assay to discriminate among different enzymatic activities was validated using a set of commercial enzymes. Conclusions Using an automatic microplate sealer solved three main problems generally encountered during the set-up of methods for measuring the sugar-releasing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes: throughput, automation, and evaporation losses. In its present set-up, the robot can autonomously process 120 triplicate wheat-straw samples per day. This throughput can be doubled if the incubation time is reduced from 24 h to 4 h (for initial rates measurements, for instance). This method can potentially be used with any insoluble substrate that is micronizable. A video illustrating the method can be seen at the following URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFg6TxjuMWU PMID:20637080

  4. Developing highER-throughput zebrafish screens for in-vivo CNS drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of brain disorders and the lack of their efficient treatments necessitate improved in-vivo pre-clinical models and tests. The zebrafish (Danio rerio), a vertebrate species with high genetic and physiological homology to humans, is an excellent organism for innovative central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery and small molecule screening. Here, we outline new strategies for developing higher-throughput zebrafish screens to test neuroactive drugs and predict their pharmacological mechanisms. With the growing application of automated 3D phenotyping, machine learning algorithms, movement pattern- and behavior recognition, and multi-animal video-tracking, zebrafish screens are expected to markedly improve CNS drug discovery. PMID:25729356

  5. The current status of time dependent CYP inhibition assay and in silico drug-drug interaction predictions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengyin; Caldwell, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Various CYP time-dependent inhibition (TDI) assays have been widely implemented in drug discovery and development which has led to great success in positively identifying compounds with mechanism-base inhibition liability. However, drug-drug interaction (DDI) predictions by various in-silico models utilizing kinetic parameters obtained from TDI assays have met with significant challenges including questionable kinetic data, over-simplified in-vitro models and unreliable mathematic algorithms. Although significant efforts have been made to standardize the TDI assay and refine mathematical models, recent evaluation studies have revealed that the kinetic parameters of TDI, the most important in-vitro data required by all DDI prediction models, are significantly impacted by a variety of experimental variables including microsomal protein concentration, metabolic stability, CYP-specific probes, and post-incubation time. This review attempts to provide medicinal chemists a brief overview on the current status of TDI assays, determination of kinetic parameters and in silico DDI predictions with emphasis on the complexity of the TDI kinetics and limitations of current in-vitro models and DDI prediction methodologies. PMID:22571791

  6. High content screening analysis of phospholipidosis: validation of a 96-well assay with CHO-K1 and HepG2 cells for the prediction of in vivo based phospholipidosis.

    PubMed

    van de Water, F M; Havinga, J; Ravesloot, W T; Horbach, G J M J; Schoonen, W G E J

    2011-12-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis is marked by an excessive accumulation of phospholipids in lysosomes which can occur after exposure to cationic amphiphilic drugs. Phospholipidosis is considered as an adverse side effect and may delay or negatively affect registration of drug candidates. Currently, the gold standard method of phospholipidosis detection is electron microscopy on tissue samples. This technique is time consuming and only performed relatively late in drug development. Therefore, in vitro screening methods for phospholipidosis are essential in early drug development. In this study, an in vitro phospholipidosis detection assay is developed with CHO-K1 and HepG2 cells by using the fluorescent marker NBD-PE and high content screening analysis. Lysosomal localization of NBD-PE was demonstrated by colocalization with Lysotracker and lamellar body formation by electron microscopy. Upon drug exposure, lysosomal NBD-PE accumulation can be visualized and quantified. Validation with 56 reference compounds, divided in 25 phospholipidosis inducers and 31 negative compounds, showed that this new in vitro assay has a high sensitivity (CHO-K1=92.0% and HepG2=88.0%) and specificity (CHO-K1=87.1% and HepG2=80.6%) for predicting phospholipidosis in vivo. Thus a selective screening tool has been developed for early selection of drug candidates with low probability for phospholipidosis. PMID:21651975

  7. The E-screen assay: a comparison of different MCF7 cell stocks.

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos, M; Olea, N; Brotons, J A; Olea-Serrano, M F; Ruiz de Almodovar, J M; Pedraza, V

    1995-01-01

    MCF7 human breast cancer cells have been studied extensively as a model for hormonal effects on breast cancer cell growth and specific protein synthesis. Because the proliferative effect of natural estrogen is considered the hallmark of estrogen action, it was proposed that this property be used to determine whether a substance is an estrogen. The E-screen assay, developed for this purpose, is based on the ability of MCF7 cells to proliferate in the presence of estrogens. The aim of our study was to characterize the response of four MCF7 cell stocks (BUS, ATCC, BB, and BB104) and determine which of them performed best in the E-screen test. The four stocks assayed were distinguishable by their biological behavior. In the absence of estrogen, MCF7 BUS cells stopped proliferating and accumulated in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle; estrogen receptors increased, progesterone receptors decreased, and small amounts of pS2 protein were secreted. Of all the MCF7 stocks tested, MCF7 BUS cells showed the highest proliferative response to estradiol-17 beta: cell yields increased up to sixfold over those of nontreated cells in a 144-hr period. The differences between estrogen-supplemented and nonsupplemented MCF7 BUS cells were due mostly to G0/G1 proliferative arrest mediated by charcoal dextran-stripped serum. MCF7 BUS cell stocks and others showing a similar proliferative pattern should be chosen for use in the E-screen test, or whenever a proliferative effect of estrogen is to be demonstrated. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 5. D PMID:7498097

  8. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  9. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  10. A real-time fluorescence polarization activity assay to screen for inhibitors of bacterial ribonuclease P.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Chen, Yu; Fierke, Carol A

    2014-11-10

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential endonuclease that catalyzes the 5' end maturation of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Bacterial RNase P is an attractive potential antibacterial target because it is essential for cell survival and has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts. To accelerate both structure-function studies and discovery of inhibitors of RNase P, we developed the first real-time RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) with a 5' end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNAAsp substrate. This FP/FA assay also detects binding of small molecules to pre-tRNA. Neomycin B and kanamycin B bind to pre-tRNAAsp with a Kd value that is comparable to their IC50 value for inhibition of RNase P, suggesting that binding of these antibiotics to the pre-tRNA substrate contributes to the inhibitory activity. This assay was optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify specific inhibitors of RNase P from a 2880 compound library. A natural product derivative, iriginol hexaacetate, was identified as a new inhibitor of Bacillus subtilis RNase P. The FP/FA methodology and inhibitors reported here will further our understanding of RNase P molecular recognition and facilitate discovery of antibacterial compounds that target RNase P. PMID:25249623

  11. A real-time fluorescence polarization activity assay to screen for inhibitors of bacterial ribonuclease P

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Chen, Yu; Fierke, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential endonuclease that catalyzes the 5? end maturation of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Bacterial RNase P is an attractive potential antibacterial target because it is essential for cell survival and has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts. To accelerate both structure-function studies and discovery of inhibitors of RNase P, we developed the first real-time RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) with a 5? end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNAAsp substrate. This FP/FA assay also detects binding of small molecules to pre-tRNA. Neomycin B and kanamycin B bind to pre-tRNAAsp with a Kd value that is comparable to their IC50 value for inhibition of RNase P, suggesting that binding of these antibiotics to the pre-tRNA substrate contributes to the inhibitory activity. This assay was optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify specific inhibitors of RNase P from a 2880 compound library. A natural product derivative, iriginol hexaacetate, was identified as a new inhibitor of Bacillus subtilis RNase P. The FP/FA methodology and inhibitors reported here will further our understanding of RNase P molecular recognition and facilitate discovery of antibacterial compounds that target RNase P. PMID:25249623

  12. A High-Throughput Screening Assay of Ascorbate in Brain Samples

    PubMed Central

    Belikova, Natalia A.; Glumac, Ashley L.; Kapralova, Valentyna; Cheikhi, Amin; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Vagni, Vince A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Bayîr, Hülya

    2011-01-01

    Ascorbate is a vital reductant/free radical scavenger in the CNS, whose content defines – to a large extent - the redox status and the antioxidant reserves. Quick, reliable and specific methods for its measurement in brain samples are highly desirable. We have developed a new high-throughput screening assay for measurements of ascorbate using a fluorescence plate-reader. This assay is based on a direct reaction of ascorbate with a nitroxide radical conjugated with a fluorogenic acridine moiety, 4-((9-acridinecarbonyl)-amino)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (AC-TEMPO), yielding fluorescent hydroxylamine product (AC-TEMPO-H). The reaction was monitored over time using fluorescence and electron spin resonance techniques. The appearance of fluorescent AC-TEMPO-H was linear within the range of 3.75–75 ?M AscH- in the sample (0.5–10 ?M AscH- in the well). Assay was validated with high performance liquid chromatography method. The concentration of ascorbate in murine tissue samples, including brain samples after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, was measured. PMID:21855575

  13. Protein microarray assay for the screening of SH3 domain interactions.

    PubMed

    Asbach, Benedikt; Kolb, Michaela; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf; Schäferling, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Analysis of cellular signal transduction processes increasingly focuses on the systematic characterization of complete protein interaction networks. Understanding the interplay of signaling components enables insight into the molecular basis of diverse diseases such as cancer. This paves the way for the rational design of specific therapeutics. Protein interactions are often mediated by conserved modular domains, e.g., SH3-domains, which recognize proline-rich sequences in their cognate ligands. In the course of this study, different microarray formats (reactive silane monolayers and nitrocellulose on glass slides) and assay work flows were evaluated to develop a microarray based screening assay that permits the reliable identification of interactions between certain target proteins with a set of SH3 domains. Nine representative SH3 domains which were produced and purified as GST-fusion proteins were spotted on the microarray substrates and probed with two well-characterized ligands, the Nef protein from HIV-1 and the human protein Sam68. The best results from these low-density model arrays were obtained with nitrocellulose slides. We show that a straightforward and highly robust detection of ligand binding is achieved by staining with a fluorescently labeled antibody directed against the N-terminal His-tag attached to these proteins. The optimized assay protocol reported here allows for the identification of SH3-interactions with high reproducibility and adequate signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios, as well as the quantitative determination of relative binding affinities. PMID:20859618

  14. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. Results Here, we provide a cost effective method for the production of 96-well plate compatible zebrafish orientation tools using a desktop 3D printer. The printed tools enable the positioning and orientation of zebrafish embryos within cavities formed in agarose. Their applicability is demonstrated by acquiring lateral and dorsal views of zebrafish embryos arrayed within microtiter plates using an automated screening microscope. This enables the consistent visualization of morphological phenotypes and reporter gene expression patterns. Conclusions The designs are refined versions of previously demonstrated devices with added functionality and strongly reduced production costs. All corresponding 3D models are freely available and digital design can be easily shared electronically. In combination with the increasingly widespread usage of 3D printers, this provides access to the developed tools to a wide range of zebrafish users. Finally, the design files can serve as templates for other additive and subtractive fabrication methods. PMID:24886511

  15. Automated drug screening with contractile muscle tissue engineered from dystrophic myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Vandenburgh, Herman; Shansky, Janet; Benesch-Lee, Frank; Skelly, Kirsten; Spinazzola, Janelle M.; Saponjian, Yero; Tseng, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of factors that improve muscle function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) could lead to an improved quality of life. To establish a functional in vitro assay for muscle strength, mdx murine myoblasts, the genetic homologue of DMD, were tissue engineered in 96-microwell plates into 3-dimensional muscle constructs with parallel arrays of striated muscle fibers. When electrically stimulated, they generated tetanic forces measured with an automated motion tracking system. Thirty-one compounds of interest as potential treatments for patients with DMD were tested at 3 to 6 concentrations. Eleven of the compounds (insulin-like growth factor-1, creatine, ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate, trichostatin A, lisinopril, and 6 from the glucocorticoid family) significantly increased tetanic force relative to placebo-treated controls. The glucocorticoids methylprednisolone, deflazacort, and prednisone increased tetanic forces at low doses (EC50 of 6, 19, and 56 nM, respectively), indicating a direct muscle mechanism by which they may be benefitting DMD patients. The tetanic force assay also identified beneficial compound interactions (arginine plus deflazacort and prednisone plus creatine) as well as deleterious interactions (prednisone plus creatine inhibited by pentoxifylline) of combinatorial therapies taken by some DMD patients. Since mdx muscle in vivo and DMD patients respond in a similar manner to many of these compounds, the in vitro assay will be a useful tool for the rapid identification of new potential treatments for muscle weakness in DMD and other muscle disorders.—Vandenburgh, H., Shansky, J., Benesch-Lee, F., Skelly, K., Spinazzola, J.M., Saponjian, Y., Tseng, B.S. Automated drug screening with contractile muscle tissue engineered from dystrophic myoblasts. PMID:19487307

  16. Systematic identification of antiprion drugs by high-throughput screening based on scanning for intensely fluorescent targets.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Uwe; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Hirschberger, Thomas; Bieschke, Jan; Weber, Petra; Hartl, F Ulrich; Tavan, Paul; Tatzelt, Jörg; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Giese, Armin

    2005-06-01

    Conformational changes and aggregation of specific proteins are hallmarks of a number of diseases, like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and prion diseases. In the case of prion diseases, the prion protein (PrP), a neuronal glycoprotein, undergoes a conformational change from the normal, mainly alpha-helical conformation to a disease-associated, mainly beta-sheeted scrapie isoform (PrP(Sc)), which forms amyloid aggregates. This conversion, which is crucial for disease progression, depends on direct PrP(C)/PrP(Sc) interaction. We developed a high-throughput assay based on scanning for intensely fluorescent targets (SIFT) for the identification of drugs which interfere with this interaction at the molecular level. Screening of a library of 10,000 drug-like compounds yielded 256 primary hits, 80 of which were confirmed by dose response curves with half-maximal inhibitory effects ranging from 0.3 to 60 microM. Among these, six compounds displayed an inhibitory effect on PrP(Sc) propagation in scrapie-infected N2a cells. Four of these candidate drugs share an N'-benzylidene-benzohydrazide core structure. Thus, the combination of high-throughput in vitro assay with the established cell culture system provides a rapid and efficient method to identify new antiprion drugs, which corroborates that interaction of PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) is a crucial molecular step in the propagation of prions. Moreover, SIFT-based screening may facilitate the search for drugs against other diseases linked to protein aggregation. PMID:15919931

  17. A novel assay to assess the effectiveness of antiangiogenic drugs in human breast cancer.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cytotoxic drugs maintain antiangiogenic properties, but there are no human, tumor-based assays to evaluate their antiangiogenic potential. We used a fibrin-thrombin clot-based angiogenesis model to evaluate the angiogenic response of human breast cancer to various cytotoxic agents commonly used...

  18. Direct Multiplex Assay of Lysosomal Enzymes in Dried Blood Spots for Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Scott, C. Ronald; Chamoles, Nestor A.; Ghavami, Ahmad; Pinto, B. Mario; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Newborn screening for deficiency in the lysosomal enzymes that cause Fabry, Gaucher, Krabbe, Niemann–Pick A/B, and Pompe diseases is warranted because treatment for these syndromes is now available or anticipated in the near feature. We describe a multiplex screening method for all five lysosomal enzymes that uses newborn-screening cards containing dried blood spots as the enzyme source. Methods We used a cassette of substrates and internal standards to directly quantify the enzymatic activities, and tandem mass spectrometry for enzymatic product detection. Rehydrated dried blood spots were incubated with the enzyme substrates. We used liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction with silica gel to remove buffer components. Acarbose served as inhibitor of an interfering acid ?-glucosidase present in neutrophils, which allowed the lysosomal enzyme implicated in Pompe disease to be selectively analyzed. Results We analyzed dried blood spots from 5 patients with Gaucher, 5 with Niemann–Pick A/B, 11 with Pompe, 5 with Fabry, and 12 with Krabbe disease, and in all cases the enzyme activities were below the minimum activities measured in a collection of heterozygous carriers and healthy noncarrier individuals. The enzyme activities measured in 5–9 heterozygous carriers were approximately one-half those measured with 15–32 healthy individuals, but there was partial overlap of each condition between the data sets for carriers and healthy individuals. Conclusion For all five diseases, the affected individuals were detected. The assay can be readily automated, and the anticipated reagent and supply costs are well within the budget limits of newborn-screening centers. PMID:15292070

  19. A Novel Phenotypic Drug Susceptibility Assay for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Petropoulos, Christos J.; Parkin, Neil T.; Limoli, Kay L.; Lie, Yolanda S.; Wrin, Terri; Huang, Wei; Tian, Huan; Smith, Douglas; Winslow, Genine A.; Capon, Daniel J.; Whitcomb, Jeannette M.

    2000-01-01

    Although combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a considerable improvement in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the emergence of resistant virus is a significant obstacle to the effective management of HIV infection and AIDS. We have developed a novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay that may be useful in guiding therapy and improving long-term suppression of HIV replication. Susceptibility to protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors is measured by using resistance test vectors (RTVs) that contain a luciferase indicator gene and PR and RT sequences derived from HIV-1 in patient plasma. Cells are transfected with RTV DNA, resulting in the production of virus particles that are used to infect target cells. Since RTVs are replication defective, luciferase activity is measured following a single round of replication. The assay has been automated to increase throughput and is completed in 8 to 10 days. Test results may be useful in facilitating the selection of optimal treatment regimens for patients who have failed prior therapy or drug-naive patients infected with drug-resistant virus. In addition, the assay can be used to evaluate candidate drugs and assist in the development of new drugs that are active against resistant strains of HIV-1. PMID:10722492

  20. A screen of approved drugs and molecular probes identifies therapeutics with anti-Ebola virus activity.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Lisa M; DeWald, Lisa Evans; Shoemaker, Charles J; Hoffstrom, Benjamin G; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Stossel, Andrea; Nelson, Elizabeth; Delos, Sue E; Simmons, James A; Grenier, Jill M; Pierce, Laura T; Pajouhesh, Hassan; Lehár, Joseph; Hensley, Lisa E; Glass, Pamela J; White, Judith M; Olinger, Gene G

    2015-06-01

    Currently, no approved therapeutics exist to treat or prevent infections induced by Ebola viruses, and recent events have demonstrated an urgent need for rapid discovery of new treatments. Repurposing approved drugs for emerging infections remains a critical resource for potential antiviral therapies. We tested ~2600 approved drugs and molecular probes in an in vitro infection assay using the type species, Zaire ebolavirus. Selective antiviral activity was found for 80 U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs spanning multiple mechanistic classes, including selective estrogen receptor modulators, antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, and antidepressants. Results using an in vivo murine Ebola virus infection model confirmed the protective ability of several drugs, such as bepridil and sertraline. Viral entry assays indicated that most of these antiviral drugs block a late stage of viral entry. By nature of their approved status, these drugs have the potential to be rapidly advanced to clinical settings and used as therapeutic countermeasures for Ebola virus infections. PMID:26041706

  1. [Simple screening method for judging the complex formation between drug and aluminum (III)].

    PubMed

    Miyachi, Kanako; Nakao, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Hisashi; Tomida, Mayu; Kamino, Shinichiro; Moriyama, Kenzo; Yamaguchi, Takako; Fujita, Yoshikazu

    2009-12-01

    We examined a simple screening method for judging the complex formation between a drug and aluminum(III) on a spot plate. As few drug had color reaction by basing on the binary complex formation of drug-aluminum(III), the ternary complex formation of drug-aluminum(III)-dye was studied this time using 50 kinds of drugs. The dyes used were Chromazurol S and Erythrosin. As a result, in the drug that the complex formation with aluminum(III) was assumed, a remarkable coloration difference was recognized in comparison with the blank prepared under the same conditions. The proposed simple screening method should be very useful for judging instantly the complex formation between a drug and aluminum(III). PMID:19952536

  2. Establishment of a novel cell-based assay for screening small molecule antagonists of human interleukin-6 receptor

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-yang; Yan, Yu; Zhang, Chang; Li, Peng-yuan; Wu, Ping; Du, Peng; Zeng, Da-di; Fang, Jian-song; Wang, Shuang; Du, Guan-hua

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Blockade of interleukin-6 (IL-6) or its receptor (IL-6R) is effective in preventing the progression of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we established a novel cell-based assay for identifying small molecule IL-6R antagonists. Methods: HEK293A cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids pTaglite-SNAP-IL6R and pABhFc-IL6 to obtain membrane-bound IL-6R and recombinant human IL-6 coupled with human Fc fragment (rhIL-6), respectively. A novel screening assay based on the interaction between IL-6R and rhIL-6 was established, optimized and validated. The stability of the assay was also assessed by calculating the Z?-factor. Results: RhIL-6 dose-dependently bound to IL-6R expressed at HEK293A cell surface. The IC50 value of the known antagonist ab47215 was 0.38±0.08 ?g/mL, which was consistent with that obtained using the traditional method (0.36±0.14 ?g/mL). The value of Z?-factor was 0.68, suggesting that the novel assay was stable for high throughput screening. A total of 474 compounds were screened using the novel screening assay, and 3 compounds exhibited antagonistic activities (IC50=8.73±0.28, 32.32±9.08, 57.83±4.24 ?g/mL). Furthermore, the active compounds dose-dependently inhibited IL-6-induced proliferation of 7TD1 cells, and reduced IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in U937 cells. Conclusion: A novel cell-based screening assay for identifying small molecule IL-6R antagonists was established, which simplifies the procedures in traditional cellular ELISA screening and profiling and reduces the costs. PMID:25345743

  3. Screening for the drug-phospholipid interaction: correlation to phospholipidosis.

    PubMed

    Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Vitovic, Pavol; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2009-08-01

    Phospholipid bilayers represent a complex, anisotropic environment fundamentally different from bulk oil or octanol, for instance. Even "simple" drug association to phospholipid bilayers can only be fully understood if the slab-of-hydrocarbon approach is abandoned and the complex, anisotropic properties of lipid bilayers reflecting the chemical structures and organization of the constituent phospholipids are considered. The interactions of drugs with phospholipids are important in various processes, such as drug absorption, tissue distribution, and subcellular distribution. In addition, drug-lipid interactions may lead to changes in lipid-dependent protein activities, and further, to functional and morphological changes in cells, a prominent example being the phospholipidosis (PLD) induced by cationic amphiphilic drugs. Herein we briefly review drug-lipid interactions in general and the significance of these interactions in PLD in particular. We also focus on a potential causal connection between drug-induced PLD and steatohepatitis, which is induced by some cationic amphiphilic drugs. PMID:19551800

  4. A lactate dehydrogenase ELISA-based assay for the in vitro determination of Plasmodium berghei sensitivity to anti-malarial drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium berghei rodent malaria is a well-known model for the investigation of anti-malarial drug efficacy in vivo. However, the availability of drug in vitro assays in P. berghei is reduced when compared with the spectrum of techniques existing for Plasmodium falciparum. New alternatives to the current manual or automated methods described for P. berghei are attractive. The present study reports a new ELISA drug in vitro assay for P. berghei using two monoclonal antibodies against the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Methods This procedure includes a short-in vitro culture, the purification of schizonts and the further generation of synchronized mice infections. Early stages of the parasite are then incubated against different concentrations of anti-malarial drugs using micro-plates. The novelty of this procedure in P. berghei relies on the quantification of the drug activity derived from the amount of pLDH estimated by an ELISA assay using two monoclonal antibodies: 14C1 and 19G7. The IC50s obtained through the ELISA assay were compared with those from the micro-test. Results The initial parameters of the synchronized samples used in the in vitro assays were a parasitaemia of 0.5% and haematocrit of 1%, with an incubation period of 22 hours at 36.5°C. pLDH detection using a 14C1 coating at 10 ?g/ml and 19G7 at 2.5 × 10-3 ?g/ml provided good readouts of optical densities with low background in negative controls and specific detection levels for all parasite stages. IC50s values derived from the ELISA assay for artesunate, chloroquine, amodiaquine and quinine were: 15, 7, 2, and 144 nM, respectively. When artesunate and chloroquine IC50s were evaluated using the micro-test similar values were obtained. Conclusion This ELISA-based in vitro drug assay is easy to implement, fast, and avoids the use radioisotopes or expensive equipment. The utility of this simple assay for screening anti-malarial drug activity against P. berghei in vitro is demonstrated. PMID:23126583

  5. Screening for antiradical efficiency of 21 semi-synthetic derivatives of quercetin in a DPPH assay

    PubMed Central

    Milackova, Ivana; Kovacikova, Lucia; Veverka, Miroslav; Gallovic, Ján

    2013-01-01

    The group of 21 novel semi-synthetic derivatives of quercetin was screened for the antiradical efficiency in a DPPH assay. The initial fast absorbance decrease of DPPH, corresponding to the transfer of the most labile H atoms, was followed by a much slower absorbance decline representing the residual antiradical activity of the antioxidant degradation products. Initial velocity of DPPH decolorization determined for the first 75-s interval was used as a marker of the antiradical activity. Application of the kinetic parameter allowed good discrimination between the polyphenolic compounds studied. The most efficient chloronaphthoquinone derivative (compound Ia) was characterized by antiradical activity higher than that of quercetin and comparable with that of trolox. Under the experimental conditions used, one molecule of Ia was found to quench 2.6±0.1 DPPH radicals. PMID:24170974

  6. A fluorescence lifetime-based assay for serine and threonine kinases that is suitable for high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Michael J; Dunsmore, Colin J; Hurteaux, Reynald; Maltman, Beatrice A; Cotton, Graham J; Gray, Alexander

    2010-07-01

    We describe the development of a novel method for the assay of serine/threonine protein kinases based on fluorescence lifetime. The assay consists of three generic peptides (which have been used by others in the assay of >140 protein kinases in various assay formats) labeled with a long lifetime fluorescent dye (14 or 17 ns) that act as substrates for protein kinases and an iron(III) chelate that modulates the fluorescence lifetime of the peptide only when it is phosphorylated. The decrease in average fluorescence lifetime as measured in a recently developed fluorescence lifetime plate reader (Edinburgh Instruments) is a measure of the degree of phosphorylation of the peptide. We present data showing that the assay performs as well as, and in some cases better than, the "gold standard" radiometric kinase assays with respect to Z' values, demonstrating its utility in high-throughput screening applications. We also show that the assay gives nearly identical results in trial screening to those obtained by radiometric assays and that it is less prone to interference than simple fluorescence intensity measurements. PMID:20230774

  7. Development and validation of HTS assay for screening the calcium-activated chloride channel modulators in TMEM16A stably expressed CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jinlong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Yani; Zhang, Fan; Guan, Bingcai; Zhang, Hailin

    2014-02-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs), for example TMEM16A, are widely expressed in a variety of tissues and are involved in many important physiological functions. We developed and validated an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)-based detection system for high-throughput screening (HTS) of CaCC modulators. With this assay, Cl(-) flux from CHO cells stably transfected with TMEM16A is assayed indirectly, by measuring excess silver ions (Ag(+)) in the supernatant of AgCl precipitates. The screening process involved four steps: (1) TMEM16A CHO cells were incubated in high-K(+) and high-Cl(-) buffer with test compounds, and with ionomycin as Ca(2+) ionophore, for 12 min; (2) cells were washed with a low-K(+), Cl(-)-free and Ca(2+)-free buffer; (3) CaCC/TMEM16A were activated in high-K(+), Cl(-)-free buffer with ionomycin (10 ?mol L(-1)) for 12 min; and (4) excess Ag(+) concentration was measured using an ion channel reader (ICR, an AAS system). The assay can be used to screen CaCC activators and inhibitors at the same time. With this assay, positive control drugs, including NPPB, CaCCinh-A01, flufenamic acid (Flu) and Eact, all had good concentration-dependent effects on CaCC/TMEM16A. NPPB and CaCCinh-A01 inhibited the CaCC/TMEM16A currents completely at 300 ?mol L(-1), with IC50 values of 39.35?±?4.72 ?mol L(-1) and 6.35?±?0.27 ?mol L(-1), respectively; and Eact, activated CaCC/TMEM16A, with an EC50 value of 3.92?±?0.87 ?mol L(-1). PMID:24448969

  8. A High Throughput Screening Assay System for the Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of gsp

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Hu, Xin; Chen, Catherine Z.; Mathews Griner, Lesley A.; Zheng, Wei; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Marugan, Juan J.; Southall, Noel; Neumann, Susanne; Northup, John K.; Ferrer, Marc; Collins, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Mis-sense mutations in the ?-subunit of the G-protein, Gs?, cause fibrous dysplasia of bone/McCune-Albright syndrome. The biochemical outcome of these mutations is constitutively active Gs? and increased levels of cAMP. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that would allow the identification of small molecule inhibitors specific for the mutant Gs? protein, the so-called gsp oncogene. Commercially available Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with either wild-type (WT) or mutant Gs? proteins (R201C and R201H). Stable cell lines with equivalent transfected Gs? protein expression that had relatively lower (WT) or higher (R201C and R201H) cAMP levels were generated. These cell lines were used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)–based cAMP assay in 1536-well microplate format for high throughput screening of small molecule libraries. A small molecule library of 343,768 compounds was screened to identify modulators of gsp activity. A total of 1,356 compounds with inhibitory activity were initially identified and reconfirmed when tested in concentration dose responses. Six hundred eighty-six molecules were selected for further analysis after removing cytotoxic compounds and those that were active in forskolin-induced WT cells. These molecules were grouped by potency, efficacy, and structural similarities to yield 22 clusters with more than 5 of structurally similar members and 144 singleton molecules. Seven chemotypes of the major clusters were identified for further testing and analyses. PMID:24667240

  9. Drug screening and confirmation by GC–MS: Comparison of EMIT II and Online KIMS against 10 drugs between US and England laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie T. Lu; Bruce G. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Drug screening through urinalysis is a widely accepted tool for rapid detection of potential drug use at a relatively low cost. It is, therefore, a potentially useful method for detecting and monitoring drug use in a variety of contexts such as the criminal justice system, pre-employment screening and a variety of treatment centers. This article explores the efficacy of two

  10. Rapid and Simple Kinetics Screening Assay for Electrophilic Dermal Sensitizers using Nitrobenzenethiol

    PubMed Central

    Chipinda, Itai; Ajibola, Risikat O.; Morakinyo, Moshood K.; Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Simoyi, Reuben H.; Siegel, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    The need for alternatives to animal based skin sensitization testing has spurred research on the use of in-vitro, in silico and in chemico methods. Glutathione and other select peptides have been used to determine the reactivity of electrophilic allergens to nucleophiles, but these methods are inadequate to accurately measure rapid kinetics observed with many chemical sensitizers. A kinetic spectrophotometric assay involving the reactivity of electrophilic sensitizers to nitrobenzenethiol was evaluated. Stopped flow techniques and conventional UV spectrophotometric measurements enabled determination of reaction rates with half-lives ranging from 0.4 ms (benzoquinone) to 46.2 s (ethyl acrylate). Rate constants were measured for 7 extreme, 5 strong, 7 moderate and 4 weak/non-sensitizers. 17 out of the 23 tested chemicals were pseudo-first order and 3 were second order. In 3 out of the 23 chemicals, deviations from first and second order were apparent where the chemicals exhibited complex kinetics whose rates are mixed order. The reaction rates of the electrophiles correlated positively with their EC3 values within the same mechanistic domain. Nonsensitizers such as benzaldehyde, sodium lauryl sulfate and benzocaine did not react with nitrobenzenethiol. Cyclic anhydrides, diones and aromatic aldehydes proved to be false negatives in this assay. The findings from this simple and rapid absorbance model show that for the same mechanistic domain, skin sensitization is driven mainly by electrophilic reactivity. This simple, rapid and inexpensive absorbance based method has great potential for use as a preliminary screening tool for skin allergens. PMID:20402462

  11. GeneChip{sup {trademark}} screening assay for cystic fibrosis mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Cronn, M.T.; Miyada, C.G.; Fucini, R.V. [Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    GeneChip{sup {trademark}} assays are based on high density, carefully designed arrays of short oligonucleotide probes (13-16 bases) built directly on derivatized silica substrates. DNA target sequence analysis is achieved by hybridizing fluorescently labeled amplification products to these arrays. Fluorescent hybridization signals located within the probe array are translated into target sequence information using the known probe sequence at each array feature. The mutation screening assay for cystic fibrosis includes sets of oligonucleotide probes designed to detect numerous different mutations that have been described in 14 exons and one intron of the CFTR gene. Each mutation site is addressed by a sub-array of at least 40 probe sequences, half designed to detect the wild type gene sequence and half designed to detect the reported mutant sequence. Hybridization with homozygous mutant, homozygous wild type or heterozygous targets results in distinctive hybridization patterns within a sub-array, permitting specific discrimination of each mutation. The GeneChip probe arrays are very small (approximately 1 cm{sup 2}). There miniature size coupled with their high information content make GeneChip probe arrays a useful and practical means for providing CF mutation analysis in a clinical setting.

  12. Antimycobacterial screening of traditional medicinal plants using the microplate resazurin assay.

    PubMed

    Webster, Duncan; Lee, Timothy D G; Moore, Jill; Manning, Tracy; Kunimoto, Dennis; LeBlanc, Darren; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

    2010-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains have rapidly become a global health concern. North American First Nations communities have used traditional medicines for generations to treat many pulmonary infections. In this study, we evaluated the antimycobacterial activity of 5 medicinal plants traditionally used as general therapeutics for pulmonary illnesses and specifically as treatments for tuberculosis. Aqueous extracts of Aralia nudicaulis, Symplocarpus foetidus, Heracleum maximum, Juniperus communis, and Acorus calamus were screened for antimycobacterial activity against Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Mycobacterium avium, and M. tuberculosis H37Ra using the colorimetric microplate resazurin assay. Extracts of Acorus calamus and H. maximum root demonstrated significant antimycobacterial activity comparable to that of the rifampin control (2 microg/mL). Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of these 2 extracts using the MTT assay also showed that the extracts were less toxic to 3 human cell lines than was the DMSO positive control. This study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of the roots of H. maximum and Acorus calamus possess strong in vitro antimycobacterial activity, validates traditional knowledge, and provides potential for the development of urgently needed novel antituberculous therapeutics. PMID:20657619

  13. Impedimetric toxicity assay in microfluidics using free and liposome-encapsulated anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Caviglia, Claudia; Zór, Kinga; Montini, Lucia; Tilli, Valeria; Canepa, Silvia; Melander, Fredrik; Muhammad, Haseena B; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Raiteri, Roberto; Heiskanen, Arto; Andresen, Thomas L; Emnéus, Jenny

    2015-02-17

    In this work, we have developed a microfluidic cytotoxicity assay for a cell culture and detection platform, which enables both fluid handling and electrochemical/optical detection. The cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs doxorubicin (DOX), oxaliplatin (OX) as well as OX-loaded liposomes, developed for targeted drug delivery, was evaluated using real-time impedance monitoring. The time-dependent effect of DOX on HeLa cells was monitored and found to have a delayed onset of cytotoxicity in microfluidics compared with static culture conditions based on data obtained in our previous study. The result of a fluorescent microscopic annexin V/propidium iodide assay, performed in microfluidics, confirmed the outcome of the real-time impedance assay. In addition, the response of HeLa cells to OX-induced cytotoxicity proved to be slower than toxicity induced by DOX. A difference in the time-dependent cytotoxic response of fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) to free OX and OX-loaded liposomes was observed and attributed to incomplete degradation of the liposomes, which results in lower drug availability. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-dependent release of OX from OX-loaded liposomes was also confirmed using laryngopharynx carcinoma cells (FaDu). The comparison and the observed differences between the cytotoxic effects under microfluidic and static conditions highlight the importance of comparative studies as basis for implementation of microfluidic cytotoxic assays. PMID:25582124

  14. Defining Drug Targets in Yeast Haploinsufficiency Screens: Application to Human Translational Pharmacology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michel Roberge (University of British Columbia; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV)

    2008-08-26

    A major challenge in drug discovery is to identify the cellular targets responsible for the pharmacological activity of drug candidates. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a heterozygous diploid mutant collection of ~6000 strains, in each of which one copy of a single gene is deleted, is commercially available. With this collection, it is possible to evaluate the role of each gene product in the response of cells to a drug. Drug-induced haploinsufficiency refers to the situation where a heterozygous diploid mutant is more sensitive to a drug than is the wild-type strain. Drug-induced haploinsufficiency screening has the potential to reveal pharmacological targets of drugs and those that contribute to undesired side effects, as well as gene products involved in drug transport, metabolism, or resistance. Using published studies, I present advantages and limitations of this technique and discuss its value for predicting drug targets in human cells.

