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1

Assay to Screen Anti-metastatic Drugs  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at the NCI's Mouse Cancer Genetics Program have developed a research tool, a murine cell line model (JygMC(A)) with a reporter construct, of spontaneous metastatic mammary carcinoma that resembles the human breast cancer metastatic process in a triple negative mammary tumor. The assay is useful for screening compounds that specifically inhibit pathways involved in mammary carcinoma and can improve clinical management of of triple negative breast cancer that are greatly refractory to conventional chemo and radiotherapy.

2

Development of an in vitro drug screening assay using Schistosoma haematobium schistosomula  

PubMed Central

Background The development of novel antischistosomal drugs is crucial, as currently no vaccine and only a single drug is available for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Fast and accurate in vitro assays are urgently needed to identify new drug candidates and research efforts should include Schistosoma haematobium. The aim of the present study was to develop a S. haematobium drug sensitivity assay based on newly transformed schistosomula (NTS). Methods We first undertook comparative studies on the cercarial emergence rhythms of the intermediate host snails Biomphalaria glabrata (S. mansoni) and Bulinus truncatus (S. haematobium). Two transformation methods as well as three purification methods were studied on S. haematobium cercariae in order to produce a large number of viable and clean NTS. Known antischistosomal drugs were tested in the established NTS assay in vitro. Drug effects were evaluated either microscopically or fluorometrically, using a resazurin based viability marker. Microscopically obtained IC50 values were compared with results obtained for S. mansoni. Results A circadian rhythm existed in both snail species. Infected B. truncatus snails shed less cercariae than B. glabrata during the testing period. The highest transformation rate (69%) of S. haematobium cercariae into NTS was obtained with the vortex transformation (mechanical input) and the highest purification factor was observed using Percoll®. The fluorimetric readout based on resazurin was very precise in detecting dead or/and severely damaged schistosomula. Conclusions With the use of viability markers such as resazurin, drug screening assays using S. haematobium NTS can be efficiently performed. However, drugs acting on the morphology and motility of S. haematobium NTS, such as metrifonate are missed. Drug sensitivity assays with NTS of both species, S. haematobium and S. mansoni, showed very similar results using known antischistosomal drugs. The S. mansoni NTS assay might be more suitable as primary screen in drug discovery efforts, which ultimately aim for a broad-spectrum antischistosomal drug as a larger number of S. mansoni NTS can be generated. PMID:22876861

2012-01-01

3

3D inverted colloidal crystals in realistic cell migration assays for drug screening applications.  

PubMed

Screening drugs for their specific impact on cell mechanics, in addition to targeting adhesion and proteolysis, will be important for successfully moderating migration in infiltrative disorders including cancer metastasis. We present 3D inverted colloidal crystals made of hydrogel as a realistic cell migration assay, where the geometry and stiffness can be set independently to mimic the tissue requirements in question. We show the utility of this 3D assay for drug screening purposes, specifically in contrast to conventional 2D migration studies, by surveying the effects of commonly used cytoskeletal toxins that impact cell mechanics. This assay allows studying large cell numbers for good statistics but at single-cell resolution. PMID:22038190

da Silva, Joakim; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Kuo, Cheng-Hwa R; Guck, Jochen; Sivaniah, Easan

2011-12-01

4

Formalization, Annotation and Analysis of Diverse Drug and Probe Screening Assay Datasets Using the BioAssay Ontology (BAO)  

PubMed Central

Huge amounts of high-throughput screening (HTS) data for probe and drug development projects are being generated in the pharmaceutical industry and more recently in the public sector. The resulting experimental datasets are increasingly being disseminated via publically accessible repositories. However, existing repositories lack sufficient metadata to describe the experiments and are often difficult to navigate by non-experts. The lack of standardized descriptions and semantics of biological assays and screening results hinder targeted data retrieval, integration, aggregation, and analyses across different HTS datasets, for example to infer mechanisms of action of small molecule perturbagens. To address these limitations, we created the BioAssay Ontology (BAO). BAO has been developed with a focus on data integration and analysis enabling the classification of assays and screening results by concepts that relate to format, assay design, technology, target, and endpoint. Previously, we reported on the higher-level design of BAO and on the semantic querying capabilities offered by the ontology-indexed triple store of HTS data. Here, we report on our detailed design, annotation pipeline, substantially enlarged annotation knowledgebase, and analysis results. We used BAO to annotate assays from the largest public HTS data repository, PubChem, and demonstrate its utility to categorize and analyze diverse HTS results from numerous experiments. BAO is publically available from the NCBO BioPortal at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1533. BAO provides controlled terminology and uniform scope to report probe and drug discovery screening assays and results. BAO leverages description logic to formalize the domain knowledge and facilitate the semantic integration with diverse other resources. As a consequence, BAO offers the potential to infer new knowledge from a corpus of assay results, for example molecular mechanisms of action of perturbagens. PMID:23155465

Vempati, Uma D.; Przydzial, Magdalena J.; Chung, Caty; Abeyruwan, Saminda; Mir, Ahsan; Sakurai, Kunie; Visser, Ubbo; Lemmon, Vance P.; Schürer, Stephan C.

2012-01-01

5

Validating a Firefly Luciferase-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay for Antimalarial Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Abstract The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and recent detection of potential artemisinin-resistant strains in Southeast Asia highlight the importance of developing novel antimalarial therapies. Using a previously generated stable transgenic P. falciparum line with high-level firefly luciferase expression, we report the adaptation, miniaturization, optimization, and validation of a high-throughput screening assay in 384-well plates. Assay conditions, including the percentage of parasitemia and hematocrit, were optimized. Parameters of assay robustness, including Z?-value, coefficient variation (CV), and signal-to-background (S/B) ratio, were determined. The LOPAC1280 small-compound library was used to validate this assay. Our results demonstrated that this assay is robust and reliable, with an average Z?-value of >0.7 and CV of <10%. Moreover, this assay showed a very low background, with the S/B ratio up to 71. Further, identified hits were selected and confirmed using a SYBR Green I-based confirmatory assay. It is evident that this assay is suitable for large-scale screening of chemical libraries for antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:22050430

Che, Pulin; Cui, Long; Kutsch, Olaf; Cui, Liwang

2012-01-01

6

Assessment and Continued Validation of the Malaria SYBR Green I-Based Fluorescence Assay for Use in Malaria Drug Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several new fluorescence malaria in vitro drug susceptibility microtiter plate assays that detect the presence of malarial DNA in infected erythrocytes have recently been reported, in contrast to traditional isotopic screens that involve radioactive substrate incorporation to measure in vitro malaria growth inhibition. We have assessed and further characterized the malaria SYBR Green I-based fluorescence (MSF) assay for its ability

Jacob D. Johnson; Richard A. Dennull; Lucia Gerena; Miriam Lopez-Sanchez; Norma E. Roncal; Norman C. Waters

2007-01-01

7

Drug-induced liver steatosis and phospholipidosis: cell-based assays for early screening of drug candidates.  

PubMed

The liver plays a key role in fat metabolism, and excessive lipid accumulation in liver cells is characterised by a large spectrum of lesions, e.g., steatosis and phospholipidosis. Steatosis is increased lipid accumulation, mainly as triglycerides, in the liver, while phospholipidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder characterised by intracellular accumulation of phospholipids. These alterations can be induced by several factors, including exposure to certain drugs. Drug-induced steatosis is often reversible, and prolonged exposure to certain drugs can cause macrovacuolar steatosis, a benign hepatic lesion, that can evolve into steatohepatitis and cirrhosis in some patients. Some drugs may acutely induce microvesicular steatosis which, despite having a good short-term prognosis, can lead to chronic lipid peroxidation and to the development of steatohepatitis lesions with time. Over 50 marketed drugs have been reported to induce phospholipidosis in different tissues, including the liver. Although drug-induced phospholipidosis is often reversible and there is no definitive evidence for its toxicological implications, it is considered an adverse side finding by regulatory agencies. As developing new drugs is a complex, lengthy and expensive process that aims to identify pharmacologically active, low-toxicity drug candidates among closely related compounds, it could be advantageous to determine which drugs are able to induce lipid metabolic disorders in early developmental stages. To this end, in vitro predictive screening assays, particularly cell-based approaches in which many drug candidates are evaluated, have been developed to identify and rule out compounds with a strong liver steatosis and/or phospholipidosis-inducing potential. PMID:22746303

Donato, M Teresa; Gómez-Lechón, M José

2012-10-01

8

Simple colorimetric trypanothione reductase-based assay for high-throughput screening of drugs against Leishmania intracellular amastigotes.  