  15. Rapid facile solid-phase immunobead assay for screening ciguatoxic fish in the market place.

    PubMed

    Park, D L; Gamboa, P M; Goldsmith, C H

    1992-01-01

    The precision of the solid-phase immunobead assay (Ciguatect) to detect toxins associated with ciguatera poisoning have been evaluated through analysis of toxic and non-toxic fish obtained from fishing areas around the Hawaiian Islands. The Ciguatect test kit has been optimized for application to field/marketplace screening of ciguatoxic fish. Twelve parrot, surgeon, and amberjack fish fillet and fish extract test portions containing various concentrations of toxins were distributed to participating laboratories for analysis. The presence or absence of ciguatera-related toxins is determined by binding the toxins to a membrane attached to a plastic strip and exposing the toxin ladened membrane to a monoclonal antibody-colored latex bead complex which has a high specificity for ciguatera-related toxins. The intensity of the color on the membrane denotes the presence of the toxins in the fish or fish extract. Toxic components in the fish were confirmed by extraction, column purification, and toxicity testing using the brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) assay. Okadaic acid was used to standardize both the S-PIA and brine shrimp assays. For determination of ciguatoxin and related polyether toxins in parrot, surgeon, and amberjack fish fillets, the relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDR) were 13.5, 9.0 and 4.3%, respectively, and the relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSDR) were 44.4, 29.7 and 14.3%, respectively, for concentrations ranging from 1-4 ng/test strip. For determination of ciguatoxin and related polyether toxins in parrot, surgeon, and amberjack fish extracts, the RSDR were 5.8, 4.8, and 3.7%, respectively, and the RSDR were 11.9, 9.9, and 7.6%, respectively, for concentrations ranging from 3-5 ng/test strip.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1340354

  16. Detecting Cocaine and Opiates in Urine: Comparing Three Commercial Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Schilling; Balmatee Bidassie; Nabila El-Bassel

    1999-01-01

    Urine screening is a potentially useful tool for detecting drugs of abuse in treatment, criminal justice, and other human service settings. This article examines the relative accuracy and other features of three drug screening assays sold by commercial laboratories: (1) Abbott Diagnostics ADx machine and reagents; (2) ONTRAK, manufactured by Roche Diagnostics; and (3) EZ-SCREEN, manufactured by Environmental Diagnostics. Urine

  17. An in silico screen links gene expression signatures to drug response in glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Riddick, G; Song, H; Holbeck, S L; Kopp, W; Walling, J; Ahn, S; Zhang, W; Fine, H A

    2014-12-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to promote resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. However, the use of high-throughput drug screens to discover novel small-molecule inhibitors for CSC has been hampered by their instability in long-term cell culture. We asked whether predictive models of drug response could be developed from gene expression signatures of established cell lines and applied to predict drug response in glioblastoma stem cells. Predictions for active compounds were confirmed both for 185 compounds in seven established glioma cell lines and 21 compounds in three glioblastoma stem cells. The use of established cell lines as a surrogate for drug response in CSC lines may enable the large-scale virtual screening of drug candidates that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to test directly in CSCs.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 2 December 2014; doi:10.1038/tpj.2014.61. PMID:25446780

  18. Potencies of estrogenic compounds in in vitro screening assays and in life cycle tests with zebrafish in vivo.

    PubMed

    Segner, H; Navas, J M; Schäfers, C; Wenzel, A

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the estrogenic potency of environmental estrogens at two testing tiers: at the initial level of in vitro screening assays, and at the level of definitive fish reproduction tests in vivo. The in vitro tests included a recombinant yeast estrogen receptor (ER) assay, a competitive radioreceptor assay using the hepatic ER of carp (Cyprinus carpio), and assays on vitellogenin induction in cultured hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp. In vivo, full life cycle tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were performed, using fertilization success as estrogen-sensitive reproductive endpoint. The test compounds included the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) (only applied in the in vitro assays); the synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2); and two xenoestrogens, 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and bisphenol A (BPA). Among the in vitro assays, differences were observed in the relative ranking of the test substances, and in the absolute sensitivity (EC50 values), although the interassay differences of EC50 values were within one order of magnitude. The in vivo activity of the test compounds was not accurately predicted by the in vitro assays, with respect to neither sensitivity nor ranking. The in vitro assays tended to overestimate the relative potency of the xenoestrogens; i.e. the ratio between the activity of the reference compound, EE2, and that of the test compound. The best prediction of the in vivo fish test results was obtained from the recombinant yeast assay. PMID:12651187

  19. Endocrine disrupting activity in fruits and vegetables evaluated with the E-screen assay in relation to pesticide residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Schilirò; I. Gorrasi; A. Longo; S. Coluccia; G. Gilli

    2011-01-01

    Food is likely to be one of the most important routes of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). In the present study, we evaluated the total estrogenic activity of fruits and vegetables, which was calculated using the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay (E-screen), in relation to pesticide residues. We analysed 44 food samples, 30 fruits

  20. Using adverse outcome pathway analysis to guide development of high-throughput screening assays for thyroid-disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Adverse Outcome Pathway Analysis to Guide Development of High-Throughput Screening Assays for Thyroid-Disruptors Katie B. Paul1,2, Joan M. Hedge2, Daniel M. Rotroff4, Kevin M. Crofton4, Michael W. Hornung3, Steven O. Simmons2 1Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Post...

  1. High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

  2. Assessment of Serum Free Light Chain Assays for Plasma Cell Disorder Screening in a Veterans Affairs Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jude M. Abadie; Daniel D. Bankson

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated serum ? and l free light chain (FLC) concentrations in a Veterans Affairs (VA) population. We hypothesized that our older, mostly male, population should not differ in serum FLC ranges from levels previously established for younger male and female populations and that the assay would improve our screening protocol for plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD). Serum ? and

  3. Beta-arrestin-based Bret2 screening assay for the "non"-beta-arrestin binding CB1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Vrecl, Milka; Nørregaard, Pia Karina; Almholt, Dorthe L C; Elster, Lisbeth; Pogacnik, Azra; Heding, Anders

    2009-04-01

    CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists have been demonstrated to be effective in treating obesity and related disorders. This study has been focused on establishing a beta-arrestin 2-based screening assay for the CB1R using BRET2 technology. When the existing BRET2 screening platform was applied to the CB1R, the authors discovered that the receptor interacted weakly with beta-arrestin 2, resulting in unsatisfactory assay performance. To enhance the beta-arrestin binding capacity, they replaced the C-terminal tail of the CB1R with tails from either the V2 or BRS3 receptors, both of which interact strongly with beta-arrestin 2. Using this chimeric approach, the authors screened a small compound library and identified 21 antagonist and inverse agonist hits with IC50 and EC50 values ranging from 0.3 nM to 7.5 microM. Both primary and secondary screening were performed with Z'>0.5, suggesting that the assay is a robust and cost-effective alternative to existing cell-based assays. PMID:19403920

  4. Routine Screening of (SEA) ?-Thalassemia Deletion by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Embryonic ?-Globin Chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Ma; Victor Ma; Amy Y. Y. Chan; L. C. Chan; David H. K. Chui

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for embryonic ?-globin chains as a routine screening test for (--SEA) ?-thalassemia deletion (SEA deletion). A total of 174 consecutive patient samples with a request for Hb analysis were recruited. The ELISA method was evaluated against a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique that was taken as the standard. Among 56 simple carriers of

  5. Evaluation of Abnormal Urine Drug Screens Among Patients with Chronic NonMalignant Pain Treated with Opioids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sairam Atluri; Gururau Sudarshan

    2003-01-01

    In this study, failed urine drug screens of 89 patients in an interventional pain man- agement practice were analyzed. The results showed that 55% were not taking the pre- scribed opioid, whereas 39% were taking opi- oids which were not prescribed. In addition, 46% of the patients were using illicit drugs. Urine drug screens can be very useful in preventing

  6. Drug Screening Identifies Niclosamide as an Inhibitor of Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Chi; Chao, Tai-Kuang; Chang, Cheng-Chang; Yo, Yi-Te; Yu, Mu-Hsien; Lai, Hung-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The primary cause of death from breast cancer is the progressive growth of tumors and resistance to conventional therapies. It is currently believed that recurrent cancer is repopulated according to a recently proposed cancer stem cell hypothesis. New therapeutic strategies that specifically target cancer stem-like cells may represent a new avenue of cancer therapy. We aimed to discover novel compounds that target breast cancer stem-like cells. We used a dye-exclusion method to isolate side population (SP) cancer cells and, subsequently, subjected these SP cells to a sphere formation assay to generate SP spheres (SPS) from breast cancer cell lines. Surface markers, stemness genes, and tumorigenicity were used to test stem properties. We performed a high-throughput drug screening using these SPS. The effects of candidate compounds were assessed in vitro and in vivo. We successfully generated breast cancer SPS with stem-like properties. These SPS were enriched for CD44high (2.8-fold) and CD24low (4-fold) cells. OCT4 and ABCG2 were overexpressed in SPS. Moreover, SPS grew tumors at a density of 103, whereas an equivalent number of parental cells did not initiate tumor formation. A clinically approved drug, niclosamide, was identified from the LOPAC chemical library of 1,258 compounds. Niclosamide downregulated stem pathways, inhibited the formation of spheroids, and induced apoptosis in breast cancer SPS. Animal studies also confirmed this therapeutic effect. The results of this proof-of-principle study may facilitate the development of new breast cancer therapies in the near future. The extension of niclosamide clinical trials is warranted. PMID:24058587

  7. Maintaining Specimen Integrity for G6PD Screening by Cytofluorometric Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Maria; Ward, Walter H. J.; LaRue, Nicole; Kalnoky, Michael; Pal, Sampa

    2015-01-01

    Cytochemical staining remains an efficient way of identifying females who are heterozygous for the X chromosome-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene. G6PD is highly polymorphic with certain alleles resulting in low intracellular G6PD activity in red blood cells. Low intracellular G6PD activity is associated with a risk of severe hemolysis when exposed to an oxidative stress such as fava beans, certain drugs and infections. Heterozygous females express the enzyme from both X-chromosome alleles resulting in two red blood cell populations each with G6PD enzyme characteristics representative of each allele; for example, normal and deficient. Cytochemical staining is the only way to determine the relative representation of each allele in red blood cells, a feature that is critical when assessing the risk for severe hemolysis when exposed to an oxidant such as the anti-malarial drug primaquine. This letter discusses red blood cell integrity with respect to the cytofluorometric assays for G6PD activity. An approach to making this test more robust is suggested. The approach makes this test more reliable and extends its use to a broader range of blood specimens. PMID:25786434

  8. Maintaining Specimen Integrity for G6PD Screening by Cytofluorometric Assays.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Maria; Ward, Walter H J; LaRue, Nicole; Kalnoky, Michael; Pal, Sampa; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2015-06-01

    Cytochemical staining remains an efficient way of identifying females who are heterozygous for the X chromosome-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene. G6PD is highly polymorphic with certain alleles resulting in low intracellular G6PD activity in red blood cells. Low intracellular G6PD activity is associated with a risk of severe hemolysis when exposed to an oxidative stress such as fava beans, certain drugs and infections. Heterozygous females express the enzyme from both X-chromosome alleles resulting in two red blood cell populations each with G6PD enzyme characteristics representative of each allele; for example, normal and deficient. Cytochemical staining is the only way to determine the relative representation of each allele in red blood cells, a feature that is critical when assessing the risk for severe hemolysis when exposed to an oxidant such as the anti-malarial drug primaquine. This letter discusses red blood cell integrity with respect to the cytofluorometric assays for G6PD activity. An approach to making this test more robust is suggested. The approach makes this test more reliable and extends its use to a broader range of blood specimens. PMID:25786434

  9. 1 Lessons from (patho)physiological tissue stiffness and their implications for drug 2 screening, drug delivery and regenerative medicine

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Craig A.

    1 Lessons from (patho)physiological tissue stiffness and their implications for drug 2 screening Substrate stiffness 18 Elasticity 19 Biomechanics 20 Stem cells 21 Cancer biology 22 Mechanobiology 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 49 3. Stiffness regulation of stem cell commitment and pathological differentiation

  10. Comet Assay: A Method to Evaluate Genotoxicity of Nano-Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Vandghanooni, Somayeh; Eskandani, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Drug delivery systems could induce cellular toxicity as side effect of nanomaterials. The mechanism of toxicity usually involves DNA damage. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) is a sensitive method for detecting strand damages in the DNA of a cell with applications in genotoxicity testing and molecular epidemiology as well as fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. Methods In the current study, we reviewed recent drug delivery researches related to SCGE. Results We found that one preference for choosing the assay is that comet images may result from apoptosis-mediated nuclear fragmentation. This method has been widely used over the last decade in several different areas. Overall cells, such as cultured cells are embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, lysed with detergent, and treated with high salt. Nucleoids are supercoiled DNA form. When the slide is faced to alkaline electrophoresis any breakages present in the DNA cause the supercoiling to relax locally and loops of DNA extend toward the anode as a ‘‘comet tail’’. Conclusion This article provides a relatively comprehensive review upon potentiality of the comet assay for assessment of DNA damage and accordingly it can be used as an informative platform in genotoxicity studies of drug delivery systems. PMID:23678412

  11. Multicenter Clinical Evaluation of the Xpert GBS LB Assay for Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Prenatal Screening Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Blake W.; Faron, Matthew L.; Fuller, DeAnna; Davis, Thomas E.; Mayne, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal infection with Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in newborns. Recent guidelines have recommended universal screening of all pregnant women to identify those colonized with GBS and administration of peripartum prophylaxis to those identified as carriers to reduce the risk of early-onset GBS disease in neonates. Enriched culture methods are the current standard for prenatal GBS screening; however, the implementation of more sensitive molecular diagnostic tests may be able to further reduce the risk of early-onset GBS infection. We report a clinical evaluation of the Xpert GBS LB assay, a molecular diagnostic test for the identification of GBS from broth-enriched vaginal/rectal specimens obtained during routine prenatal screening. A total of 826 specimens were collected from women undergoing prenatal screening (35 to 37 weeks' gestation) and tested at one of three clinical centers. Each swab specimen was tested directly prior to enrichment using the Xpert GBS assay. Following 18 to 24 h of broth enrichment, each specimen was tested using the Xpert GBS LB assay and the FDA-cleared Smart GBS assay as a molecular diagnostic comparator. Results obtained using all three molecular tests were compared to those for broth-enriched culture as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert GBS LB assay were 99.0% and 92.4%, respectively, compared to those for the gold standard culture. The Smart GBS molecular test demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 96.8% and 95.5%, respectively. The sensitivities of the two broth-enriched molecular methods were superior to those for direct testing of specimens using the Xpert GBS assay, which demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 85.7% and 96.2%, respectively. PMID:25411176

  12. Label-free cardiac contractility monitoring for drug screening applications based on compact high-speed lens-free imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwelyn, Thomas; Reumers, Veerle; Vanmeerbeeck, Geert; Stahl, Richard; Janssens, Stefan; Lagae, Liesbet; Braeken, Dries; Lambrechts, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Cardiotoxicity is the major cause of drug withdrawal from the market, despite rigorous toxicity testing during the drug development process. Existing safety screening techniques, some of which are based on simplified cellular assays, others on electrical (impedance) or optical (fluorescent microscopy) measurements, are either too limited in throughput or offer too poor predictability of toxicity to be applied on large numbers of compounds in the early stage of drug development. We present a compact optical system for direct (label-free) monitoring of fast cellular movements that enable low cost and high throughput drug screening. Our system is based on a high-speed lens-free in-line holographic microscope. When compared to a conventional microscope, the system can combine adequate imaging resolution (5.5 ?m pixel pitch) with a large field-of-view (63.4 mm2) and high speed (170 fps) to capture physical cell motion in real-time. This combination enables registration of cardiac contractility parameters such as cell contraction frequency, total duration, and rate and duration of both contraction and relaxation. The system also quantifies conduction velocity, which is challenging in existing techniques. Additionally, to complement the imaging hardware we have developed image processing software that extracts all the contractility parameters directly from the raw interference images. The system was tested with varying concentration of the drug verapamil and at 100 nM, showed a decrease in: contraction frequency (-23.3% +/- 13%), total duration (-21% +/- 5%), contraction duration (-19% +/- 6%) and relaxation duration (-21% +/- 8%). Moreover, contraction displacement ceased at higher concentrations.

  13. Whole Blood Interferon-Gamma Assay for Baseline Tuberculosis Screening among Japanese Healthcare Students

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Katsuyuki; Ogura, Toshio; Nishii, Kenji; Kodani, Tsuyoshi; Onishi, Masaru; Shimizu, Yukito; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Tobe, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Background The whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON-TB-2G; QFT) has not been fully evaluated as a baseline tuberculosis screening test in Japanese healthcare students commencing clinical contact. The aim of this study was to compare the results from the QFT with those from the tuberculin skin test (TST) in a population deemed to be at a low risk for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Healthcare students recruited at Okayama University received both the TST and the QFT to assess the level of agreement between these two tests. The interleukin-10 levels before and after exposure to M tuberculosis-specific antigens (early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein [ESAT-6] and culture filtrate protein 10 [CFP-10]) were also measured. Of the 536 healthcare students, most of whom had been vaccinated with bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG), 207 (56%) were enrolled in this study. The agreement between the QFT and the TST results was poor, with positive result rates of 1.4% vs. 27.5%, respectively. A multivariate analysis also revealed that the induration diameter of the TST was not affected by the interferon-gamma concentration after exposure to either of the antigens but was influenced by the number of BCG needle scars (p?=?0.046). The whole blood interleukin-10 assay revealed that after antigen exposure, the median increases in interleukin-10 concentration was higher in the subgroup with the small increase in interferon-gamma concentration than in the subgroup with the large increase in interferon-gamma concentration (0.3 vs. 0 pg/mL; p?=?0.004). Conclusions/Significance As a baseline screening test for low-risk Japanese healthcare students at their course entry, QFT yielded quite discordant results, compared with the TST, probably because of the low specificity of the TST results in the BCG-vaccinated population. We also found, for the first time, that the change in the interleukin-10 level after exposure to specific antigens was inversely associated with that in the interferon-gamma level in a low-risk population. PMID:17726533

  14. New colorimetric screening assays for the directed evolution of fungal laccases to improve the conversion of plant biomass

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungal laccases are multicopper oxidases with huge applicability in different sectors. Here, we describe the development of a set of high-throughput colorimetric assays for screening laccase libraries in directed evolution studies. Results Firstly, we designed three colorimetric assays based on the oxidation of sinapic acid, acetosyringone and syringaldehyde with ?max of 512, 520 and 370 nm, respectively. These syringyl-type phenolic compounds are released during the degradation of lignocellulose and can act as laccase redox mediators. The oxidation of the three compounds by low and high-redox potential laccases evolved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced quantifiable and linear responses, with detection limits around 1 mU/mL and CV values below 16%. The phenolic substrates were also suitable for pre-screening mutant libraries on solid phase format. Intense colored-halos were developed around the yeast colonies secreting laccase. Furthermore, the oxidation of violuric acid to its iminoxyl radical (?max of 515 nm and CV below 15%) was devised as reporter assay for laccase redox potential during the screening of mutant libraries from high-redox potential laccases. Finally, we developed three dye-decolorizing assays based on the enzymatic oxidation of Methyl Orange (470 nm), Evans Blue (605 nm) and Remazol Brilliant Blue (640 nm) giving up to 40% decolorization yields and CV values below 18%. The assays were reliable for direct measurement of laccase activity or to indirectly explore the oxidation of mediators that do not render colored products (but promote dye decolorization). Every single assay reported in this work was tested by exploring mutant libraries created by error prone PCR of fungal laccases secreted by yeast. Conclusions The high-throughput screening methods reported in this work could be useful for engineering laccases for different purposes. The assays based on the oxidation of syringyl-compounds might be valuable tools for tailoring laccases precisely enhanced to aid biomass conversion processes. The violuric assay might be useful to preserve the redox potential of laccase whilst evolving towards new functions. The dye-decolorizing assays are useful for engineering ad hoc laccases for detoxification of textile wastewaters, or as indirect assays to explore laccase activity on other natural mediators. PMID:24159930

  15. Multiplexing Spheroid Volume, Resazurin and Acid Phosphatase Viability Assays for High-Throughput Screening of Tumour Spheroids and Stem Cell Neurospheres

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Delyan P.; Parker, Terry L.; Walker, David A.; Alexander, Cameron; Ashford, Marianne B.; Gellert, Paul R.; Garnett, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional cell culture has many advantages over monolayer cultures, and spheroids have been hailed as the best current representation of small avascular tumours in vitro. However their adoption in regular screening programs has been hindered by uneven culture growth, poor reproducibility and lack of high-throughput analysis methods for 3D. The objective of this study was to develop a method for a quick and reliable anticancer drug screen in 3D for tumour and human foetal brain tissue in order to investigate drug effectiveness and selective cytotoxic effects. Commercially available ultra-low attachment 96-well round-bottom plates were employed to culture spheroids in a rapid, reproducible manner amenable to automation. A set of three mechanistically different methods for spheroid health assessment (Spheroid volume, metabolic activity and acid phosphatase enzyme activity) were validated against cell numbers in healthy and drug-treated spheroids. An automated open-source ImageJ macro was developed to enable high-throughput volume measurements. Although spheroid volume determination was superior to the other assays, multiplexing it with resazurin reduction and phosphatase activity produced a richer picture of spheroid condition. The ability to distinguish between effects on malignant and the proliferating component of normal brain was tested using etoposide on UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and human neural stem cells. At levels below 10 µM etoposide exhibited higher toxicity towards proliferating stem cells, whereas at concentrations above 10 µM the tumour spheroids were affected to a greater extent. The high-throughput assay procedures use ready-made plates, open-source software and are compatible with standard plate readers, therefore offering high predictive power with substantial savings in time and money. PMID:25119185

  16. A method for post-marketing screening of adverse reactions to drugs: initial results.

    PubMed

    Knapp, D E; Zax, B B; Rossi, A C; O'Neill, R T

    1980-01-01

    The FDA is pilot-testing a methodology for signaling previously unsuspected relationships between drugs and important adverse events. This method uses data it receives through the FDA spontaneous reporting program. Reviewing drugs used primarily on an outpatient basis, this screening methodology focuses on "tracer" adverse events and the organization of these reactions into body/functional systems. This review process enables a clinical evaluator to perceive more easily the clinically important drug-adverse event patterns. The method can incorporate drug use data; this enables a drug's proportional share of specific adverse events, relative to its therapeutic class, to be compared to its respective proportional share of drug use. The assumption is that the adverse event distribution of drugs in a therapeutic class should be the same as the distribution of drug use in that class, if all drugs in the class were to carry the same risk. Actual examples of drug-adverse event associations signaled by the screening method are presented. The potential uses of this methodology in other settings, and under other data situations, are discussed. PMID:10245773

  17. Assessment of DNA damage in Japanese nurses handling antineoplastic drugs by the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makiko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Hoshi, Shigeko; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2008-01-01

    To clarify genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs in Japan, we examined DNA damage, assessed by the comet assay, in 121 female nurses and 46 female clerks working at three hospitals in the northeast of Japan. The comet assay is considered to be a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells, and tail length and tail moment are used as the comet parameters. Concerning the basal characteristics, the 46 control subjects had higher rates of smoking and coffee-drinking habits and lower hemoglobin than the 121 nurses (p<0.05). The log-transformed tail length in the nurses was significantly longer than that in the control subjects after adjusting for possible covariates such as age and smoking habit (p<0.05). Also, the log-transformed tail length was significantly longer, in the 57 nurses who had handled antineoplastic drugs in the last six months, than that in the 46 control subjects (p<0.05); but, no significant difference in tail length or tail moment was seen between the two nurse groups with and without experience of handling hazardous drugs (p>0.05). These results suggest that Japanese nurses who have worked at hospitals using antineoplastic drugs may have a potential risk of DNA damage. To minimize this risk in Japan, use of biological safety cabinet and appropriate protective equipment, in addition to staff education and training, should be implemented in the healthcare environment. PMID:18285639

  18. Identifying putative drug targets and potential drug leads: starting points for virtual screening and docking.

    PubMed

    Wishart, David S

    2015-01-01

    The availability of 3D models of both drug leads (small molecule ligands) and drug targets (proteins) is essential to molecular docking and computational drug discovery. This chapter describes a simple approach that can be used to identify both drug leads and drug targets using two popular Web-accessible databases: (1) DrugBank and (2) The Human Metabolome Database. First, it is illustrated how putative drug targets and drug leads for exogenous diseases (i.e., infectious diseases) can be readily identified and their 3D structures selected using only the genomic sequences from pathogenic bacteria or viruses as input. The second part illustrates how putative drug targets and drug leads for endogenous diseases (i.e., noninfectious diseases or chronic conditions) can be identified using similar databases and similar sequence input. This chapter is intended to illustrate how bioinformatics and cheminformatics can work synergistically to help provide the necessary inputs for computer-aided drug design. PMID:25330974

  19. Indirect competitive assays on DVD for direct multiplex detection of drugs of abuse in oral fluids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Li, Xiaochun; Li, Yunchao; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    On-site oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse has become prominent in order to take immediate administrative action in an enforcement process. Herein, we report a DVD technology-based indirect competitive immunoassay platform for the quantitative detection of drugs of abuse. A microfluidic approach was adapted to prepare multiplex immunoassays on a standard DVD-R, an unmodified multimode DVD/Blu-Ray drive to read signal, and a free disc-quality analysis software program to process the data. The DVD assay platform was successfully demonstrated for the simultaneous, quantitative detection of drug candidates (morphine and cocaine) in oral fluids with high selectivity. The detection limit achieved was as low as 1.0 ppb for morphine and 5.0 ppb for cocaine, comparable with that of standard mass spectrometry and ELISA methods. PMID:25540088

  20. A fluorescence-based helicase assay: application to the screening of G-quadruplex ligands

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Oscar; Gueddouda, Nassima Meriem; Boulé, Jean-Baptiste; Bourdoncle, Anne; Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Helicases, enzymes that unwind DNA or RNA structure, are present in the cell nucleus and in the mitochondrion. Although the majority of the helicases unwind DNA or RNA duplexes, some of these proteins are known to resolve unusual structures such as G-quadruplexes (G4) in vitro. G4 may form stable barrier to the progression of molecular motors tracking on DNA. Monitoring G4 unwinding by these enzymes may reveal the mechanisms of the enzymes and provides information about the stability of these structures. In the experiments presented herein, we developed a reliable, inexpensive and rapid fluorescence-based technique to monitor the activity of G4 helicases in real time in a 96-well plate format. This system was used to screen a series of G4 structures and G4 binders for their effect on the Pif1 enzyme, a 5? to 3? DNA helicase. This simple assay should be adaptable to analysis of other helicases and G4 structures. PMID:25765657

  1. High-throughput screening assay for the environmental water samples using cellular response profiles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianhong; Li, Haoran; Khare, Swanand; Huang, Biao; Yu Huang, Dorothy; Zhang, Weiping; Gabos, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Chemical and physical analyses are commonly used as screening methods for the environmental water. However, these methods can only look for the targeted substance but may miss unexpected toxicants. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of mixture cannot be detected. In order to set up the assay criteria for determining various biological activities at a cellular level that could potentially lead to toxicity of environmental water samples, a novel test based on cellular response by using Real-Time Cellular Analyzer (RTCA) is proposed in this study. First, the water sample is diluted to a series of strengths (80%, 60%, 40%, 30%, 20% and 10%) to get the multi-concentration cellular response profile. Then, the area under the cellular response profile (AUCRP) is calculated. Comparing to the normal cell growth of negative control, a new biological activity index named Percentage of Effect (PoE) has been presented which reflects the cumulative inhibitory activity of cell growth over the log-phase. Finally, a synthetical index PoE50 is proposed to evaluate the intensity of biological activities in water samples. The biological experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25637748

  2. Tuberculin Skin Tests versus Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in Tuberculosis Screening among Immigrant Visa Applicants

    PubMed Central

    Chuke, Stella O.; Yen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Laserson, Kayla F.; Phuoc, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Nguyen An; Nhung, Duong Thi Cam; Mai, Vo Thi Chi; Qui, An Dang; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Loan, Le Thien Huong; Jones, Warren G.; Whitworth, William C.; Shah, J. Jina; Painter, John A.; Mazurek, Gerald H.; Maloney, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Use of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) as part of tuberculosis (TB) screening among immigrants from high TB-burden countries has not been fully evaluated. Methods. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTBI) based on TST, or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G), was determined among immigrant applicants in Vietnam bound for the United States (US); factors associated with test results and discordance were assessed; predictive values of TST and QFT-G for identifying chest radiographs (CXRs) consistent with TB were calculated. Results. Of 1,246 immigrant visa applicants studied, 57.9% were TST positive, 28.3% were QFT-G positive, and test agreement was 59.4%. Increasing age was associated with positive TST results, positive QFT-G results, TST-positive but QFT-G-negative discordance, and abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. Positive predictive values of TST and QFT-G for an abnormal CXR were 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence of MTBI among US-bound visa applicants in Vietnam based on TST was twice that based on QFT-G, and 14 times higher than a TST-based estimate of MTBI prevalence reported for the general US population in 2000. QFT-G was not better than TST at predicting abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. PMID:24738031

  3. A fluorescence-based helicase assay: application to the screening of G-quadruplex ligands.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Oscar; Gueddouda, Nassima Meriem; Boulé, Jean-Baptiste; Bourdoncle, Anne; Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-23

    Helicases, enzymes that unwind DNA or RNA structure, are present in the cell nucleus and in the mitochondrion. Although the majority of the helicases unwind DNA or RNA duplexes, some of these proteins are known to resolve unusual structures such as G-quadruplexes (G4) in vitro. G4 may form stable barrier to the progression of molecular motors tracking on DNA. Monitoring G4 unwinding by these enzymes may reveal the mechanisms of the enzymes and provides information about the stability of these structures. In the experiments presented herein, we developed a reliable, inexpensive and rapid fluorescence-based technique to monitor the activity of G4 helicases in real time in a 96-well plate format. This system was used to screen a series of G4 structures and G4 binders for their effect on the Pif1 enzyme, a 5' to 3' DNA helicase. This simple assay should be adaptable to analysis of other helicases and G4 structures. PMID:25765657

  4. Tuberculin Skin Tests versus Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in Tuberculosis Screening among Immigrant Visa Applicants.

    PubMed

    Chuke, Stella O; Yen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Laserson, Kayla F; Phuoc, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Nguyen An; Nhung, Duong Thi Cam; Mai, Vo Thi Chi; Qui, An Dang; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Loan, Le Thien Huong; Jones, Warren G; Whitworth, William C; Shah, J Jina; Painter, John A; Mazurek, Gerald H; Maloney, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Use of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) as part of tuberculosis (TB) screening among immigrants from high TB-burden countries has not been fully evaluated. Methods. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTBI) based on TST, or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G), was determined among immigrant applicants in Vietnam bound for the United States (US); factors associated with test results and discordance were assessed; predictive values of TST and QFT-G for identifying chest radiographs (CXRs) consistent with TB were calculated. Results. Of 1,246 immigrant visa applicants studied, 57.9% were TST positive, 28.3% were QFT-G positive, and test agreement was 59.4%. Increasing age was associated with positive TST results, positive QFT-G results, TST-positive but QFT-G-negative discordance, and abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. Positive predictive values of TST and QFT-G for an abnormal CXR were 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence of MTBI among US-bound visa applicants in Vietnam based on TST was twice that based on QFT-G, and 14 times higher than a TST-based estimate of MTBI prevalence reported for the general US population in 2000. QFT-G was not better than TST at predicting abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. PMID:24738031

  5. Identification of human Ether-à-go-go related gene modulators by three screening platforms in an academic drug-discovery setting.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Mangano, Thomas; Hufeisen, Sandy; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L

    2010-12-01

    The human Ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channel is responsible for the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current that plays a critical role in the repolarization of cardiomyocytes during the cardiac action potential. In humans, inhibition of hERG by drugs can prolong the electrocardiographic QT interval, which, in rare instance, leads to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. As such, several medications that block hERG channels in vitro have been withdrawn from the market due to QT prolongation and arrhythmias. The current FDA guidelines recommend that drug candidates destined for human use be evaluated for potential hERG activity ( www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm074963.pdf ). Here, we employed automated planar patch clamp (APPC), high-throughput fluorescent Tl(+) flux, and moderate-throughput [³H]dofetilide competition binding assays to characterize a panel of 49 drugs for their activities at the hERG channel. Notably, we used the same HEK293-hERG cell line for all assays, facilitating comparisons of hERG potencies across screening platforms. In general, hERG inhibitors were most potent in APPC assays, intermediate potent in [³H]dofetilide binding assays, and least potent in Tl(+) flux assays. Binding affinity constants (pK(i) values) and Tl(+) flux potencies (pEC?? values) correlated well with APPC pEC?? values. Further, the inhibitory potencies of many known hERG inhibitors in APPC matched literature values from manual and/or automated patch clamp systems. We also developed a novel fluorescent Tl(+) flux assays to measure the effects of drugs that modulate hERG trafficking and surface expression. PMID:21158687

  6. Development and validation of a high-throughput anti-Wolbachia whole-cell screen: a route to macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Clare, Rachel H; Cook, Darren A N; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Ward, Stephen A; Taylor, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new, safe, and affordable macrofilaricidal drugs for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis treatment and control. The Anti-Wolbachia Consortium (A·WOL) aims to provide a novel treatment with macrofilaricidal activity by targeting the essential bacterial symbiont Wolbachia. The consortium is currently screening a diverse range of compounds to find new chemical space to drive this drug discovery initiative and address this unmet demand. To increase the throughput and capacity of the A·WOL cell-based screen, we have developed a 384-well format assay using a high-content imaging system (Operetta) in conjunction with optimized Wolbachia growth dynamics in the C6/36 Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line. This assay uses texture analysis of cells stained with SYTO 11 as a direct measure of bacterial load. This validated assay has dramatically increased the capacity and throughput of the A·WOL compound library screening program 25-fold, enriching the number of new anti-Wolbachia hits identified for further development as potential macrofilaricides for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. PMID:25278497

  7. A novel zebrafish human tumor xenograft model validated for anti-cancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da-Woon; Oh, Eun-Sang; Park, Si-Hwan; Chang, Young-Tae; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Choi, Seok-Yong; Williams, Darren R

    2012-07-01

    The development of a relatively simple, reliant and cost-effective animal test will greatly facilitate drug development. In this study, our goal was the establishment of a rapid, simple, sensitive and reproducible zebrafish xenograft model for anti-cancer drug screening. We optimized the conditions for the cancer cell xenograft in terms of injected cell numbers, incubation temperature and time. A range of human carcinoma cell types were stained with a fluorescent dye prior to injection into the fish larvae. Subsequent cancer cell dissemination was observed under fluorescent microscopy. Differences in injected cell numbers were reflected in the rate of dissemination from the xenograft site. Paclitaxel, known as a microtubule stabilizer, dose-dependently inhibited cancer cell dissemination in our zebrafish xenograft model. An anti-migratory drug, LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) also decreased the cancer cell dissemination. Chemical modifications to increase cancer drug pharmacokinetics, such as increased solubility (17-DMAG compared to geldanamycin) could also be assessed in our xenograft model. In addition to testing our new model using known anti-cancer drugs, we carried out further validation by screening a tagged triazine library. Two novel anti-cancer drug candidates were discovered. Therefore, our zebrafish xenograft model provides a vertebrate animal system for the rapid screening and pre-clinical testing of novel anti-cancer agents, prior to the requirement for testing in mammals. Our model system should greatly facilitate drug development for cancer therapy because of its speed, simplicity and reproducibility. PMID:22569777

  8. Preventing drug interactions by online prescription screening in community pharmacies and medical practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillel Halkin; Itzhak Katzir; Irena Kurman; Joseph Jan; Becky Ben-Oz Malkin

    2001-01-01

    Background: Drug interactions have been shown to be preventable by computerized prescription entry and screening only in hospitals and not in community-based practice.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the effect of online prescription screening in community pharmacies and physician offices of one health maintenance organization, phased in during 3 consecutive 6-month periods in 1998 to 1999 (period I, system active only in

  9. 3D-biohybrid systems: applications in drug screening.

    PubMed

    Reininger-Mack, Alexandra; Thielecke, Hagen; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2002-02-01

    Biotechnology demands powerful methods for the functional characterisation and monitoring of molecular alterations in tissues in response to various stimuli. Currently, cellular biosensors provide information about cell and tissue internal transduction pathways. In this article, recent biosensor systems are briefly described and the use of 3D tissue aggregates as recognition elements is discussed. An example of an innovative approach for drug testing using 3D heart muscle aggregates, as well as tumor models, positioned in capillary systems for electrical potential recording and impedance measurement is described. The effectiveness of drugs and therapies can be tested and monitored in a short time using such biohybrid sensors. PMID:11814594

  10. A daunting challenge: Human Papillomavirus assays and cytology in primary cervical screening of women below age 30years.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Ejegod, Ditte; Preisler, Sarah; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-07-01

    We compared cytology with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays in primary cervical screening at age 23-29years based on data from the Danish Horizon study. SurePath samples were collected from 1278 women undergoing routine cytology-based screening. Abnormal cytology was managed according to the routine recommendations, and women with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5years. Loss to follow-up was similar between HPV assays. ?CIN3 was detected in 44 women. The sensitivity of HC2 for ?CIN3 was 95% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85-99), of cobas 98% (95% CI: 88-100), of CLART 100% (95% CI: 92-100), of APTIMA 82% (95% CI: 67-92), and of cytology 59% (95% CI: 43-74). Specificity for ?CIN3 varied between 61% (95% CI: 59-64) for cobas and 75% (95% CI: 73-78) for APTIMA, and was 94% (95% CI: 93-96) for cytology. Similar results were observed for ?CIN2 (N=68). HPV screening with cytological triage doubled the number of colposcopies compared to cytology screening, and increased the frequency of repeated testing by four (APTIMA) to seven (cobas) times. The positive predictive value of a referral for colposcopy was relatively high for all screening tests (?30% for ?CIN3, and ?50% for ?CIN2). CIN1 was detected by cytology in ?1% of women, and in ?2% by any of the four HPV assays. Although highly sensitive, HPV-based screening of young Danish women should be approached cautiously, as it resulted in large reductions in specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:25979832

  11. The C3H/HeJ mouse and DEBR rat models for alopecia areata: review of preclinical drug screening approaches and results

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Silva, Kathleen A.; McElwee, Kevin J.; King, Lloyd E.; Sundberg, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strain and the Dundee Experimental Bald Rat (DEBR) strain spontaneously develop adult onset alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated disease directed against actively growing hair follicles. The low frequency of AA and the inability to predict the stage of AA as it evolves in the naturally occuring C3H/HeJ model of AA can be converted into a highly predictable system by grafting full thickness skin from AA affected mice to normal haired mice of the same strain. The rat DEBR model develops spontaneous AA at a higher frequency than in the mouse model but they are more expensive to use in drug studies due to their larger size. Regardless of the shortcomings of either model, these rodent models can be used succesfully to screen novel or approved drugs for efficacy to treat human AA. Since the pathogenesis of AA follows the canonical lymphocytic co-stimulatory cascade in the mouse AA model, it can be used to screen compounds potentially useful to treat a variety of cell mediated diseases. Efficacy of various agents can easily be screened by simply observing the presence, rate, and cosmetic acceptability of hair regrowth. More sophisticated assays can refine how the drugs induce hair regrowth and evaluate the underlying pathogenesis of AA. Some drugs commonly used to treat human AA patients work equally as well in both rodent models validating their usefulness as models for drug efficacy and safety for human AA. PMID:18798913

  12. Application of a fish DNA damage assay as a biological toxicity screening tool for metal plating wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.; Zong, M.; Meier, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The utility of a fish DNA damage assay as a rapid monitoring tool was investigated. Metal plating wastewater was chosen as a sample because it contains various genotoxic metal species. Fish DNA damage assay results were compared to data generated from the conventional whole effluent toxicity (WET) test procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay (Azur Environmental, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using Vibrio fischeri was also employed. Eleven samples from two metal plating companies were collected for this evaluation. For the fish DNA damage assay, 7-d-old fathead minnow larvae, Pimephales promelas, were utilized. They were exposed to a series of dilutions at 20 C for 2 h. Whole effluent toxicity tests conducted in this study included two acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and fathead minnows and two chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows. The fish DNA damage assay showed good correlations with both the acute and chronic WET test results, especially with those obtained with fathead minnows. The kappa values, an index of agreement, between the fish DNA damage assay and WET tests were shown to be acceptable. These findings imply that this novel fish DNA damage assay has use as an expedient toxicity screening procedure since it produces comparable results to those of the acute and chronic fathead minnow toxicity tests.

  13. Application of cell-free hemolymph of horseshoe crab in antimicrobial drug screening.

    PubMed

    Du, Ruijuan; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2011-01-01

    Horseshoe crabs are an ancient invertebrate which possesses powerful innate immune defense against microbes. The simplicity, specificity and rapidity of its antimicrobial response have accorded the horseshoe crab as an excellent animal model from which immune responsive tissues may be procured for biomedical research. Such usefulness is exemplified by the extensive application for nearly four decades, of the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) for sensitive detection of endotoxin in the medical industry. Apart from the amebocytes, the cell-free hemolymph (CFH) of this arthropod offers a large repertoire of evolutionarily conserved proteins, which are highly sensitive to pathogens. This makes the hemolymph an ideal physiological microenvironment for simulating an in vitro infection. We therefore propose to employ the CFH as a quick and convenient tool for antimicrobial drug screening in vitro. This specific drug screening system also provides further optimization of drug design, and selection of drugs with antioxidant properties. Being an easily accessible natural resource, and allowing high-throughput screening with uniform and reliable data output, the horseshoe crab CFH provides a desirable physiological milieu for drug screening and development. PMID:21470114

  14. Toxicity from the use of niacin to beat urine drug screening.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manoj K; Florin, Todd; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Delgado, João H; Osterhoudt, Kevin C

    2007-11-01

    Niacin (vitamin B3) is promoted for rapidly clearing the body of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and cannabis, and is alleged to interfere with urine drug screening. We present 4 cases of such novel use associated with significant adverse effects. Two cases had isolated skin manifestations, whereas the other 2 presented with life-threatening manifestations, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, hepatotoxicity, metabolic acidosis, and hypoglycemia evolving into hyperglycemia. One patient also had profound neutrophilia and QT(C)-interval prolongation. All patients improved after cessation of the drug use and supportive treatment. Health care providers should be aware of these potential adverse effects of niacin and of the misguided use of this vitamin by patients seeking to interfere with urine drug screening. PMID:17418450

  15. Rapid prototyping of concave microwells for the formation of 3D multicellular cancer aggregates for drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Ting-Yuan; Wang, Zhe; Bai, Jing; Sun, Wei; Peng, Weng Kung; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Kamm, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Microwell technology has revolutionized many aspects of in vitro cellular studies from 2-dimensional (2D) traditional cultures to 3-dimensional (3D) in vivo-like functional assays. However, existing lithography-based approaches are often costly and time-consuming. This study presents a rapid, low-cost prototyping method of CO2 laser ablation of a conventional untreated culture dish to create concave microwells used for generating multicellular aggregates, which can be readily available for general laboratories. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and polystyrene (PS) microwells were investigated, and each produced distinctive microwell features. Among these three materials, PS cell culture dishes produced the optimal surface smoothness and roundness. A549 lung cancer cells were grown to form cancer aggregates of controllable size from ~40 to ~80 ?m in PS microwells. Functional assays of spheroids were performed to study migration on 2D substrates and in 3D hydrogel conditions as a step towards recapitulating the dissemination of cancer cells. Preclinical anti-cancer drug screening was investigated and revealed considerable differences between 2D and 3D conditions, indicating the importance of assay type as well as the utility of the present approach. PMID:23983140

  16. Use of an online surveillance system for screening drug interactions in prescriptions in community pharmacies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiina Heikkilä; Tuula Lekander; Hannu Raunio

    2006-01-01

    Objective  Computerised surveillance systems have become available for screening potential adverse drug interactions during drug prescribing and dispensing. The purpose of this study was to analyse the frequency and profile of alerts given by one such system in two community pharmacies in Finland.Methods  In a prospective study, all interaction alerts given by the surveillance system were collated during September–November 2004 in two

  17. Non-peptidic Cruzain Inhibitors with Trypanocidal Activity Discovered by Virtual Screening and In Vitro Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wiggers, Helton J.; Rocha, Josmar R.; Fernandes, William B.; Sesti-Costa, Renata; Carneiro, Zumira A.; Cheleski, Juliana; da Silva, Albérico B. F.; Juliano, Luiz; Cezari, Maria H. S.; Silva, João S.; McKerrow, James H.; Montanari, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    A multi-step cascade strategy using integrated ligand- and target-based virtual screening methods was developed to select a small number of compounds from the ZINC database to be evaluated for trypanocidal activity. Winnowing the database to 23 selected compounds, 12 non-covalent binding cruzain inhibitors with affinity values (Ki) in the low micromolar range (3–60 µM) acting through a competitive inhibition mechanism were identified. This mechanism has been confirmed by determining the binding mode of the cruzain inhibitor Nequimed176 through X-ray crystallographic studies. Cruzain, a validated therapeutic target for new chemotherapy for Chagas disease, also shares high similarity with the mammalian homolog cathepsin L. Because increased activity of cathepsin L is related to invasive properties and has been linked to metastatic cancer cells, cruzain inhibitors from the same library were assayed against it. Affinity values were in a similar range (4–80 µM), yielding poor selectivity towards cruzain but raising the possibility of investigating such inhibitors for their effect on cell proliferation. In order to select the most promising enzyme inhibitors retaining trypanocidal activity for structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, the most potent cruzain inhibitors were assayed against T. cruzi-infected cells. Two compounds were found to have trypanocidal activity. Using compound Nequimed42 as precursor, an SAR was established in which the 2-acetamidothiophene-3-carboxamide group was identified as essential for enzyme and parasite inhibition activities. The IC50 value for compound Nequimed42 acting against the trypomastigote form of the Tulahuen lacZ strain was found to be 10.6±0.1 µM, tenfold lower than that obtained for benznidazole, which was taken as positive control. In addition, by employing the strategy of molecular simplification, a smaller compound derived from Nequimed42 with a ligand efficiency (LE) of 0.33 kcal mol?1 atom?1 (compound Nequimed176) is highlighted as a novel non-peptidic, non-covalent cruzain inhibitor as a trypanocidal agent candidate for optimization. PMID:23991231

  18. A rapid in vitro screening system for the identification and evaluation of anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.W.; Collins, J.L. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1989-01-01

    We report the development of an in vitro screening system that can be used to identify new anticancer drugs that are specifically cytotoxic for dividing cells. The screening system takes advantage of the potential of many cell lines, including tumor cells, to stop dividing when they are plated at high cell density. The cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs on dividing (i.e., cells plated at low cell density) and nondividing cells (i.e., cells plated at high cell density) is measured by the incorporation of 51Cr. This in vitro system was evaluated by measuring the cytotoxic effects of the anticancer drugs cisplatin, thiotepa, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and vinblastine on the cell lines B/C-N, ME-180, and MCF-7. In this in vitro system the concentrations of the anticancer drugs that produced significant cytotoxicity on only dividing cells are similar to the concentrations that are used clinically. The fact that this in vitro system is rapid, simple, applicable to many cell types, and able to predict effective concentrations of anticancer drugs should make it useful for the screening of new anticancer drugs and for the design of preclinical studies.

  19. Women’s perspectives on screening for alcohol and drug use in prenatal care

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Nuru-Jeter, Amani

    2010-01-01

    Background Screening for alcohol and drug use in prenatal care is widely promoted in the United States as a public health strategy for reducing alcohol and drug use during pregnancy. However, the published literature does not consider women’s perspectives or the potential negative ramifications of screening. Methods Twenty semi-structured interviews and two focus groups [n=38] were conducted with a racially/ethnically diverse sample of low-income pregnant and parenting women using alcohol and/or drugs in a northern California county. Results Most women were averse to having drug but not alcohol use identified and were mistrustful of providers’ often inconspicuous efforts to discover drug use. Women expected psychological, social, and legal consequences from being identified, including feelings of maternal failure, judgment by providers, and reports to Child Protective Services. Women did not trust providers to protect them from these consequences. Rather, they took steps to protect themselves. They avoided and emotionally disengaged from prenatal care, attempted to stop using substances that could be detected by urine tests prior to prenatal care visits, and shared strategies within social networks for getting the benefits of prenatal care while avoiding its negative consequences. Conclusions Considerations of the public health impact of screening for drug use in prenatal care should account for the implications of women’s physical avoidance of and emotional disengagement from prenatal care, specifically the direct effects of late, limited, and no prenatal care on pregnancy outcomes and missed opportunities for health promoting interventions. PMID:20457407

  20. Targeting Opioid Receptor Heterodimers: Strategies for Screening and Drug Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achla Gupta; Fabien M. Décaillot; Lakshmi A. Devi

    G-protein-coupled receptors are a major target for the development of new marketable drugs. A growing number of studies have\\u000a shown that these receptors could bind to their ligands, signal, and be internalized as dimers. Most of the evidence comes\\u000a from in vitro studies, but recent studies using animal models support an important role for dimerization in vivo and in human

  1. Targeting opioid receptor heterodimers: Strategies for screening and drug development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achla Gupta; Fabien M. Décaillot; Lakshmi A. Devi

    2006-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors are a major target for the development of new marketable drugs. A growing number of studies have\\u000a shown that these receptors could bind to their ligands, signal, and be internalized as dimers. Most of the evidence comes\\u000a from in vitro studies, but recent studies using animal models support an important role for dimerization in vivo and in human

  2. Screening hallucinogenic drugs: Systematic study of three behavioral tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Teresa A. Silva; Helena M. Calil

    1975-01-01

    The effects of several hallucinogenic and non-hallucinogenic drugs have been studied on three behavioral tests proposed as useful indexes of hallucinogenic activity: “head-twitching” in mice, defecation in an open-field, and suppression of responding on a differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) schedule of reinforcement. According to the original propositions, after administration of hallucinogenic agents the frequency of head-twitches would increase

  3. In vitro screen of prion disease susceptibility genes using the scrapie cell assay

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Craig A.; Schmidt, Christian; Poulter, Mark; Hummerich, Holger; Klöhn, Peter-C.; Jat, Parmjit; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John; Lloyd, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. While genome-wide association studies in human and quantitative trait loci mapping in mice have provided evidence for multiple susceptibility genes, few of these have been confirmed functionally. Phenotyping mouse models is generally the method of choice. However, this is not a feasible option where many novel genes, without pre-existing models, would need to be tested. We have therefore developed and applied an in-vitro screen to triage and prioritize candidate modifier genes for more detailed future studies which is faster, far more cost effective and ethical relative to mouse bioassay models. An in vitro prion bioassay, the scrapie cell assay, uses a neuroblastoma-derived cell line (PK1) that is susceptible to RML prions and able to propagate prions at high levels. In this study, we have generated stable gene silencing and/or overexpressing PK1-derived cell lines to test whether perturbation of 14 candidate genes affects prion susceptibility. While no consistent differences were determined for seven genes, highly significant changes were detected for Zbtb38, Sorcs1, Stmn2, Hspa13, Fkbp9, Actr10 and Plg, suggesting that they play key roles in the fundamental processes of prion propagation or clearance. Many neurodegenerative diseases involve the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates and ‘prion-like’ seeding and spread has been implicated in their pathogenesis. It is therefore expected that some of these prion-modifier genes may be of wider relevance in neurodegeneration. PMID:24833721

  4. Development of a rapid multiplexed assay for the direct screening of antimicrobial residues in raw milk.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Terry F; McClintock, Laura; Dunn, John S; Husar, Gregory M; Lochhead, Michael J; Sarver, Ronald W; Klein, Frank E; Rice, Jennifer A; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-06-01

    Antimicrobial residues found to be present in milk can have both health and economic impacts. For these reasons, the widespread routine testing of milk is required. Due to delays with sample handling and test scheduling, laboratory-based tests are not always suited for making decisions about raw material intake and product release, especially when samples require shipping to a central testing facility. Therefore, rapid on-site screening tests that can produce results within a matter of minutes are required to facilitate rapid intake and product release processes. Such tests must be simple for use by non-technical staff. There is increasing momentum towards the development and implementation of multiplexing tests that can detect a range of important antimicrobial residues simultaneously. A simple in situ multiplexed planar waveguide device that can simultaneously detect chloramphenicol, streptomycin and desfuroylceftiofur in raw dairy milk, without sample preparation, has been developed. Samples are simply mixed with antibody prior to an aliquot being passed through the detection cartridge for 5 min before reading on a field-deployable portable instrument. Multiplexed calibration curves were produced in both buffer and raw milk. Buffer curves, for chloramphenicol, streptomycin and desfuroylceftiofur, showed linear ranges (inhibitory concentration (IC)20-IC80) of 0.1-0.9, 3-129 and 12-26 ng/ml, whilst linear range in milk was 0.13-0.74, 11-376 and 2-12 ng/ml, respectively, thus meeting European legislated concentration requirements for both chloramphenicol and streptomycin, in milk, without the need for any sample preparation. Desfuroylceftiofur-contaminated samples require only simple sample dilution to bring positive samples within the range of quantification. Assay repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 12 coefficient of variation (%CV), whilst blank raw milk samples (n?=?9) showed repeatability ranging between 4.2 and 8.1 %CV when measured on all three calibration curves. Graphical Abstract MBio SnapEsi reader and cartridge. PMID:25701420

  5. Direct comparison of the pharmacodynamics of four antifungal drugs in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis using microbiological assays of serum drug concentrations.

    PubMed

    Maki, Katsuyuki; Holmes, Ann R; Watabe, Etsuko; Iguchi, Yumi; Matsumoto, Satoru; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Tawara, Shuichi; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacodynamics of the azole antifungal drugs fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole, and the polyene antifungal amphotericin B, in a mouse model of disseminated Candida albicans infection. In order to directly compare effective serum concentrations of these antifungals, drug concentrations were assayed microbiologically by measuring inhibition of C. albicans mycelial growth (mMIC) in a mouse serum-based assay (serum antifungal titer). Efficacy in the mouse infection model was determined using an organ-based (kidney burden) endpoint. For all four drugs, the serum antifungal titers, 8 hr after administration of single doses of drugs at a range of drug concentrations, correlated closely with C. albicans kidney fungal burden in the mouse model. The results showed that determining serum antifungal titer may be used to accurately represent kidney fungal burden in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis and allowed direct comparison of the pharmacodynamics of differing classes of antifungal drugs. PMID:18037782

  6. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening for quinolones in egg, poultry muscle and feed samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giampiero Scortichini; Loredana Annunziata; Valeria Di Girolamo; Roberta Buratti; Roberta Galarini

    2009-01-01

    Quinolones are a group of chemotherapeutic agents with an excellent efficiency against poultry pathogens. Two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests have been applied in parallel for the qualitative screening analysis of several quinolones in eggs, poultry muscle and feeds at the required levels. During the validation study, carried out according to the Commission Decision 2002\\/657\\/EC criteria, two different sample

  7. Comparison of In Vitro Activities of 17 Antifungal Drugs against a Panel of 20 Dermatophytes by Using a Microdilution Assay

    PubMed Central

    Favre, Bertrand; Hofbauer, Bettina; Hildering, Kwang-Soo; Ryder, Neil S.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro activities of 17 antifungal drugs against a panel of 20 dermatophytes comprising 6 different species were determined using a microdilution assay according to the NCCLS M38-P method with some modifications. Terbinafine was the most potent systemic drug while tolnaftate and amorolfine were the most active topical agents. PMID:14532230

  8. A Fluorescence Displacement Assay for Antidepressant Drug Discovery Based on Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jerry [Vanderbilt University; Tomlinson, Ian [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Warnement, Michael [Vanderbilt University; Iwamoto, Hideki [Vanderbilt University

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) protein plays a central role in terminating 5-HT neurotransmission and is the most important therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders. We report an innovative, versatile, and target-selective quantum dot (QD) labeling approach for SERT in single Xenopus oocytes that can be adopted as a drug-screening platform. Our labeling approach employs a custom-made, QD-tagged indoleamine derivative ligand, IDT318, that is structurally similar to 5-HT and accesses the primary binding site with enhanced human SERT selectivity. Incubating QD-labeled oocytes with paroxetine (Paxil), a high-affinity SERT-specific inhibitor, showed a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in QD fluorescence, demonstrating the utility of our approach for the identification of SERT modulators. Furthermore, with the development of ligands aimed at other pharmacologically relevant targets, our approach may potentially form the basis for a multitarget drug discovery platform.

  9. Activity-Fed Translation (AFT) Assay: A New High-Throughput Screening Strategy for Enzymes in Droplets.

    PubMed

    Woronoff, Gabrielle; Ryckelynck, Michaël; Wessel, Julia; Schicke, Olivier; Griffiths, Andrew D; Soumillion, Patrice

    2015-06-15

    There is an increasing demand for the development of sensitive enzymatic assays compatible with droplet-based microfluidics. Here we describe an original strategy, activity-fed translation (AFT), based on the coupling of enzymatic activity to in vitro translation of a fluorescent protein. We show that methionine release upon the hydrolysis of phenylacetylmethionine by penicillin acylase enabled in vitro expression of green fluorescent protein. An autocatalytic setup where both proteins are expressed makes the assay highly sensitive, as fluorescence was detected in droplets containing single PAC genes. Adding a PCR step in the droplets prior to the assay increased the sensitivity further. The strategy is potentially applicable for any activity that can be coupled to the production of an amino acid, and as the microdroplet volume is small the use of costly reagents such as in vitro expression mixtures is not limiting for high-throughput screening projects. PMID:25914325

  10. Blood cholesterol screening: influence of fasting state, biological variation and the single cholesterol assay on total cholesterol level.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K

    1993-03-01

    Postprandial changes in plasma total cholesterol (TC) are minimal and there is essentially no difference between fasting vs random TC concentrations, as reflected in the small diurnal coefficient of variation (CV) for TC of 2.5%. Similarly, a cholesterol-rich meal within the last 24 hours lacked an impact on plasma TC. Thus, random specimens are acceptable in blood cholesterol screening. The intraindividual biological CV (CVb) for plasma TC as measured over a long period was estimated from the data of several published studies to be 6.0%, which, when combined with a probable analytical CV (CVa) of 5% during screening, gave a total intraindividual CV (CVt) of about 8% for the single cholesterol assay. There is consensus that 'high TC values' acquired during screening should be confirmed under the conventional laboratory setting capable of CVa of 3% or less. PMID:8341167

  11. The US EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: In VItro and In Vivo Mammalian Tier 1 Screening Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system, the Food Quality Protection Act mandated that the U.S. EPA develop and implement an endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP...

  12. Corifungin, a new drug lead against Naegleria, identified from a high-throughput screen.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Anjan; Tunac, Josefino B; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; McKerrow, James H

    2012-11-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. The drug of choice in treating PAM is the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B, but its use is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, few patients treated with amphotericin B have survived PAM. Therefore, fast-acting and efficient drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of PAM. To facilitate drug screening for this pathogen, an automated, high-throughput screening methodology was developed and validated for the closely related species Naegleria gruberi. Five kinase inhibitors and an NF-kappaB inhibitor were hits identified in primary screens of three compound libraries. Most importantly for a preclinical drug discovery pipeline, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide with a higher activity against Naegleria than that of amphotericin B. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated with different concentrations of corifungin showed disruption of cytoplasmic and plasma membranes and alterations in mitochondria, followed by complete lysis of amebae. In vivo efficacy of corifungin in a mouse model of PAM was confirmed by an absence of detectable amebae in the brain and 100% survival of mice for 17 days postinfection for a single daily intraperitoneal dose of 9 mg/kg of body weight given for 10 days. The same dose of amphotericin B did not reduce ameba growth, and mouse survival was compromised. Based on these results, the U.S. FDA has approved orphan drug status for corifungin for the treatment of PAM. PMID:22869574

  13. Corifungin, a New Drug Lead against Naegleria, Identified from a High-Throughput Screen

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Anjan; Tunac, Josefino B.; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko

    2012-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. The drug of choice in treating PAM is the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B, but its use is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, few patients treated with amphotericin B have survived PAM. Therefore, fast-acting and efficient drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of PAM. To facilitate drug screening for this pathogen, an automated, high-throughput screening methodology was developed and validated for the closely related species Naegleria gruberi. Five kinase inhibitors and an NF-kappaB inhibitor were hits identified in primary screens of three compound libraries. Most importantly for a preclinical drug discovery pipeline, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide with a higher activity against Naegleria than that of amphotericin B. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated with different concentrations of corifungin showed disruption of cytoplasmic and plasma membranes and alterations in mitochondria, followed by complete lysis of amebae. In vivo efficacy of corifungin in a mouse model of PAM was confirmed by an absence of detectable amebae in the brain and 100% survival of mice for 17 days postinfection for a single daily intraperitoneal dose of 9 mg/kg of body weight given for 10 days. The same dose of amphotericin B did not reduce ameba growth, and mouse survival was compromised. Based on these results, the U.S. FDA has approved orphan drug status for corifungin for the treatment of PAM. PMID:22869574

  14. From Omics to Drug Metabolism and High Content Screen of Natural Product in Zebrafish: A New Model for Discovery of Neuroactive Compound

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming Wai; Zhang, Zai Jun; Li, Shang; Lei, Benson; Yuan, Shuai; Cui, Guo Zhen; Man Hoi, Pui; Chan, Kelvin; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a common model in the fields of genetics, environmental science, toxicology, and especially drug screening. Zebrafish has emerged as a biomedically relevant model for in vivo high content drug screening and the simultaneous determination of multiple efficacy parameters, including behaviour, selectivity, and toxicity in the content of the whole organism. A zebrafish behavioural assay has been demonstrated as a novel, rapid, and high-throughput approach to the discovery of neuroactive, psychoactive, and memory-modulating compounds. Recent studies found a functional similarity of drug metabolism systems in zebrafish and mammals, providing a clue with why some compounds are active in zebrafish in vivo but not in vitro, as well as providing grounds for the rationales supporting the use of a zebrafish screen to identify prodrugs. Here, we discuss the advantages of the zebrafish model for evaluating drug metabolism and the mode of pharmacological action with the emerging omics approaches. Why this model is suitable for identifying lead compounds from natural products for therapy of disorders with multifactorial etiopathogenesis and imbalance of angiogenesis, such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, cardiotoxicity, cerebral hemorrhage, dyslipidemia, and hyperlipidemia, is addressed. PMID:22919414

  15. Applicability of a blood-brain barrier specific artificial membrane permeability assay at the early stage of natural product-based CNS drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Arpád; Müller, Judit; Földes, Emília; Béni, Zoltán; Végh, Krisztina; Kéry, Agnes; Balogh, György T

    2013-04-26

    While numerous natural products (NPs) possess activity on central nervous system (CNS) targets, there has been no analytical approach to effectively identify compounds with high brain penetration potential in complex mixtures at the early stage of drug discovery. To overcome this issue, the performance of an in vitro parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for the blood-brain barrier (PAMPA-BBB) for natural products and for plant extracts has been validated and characterized. It was found that the PAMPA-BBB assay preserves its predictive power in the case of natural products and provides high phytochemical selectivity, which enables its use as a unique filtering tool in terms of selecting brain-penetrable compounds from plant extracts. Moreover, the present study has demonstrated that simple modifications in the assay design allow the direct use of PAMPA-BBB filtered samples in a dereplication process, as performed by NMR and LC-MS. The applicability of this procedure was demonstrated using extracts prepared from Tanacetum parthenium, Vinca major, Salvia officinalis, and Corydalis cava, representing different types of chemical diversity and complexity. Thus, the proposed protocol represents a potentially valuable strategy in the NP-based CNS drug discovery environment with a high-throughput screening platform. PMID:23565574

  16. Application of firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to antimicrobial drug sensitivity testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Tuttle, S. A.; Schrock, C. G.; Deming, J. W.; Barza, M. J.; Wienstein, L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a rapid method for determining microbial susceptibilities to antibiotics using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is documented. The reduction of bacterial ATP by an antimicrobial agent was determined to be a valid measure of drug effect in most cases. The effect of 12 antibiotics on 8 different bacterial species gave a 94 percent correlation with the standard Kirby-Buer-Agar disc diffusion method. A 93 percent correlation was obtained when the ATP assay method was applied directly to 50 urine specimens from patients with urinary tract infections. Urine samples were centrifuged first to that bacterial pellets could be suspended in broth. No primary isolation or subculturing was required. Mixed cultures in which one species was predominant gave accurate results for the most abundant organism. Since the method is based on an increase in bacterial ATP with time, the presence of leukocytes did not interfere with the interpretation of results. Both the incubation procedure and the ATP assays are compatible with automation.

  17. Ex Vivo Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Assay for the Evaluation of pH-responsive Endosomolytic Agents for Cytosolic Delivery of Biomacromolecular Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Beavers, Kelsey R.; Kim, Arnold J.; Li, Hongmei; Nelson, Heather M.; Giorgio, Todd D.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipid bilayers that constitute endo-lysosomal vesicles can pose a barrier to delivery of biologic drugs to intracellular targets. To overcome this barrier, a number of synthetic drug carriers have been engineered to actively disrupt the endosomal membrane and deliver cargo into the cytoplasm. Here, we describe the hemolysis assay, which can be used as rapid, high-throughput screen for the cytocompatibility and endosomolytic activity of intracellular drug delivery systems. In the hemolysis assay, human red blood cells and test materials are co-incubated in buffers at defined pHs that mimic extracellular, early endosomal, and late endo-lysosomal environments. Following a centrifugation step to pellet intact red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin released into the medium is spectrophotometrically measured (405 nm for best dynamic range). The percent red blood cell disruption is then quantified relative to positive control samples lysed with a detergent. In this model system the erythrocyte membrane serves as a surrogate for the lipid bilayer membrane that enclose endo-lysosomal vesicles. The desired result is negligible hemolysis at physiologic pH (7.4) and robust hemolysis in the endo-lysosomal pH range from approximately pH 5-6.8. PMID:23524982

  18. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

  19. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

  20. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  1. Characterization of Rhodamine-123 as a Tracer Dye for Use In In vitro Drug Transport Assays

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Samantha; Thumser, Alfred E.; Hood, Steve R.; Plant, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent tracer dyes represent an important class of sub-cellular probes and allow the examination of cellular processes in real-time with minimal impact upon these processes. Such tracer dyes are becoming increasingly used for the examination of membrane transport processes, as they are easy-to-use, cost effective probe substrates for a number of membrane protein transporters. Rhodamine 123, a member of the rhodamine family of flurone dyes, has been used to examine membrane transport by the ABCB1 gene product, MDR1. MDR1 is viewed as the archetypal drug transport protein, and is able to efflux a large number of clinically relevant drugs. In addition, ectopic activity of MDR1 has been associated with the development of multiple drug resistance phenotype, which results in a poor patient response to therapeutic intervention. It is thus important to be able to examine the potential for novel compounds to be MDR1 substrates. Given the increasing use rhodamine 123 as a tracer dye for MDR1, a full characterisation of its spectral properties in a range of in vitro assay-relevant media is warranted. Herein, we determine ?max for excitation and emission or rhodamine 123 and its metabolite rhodamine 110 in commonly used solvents and extraction buffers, demonstrating that fluorescence is highly dependent on the chemical environment: Optimal parameters are 1% (v/v) methanol in HBSS, with ?ex?=?505 nm, ?em?=?525 nm. We characterise the uptake of rhodamine 123 into cells, via both passive and active processes, and demonstrate that this occurs primarily through OATP1A2-mediated facilitated transport at concentrations below 2 µM, and via micelle-mediated passive diffusion above this. Finally, we quantify the intracellular sequestration and metabolism of rhodamine 123, demonstrating that these are both cell line-dependent factors that may influence the interpretation of transport assays. PMID:22470447

  2. Rapid Identification and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Standard Operating Procedure for Non-Commercial Assays: Part 2: Nitrate Reductase Assay v1.3.12

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Parveen; Sharma, Shreya; Mumbowa, Francis; Martin, Anandi; Durier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    In the previous part, we presented the standard operating procedure (SOP) of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present SOP is devoted to another non-commercial culture and DST method known as nitrate reductase assay (NRA). As the name implies, the NRA detects the ability of M. tuberculosis to reduce nitrate to nitrite. In the assay, the presence of nitrite is detected by the addition of p-nitrobenzoate into the growth yield. The reaction is detected by the naked eye. The incorporation of drugs in the medium allows to use the test for DST, which can be interpreted with naked eyes. The identification and drug susceptibility results can be obtained in 2-3 weeks. This SOP document has been developed through the culture and DST subgroup of the STOP tuberculosis (TB) Partnership New Diagnostic Working Group. It is intended for laboratories that would want to use or already using this rapid non-commercial method for culture identification and DST of M. tuberculosis, notably in resource-constraint settings in Asia and Africa. PMID:23440455

  3. Development of a High-Throughput Screening Cancer Cell-Based Luciferase Refolding Assay for Identifying Hsp90 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sadikot, Takrima; Swink, Megan; Eskew, Jeffery D.; Brown, Douglas; Zhao, Huiping; Kusuma, Bhaskar R.; Rajewski, Roger A.; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Matts, Robert L.; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The 90?kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90) and other cochaperones allow for proper folding of nascent or misfolded polypeptides. Cancer cells exploit these chaperones by maintaining the stability of mutated and misfolded oncoproteins and allowing them to evade proteosomal degradation. Inhibiting Hsp90 is an attractive strategy for cancer therapy, as the concomitant degradation of multiple oncoproteins may lead to effective anti-neoplastic agents. Unfortunately, early clinical trials have been disappointing with N-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors, as it is unclear whether the problems that plague current Hsp90 inhibitors in clinical trials are related to on-target or off-target activity. One approach to overcome these pitfalls is to identify structurally diverse scaffolds that improve Hsp90 inhibitory activity in the cancer cell milieu. Utilizing a panel of cancer cell lines that express luciferase, we have designed an in-cell Hsp90-dependent luciferase refolding assay. The assay was optimized using previously identified Hsp90 inhibitors and experimental novobiocin analogues against prostate, colon, and lung cancer cell lines. This assay exhibits good interplate precision (% CV), a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ?7, and an approximate Z-factor ranging from 0.5 to 0.7. Novobiocin analogues that revealed activity in this assay were examined via western blot experiments for client protein degradation, a hallmark of Hsp90 inhibition. Subsequently, a pilot screen was conducted using the Prestwick library, and two compounds, biperiden and ethoxyquin, revealed significant activity. Here, we report the development of an in-cell Hsp90-dependent luciferase refolding assay that is amenable across cancer cell lines for the screening of inhibitors in their specific milieu. PMID:24127661

  4. Image-Based Chemical Screening Identifies Drug Efflux Inhibitors In Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jian; Li, Fuhai; Li, Ying; Zhou, Xiaobo; Dai, Yue; Wong, Stephen T C

    2010-01-01

    Cancer cells with active drug-efflux capability are multidrug resistant and pose a significant obstacle for the efficacy of chemotherapy. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that high drug-efflux cancer cells (HDECCs) may be selectively enriched with stem-like cancer cells, which are believed to be the cause for tumor initiation and recurrence. There is a great need for therapeutic reagents that are capable of eliminating HDECCs. We developed an image-based high-content screening (HCS) system to specifically identify and analyze the HDECC population in lung cancer cells. Using the system, we screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds which identified twelve potent HDECC inhibitors. It is shown that these inhibitors are able to overcome MDR and sensitize HDECCs to chemotherapeutic drugs, or directly reduce the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells possibly by affecting stem-like cancer cells. The HCS system we established provides a new approach for identifying therapeutic reagents overcoming MDR. The compounds identified by the screening may potentially be used as potential adjuvant to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:20841476

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE TLC/SALMONELLA ASSAY FOR SCREENING HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a modified version of the TLC/Salmonella assay developed by Bjorseth et al. (1982), 10 complex hazardous wastes were tested for mutagenic activity. The method couples thin layer chromatography (TLC) with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome (Ames) assay for the detection of m...

  6. Selective Ion Extraction for High Throughput Screening with a Microfluidic Enzyme Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. Kerby; Spencer Wu; Bahram Fathollahi; Ring-Ling Chien

    2002-01-01

    This proof-of-concept paper describes the application of selective ion extraction to an assay of protein kinase A on a microfluidic chip platform. Selective ion extraction is a flux balance technique, where a combination of independent pressure control and voltage are used to selectively extract one ion from a mixture. The assay product is completely separated and diverted into a separate

  7. Dose response screening of the Toxcast chemical library using a Zebrafish developmental assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the toxicity of the 320 ToxCaspM Phase I chemicals was assessed using a vertebrate screen of developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos/larvae (Danio rerio) were expo...

  8. Toxicity Screening of the ToxCast Chemical Library Using a Zebrafish Developmental Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the toxicity of the 320 ToxCast? Phase I chemicals were assessed using a vertebrate screen of developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos/larvae (Danio rerio) were exp...

  9. A rapid and sensitive HPLC assay of some concomitant anti-migraine drugs.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Michael, Adel M; Lotfy, Hayam M; El-Kadi, Ayman O; Shehata, Mostafa A

    2014-08-01

    This work describes a simple and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of zolmitriptan, naproxen and propranolol in their dosage forms using HPLC. The drugs were separated isocratically on a Zorbax C8 (4.6 × 250 mm with 5 µm particle size) column using a mobile phase composed of 20 mM phosphate citrate buffer [0.1% TEA (pH 3.1)]:methanol:THF (5:3:2, by volumes). The detection was accomplished fluorometrically setting the excitation wavelength at 280 nm and emission wavelength at 360 nm. The method was validated over a linearity range of 100-900 ng/mL for zolmitriptan, 50-300 ng/mL for naproxen and 100-800 ng/mL for propranolol. The assay was successfully applied to the determination of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from tablet excipients with high specificity. The method can be applied successfully in the future for the pharmacokinetic study of these drugs in the human plasma with high accuracy especially that LOQs of zolmitriptan and propranolol in the proposed method cover their Cmax. PMID:23845885

  10. Development and model testing of anti-mortem screening methodology to predict prescribed drug withholds in heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, cow-side test for the presence of drug residues in live animal fluids would provide useful information for tissue drug residue avoidance programs. This work describes adaptation and evaluation of rapid screening tests to detect drug residues in serum and urine. Medicated herd animals had...