PubMed

Critical to the search for new anti-leishmanial drugs is the availability of high-throughput screening (HTS) methods to test chemical compounds against the relevant stage for pathogenesis, the intracellular amastigotes. Recent progress in automated microscopy and genetic recombination has produced powerful tools for drug discovery. Nevertheless, a simple and efficient test for measuring drug activity against Leishmania clinical isolates is lacking. Here we describe a quantitative colorimetric assay in which the activity of a Leishmania native enzyme is used to assess parasite viability. Enzymatic reduction of disulfide trypanothione, monitored by a microtiter plate reader, was used to quantify the growth of Leishmania parasites. An excellent correlation was found between the optical density at 412 nm and the number of parasites inoculated. Pharmacological validation of the assay was performed against the conventional alamarBlue method for promastigotes and standard microscopy for intracellular amastigotes. The activity of a selected-compound panel, including several anti-leishmanial reference drugs, demonstrated high consistency between the newly developed assay and the reference method and corroborated previously published data. Quality assessment with standard measures confirmed the robustness and reproducibility of the assay, which performed in compliance with HTS requirements. This simple and rapid assay provides a reliable, accurate method for screening anti-leishmanial agents, with high throughput. The basic equipment and manipulation required to perform the assay make it easy to implement, simplifying the method for scoring inhibitor assays. PMID:24189262

van den Bogaart, Erika; Schoone, Gerard J; England, Paul; Faber, Dorien; Orrling, Kristina M; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Sundar, Shyam; Schallig, Henk D F H; Adams, Emily R

2014-01-01

9

Simple Colorimetric Trypanothione Reductase-Based Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Drugs against Leishmania Intracellular Amastigotes  

PubMed Central

Critical to the search for new anti-leishmanial drugs is the availability of high-throughput screening (HTS) methods to test chemical compounds against the relevant stage for pathogenesis, the intracellular amastigotes. Recent progress in automated microscopy and genetic recombination has produced powerful tools for drug discovery. Nevertheless, a simple and efficient test for measuring drug activity against Leishmania clinical isolates is lacking. Here we describe a quantitative colorimetric assay in which the activity of a Leishmania native enzyme is used to assess parasite viability. Enzymatic reduction of disulfide trypanothione, monitored by a microtiter plate reader, was used to quantify the growth of Leishmania parasites. An excellent correlation was found between the optical density at 412 nm and the number of parasites inoculated. Pharmacological validation of the assay was performed against the conventional alamarBlue method for promastigotes and standard microscopy for intracellular amastigotes. The activity of a selected-compound panel, including several anti-leishmanial reference drugs, demonstrated high consistency between the newly developed assay and the reference method and corroborated previously published data. Quality assessment with standard measures confirmed the robustness and reproducibility of the assay, which performed in compliance with HTS requirements. This simple and rapid assay provides a reliable, accurate method for screening anti-leishmanial agents, with high throughput. The basic equipment and manipulation required to perform the assay make it easy to implement, simplifying the method for scoring inhibitor assays. PMID:24189262

Schoone, Gerard J.; England, Paul; Faber, Dorien; Orrling, Kristina M.; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Sundar, Shyam; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Adams, Emily R.

2014-01-01

10

Screening for phospholipidosis induced by central nervous drugs: comparing the predictivity of an in vitro assay to high throughput in silico assays.  

PubMed

Drug-induced phospholipidosis is a side effect for which drug candidates can be screened in the drug discovery phase. The numerous in silico models that have been developed as a first line of screening are based on the characteristic physicochemical properties of phospholipidosis-inducing drugs, e.g. high logP and pK(b) values. However, applying these models on a predominantly high lipophilic, basic CNS chemistry results in a high false positive rate and consequently in a wrong classification of a large number of valuable drug candidates. Here, we tested 33 CNS-compounds (24 in vivo negative and 9 in vivo positive phospholipidosis-inducers) in our in house developed in vitro phospholipidosis screening assay (Mesens et al., 2009) and compared its predictivity with the outcome of three different, well established in silico prediction models. Our in vitro assay demonstrates an increased specificity of 79% over the in silico models (29%). Moreover, by considering the proposed plasma concentration at the efficacious dose we can show a clear correlation between the in vitro and in vivo occurrence of phospholipidosis, improving the specificity of prediction to 96%. Through its high predictive value, the in vitro low throughput assay is thus preferred above high throughput in silico assays, characterized by a high false positive rate. PMID:20430096

Mesens, Natalie; Steemans, Margino; Hansen, Erik; Verheyen, Geert R; Van Goethem, Freddy; Van Gompel, Jaques

2010-08-01

11

The BlueScreen-384 assay as an indicator of genotoxic hazard potential in early-stage drug discovery.  

PubMed

High-throughput cell-based techniques that permit early detection of compound-induced genotoxic damage have recently become available. Methods based on induction of the GADD45a?promoter are attractive because multiple intracellular mechanisms that detect genetic damage intersect at this checkpoint gene. Consequently, assays such as GreenScreen HC, which uses p53-competant human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells and a GADD45a-GFP reporter, have been developed. GreenScreen HC allows weekly testing of dozens of compounds using 96-well microplates, with high interassay consistency. BlueScreen HC is a recent advancement, coupling GADD45a to Gaussia luciferase, with several advantages over GADD45a-GFP including the potential for miniaturization. Here we describe implementation of a 384-well BlueScreen assay. For drug discovery programs carrying out iterative analogue synthesis around a chemical lead series, these assays permit assessment of compound genotoxic potential in parallel to, rather than subsequent to, determination of activity at a therapeutic target. We demonstrate comparability of BlueScreen-384 to GreenScreen HC and illustrate the use of BlueScreen-384 to explore the structure-activity relationship around a genotoxic lead molecule to identify nongenotoxic analogues. BlueScreen-384 can reduce the need for costly and time-consuming analogue testing in more traditional genotoxicity tests, such as the Ames test. PMID:23264450

Simpson, Kate; Bevan, Nicola; Hastwell, Paul; Eidam, Patrick; Shah, Poonam; Gogo, Elke; Rees, Steve; Brown, Andrew

2013-04-01

12

Microculture screening assay for primary in vitro evaluation of drugs against Pneumocystis carinii.  

PubMed Central

Pneumocystis carinii inoculated into 96-well filtration plate assemblies was shown to synthesize radiolabeled folates de novo from [para-3H]aminobenzoic acid ([3H]pABA). At the end of each incubation with [3H]pABA, a vacuum manifold was used to remove the medium and wash P. carinii. The membrane at the base of each well was dried and punched out, and the level of 3H retained was determined by direct scintillation counting. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of duplicate filters confirmed that direct counting of 3H retained on membranes (after correction for unmetabolized [3H]pABA) was an accurate reflection of total [3H]pABA incorporation by P. carinii. Greater than 95% of the 3H recovered was shown to be present as polyglutamated species. After digestion with rat plasma folic acid gamma-glutamyl hydrolase, para-aminobenzoylglutamate, N10-formyltetrahydrofolate, and tetrahydrofolate were identified as the major 3H-labeled components. para-Aminobenzoylglutamate was presumed to have arisen from folylpolyglutamates synthesized by P. carinii and was therefore included in the calculation of total [3H]pABA incorporation. P. carinii incorporation of [3H]pABA under optimal conditions was used as a selective measure of in vitro viability against which the inhibitory effects of some antipneumocystis agents (pentamidine, sulfamethoxazole, 566C80, and piritrexim) were quantitated. The concentrations of pentamidine, sulfamethoxazole, 566C80, and piritrexim required for 50% inhibition in this assay were 7.3, 0.1, 1.4, and approximately 100 microM, respectively. The results suggest that this 96-well [3H]pABA incorporation assay has considerable potential for objective in vitro drug screening against P. carinii. PMID:1759815

Comley, J C; Mullin, R J; Wolfe, L A; Hanlon, M H; Ferone, R

1991-01-01

13

Transporter assays using solid supported membranes: a novel screening platform for drug discovery.  

PubMed

Transporters are important targets in drug discovery. However, high throughput-capable assays for this class of membrane proteins are still missing. Here we present a novel drug discovery platform technology based on solid supported membranes. The functional principles of the technology are described, and a sample selection of transporter assays is discussed: the H(+)-dependent peptide transporter PepT1, the gastric proton pump, and the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. This technology promises to have an important impact on the drug discovery process. PMID:17115928

Kelety, Bela; Diekert, Kerstin; Tobien, Joanna; Watzke, Natalie; Dörner, Wolfgang; Obrdlik, Petr; Fendler, Klaus

2006-10-01

14

Model for High-Throughput Screening of Multitarget Drugs in Chemical Neurosciences: Synthesis, Assay, and Theoretic Study of Rasagiline Carbamates  

PubMed Central

The disappointing results obtained in recent clinical trials renew the interest in experimental/computational techniques for the discovery of neuroprotective drugs. In this context, multitarget or multiplexing QSAR models (mt-QSAR/mx-QSAR) may help to predict neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs in multiple assays, on drug targets, and in model organisms. In this work, we study a data set downloaded from CHEMBL; each data point (>8000) contains the values of one out of 37 possible measures of activity, 493 assays, 169 molecular or cellular targets, and 11 different organisms (including human) for a given compound. In this work, we introduce the first mx-QSAR model for neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs based on the MARCH-INSIDE (MI) method. First, we used MI to calculate the stochastic spectral moments (structural descriptors) of all compounds. Next, we found a model that classified correctly 2955 out of 3548 total cases in the training and validation series with Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity values > 80%. The model also showed excellent results in Computational-Chemistry simulations of High-Throughput Screening (CCHTS) experiments, with accuracy = 90.6% for 4671 positive cases. Next, we reported the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of new rasagiline derivatives. We carried out three different experimental tests: assay (1) in the absence of neurotoxic agents, assay (2) in the presence of glutamate, and assay (3) in the presence of H2O2. Compounds 11 with 27.4%, 8 with 11.6%, and 9 with 15.4% showed the highest neuroprotective effects in assays (1), (2), and (3), respectively. After that, we used the mx-QSAR model to carry out a CCHTS of the new compounds in >400 unique pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally. Consequently, this model may become a promising auxiliary tool for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23855599

2013-01-01

15

Model for high-throughput screening of multitarget drugs in chemical neurosciences: synthesis, assay, and theoretic study of rasagiline carbamates.  