  11. Development of a CERT START Domain-Ceramide HTRF Binding Assay and Application to Pharmacological Studies and Screening.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Laurence; Faux, Céline; Santos, Cécile; Ballereau, Stéphanie; Génisson, Yves; Ausseil, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism deregulation was recently associated with cell metastasis and chemoresistance, and several pharmacological strategies targeting SM metabolism have emerged. The ceramide (Cer) generated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is transferred to the Golgi apparatus to be transformed into SM. CERamide Transfer (CERT) protein is responsible for the nonvesicular trafficking of Cer to Golgi. Blocking the CERT-mediated ER-to-Golgi Cer transfer is an interesting antioncogenic therapeutic approach. Here, we developed a protein-lipid interaction assay for the identification of new CERT-Cer interaction inhibitors. Frequently used for protein-protein interaction by enzymatic and analyte dosage assays, homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technology was adapted for the first time to a lipid-protein binding assay. This test was developed for high-throughput screening, and a library of 672 molecules was screened. Seven hits were identified, and their inhibitory effect quantified by EC50 measurements showed binding inhibition three orders of magnitude more potent than that of HPA12, the unique known CERT antagonist to date. Each compound was tested on an independent test, confirming its high affinity and pharmacological potential. PMID:25716975

  12. Clinical validation of a western blot assay for congenital toxoplasmosis and newborn screening in a hospital in Armenia (Quindio) Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Marín, Carolina; Henao, Ana Carolina; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2006-04-01

    Congenital Toxoplasma infection can only be discovered or prevented by the appropriate serological screening and subsequent treatment of the mother and her offspring. In Colombia, there is no obligatory Toxoplasma screening for pregnant women and both the reporting and follow-up of congenital toxoplasmosis cases is limited, thereby is a public health problem that have no been addressed by health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in a public hospital from Armenia, Colombia. A total of 200 serum samples of cord blood were collected. We applied a western blot assay (ID Blot DPC Diagnostics, US) for Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies that was validated in a cohort of children with confirmed presence or absence of congenital infection. The sensitivity of western blot assay was 91 per cent and the specificity was 100 per cent. In the cord blood samples, we found one infected child that died at day 4 of life and his infection was confirmed by PCR of the B1 specific Toxoplasma gene on brain biopsy. This results show a high prevalence (0.5 per cent, IC95 per cent 0.2-0.8) of Toxoplasma infection in Colombian newborns. Thus, we recommend additional studies to determine the cost-effectiveness of a newborn screening program for congenital toxoplasmosis in other settings in Colombia. PMID:16014760

  13. Application of a Drug-Induced Apoptosis Assay to Identify Treatment Strategies in Recurrent or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bosserman, Linda; Rogers, Karl; Willis, Carl; Davidson, Dirk; Whitworth, Pat; Karimi, Misagh; Upadhyaya, Gargi; Rutledge, James; Hallquist, Allan; Perree, Mathieu; Presant, Cary A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A drug-induced apoptosis assay has been developed to determine which chemotherapy drugs or regimens can produce higher cell killing in vitro. This study was done to determine if this assay could be performed in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer patients, to characterize the patterns of drug-induced apoptosis, and to evaluate the clinical utility of the assay. A secondary goal was to correlate assay use with clinical outcomes. Methods In a prospective, non-blinded, multi institutional controlled trial, 30 evaluable patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer who were treated with chemotherapy had tumor samples submitted for the MiCK drug-induced apoptosis assay. After receiving results within 72 hours after biopsy, physicians could use the test to determine therapy (users), or elect to not use the test (non-users). Results The assay was able to characterize drug-induced apoptosis in tumor specimens from breast cancer patients and identified which drugs or combinations gave highest levels of apoptosis. Patterns of drug activity were also analyzed in triple negative breast cancer. Different drugs from a single class of agents often produced significantly different amounts of apoptosis. Physician frequently (73%) used the assay to help select chemotherapy treatments in patients, Patients whose physicians were users had a higher response (CR+PR) rate compared to non-users (38.1% vs 0%, p = 0.04) and a higher disease control (CR+PR+Stable) rate (81% vs 25%, p<0.01). Time to relapse was longer in users 7.4 mo compared to non-users 2.2 mo (p<0.01). Conclusions The MiCK assay can be performed in breast cancer specimens, and results are often used by physicians in breast cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. These results from a good laboratory phase II study can be the basis for a future larger prospective multicenter study to more definitively establish the value of the assay. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00901264 PMID:26024531

  14. Designing, optimizing, and implementing high-throughput siRNA genomic screening with glioma cells for the discovery of survival genes and novel drug targets.

    PubMed

    Thaker, Nikhil G; McDonald, Peter R; Zhang, Fang; Kitchens, Carolyn A; Shun, Tong Ying; Pollack, Ian F; Lazo, John S

    2010-01-15

    A major challenge for the treatment of cancers, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), has been resistance to radiation and cancer chemotherapeutics. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) based screening may facilitate the identification of genes and pathways essential for cancer cell survival and could enable a more targeted therapeutic approach for the treatment of GBM. Although the commercial availability of siRNA libraries has expanded greatly, detailed methods for the implementation and analysis of genome-scale screens are largely lacking. To annotate the essential genes and pathways for glioma cell survival, we designed, optimized, and implemented a high-throughput siRNA screen in the highly drug and radiation resistant T98G glioma cell line. We developed a rapid, readily available, and simple strategy to optimize siRNA transfection assays in a 384-well plate format based on immunofluorescence studies and inhibition of the non-essential, endogenous gene lamin A/C. We used these transfection conditions to successfully screen a library of 1056 siRNAs targeting 352 unique human genes in a cell-based one gene per well format to identify the genes essential for glioma cell survival and assess the quality of the screening conditions prior to large-scale screening. After developing and applying a median-based outlier detection algorithm for post-screen analysis, we identified the Ras oncogene family member RAN as an essential gene for glioma cell survival. Successful implementation and analysis of this siRNA screen validates our transfection optimization approach and provides guidance for the rapid development of high-throughput siRNA screens in human glioma cells. PMID:19782703

  15. PROTEOMICS OF MINUTE AMOUNTS OF TISSUE SAMPLE IN AQUATIC SPECIES: APPLICATION TO DEVELOPMENT OF NON-MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When combined with other biochemical/toxicology assays, this type of information will contribute to the classification of chemicals based upon their effects at different levels of biological organization, and to the development of a cost-effective, non-mammalian screening assay f...

  16. The Effectiveness of Screening with Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in a University Health Care Setting with a Diverse Global Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Samantha J.; Golbeck, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This analysis examined the effectiveness of utilizing interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) technology in a TB (TB) screening program at a university. Participants: Participants were 2299 students at a Montana university who had presented to the university health center for TB screening during 2012 and 2013. Methods: A retrospective…

  17. Combining Taipan snake venom time\\/Ecarin time screening with the mixing studies of conventional assays increases detection rates of lupus anticoagulants in orally anticoagulated patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary W Moore

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulation compromises conventional lupus anticoagulant (LA) screening assays. Mixing studies can counteract the oral anticoagulant effect but the dilution reduces sensitivity and can generate false negative results. A firm diagnosis can be made from mixing studies when an elevated screen ratio is accompanied by a confirm ratio that generates significant correction to demonstrate phospholipid dependence, but also returns

  18. Screening Helix-threading Peptides for RNA Binding Using a Thiazole Orange Displacement Assay

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Malathy; Schirle, Nicole T.; Beal, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescent intercalator displacement assay using thiazole orange has been adapted to the study of RNA-binding helix-threading peptides (HTPs). This assay is highly sensitive with HTP-binding RNAs and provides binding affinity data in good agreement with quantitative ribonuclease footprinting without the need for radiolabeling or gel electrophoresis. The FID assay was used to define structure activity relationships for a small library of helix-threading peptides. Results of these studies indicate their RNA binding is dependent on peptide sequence, ?-amino acid stereochemistry, and cyclization (versus linear peptides), but independent of macrocyclic ring size for the penta-, tetra- and tri peptides analyzed. PMID:18789700

  19. Antileishmanial High-Throughput Drug Screening Reveals Drug Candidates with New Scaffolds

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ), Institut Pasteur Korea, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, 2 Screening Technology & Pharmacology Group, Institut Pasteur Korea, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, 3 Active Compound Space Group, Institut Pasteur Korea, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, 4 Image Mining Group, Institut Pasteur Korea

  20. Patterned Cardiomyocytes on Microelectrode Arrays as a Functional, High Information Content Drug Screening Platform

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Anupama; Stancescu, Maria; Dhir, Vipra; Armstrong, Christopher; Sommerhage, Frank; Hickman, James J.; Molnar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac side effects are one of the major causes of drug candidate failures in preclinical drug development or in clinical trials and are responsible for the retraction of several already marketed therapeutics. Thus, the development of a relatively high-throughput, high-information content tool to screen drugs and toxins would be important in the field of cardiac research and drug development. In this study, recordings from commercial multielectrode arrays were combined with surface patterning of cardiac myocyte monolayers to enhance the information content of the method; specifically, to enable the measurement of conduction velocity, refractory period after action potentials and to create a functional reentry model. Two drugs, 1-Heptanol, a gap junction blocker, and Sparfloxacin, a fluoroquinone antibiotic, were tested in this system. 1-Heptanol administration resulted in a marked reduction in conduction velocity, whereas Sparfloxacin caused rapid, irregular and unsynchronized activity, indicating fibrillation. As shown in these experiments, patterning of cardiac myocyte monolayers solved several inherent problems of multielectrode recordings, increased the temporal resolution of conduction velocity measurements, and made the synchronization of external stimulation with action potential propagation possible for refractory period measurements. This method could be further developed as a cardiac side effect screening platform after combination with human cardiomyocytes. PMID:21453966

  1. Off-rate screening for selection of high-affinity anti-drug antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ylera, Francisco; Harth, Stefan; Waldherr, Dirk; Frisch, Christian; Knappik, Achim

    2013-10-15

    The rapidly increasing number of therapeutic antibodies in clinical development and on the market requires corresponding detection reagents for monitoring the concentration of these drugs in patient samples and as positive controls for measurement of anti-drug antibodies. Phage display of large recombinant antibody libraries has been shown to enable the rapid development of fully human anti-idiotypic antibodies binding specifically to antibody drugs, since the in vitro panning approach allows for incorporation of suitable blockers to drive selection toward the paratope of the drug. A typical bottleneck in antibody generation projects is ranking of the many candidates obtained after panning on the basis of antibody binding strength. Ideally, such method will work without prior labeling of antigens and with crude bacterial lysates. We developed an off-rate screening method of crude Escherichia coli lysates containing monovalent Fab fragments obtained after phage display of the HuCAL PLATINUM® antibody library. We used the antibody drugs trastuzumab and cetuximab as antigen examples. Using the Octet® RED384 label-free sensor instrument we show that antibody off rates can be reliably determined in crude bacterial lysates with high throughput. We also demonstrate that the method can be applied to screening for high-affinity antibodies typically obtained after affinity maturation. PMID:23906643

  2. An assay for small scale screening of candidate ? cell proliferative factors using intact islets.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Rockann E; Gannon, Maureen

    2013-12-01

    Current protocols for screening proliferative factors for ? cells ex vivo are time-consuming, require cell lines or dissociated islets, and often entail expensive specialized screening equipment. Here we present an efficient and lower cost alternative that utilizes intact mouse islets for the initial screening of proliferative compounds and allows confirmation of ? cell proliferation from the same islets. This protocol simplifies the process, saves money, and provides a way to identify ? cell proliferative factors using equipment that is ubiquitous in most laboratories. PMID:24344680

  3. Planning multi-arm screening studies within the context of a drug development?program

    PubMed Central

    Wason, James M S; Jaki, Thomas; Stallard, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Screening trials are small trials used to decide whether an intervention is sufficiently promising to warrant a large confirmatory trial. Previous literature examined the situation where treatments are tested sequentially until one is considered sufficiently promising to take forward to a confirmatory trial. An important consideration for sponsors of clinical trials is how screening trials should be planned to maximize the efficiency of the drug development process. It has been found previously that small screening trials are generally the most efficient. In this paper we consider the design of screening trials in which multiple new treatments are tested simultaneously. We derive analytic formulae for the expected number of patients until a successful treatment is found, and propose methodology to search for the optimal number of treatments, and optimal sample size per treatment. We compare designs in which only the best treatment proceeds to a confirmatory trial and designs in which multiple treatments may proceed to a multi-arm confirmatory trial. We find that inclusion of a large number of treatments in the screening trial is optimal when only one treatment can proceed, and a smaller number of treatments is optimal when more than one can proceed. The designs we investigate are compared on a real-life set of screening designs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23529936

  4. Nanotechnology in drug delivery: the need for more cell culture based studies in screening

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Advances in biomedical science are leading to upsurge synthesis of nanodelivery systems for drug delivery. The systems were characterized by controlled, targeted and sustained drug delivery ability. Humans are the target of these systems, hence, animals whose systems resembles humans were used to predict outcome. Thus, increasing costs in money and time, plus ethical concerns over animal usage. However, with consideration and planning in experimental conditions, in vitro pharmacological studies of the nanodelivery can mimic the in vivo system. This can function as a simple method to investigate the effect of such materials without endangering animals especially at screening phase. PMID:25057288

  5. Vitamin B2 interference with TDx drugs-of-abuse assays.

    PubMed

    Kunsman, G W; Levine, B; Smith, M L

    1998-11-01

    Migraine is a headache condition found in significant frequency in the general population. One recent study has shown that riboflavin, Vitamin B2, is an effective prophylactic treatment for this headache condition. One subject in a recent study conducted by the Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) was taking 200 mg of riboflavin twice daily for the prevention of migraine headaches. When that subject's urine was tested using Abbott TDx drugs-of-abuse assays a number of tests resulted in a MX BKG error and all samples had BLK I values greater than those observed with normal urine specimens. The MX BKG error occurs when the BLK I value is greater than the upper limit determined by the manufacturer for a particular assay. High BLK I values may result if the specimen being analyzed contains a fluorophore that will compete with the fluorescein-labeled antibody used in the assay. This error serves as a notification that an interfering substance may be present and the assay is not performing according to manufacturer-specifications. Upon termination of riboflavin therapy the subject's BLK I values began to decrease within 60 h of the last 200 mg dose. A second subject began chronic riboflavin use to confirm this interferent effect. Elevated BLK I values resulted within 3 h of a single 200 mg dose and MX BKG errors occurred 1 h after a second 400 mg dose. No false negative results were noted with either subject (both subjects used butalbital and the first subject also used hydrocodone and diazepam during the study), suggesting that riboflavin is not an adulterant. Riboflavin use, however, does interfere with the TDx DAU assays and may result in quantitative values being determined which are of questionable validity in the face of an elevated BLK I value or may result in only an MX BKG error and no quantitative value reported. It is unclear if the interfering fluorophore is simply riboflavin itself or a combination of riboflavin and its metabolic products. Results obtained on urine samples collected from individuals using prophylactic riboflavin for migraine prevention and analyzed by TDx may be of questionable validity. Such samples may require analysis utilizing another immunoassay technique that does not employ a fluorescein-labeled antibody. PMID:9846401

  6. Chemical screen identifies FDA-approved drugs and target pathways that induce precocious pancreatic endocrine differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Meritxell; Huang, Wei; Yusuff, Shamila; Shim, Joong Sup; Ferrante, Anthony A.; Liu, Jun O.; Parsons, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic ?-cells are an essential source of insulin and their destruction because of autoimmunity causes type I diabetes. We conducted a chemical screen to identify compounds that would induce the differentiation of insulin-producing ?-cells in vivo. To do this screen, we brought together the use of transgenic zebrafish as a model of ?-cell differentiation, a unique multiwell plate that allows easy visualization of lateral views of swimming larval fish and a library of clinical drugs. We identified six hits that can induce precocious differentiation of secondary islets in larval zebrafish. Three of these six hits were known drugs with a considerable background of published data on mechanism of action. Using pharmacological approaches, we have identified and characterized two unique pathways in ?-cell differentiation in the zebrafish, including down-regulation of GTP production and retinoic acid biosynthesis. PMID:22084084

  7. Rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs using thermal desorption - SALDI mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnikov, A. A.; Kubasov, A. E.; Georgieva, V. B.; Borodkov, A. S.; Nikiforov, S. M.; Simanovsky, Ya O.; Alimpiev, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach to the rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs by surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry with the rotating ball interface coupled with temperature programmed thermal desorption has been developed. Analytes were thermally desorbed and deposited onto the surface of amorphous silicon substrate attached to the rotating ball. The ball was rotated and the deposited analytes were analyzed using SALDI. The effectiveness of coupling SALDI mass spectrometry with thermal desorption was evaluated by the direct and rapid analysis of tablets containing lidocaine, diphenhydramine and propranolol without any sample pretreatment. The overall duration of the screening procedure was 30÷40 sec. Real urine samples were studied for drug analysis. It is shown that with simple preparation steps, urine samples can be quantitatively analyzed using the proposed technique with the detection limits in the range of 0.2÷0.5 ng/ml.

  8. Discovery of cancer drug targets by CRISPR-Cas9 screening of protein domains.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junwei; Wang, Eric; Milazzo, Joseph P; Wang, Zihua; Kinney, Justin B; Vakoc, Christopher R

    2015-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology holds great promise for discovering therapeutic targets in cancer and other diseases. Current screening strategies target CRISPR-Cas9-induced mutations to the 5' exons of candidate genes, but this approach often produces in-frame variants that retain functionality, which can obscure even strong genetic dependencies. Here we overcome this limitation by targeting CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis to exons encoding functional protein domains. This generates a higher proportion of null mutations and substantially increases the potency of negative selection. We also show that the magnitude of negative selection can be used to infer the functional importance of individual protein domains of interest. A screen of 192 chromatin regulatory domains in murine acute myeloid leukemia cells identifies six known drug targets and 19 additional dependencies. A broader application of this approach may allow comprehensive identification of protein domains that sustain cancer cells and are suitable for drug targeting. PMID:25961408

  9. Evaluation of a multiplex bead-based screening assay for detection of binding antibodies to interferon-beta.

    PubMed

    Lapé Nixon, Mary; Matud, Jose; Yeh, Cindy; Prince, Harry E

    2009-05-29

    Multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon-beta (IFNbeta) can develop neutralizing binding antibodies (BAbs) that reduce the agent's effectiveness. Screening for these antibodies can be performed by ELISA. We investigated a multianalyte immune detection (MAID) assay as an alternative to ELISA to detect anti-IFNbeta-1a and -1b. For 146 sera representing both 1a and 1b treated groups, MAID concordance with ELISA was 94% and 92%, respectively. For all discordant results, the corresponding ELISA and MAID values were within 4 units of each other, and all discordant values but one fell within 2 units of the BAbs cutoff value for reflexing to neutralization testing (4 units). Our data indicate that the MAID assay is an accurate and cost-effective alternative to ELISA for detecting BAbs to IFNbeta. PMID:19345423

  10. New-generation screening assays for the detection of anti-influenza compounds targeting viral and host functions

    PubMed Central

    Beyleveld, Grant; White, Kris M.; Ayllon, Juan; Shaw, Megan L.

    2013-01-01

    Current options for influenza antiviral therapy are limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors, and knowledge that high levels of oseltamivir resistance have been seen amongst previously circulating H1N1 viruses increases the urgency to find new influenza therapeutics. To feed this pipeline, assays that are appropriate for use in high-throughput screens are being developed and are discussed in this review. Particular emphasis is placed on cell-based assays that capture both inhibitors of viral functions as well as the host functions that facilitate optimal influenza virus replication. Success in this area has been fueled by a greater understanding of the genome structure of influenza viruses and the ability to generate replication-competent recombinant viruses that carry a reporter gene, allowing for easy monitoring of viral infection in a high-throughput setting. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “Treatment of influenza: targeting the virus or the host.” PMID:23933115

  11. AN APPROACH FOR SCREENING CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS IN DRINKING WATER USING AN IMMOBILIZED ENZYME ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, inexpensive and sensitive method for detecting organophosphate and carbamate insecticides is reported. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized to PorexR Lateral-FloTM membrane material and remained active for several months at room temperature. The assay was sensitive ...

  12. Novel 3'-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Thongkum, Weeraya; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2015-01-01

    The 3'-end processing (3'P) of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR) during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3'P using 3'P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3'P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN), and specific primers and probe. In this novel assay, we designed the HIV-1 LTR substrate based on a sequence with a homology to HIV-1 LTR labeled at its 3' end with biotin on the sense strand. Two nucleotides at the 3' end were subsequently removed by IN activity. Only two nucleotides labeled biotin were captured on an avidin-coated tube; therefore, inhibiting the binding of primers and probe results in late signals in the real-time PCR. This novel assay has successfully detected both the 3'P activity of HIV-1 IN and the anti-IN activity by Raltegravir and sodium azide agent. This real-time PCR assay has been shown to be effective and inexpensive for a high-throughput screening of novel IN inhibitors. PMID:26064960

  13. Novel 3?-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Thongkum, Weeraya; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2015-01-01

    The 3?-end processing (3?P) of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR) during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3?P using 3?P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3?P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN), and specific primers and probe. In this novel assay, we designed the HIV-1 LTR substrate based on a sequence with a homology to HIV-1 LTR labeled at its 3? end with biotin on the sense strand. Two nucleotides at the 3? end were subsequently removed by IN activity. Only two nucleotides labeled biotin were captured on an avidin-coated tube; therefore, inhibiting the binding of primers and probe results in late signals in the real-time PCR. This novel assay has successfully detected both the 3?P activity of HIV-1 IN and the anti-IN activity by Raltegravir and sodium azide agent. This real-time PCR assay has been shown to be effective and inexpensive for a high-throughput screening of novel IN inhibitors.

  14. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions: are preventive screenings necessary and appropriate?

    PubMed

    Butterweck, Veronika; Derendorf, Hartmut; Gaus, Wilhelm; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Schulz, Volker; Unger, Matthias

    2004-09-01

    Pharmacokinetic interactions often occur as a result of activity changes of drug-metabolizing and transporting proteins, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The activity of these enzymes and drug transporters can be enhanced or inhibited by synthetic drugs as well as by natural products. Since the number of herb-drug interactions has increased in recent years, systematic in vitro screenings and more clinical studies to identify such interactions were proposed for herbal medicinal products. However, previous results regarding this issue are not only contradictory but also of less predictability. One reason for the discrepancies could be the lack of validation of the recommended in vitro tests. Furthermore, it has to be considered that pharmacokinetic drug interactions are not only mediated by herbal medicines but also by several foods, beverages and life-style products. Since herbal medicines are considered to have a broad therapeutic range, a preventive risk assessment for pharmacokinetic drug interactions should first be realized for synthetic drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Efforts to identify all possible interactions will lead to limitless investigations and to inconsistent decisions. PMID:15386186

  15. Sensitivity of neuroprogenitor cells to chemical-induced apoptosis using a multiplexed assay suitable for high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Druwe, Ingrid; Freudenrich, Theresa M; Wallace, Kathleen; Shafer, Timothy J; Mundy, William R

    2015-07-01

    High-throughput methods are useful for rapidly screening large numbers of chemicals for biological activity, including the perturbation of pathways that may lead to adverse cellular effects. In vitro assays for the key events of neurodevelopment, including apoptosis, may be used in a battery of tests for detecting chemicals that could result in developmental neurotoxicity. Apoptosis contributes to nervous system development by regulating the size of the neuroprogenitor cell pool, and the balance between cellular proliferation and apoptosis during neuroprogenitor cell proliferation helps to determine the size and shape of the nervous system. Therefore, chemicals that affect apoptosis during neuronal development can have deleterious effects on the developing brain. The present study examined the utility of a high-throughput assay to detect chemical-induced apoptosis in mouse or human neuroprogenitor cells, as well as differentiated human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Apoptosis was assessed using an assay that measures enzymatic activity of caspase-3/7 in a rapid and cost efficient manner. The results show that all three commercially available models generated a robust source of proliferating neuroprogenitor cells, and that the assay was sensitive and reproducible when used in a multi-well plate format. There were differences in the response of rodent and human neuroprogenitor cells to a set of chemicals previously shown to induce apoptosis in vitro. Neuroprogenitor cells were more sensitive to chemical-induced apoptosis than differentiated neurons, suggesting that neuroprogenitor cells are one of the cell models that should be considered for use in a developmental neurotoxicity screening battery. PMID:25841707

  16. Assessment of the microscreen phage-induction assay for screening hazardous wastes (1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage Lambda in Escherichia coli WP2s(Lambda), was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial-waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Eleven of the 14 wastes induced prophage, and induction was observed at concentrations as low as 0.4 picograms per ml. Comparisons of the mutagenic activity of these waste samples in Salmonella and their ability to induce prophage Lambda indicate that the phage-induction assay was a more-sensitive indicator of genetic damage for this group of wastes. All but one of the wastes that were mutagenic to Salmonella were detected by the phage-induction assay, and 5 wastes not mutagenic to Salmonella were genetically active in the phage assay. The enhanced ability of the phage-induction assay to detect genotoxic activity may be related to the constituents comprising these waste samples. Partial chemical characterizations of the wastes showed high concentrations of carcinogenic metals, solvents, and chlorinated compounds, most of which are detected poorly by the Salmonella assay.

  17. A c-Myc activation sensor-based high-throughput drug screening identifies an antineoplastic effect of nitazoxanide.

    PubMed

    Fan-Minogue, Hua; Bodapati, Sandhya; Solow-Cordero, David; Fan, Alice; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F; Felsher, Dean W; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2013-09-01

    Deregulation of c-Myc plays a central role in the tumorigenesis of many human cancers. Yet, the development of drugs regulating c-Myc activity has been challenging. To facilitate the identification of c-Myc inhibitors, we developed a molecular imaging sensor-based high-throughput screening (HTS) system. This system uses a cell-based assay to detect c-Myc activation in a HTS format, which is established from a pure clone of a stable breast cancer cell line that constitutively expresses a c-Myc activation sensor. Optimization of the assay performance in the HTS format resulted in uniform and robust signals at the baseline. Using this system, we conducted a quantitative HTS against approximately 5,000 existing bioactive compounds from five different libraries. Thirty-nine potential hits were identified, including currently known c-Myc inhibitors. There are a few among the top potent hits that are not known for anti-c-Myc activity. One of these hits is nitazoxanide, a thiazolide for treating human protozoal infections. Validation of nitazoxanide in different cancer cell lines revealed a high potency for c-Myc inhibition with IC50 ranging between 10 and 500 nmol/L. Oral administration of nitazoxanide in breast cancer xenograft mouse models significantly suppressed tumor growth by inhibition of c-Myc and induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest a potential of nitazoxanide to be repurposed as a new antitumor agent for inhibition of c-Myc-associated neoplasia. Our work also demonstrated the unique advantage of molecular imaging in accelerating discovery of drugs for c-Myc-targeted cancer therapy. PMID:23825064

  18. Human Genetics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Guides a High-Throughput Drug Screen of the CD40 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Diogo, Dorothée; Wu, Di; Spoonamore, Jim; Dancik, Vlado; Franke, Lude; Kurreeman, Fina; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Duclos, Grant; Hartland, Cathy; Zhou, Xuezhong; Li, Kejie; Liu, Jun; De Jager, Philip L.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Gupta, Namrata; Clemons, Paul A.; Stahl, Eli; Tolliday, Nicola; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant in RA discovered by a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) and to perform a high-throughput drug screen for modulators of CD40 signaling based on human genetic findings. First, we fine-map the CD40 risk locus in 7,222 seropositive RA patients and 15,870 controls, together with deep sequencing of CD40 coding exons in 500 RA cases and 650 controls, to identify a single SNP that explains the entire signal of association (rs4810485, P?=?1.4×10?9). Second, we demonstrate that subjects homozygous for the RA risk allele have ?33% more CD40 on the surface of primary human CD19+ B lymphocytes than subjects homozygous for the non-risk allele (P?=?10?9), a finding corroborated by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 1,469 healthy control individuals. Third, we use retroviral shRNA infection to perturb the amount of CD40 on the surface of a human B lymphocyte cell line (BL2) and observe a direct correlation between amount of CD40 protein and phosphorylation of RelA (p65), a subunit of the NF-?B transcription factor. Finally, we develop a high-throughput NF-?B luciferase reporter assay in BL2 cells activated with trimerized CD40 ligand (tCD40L) and conduct an HTS of 1,982 chemical compounds and FDA–approved drugs. After a series of counter-screens and testing in primary human CD19+ B cells, we identify 2 novel chemical inhibitors not previously implicated in inflammation or CD40-mediated NF-?B signaling. Our study demonstrates proof-of-concept that human genetics can be used to guide the development of phenotype-based, high-throughput small-molecule screens to identify potential novel therapies in complex traits such as RA. PMID:23696745

  19. Human genetics in rheumatoid arthritis guides a high-throughput drug screen of the CD40 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Diogo, Dorothée; Wu, Di; Spoonamore, Jim; Dancik, Vlado; Franke, Lude; Kurreeman, Fina; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Duclos, Grant; Hartland, Cathy; Zhou, Xuezhong; Li, Kejie; Liu, Jun; De Jager, Philip L; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane; Gupta, Namrata; Clemons, Paul A; Stahl, Eli; Tolliday, Nicola; Plenge, Robert M

    2013-05-01

    Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant in RA discovered by a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) and to perform a high-throughput drug screen for modulators of CD40 signaling based on human genetic findings. First, we fine-map the CD40 risk locus in 7,222 seropositive RA patients and 15,870 controls, together with deep sequencing of CD40 coding exons in 500 RA cases and 650 controls, to identify a single SNP that explains the entire signal of association (rs4810485, P?=?1.4×10(-9)). Second, we demonstrate that subjects homozygous for the RA risk allele have ?33% more CD40 on the surface of primary human CD19+ B lymphocytes than subjects homozygous for the non-risk allele (P?=?10(-9)), a finding corroborated by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 1,469 healthy control individuals. Third, we use retroviral shRNA infection to perturb the amount of CD40 on the surface of a human B lymphocyte cell line (BL2) and observe a direct correlation between amount of CD40 protein and phosphorylation of RelA (p65), a subunit of the NF-?B transcription factor. Finally, we develop a high-throughput NF-?B luciferase reporter assay in BL2 cells activated with trimerized CD40 ligand (tCD40L) and conduct an HTS of 1,982 chemical compounds and FDA-approved drugs. After a series of counter-screens and testing in primary human CD19+ B cells, we identify 2 novel chemical inhibitors not previously implicated in inflammation or CD40-mediated NF-?B signaling. Our study demonstrates proof-of-concept that human genetics can be used to guide the development of phenotype-based, high-throughput small-molecule screens to identify potential novel therapies in complex traits such as RA. PMID:23696745

  20. Evaluation of on-site oral fluid screening using Drugwipe-5 +®, RapidSTAT ® and Drug Test 5000 ® for the detection of drugs of abuse in drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah M. R. Wille; Nele Samyn; Maria del Mar Ramírez-Fernández; Gert De Boeck

    2010-01-01

    Driving under the influence of drugs is a major problem worldwide. At the moment, several countries have adopted a ‘per se’ legislation to address this problem. One of the key elements in the enforcement process is the possibility of rapid on-site screening tests to take immediate administrative measures. In this study, the reliability of three oral fluid screening devices (Mavand

  1. Leveraging structure determination with fragment screening for infectious disease drug targets: MECP synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, Darren W.; Hartley, Robert C.; Davies, Douglas R.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Leonard, Jess T.; Abendroth, Jan; Burris, Courtney A.; Bhandari, Janhavi; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J. (UWASH); (Emerald)

    2011-09-28

    As part of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease, we seek to enhance structural genomics with ligand-bound structure data which can serve as a blueprint for structure-based drug design. We have adapted fragment-based screening methods to our structural genomics pipeline to generate multiple ligand-bound structures of high priority drug targets from pathogenic organisms. In this study, we report fragment screening methods and structure determination results for 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclo-diphosphate (MECP) synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the gram-negative bacterium which causes melioidosis. Screening by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as crystal soaking followed by X-ray diffraction led to the identification of several small molecules which bind this enzyme in a critical metabolic pathway. A series of complex structures obtained with screening hits reveal distinct binding pockets and a range of small molecules which form complexes with the target. Additional soaks with these compounds further demonstrate a subset of fragments to only bind the protein when present in specific combinations. This ensemble of fragment-bound complexes illuminates several characteristics of MECP synthase, including a previously unknown binding surface external to the catalytic active site. These ligand-bound structures now serve to guide medicinal chemists and structural biologists in rational design of novel inhibitors for this enzyme.

  2. Discovery of new antitumoral and antibacterial drugs from brazilian plant extracts using high throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Younes, Riad Naim; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Suffredii, Ivana Barbosa

    2007-12-01

    Plants have played a significant role in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases for the last four decades. The discovery and introduction to market of paclitaxel, the vinca alkaloids, etoposide, and many antibacterial drugs support drug discovery programs based on natural products. Natural products have been rediscovered as important tools for drug development despite advances in combinatorial chemistry, due to the complex molecular structures able to interact with mammalian cell targets. The Brazilian flora, the most diverse in the world, has become an interesting spot to prospect for new chemical leads or hits due to its species diversity and associated chemical richness. Screening programs have been established in Brazil as a strategy to identify potentially active substances. High throughput screening techniques allow for the analysis of large numbers of extracts in a relatively short period of time, and can be considered one of the most efficient ways of finding new leads from natural products. An updated review of the current status of the biological screening program is presented and recent results from new antitumoral and antibacterial chemical leads are discussed. PMID:18318049

  3. Multidrug-resistant Phenotype of Disease-oriented Panels of Human Tumor Cell Lines Used for Anticancer Drug Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wu; Anne M. Smythe; Sherman F. Stinson; Leslie A. Mullendore; Anne Monks; Dominic A. Scudiero; Kenneth D. Paull; Antonis D. Koutsoukos; Lawrence V. Rubinstein; Michael R. Boyd; Robert H. Shoemaker

    1992-01-01

    Disease-oriented panels of human tumor cell lines used by the National Cancer Institute for large-scale in vitro anticancer drug screening were evaluated for multidrug-resistant phenotype at the functional (in vitro drug sensitivity) and molecular levels. The cell line panels manifested a broad range of sensitivities to drugs typically associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) as well as to drugs not associated

  4. Set-up of an infrared fast behavioral assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, and its application in compound biotoxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Bichara, Darío; Calcaterra, Nora B; Arranz, Silvia; Armas, Pablo; Simonetta, Sergio H

    2014-02-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly employed for evaluating toxicity and drug discovery assays. Commonly experimental approaches for biotoxicity assessment are based on visual inspection or video recording. However, these techniques are limited for large-scale assays, as they demand either a time-consuming detailed inspection of the animals or intensive computing resources in order to analyze a considerable amount of screenshots. Recently, we have developed a simple methodology for tracking the locomotor activity of small animals cultured in microtiter plates. In this work, we implemented this automatic methodology, based on infrared (IR) microbeam scattering, for measuring behavioral activity in zebrafish larvae. We determined the appropriate culture conditions, number of animals and stage of development to get robust results. Furthermore, we validated this methodology as a rapid test for evaluating toxicity. By measuring the effects of reference compounds on larvae activity, we were able to estimate the concentration that could cause a 50% decrease in activity events values (AEC??), showing a strong linear correlation (R² ?=?0.91) with the LC?? values obtained with the standard DarT test. The toxicity order of the measured compounds was CuSO4 ?>?2,4-dinitrophenol?>?3,4-dichloroaniline?>?SDS?>?sodium benzoate?>?EDTA?>?K?CrO4 ; regarding solvents, EtOH???DMSO. In this study, we demonstrate that global swimming behavior could be a simple readout for toxicity, easy to scale-up in automated experiments. This approach is potentially applicable for fast ecotoxicity assays and whole-organism high-throughput compound screening, reducing the time and money required to evaluate unknown samples and to identify leading pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23401233

  5. Statin Drug Use Is Not Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk in Men who are Regularly Screened

    PubMed Central

    Platz, Elizabeth A.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Till, Cathee; Parnes, Howard L.; Figg, William D.; Albanes, Demetrius; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Klein, Eric A.; Lucia, M. Scott; Thompson, Ian M.; Kristal, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective cohort studies support that statin drug users have a lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Whether statin drug use influences risk of screen-detected disease is less clear, possibly because of complex detection biases. Thus, we investigated this association in a setting in which men had low baseline serum PSA concentration and were screened annually Methods We conducted a cohort study of 9,457 men aged ?55 years old at randomization to the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. The men reported new use of medications quarterly. We estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of prostate cancer (N=574 in 62,192 person-years) for use of a statin drug and duration of use during the trial using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Over seven years of follow up, use of a statin drug during the trial was not associated with risk of total (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.82–1.30), lower- (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.71–1.29), or higher-grade (HR=1.27, 95% CI 0.85–1.90) prostate cancer. Duration of use during follow-up also was not associated with risk of total (P-trend=0.7), lower- (P-trend=0.5), or higher- (P-trend=0.2) grade disease. Conclusion These prospective results do not support the hypothesis that statin drugs protect against prostate cancer in the setting of regular prostate cancer screening. PMID:24518774

  6. Sediment toxicity screening with cost-effective microbiotests and conventional assays: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Vanciheluwe, M.L.; Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Lab. for Biological Research in Aquatic Pollution

    1995-12-31

    A large monitoring study of freshwater sediments, using the TRIAD approach, was conducted in Flanders (Belgium). This paper reports on the results of the toxicity assessment of 80 sediment samples evaluated with a battery of microbiotests and conventional assays. Sediment pore waters, extracted by squeezing, were tested with the Microtox{reg_sign} (Vibrio fischerii) and Thamnotoxkit{trademark} F (Thamnocephalus platyurus) microbiotests and the conventional (acute) assays with algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) and daphnids (Daphnia magna). A newly developed 5 day ELS test with the catfish Clarias gariepinus was also applied to the pore waters. Solid-phase testing was performed with the Microtox Sp{reg_sign} assay and the 10 day tests with Chironomus riparius and Hyalella azteca. Uni- and multivariate statistical techniques were applied to the data matrix to select a minimal test battery from the water phase and solid phase assays and from all tests combined. The influence of sediment associated confounding factors on the validity of the test results obtained with the various assays will be discussed. Finally a comparison of the predictive power of the selected battery of signal tests and that of the complete battery will be made and the potential use of the minimal battery for the initial hazard assessment of contaminated sediments will be reviewed.

  7. Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2013-06-01

    The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10?ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50?ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25?ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30?ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50?ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50?ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively. PMID:23349145

  8. Assessment of the TLC/Salmonella assay for screening hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; Claxton, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    Using a modified version of the TLC/Salmonella assay developed by Bjorseth et al. (1982), 10 complex hazardous wastes were tested for mutagenic activity. The method couples thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome (Ames) assay for the detection of mutagenic constituents in complex mixtures. Crude hazardous wastes and selected hazardous-waste extracts were fractionated on commercially available cellulose TLC plates. Mutagenicity testing was performed by applying a single overlay of minimal growth agar containing a tester strain of Salmonella and the optional metabolic activation system directly onto the developed chromatogram. Seven of 10 hazardous wastes demonstrated mutagenic activity when tested by the method. To assess the sensitivity of the modified TLC/Salmonella assay, 14 Salmonella mutagens from a wide range of chemical classes and polarities were tested. Eleven of the 14 mutagens were positive in the test system.

  9. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower. PMID:23123550

  10. Screening test for rapid food safety evaluation by menadione-catalysed chemiluminescent assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Kirihara, Masayuki; Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiro

    2013-06-15

    The chemiluminescent assay of menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells was proposed to be useful for rapid food safety evaluation. The tested foods were extracted with water, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, and each extract was incubated with NIH3T3, Neuro-2a and HepG2 cells for 4h. Menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells exposed to each extract was determined by the chemiluminescent assay requiring only 10 min, and the viability of the cells was estimated as percentage based on H2O2 production by intact cells. In this study the cytotoxicity of food was rated in order of inhibitory effect on H2O2 production by intact cells. The well known natural toxins such as Fusarium mycotoxin, tomato toxin tomatine, potato toxin solanine and marine toxins terodotoxin and brevetoxin could be detected by the above chemiluminescent assay. PMID:23497869

  11. Automated chemiluminometric screening of counterfeit drugs of the antituberculosis agent pyrazinamide.

    PubMed

    Prior, João A V; Santos, João L M; Lima, José L F C

    2009-01-01

    Finding counterfeit drugs presents a growing challenge in preventing these products from entering health systems and causing serious consequences for consumers, drug manufacturers, and governments. In this investigation a simple, low-cost, and expeditious chemiluminometric approach, relying on a fully automated multipumping flow system for screening pharmaceutical preparations of the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, was implemented. The developed chemiluminescent method was based on the scavenging effect of pyrazinamide on the oxidation of luminol by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium. For analytical signal monitoring, a homemade chemiluminescence detector relying on a photomultiplier module was developed. Linear calibration plots for pyrazinamide concentrations between 10 and 70 mg/L were obtained (R = 0.9931) with good precision (RSD < 0.99%; n = 21). The limit of detection was 5.79 mg/L, and the sampling rate was about 150 determinations per hour. PMID:19610375

  12. Cancer stem cells and escape from drug-induced premature senescence in human lung tumor cells: implications for drug resistance and in vitro drug screening models.

    PubMed

    Sabisz, Michal; Skladanowski, Andrzej

    2009-10-01

    In this study, using an in vitro human tumor model, we show that non-small lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells after treatment with DNA damaging antitumor drugs become permanently growth-arrested as a result of so-called drug-induced premature senescence (pseudo-senescence). However, a small fraction of drug-treated cells escapes pseudo-senescence that leads to re-growth of tumor cell population after drug treatment. We show that this re-growth is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in lung tumor cell population. We also document that re-growth of CSCs can be greatly delayed if lung tumor cells are treated with drug/caffeine combination that leads to the inhibition of the ATM/ATR pathway and decreased phosphorylation of PKB/Akt at Ser473. We show that in non-treated A549 cells caffeine by itself induces a reversible growth arrest that is associated with increased fraction of so-called side population cells, containing CSCs. These results point to the existence of an unknown, caffeine-sensitive mechanism that controls the number of CSCs in lung tumor cell population. Full characterization of this mechanism may lead to the development of innovative cancer therapies, which are based on small molecular weight inhibitors of CSC differentiation and self-renewal, which mimic caffeine action. Our results have also important implications for drug screening tumor models in vitro. PMID:19738435

  13. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for lipovitellin quantification in copepods: a screening tool for endocrine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Volz, David C; Chandler, G Thomas

    2004-02-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG) has been widely used as a biomarker of estrogenic exposure in fish, leading to the development of standardized assays for VTG quantification. However, standardized quantitative assays for invertebrate, particularly crustacean, lipovitellin (also known as vitellin [VTN]) are lacking. In this study, a fluorescence-based VTN enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to quantify microquantities of VTN in the estuarine, sediment-dwelling copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis. This ELISA utilizes a VTN-specific polyclonal antibody developed against amphipod (Leptocheirus plumulosus) embryo VTN and exhibits specificity toward female copepod proteins. In routine assays, the working range of the ELISA was 31.25 to 1,000 ng/ml (75-25% specific binding/maximum antibody binding [B/B0]) with a 50% B/B0 intra- and interassay variation of 3.9% (n = 9) and 12.5% (n = 26), respectively. This ELISA is capable of detecting VTN as low as 2 ng/ml, and can accurately detect VTN in as few as four copepods. The ELISA significantly discriminated positive (gravid female) and negative (male) samples, and was suitable for screening endocrine toxicity in copepods. Stage-I juvenile copepods were individually reared to adults in aqueous microvolumes of the phenylpyrazole insecticide, fipronil, and whole-body homogenate extracts were assayed for VTN levels. Fipronil-exposed virgin adult females, but not males, exhibited significantly higher levels of VTN relative to control males and females. This crustacean VTN ELISA is likely useful for evaluating endocrine activity of environmental toxicants in copepods and other crustacean species. PMID:14982375

  14. Characterization of Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay-negative sera following screening by treponemal total antibody enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Maple, P A C; Ratcliffe, D; Smit, E

    2010-11-01

    Following a laboratory audit, a significant number of Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA)-negative sera were identified when TPPA was used as a confirmatory assay of syphilis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening-reactive sera (SSRS). Sera giving such discrepant results were further characterized to assess their significance. A panel of 226 sera was tested by the Abbott Murex ICE Syphilis EIA and then by the Newmarket Syphilis EIA II. TPPA testing was performed on 223 sera. Further testing by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, the Mercia Syphilis IgM EIA, the fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA-ABS) assay, and INNO-LIA immunoblotting was undertaken in discrepant cases. One hundred eighty-seven of 223 (83.8%) SSRS were TPPA reactive, while 26 (11.6%) sera which were reactive in both the ICE and Newmarket EIAs were nonreactive by TPPA. The majority (68%) of the TPPA-discrepant sera were from HIV-positive patients and did not represent early acute cases, based on previous or follow-up samples, which were available for 22/26 samples. FTA-ABS testing was performed on 24 of these sera; 14 (58.3%) were FTA-ABS positive, and 10 (41.7%) were FTA-ABS negative. Twenty-one of these 26 sera were tested by INNO-LIA, and an additional 4 FTA-ABS-negative samples were positive. In this study, significant numbers (18/26) of SSRS- and TPPA-negative sera were shown by further FTA-ABS and LIA (line immunoblot assay) testing to be positive. The reason why certain sera are negative by TPPA but reactive by treponemal EIA and other syphilis confirmatory assays is not clear, and these initial findings should be further explored. PMID:20844087

  15. A colorimetric assay for high-throughput screening of inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 alkaline nuclease.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, J C; Weber, P C

    2001-06-15

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes a deoxyribonuclease that is frequently referred to as alkaline nuclease (AN) because of its elevated pH optimum. Studies with recombinant viruses which contain deletions in the HSV-1 gene encoding AN have indicated that this enzyme is required for efficient virus replication and therefore represents a potential target for novel antiviral therapies. A simple colorimetric assay for deoxyribonuclease activity employing a DNA-methyl green substrate was adapted for use in a high-throughput screen to identify small molecule inhibitors of this enzyme. This screen identified 1,2-benzoisothiazolin-3-one as a specific inhibitor of AN, since it exhibited activity against AN but was completely inactive against bovine pancreatic DNaseI. Subsequent studies revealed that this compound most likely inhibited AN by forming disulfide linkages with one or more exposed cysteine residues on the surface of the enzyme and that AN was sensitive to sulfhydryl-group-modifying reagents in general. These results demonstrated the utility of this DNA-methyl green substrate-based assay in both the rapid identification and the characterization of novel small molecule inhibitors of the AN encoded by HSV-1 and other herpesviruses. PMID:11399038

  16. Adaptation of the bivalve embryotoxicity assay for the high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Rita; Montagna, Michele; Balbi, Teresa; Raffo, Enrico; Palumbo, Franca; Canesi, Laura

    2014-08-01

    Emerging contaminants (such as Endocrine disrupting chemicals-EDCs, brominated and perfluorinated compounds-BFRs and PFCs, pharmaceuticals) are chemicals currently not included in regulatory monitoring programs, and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood. Assessment of ecosystem health with respect to these chemicals is of particular concern also in the marine environment: in this respect, data on the effects on early life stages are important to establish the sensitivity of marine species. In this work, the acute (48 h) bivalve embryo toxicity test was applied for screening the developmental effects of different emerging contaminants in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The assay was adapted to 96-microwell plates, and standardized in order to obtain to normal D-shaped larvae with acceptability of test results based on negative control and positive control (copper) comparable with those reported in literature for Mytilus spp. The effects of different model compounds representative of EDCs (Nonylphenol-NP and Bisphenol A-BPA), BFRs (Tetrabromobisphenol A-TBBPA), PFCs (perfluorooctanoid acid-PFOA and perfluorooctane sulphonate-PFOAS) and pharmaceuticals (Ibuprofen-IBU, Diclofenac-DCF, Bezafibrate-BEZA) in a wide concentration range (0.01-0.1-1-10-100-1000 ?g/L) were evaluated. The assay proved as a sensitive tool for high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in a marine species, leading to production of significant amounts of data that may be useful for regulatory purposes. PMID:25081847

  17. Novel Cell-Based Hepatitis C Virus Infection Assay for Quantitative High-Throughput Screening of Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zongyi; Lan, Keng-Hsin; He, Shanshan; Swaroop, Manju; Hu, Xin; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has advanced with the recent approval of direct-acting antivirals in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin. New antivirals with novel targets are still needed to further improve the treatment of hepatitis C. Previously reported screening methods for HCV inhibitors either are limited to a virus-specific function or apply a screening method at a single dose, which usually leads to high false-positive or -negative rates. We developed a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assay platform with a cell-based HCV infection system. This highly sensitive assay can be miniaturized to a 1,536-well format for screening of large chemical libraries. All candidates are screened over a 7-concentration dose range to give EC50s (compound concentrations at 50% efficacy) and dose-response curves. Using this assay format, we screened a library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC). Based on the profile of dose-dependent curves of HCV inhibition and cytotoxicity, 22 compounds with adequate curves and EC50s of <10 ?M were selected for validation. In two additional independent assays, 17 of them demonstrated specific inhibition of HCV infection. Ten potential candidates with efficacies of >70% and CC50s (compound concentrations at 50% cytotoxicity) of <30 ?M from these validated hits were characterized for their target stages in the HCV replication cycle. In this screen, we identified both known and novel hits with diverse structural and functional features targeting various stages of the HCV replication cycle. The pilot screen demonstrates that this assay system is highly robust and effective in identifying novel HCV inhibitors and that it can be readily applied to large-scale screening of small-molecule libraries. PMID:24277038

  18. Parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for blood-brain permeability determination of illicit drugs and synthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Kristina; Kretsch, Amanda; Verbeck, Guido

    2014-09-01

    With the number of designer drugs on the streets rampantly on the rise, it's becoming more and more important to be able to rapidly characterize them in a biologically relevant way. Using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) to assess the blood brain barrier permeability has shown to be a high throughput way to compare new drugs with currently controlled substances via their effective permeability values. This combined with direct infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry creates a rapid technique for characterization of new designer drugs. PAMPA has successfully determined the effective permeabilities of cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, MDMA, and several tryptamine derivatives. PMID:25278197

  19. Retinal and Ocular Toxicity in Ocular Application of Drugs and Chemicals – Part I: Animal Models and Toxicity Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Marcondes Penha; Eduardo B. Rodrigues; Maurício Maia; Eduardo Dib; Elaine Fiod Costa; Bruno A. Furlani; Milton Nunes Moraes Filho; Juliana L. Dreyfuss; Juliana Bottós; Michel E. Farah

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Experimental retinal research has gained great importance due to the ophthalmic pharmacotherapy era. An increasing number of drugs are constantly released into the market for the treatment of retinal diseases. In this review, animal species, animal models and toxicity assays in retinal research are discussed. Methods: An extensive search of the literature was performed to review various aspects of

  20. Small molecule screening in zebrafish: an in vivo approach to identifying new chemical tools and drug leads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerrie L Taylor; Nicola J Grant; Nicholas D Temperley; E. Elizabeth Patton

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades, zebrafish genetic screens have identified a wealth of mutations that have been essential to the understanding of development and disease biology. More recently, chemical screens in zebrafish have identified small molecules that can modulate specific developmental and behavioural processes. Zebrafish are a unique vertebrate system in which to study chemical genetic systems, identify drug leads,

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE MICROSCREEN PHAGE-INDUCTION ASSAY FOR SCREENING HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Microscreen phage-induction assay, which quantitatively measures the induction of prophage in Escherichia coli WP2s( ), was used to test 14 crude (unfractionated) hazardous industrial waste samples for genotoxic activity in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. le...

  2. Characterization of diversity in toxicity mechanism using in vitro cytotoxicity assays in quantitative high throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Xia, Menghang; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P

    2008-03-01

    Assessing the potential health risks of environmental chemical compounds is an expensive undertaking that has motivated the development of new alternatives to traditional in vivo toxicological testing. One approach is to stage the evaluation, beginning with less expensive and higher throughput in vitro testing before progressing to more definitive trials. In vitro testing can be used to generate a hypothesis about a compound's mechanism of action, which can then be used to design an appropriate in vivo experiment. Here we begin to address the question of how to design such a battery of in vitro cell-based assays by combining data from two different types of assays, cell viability and caspase activation, with the aim of elucidating the mechanism of action. Because caspase activation is a transient event during apoptosis, it is not possible to design a single end-point assay protocol that would identify all instances of compound-induced caspase activation. Nevertheless, useful information about compound mechanism of action can be obtained from these assays in combination with cell viability data. Unsupervised clustering in combination with Dunn's cluster validity index is a robust method for identifying mechanisms of action without requiring any a priori knowledge about mechanisms of toxicity. The performance of this clustering method is evaluated by comparing the clustering results against literature annotations of compound mechanisms. PMID:18281954

  3. ESIPT-mediated Photocycloadditions of 3-Hydroxyquinolinones: Development of a Fluorescence Quenching Assay for Reaction Screening

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Bing; Gerard, Baudouin; Solano, Danielle M.; Wan, Jiandi; Jones, Guilford; Porco, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation of 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxyquinolinone (DMQ) leads to excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) generating an 3-oxidoquinolinium species which undergoes [3+2] photocycloaddition with dipolarophiles. A parallel, fluorescence quenching assay using a microplate format has been developed to evaluate fluorescence quenching of this species with a range of dipolarophiles. PMID:21338078

  4. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  5. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  6. Using in Vitro High Throughput Screening Assays to Identify Potential Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 20 years, an increased focus on detecting environmental chemicals posing a risk of adverse effects due to endocrine disruption has driven the creation of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Thousands of chemicals are subject to the EDSP, whic...

  7. High-Throughput/High-Content Screening Assays with Engineered Nanomaterials in ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput and high-content screens are attractive approaches for prioritizing nanomaterial hazards and informing targeted testing due to the impracticality of using traditional toxicological testing on the large numbers and varieties of nanomaterials. The ToxCast program a...

  8. Functional Assays and Alternative Species: Using Larval Zebrafish in Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening**

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. As such, we are exploring a behavioral testing paradigm, which can assess the effect of sublethal and subteratogenic concentrations of de...

  9. Functional Assays and Alternative Species: Using Larval Zebrafish in Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing and evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. Towards this goal, we are exploring methods to detect developmental neurotoxicants in very young larval zebrafish. We have...

  10. Universal Alcohol\\/Drug Screening in Prenatal Care: A Strategy for Reducing Racial Disparities? Questioning the Assumptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah C. M. RobertsAmani; Amani Nuru-Jeter

    Agencies and organizations promoting universal screening for alcohol and drug use in prenatal care argue that universal screening\\u000a will reduce White versus Black racial disparities in reporting to Child Protective Services (CPS) at delivery. Yet, no published\\u000a research has assessed the impact of universal screening on reporting disparities or explored plausible mechanisms. This review\\u000a defines two potential mechanisms: Equitable Surveillance

  11. Chemical Biology Drug Sensitivity Screen Identifies Sunitinib as Synergistic Agent with Disulfiram in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ketola, Kirsi; Kallioniemi, Olli; Iljin, Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    Background Current treatment options for castration- and treatment-resistant prostate cancer are limited and novel approaches are desperately needed. Our recent results from a systematic chemical biology sensitivity screen covering most known drugs and drug-like molecules indicated that aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram is one of the most potent cancer-specific inhibitors of prostate cancer cell growth, including TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive cancers. However, the results revealed that disulfiram alone does not block tumor growth in vivo nor induce apoptosis in vitro, indicating that combinatorial approaches may be required to enhance the anti-neoplastic effects. Methods and Findings In this study, we utilized a chemical biology drug sensitivity screen to explore disulfiram mechanistic details and to identify compounds potentiating the effect of disulfiram in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive prostate cancer cells. In total, 3357 compounds including current chemotherapeutic agents as well as drug-like small molecular compounds were screened alone and in combination with disulfiram. Interestingly, the results indicated that androgenic and antioxidative compounds antagonized disulfiram effect whereas inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase, proteasome, topoisomerase II, glucosylceramide synthase or cell cycle were among compounds sensitizing prostate cancer cells to disulfiram. The combination of disulfiram and an antiangiogenic agent sunitinib was studied in more detail, since both are already in clinical use in humans. Disulfiram-sunitinib combination induced apoptosis and reduced androgen receptor protein expression more than either of the compounds alone. Moreover, combinatorial exposure reduced metastatic characteristics such as cell migration and 3D cell invasion as well as induced epithelial differentiation shown as elevated E-cadherin expression. Conclusions Taken together, our results propose novel combinatorial approaches to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. Disulfiram-sunitinib combination was identified as one of the potent synergistic approaches. Since sunitinib alone has been reported to lack efficacy in prostate cancer clinical trials, our results provide a rationale for novel combinatorial approach to target prostate cancer more efficiently. PMID:23251544

  12. Development of in vitro PIK3C3/VPS34 complex protein assay for autophagy-specific inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Mi; Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Jeong Hee; Oh, Myung Sook; Kim, Joungmok

    2015-07-01

    Autophagy is an important catabolic program to respond to a variety of cellular stresses by forming a double membrane vesicle, autophagosome. Autophagy plays key roles in various cellular functions. Accordingly, dysregulation of autophagy is closely associated with diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathy, and cancer. In this sense, autophagy is emerging as an important therapeutic target for disease control. Among the autophagy machineries, PIK3C3/VPS34 complex functions as an autophagy-triggering kinase to recruit the subsequent autophagy protein machineries on the phagophore membrane. Accumulating evidence showing that inhibition of PIK3C3/VPS34 complex successfully inhibits autophagy makes the complex an attractive target for developing autophagy inhibitors. However, one concern about PIK3C3/VPS34 complex is that many different PIK3C3/VPS34 complexes have distinct cellular functions. In this study, we have developed an in vitro PIK3C3/VPS34 complex monitoring assay for autophagy inhibitor screening in a high-throughput assay format instead of targeting the catalytic activity of the PIK3C3/VPS34 complex, which shuts down all PIK3C3/VPS34 complexes. We performed in vitro reconstitution of an essential autophagy-promoting PIK3C3/VPS34 complex, Vps34-Beclin1-ATG14L complex, in a microwell plate (96-well format) and successfully monitored the complex formation in many different conditions. This PIK3C3/VPS34 complex protein assay would provide a reliable tool for the screening of autophagy-specific inhibitors. PMID:25862085

  13. In Silico Assay Development for Screening of Tetracyclic Triterpenoids as Anticancer Agents against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF7

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Om; Ahmad, Ateeque; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Tandon, Sudeep; Pant, Aditya Bhusan; Khan, Feroz

    2014-01-01

    Experimental activity of a compound on cancer cell line/target is mostly analyzed in the form of percentage inhibition at different concentration gradient and time of incubation. In this study a statistical model has been developed referred as in silico assay using support vector regression model, which can act with change in concentration gradient and time of incubation. This model is a function of concentration gradient, treatment hour and independent components; which calculate the percentage inhibition in combination of above three components. This model is designed to screen tetracyclic triterpenoids active against human breast cancer cell line MCF7. The model has been statistically validated, checked for applicability domain and predicted results were reconfirmed by MTT assay, for example Oenotheranstrol derivatives, OenA & B. Computational SAR, target and docking studies were performed to understand the cytotoxic mechanism of action of Oenotheranstrol compounds. The proposed in silico assay model will work for specific chemical family for which it will be optimized. This model can be used to analyze growth kinetics pattern on different human cancer cell lines for designed compounds. PMID:25365399

  14. The slug mucosal irritation (SMI) assay: development of a screening tool for the evaluation of ocular discomfort caused by shampoos.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Joke; Claerhout, Ilse; Kestelyn, Philippe; Klomp, Andre; Remon, Jean-Paul; Adriaens, Els

    2011-12-01

    In this research, the slug mucosal irritation (SMI) assay was applied to predict ocular discomfort caused by shampoos to investigate the correlation between responses in slugs and humans. Several SMI experiments and a human eye irritation test (HEIT) were performed with 1 artificial tear solution (ArtTear) and 5 shampoos (A-E; 5%-dilution). In the HEIT, evaluation was performed by participants and an ophthalmologist at several time points. Analyses reveal that (1) a significant positive association existed between immediate stinging reaction reported by the participants and the mean total mucus produced by the slugs (MTMP) (Spearman's Rank correlation=0.986, p<0.001); (2) ArtTear was best tolerated in both tests; (3) moreover, all shampoos induced higher reactions than ArtTear and water; (4) Shampoo A induced the highest MTMP and received higher scores for immediate discomfort; (5) B was the best tolerated shampoo in both tests, while C, D and E resulted in more pronounced reactions; (6) lacrimation was found not to be statistically correlated with discomfort sensations reported by the participants. The SMI assay is a promising evaluation method for discomfort in the human eye. Screening prototype (eye) formulations with this assay allows formula optimization prior to a HEIT. PMID:21741469

  15. Prediction of phospholipidosis-inducing potential of drugs by in vitro biochemical and physicochemical assays followed by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yukihiro; Saito, Madoka

    2010-03-01

    An in vitro method to predict phospholipidosis-inducing potential of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) was developed using biochemical and physicochemical assays. The following parameters were applied to principal component analysis, as well as physicochemical parameters: pK(a) and clogP; dissociation constant of CADs from phospholipid, inhibition of enzymatic phospholipid degradation, and metabolic stability of CADs. In the score plot, phospholipidosis-inducing drugs (amiodarone, propranolol, imipramine, chloroquine) were plotted locally forming the subspace for positive CADs; while non-inducing drugs (chlorpromazine, chloramphenicol, disopyramide, lidocaine) were placed scattering out of the subspace, allowing a clear discrimination between both classes of CADs. CADs that often produce false results by conventional physicochemical or cell-based assay methods were accurately determined by our method. Basic and lipophilic disopyramide could be accurately predicted as a nonphospholipidogenic drug. Moreover, chlorpromazine, which is often falsely predicted as a phospholipidosis-inducing drug by in vitro methods, could be accurately determined. Because this method uses the pharmacokinetic parameters pK(a), clogP, and metabolic stability, which are usually obtained in the early stages of drug development, the method newly requires only the two parameters, binding to phospholipid, and inhibition of lipid degradation enzyme. Therefore, this method provides a cost-effective approach to predict phospholipidosis-inducing potential of a drug. PMID:19786086

  16. Drug Synergy Screen and Network Modeling in Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Identifies CDK4 and IGF1R as Synergistic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Martin L.; Molinelli, Evan J.; Nair, Jayasree S.; Sheikh, Tahir; Samy, Rita; Jing, Xiaohong; He, Qin; Korkut, Anil; Crago, Aimee M.; Singer, Samuel; Schwartz, Gary K.; Sander, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) is a rare but aggressive cancer with high recurrence and low response rates to targeted therapies. Increasing treatment efficacy may require combinations of targeted agents that counteract the effects of multiple abnormalities. To identify a possible multicomponent therapy, we performed a combinatorial drug screen in a DDLS-derived cell line and identified cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as synergistic drug targets. We measured the phosphorylation of multiple proteins and cell viability in response to systematic drug combinations and derived computational models of the signaling network. These models predict that the observed synergy in reducing cell viability with CDK4 and IGF1R inhibitors depend on activity of the AKT pathway. Experiments confirmed that combined inhibition of CDK4 and IGF1R cooperatively suppresses the activation of proteins within the AKT pathway. Consistent with these findings, synergistic reductions in cell viability were also found when combining CDK4 inhibition with inhibition of either AKT or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), another receptor similar to IGF1R that activates AKT. Thus, network models derived from context-specific proteomic measurements of systematically perturbed cancer cells may reveal cancer-specific signaling mechanisms and aid in the design of effective combination therapies. PMID:24065146

  17. Multiplex Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for Simultaneous Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Ribavirin, Boceprevir, and Telaprevir

    PubMed Central

    Aouri, Manel; Moradpour, Darius; Cavassini, Matthias; Mercier, Thomas; Buclin, Thierry; Csajka, Chantal; Telenti, Amalio; Rauch, Andri

    2013-01-01

    New directly acting antivirals (DAAs) that inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication are increasingly used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. A marked pharmacokinetic variability and a high potential for drug-drug interactions between DAAs and numerous drug classes have been identified. In addition, ribavirin (RBV), commonly associated with hemolytic anemia, often requires dose adjustment, advocating for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in patients under combined antiviral therapy. However, an assay for the simultaneous analysis of RBV and DAAs constitutes an analytical challenge because of the large differences in polarity among these drugs, ranging from hydrophilic (RBV) to highly lipophilic (telaprevir [TVR]). Moreover, TVR is characterized by erratic behavior on standard octadecyl-based reversed-phase column chromatography and must be separated from VRT-127394, its inactive C-21 epimer metabolite. We have developed a convenient assay employing simple plasma protein precipitation, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of levels of RBV, boceprevir, and TVR, as well as its metabolite VRT-127394, in plasma. This new, simple, rapid, and robust HPLC-MS/MS assay offers an efficient method of real-time TDM aimed at maximizing efficacy while minimizing the toxicity of antiviral therapy. PMID:23629707

  18. Development of a Novel Nonradiometric Assay for Nucleic Acid Binding to TDP-43 Suitable for High-Throughput Screening Using AlphaScreen® Technology

    PubMed Central

    CASSEL, JOEL A.; BLASS, BENJAMIN E.; REITZ, ALLEN B.; PAWLYK, AARON C.

    2012-01-01

    TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nucleic acid binding protein that is associated with the pathology of cystic fibrosis and neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar dementia. We have developed a robust, quantitative, nonradiometric high-throughput assay measuring oligonucleotide binding to TDP-43 using AlphaScreen® technology. Biotinylated single-stranded TAR DNA (bt-TAR-32) and 6 TG repeats (bt-TG6) bound with high affinity to TDP-43, with KD values of 0.75 nM and 0.63 nM, respectively. Both oligonucleotides exhibited slow dissociation rates, with half-lives of 750 min for bt-TAR-32 and 150 min for bt-TG6. The affinities of unlabeled oligonucleotides, as determined by displacement of either bt-TAR-32 or bt-TG6, were consistent with previous reports of nucleic acid interactions with TDP-43, where increasing TG or UG repeats yield greater affinity. A diversity library of 7360 compounds was screened for inhibition of TDP-43 binding to bt-TAR-32, and a series of compounds was discovered with nascent SAR and IC50 values ranging from 100 nM to 10 ?M. These compounds may prove to be useful biochemical tools to elucidate the function of TDP-43 and may lead to novel therapeutics for indications where the TDP-43 nucleic acid interaction is causal to the associated pathology. PMID:20855563

  19. Distinguishing on-target versus off-target activity in early antibacterial drug discovery using a macromolecular synthesis assay.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark L; Kwan, Bryan P; Nelson, Kirk J; Bensen, Daniel C; Shaw, Karen J

    2013-10-01

    The macromolecular synthesis assay was optimized in both S. aureus and E. coli imp and used to define patterns of inhibition of DNA, RNA, protein, and cell wall biosynthesis of several drug classes. The concentration of drug required to elicit pathway inhibition differed among the antimicrobial agents tested, with inhibition detected at concentrations significantly below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for tedizolid; within 4-fold of the MIC for ciprofloxacin, cefepime, vancomycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol; and significantly above the MIC for rifampicin and kanamycin. In a DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV structure-based drug design optimization program, the assay rapidly identified undesirable off-target activity within certain chemotypes, altering the course of the program to focus on the series that maintained on-target activity. PMID:23686103

  20. Evaluation of the Identification Power of RPLC Analyses in the Screening for Drug Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Dumarey, Melanie; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Rutan, Sarah C.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of drugs of abuse is an important issue in forensic science. The main goal is to trace and identify as many drugs as possible in the shortest possible time preferably with a simple analysis method. One possibility is to screen samples using a Liquid Chromatography – Diode Array Detection (LC-DAD) system. However, when simultaneously performing another analysis on a chromatographic column exhibiting selectivity differences from the first one, i.e., orthogonal or dissimilar columns, a greater number of drugs can be possibly identified without investing a lot of extra time or money. The primary difficulty is then selecting the most appropriate columns. In this paper, it is demonstrated that selecting the most dissimilar columns based on measures such as correlation or Snyder’s Fs value is not optimal, because these measures do not take into account the identification power of the individual systems. This implies that a large number of drugs may not necessarily be identified on the systems selected using these criteria. Therefore, three other measures are tested to evaluate the identification power obtained by parallel screening on two columns or by comprehensive two-dimensional LC (LC×LC). The simplest approach is counting the number of compounds separable with a difference in retention time greater than a predefined critical value. However, this measure does not reflect the co-elution pattern of the unidentified drugs nor the separation degree of all compounds. The second tested measure, information, enables differentiation between systems identifying the same number of compounds, but resulting in a different co-elution pattern. Multivariate selectivity, the third tested parameter, takes into account the degree of separation of all compounds and has the advantage that it reflects the gain in identification power achieved by introducing DAD data. All three proposed measures also enable evaluation of whether the corresponding LC×LC method will result in a greater identification power. PMID:20578680

  1. Reflectometric cutinase assay for rapid screening of contaminants and residues of insecticidal organophosphates and carbamates.

    PubMed

    Walz, Ingrid; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Because of the extensive use of insecticides in agriculture, there is an increasing demand for rapid analytical methods for residues in food and feed control. To meet this need, a completely new application of the reflectometric lipase test (Reflectoquant, Merck) was developed. By using the cutinase-induced reaction of the substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl caprylate on the test strips, residues of organophosphates and carbamates can be determined on the basis of enzyme inhibition in a fast and inexpensive way. With this technique, we investigated the inhibition effects of representative insecticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, and carbaryl. The bimolecular inhibitory rate constants (ki) were found to agree well with those obtained by a previously described spectrophotometric cutinase assay in the microtiter-plate format. Recoveries determined with the strip test from spiked samples compared well with those obtained by both the cutinase microtiter-plate assay and liquid chromatographylmass spectrometry. PMID:18980129

  2. Drug screening in Scn1a zebrafish mutant identifies clemizole as a potential Dravet Syndrome treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baraban, Scott C.; Dinday, Matthew T.; Hortopan, Gabriela A.