PubMed

The disappointing results obtained in recent clinical trials renew the interest in experimental/computational techniques for the discovery of neuroprotective drugs. In this context, multitarget or multiplexing QSAR models (mt-QSAR/mx-QSAR) may help to predict neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs in multiple assays, on drug targets, and in model organisms. In this work, we study a data set downloaded from CHEMBL; each data point (>8000) contains the values of one out of 37 possible measures of activity, 493 assays, 169 molecular or cellular targets, and 11 different organisms (including human) for a given compound. In this work, we introduce the first mx-QSAR model for neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs based on the MARCH-INSIDE (MI) method. First, we used MI to calculate the stochastic spectral moments (structural descriptors) of all compounds. Next, we found a model that classified correctly 2955 out of 3548 total cases in the training and validation series with Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity values>80%. The model also showed excellent results in Computational-Chemistry simulations of High-Throughput Screening (CCHTS) experiments, with accuracy=90.6% for 4671 positive cases. Next, we reported the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of new rasagiline derivatives. We carried out three different experimental tests: assay (1) in the absence of neurotoxic agents, assay (2) in the presence of glutamate, and assay (3) in the presence of H2O2. Compounds 11 with 27.4%, 8 with 11.6%, and 9 with 15.4% showed the highest neuroprotective effects in assays (1), (2), and (3), respectively. After that, we used the mx-QSAR model to carry out a CCHTS of the new compounds in >400 unique pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally. Consequently, this model may become a promising auxiliary tool for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23855599

Alonso, Nerea; Caamańo, Olga; Romero-Duran, Francisco J; Luan, Feng; D S Cordeiro, M Natália; Yańez, Matilde; González-Díaz, Humberto; García-Mera, Xerardo

2013-10-16

16

A real-time impedance-based screening assay for drug-induced vascular leakage.  

PubMed

Vascular leakage is a serious side effect of therapies based on monoclonal antibodies or cytokines which may lead to life-threatening situations. With the steady increase of new drug development programs for large molecules, there is an urgent need for reliable tools to assess this potential liability of new medicines in a rapid and cost-effective manner. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model for endothelium, we established an impedance-based assay measuring the integrity of the endothelial cell monolayer in real time. We could demonstrate that the HUVEC monolayer in our system was a relevant model as cells expressed major junctional proteins known to be responsible for maintaining tightness as well as receptors targeted by molecules known to induce vascular leakage in vivo. We assessed the time-dependent loss of barrier function using impedance and confirmed that signals obtained corresponded well to those from standard transwell assays. We assayed a series of reference molecules which led to the expected change of barrier integrity. A nonspecific cytotoxic effect could be excluded by using human fibroblasts as a nonresponder cell line. Finally, we could show reversibility of vascular permeability induced by histamine, IL-1?, or TNF-? by coincubation with established antagonists, further demonstrating relevance of this new model. Taken together, our results suggest that impedance in combination with HUVECs as a specific model can be applied to assess clinically relevant vascular leakage on an in vitro level. PMID:24385420

Kustermann, Stefan; Manigold, Tobias; Ploix, Corinne; Skubatz, Marion; Heckel, Tobias; Hinton, Heather; Weiser, Thomas; Singer, Thomas; Suter, Laura; Roth, Adrian

2014-04-01

17

Microfluidic Cell Culture and Its Application in High Throughput Drug Screening: Cardiotoxicity Assay for hERG Channels  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of drug cardiotoxicity is essential to the safe development of novel pharmaceuticals. Assessing a compound's risk for prolongation of the surface electrocardiographic QT interval, and hence risk for life threatening arrhythmias is mandated before approval of nearly all new pharmaceuticals. QT prolongation has most commonly been associated with loss of current through hERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene) potassium ion channels due to direct block of the ion channel by drugs or occasionally by inhibition of the plasma membrane expression of the channel protein. To develop an efficient, reliable, and cost-effective hERG screening assay for detecting drug-mediated disruption of hERG membrane trafficking, we demonstrate the use of microfluidic-based systems to improve throughput and lower cost of current methods. We validate our microfluidics array platform in polystyrene (PS), cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannels for drug-induced disruption of hERG trafficking by culturing stably transfected HEK cells that overexpressed hERG (WT-hERG), and studying their morphology, proliferation rates, hERG protein expression, and response to drug treatment. Our results show that WT-hERG cells readily proliferate in PS, COP, and PDMS microfluidic channels. We demonstrated that conventional Western blot analysis was possible using cell lysate extracted from a single microchannel. The Western blot analysis also provided important evidence that WT-hERG cells cultured in microchannels maintained regular (well plate-based) expression of hERG. We further showed that experimental procedures can be streamlined by using direct in-channel immunofluorescent staining in conjunction with detection using an infrared scanner. Finally, treatment of WT-hERG cells with five different drugs suggested that PS (and COP) microchannels were more suitable than PDMS microchannels for drug screening applications, particularly for tests involving hydrophobic drug molecules. PMID:21131594

Su, Xiaojing; Young, Edmond W.K.; Underkofler, Heather A. S.; Kamp, Timothy J.; January, Craig T.; Beebe, David J.

2011-01-01

18

DSE-FRET: A new anticancer drug screening assay for DNA binding proteins.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a key regulator of cancer progression and the inflammatory effects of disease. To identify inhibitors of DNA binding to NF-?B, we developed a new homogeneous method for detection of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. This method, which we refer to as DSE-FRET, is based on two phenomena: protein-dependent blocking of spontaneous DNA strand exchange (DSE) between partially double-stranded DNA probes, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). If a probe labeled with a fluorophore and quencher is mixed with a non-labeled probe in the absence of a target protein, strand exchange occurs between the probes and results in fluorescence elevation. In contrast, blocking of strand exchange by a target protein results in lower fluorescence intensity. Recombinant human NF-?B (p50) suppressed the fluorescence elevation of a specific probe in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on a non-specific probe. Competitors bearing a NF-?B binding site restored fluorescence, and the degree of restoration was inversely correlated with the number of nucleotide substitutions within the NF-?B binding site of the competitor. Evaluation of two NF-?B inhibitors, Evans Blue and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin ([-]-DHMEQ), was carried out using p50 and p52 (another form of NF-?B), and IC50 values were obtained. The DSE-FRET technique also detected the differential effect of (-)-DHMEQ on p50 and p52 inhibition. These data indicate that DSE-FRET can be used for high throughput screening of anticancer drugs targeted to DNA-binding proteins. PMID:24724610

Miyagi, Toru; Shiotani, Bunsyo; Miyoshi, Ryuya; Yamamoto, Takuya; Oka, Takanori; Umezawa, Kazuo; Ochiya, Takahiro; Takano, Mikihisa; Tahara, Hidetoshi

2014-07-01

19

A Novel High Throughput Assay for Anthelmintic Drug Screening and Resistance Diagnosis by Real-Time Monitoring of Parasite Motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHelminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed

Michael J. Smout; Andrew C. Kotze; James S. McCarthy; Alex Loukas

2010-01-01

20

Development and validation of a chemiluminescent immunodetection assay amenable to High Throughput Screening of antiviral drugs for Nipah and Hendra Virus  

PubMed Central

There are currently no antiviral drugs approved for the highly lethal Biosafety Level Four pathogens Nipah and Hendra virus. A number of researchers are developing surrogate assays amenable to Biosafety Level Two biocontainment but ultimately, the development of a High Throughput Screening method for directly quantifying these viruses in a Biosafety Level Four environment will be critical for final evaluation of antiviral drugs identified in surrogate assays, in addition to reducing the time required for effective antiviral drug development. By adapting an existing immunoplaque assay and using enzyme linked immunodetection in a microtitre plate format, the current experiments describe a simple two step assay protocol involving an overnight virus inoculation of Vero cell monolayers (with or without antiviral drug treatment) at Biosafety Level Four, followed by cell fixation and virus inactivation enabling removal of plates from the Biosafety Level Four laboratory and a subsequent immunodetection assay using a chemiluminescent Horse Radish Peroxidase substrate to be performed at Biosafety Level Two. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection) of this assay is 100 Tissue Culture Infectious Dose50/ml of either Nipah or Hendra virus. In addition this assay enables linear quantitation of virus over three orders of magnitude and is unaffected by Dimethyl Sulfoxide concentrations of 1% or less. Intra-assay coefficients of variation are acceptable (less than 20%) when detecting a minimum of 1,000 Tissue Culture Infectious Dose50/ml of either virus although inter-assay variation is considerably greater. By an assessment of efficacies of the broad spectrum antiviral Ribavirin and an experimental fusion inhibitory peptide, this assay reveals a good correlation with previously published fluorescent immunodetection assays. The current experiments describe for the first time, a High Throughput Screening method amenable for direct assessment of live henipavirus antiviral drug activity. PMID:18313148

Aljofan, Mohamad; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne; Mungall, Bruce A.

2008-01-01

21

Evaluation of the Vitotox and RadarScreen assays for the rapid assessment of genotoxicity in the early research phase of drug development.  