    2013-01-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with severe intellectual disability, impaired social development and persistent drug-resistant seizures. One of its primary monogenic causes are mutations in Nav1.1 (SCN1A), a voltage-gated sodium channel. Here we characterise zebrafish Nav1.1 (scn1Lab) mutants originally identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen. Mutants exhibit spontaneous abnormal electrographic activity, hyperactivity and convulsive behaviors. Although scn1Lab expression is reduced, microarray analysis is remarkable for the small fraction of differentially expressed genes (~3%) and lack of compensatory expression changes in other scn subunits. Ketogenic diet, diazepam, valproate, potassium bromide and stiripentol attenuate mutant seizure activity; seven other antiepileptic drugs have no effect. A phenotype-based screen of 320 compounds identifies a US Food and Drug Administration-approved compound (clemizole) that inhibits convulsive behaviors and electrographic seizures. This approach represents a new direction in modeling pediatric epilepsy and could be used to identify novel therapeutics for any monogenic epilepsy disorder. PMID:24002024

  3. Drug screening in Scn1a zebrafish mutant identifies clemizole as a potential Dravet syndrome treatment.

    PubMed

    Baraban, Scott C; Dinday, Matthew T; Hortopan, Gabriela A

    2013-01-01

    Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with severe intellectual disability, impaired social development and persistent drug-resistant seizures. One of its primary monogenic causes are mutations in Nav1.1 (SCN1A), a voltage-gated sodium channel. Here we characterize zebrafish Nav1.1 (scn1Lab) mutants originally identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen. Mutants exhibit spontaneous abnormal electrographic activity, hyperactivity and convulsive behaviours. Although scn1Lab expression is reduced, microarray analysis is remarkable for the small fraction of differentially expressed genes (~3%) and lack of compensatory expression changes in other scn subunits. Ketogenic diet, diazepam, valproate, potassium bromide and stiripentol attenuate mutant seizure activity; seven other antiepileptic drugs have no effect. A phenotype-based screen of 320 compounds identifies a US Food and Drug Administration-approved compound (clemizole) that inhibits convulsive behaviours and electrographic seizures. This approach represents a new direction in modelling pediatric epilepsy and could be used to identify novel therapeutics for any monogenic epilepsy disorder. PMID:24002024

  4. Tapered microtract array platform for antimigratory drug screening of human glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Cha, Junghwa; Koh, Ilkyoo; Choi, Yemuk; Lee, Jungwhoi; Choi, Chulhee; Kim, Pilnam

    2015-02-18

    Understanding the effects of topographic characteristics on tumor cell migration is important for the development of new anti-migratory therapies. However, simplified in vitro culture systems often lead to inaccurate results regarding the efficacy of drugs. Histopathologically, glioblastoma multiform (GBM) cells migrate along the orientation of thin, elongated anatomical structures, such as white-matter tracts. Here, a tapered microtract array platform which mimics the anatomical features of brain tissue is introduced. This platform enables optimization of design for platform fabrication depending on topographic effects. By monitoring the migration of GBM cells on a simple tapered microtract, a saltatory migration resembling the migratory phenotype of human GBM cells in vivo is observed. The platform effectively induces the native characteristics and behavior of cells by topographic cues, allowing to observe the critical point for crawling to saltatory transition. Furthermore, this platform can be applied to efficiently screen anti-cancer drug by inhibiting associated signaling pathways on GBM cells. In conclusion, the microtract array platform reported here may provide a better understanding of the effects of topographic characteristics on cell migration, and may also be useful to determine the efficacy of antimigratory drugs for glioblastoma cells with cellular and molecular research and high-throughput screening. PMID:25230171

  5. A screen of the NIH Clinical Collection small molecule library identifies potential anti-coronavirus drugs.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianzhong; Forrest, J Craig; Zhang, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    With the recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in humans and the outbreak of devastating porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus in swine, therapeutic intervention is urgently needed. However, anti-coronavirus drugs currently are not available. In an effort to assist rapid development of anti-coronavirus drugs, here we screened the NIH Clinical Collection in cell culture using a luciferase reporter-expressing recombinant murine coronavirus. Of the 727 compounds screened, 84 were found to have a significant anti-coronavirus effect. Further experiments revealed that 51 compounds blocked virus entry while 19 others inhibited viral replication. Additional validation studies with the top 3 inhibitors (hexachlorophene, nitazoxanide and homoharringtonine) demonstrated robust anti-coronavirus activities (a reduction of 6 to 8log10 in virus titer) with an IC50 ranging from 11nM to 1.2?M. Furthermore, homoharringtonine and hexachlorophene exhibited broad antiviral activity against diverse species of human and animal coronaviruses. Since the NIH Clinical Collection consists of compounds that have already been through clinical trials, these small molecule inhibitors have a great potential for rapid development as anti-coronavirus drugs. PMID:25451075

  6. Live Multicellular Tumor Spheroid Models For High-Content Imaging and Screening In Cancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Brian G.; Jerjian, Taleen; Patel, Purvi; Zhou, Qiong; Yoo, Byong Hoon; Kabos, Peter; Sartorius, Carol A.; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

    2014-01-01

    The multi cellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model has been used for decades with proven superiority over monolayer cell culture models at recapitulating in vivo tumor growth. Yet its use in high-throughput drug discovery has been limited, particularly with image based screening, due to practical and technical hurdles. Here we report a significant advance in utilizing live MCTS models for high-content image based drug discovery. Using a validated GFP reporter (CK5Pro-GFP) of luminal breast cancer stem cells (CSC), we developed an algorithm to quantify changes in CK5Pro-GFP expression levels for individual Z-stack planes (local) or as maximal projections of the summed Z-stacks (global) of MCTS. From these image sets, we can quantify the cross-sectional area of GFP positive cells, the fluorescence intensity of the GFP positive cells, and the percent of spheroid cross-sectional area that expresses CK5Pro-GFP.We demonstrate that acquiring data in this manner can be done in real time and is statistically robust (Z’=0.85) for use in primary high-content screening cancer drug discovery. PMID:24596682

  7. Live multicellular tumor spheroid models for high-content imaging and screening in cancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Reid, Brian G; Jerjian, Taleen; Patel, Purvi; Zhou, Qiong; Yoo, Byong Hoon; Kabos, Peter; Sartorius, Carol A; Labarbera, Daniel V

    2014-01-01

    The multi cellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model has been used for decades with proven superiority over monolayer cell culture models at recapitulating in vivo tumor growth. Yet its use in high-throughput drug discovery has been limited, particularly with image based screening, due to practical and technical hurdles. Here we report a significant advance in utilizing live MCTS models for high-content image based drug discovery. Using a validated GFP reporter (CK5Pro-GFP) of luminal breast cancer stem cells (CSC), we developed an algorithm to quantify changes in CK5Pro-GFP expression levels for individual Z-stack planes (local) or as maximal projections of the summed Z-stacks (global) of MCTS. From these image sets, we can quantify the cross-sectional area of GFP positive cells, the fluorescence intensity of the GFP positive cells, and the percent of spheroid cross-sectional area that expresses CK5Pro-GFP.We demonstrate that acquiring data in this manner can be done in real time and is statistically robust (Z'=0.85) for use in primary high-content screening cancer drug discovery. PMID:24596682

  8. Screening and personalizing nootropic drugs and cognitive modulator regimens in silico.

    PubMed

    Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alexander; Buzdin, Anton; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The go-to cognitive enhancers of today are those that are widely available rather than optimal for the user, including drugs typically prescribed for treatment of ADHD (e.g., methylphenidate) and sleep disturbances such as narcolepsy (modafinil). While highly effective in their intended therapeutic role, performance gains in healthy populations are modest at best and profoundly inconsistent across subgroups and individuals. We propose a method for in silico screening of possible novel cognitive enhancers followed by high-throughput in vivo and in vitro validation. The proposed method uses gene expression data to evaluate the the collection of activated or suppressed signaling pathways in tissues or neurons of the cognitively enhanced brain. An algorithm maps expression data onto signaling pathways and quantifies their individual activation strength. The collective pathways and their activation form what we term the signaling pathway cloud, a biological fingerprint of cognitive enhancement (or any other condition of interest). Drugs can then be screened and ranked based on their ability to minimize, mimic, or exaggerate pathway activation or suppression within that cloud. Using this approach, one may predict the efficacy of many drugs that may enhance various aspects of cognition before costly preclinical studies and clinical trials are undertaken. PMID:25705179

  9. Cell-based assay for screening 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Sik Cho; Chi Hyun Kim; Hyae Gyeong Cheon

    2009-01-01

    11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11?-HSD1) is primarily responsible for intracellular biosynthesis of active glucocorticoid, and its tissue-specific dysregulation has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndromes. We have developed a cell-based assay for measuring 11?-HSD1 activities using murine skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. We found that the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of 11?-HSD1 increased on differentiation with enhanced enzyme activity

  10. Development of Fluorescence-linked Immunosorbent Assay for High Throughput Screening of Interferon-?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Matsukuma; Zenichiro Kato; Kentaro Omoya; Kazuyuki Hashimoto; Ailian Li; Yutaka Yamamoto; Hidenori Ohnishi; Hidenori Hiranuma; Hisakazu Komine; Naomi Kondo

    2006-01-01

    Background: Human interferon-gamma (hIFN-?) is produced by lymphocytes and has a variety of biological properties. Measurement of hIFN-? is widely used for various immunological responses for allergic or autoim- mune diseases. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is an established immunoassay used to quan- tify cellular metabolites or cytokines. ELISA requires many incubation and wash steps and is not practically suitable for

  11. Decolorization Screening of Synthetic Dyes by Anaerobic Methanogenic Sludge Using a Batch Decolorization Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haresh Keharia; Hardik Patel; Datta Madamwar

    2004-01-01

    The nonspecific ability of anaerobic sludge bacteria obtained from cattle dung slurry was investigated for 17 different dyes\\u000a in a batch assay system using sealed serum vials. Experiments using Reactive Violet 5 (RV 5) showed that sludge bacteria could\\u000a effectively decolorize solutions having dye concentrations up to 1000 mg l?1 with a decolorization efficiency of above 75% during 48 h

  12. Optimal selection of screening assays for infectious agents in donated blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas R. Bish; Ebru K. Bish; Shiguang R. Xie; Anthony D. Slonim

    2011-01-01

    Blood products are an essential component of any health system, and their safety, in terms of being free of “transfusion-transmitted infections” (TTIs), i.e., diseases that include Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis Viruses, Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Syphilis, West Nile Virus, and Chagas’ Disease, is crucial. However, blood screening tests are imperfectly reliable, with the possibility of false-negatives and false-positives. The budget-constrained

  13. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Klima, Stefanie; Sureshkumar, Perumal Srinivasan; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Waldmann, Tanja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2015-01-01

    Efficient protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to various tissues in combination with -omics technologies opened up new horizons for in vitro toxicity testing of potential drugs. To provide a solid scientific basis for such assays, it will be important to gain quantitative information on the time course of development and on the underlying regulatory mechanisms by systems biology approaches. Two assays have therefore been tuned here for these requirements. In the UKK test system, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) (or other pluripotent cells) are left to spontaneously differentiate for 14 days in embryoid bodies, to allow generation of cells of all three germ layers. This system recapitulates key steps of early human embryonic development, and it can predict human-specific early embryonic toxicity/teratogenicity, if cells are exposed to chemicals during differentiation. The UKN1 test system is based on hESC differentiating to a population of neuroectodermal progenitor (NEP) cells for 6 days. This system recapitulates early neural development and predicts early developmental neurotoxicity and epigenetic changes triggered by chemicals. Both systems, in combination with transcriptome microarray studies, are suitable for identifying toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, they may be used in combination to generate input data for systems biology analysis. These test systems have advantages over the traditional toxicological studies requiring large amounts of animals. The test systems may contribute to a reduction of the costs for drug development and chemical safety evaluation. Their combination sheds light especially on compounds that may influence neurodevelopment specifically. PMID:26132533

  14. Simultaneous Quantitation of 78 Drugs and Metabolites in Urine with a Dilute-And-Shoot LC-MS-MS Assay.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Kaleta, Erin; Wang, Ping

    2015-06-01

    A novel LC-MS-MS assay that simultaneously detects and quantitates 78 drugs and metabolites was developed and validated for chronic pain management. Urine specimen was diluted and mixed with internal standards (ISs) before injected into LC-MS-MS. Seventy-two analytes were detected with positive electrospray ionization mode and the remaining six analytes with negative mode. Two separate gradient elution chromatographic programs were established with the same mobile phases on the same bi-phenyl HPLC column. The assay was linear for all analytes with linear regression coefficient ranging 0.994-1.000. The intra-assay precision was between 1.7 and 8.8% and inter-assay precision between 1.9 and 12.2%, with bias <20% for all but six analytes. All analytes in urine specimens were stable for 7 days at 4°C, and no significant matrix effect or carryover was observed. A suboptimal recovery rate (60.0-156.8%) was observed for six analytes, potentially due to the lack of available deuterated ISs, requiring comparison to a chemically different IS. Method comparison using patient and proficiency testing samples demonstrated that this assay was sensitive and accurate. The assay improves on currently existing assays by including glucuronide conjugates, allowing direct detection of metabolites that might otherwise be missed by existing methods. PMID:25833899

  15. Genome-wide Protein-protein Interaction Screening by Protein-fragment Complementation Assay (PCA) in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Marie; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Dubé, Alexandre K.; Landry, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are the building blocks, effectors and signal mediators of cellular processes. A protein’s function, regulation and localization often depend on its interactions with other proteins. Here, we describe a protocol for the yeast protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA), a powerful method to detect direct and proximal associations between proteins in living cells. The interaction between two proteins, each fused to a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) protein fragment, translates into growth of yeast strains in presence of the drug methotrexate (MTX). Differential fitness, resulting from different amounts of reconstituted DHFR enzyme, can be quantified on high-density colony arrays, allowing to differentiate interacting from non-interacting bait-prey pairs. The high-throughput protocol presented here is performed using a robotic platform that parallelizes mating of bait and prey strains carrying complementary DHFR-fragment fusion proteins and the survival assay on MTX. This protocol allows to systematically test for thousands of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) involving bait proteins of interest and offers several advantages over other PPI detection assays, including the study of proteins expressed from their endogenous promoters without the need for modifying protein localization and for the assembly of complex reporter constructs. PMID:25867901

  16. Rapid and specific drug quality testing assay for artemisinin and its derivatives using a luminescent reaction and novel microfluidic technology.

    PubMed

    Ho, Nga T; Desai, Darash; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2015-06-01

    Globally, it is estimated that about 10-30% of pharmaceuticals are of poor quality. Poor-quality drugs lead to long-term drug resistance, create morbidity, and strain the financial structure of the health system. The current technologies for substandard drug detection either are too expensive for low-resource regions or only provide qualitative results. To address the current limitations with point-of-care technologies, we have developed an affordable and robust assay to quantify the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to test product quality. Our novel assay consists of two parts: detection reagent (probe) and a microfluidic testing platform. As antimalarials are of high importance in the global fight against malaria and are often substandard, they are chosen as the model to validate our assay. As a proof-of-concept, we have tested the assay with artesunate pure and substandard samples (Arsuamoon tablets) from Africa and compared with the conventional 96-well plate with spectrophotometer to demonstrate the quantitative efficacy and performance of our system. PMID:25897061

  17. Rapid and Specific Drug Quality Testing Assay for Artemisinin and Its Derivatives Using a Luminescent Reaction and Novel Microfluidic Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nga T.; Desai, Darash; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that about 10–30% of pharmaceuticals are of poor quality. Poor-quality drugs lead to long-term drug resistance, create morbidity, and strain the financial structure of the health system. The current technologies for substandard drug detection either are too expensive for low-resource regions or only provide qualitative results. To address the current limitations with point-of-care technologies, we have developed an affordable and robust assay to quantify the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to test product quality. Our novel assay consists of two parts: detection reagent (probe) and a microfluidic testing platform. As antimalarials are of high importance in the global fight against malaria and are often substandard, they are chosen as the model to validate our assay. As a proof-of-concept, we have tested the assay with artesunate pure and substandard samples (Arsuamoon tablets) from Africa and compared with the conventional 96-well plate with spectrophotometer to demonstrate the quantitative efficacy and performance of our system. PMID:25897061

  18. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs...

  19. Modulators of the microRNA biogenesis pathway via arrayed lentiviral enabled RNAi screening for drug and biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Shum, David; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous and conserved non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Although the first miRNA was discovered well over sixteen years ago, little is known about their biogenesis and it is only recently that we have begun to understand their scope and diversity. For this purpose, we performed an RNAi screen aimed at identifying genes involved in their biogenesis pathway with a potential use as biomarkers. Using a previously developed miRNA 21 (miR-21) EGFP-based biosensor cell based assay monitoring green fluorescence enhancements, we performed an arrayed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen against a lentiviral particle ready TRC1 library covering 16,039 genes in 384-well plate format, and interrogating the genome one gene at a time building a panoramic view of endogenous miRNA activity. Using the BDA method for RNAi data analysis, we nominate 497 gene candidates the knockdown of which increased the EGFP fluorescence and yielding an initial hit rate of 3.09%; of which only 22, with reported validated clones, are deemed high-confidence gene candidates. An unexpected and surprising result was that only DROSHA was identified as a hit out of the seven core essential miRNA biogenesis genes; suggesting that perhaps intracellular shRNA processing into the correct duplex may be cell dependent and with differential outcome. Biological classification revealed several major control junctions among them genes involved in transport and vesicular trafficking. In summary, we report on 22 high confidence gene candidate regulators of miRNA biogenesis with potential use in drug and biomarker discovery. PMID:23977983

  20. Faculty buy-in to teach alcohol and drug use screening.

    PubMed

    Puskar, Kathy; Mitchell, Ann M; Kane, Irene; Hagle, Holly; Talcott, Kimberly S

    2014-09-01

    Educating nursing faculty about the use of an evidence-based practice to screen and intervene earlier along the continuum of alcohol and other drug use, misuse, and dependence is essential in today's health care arena. Misuse of alcohol and other drugs is a significant problem for both individual health and societal economic welfare. The purpose of this article is to describe nursing faculty buy-in for the implementation of an evidence-based addiction training program at a university-based school of nursing. Derived from an academic-community partnership, the training program results suggest implications for continuing education and curriculum innovation in schools of nursing and clinical practice. The training content presented can be used in continuing education for nursing faculty across all types of nursing school programs and professional nursing staff employed in multiple settings. The training program was funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration. PMID:25153430

  1. Non-Target Screening of Veterinary Drugs Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry on SmartMass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bing; Liu, Xin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Non-target screening of veterinary drugs using tandem mass spectrometric data was performed on the SmartMass platform. This newly developed software uses the characteristic fragmentation patterns (CFP) to identify chemicals, especially those containing particular substructures. A mixture of 17 sulfonamides was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and SmartMass was used to process the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The data were automatically extracted, and each sulfonamide was recognized and analyzed with a prebuilt analysis rule. By using this software, over 98 % of the false candidate structures were eliminated, and all the correct structures were found within the top 10 of the ranking lists. Furthermore, SmartMass could also be used to identify slightly modified contraband drugs and metabolites with simple prebuilt rules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Structure-based drug screening for G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Shoichet, Brian K; Kobilka, Brian K

    2012-05-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a large family of signaling proteins that includes many therapeutic targets; however, progress in identifying new small molecule drugs has been disappointing. The past 4 years have seen remarkable progress in the structural biology of GPCRs, raising the possibility of applying structure-based approaches to GPCR drug discovery efforts. Of the various structure-based approaches that have been applied to soluble protein targets, such as proteases and kinases, in silico docking is among the most ready applicable to GPCRs. Early studies suggest that GPCR binding pockets are well suited to docking, and docking screens have identified potent and novel compounds for these targets. This review will focus on the current state of in silico docking for GPCRs. PMID:22503476

  3. Pharmacodynamic assays to facilitate preclinical and clinical development of pre-mRNA splicing modulatory drug candidates

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yihui; Joyner, Amanda S; Shadrick, William; Palacios, Gustavo; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Potter, Philip M; Sambucetti, Lidia C; Stamm, Stefan; Webb, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    The spliceosome has recently emerged as a new target for cancer chemotherapy and novel antitumor spliceosome targeted agents are under development. Here, we describe two types of novel pharmacodynamic assays that facilitate drug discovery and development of this intriguing class of innovative therapeutics; the first assay is useful for preclinical optimization of small-molecule agents that target the SF3B1 spliceosomal protein in animals, the second assay is an ex vivo validated, gel-based assay for the measurement of drug exposure in human leukocytes. The first assay utilizes a highly specific bioluminescent splicing reporter, based on the skipping of exons 4–11 of a Luc-MDM2 construct, which specifically yields active luciferase when treated with small-molecule spliceosome modulators. We demonstrate that this reporter can be used to monitor alternative splicing in whole cells in vitro. We describe here that cell lines carrying the reporter can be used in vivo for the efficient pharmacodynamic analysis of agents during drug optimization and development. We also demonstrate dose- and time-dependent on-target activity of sudemycin D6 (SD6), which leads to dramatic tumor regression. The second assay relies on the treatment of freshly drawn human blood with SD6 ex vivo treatment. Changes in alternative splicing are determined by RT-PCR using genes previously identified in in vitro experiments. The Luc-MDM2 alternative splicing bioluminescent reporter and the splicing changes observed in human leukocytes should allow for the more facile translation of novel splicing modulators into clinical application. PMID:26171237

  4. Combining PET biodistribution and equilibrium dialysis assays to assess the free brain concentration and BBB transport of CNS drugs.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Roger N; Summerfield, Scott G; Salinas, Cristian A; Read, Kevin D; Guo, Qi; Searle, Graham E; Parker, Christine A; Jeffrey, Phil; Laruelle, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The passage of drugs in and out of the brain is controlled by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), typically, using either passive diffusion across a concentration gradient or active transport via a protein carrier. In-vitro and preclinical measurements of BBB penetration do not always accurately predict the in-vivo situation in humans. Thus, the ability to assay the concentration of novel drug candidates in the human brain in vivo provides valuable information for de-risking of candidate molecules early in drug development. Here, positron emission tomography (PET) measurements are combined with in-vitro equilibrium dialysis assays to enable assessment of transport and estimation of the free brain concentration in vivo. The PET and equilibrium dialysis data were obtained for 36 compounds in the pig. Predicted P-glycoprotein (P-gp) status of the compounds was consistent with the PET/equilibrium dialysis results. In particular, Loperamide, a well-known P-gp substrate, exhibited a significant concentration gradient consistent with active efflux and after inhibition of the P-gp process the gradient was removed. The ability to measure the free brain concentration and assess transport of novel compounds in the human brain with combined PET and equilibrium dialysis assays can be a useful tool in central nervous system (CNS) drug development. PMID:22274741

  5. A sensitive and microscale method for drug screening combining affinity probes and single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Lingao; Su, Di; Shao, Chang; Wang, Jinjie; Dong, Chaoqing; Huang, Xiangyi; Ren, Jicun

    2015-02-21

    In this paper, a sensitive and microscale method for drug screening is described using single molecule spectroscopy fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The principle of this method is mainly based on the competition of candidate drugs to the fluorescent probe-target complexes and the excellent capacity of FCS for sensitively distinguishing the free fluorescent probes and the fluorescent probe-target complexes in solution. In this study, the screening of protein kinase inhibitors was used as a model, tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 was used as a target and a known inhibitor dasatinib derivative labeled with a fluorescent dye was used as a fluorescent affinity probe. We firstly established the theoretical model of drug screening based on the binding process of fluorescent probes and targets, the competition of candidate drugs to the fluorescent probe-target complexes and FCS theory. Then, the dasatinib derivatives were synthesized and labeled with the fluorescent dye Alexa 488, and the binding and dissociation processes of Alexa 488-dasatinib and ABL1 were systematically investigated. The dissociation constant and the dissociation rate for the Alexa 488-dasatinib-ABL1 complex were determined. Finally, the established method was used to screen candidate drugs. The dissociation constants of ABL1 kinase to six known drugs for treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were evaluated and the results obtained are well consistent with the reported values. Furthermore, a homemade chip with micro-wells was successfully utilized in FCS measurements as the carrier of samples, and the sample requirements were only 1-2 ?L in this case. Our results demonstrated that the drug screening method described here is universal, sensitive and shows small sample and reagent quantity requirements. We believe that this method will become a high throughput platform for screening of small molecule drugs. PMID:25526365

  6. Development, validation and implementation of immobilized metal affinity for phosphochemicals (IMAP)-based high-throughput screening assays for low-molecular-weight compound libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Leimgruber; Archibong Yellow-Duke; Rebecca Barrett; Qiming Jane Wang; John S Lazo; Elizabeth R Sharlow

    2008-01-01

    This protocol describes assay development, validation and implementation of automated immobilized metal affinity for phosphochemicals (IMAP)-based fluorescence polarization (FP) and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for identification of low-molecular-weight kinase inhibitors. Both procedures are performed in miniaturized kinase reaction volumes and involve the stepwise addition of test or control compounds, enzyme and substrate\\/ATP. Kinase reactions

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for cardiovascular disease modeling and drug screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have emerged as a novel tool for drug discovery and therapy in cardiovascular medicine. hiPSCs are functionally similar to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and can be derived autologously without the ethical challenges associated with hESCs. Given the limited regenerative capacity of the human heart following myocardial injury, cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs (hiPSC-CMs) have garnered significant attention from basic and translational scientists as a promising cell source for replacement therapy. However, ongoing issues such as cell immaturity, scale of production, inter-line variability, and cell purity will need to be resolved before human clinical trials can begin. Meanwhile, the use of hiPSCs to explore cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases in vitro has proven to be extremely valuable. For example, hiPSC-CMs have been shown to recapitulate disease phenotypes from patients with monogenic cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, patient-derived hiPSC-CMs are now providing new insights regarding drug efficacy and toxicity. This review will highlight recent advances in utilizing hiPSC-CMs for cardiac disease modeling in vitro and as a platform for drug validation. The advantages and disadvantages of using hiPSC-CMs for drug screening purposes will be explored as well. PMID:24476344

  8. Computational Systems Bioinformatics and Bioimaging for Pathway Analysis and Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2009-01-01

    The premise of today’s drug development is that the mechanism of a disease is highly dependent upon underlying signaling and cellular pathways. Such pathways are often composed of complexes of physically interacting genes, proteins, or biochemical activities coordinated by metabolic intermediates, ions, and other small solutes and are investigated with molecular biology approaches in genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics. Nevertheless, the recent declines in the pharmaceutical industry’s revenues indicate such approaches alone may not be adequate in creating successful new drugs. Our observation is that combining methods of genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics with techniques of bioimaging will systematically provide powerful means to decode or better understand molecular interactions and pathways that lead to disease and potentially generate new insights and indications for drug targets. The former methods provide the profiles of genes, proteins, and metabolites, whereas the latter techniques generate objective, quantitative phenotypes correlating to the molecular profiles and interactions. In this paper, we describe pathway reconstruction and target validation based on the proposed systems biologic approach and show selected application examples for pathway analysis and drug screening. PMID:20011613

  9. Leveraging the contribution of thermodynamics in drug discovery with the help of fluorescence-based thermal shift assays.

    PubMed

    Hau, Jean Christophe; Fontana, Patrizia; Zimmermann, Catherine; De Pover, Alain; Erdmann, Dirk; Chène, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    The development of new drugs with better pharmacological and safety properties mandates the optimization of several parameters. Today, potency is often used as the sole biochemical parameter to identify and select new molecules. Surprisingly, thermodynamics, which is at the core of any interaction, is rarely used in drug discovery, even though it has been suggested that the selection of scaffolds according to thermodynamic criteria may be a valuable strategy. This poor integration of thermodynamics in drug discovery might be due to difficulties in implementing calorimetry experiments despite recent technological progress in this area. In this report, the authors show that fluorescence-based thermal shift assays could be used as prescreening methods to identify compounds with different thermodynamic profiles. This approach allows a reduction in the number of compounds to be tested in calorimetry experiments, thus favoring greater integration of thermodynamics in drug discovery. PMID:21441415

  10. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay Using an Engineered hRSV F protein as a Direct Screening Platform

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minyoung; Matsuura, Hisae; Lamb, Robert A.; Barron, Annelise E.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) typically affects newborns and young children. Even though it can cause severe and, in some cases, lifelong respiratory infections, there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutics that control this virus. The hRSV F protein facilitates viral fusion, a critical extracellular event that can be targeted for therapeutic intervention by disrupting the assembly of a post-fusion 6-Helix bundle (6HB) within the hRSV F protein. Here we report the development of a fluorescence polarization assay using an engineered hRSV F protein 5-Helix Bundle (5HB). We generated the 5HB and validated its ability to form a 6HB in a fluorescence polarization assay. To test the potential of 5HB as a screening tool, we then investigated a series of truncated peptides derived from the “missing” sixth helix. Using this FP-based 5HB system, we have successfully demonstrated that short peptides can prevent 6HB formation and serve as potential hRSV fusion inhibitors. We anticipate this new 5HB system will provide an effective tool to identify and study potential antivirals to control hRSV infection. PMID:20971054

  11. Cytotoxicity screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials using a test matrix of ten cell lines and three different assays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Engineered nanomaterials display unique properties that may have impact on human health, and thus require a reliable evaluation of their potential toxicity. Here, we performed a standardized in vitro screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials. We thoroughly characterized the physicochemical properties of the nanomaterials and adapted three classical in vitro toxicity assays to eliminate nanomaterial interference. Nanomaterial toxicity was assessed in ten representative cell lines. Results Six nanomaterials induced oxidative cell stress while only a single nanomaterial reduced cellular metabolic activity and none of the particles affected cell viability. Results from heterogeneous and chemically identical particles suggested that surface chemistry, surface coating and chemical composition are likely determinants of nanomaterial toxicity. Individual cell lines differed significantly in their response, dependent on the particle type and the toxicity endpoint measured. Conclusion In vitro toxicity of the analyzed engineered nanomaterials cannot be attributed to a defined physicochemical property. Therefore, the accurate identification of nanomaterial cytotoxicity requires a matrix based on a set of sensitive cell lines and in vitro assays measuring different cytotoxicity endpoints. PMID:21345205

  12. Evaluation of a covalent mix-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for screening of Salmonella antibodies in pig serum

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In this study, a commercial Salmonella covalent mix-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological detection of Salmonella infection in swine was evaluated by comparing it with the conventional fecal culture method and inter-laboratory proficiency testing, using a panel of sera tested in 5 laboratories from Europe and North America. Comparison with culture results showed that 88.5% of 26 culture-positive animals were ELISA positive, as were 55% of 60 animals from 2 culture-positive pig herds. Of 90 animals from 2 high health farms with no clinical symptoms of salmonellosis, 98.9% tested negative. The inter-laboratory comparison study found a kappa value of 0.9 between our laboratory (using an automated system) and the manufacturer laboratory (using the manual method). Comparison of ELISA results from all 5 participating laboratories showed very good to excellent agreement, between 85% and 97.5%. We found this assay to be useful for the screening of antibodies against Salmonella present in swine serum. It agrees well with bacterial cultures, is reproducible, sensitive, specific, repeatable, and suitable for automation. PMID:15188958

  13. Bacteria screening, viability, and confirmation assays using bacteriophage-impedimetric/loop-mediated isothermal amplification dual-response biosensors.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Chaker; Sokullu, Esen; Safavieh, Mohammadali; Tolba, Mona; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin; Zourob, Mohammed

    2013-05-21

    Here, we integrate two complementary detection strategies for the identification and quantification of Escherichia coli based on bacteriophage T4 as a natural bioreceptor for living bacteria cells. The first approach involves screening and viability assays, employing bacteriophage as the recognition element in label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The complementary approach is a confirmation by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to amplify specifically the E. coli Tuf gene after lysis of the bound E. coli cells, followed by detection using linear sweep voltammetry. Bacteriphage T4 was cross-linked, in the presence of 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate, on a cysteamine-modified gold electrode. The impedimetric biosensor exhibits specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 10(3)-10(9) cfu/mL, while the linear response of the LAMP approach was determined to be 10(2)-10(7) cfu/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) of 8 × 10(2) cfu/mL in less than 15 min and 10(2) cfu/mL within a response time of 40 min were achieved for the impedimetric and LAMP method, respectively. This work provides evidence that integration of the T4-bacteriophage-modified biosensor and LAMP can achieve screening, viability, and confirmation in less than 1 h. PMID:23510137

  14. Cell-based fluorescence assay for evaluation of new-drugs potential for phospholipidosis in an early stage of drug development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisako Fujimura; Eriha Dekura; Michie Kurabe; Noriko Shimazu; Mieko Koitabashi; Wataru Toriumi

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate new-drugs potential for phospholipidosis (PL), we developed a cell-based fluorescence assay using a fluorescent-labeled phospholipid analogue (NBD-PE). CHL\\/IU cells derived from newborn hamster lung were exposed to positive reference compounds (amiodarone, imipramine, chloroquine, propranolol, chlorpromazine and amantadine) in the presence of NBD-PE, and the level of PL, as indicated by accumulation of fluorescent inclusions in the cytoplasm, was

  15. Development, Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Low Cost In-House HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotyping Assay for Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Arpan; Vaniawala, Salil; Shah, Parth; Misra, Rabindra Nath; Wani, Minal; Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap N.

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance genotyping assay is a part of clinical management of HIV-1 positive individuals under treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Routine monitoring of drug resistance mutations in resource limited settings like India is not possible due to high cost of commercial drug resistance assays. In this study we developed an in-house, cost effective HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay for Indian patients and validated it against the US-FDA-approved ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system. A reference panel of 20 clinical samples was used to develop and validate the assay against ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system which was subsequently used to genotype a clinical panel of 225 samples. The Stanford HIV database was used to identify drug resistant mutations. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml of plasma sample while precision and reproducibility was 99.68±0.16% and 99.76±0.18% respectively. One hundred and one drug resistant mutations were detected by the in-house assay compared to 104 by ViroSeq system in the reference panel. The assay had 91.55% success rate in genotyping the clinical panel samples and was able to detect drug resistant mutations related to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) as well as protease inhibitor (PI) classes of antiretroviral drugs. It was found to be around 71.9% more cost effective compared to ViroSeq genotyping system. This evaluation of the assay on the clinical panel demonstrates its potential for monitoring clinical HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and population-based surveillance in resource limited settings like India. PMID:25157501

  16. Lessons learnt from assembling screening libraries for drug discovery for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Brenk, Ruth; Schipani, Alessandro; James, Daniel; Krasowski, Agata; Gilbert, Ian Hugh; Frearson, Julie; Wyatt, Paul Graham

    2008-03-01

    To enable the establishment of a drug discovery operation for neglected diseases, out of 2.3 million commercially available compounds 222 552 compounds were selected for an in silico library, 57 438 for a diverse general screening library, and 1 697 compounds for a focused kinase set. Compiling these libraries required a robust strategy for compound selection. Rules for unwanted groups were defined and selection criteria to enrich for lead-like compounds which facilitate straightforward structure-activity relationship exploration were established. Further, a literature and patent review was undertaken to extract key recognition elements of kinase inhibitors ("core fragments") to assemble a focused library for hit discovery for kinases. Computational and experimental characterisation of the general screening library revealed that the selected compounds 1) span a broad range of lead-like space, 2) show a high degree of structural integrity and purity, and 3) demonstrate appropriate solubility for the purposes of biochemical screening. The implications of this study for compound selection, especially in an academic environment with limited resources, are considered. PMID:18064617

  17. Enantioselective assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of eslicarbazepine acetate: no interference with carbamazepine and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Sousa, Joana; Direito, Rosa; Almeida, Anabela; Rocha, Marília; Falcão, Amílcar; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2010-08-01

    As add-on therapy, phase III clinical trials of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) conducted in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures have shown good efficacy, safety, and tolerability, even in patients taking carbamazepine (CBZ) at baseline (approximately 60% of the enrolled patients). Thus, considering the pharmacological disadvantages of CBZ and the similar efficacy spectrum of CBZ and ESL, switching to ESL may be successful in many patients. As ESL is a prodrug almost instantaneously converted to S-licarbazepine (S-Lic; approximately 95%), an interest in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of S-Lic is likely to develop in the future. This study investigated the plasma concentrations of S-Lic and R-licarbazepine (R-Lic) enantiomers in patients under CBZ long-term treatment to assess the potential interference of CBZ or its metabolites in the enantioselective TDM of ESL (using S-Lic concentrations). A chiral high-performance liquid chromatography assay with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) previously developed and validated by our research group was used. Twenty-four patients admitted to the Coimbra University Hospital and supposedly receiving CBZ long-term treatment were identified. Blood samples were collected from patients and serum CBZ concentrations were measured by the usual TDM protocol. Aliquots of plasma from such patients were also submitted to a chiral HPLC-UV analysis. The bioanalytical data indicated that S-Lic and R-Lic were not present at detectable concentrations in plasma samples of the CBZ-treated patients. The chromatograms generated by the analysis of patient plasma samples, when compared with those obtained from blank plasma samples spiked with S-Lic and R-Lic, clearly showed the absence of interferences at the retention times of both Lic enantiomers. These data support the usefulness of the chiral HPLC-UV method used for the enantioselective TDM of ESL (using S-Lic) for programs in which switching from CBZ to ESL is implemented. PMID:20592643

  18. Multicenter evaluation of reverse line blot assay for detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Mokrousova; N. Vijaya Bhanub; Philip N. Suffysc; Gururaj V. Kadivald; Sook-Fan Yape; Annemarie M. Jordaang; Urvashi B. Singhb; Harrison M. Gomesh; Hyeyoung Leei; Savita P. Kulkarnid; Dick van Soolingenk; Thomas C. Victorg; Leo M. Schoulsk

    A multicenter study was conducted with the objective to evaluate a reverse line blot (RLB) assay to detect resistance to rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (STR), and ethambutol (EMB) in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Oligonucleotides specific for wild type and mutant (drug resistance linked) alleles of the selected codons in the genes rpoB, inhA, ahpC, rpsL, rrs, embB, were

  19. Direct multiplex assay of enzymes in dried blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry for the newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders

    PubMed Central

    Turecek, Frantisek; Scott, C. Ron; Chamoles, Nestor A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Tandem mass spectrometry is currently used in newborn screening programmes to quantify the level of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots for detection of metabolites associated with treatable diseases. We have developed assays for lysosomal enzymes in re-hydrated dried blood spots in which a set of substrates is added and the set of corresponding enzymatic products are quantified using tandem mass spectrometry with the aid of mass-differentiated internal standards. We have developed a multiplex assay of the set of enzymes that, when deficient, cause the lysosomal storage disorders Fabry, Gaucher, Hurler, Krabbe, Niemann–Pick A/B and Pompe diseases. These diseases were selected because treatments are now available or expected to emerge shortly. The discovery that acarbose is a selective inhibitor of maltase glucoamylase allows the Pompe disease enzyme, acid ?-glucosidase, to be selectively assayed in white blood cells and dried blood spots. When tested with dried blood spots from 40 unaffected individuals and 10–12 individuals with the lysosomal storage disorder, the tandem mass spectrometry assay led to the correct identification of the affected individuals with 100% sensitivity. Many of the reagents needed for the new assays are commercially available, and those that are not are being prepared under Good Manufacturing Procedures for approval by the FDA. Our newborn screening assay for Krabbe disease is currently being put in place at the Wadsworth Center in New York State for the analysis of ~1000 dried blood spots per day. Summary We have developed tandem mass spectrometry for the direct assay of lysosomal enzymes in rehydrated dried blood spots that can be implemented for newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders. Several enzymes can be analysed by a single method (multiplex analysis) and in a high-throughput manner appropriate for newborn screening laboratories. PMID:16763908

  20. Development of a TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay for detection of Single Nucleotides Polymorphisms associated with anti-malarial drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anti-malarial drug resistance poses a threat to current global efforts towards control and elimination of malaria. Several methods are used in monitoring anti-malarial drug resistance. Molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for example are increasingly being used to identify genetic mutations related to anti-malarial drug resistance. Several methods are currently being used in analysis of SNP associated with anti-malarial drug resistance and although each one of these methods has unique strengths and shortcoming, there is still need to improve and/or develop new methods that will close the gap found in the current methods. Methods TaqMan Allelic Discrimination assays for detection of SNPs associated with anti-malarial drug resistance were designed for analysis on Applied Biosystems PCR platform. These assays were designed by submitting SNP sequences associated with anti-malarial drug resistance to Applied Biosystems website. Eleven SNPs associated with resistance to anti-malarial drugs were selected and tested. The performance of each SNP assay was tested by creating plasmid DNAs carrying codons of interests and analysing them for analysis. To test the sensitivity and specificity of each SNP assay, 12 clinical samples were sequenced at codons of interest and used in the analysis. Plasmid DNAs were used to establish the Limit of Detection (LoD) for each assay. Results Data from genetic profiles of the Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strains and sequence data from 12 clinical samples was used as the reference method with which the performance of the SNP assays were compared to. The sensitivity and specificity of each SNP assay was establish at 100%. LoD for each assay was established at 2 GE, equivalent to less than 1 parasite/?L. SNP assays performed well in detecting mixed infection and analysis of clinical samples. Conclusion TaqMan Allelic Discrimination assay provides a good alternative tool in detection of SNPs associated with anti-malarial drug. PMID:22264294