PubMed

The Vitotox and RadarScreen assays were evaluated as early screens for mutagenicity and clastogenicity, respectively. The Vitotox assay is a bacterial reporter assay in Salmonella typhimurium based on the SOS-response, and it contains a luciferase gene under control of the recN promoter. The RadarScreen assay is a RAD54 promoter-linked beta-galactosidase reporter assay in yeast. The expression of this beta-galactosidase can easily be quantified by use of the substrate d-luciferin-o-beta-galactopyranoside, which is converted into galactose and luciferin that can be measured luminometrically. Recently, an ECVAM workgroup defined a list of 20 genotoxic and 42 non-genotoxic compounds [D. Kirkland, P. Kasper, L. Muller, R. Corvi, G. Speit, Recommended lists of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals for assessment of the performance of new or improved genotoxicity tests: a follow-up to an ECVAM workshop, Mutat. Res. 653 (2008) 99-108.] that can be used for the validation and/or optimization of in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study, this compound set was used for the validation of the assays. Moreover, an additional set of 192 compounds was used to broaden this validation study. The compounds of this additional set can be classified as non-genotoxins and genotoxins and consists of both in-house and reference compounds. In case of the ECVAM compound list, the results from the Vitotox and RadarScreen assays were compared to the genotoxic/non-genotoxic classification of the compounds in this list. In case of the additionally tested compounds, the results of the Vitotox and RadarScreen assays were compared, respectively, with bacterial mutagenicity (Ames) results or in vitro clastogenicity data obtained in-house or from the literature. The validation with respect to the ECVAM compound list resulted in a sensitivity for both the Vitotox and RadarScreen assay of 70% (14/20). If both assays were combined the sensitivity increased to 85% (17/20). Both tests also gave a low number of false positive results. The specificity of the Vitotox and RadarScreen assays was 93% (39/42) and 83% (35/42), respectively. This resulted in a predictivity of the Vitotox and RadarScreen assay of 85% (53/62) and 79% (49/62), respectively. In case both tests were combined the specificity and the predictivity of the Vitotox and RadarScreen assay turned out to be 81% (34/42) and 82% (51/62), respectively. The results from the additional list of 192 compounds confirmed the results found with the ECVAM compound list. The results from the Vitotox assay showed a high correlation with Ames test of 91% (132/145). Subsequently, the RadarScreen assay had a correlation with in vitro clastogenicity of 76% (93/123). The specificity of the Vitotox assay was 94% (90/96) for Ames test results and that of the RadarScreen assay was 74% (34/46) for clastogenicity. Moreover, the sensitivities of the Vitotox and RadarScreen assays were 86% (42/49) and 77% (59/77), respectively. Implementation of the Vitotox and RadarScreen assays in the early research phase of drug development can lead to fast de-selection for genotoxicity. It is expected that this application will reduce the number of compounds that have a positive score in the regulatory Ames and clastogenicity tests. Moreover, problems with a complete compound class can be foreseen at an early time point in the research phase, which gives more time for issue resolution than late detection of these problems with the regulatory tests. PMID:19393335

Westerink, Walter M A; Stevenson, Joe C R; Lauwers, Annick; Griffioen, Gerard; Horbach, G Jean; Schoonen, Willem G E J

2009-05-31

22

Detectability of new psychoactive substances, 'legal highs', in CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunochemical screening assays for drugs of abuse.  

PubMed

The increasing number of new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing may become less effective due to an increased occurrence of false negative and false positive screening results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge about analytical cross-reactivity of new substances in selected CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunoassays for drugs-of-abuse screening. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with 45 new substances. Authentic urine samples from intoxication cases identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were also studied. Several new psychoactive substances were demonstrated to display cross-reactivity in the immunoassays. CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy and EMIT d.a.u. Amphetamine Class tests showed the highest reactivity towards the new drugs, which was expected since many have amphetamine-like structure and activity. In the samples from authentic cases, five new substances displayed 100% detection rate in the CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy test. In conclusion, cross-reactivity data in routine urine drug screening immunoassays for a number of new psychoactive substances not studied before were reported. In both spiked and authentic urine samples, some new substances showed significant cross-reactivity and are thus detectable in the routine screening methods. PMID:24665024

Beck, Olof; Rausberg, Linnea; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Villen, Tomas; Karlsson, Lennart; Hansson, Therese; Helander, Anders

2014-05-01

23

Hydrogel-based diffusion chip with Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) integration for cell viability assay and drug toxicity screening.  

PubMed

In this study, we have provided a novel analytical integration between hydrogel-based cell chip and Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) technique to apply to a high-throughput, real-time cell viability assay and drug screening. For simulating the drug diffusion model, we have developed a hydrogel-based tissue-mimicking structure with microfluidic channel, without unwanted flow, to generate a gradient concentration with long-term stability. Along the gradient line, four individual micro-electrodes were installed to record the impedance signal changes, which result from the cell viability under drug effects. By watching for cellular impedance changes, we successfully estimated the cytotoxicity of the treatment corresponding to the various concentration values of stimuli, generated by the diffusion process along the channel. Reliable IC50 values and time-dose relationships were also achieved. With the feature of real-time monitoring capability, the advantages of non-invasion, label-free detection, time saving and simple manipulation, our integrative device has become a promising high throughput cell-based on-chip platform for cell viability assay and drug screening. PMID:23911660

Tran, Trong Binh; Cho, Sungbo; Min, Junhong

2013-12-15

24

An aptamer-based bio-barcode assay with isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification for cytochrome-c detection and anti-cancer drug screening.  

PubMed

Based on a recently reported ultra-sensitive bio-barcode (BBC) assay, we have developed an aptamer-based bio-barcode (ABC) alternative to detect a cell death marker cytochrome-c (Cyto-c) and its subsequent application to screen anti-cancer drugs. Aptamer is a short single-stranded DNA selected from a synthetic DNA library by virtue of its high binding affinity and specificity to its target based on its unique 3D structure from the nucleotide sequence after folding. In the BBC assay, an antigen (Ag) in analytes is captured by a micro-magnetic particle (MMP) coated with capturing antibodies (Abs). Gold nanoparticles (NPs) with another recognition Ab against the same target and hundreds of identical DNA molecules of known sequence are subsequently added to allow the formation of sandwich structures ([MMP-Ab1]-Ag-[Ab2-NP-DNA]). After isolating the sandwiches by a magnetic field, the DNAs hybridized to their complementary DNAs covalently bound on the NPs are released from the sandwiches after heating. Acting as an Ag identification tag, these bio-barcode DNAs with known DNA sequence are then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detected by fluorescence. In our ABC assay, we employed a Cyto-c-specific aptamer to substitute both the recognition Ab and barcode DNAs on the NPs in the BBC assay; and a novel isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification for the time-consuming PCR. The detection limit of our ABC assay for the Cyto-c was found to be 10 ng/mL and this new assay can be completed within 3h. Several potential anti-cancer drugs have been tested in vitro for their efficacy to kill liver cancer with or without multi-drug resistance. PMID:24054573

Loo, Jacky F C; Lau, P M; Ho, H P; Kong, S K

2013-10-15

25

Screening Compounds with a Novel High-Throughput ABCB1-Mediated Efflux Assay Identifies Drugs with Known Therapeutic Targets at Risk for Multidrug Resistance Interference  

PubMed Central

ABCB1, also known as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), is a membrane-associated multidrug transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. It is one of the most widely studied transporters that enable cancer cells to develop drug resistance. Reliable high-throughput assays that can identify compounds that interact with ABCB1 are crucial for developing new therapeutic drugs. A high-throughput assay for measuring ABCB1-mediated calcein AM efflux was developed using a fluorescent and phase-contrast live cell imaging system. This assay demonstrated the time- and dose-dependent accumulation of fluorescent calcein in ABCB1-overexpressing KB-V1 cells. Validation of the assay was performed with known ABCB1 inhibitors, XR9576, verapamil, and cyclosporin A, all of which displayed dose-dependent inhibition of ABCB1-mediated calcein AM efflux in this assay. Phase-contrast and fluorescent images taken by the imaging system provided additional opportunities for evaluating compounds that are cytotoxic or produce false positive signals. Compounds with known therapeutic targets and a kinase inhibitor library were screened. The assay identified multiple agents as inhibitors of ABCB1-mediated efflux and is highly reproducible. Among compounds identified as ABCB1 inhibitors, BEZ235, BI 2536, IKK 16, and ispinesib were further evaluated. The four compounds inhibited calcein AM efflux in a dose-dependent manner and were also active in the flow cytometry-based calcein AM efflux assay. BEZ235, BI 2536, and IKK 16 also successfully inhibited the labeling of ABCB1 with radiolabeled photoaffinity substrate [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin. Inhibition of ABCB1 with XR9576 and cyclosporin A enhanced the cytotoxicity of BI 2536 to ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells, HCT-15-Pgp, and decreased the IC50 value of BI 2536 by several orders of magnitude. This efficient, reliable, and simple high-throughput assay has identified ABCB1 substrates/inhibitors that may influence drug potency or drug-drug interactions and predict multidrug resistance in clinical treatment. PMID:23593196

Ansbro, Megan R.; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Li, Luowei

2013-01-01

26

Development of High-throughput and Robust Microfluidic Live Cell Assay Platforms for Combination Drug and Toxin Screening  

E-print Network

concentration-dependent components of a mixture. Conventional microtiter plate format based assays are efficient and cost-effective, however are not practical as the number of combinations increases drastically. Although robotic pipetting systems can overcome...

Wang, Han

2012-02-14

27

Feasibility of Drug Screening with Panels of Human Tumor Cell Lines Using a Microculture Tetrazolium Assay1  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 30 years strategies for the prcclinical discovery and development of potential anticancer agents have been based largely upon the testing of agents in mice bearing transplantable leukemias and solid tumors derived from a limited number of murine as well as human sources. The feasibility of implementing an alternate approach, namely combined in vitro\\/in vivo screening for selective

Michael C. Alley; Dominic A. Scudiere; Anne Monks; Miriam L. Hursey; Maciej J. Czerwinski; Donald L. Fine; Betty J. Abbott; Joseph G. Mayo; Robert H. Shoemaker; Michael R. Boyd

1988-01-01

28

Screening in a cell-based assay for inhibitors of microglial nitric oxide production reveals calmodulin-regulated protein kinases as potential drug discovery targets.  

PubMed

A high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) production by activated microglia was developed and used to compare the relative activities of various anti-inflammatory compounds and cell-permeable protein kinase inhibitors. BV-2 cells, an immortalized line that retains phenotypic features of microglia and produces NO in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were used in the activation paradigm for the HTS assay. A characteristic feature of the compounds that were the most potent dose-dependent inhibitors of NO production is their ability to modulate serine/threonine protein kinases. The anti-inflammatory compound K252a, an inhibitor of calmodulin (CaM)-regulated protein kinases, had one of the highest potencies in the assay. Other classes of kinase inhibitors, including the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89, the mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors PD98059 and SB203580, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, were less potent and efficacious than K252a or the general serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase inhibitor staurosporine. K252a suppresses production of the inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). The inhibitory effect of K252a is not due to cell toxicity and does not correlate with inhibition of NFkappaB nuclear translocation. The mechanism of action appears to involve inhibition of phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, a protein whose activity is modulated by phosphorylation by CaM-dependent protein kinases. These data suggest that signal transduction pathways mediated by CaM-dependent protein kinases warrant future study as potential drug discovery targets. PMID:10536268

Mirzoeva, S; Koppal, T; Petrova, T V; Lukas, T J; Watterson, D M; Van Eldik, L J

1999-10-01

29

Solid-state electrochemical assay of heme-binding molecules for screening of drugs with antimalarial potential.  

PubMed

The interaction between heme and ligands is the basis for a variety of tests aimed at the discovery of antiplasmodial molecules. Two electrochemical methods for the screening of molecules with potential antimalarial activity through heme-binding mechanism are described. The first method is applicable to lipophilic environment, by using solution phase electrochemistry in DMSO solutions of Fe(III)-heme plus the tested compounds at carbon electrodes. This method provides well-defined voltammetric signals, characteristic of the heme-ligand (L) interaction. The second method involves aqueous media at biological pH and the use of voltammetry of immobilized particles, by means of microparticulate films of the tested compounds immersed into Fe(III)-heme solutions with no need of prior incubation. These methodologies are applied to the testing of heme-binding activity in macromolecular level systems like hemoglobin, or much more complex mixtures like total blood, erythrocytes, or hemolyzed samples. PMID:23506072

Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Maciuk, Alexandre; Figadčre, Bruno; Poupon, Erwan; Cebrián-Torrejón, Gerardo

2013-04-16

30

Pharmacological Profile of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Splice Variant Translation Using a Novel Drug Screening Assay: A "QUANTITATIVE CODE".  

PubMed

The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neuronal development and plasticity. BDNF is a major pharmaceutical target in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, pharmacological modulation of this neurotrophin is challenging because BDNF is generated by multiple, alternatively spliced transcripts with different 5'- and 3'UTRs. Each BDNF mRNA variant is transcribed independently, but translation regulation is unknown. To evaluate the translatability of BDNF transcripts, we developed an in vitro luciferase assay in human neuroblastoma cells. In unstimulated cells, each BDNF 5'- and 3'UTR determined a different basal translation level of the luciferase reporter gene. However, constructs with either a 5'UTR or a 3'UTR alone showed poor translation modulation by BDNF, KCl, dihydroxyphenylglycine, AMPA, NMDA, dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, or serotonin. Constructs consisting of the luciferase reporter gene flanked by the 5'UTR of one of the most abundant BDNF transcripts in the brain (exons 1, 2c, 4, and 6) and the long 3'UTR responded selectively to stimulation with the different receptor agonists, and only transcripts 2c and 6 were increased by the antidepressants desipramine and mirtazapine. We propose that BDNF mRNA variants represent "a quantitative code" for regulated expression of the protein. Thus, to discriminate the efficacy of drugs in stimulating BDNF synthesis, it is appropriate to use variant-specific in vitro screening tests. PMID:25074925

Vaghi, Valentina; Polacchini, Alessio; Baj, Gabriele; Pinheiro, Vera L M; Vicario, Annalisa; Tongiorgi, Enrico

2014-10-01

31

Design and Implementation of High Throughput Screening Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

High throughput screening (HTS) is at the core of the drug discovery process, and so it is critical to design and implement\\u000a HTS assays in a comprehensive fashion involving scientists from the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, and informatics.\\u000a This requires careful analysis of many variables, starting with the choice of assay target and ending with the discovery of\\u000a lead

Ricardo Macarrón; Robert P. Hertzberg

2011-01-01

32

Solid-Phase Biological Assays for Drug Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past 30 years, there has been a significant growth in the use of solid-phase assays in the area of drug discovery, with a range of new assays being used for both soluble and membrane-bound targets. In this review, we provide some basic background to typical drug targets and immobilization protocols used in solid-phase biological assays (SPBAs) for drug discovery, with emphasis on particularly labile biomolecular targets such as kinases and membrane-bound receptors, and highlight some of the more recent approaches for producing protein microarrays, bioaffinity columns, and other devices that are central to small molecule screening by SPBA. We then discuss key applications of such assays to identify drug leads, with an emphasis on the screening of mixtures. We conclude by highlighting specific advantages and potential disadvantages of SPBAs, particularly as they relate to particular assay formats.

Forsberg, Erica M.; Sicard, Clémence; Brennan, John D.

2014-06-01

33

Screening of antifungal azole drugs and agrochemicals with an adapted alamarBlue-based assay demonstrates antibacterial activity of croconazole against Mycobacterium ulcerans.  

PubMed

An alamarBlue-based growth inhibition assay has been adapted for the thermosensitive and slow-growing pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. The standardized test procedure enables medium-throughput screening of preselected compound libraries. Testing of a set of 48 azoles with known antifungal activity led to the identification of an imidazole antifungal displaying an inhibitory dose (ID) of 9 ?M for M. ulcerans. PMID:23006761

Scherr, Nicole; Röltgen, Katharina; Witschel, Matthias; Pluschke, Gerd

2012-12-01

34

Schistosomiasis Drug Screening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From a total of 5,000 WR compounds which have been screened so far, 75 have been found to produce oogram changes in laboratory animals infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The antischistosomal activity of quinine and isomers, thiosinamine, diphenylsulfones,...

J. Pellegrino

1972-01-01

35

Image-Based Screening of Signal Transduction Assays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imaging techniques have played a vital role in signal transduction research over several decades. Recently, industrialized macro- and micro-imaging systems have found application in drug discovery laboratories, where they increase the throughput and efficiency of drug screening. Macro-imagers are used for primary screening, where they favor compound conservation (through assay miniaturization), and achieve unprecedented rates of throughput. Micro-imaging systems achieve relatively high throughput, at the same time providing sub-cellular resolution with fixed or living cells. These micro-imaging analyses were previously conducted at very low throughput and, typically, were the sole domain of the academic researcher. Although both macro and micro forms of image-based screening remain technologies in development, they have already made substantial contributions to screening programs and will continue to do so.

Peter Ramm (Brock University;Imaging Research REV); Nick Thomas (Whitchurch;Amersham Biosciences, The Maynard Centre, Forest Farm REV)

2003-04-08

36

A novel Leishmania major amastigote assay in 96-well format for rapid drug screening and its use for discovery and evaluation of a new class of leishmanicidal quinolinium salts.  