  1. Drug Discovery for Schistosomiasis: Hit and Lead Compounds Identified in a Library of Known Drugs by Medium-Throughput Phenotypic Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maha-Hamadien Abdulla; Debbie S. Ruelas; Brian Wolff; June Snedecor; Kee-Chong Lim; Fengyun Xu; Adam R. Renslo; Janice Williams; James H. McKerrow; Conor R. Caffrey

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundPraziquantel (PZQ) is the only widely available drug to treat schistosomiasis. Given the potential for drug resistance, it is prudent to search for novel therapeutics. Identification of anti-schistosomal chemicals has traditionally relied on phenotypic (whole organism) screening with adult worms in vitro and\\/or animal models of disease—tools that limit automation and throughput with modern microtiter plate-formatted compound libraries.MethodsA partially automated,

  2. High-Throughput Screening AlphaScreen Assay for Identification of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Ubiquitin E3 Ligase SCFSkp2-Cks1

    PubMed Central

    Ungermannova, Dana; Lee, Junglim; Zhang, Gan; Dallmann, H. Garry; McHenry, Charles S.; Liu, Xuedong

    2014-01-01

    Decreased levels of cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 due to excessive degradation occur in a variety of aggressive human tumors. Since reduced p27Kip1 expression has been associated with a poor prognosis in many human cancers and resistance to certain antitumor therapies, elevation of p27Kip1 expression could improve prognosis and prevent excessive cell proliferation. SCFSkp2 is one of the major ubiquitin E3 ligases responsible for degradation of p27Kip1. Ubiquitination of p27Kip1 also requires a small adaptor protein, Cks1, which facilitates substrate recruitment by bridging the interaction between Skp2 and p27Kip1. It has been shown previously that a direct interaction between Cks1 and Skp2 is required for p27Kip1 degradation. Accordingly, perturbation of the Skp2-Cks1 interaction may represent an attractive target for pharmacological intervention. Here we describe a high-throughput AlphaScreen assay for discovering small-molecule inhibitors of the Skp2-Cks1 protein-protein interaction in vitro. Two compounds (NSC689857 and NSC681152) were identified and validated through a structure-activity relationship analysis. Both compounds were also shown to inhibit p27Kip1 ubiquitination in vitro. These studies demonstrate that disruption of the Skp2-Cks1 interaction provides a viable strategy to prevent p27Kip1 ubiquitination and may potentially be useful for the control of excessive degradation of this cell cycle inhibitor in tumor cells. PMID:23589337

  3. Structure-Based Virtual Screening for Drug Discovery: Principles, Applications and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lionta, Evanthia; Spyrou, George; Vassilatis, Demetrios K.; Cournia, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Structure-based drug discovery (SBDD) is becoming an essential tool in assisting fast and cost-efficient lead discovery and optimization. The application of rational, structure-based drug design is proven to be more efficient than the traditional way of drug discovery since it aims to understand the molecular basis of a disease and utilizes the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the biological target in the process. In this review, we focus on the principles and applications of Virtual Screening (VS) within the context of SBDD and examine different procedures ranging from the initial stages of the process that include receptor and library pre-processing, to docking, scoring and post-processing of topscoring hits. Recent improvements in structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) efficiency through ensemble docking, induced fit and consensus docking are also discussed. The review highlights advances in the field within the framework of several success studies that have led to nM inhibition directly from VS and provides recent trends in library design as well as discusses limitations of the method. Applications of SBVS in the design of substrates for engineered proteins that enable the discovery of new metabolic and signal transduction pathways and the design of inhibitors of multifunctional proteins are also reviewed. Finally, we contribute two promising VS protocols recently developed by us that aim to increase inhibitor selectivity. In the first protocol, we describe the discovery of micromolar inhibitors through SBVS designed to inhibit the mutant H1047R PI3K? kinase. Second, we discuss a strategy for the identification of selective binders for the RXR? nuclear receptor. In this protocol, a set of target structures is constructed for ensemble docking based on binding site shape characterization and clustering, aiming to enhance the hit rate of selective inhibitors for the desired protein target through the SBVS process. PMID:25262799

  4. Evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility in clinical specimens from Nigeria using genotype MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays

    PubMed Central

    Felkel, Michael; Exner, Robert; Schleucher, Regina; Lay, Helga; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and especially multidrug-resistant TB (MDR) continues to increase alarmingly worldwide, and reliable and fast diagnosis of MDR is essential for the adequate treatment of patients. In contrast to the standard culture methods, nucleid acid amplification tests (NAATs) provide information about presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA and a potential resistance pattern within hours. We analyzed specimens of 110 patients from Nigeria comparing culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) to NAAT assays detecting isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) (GenoType MTBDRplus), and ethambutol (EMB) (GenoType MTBDRsl) resistance. Compared to DST, the GenoType MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl showed a specificity of 100% (86.3–100) and a sensitivity of 86% (42.1–99.6%) for detection of INH and a specificity of 100% (86.3–100) and a sensitivity of 83% (35.9–99.6%) for detection of RMP, and a sensitivity 100% (47.8–100%) for EMB resistance. However, in two strains, the NAAT assays provided false susceptible results as the mutations causing resistance were in genomic regions not covered by the probes of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay. We show that, in combination to DST, application of the GenoType MTBDRplus and GenoType MTBDRsl assays might be a useful additional tool to allow a rapid and safe diagnosis of MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTBC. PMID:24294494

  5. Evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility in clinical specimens from Nigeria using genotype MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays.

    PubMed

    Felkel, Michael; Exner, Robert; Schleucher, Regina; Lay, Helga; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and especially multidrug-resistant TB (MDR) continues to increase alarmingly worldwide, and reliable and fast diagnosis of MDR is essential for the adequate treatment of patients. In contrast to the standard culture methods, nucleid acid amplification tests (NAATs) provide information about presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA and a potential resistance pattern within hours. We analyzed specimens of 110 patients from Nigeria comparing culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) to NAAT assays detecting isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) (GenoType MTBDRplus), and ethambutol (EMB) (GenoType MTBDRsl) resistance. Compared to DST, the GenoType MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl showed a specificity of 100% (86.3-100) and a sensitivity of 86% (42.1-99.6%) for detection of INH and a specificity of 100% (86.3-100) and a sensitivity of 83% (35.9-99.6%) for detection of RMP, and a sensitivity 100% (47.8-100%) for EMB resistance. However, in two strains, the NAAT assays provided false susceptible results as the mutations causing resistance were in genomic regions not covered by the probes of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay. We show that, in combination to DST, application of the GenoType MTBDRplus and GenoType MTBDRsl assays might be a useful additional tool to allow a rapid and safe diagnosis of MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTBC. PMID:24294494

  6. Toxicity screening of produced water extracts in a zebrafish embryo assay.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, G; Norrgren, L; Hylland, K; Tollefsen, K E

    2014-01-01

    Produced water is the largest effluent discharge from oil and gas/condensate production facilities in the North Sea. There is concern that contaminants originating from the reservoir and chemicals used in the production process may affect marine organisms. Developmental toxicity of extractable organic compounds in produced water effluents from oil and gas/condensate production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was assessed in a temporal and spatial manner using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Large-scale solid-phase extraction (SPE) and on-column fractionation of water-soluble fraction (WSF) and an oil/particulate fraction was used in a rapid screening bioassay for embryotoxicity. Exposure to produced water extracts increased rate of mortality and reduced pigmentation and heart rate, as well as delaying time to hatch. The oil/particulate fraction was 10-fold less toxic than WSF, indicating that toxicity was predominantly produced by moderately polar and bioavailable compounds. Large spatial and temporal variation in produced water toxicity was observed, displaying considerable variability in the reservoir, oil well, and effluent composition over time. The noted toxicity did not correlate well with either reported produced water composition or parameters such as total hydrocarbons, thus challenging chemical measurements as a reliable source of information for predicting complex effects. Although embryotoxicity was observed following exposure to the extracts, dilution and transformation of produced water in the recipient are expected to rapidly reduce the concentrations of compounds in the effluents to levels below the thresholds of observed effects. PMID:24754395

  7. Assessment of re-aggregated human pancreatic islets for secondary drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, K; Peng, X; Bokvist, K; Stehno-Bittel, L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets is a pivotal assay in developing novel insulin secretagogues, given its good correlation with in vivo efficacy. Because the supply of human islets is limited, this assay is typically run with rodent islets, which do not address species differences and are low-throughput, because of the size matching or volume normalization required. Here we have evaluated the suitability of human re-aggregated islets for this assay. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We generated re-aggregated human islets of a consistent size, using micromolds and compared their responses with those of native human and rat islets, to known secretagogues and inhibitors of insulin release. KEY RESULTS Insulin secretion from rat islets, human islets and human re-aggregated cell clusters was concentration-dependently increased by glucose. The calcium channel agonist, Bay K 8644, stimulated insulin secretion in native rat islets and human re-aggregated islets, but not native human islets. Glibenclamide and tolbutamide were more effective and potent in re-aggregated human clusters compared with the other two preparations. Rat islets outperformed both human preparations of islets in response to caffeine, carbachol and glucagon-like peptide-1. Re-aggregated human islet clusters were more sensitive to somatostatin, diazoxide and sodium azide, but rodent islets were more sensitive to nifedipine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Human re-aggregated clusters of islet cells, of a constant size were more responsive to all compounds tested than native human islets. Importantly, the assay variability was less in the re-aggregated cluster preparations, which suggests that such re-aggregated cells could be useful for drug development. PMID:24641508

  8. Screening for thyroid disease in a primary care unit with a thyroid stimulating hormone assay with a low detection limit.

    PubMed Central

    Eggertsen, R.; Petersen, K.; Lundberg, P. A.; Nyström, E.; Lindstedt, G.

    1988-01-01

    In a study at a primary care centre in a predominantly rural area of Sweden the records of all patients with established thyroid disease were scrutinised and 2000 consecutive adult patients screened with an immunoenzymometric thyroid stimulating hormone assay. The aims of the study were fourfold: firstly, to assess the total burden of thyroid disease in primary care centres in Sweden; secondly, to assess the efficacy of clinical diagnosis of the disease in unselected populations of patients; thirdly, to assess the efficacy of clinical evaluation of treatment with thyroxine; and, lastly, to see whether a single analysis of the serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentration by recent methods would be enough to identify an abnormality of thyroid function. Of the roughly 17,400 adults in the study community, 111 women and 10 men were being treated for thyroid disease. Screening detected 68 patients (3.5%) not receiving thyroxine who had a serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentration of 0.20 mU/l or less, all of whom were followed up clinically. Fifty of these patients were also studied biochemically during follow up. Only nine of the 68 patients had thyroid disease (three with thyrotoxicosis requiring treatment), no evidence of the disease being found in the remainder. Sixteen patients had spontaneous hypothyroidism requiring treatment, and neither these nor three patients with thyrotoxicosis had been detected at the preceding clinical examination. Of 35 patients in whom thyroid disease was suspected clinically at screening, none had laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction. In this series 1.3% of all women in the study community (2.6% of all 50-59 year olds) and 0.1% of the men were being treated for thyroid disease at the primary care centre, roughly 1.0% of adults subjected to screening were found to have thyroid disease requiring treatment, and most patients with a thyroid stimulating hormone concentration of 0.20 mU/l or less did not have thyroid dysfunction. It is concluded that measuring the basal serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentration by present methods is insufficient for the biochemical assessment of thyroid dysfunction in unselected populations. PMID:3147087

  9. A liposomal fluorescence assay to study permeation kinetics of drug-like weak bases across the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Klaus; Paech, Franziska; Schuler, Friedrich; Kuhn, Phillip; Kissner, Reinhard; Belli, Sara; Dittrich, Petra S; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2014-01-10

    Lipid bilayer permeation is considered the major route for in vivo barrier passage of drugs. Despite this fact, no technique is currently available to measure the kinetics of permeation across a single lipid bilayer of structurally unrelated drug-like solutes. We developed a liposomal fluorescence assay capable to determine permeation kinetics of basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The assay is based on the hypothesis that permeation of a weak base along a concentration gradient results in net proton release at the cis-side and net proton capture at the trans-side of the bilayer. The resulting pH changes were monitored with pH-sensitive fluorophores: Test compounds were incubated with liposomes containing a pH-sensitive fluorophore at the bilayer surfaces or in the aqueous lumen and fluorescence changes were monitored with a stopped-flow apparatus in solution or by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with surface-captured liposomes on a microfluidic platform. Incubation with lipophilic basic drugs resulted in the expected fluorescence changes while incubation with compounds without basic functionality or high polarity did not affect fluorescence. Kinetics of fluorescence changes followed bi-exponential functions. Logarithmic permeation coefficients (logPermapp) determined in solution and by microfluidics technology showed a good correlation (r(2)=0.94, n=7) and logPermapp increased with increasing lipophilicity. Neither diffusion in the aqueous phase nor partitioning into the bilayer was rate-limiting. PEGylation of 2% of the liposomal lipids reduced Permapp by a factor ~300. In conclusion, the presented liposomal fluorescence assay is capable to determine permeation kinetics of weak basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The method is adaptable to microfluidics technology for high-throughput measurements and can potentially be modified to work for weak acid solutes. PMID:24211703

  10. Screening assay of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity from complex natural colourants and foods using high-throughput LCMS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Inoue; Marie Kitade; Tomoaki Hino; Hisao Oka

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) by various foods decreases the blood pressure. ACE inhibitors derived from natural components may be of therapeutic value in preventive medicine. In this study, we report a novel screening assay of ACE inhibitors from complex natural colourants and foods that employ solid phase extraction (SPE), high-throughput liquid chromatography (LC) separation, and stable isotope dilution electrospray

  11. Application of Targeted Functional Assays to Assess a Putative Vascular Disruption Developmental Toxicity Pathway Informed By ToxCast High-Throughput Screening Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical perturbation of vascular development is a putative toxicity pathway which may result in developmental toxicity. EPA?s high-throughput screening (HTS) ToxCast program contains assays which measure cellular signals and biological processes critical for blood vessel develop...

  12. Multicenter Evaluation of the BD Max GBS Assay for Detection of Group B Streptococci in Prenatal Vaginal and Rectal Screening Swab Specimens from Pregnant Women? †

    PubMed Central

    Riedlinger, Jennifer; Beqaj, Safedin H.; Milish, Marsha A.; Young, Stephen; Smith, Rebecca; Dodd, Monique; Hankerd, Rosemary E.; LeBar, William D.; Newton, Duane W.

    2010-01-01

    A new integrated extraction and real-time PCR-based system for the detection of group B streptococci in antepartum screening samples enriched in Lim broth was compared to the CDC-recommended culture method. The BD Max GBS assay exhibited acceptable sensitivity (95%) and specificity (96.7%) compared to those of the culture method in this multisite evaluation. PMID:20826650

  13. Multicenter evaluation of the BD Max GBS assay for detection of group B streptococci in prenatal vaginal and rectal screening swab specimens from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Riedlinger, Jennifer; Beqaj, Safedin H; Milish, Marsha A; Young, Stephen; Smith, Rebecca; Dodd, Monique; Hankerd, Rosemary E; Lebar, William D; Newton, Duane W

    2010-11-01

    A new integrated extraction and real-time PCR-based system for the detection of group B streptococci in antepartum screening samples enriched in Lim broth was compared to the CDC-recommended culture method. The BD Max GBS assay exhibited acceptable sensitivity (95%) and specificity (96.7%) compared to those of the culture method in this multisite evaluation. PMID:20826650

  14. High performance in silico virtual drug screening on many-core processors

    PubMed Central

    Price, James; Sessions, Richard B; Ibarra, Amaurys A

    2015-01-01

    Drug screening is an important part of the drug development pipeline for the pharmaceutical industry. Traditional, lab-based methods are increasingly being augmented with computational methods, ranging from simple molecular similarity searches through more complex pharmacophore matching to more computationally intensive approaches, such as molecular docking. The latter simulates the binding of drug molecules to their targets, typically protein molecules. In this work, we describe BUDE, the Bristol University Docking Engine, which has been ported to the OpenCL industry standard parallel programming language in order to exploit the performance of modern many-core processors. Our highly optimized OpenCL implementation of BUDE sustains 1.43 TFLOP/s on a single Nvidia GTX 680 GPU, or 46% of peak performance. BUDE also exploits OpenCL to deliver effective performance portability across a broad spectrum of different computer architectures from different vendors, including GPUs from Nvidia and AMD, Intel’s Xeon Phi and multi-core CPUs with SIMD instruction sets. PMID:25972727

  15. Selective cytotoxicity evaluation in anticancer drug screening of fractionated plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Petra; Gullbo, Joachim; Claeson, Per; Göransson, Ulf; Johansson, Senia; Backlund, Anders; Larsson, Rolf; Bohlin, Lars

    2002-08-01

    Chosen to reflect biodiversity in a phylogenetic sense, 100 fractionated plant extracts were screened in vitro for cytotoxicity following extraction and fractionation (polypeptide isolation). Of these 100 extracts, 30 were selected and then characterized preliminarily for antitumor potency and mode of action by testing them on two cell lines and primary cultures of human tumor cells. On the basis of cytotoxicity potency, 10 of the extracts were further characterized for anticancer activity in 10 human tumor cell lines. This final testing resulted in seven potential lead plants with superior evidence of antitumor potential: Colchicum autumnale L. (Colchicaceae), Digitalis lanata Ehrh. and Digitalis purpurea L. (Plantaginaceae), Helleborus cyclophyllus Boiss. (Ranunculaceae), Menyanthes trifoliata L. (Menyanthaceae), and Viola arvensis Murr. and Viola patrinii Ging. (Violaceae). Within a database of antitumor compounds, the activity profiles of the extracts from these seven plants were compared, by correlation analysis, with those of more than 100 other compounds, including 39 standard drugs from different classes of cytotoxic mechanisms. The activity profiles of six of these candidates were uncorrelated with those of the standard drugs, possibly indicating new pathways of drug-mediated cell death. PMID:12230887

  16. Automated tracking of unmarked cells migrating in three-dimensional matrices applied to anti-cancer drug screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Adanja; Olivier Debeir; Véronique Mégalizzi; Robert Kiss; Nadine Warzée; Christine Decaestecker

    2010-01-01

    In oncology, combating the spread of tumor cells is a clinical need which currently remains unsatisfied. Identifying anti-migratory compounds usually requires in vitro screening of a large number of molecules. Efficient and realistic (i.e., preferably 3D) in vitro tests are thus required in order to quantify the anti-migratory effects of anti-cancer drugs. To remain compatible with high-throughput screening, we focus

  17. New high-throughput screening protease assay based upon supramolecular self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, David G.; Tang, Yanli; Zhou, Zhijun; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2008-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that the supramolecular self-assembly of cyanines could be useful for developing fluorescent enzymatic assays. We took that concept a step further by synthesizing a covalent adduct of the tetrapeptide Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) and a cyanine (DEVD-cyanine). The DEVD-cyanine due to its canonical sequence was recognized and hydrolyzed by the proteases, Caspase-3 and -7 in 96- or 384-microwell plate reactions. The catalytically liberated cyanine self-assembled upon scaffolds of carboxymethylamylose (CMA), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), or a mixture of CMA and CMC resulting in a J aggregate exhibiting bright fluorescence at a 470 nm emission wavelength (optimum signal/background using excitation wavelengths of 415-440 nm). The fluorescence intensity increased with enzyme and substrate concentrations or reaction time and exhibited classical saturation profiles of a rectangular hyperbola. Saturation of the reaction was at 30 U/mL (1 {micro}g/mL) Caspase-3 and 250 {micro}M DEVD-cyanine. The reaction kinetics was linear between 1 and 20 min and saturated at 60 min. The affinity constant (Km) for DEVD-cyanine was 23 {micro}M, similar to those of previously reported values for other DEVD substrates of Caspase-3. Maximal fluorescence emission was observed by using a mixture of CMA and CMC scaffolds at 65 and 35 {micro}M, respectively. The reaction kinetics of Caspase-7 executed in a 384-well plate was similar to the reaction kinetics of Caspase-3 conducted in a 96-well plate. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a cyanine liberated from a covalent adduct due to protease action, leading to supramolecular self-assembly and the detection of protease activity.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype...

  19. A Two-Tiered-Testing Decision Tree for Assays in the USEPA-EDSP Screening Battery: Using 15 years of experience to improve screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outline of the presentationEDCs – from 1991 to 1996 – Wingspread and Our Stolen Future 1996 – FQPA and SDWA mandates endocrine screening 1996-1998 – EDSTAC (the assays, debates over modes of action included) The final battery – EAT in vivo and in vit...

  20. Monitoring the accumulation of fluorescently labeled phospholipids in cell cultures provides an accurate screen for drugs that induce phospholipidosis.

    PubMed

    Nioi, Paul; Pardo, Ingrid D R; Snyder, Ronald D

    2008-01-01

    A large number of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) are known to cause phospholipidosis (PLD) in vivo. In the present study, we have built upon our previous findings to further qualify the use of a fluorescently labeled phospholipid-based cell-culture assay to detect PLD-inducing drugs. In this paper, we demonstrate that 12 PLD-negative compounds and 11 drugs known to cause PLD in vivo are all correctly identified by using this assay. Interestingly, we found that in cells treated with certain CADs, the fluorescent phospholipid was sequestered in a very specific punctate pattern, which overlapped strongly with the staining pattern seen with a lysosomal marker protein. Our data also show that false positives can be generated with the fluorescence assay when compounds are used at concentrations that cause a >30% decrease in cell number in this assay. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the staining pattern of fluorescent phospholipids in these cases may be differentiated from those of true positives by the fact that diffuse, rather than punctuate, fluorescence is observed. These studies confirm and expand our previous results showing that the fluorescent phospholipid assay is a highly sensitive, specific tool for detecting PLD-inducing drugs, if care is taken to rule out cytotoxicity-related artifact. PMID:18850360

  1. An In Vitro Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay for Inhibitors of Protein–Protein Interactions in SUMOylation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool in biological research and has been widely used in the study of biomolecular interactions. SUMOylation is an important post-translational modification that is involved in many key biological processes. As a multi-step cascade reaction, SUMOylation involves multiple enzymes and protein–protein interactions. Here, we report the development of an in vitro FRET-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay in SUMOylation. This assay is based on steady state and high efficiency of the fluorescent energy transfer between CyPet and YPet fused to SUMO1 and Ubc9, respectively. We optimized the assay and performed a small-scale pilot study to validate the screening platform. Carried out in 384-well plate format, our FRET-based HTS provides a powerful tool for large-scale and high-throughput applications. PMID:22192309

  2. Genome rearrangement of influenza virus for anti-viral drug screening.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Troy C; Obadan, Adebimpe; Lavigne, Johanna; Chen, Hongjun; Li, Weizhong; Perez, Daniel R

    2014-08-30

    Rearrangement of the influenza A genome such that NS2 is expressed downstream of PB1 permits the insertion of a foreign gene in the NS gene segment. In this report, the genome rearranged strategy was extended to A/California/04/2009 (pH1N1), and Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) or GFP was expressed downstream of the full-length NS1 gene (designated GLucCa04 and GFPCa04, respectively). In growth kinetics studies, culture of amantadine sensitive GLucCa04 (Sens/GlucCa04) in the presence of amantadine significantly decreased GLuc expression and viral titers for 48 h post-infection (hpi). When Sens/GlucCa04 was subsequently used in an in vitro anti-viral screening assay, amantadine treatment significantly decreased GLuc expression from amantadine sensitive compared to amantadine resistant GLucCa04 (Res/GlucCa04) as early as 16 hpi. In in vivo screening studies, DBA mice were treated daily with amantadine from 1 day prior to infection and inoculated with either Sens/GlucCa04 or Res/GlucCa04 alone or as a co-infection with the parental strain. On days 3 and 5 post-infection, lung samples were collected and amantadine treatment was shown to decrease GLuc expression by two orders of magnitude (p<0.05) in Sens/GlucCa04 infected mice. Furthermore, while both Sens and Res/GlucCa04 were highly attenuated, addition of the parental strain to the inoculum yielded clinical disease indicative of GLuc expression and pulmonary viral titers. These findings indicate that the use of GLucCa04 can potentially accelerate in vitro and in vivo anti-viral screening by shortening the time required for virus detection. PMID:24833536

  3. An in vivo large-scale chemical screening platform using Drosophila for anti-cancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Lee F; Schlosser, Tanja; Manning, Samuel A; Parisot, John P; Street, Ian P; Richardson, Helena E; Humbert, Patrick O; Brumby, Anthony M

    2013-03-01

    Anti-cancer drug development involves enormous expenditure and risk. For rapid and economical identification of novel, bioavailable anti-tumour chemicals, the use of appropriate in vivo tumour models suitable for large-scale screening is key. Using a Drosophila Ras-driven tumour model, we demonstrate that tumour overgrowth can be curtailed by feeding larvae with chemicals that have the in vivo pharmacokinetics essential for drug development and known efficacy against human tumour cells. We then develop an in vivo 96-well plate chemical screening platform to carry out large-scale chemical screening with the tumour model. In a proof-of-principle pilot screen of 2000 compounds, we identify the glutamine analogue, acivicin, a chemical with known activity against human tumour cells, as a potent and specific inhibitor of Drosophila tumour formation. RNAi-mediated knockdown of candidate acivicin target genes implicates an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis, CTP synthase, as a possible crucial target of acivicin-mediated inhibition. Thus, the pilot screen has revealed that Drosophila tumours are glutamine-dependent, which is an emerging feature of many human cancers, and has validated the platform as a powerful and economical tool for in vivo chemical screening. The platform can also be adapted for use with other disease models, thus offering widespread applications in drug development. PMID:22996645

  4. [Comparison of the clinical performance of the ECLusys HIV combi assay with the Lumipulse f and HISCL 2000-i HIV-1/2 ab screening assays].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Aya; Iwahara, Kunihiro; Suga, Yasuyuki; Uchiyama, Sachinori; Maekawa, Masato

    2012-04-01

    We compared the ECLusys HIV combi assay (ECL HIV Ag/Ab) to the Lumipulse Forte (LPf HIV 1/2 Ab) and HISCL (HIS HIV 1/2 Ab) assays. In a dilution sensitivity test using dilution panels of WHO HIV antibody international reference panel (HIV-1 Subtype A, B, C, E, HIV-1 Group O, HIV-2) and HIV-1/2 Ab CE marked material(HIV-1, HIV-2) parent specimens, the ECL assay enabled detection at a higher level of sensitivity than either the LPf assay or the HIS assay for all dilution panels. In an early detection test in the early phase of infection in which a BBI HIV seroconversion panel was used, the ECL assay enabled detection 7 days after initial blood sample collection, whereas the LPf and HIS assays enabled detection after 27 days. In a specificity test using high RF positive specimens (n=33), pregnancy specimens (n=35), cytomegalovirus antibody positive specimens (n=36), and high M protein positive specimens (n=21) that were confirmed negative for HIV-1/2 antibodies by the LPf assay, negative results were obtained for all specimens on both the ECL assay and the HIS assay. In a correlation test using routinely collected clinical specimens (n=121), including positive stock specimens, the ECL and HIS assays demonstrated the highest agreement rate 98.3%. The above results confirmed that the fourth-generation reagent ECL assay, which simultaneously detects both HIV-1/2 antibodies and p24 antigens, is both highly sensitive and specific, and is a suitable assay for use in routine testing. PMID:22686038

  5. Evaluation of the toxic effects of four anti-cancer drugs in plant bioassays and its potency for screening in the context of waste water reuse for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Kern, Deivid Ismael; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Anti-cancer drugs are compounds that are of high environmental relevance because of their lack of specific mode of action. They can be extremely harmful to living organisms even at low concentrations. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of four frequently used anti-cancer drugs against plant seedlings, namely Cyclophosphamide (CP), Methotrexate (MTX), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Imatinib (IM). The phytotoxicity experiments were performed with Lactuca sativa seedlings whereas cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity investigations were performed with the well-established Allium cepa assays. MTX was the most phytotoxic compound, followed by 5-FU, CP and IM. Significant differences in the Mitotic Indexes (MI) were observed in three of the studied compounds (MTX, 5-FU and CP), indicating potential cytotoxic activity of these substances. Chromosome aberrations were registered in cells that were exposed to 5-FU, CP and IM. All the four compounds caused the formation of micronucleated cells indicating mutagenic potential. Besides, the assays performed with MTX samples presented a high number of cell apoptosis (cell death). Although it is unlikely that the pharmaceuticals concentrations measured in the environment could cause lethal effects in plants, the obtained results indicate that these compounds may affect the growth and normal development of these plants. So, both tests can constitute important tools for a fast screening of environmental contamination e.g. in the context of the reuse of treated wastewater and biosolids of agricultural purpose. PMID:26002047

  6. Silkworms can be used as an animal model to screen and evaluate gouty therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Pan, Zhonghua; Zheng, Xiaojian; Gong, Chengliang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, the mouse has been used as a mammalian model for hyperuricemia and gout, which has increased not only in prevalence, but also in clinical complexity, accentuated in part by a dearth of novel advances in treatments for hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. However, the use of mice for the development of gouty therapeutic drugs creates a number of problems. Thus, identification and evaluation of the therapeutic effects of chemicals in an alternative animal model is desirable. In the present study, the effects of gouty therapeutic drugs on lowering the content of uric acid and inhibiting activity of xanthine oxidase were evaluated by using a silkworm model, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). The results showed that the effectiveness of oral administration of various gouty therapeutic drugs to 5(th) instar silkworms is consistent with results for human. The activity of xanthine oxidase of silkworm treated with allopurinol was lower, and declined in a dose-dependent manner compared with control silkworms, while sodium bicarbonate failed at inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase. The concentration of uric acid in the both hemolymph and fat body declined by 90 and 95% at six days post-administration with 25 mg/mL of allopurinol, respectively (p < 0.01), while the concentration of uric acid in both the hemolymph and fat body also declined by 81 and 95% at six days post-administration with 25 mg/mL of sodium bicarbonate, respectively (p < 0.01). Moreover, the epidermis of silkworm treated with allopurinol or sodium bicarbonate became transparent compared with the negative control group. These results suggest that silkworm larva can be used as an animal model for screening and evaluation of gouty therapeutic drugs. PMID:22934965

  7. Development of sensitive single-round pol or env RT-PCR assays to screen for XMRV in multiple sample types

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ning; Frank, Andrea; Leckie, Gregor; Hackett, John; Simmons, Graham; Busch, Michael; Abravaya, Klara

    2013-01-01

    The potential association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been much debated. To help resolve the potential role of XMRV in human disease, it is critical to develop sensitive and accurate reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays to screen for the virus. Single-round RT-PCR assays were developed on the automated m2000™ system for detection of the pol or env regions of XMRV in whole blood, plasma, urine cell pellets and urogenital swab samples. Assay performance was assessed by testing two blinded panels, one comprised of whole blood and the other of plasma spiked with serial dilutions of XMRV-infected tissue culture cells and supernatant, respectively, prepared by the Blood XMRV Scientific Research Working Group (SRWG). For both whole blood and plasma panel testing, the assays showed excellent specificity and sensitivity as compared to the other tests included in the SRWG phase I study. Analytical specificity of the assays was also evaluated. Neither pol nor env PCR assays detected a panel of potential cross-reactive microorganisms, although some cross-reaction was observed with mouse genomic DNA. Screening of 196 normal human blood donor plasma, 214 HIV-1 seropositive plasma, 20 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate cancer specimens, 4 FFPE benign prostate specimens, 400 urine pellets from prostate cancer patients, 166 urine pellets from non-prostate cancer patients, and 135 cervical swab specimens, detected no samples as unequivocally XMRV positive. PMID:22057262

  8. Development of sensitive single-round pol or env RT-PCR assays to screen for XMRV in multiple sample types.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Frank, Andrea; Leckie, Gregor; Hackett, John; Simmons, Graham; Busch, Michael; Abravaya, Klara

    2012-01-01

    The potential association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been much debated. To help resolve the potential role of XMRV in human disease, it is critical to develop sensitive and accurate reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays to screen for the virus. Single-round RT-PCR assays were developed on the automated m2000™ system for detection of the pol or env regions of XMRV in whole blood, plasma, urine cell pellets and urogenital swab samples. Assay performance was assessed by testing two blinded panels, one comprised of whole blood and the other of plasma spiked with serial dilutions of XMRV-infected tissue culture cells and supernatant, respectively, prepared by the Blood XMRV Scientific Research Working Group (SRWG). For both whole blood and plasma panel testing, the assays showed excellent specificity and sensitivity as compared to the other tests included in the SRWG phase I study. Analytical specificity of the assays was also evaluated. Neither pol nor env PCR assays detected a panel of potential cross-reactive microorganisms, although some cross-reaction was observed with mouse genomic DNA. Screening of 196 normal human blood donor plasma, 214 HIV-1 seropositive plasma, 20 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate cancer specimens, 4 FFPE benign prostate specimens, 400 urine pellets from prostate cancer patients, 166 urine pellets from non-prostate cancer patients, and 135 cervical swab specimens, detected no samples as unequivocally XMRV positive. PMID:22057262

  9. [Comparison of the clinical performance of the ECLusys HBsAg II assay with the Lumipulse f and HISCL 2000-i HBsAg screening assays].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Aya; Iwahara, Kunihiro; Suga, Yasuyuki; Uchiyama, Sachinori; Maekawa, Masato

    2012-02-01

    We compared the ECLusys HBsAgII (ECL HBsAg) assay to the Lumipulse Forte (LPf HBsAg) and HISCL (HIS HBsAg) assays. Measurement of dilution panels for which the WHO HBsAg international reference panel was the parent specimen revealed that the ECL and HIS assays enabled detection to a theoretical level of 0.04 IU/mL, whereas the LPf assay enabled detection to a level of 0.08 IU/mL. In a specificity test using high RF positive specimens (n = 33), pregnancy specimens (n = 35), cytomegalovirus antibody positive specimens (n = 36), and high M protein positive specimens (n = 21) that were confirmed negative for HBsAg by the LPf assay, negative results were obtained for all specimens on the HIS assay, but the ECL assay yielded a positive result for one of the high RF positive specimens. This individual was suggested on further testing to be an HBV carrier who was strongly positive for HBc antibody. In HBsAg mutants detection test, the detection rate was 92.3% with the ECL assay and 69.2% with the HIS assay. In a correlation test using routinely collected clinical specimens (n = 155), including positive stock specimens, aside from the one case where the LPf assay gave a negative result but both the ECL and HIS assays gave positive results, all of the results were consistent for all specimens. The above results confirmed that the ECL assay is both highly sensitive and specific, and also enables a high rate of HBsAg mutant detection. PMID:22568090

  10. Novel Phenotypic Fluorescent Three-Dimensional Platforms for High-throughput Drug Screening and Personalized Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Changge; Avis, Ingalill; Salomon, David; Cuttitta, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We have developed novel phenotypic fluorescent three-dimensional co-culture platforms that efficiently and economically screen anti-angiogenic/anti-metastatic drugs on a high-throughput scale. Individual cell populations can be identified and isolated for protein/gene expression profiling studies and cellular movement/interactions can be tracked by time-lapse cinematography. More importantly, these platforms closely parallel the in vivo angiogenic and metastatic outcomes of a given tumor xenograft in the nude mouse model but, unlike in vivo models, our co-culture platforms produce comparable results in five to nine days. Potentially, by incorporating cancer patient biopsies, the co-culture platforms should greatly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of personalized chemotherapy. PMID:23833685

  11. Drug screening boosted by hyperpolarized long-lived states in NMR.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Roberto; Bornet, Aurélien; Milani, Jonas; Mammoli, Daniele; Vuichoud, Basile; Salvi, Nicola; Singh, Maninder; Laguerre, Aurélien; Passemard, Solène; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Transverse and longitudinal relaxation times (T1? and T1) have been widely exploited in NMR to probe the binding of ligands and putative drugs to target proteins. We have shown recently that long-lived states (LLS) can be more sensitive to ligand binding. LLS can be excited if the ligand comprises at least two coupled spins. Herein we broaden the scope of ligand screening by LLS to arbitrary ligands by covalent attachment of a functional group, which comprises a pair of coupled protons that are isolated from neighboring magnetic nuclei. The resulting functionalized ligands have longitudinal relaxation times T1((1)H) that are sufficiently long to allow the powerful combination of LLS with dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Hyperpolarized weak "spy ligands" can be displaced by high-affinity competitors. Hyperpolarized LLS allow one to decrease both protein and ligand concentrations to micromolar levels and to significantly increase sample throughput. PMID:25196781

  12. Anti-tubercular drug designing by structure based screening of combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Payel; Bagchi, Manish C