PubMed

In most laboratories, the screening for leishmanicidal compounds is carried out with Leishmania promastigotes or axenic amastigotes. However, the best approach to identify leishmanicidal compounds is the use of amastigotes residing in macrophages. Reporter gene-based assays are relatively new tools in the search for drugs against eucaryotic protozoa, permitting the development of faster, more automated assays. In this paper, we report on the establishment of a rapid screening assay in a 96-well format. A luciferase-transgenic (Luc-tg) Leishmania major strain was generated and used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Amastigote-infected BMDM were treated with different compound concentrations. Cells were lysed with a luciferin-containing buffer, and the resulting luminescence was measured to determine the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). To validate this new amastigote screening assay, a library of a new class of quinolinium salts was synthesized and tested for leishmanicidal activity. Some of the quinolinium salts showed very promising activities, with IC50s against intracellular amastigotes (IC50 < 1 ?g/ml) and selectivity indices (SI > 20) that match the criteria of World Health Organization (WHO) for hits. Compound 21c (IC50 = 0.03 ?g/ml; SI = 358) could become a new lead structure for the development of improved chemotherapeutic drugs against L. major. In summary, we describe the establishment of a new 96-well format assay with Luc-transgenic L. major for the rapid screening of compounds for leishmanicidal activity against intracellular amastigotes and its application to the identification of a new class of quinolinium salts with most promising leishmanicidal activity. PMID:23587955

Bringmann, Gerhard; Thomale, Katja; Bischof, Sebastian; Schneider, Christoph; Schultheis, Martina; Schwarz, Tobias; Moll, Heidrun; Schurigt, Uta

2013-07-01

37

A Novel Leishmania major Amastigote Assay in 96-Well Format for Rapid Drug Screening and Its Use for Discovery and Evaluation of a New Class of Leishmanicidal Quinolinium Salts  

PubMed Central

In most laboratories, the screening for leishmanicidal compounds is carried out with Leishmania promastigotes or axenic amastigotes. However, the best approach to identify leishmanicidal compounds is the use of amastigotes residing in macrophages. Reporter gene-based assays are relatively new tools in the search for drugs against eucaryotic protozoa, permitting the development of faster, more automated assays. In this paper, we report on the establishment of a rapid screening assay in a 96-well format. A luciferase-transgenic (Luc-tg) Leishmania major strain was generated and used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Amastigote-infected BMDM were treated with different compound concentrations. Cells were lysed with a luciferin-containing buffer, and the resulting luminescence was measured to determine the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). To validate this new amastigote screening assay, a library of a new class of quinolinium salts was synthesized and tested for leishmanicidal activity. Some of the quinolinium salts showed very promising activities, with IC50s against intracellular amastigotes (IC50 < 1 ?g/ml) and selectivity indices (SI > 20) that match the criteria of World Health Organization (WHO) for hits. Compound 21c (IC50 = 0.03 ?g/ml; SI = 358) could become a new lead structure for the development of improved chemotherapeutic drugs against L. major. In summary, we describe the establishment of a new 96-well format assay with Luc-transgenic L. major for the rapid screening of compounds for leishmanicidal activity against intracellular amastigotes and its application to the identification of a new class of quinolinium salts with most promising leishmanicidal activity. PMID:23587955

Thomale, Katja; Bischof, Sebastian; Schneider, Christoph; Schultheis, Martina; Schwarz, Tobias; Moll, Heidrun

2013-01-01

38

A High Throughput Screening Assay for Fungicidal Compounds against  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes meningitis world-wide, particularly in HIV-infected individuals. Although amphotericin B is the “gold standard” treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, the toxicity and inconvenience of intravenous injection emphasizes a need for development of new anti-cryptocccal drugs. Recent data from humans and animal studies suggested that a nutrient-deprived host environment may exist in cryptococcal meningitis. Thus, a screening assay for identifying fungicidal compounds under nutrient-deprived conditions may provide an alternative strategy to develop new anti-cryptococcal drugs for this disease. A high throughput fungicidal assay was developed using a profluorescent dye, alamarBlue, to detect residual metabolic activity of C. neoformans under nutrient-limiting conditions. Screening a library of pharmaceutically active compounds (LOPAC) with this assay identified a potential chemical scaffold, 10058-F4 that exhibited fungicidal activity in the low micromolar range. These results thus demonstrate the feasibility of this alamarBlue-based assay for high throughput screening of fungicidal compounds under nutrient-limiting conditions for new anti-cryptococcal drug development. PMID:23896686

Dehdashti, Jean; Henderson, Christina; Zelazny, Adrian; Metallo, Steven J; Zheng, Wei; Williamson, Peter R.

2014-01-01

39

Screening models for antipsychotic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Development of effective screening strategies for improved antipsychotic drugs (APDs) rely primarily on the actual hypotheses\\u000a for mechanism of action of these compounds. In the early times of the dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia animal models\\u000a were designed to detect compounds which blocked the behavioural effects of high doses of dopaminergic drugs (e.g. amphetamine-,\\u000a apomorphine-and methylphenidate-induced stereotyped behaviour). Whenin vitroreceptor

Jorn Arnt

40

An assessment of the utility of the yeast GreenScreen assay in pharmaceutical screening.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe an initial reproducibility study of 12 proprietary compounds followed by the assessment of 51 marketed pharmaceuticals and, lastly, a summary of the data so far from 2698 proprietary compounds from the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) compound library, in the yeast GreenScreen assay (GSA). In this assay, a reporter system in the yeast cells employs the DNA damage inducible promoter of the RAD54 gene, fused to the extremely stable green fluorescent protein (GFP). The assay proved to be very robust, the Excel templates provided by Gentronix with the assay interfaced well with in-house J&J systems with little adaptation, the assay was very rapid to perform and used very little compound. The results confirm previous work which suggests that the yeast GSA detects different classes of genotoxic compounds to the Ames assay and as a result can help screen out important genotoxic compounds at the pre-regulatory test phase that are missed by Ames-test-based screens alone. A combination of SAR evaluation of genotoxicity plus an Ames-test-based screen and the GSA provides a powerful pre-regulatory test battery to aid in the selection of successful drug candidates. PMID:16291732

Van Gompel, J; Woestenborghs, F; Beerens, D; Mackie, C; Cahill, P A; Knight, A W; Billinton, N; Tweats, D J; Walmsley, R M

2005-11-01

41

Protein reporter bioassay systems for the phenotypic screening of candidate drugs: a mouse platform for anti-aging drug screening.  

PubMed

Recent drug discovery efforts have utilized high throughput screening (HTS) of large chemical libraries to identify compounds that modify the activity of discrete molecular targets. The molecular target approach to drug screening is widely used in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, because of the amount of knowledge now available regarding protein structure that has been obtained by computer simulation. The molecular target approach requires that the structure of target molecules, and an understanding of their physiological functions, is known. This approach to drug discovery may, however, limit the identification of novel drugs. As an alternative, the phenotypic- or pathway-screening approach to drug discovery is gaining popularity, particularly in the academic sector. This approach not only provides the opportunity to identify promising drug candidates, but also enables novel information regarding biological pathways to be unveiled. Reporter assays are a powerful tool for the phenotypic screening of compound libraries. Of the various reporter genes that can be used in such assays, those encoding secreted proteins enable the screening of hit molecules in both living cells and animals. Cell- and animal-based screens enable simultaneous evaluation of drug metabolism or toxicity with biological activity. Therefore, drug candidates identified in these screens may have increased biological efficacy and a lower risk of side effects in humans. In this article, we review the reporter bioassay systems available for phenotypic drug discovery. PMID:22438730

Chiba, Takuya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Mori, Ryoichi; Shimokawa, Isao

2012-01-01

42

Screening technologies for ion channel drug discovery.  

PubMed

For every movement, heartbeat and thought, ion channels need to open and close. It is therefore not surprising that their malfunctioning leads to serious diseases. Currently, only approximately 10% of drugs, with a market value in excess of US$10 billion, act on ion channels. The systematic exploitation of this target class has started, enabled by novel assay technologies and fundamental advances of the structural and mechanistic understanding of channel function. The latter, which was rewarded with the Nobel Prize in 2003, has opened up an avenue for rational drug design. In this review we provide an overview of the current repertoire of screening technologies that has evolved to drive ion channel-targeted drug discovery towards new medicines of the future. PMID:21426199

Terstappen, Georg C; Roncarati, Renza; Dunlop, John; Peri, Ravikumar

2010-05-01

43

A fluorescent screening assay for identifying modulators of GIRK channels.  

PubMed

G protein-gated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels function as cellular mediators of a wide range of hormones and neurotransmitters and are expressed in the brain, heart, skeletal muscle and endocrine tissue(1,2). GIRK channels become activated following the binding of ligands (neurotransmitters, hormones, drugs, etc.) to their plasma membrane-bound, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This binding causes the stimulation of G proteins (Gi and Go) which subsequently bind to and activate the GIRK channel. Once opened the GIRK channel allows the movement of K+ out of the cell causing the resting membrane potential to become more negative. As a consequence, GIRK channel activation in neurons decreases spontaneous action potential formation and inhibits the release of excitatory neurotransmitters. In the heart, activation of the GIRK channel inhibits pacemaker activity thereby slowing the heart rate. GIRK channels represent novel targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment neuropathic pain, drug addiction, cardiac arrhythmias and other disorders(3). However, the pharmacology of these channels remains largely unexplored. Although a number of drugs including anti-arrhythmic agents, antipsychotic drugs and antidepressants block the GIRK channel, this inhibition is not selective and occurs at relatively high drug concentrations(3). Here, we describe a real-time screening assay for identifying new modulators of GIRK channels. In this assay, neuronal AtT20 cells, expressing GIRK channels, are loaded with membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dyes such as bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol [DiBAC4(3)] or HLB 021-152 (Figure 1). The dye molecules become strongly fluorescent following uptake into the cells (Figure 1). Treatment of the cells with GPCR ligands stimulates the GIRK channels to open. The resulting K+ efflux out of the cell causes the membrane potential to become more negative and the fluorescent signal to decrease (Figure 1). Thus, drugs that modulate K+ efflux through the GIRK channel can be assayed using a fluorescent plate reader. Unlike other ion channel screening assays, such atomic absorption spectrometry(4) or radiotracer analysis(5), the GIRK channel fluorescent assay provides a fast, real-time and inexpensive screening procedure. PMID:22706581

Vazquez, Maribel; Dunn, Charity A; Walsh, Kenneth B

2012-01-01

44

A RAINBOW TROUT TISSUE SLICE ASSAY FOR SCREENING ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

An in vitro fish liver tissue assay has been developed to test for estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects of xenobiotics. The assay is part of a broader effort to provide multi-level screening of chemicals to enhance......

45

Robust versatile tyrosine kinase assay for HTS in drug discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fluorescence polarization assay was developed as an alternative to the radiolabeled SPA assays currently used to monitor the activity of tyrosine kinases in drug discovery. The assay can be used with enzymes having substrate specificity similar to that of the insulin receptor, the EGF receptor and the Src kinase receptor enzymes. The assay is easy to configure in 96, 384 and 1536-well microplates in assay volumes ranging from (mu) L with minimal efforts. The reconstituted reagents are stable for up to 24 hr at ambient temperatures, thereby minimizing the need for replenishing the stock solutions during the course of a high-throughput screen. Because of the stability and equilibrium kinetics, the assay allows the user the luxury of scheduling the reading of plates any time up to 24 hr after the completion of the assay without substantial deterioration in the assay signal. The antibody and the tracer solutions can also be premixed and added as a preformed complex in a single step. The performance of the assay with the insulin receptor kinase is described. In addition, given the diversity of the substrates used in measuring the activity of different tyrosine kinases, LJL's on-going efforts to provide different antibodies of wide ranging specificity and sensitivity are described.

Deshpande, Sudhir S.; Mineyev, I.; Owicki, John C.

1999-04-01

46

Selection of Drugs to Test the Specificity of the Tg.AC Assay by Screening for Induction of the gadd153 Promoter in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term assays for carcinogenicity testing of chemicals that use transgenic mice designed to have altered expression of genes mechanistically relevant to carcinogenesis are attractive alterna- tives to two-year dosing studies in rodents. The models that have been the received the greatest level of performance evaluation include p53(\\/-), rasH2, Xpa\\/p53(\\/-), and Tg.AC mice. For use of these models in a regulatory

Karol L. Thompson; Frank D. Sistare

2003-01-01

47

A high-throughput screening assay for hydroxynitrile lyase activity.  

PubMed

A high-throughput screening assay for hydroxynitrile lyase activity accepting a wide range of HNL-substrates is presented, which is useful either for enzyme fingerprinting or screening of huge variant libraries generated in metagenome or directed evolution approaches. PMID:17031431

Andexer, Jennifer; Guterl, Jan-Karl; Pohl, Martina; Eggert, Thorsten

2006-10-28

48

Hepatitis C virus: Screening, diagnosis, and interpretation of laboratory assays  

PubMed Central

An estimated 3% of the world population is infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a hepatotropic RNA virus, transmitted primarily via the blood route. The major modes of transmission of the virus include injection drug use, unsafe injection practices, blood transfusion etc. HCV causes chronic hepatitis in about 80% of those infected by it. The mainstay in diagnosing infection with HCV is to initially screen high risk groups for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). The inclusion of serum to cut-off ratio (S/CO) in recent guidelines is helpful in deciding the supplemental assay to be used to confirm initially reactive screening results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT) are used as confirmatory tools, and also to determine viral load prior to initiating treatment. Quantitative NAT has replaced qualitative assays. Genotyping is an important tool in clinical management to predict the likelihood of response and determine the optimal duration of therapy. The impact of this infection has begun to emerge in India. The problem of professional blood donation despite an existing law against it, and flourishing unsafe injection practices, are potential sources for the spread of hepatitis C in our country. All health care practitioners need to understand how to establish or exclude a diagnosis of HCV infection and to interpret the tests correctly. In the absence of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine, and also of post-exposure prophylaxis against the virus, it is imperative to diagnose infection by HCV so as to prevent hepatic insult and the ensuing complications that follow, including primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This review aims to help blood bank staff regarding options for diagnosis and management of donors positive for HCV. PMID:24678168

Gupta, Ekta; Bajpai, Meenu; Choudhary, Aashish

2014-01-01

49

A simple reporter assay for screening claudin-4 modulators.  

PubMed

Claudin-4, a member of a tetra-transmembrane protein family that comprises 27 members, is a key functional and structural component of the tight junction-seal in mucosal epithelium. Modulation of the claudin-4-barrier for drug absorption is now of research interest. Disruption of the claudin-4-seal occurs during inflammation. Therefore, claudin-4 modulators (repressors and inducers) are promising candidates for drug development. However, claudin-4 modulators have never been fully developed. Here, we attempted to design a screening system for claudin-4 modulators by using a reporter assay. We prepared a plasmid vector coding a claudin-4 promoter-driven luciferase gene and established stable reporter gene-expressing cells. We identified thiabendazole, carotene and curcumin as claudin-4 inducers, and potassium carbonate as a claudin-4 repressor by using the reporter cells. They also increased or decreased, respectively, the integrity of the tight junction-seal in Caco-2 cells. This simple reporter system will be a powerful tool for the development of claudin-4 modulators. PMID:22960168

Watari, Akihiro; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo

2012-10-01

50

Microfluidic cell culture systems with integrated sensors for drug screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell-based testing is a key step in drug screening for cancer treatments. A microfluidic platform can permit more precise control of the cell culture microenvironment, such as gradients in soluble factors. These small-scale devices also permit tracking of low cell numbers. As a new screening paradigm, a microscale system for integrated cell culture and drug screening promises to provide a simple, scalable tool to apply standardized protocols used in cellular response assays. With the ability to dynamically control the microenvironment, we can create temporally varying drug profiles to mimic physiologically measured profiles. In addition, low levels of oxygen in cancerous tumors have been linked with drug resistance and decreased likelihood of successful treatment and patient survival. Our work also integrates a thin-film oxygen sensor with a microfluidic oxygen gradient generator which will in future allow us to create spatial oxygen gradients and study effects of hypoxia on cell response to drug treatment. In future, this technology promises to improve cell-based validation in the drug discovery process, decreasing the cost and increasing the speed in screening large numbers of compounds.

Grist, Samantha; Yu, Linfen; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

2012-03-01

51

Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies  

SciTech Connect

Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium (/sup 47/Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO/sub 3/. In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the /sup 47/Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison.

Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

1986-03-01

52

Establishing Assay Cutoffs for HLA Antibody Screening of Apheresis Donors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related deaths. Donor HLA antibodies have been implicated in TRALI cases. Blood centers are implementing TRALI risk reduction strategies based on HLA antibody screening of some subpopulations of ever-pregnant apheresis platelet donors. However, if screening assay cutoffs are too sensitive, donation loss may adversely impact blood availability. STUDY DESIGN Pregnancy history and HLA antibody screening and single antigen bead (SAB) data from blood donors in the REDS-II Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study (LAPS) were evaluated for correlations between assay screening values, HLA antibody titer, and number of HLA antigen specificities. The probabilities of matching a cognate antigen in a recipient were calculated and examined in association with total number of specificities observed and screening values. The relative impact of imposing various screening assay cutoffs or pregnancy stratification was examined in relation to detection of HLA antibody reactive donations and loss of donors and donations. RESULTS We provide evidence that higher HLA Ab screening assay values are associated with maintaining higher screening signals upon dilution and an increased breadth of specificities compared with lower screening values; the latter correlated with an increased risk of a cognate antigen match in potential recipients. Depending upon the TRALI risk reduction strategy used, the potential loss of donations ranged between 0.9 and 6.0%. CONCLUSION This analysis should enable blood centers to decide upon a TRALI risk reduction strategy for apheresis platelets that is consistent with how much donation loss the blood center can tolerate. PMID:21332726

Carrick, Danielle M.; Norris, Philip J.; Endres, Robert O.; Pandey, Suchitra; Kleinman, Steven H.; Wright, David; Sun, Yu; Busch, Michael P.

2011-01-01

53

Assessing the Maximum Predictive Validity for Neuropharmacological Anxiety Screening Assays  

E-print Network

Chapter 15 Assessing the Maximum Predictive Validity for Neuropharmacological Anxiety Screening for this purpose is the novel tank diving paradigm, where zebrafish behavior can easily be modulated by anxiolytic the model, such as comparisons of drug efficacy and the effects of drugs on varying behavioral phenotypes

Kalueff, Allan V.

54

Fluorescent and Lanthanide Labeling for Ligand Screens, Assays, and Imaging  

PubMed Central

The use of fluorescent (or luminescent) and metal contrast agents in high-throughput screens, in vitro assays, and molecular imaging procedures has rapidly expanded in recent years. Here we describe the development and utility of high-affinity ligands for cancer theranostics and other in vitro screening studies. In this context, we also illustrate the syntheses and use of heteromultivalent ligands as targeted imaging agents. PMID:21318902

Josan, Jatinder S.; De Silva, Channa R.; Yoo, Byunghee; Lynch, Ronald M.; Pagel, Mark D.; Vagner, Josef; Hruby, Victor J.