    2011-07-01

    In the current study, the applicability and scope of descriptor based QSAR models to complement virtual screening using molecular docking approach have been applied to identify potential virtual screening hits targeting DNA gyrase A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an effective and validated anti-mycobacterial target. Initially QSAR models were developed against M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis using a series of structurally related fluoroquinolone derivatives as DNA gyrase inhibitors. Both the QSAR models yielded significant cross validated Q² values of 0.6715 and 0.6944 and R² values of 0.7250 and 0.7420, respectively. The statistically significant models were validated by a test set of 22 compounds with predictive R² value of 0.7562 and 0.7087 for M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis respectively. To aid the creation of novel antituberculosis compounds, combinatorial library was developed on fluoroquinolone template to derive a data set of 5280 compounds whose activity values have been measured by the above models. Highly active compounds predicted from the models were subjected to molecular docking study to investigate the mechanism of drug binding with the DNA gyrase A protein of M. tuberculosis and the compounds showing similar type of binding patterns with that of the existing drug molecules, like sparfloxacin, were finally reported. It is seen that hydrophobic characteristics of molecular structure together with few hydrogen bond interactions are playing an essential role in antimicrobial activity for the fluoroquinolone derivatives. A representative set of seven compounds with high predicted MIC values were sorted out in the present study. PMID:20953648

  13. A combination turbidity and supernatant microplate assay to rank-order the supersaturation limits of early drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John S; Nophsker, Michelle J; Haskell, Roy J

    2014-10-01

    A unique opportunity exists at the drug discovery stage to overcome inherently poor solubility by selecting drug candidates with superior supersaturation propensity. Existing supersaturation assays compare either precipitation-resistant or precipitation-inhibiting excipients, or higher-energy polymorphic forms, but not multiple compounds or multiple concentrations. Furthermore, these assays lack sufficient throughput and compound conservation necessary for implementation in the discovery environment. A microplate-based combination turbidity and supernatant concentration assay was therefore developed to determine the extent to which different compounds remain in solution as a function of applied concentration in biorelevant media over a specific period of time. Dimethyl sulfoxide stock solutions at multiple concentrations of four poorly soluble, weak base compounds (Dipyridamole, Ketoconazole, Albendazole, and Cinnarizine) were diluted with pH 6.5 buffer as well as FaSSIF. All samples were monitored for precipitation by turbidity at 600 nm over 1 h and the final supernatant concentrations were measured. The maximum supersaturation ratio was calculated from the supersaturation limit and the equilibrium solubility in each media. Compounds were rank-ordered by supersaturation ratio: Ketoconazole > Dipyridamole > Cinnarizine ? Albendazole. These in vitro results correlated well with oral AUC ratios from published in vivo pH effect studies, thereby confirming the validity of this approach. PMID:25070886

  14. Development of an in vitro cytochrome P450 cocktail inhibition assay for assessing the inhibition risk of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Dinger, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-10-01

    Drugs of abuse are not tested for cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition potential before distribution. Therefore, a cocktail assay should be developed for testing the inhibition potential for all relevant CYPs. The following CYP test substrates and selective inhibitors were incubated in pooled human liver microsomes: phenacetin (alpha-naphthoflavone for CYP1A2), coumarin (tranylcypromine, CYP2A6), bupropion (sertraline, CYP2B6), amodiaquine (trimethoprim, CYP2C8), diclofenac (sulfaphenazole, CYP2C9), omeprazole (fluconazole, CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (quinidine, CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (clomethiazole, CYP2E1), testosterone (verapamil, CYP3A). Samples were analyzed after protein precipitation using a Thermo Fisher Q-Exactive LC-high-resolution-MS/MS. The IC50 values were calculated by plotting the concentration of the formed metabolite, relative to the control sample, over the logarithm of the inhibitor concentration. They were determined either for single substrate or the cocktail incubation. Unfortunately, the cocktail assay had to be split because of interferences during incubation caused by substrates or metabolites, but the mixture of both incubates could be analyzed in one analytical run. The IC50 values determined in the single substrate or both cocktail incubations were comparable among themselves and with published data. In conclusion, the new inhibition cocktail assay was reproducible and applicable for testing the inhibition potential of drugs of abuse as exemplified for 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amfetamine (DOI). PMID:25111188

  15. Big data in chemical toxicity research: the use of high-throughput screening assays to identify potential toxicants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Kim, Marlene T; Boison, Abena; Sedykh, Alexander; Moran, Kimberlee

    2014-10-20

    High-throughput screening (HTS) assays that measure the in vitro toxicity of environmental compounds have been widely applied as an alternative to in vivo animal tests of chemical toxicity. Current HTS studies provide the community with rich toxicology information that has the potential to be integrated into toxicity research. The available in vitro toxicity data is updated daily in structured formats (e.g., deposited into PubChem and other data-sharing web portals) or in an unstructured way (papers, laboratory reports, toxicity Web site updates, etc.). The information derived from the current toxicity data is so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using available database management tools or traditional data processing applications. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a big data approach when conducting modern chemical toxicity research. In vitro data for a compound, obtained from meaningful bioassays, can be viewed as a response profile that gives detailed information about the compound's ability to affect relevant biological proteins/receptors. This information is critical for the evaluation of complex bioactivities (e.g., animal toxicities) and grows rapidly as big data in toxicology communities. This review focuses mainly on the existing structured in vitro data (e.g., PubChem data sets) as response profiles for compounds of environmental interest (e.g., potential human/animal toxicants). Potential modeling and mining tools to use the current big data pool in chemical toxicity research are also described. PMID:25195622

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening dioxin soil contamination by uncontrolled combustion during informal recycling in slums.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Mirta; Nording, Malin; Nichkova, Mikaela; Spinnel, Erik; Haglund, Peter; Last, Michael S; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce; Last, Jerold A; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Brena, Beatriz M

    2008-11-01

    Uncontrolled combustion due to garbage recycling is a widespread activity among slum dwellers in distressed economy countries and has been indicated as a major source of dioxin contamination. However, because of the high cost and complexity of gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) analysis, the magnitude of the problem remains largely unknown. The present study describes a first approach toward the use of a dioxin antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as the basis for a sustainable, simple, and low-cost monitoring program to assess the toxicological impact of uncontrolled combustion in slums. A panel of 16 samples was analyzed by GC-HRMS and ELISA on split extracts. Close to 20% of the analyzed samples showed dioxin concentrations up to almost twice the guidance level for residential soil in several countries, pointing out the need for performing a large-scale monitoring program. Despite the potential for variations in dioxin congener distribution due to the mixed nature of the incinerated material, there was a good correlation between the toxic equivalents as determined by GC-HRMS and ELISA. Furthermore, an interlaboratory ELISA validation showed that the capacity to perform the dioxin ELISA was successfully transferred between laboratories. It was concluded that the ELISA method performed very well as a screening tool to prioritize samples for instrumental analysis, which allows cutting down costs significantly. PMID:18522475

  17. Risk-Based High-Throughput Chemical Screening and Prioritization using Exposure Models and in Vitro Bioactivity Assays.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Ernstoff, Alexi; Arnot, Jon A; Wetmore, Barbara A; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter; Zhang, Xianming; McKone, Thomas E; Jolliet, Olivier; Bennett, Deborah H

    2015-06-01

    We present a risk-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method to identify chemicals for potential health concerns or for which additional information is needed. The method is applied to 180 organic chemicals as a case study. We first obtain information on how the chemical is used and identify relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate daily intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry. Bioactivity quotients (BQs) are calculated as iR/OED to obtain estimates of potential impact associated with each relevant use scenario. Of the 180 chemicals considered, 38 had maximum iRs exceeding minimum OEDs (i.e., BQs > 1). For most of these compounds, exposures are associated with direct intake, food/oral contact, or dermal exposure. The method provides high-throughput estimates of exposure and important input for decision makers to identify chemicals of concern for further evaluation with additional information or more refined models. PMID:25932772

  18. ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR SCREENING DIOXIN SOIL CONTAMINATION BY UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION DURING INFORMAL RECYCLING IN SLUMS

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Mirta; Nording, Malin; Nichkova, Mikaela; Spinnel, Erik; Haglund, Peter; Last, Michael S.; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce; Last, Jerold A.; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Brena, Beatriz M.

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled combustion due to garbage recycling is a widespread activity among slum dwellers in distressed economy countries and has been indicated as a major source of dioxin contamination. However, because of the high cost and complexity of gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) analysis, the magnitude of the problem remains largely unknown. The present study describes a first approach toward the use of a dioxin antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as the basis for a sustainable, simple, and low-cost monitoring program to assess the toxicological impact of uncontrolled combustion in slums. A panel of 16 samples was analyzed by GC-HRMS and ELISA on split extracts. Close to 20% of the analyzed samples showed dioxin concentrations up to almost twice the guidance level for residential soil in several countries, pointing out the need for performing a large-scale monitoring program. Despite the potential for variations in dioxin congener distribution due to the mixed nature of the incinerated material, there was a good correlation between the toxic equivalents as determined by GC-HRMS and ELISA. Furthermore, an interlaboratory ELISA validation showed that the capacity to perform the dioxin ELISA was successfully transferred between laboratories. It was concluded that the ELISA method performed very well as a screening tool to prioritize samples for instrumental analysis, which allows cutting down costs significantly. PMID:18522475

  19. Comparison of the GenoFlow human papillomavirus (HPV) test and the Linear Array assay for HPV screening in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Wong, Oscar Gee-Wan; Lo, C K; Chow, Joanne N K; Tsun, Obe K L; Szeto, Elaine; Liu, Stephanie S; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2012-05-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA detection in cervical cytology samples is useful for primary screening of cervical cancer and for triage of patients with equivocal cytological findings. The GenoFlow HPV array test (GF assay; Diagcor Bioscience Inc., Hong Kong) was recently developed to detect 33 HPV genotypes by a "flowthrough" hybridization technology. In this study, we assessed the analytical sensitivity and reproducibility of the GF assay and compared its genotyping results with those of the Linear Array (LA) assay (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), using 400 archived liquid-based cytology samples representing the full range of cytology findings. Genotyping findings of the GF and LA assays were concordant or compatible for 93.44% of tested samples, with a good (? = 0.797) to very good (? = 0.812) strength of agreement for assay-common and oncogenic HPV types, respectively. The two assays showed good (? = 0.635) agreement in detecting infections with multiple HPV genotypes. The lowest detection limits of the GF assay for HPV16 and HPV18 were 25 copies and 20 copies, respectively. Repeat testing of 60 samples by use of two different lots of the GF assay revealed no discordant results, suggesting good reproducibility of the assay. Both assays achieved approximately 80% and 100% sensitivity for identifying cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) with subsequent detection of LSIL+ and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or higher (HSIL+) in 2 years, respectively. Among ASC-US samples, the GF assay achieved the highest specificity (23.08%) for indicating subsequent identification of HSIL compared with the LA (19.23%) and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (8.97%) assays. The GF and LA assays showed significant discrepancy in detecting HPV genotypes 11, 26, 39, 52, and 66. More sensitive detection of HPV52 by GF assay offers an advantage in regions where HPV52 is more prevalent. The sensitivity of the GF assay for detecting patients with HSIL+ was noninferior to that of the LA assay. PMID:22337983

  20. Improvement in Laboratory Diagnosis of Wound Botulism and Tetanus among Injecting Illicit-Drug Users by Use of Real-Time PCR Assays for Neurotoxin Gene Fragments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Akbulut; K. A. Grant; J. McLauchlin

    2005-01-01

    An upsurge in wound infections due to Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani among users of illegal injected drugs (IDUs) occurred in the United Kingdom during 2003 and 2004. A real-time PCR assay was developed to detect a fragment of the neurotoxin gene of C. tetani (TeNT) and was used in conjunction with previously described assays for C. botulinum neurotoxin types

  1. Development and residue screening of the furazolidone metabolite, 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), in cultured fish by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chu-Chen; Hsieh, Kuan-Huei; Lei, Yi-Chih; Tai, Yung-Te; Chang, Tong-Hsuan; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Li, Wen-Ren; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2009-07-01

    A sensitive and specific polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of tissue-bound metabolite 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) is described. The procedures allow for the detection of protein-bound AOZ in the form of a 2-nitrophenyl derivative (2-NP-AOZ) in the sample supernatant or extract after acid hydrolysis and derivatization with o-nitrobenzaldehyde. The polyclonal rabbit antibodies were produced with the immunogen hapten, 2-NP-HXA-AOZ, and the 50% inhibition values (IC(50)) of 0.14 microg kg(-1) of AOZ was achieved with the most sensitive antibody A0505. The mean lower detection limit of the ELISA method is about 0.025 microg kg(-1). According to the test preparation record, the detection limit is 0.1 microg kg(-1), which is well below the minimum required performance limits (MRPLs) for tissue-bound residues of AOZ at 1 microg kg(-1) in the European Communities. In the present study, we investigated the use of homemade ELISA, a new immunoassay, to monitor the presence of the furazolidone marker residue in 370 samples of cultured fish. Adopting 0.3 microg kg(-1) AOZ as a cutoff value, the ELISA has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.5% versus high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) at a cutoff of 0.3 microg kg(-1) and gives no false-negative rate results. From the practical point of view, the homemade kit could be advantageously used for the screening of large groups of animal-edible tissue samples and the kit employed has good reliability even in routine application for the control of the illegal use of the drug. PMID:19526989

  2. Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening.

    PubMed

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Tuchin, Valery V; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2007-01-14

    Using animal mesentery with intravital optical microscopy is a well-established experimental model for studying blood and lymph microcirculation in vivo. Recent advances in cell biology and optical techniques provide the basis for extending this model for new applications, which should generate significantly improved experimental data. This review summarizes the achievements in this specific area, including in vivo label-free blood and lymph photothermal flow cytometry, super-sensitive fluorescence image cytometry, light scattering and speckle flow cytometry, microvessel dynamic microscopy, infrared (IR) angiography, and high-speed imaging of individual cells in fast flow. The capabilities of these techniques, using the rat mesentery model, were demonstrated in various studies; e.g., real-time quantitative detection of circulating and migrating individual blood and cancer cells, studies on vascular dynamics with a focus on lymphatics under normal conditions and under different interventions (e.g. lasers, drugs, nicotine), assessment of lymphatic disturbances from experimental lymphedema, monitoring cell traffic between blood and lymph systems, and high-speed imaging of cell transient deformability in flow. In particular, the obtained results demonstrated that individual cell transportation in living organisms depends on cell type (e.g., normal blood or leukemic cells), the cellos functional state (e.g., live, apoptotic, or necrotic), and the functional status of the organism. Possible future applications, including in vivo early diagnosis and prevention of disease, monitoring immune response and apoptosis, chemo- and radio-sensitivity tests, and drug screening, are also discussed. PMID:17226898

  3. Development and characterization of a pre-treatment procedure to eliminate human monoclonal antibody therapeutic drug and matrix interference in cell-based functional neutralizing antibody assays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weifeng; Jiang, Hao; Titsch, Craig; Haulenbeek, Jonathan R; Pillutla, Renuka C; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; DeSilva, Binodh S; Arnold, Mark E; Zeng, Jianing; Dodge, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Biological therapeutics can induce an undesirable immune response resulting in the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA), including neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Functional (usually cell-based) NAb assays are preferred to determine NAb presence in patient serum, but are often subject to interferences from numerous serum factors, such as growth factors and disease-related cytokines. Many functional cell-based NAb assays are essentially drug concentration assays that imply the presence of NAbs by the detection of small changes in functional drug concentration. Any drug contained in the test sample will increase the total amount of drug in the assay, thus reducing the sensitivity of NAb detection. Biotin-drug Extraction with Acid Dissociation (BEAD) has been successfully applied to extract ADA, thereby removing drug and other interfering factors from human serum samples. However, to date there has been no report to estimate the residual drug level after BEAD treatment when the drug itself is a human monoclonal antibody; mainly due to the limitation of traditional ligand-binding assays. Here we describe a universal BEAD optimization procedure for human monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs by using a LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously measure drug (a mutant human IgG4), NAb positive control (a mouse IgG), and endogenous human IgGs as an indicator of nonspecific carry-over in the BEAD eluate. This is the first report demonstrating that residual human mAb drug level in clinical sample can be measured after BEAD pre-treatment, which is critical for further BEAD procedure optimization and downstream immunogenicity testing. PMID:25445325

  4. Development of a Cell-Based Hepatitis C Virus Infection Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for High-Throughput Antiviral Compound Screening? †

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuemei; Sainz, Bruno; Uprichard, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    A major obstacle in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been the lack of effective, well-tolerated therapeutics. Notably, the recent development of the HCV cell culture infection system now allows not only for the study of the entire viral life cycle, but also for the screening of inhibitors against all aspects of HCV infection. However, in order to screen libraries of potential antiviral compounds, it is necessary to develop a highly reproducible, accurate assay for HCV infection adaptable for high-throughput screening (HTS) automation. Using an internally quenched 5-FAM/QXL 520 fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) substrate containing the HCV NS3 peptide cleavage sequence, we report the development of a simple, mix-and-measure, homogenous, cell-based HCV infection assay amendable for HTS. This assay makes use of synchronized, nondividing human hepatoma-derived Huh7 cells, which support more-reproducible long-term HCV infection and can be readily scaled down to a 96-well-plate format. We demonstrate that this stable cell culture method eliminates common problems associated with standard cell-based HTS, such as cell culture variability, poor reproducibility, and low signal intensity. Importantly, this HCV FRET assay not only can identify inhibitors that act throughout the viral life cycle as effectively as more-standard HCV assays, such as real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, but also exhibits a high degree of accuracy with limited signal variation (i.e., Z? ? 0.6), providing the basis for a robust HTS campaign for screening compound libraries and identifying novel HCV antivirals. PMID:19620334

  5. Estimating the coverage of a targeted mobile tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with truncated models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hest van N. A. H; G. D E VRIES; F. Smit; A. D. Grant; J. H. Richardus

    2008-01-01

    Truncated models are indirect methods to estimate the size of a hidden population which, in contrast to the capture–recapture method, can be used on a single information source. We estimated the coverage of a tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with a mobile digital X-ray unit between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005 in Rotterdam,

  6. Brief Screening and Intervention for Alcohol and Drug Use in a College Student Health Clinic: Feasibility, Implementation, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Reed, Elizabeth; Rowe, Erin; Picci, Jennifer; Mantella, Philomena; Prado, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the Brief Alcohol Screen and Intervention in College Students (BASICS) in a university primary care setting. Participants/Methods: Undergraduates (N = 449) participated in BASICS and electronic surveys assessing frequency/quantity of alcohol and drug use, psychosocial and mental health outcomes, and demographic…

  7. Screening and Brief Intervention for Unhealthy Drug Use in Primary Care Settings: Randomized Clinical Trials Are Needed

    PubMed Central

    Saitz, Richard; Alford, Daniel P.; Bernstein, Judith; Cheng, Debbie M.; Samet, Jeffrey; Palfai, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of screening and brief intervention (SBI) for drug use in primary care patients is largely unknown. Because of this lack of evidence, US professional organizations do not recommend it. Yet, a strong theoretical case can be made for drug SBI. Drug use is common and associated with numerous health consequences, patients usually do not seek help for drug abuse and dependence, and SBI has proven efficacy for unhealthy alcohol use. On the other hand, the diversity of drugs of abuse and the high prevalence of abuse and dependence among those who use them raise concerns that drug SBI may have limited or no efficacy. Federal efforts to disseminate SBI for drug use are underway, and reimbursement codes to compensate clinicians for these activities have been developed. However, the discrepancies between science and policy developments underscore the need for evidence-based research regarding the efficacy of SBI for drug use. This article discusses the rationale for drug SBI and existing research on its potential to improve drug-use outcomes and makes the argument that randomized controlled trials to determine its efficacy are urgently needed to bridge the gap between research, policy, and clinical practice. PMID:20936079

  8. A rapid and high-throughput screening approach for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus based on the combination of two different real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Nijhuis, Roel H T; van Maarseveen, Noortje M; van Hannen, Erik J; van Zwet, Anton A; Mascini, Ellen M

    2014-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen that has been responsible for major nosocomial epidemics worldwide. For infection control programs, rapid and adequate detection of MRSA is of great importance. We developed a rapid and high-throughput molecular screening approach that consists of an overnight selective broth enrichment, followed by mecA, mecC, and S. aureus-specific (SA442 gene) real-time PCR assays, with subsequent confirmation using a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec)-orfX-based real-time PCR assay (GeneOhm MRSA assay) and culture. Here, the results of the screening approach over a 2-year period are presented. During this period, a total of 13,387 samples were analyzed for the presence of MRSA, 2.6% of which were reported as MRSA positive. No MRSA isolates carrying the mecC gene were detected during this study. Based on the results of the real-time PCR assays only, 95.2% of the samples could be reported as negative within 24 h. Furthermore, the performance of these real-time PCR assays was evaluated using a set of 104 assorted MRSA isolates, which demonstrated high sensitivity for both the combination of mecA and mecC with SA442 and the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay (98.1% and 97.1%, respectively). This molecular screening approach proved to be an accurate method for obtaining reliable negative results within 24 h after arrival at the laboratory and contributes to improvement of infection control programs, especially in areas with a low MRSA prevalence. PMID:24871220

  9. A time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay suitable for high-throughput screening for inhibitors of immunoglobulin E-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beomkyu; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana S; Eggel, Alexander; Vogel, Monique; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2012-12-15

    The interaction of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies with the high-affinity receptor, Fc?RI, plays a central role in initiating most allergic reactions. The IgE-receptor interaction has been targeted for treatment of allergic diseases, and many high-affinity macromolecular inhibitors have been identified. Small molecule inhibitors would offer significant advantages over current anti-IgE treatment, but no candidate compounds have been identified and fully validated. Here, we report the development of a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay for monitoring the IgE-receptor interaction. The TR-FRET assay measures an increase in fluorescence intensity as a donor lanthanide fluorophore is recruited into complexes of site-specific Alexa Fluor 488-labeled IgE-Fc and His-tagged Fc?RI? proteins. The assay can readily monitor classic competitive inhibitors that bind either IgE-Fc or Fc?RI? in equilibrium competition binding experiments. Furthermore, the TR-FRET assay can also be used to follow the kinetics of IgE-Fc-Fc?RI? dissociation and identify inhibitory ligands that accelerate the dissociation of preformed complexes, as demonstrated for an engineered DARPin (designed ankyrin repeat protein) inhibitor. The TR-FRET assay is suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS), as shown by performing a pilot screen of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Collection Library in a 384-well plate format. PMID:22995065

  10. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of a Type 2 Blood Group A Tetrasaccharide and Development of High-throughput Assays Enables a Platform for Screening Blood Group Antigen-cleaving Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kwan, David H; Ernst, Sabrina; Kötzler, Miriam P; Withers, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    A facile enzymatic synthesis of the methylumbelliferyl ?-glycoside of the type 2 A blood group tetrasaccharide in good yields is reported. Using this compound, we developed highly sensitive fluorescence-based high-throughput assays for both endo-?-galactosidase and ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity specific for the oligosaccharide structure of the blood group A antigen. We further demonstrate the potential to use this assay to screen the expressed gene products of metagenomic libraries in the search for efficient blood group antigen-cleaving enzymes. PMID:25964111

  11. pH-gradient PAMPA-based in vitro model assay for drug-induced phospholipidosis in early stage of drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Balogh, György T; Müller, Judit; Könczöl, Arpád

    2013-04-11

    In the present study we validated a widely used, high-throughput in vitro permeability model (PAMPA) to be used at the early stage of drug discovery for the phospholipidosis (PLD) prediction of drug-like compounds. Regarding the mechanism of action of PLD, our pH-gradient PAMPA system is the first noncell based model to mimic one-way transport of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) from cytosol to the lysosome. Moreover, due to the fact that PLD can mainly occur in lung, liver, brain, kidney and heart, we have used similar commercially available original tissue-derived lipid fractions (heart, liver, brain), and in the case mimicking membrane of kidney and lung tissue we prepared tissue-mimetic artificial lipid mixtures in house. Metabolism of a drug can change the degree of PLD depending on the physicochemical properties of metabolites and the rate of metabolism. Our data from 57 drugs and 4 metabolites of earlier and 2 metabolites of newly recognized outliers (phenacetin and bupropion) using our pH-gradient PAMPA system show a good correlation with in vivo PLD data. Moreover, predictive ability of our best system, the lung specific pH-gradient PAMPA model was significantly better than widely used in silico models and it was also slightly better than that of the known noncell based models on our selection of compounds. Our pH-gradient PAMPA systems therefore offer mechanistically alternative, accurate and cost-effective screening tools for the early prediction of PLD potential of drug-like compounds. PMID:23439241

  12. Screening of seized emerging drugs by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lurie, Ira S

    2014-04-01

    The use of psychoactive "designer drugs" has increased rapidly due to their varying and sometimes ambiguous legal status and their ready access via the Internet and at local "headshops." A quick screening method for samples containing these substances, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array UV and mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-PDA/UV-MS), is presented. The method enables the screening of a variety of samples containing emerging/reemerging drugs, including ?-keto phenethylamines (cathinone derivatives), synthetic cannabinoids/cannabimimetics, and phenethylamine derivatives. The use of dual detectors not only provides molecular weight information but also differentiates the drugs by their categories and in some cases even their sub-categories. Moreover, ring positional isomers of cathinone and phenethylamine derivatives can be easily differentiated by their retention times and UV spectra. PMID:24607709

  13. Analysis of a national sample of animal drugs in commercial feed in an attempt to statistically determine the causes of poor assay recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. B. Johnson; R. S. Sellers

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if laboratory assays of medicated feeds differed from expected drug levels and to determine if differences found could be related to pelleting temperature or pellet size. Twelve animal drugs (amprolium, apramycin, chlortetracyline, lasalocid, melengestrol acetate, neomycin, oxytetracycline, penicillin, pyrantel, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole and carbadox) were selected by the American Feed Industry Association (AFIA)

  14. Use of the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay to assess drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients in rural Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Bazira; Benon B Asiimwe; Moses L Joloba; Fred Bwanga; Mecky I Matee

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug resistance levels and patterns among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from newly diagnosed and previously treated tuberculosis patients in Mbarara Uganda were investigated. METHODS: We enrolled, consecutively, all newly diagnosed and previously treated smear-positive TB patients aged ? 18 years. Isolates were tested for drug resistance against rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) using the Genotype® MDRTBplus assay and results were

  15. Comparison of a High-Throughput High-Content Intracellular Leishmania donovani Assay with an Axenic Amastigote Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hallyburton, Irene; Thomas, John; Campbell, Lorna; Wyllie, Susan; Joshi, Dhananjay; Cameron, Scott; Gilbert, Ian H.; Wyatt, Paul G.; Frearson, Julie A.; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Gray, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease with significant health impact. The current treatments are poor, and there is an urgent need to develop new drugs. Primary screening assays used for drug discovery campaigns have typically used free-living forms of the Leishmania parasite to allow for high-throughput screening. Such screens do not necessarily reflect the physiological situation, as the disease-causing stage of the parasite resides inside human host cells. Assessing the drug sensitivity of intracellular parasites on scale has recently become feasible with the advent of high-content screening methods. We describe here a 384-well microscopy-based intramacrophage Leishmania donovani assay and compare it to an axenic amastigote system. A panel of eight reference compounds was tested in both systems, as well as a human counterscreen cell line, and our findings show that for most clinically used compounds both axenic and intramacrophage assays report very similar results. A set of 15,659 diverse compounds was also screened using both systems. This resulted in the identification of seven new antileishmanial compounds and revealed a high false-positive rate for the axenic assay. We conclude that the intramacrophage assay is more suited as a primary hit-discovery platform than the current form of axenic assay, and we discuss how modifications to the axenic assay may render it more suitable for hit-discovery. PMID:23571538

  16. A comprehensive review of assay methods to determine drugs in breast milk and the safety of breastfeeding when taking drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bibiana Fríguls; Xavier Joya; Oscar García-Algar; C. R. Pallás; Oriol Vall; Simona Pichini

    2010-01-01

    Most of the licit and illicit drugs consumed by the breastfeeding woman pass into the milk and can modify the production,\\u000a volume and composition of the milk, as well as hypothetically have short- and long-term harmful effects on the infant. There\\u000a is much confusion in the scientific community regarding this issue: should a woman breastfeed her baby while continuing to

  17. Screening adulteration of polypropylene bottles with postconsumer recycled plastics for oral drug package by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Sun, Hui-Min; Jin, Shao-Hong

    2011-11-14

    Adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastic materials was considerably difficult to identify due to the similar chemical compositions of virgin and recycled plastics. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with conformity test was proposed to screen the adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers. Two kinds of representative screening models were investigated on polypropylene (PP) bottles for oral drug package. The reliability of the screening models was validated through studying the identification reliability, specificity, and robustness of the methods. The minimum spiking level of two modeled adulterants at the proportion of 20% could be detected, and the unqualified sample from a domestic manufacturer was rejected by this developed method. This strategy represents a rapid and promising analytical method for screening the adulteration of pharmaceutical plastic packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastics. PMID:22023867

  18. A Sensitive Assay Using a Native Protein Substrate For Screening HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitors Targeting the Protease Cleavage Site between Matrix and Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Cheng, Nancy; Hull-Ryde, Emily; Potempa, Marc; Schiffer, Celia A.; Janzen, William; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The matrix/capsid processing site in the HIV-1 Gag precursor is likely the most sensitive target to inhibit HIV-1 replication. We have previously shown that modest incomplete processing at the site leads to a complete loss of virion infectivity. In the current study, a sensitive assay based on fluorescence polarization is described that can monitor cleavage at the MA/CA site in the context of the folded protein substrate. The substrate, an MA/CA fusion protein, was labeled with the fluorescein-based FlAsH (Fluorescein Arsenical Hairpin) reagent which binds to a tetracysteine motif (CCGPCC) that was introduced within the N-terminal domain of CA. By limiting the size of CA and increasing the size of MA (with an N-terminal GST fusion), significant differences in polarization values were measurable as a function of HIV-1 protease cleavage. The sensitivity of the assay was tested in the presence of increasing amounts of an HIV-1 PR inhibitor, which resulted in a gradual decrease in the FP values demonstrating that the assay is sensitive discerning changes in protease processing. The high-throughput screening assay validation in 384-well plates showed that the assay is reproducible and robust with an average Z'–value of 0.79 and average coefficient of variation values less than 3%. The robustness and reproducibility of the assay was further validated using the LOPAC1280 compound library, demonstrating that the assay provides a sensitive high-throughput screening platform that can be used with large compound libraries for identifying novel maturation inhibitors targeting the MA/CA site of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein. PMID:23763575

  19. Identification of Small-Molecule Frequent Hitters from AlphaScreen High-Throughput Screens

    PubMed Central

    Schorpp, Kenji; Rothenaigner, Ina; Salmina, Elena; Reinshagen, Jeanette; Low, Terence; Brenke, Jara K.; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Tetko, Igor V.; Gul, Sheraz

    2014-01-01

    Although small-molecule drug discovery efforts have focused largely on enzyme, receptor, and ion-channel targets, there has been an increase in such activities to search for protein-protein interaction (PPI) disruptors by applying high-throughout screening (HTS)–compatible protein-binding assays. However, a disadvantage of these assays is that many primary hits are frequent hitters regardless of the PPI being investigated. We have used the AlphaScreen technology to screen four different robust PPI assays each against 25,000 compounds. These activities led to the identification of 137 compounds that demonstrated repeated activity in all PPI assays. These compounds were subsequently evaluated in two AlphaScreen counter assays, leading to classification of compounds that either interfered with the AlphaScreen chemistry (60 compounds) or prevented the binding of the protein His-tag moiety to nickel chelate (Ni2+-NTA) beads of the AlphaScreen detection system (77 compounds). To further triage the 137 frequent hitters, we subsequently confirmed by a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay that most of these compounds were only frequent hitters in AlphaScreen assays. A chemoinformatics analysis of the apparent hits provided details of the compounds that can be flagged as frequent hitters of the AlphaScreen technology, and these data have broad applicability for users of these detection technologies. PMID:24371213

  20. Computational Assay of H7N9 Influenza Neuraminidase Reveals R292K Mutation Reduces Drug Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Christopher J.; Malaisree, Maturos; Long, Ben; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of a novel H7N9 avian influenza that infects humans is a serious cause for concern. Of the genome sequences of H7N9 neuraminidase available, one contains a substitution of arginine to lysine at position 292, suggesting a potential for reduced drug binding efficacy. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir bound to H7N9, H7N9-R292K, and a structurally related H11N9 neuraminidase. They show that H7N9 neuraminidase is structurally homologous to H11N9, binding the drugs in identical modes. The simulations reveal that the R292K mutation disrupts drug binding in H7N9 in a comparable manner to that observed experimentally for H11N9-R292K. Absolute binding free energy calculations with the WaterSwap method confirm a reduction in binding affinity. This indicates that the efficacy of antiviral drugs against H7N9-R292K will be reduced. Simulations can assist in predicting disruption of binding caused by mutations in neuraminidase, thereby providing a computational ‘assay.' PMID:24356381

  1. Computational Assay of H7N9 Influenza Neuraminidase Reveals R292K Mutation Reduces Drug Binding Affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Christopher J.; Malaisree, Maturos; Long, Ben; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of a novel H7N9 avian influenza that infects humans is a serious cause for concern. Of the genome sequences of H7N9 neuraminidase available, one contains a substitution of arginine to lysine at position 292, suggesting a potential for reduced drug binding efficacy. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir bound to H7N9, H7N9-R292K, and a structurally related H11N9 neuraminidase. They show that H7N9 neuraminidase is structurally homologous to H11N9, binding the drugs in identical modes. The simulations reveal that the R292K mutation disrupts drug binding in H7N9 in a comparable manner to that observed experimentally for H11N9-R292K. Absolute binding free energy calculations with the WaterSwap method confirm a reduction in binding affinity. This indicates that the efficacy of antiviral drugs against H7N9-R292K will be reduced. Simulations can assist in predicting disruption of binding caused by mutations in neuraminidase, thereby providing a computational `assay.'

  2. Computational assay of H7N9 influenza neuraminidase reveals R292K mutation reduces drug binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Woods, Christopher J; Malaisree, Maturos; Long, Ben; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of a novel H7N9 avian influenza that infects humans is a serious cause for concern. Of the genome sequences of H7N9 neuraminidase available, one contains a substitution of arginine to lysine at position 292, suggesting a potential for reduced drug binding efficacy. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir bound to H7N9, H7N9-R292K, and a structurally related H11N9 neuraminidase. They show that H7N9 neuraminidase is structurally homologous to H11N9, binding the drugs in identical modes. The simulations reveal that the R292K mutation disrupts drug binding in H7N9 in a comparable manner to that observed experimentally for H11N9-R292K. Absolute binding free energy calculations with the WaterSwap method confirm a reduction in binding affinity. This indicates that the efficacy of antiviral drugs against H7N9-R292K will be reduced. Simulations can assist in predicting disruption of binding caused by mutations in neuraminidase, thereby providing a computational 'assay.' PMID:24356381

  3. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  4. Microfluidic system for on-chip high-throughput whole-animal sorting and screening

    E-print Network

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    -throughput assays using whole animals, including mutagenesis and RNAi and drug screens at subcellular resolution microsurgery immobilization and time-lapse imaging mutagenesis RNAi and drug screening Existing large during the last five years for studies conducted on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The availability

  5. Transitioning enantioselective indicator displacement assays for alpha-amino acids to protocols amenable to high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Leung, Diana; Anslyn, Eric V

    2008-09-17

    Enantioselective indicator displacement assays (eIDAs) for alpha-amino acids were conducted in a 96-well plate format to demonstrate the viability of the technique for the high-throughput screening (HTS) of enantiomeric excess (ee) values. Chiral receptors [Cu(II)(1)](2+) and [Cu(II)(2)](2+) with the indicator chrome azurol S were implemented for the eIDAs. Enantiomeric excess calibration curves were made using both receptors and then used to analyze true test samples. These results were compared to those previously obtained with a conventional UV-vis spectrophotometer, and they showed little to no loss of accuracy, while the speed of analysis was increased. A sample of valine of unknown ee was synthesized through an asymmetric reaction to produce a realistic reaction sample, which was analyzed using receptor [Cu(II)(1)](2+). The experimentally determined ee using our eIDA was compared to that obtained by chiral HPLC and (1)H NMR chiral shift reagent analysis. This gave errors of 4.7% and 12.0%, respectively. In addition to the use of ee calibration curves, an artificial neural network (ANN) was used to determine the % L-amino acid of the test samples and of the sample of valine of unknown ee from the asymmetric reaction. This method obtained errors of 5.9% and 2.2% compared to chiral HPLC and (1)H NMR chiral shift reagent analysis, respectively. The technique using calibration curves for the determination of ee on a 96-well plate allows one to determine 96 ee values in under a minute, enabling its use for HTS of asymmetric reactions with acceptable accuracy. PMID:18714993

  6. Rapid Screening and Identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Clinical Samples by Selective-Broth and Real-Time PCR Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Fang; Goran Hedin

    2003-01-01

    A screening method for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by using selective broth and real-time PCR (broth-PCR) was developed and evaluated. The samples (n 304) were cultured in th