2012-01-01

55

Respirometric acute toxicity screening assay using Daphnia magna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption rate is a universal and sensitive biomarker of viability and metabolic status of aerobic organisms. We applied the optical oxygen sensing method to monitor the respiration of individual Daphnia magna (D. magna) and to develop a simple, automated screening assay for the assessment of acute toxicity of large numbers of chemical and environmental samples. D. magna were exposed

Alice Zitova; Maud Cross; Robert Hernan; John Davenport; Dmitri B. Papkovsky

2009-01-01

56

Assessment of a combination screening assay for celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  A serological screening assay for celiac disease (CD), designed to simultaneously detect IgA and IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase\\u000a (a-tTG) and IgA and IgG deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies (a-DGP), was recently developed. In this study, we establish\\u000a the performance of this assay.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We enrolled 41 CD patients and 18 CD patients on gluten-free diets. The diagnosis of CD was based on histological

Brunetta Porcelli; Fabio Ferretti; Carla Vindigni; Carlo Scapellaato; Lucia Terzuoli

57

ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies Volume 5, Number 1, 2007  

E-print Network

efficiency and enhanced response dynamics by reducing expression lifetime. The performance of assays basedASSAY and Drug Development Technologies Volume 5, Number 1, 2007 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10) as a central paradigm of drug discovery, fluorescence has generally been adopted as the favored methodology

Goldman, Steven A.

58

Label-Free Cytotoxicity Screening Assay by Digital Holographic Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Abstract We introduce a label-free technology based on digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with applicability for screening by imaging, and we demonstrate its capability for cytotoxicity assessment using mammalian living cells. For this first high content screening compatible application, we automatized a digital holographic microscope for image acquisition of cells using commercially available 96-well plates. Data generated through both label-free DHM imaging and fluorescence-based methods were in good agreement for cell viability identification and a Z?-factor close to 0.9 was determined, validating the robustness of DHM assay for phenotypic screening. Further, an excellent correlation was obtained between experimental cytotoxicity dose–response curves and known IC50 values for different toxic compounds. For comparable results, DHM has the major advantages of being label free and close to an order of magnitude faster than automated standard fluorescence microscopy. PMID:23062077

Kühn, Jonas; Shaffer, Etienne; Mena, Julien; Breton, Billy; Parent, Jérôme; Rappaz, Benjamin; Chambon, Marc; Emery, Yves; Magistretti, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Marquet, Pierre

2013-01-01

59

Label-free cytotoxicity screening assay by digital holographic microscopy.  

PubMed

We introduce a label-free technology based on digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with applicability for screening by imaging, and we demonstrate its capability for cytotoxicity assessment using mammalian living cells. For this first high content screening compatible application, we automatized a digital holographic microscope for image acquisition of cells using commercially available 96-well plates. Data generated through both label-free DHM imaging and fluorescence-based methods were in good agreement for cell viability identification and a Z'-factor close to 0.9 was determined, validating the robustness of DHM assay for phenotypic screening. Further, an excellent correlation was obtained between experimental cytotoxicity dose-response curves and known IC50 values for different toxic compounds. For comparable results, DHM has the major advantages of being label free and close to an order of magnitude faster than automated standard fluorescence microscopy. PMID:23062077

Kühn, Jonas; Shaffer, Etienne; Mena, Julien; Breton, Billy; Parent, Jérôme; Rappaz, Benjamin; Chambon, Marc; Emery, Yves; Magistretti, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Marquet, Pierre; Turcatti, Gerardo

2013-03-01

60

A High-throughput Screening Assay for Determining Cellular Levels of Total Tau Protein  

PubMed Central

The microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau has been implicated in the pathology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In the past decade, the hyperphosphorylated and aggregated states of tau protein have been important targets in the drug discovery field for the potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Although several compounds have been reported to reduce the hyperphosphorylated state of tau or impact the stabilization of tau, their therapeutic activities are still to be validated. Recently, reduction of total cellular tau protein has emerged as an alternate intervention point for drug development and a potential treatment of tauopathies. We have developed and optimized a homogenous assay, using the AlphaLISA and HTRF assay technologies, for the quantification of total cellular tau protein levels in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. The signal-to-basal ratios were 375 and 5.3, and the Z’ factors were 0.67 and 0.60 for the AlphaLISA and HTRF tau assays, respectively. The clear advantages of this homogeneous tau assay over conventional total tau assays, such as ELISA and Western blot, are the elimination of plate wash steps and miniaturization of the assay into 1536-well plate format for the ultra–high-throughput screening of large compound libraries. PMID:23905996

Dehdashti, Seameen J.; Zheng, Wei; Gever, Joel R.; Wilhelm, Robert; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Sittampalam, Gurusingham; McKew, John C.; Austin, Christopher P.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2014-01-01

61

High-throughput screening for antimicrobial compounds using a 96-well format bacterial motility absorbance assay.  

PubMed

There is a pressing need to develop new antimicrobial drugs because of the increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics. The preliminary development and validation of a novel methodology for the high-throughput screening of antimicrobial compounds and inhibitors of bacterial motility is described. This method uses a bacterial motility swarming agar assay, combined with the use of offset inoculation of the wells in a standard, clear, 96-well plate, to enable rapid screening of compounds for potential antibiotic and antimotility properties with a standard absorbance microplate reader. Thus, the methodology should be compatible with 96-well laboratory automation technology used in drug discovery and chemical biology studies. To validate the screening method, the Genesis Plus structurally diverse library of 960 biologically active compounds was screened against a motile strain of the gram-negative bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. The average Z' value for the positive and negative motility controls on all 12 compound plates was 0.67 +/- 0.14, and the signal-to-baseline ratio calculated from the positive and negative controls was 5.9 +/- 1.1. A collection of 70 compounds with well-known antimicrobial properties was successfully identified using this assay. PMID:17644774

Malapaka, Venkata R R; Barrese, Albert A; Tripp, Brian C; Tripp, Brian C

2007-09-01

62

Approaches to protozoan drug discovery: phenotypic screening.  

PubMed

Determining the activity of a compound and the potential impact on a diseased state is frequently undertaken using phenotypic or target-based approaches. Phenotypic screens have the advantage of the whole organism being exposed to the compound and thus all the targets and biological pathways associated with it. Cell penetration and access to targets in their "natural" environment are taken into account. Unless utilizing a genetically modified organism with an additional target associated indicator, elucidation of specific target(s) of active compounds is necessary. Target discovery is desirable to allow development of chemical entities based upon knowledge of the target structure. Phenotypic drug discovery has successfully identified new molecular entities for neglected protozoan disease research. In this perspective, the phenotypic approaches used to identify chemical entities for drug discovery and for use as tools against the parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi will be outlined. PMID:23927763

Sykes, Melissa L; Avery, Vicky M

2013-10-24

63

Development of surface plasmon resonance biosensor assays for primary and secondary screening of acetylcholine binding protein ligands.  

PubMed

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors recently gained an important place in drug discovery. Here we present a primary and secondary SPR biosensor screening methodology. The primary screening method is based on a direct binding assay with covalent immobilized drug target proteins. For the secondary screening method, a sequential competition assay has been developed where the captured protein is first exposed to an unknown test compound, followed directly by an exposure to a high-molecular-weight reporter ligand. Using the high-molecular-weight reporter ligand to probe the remaining free binding site on the sensor, a significant signal enhancement is obtained. Furthermore, this assay format allows the validation of the primary direct binding assay format, efficiently revealing false positive data. As a model system, acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), which is a soluble model protein for neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, has been used. The secondary assay is lower in throughput than the primary assay; however, the signal-to-noise ratio is two times higher compared with the direct assay, and it has a z' factor of 0.96. Using both assays, we identified the compound tacrine as a ligand for AChBP. PMID:20599657

Retra, Kim; Geitmann, Matthis; Kool, Jeroen; Smit, August B; de Esch, Iwan J P; Danielson, U Helena; Irth, Hubertus

2010-12-01

64

Evaluation of the Performance of Drug-Drug Interaction Screening Software in Community and Hospital Pharmacies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Computerized drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening is widely used to identify potentially harmful drug combinations in the inpatient and outpatient setting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening software in identifying select clinically significant DDIs in pharmacy computer systems in community and hospital pharmacies. METHODS: Ten community pharmacies and 10 hospital pharmacies in the Tucson metropolitan area

JACOB ABARCA; LISA R. COLÓN; VICTORIA S. WANG; DANIEL C. MALONE; JOHN E. MURPHY; EDWARD P. ARMSTRONG

2006-01-01

65

The cost-effectiveness of screening lung cancer patients for targeted drug sensitivity markers  

PubMed Central

Background: New oncology drugs are being developed in conjunction with companion diagnostics with approval restricting their use to certain biomarker-positive subgroups. We examined the impact of different predictive biomarker screening techniques and population enrichment criteria on the cost-effectiveness of targeted drugs in lung cancer, using ALK and crizotinib to build the initial model. Methods: Health economic modeling of cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year was based on literature review and expert opinion. The modeled population represented advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), eligible for predictive biomarker screening with prescribing restricted to biomarker-positive patients. Results: For assays costing $1400 per person, cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for ALK screening all advanced NSCLC, excluding treatment cost, is $106?707. This falls to $4756 when only a highly enriched population is screened (increasing biomarker frequency from 1.6 to 35.9%). However, the same enrichment involves missing 56% patients who segregate within the unscreened group. Cheaper screening tests that miss some true positives can be more cost-effective if proportional reductions in cost exceed proportion of subjects missed. Generic modeling of idealised screening assays, including treatment cost, reveals a dominant effect of screening cost per person at low biomarker frequencies. Cost-effectiveness of <$100?000 per QALY gained is not achievable at biomarker frequencies <5% (with drug costs $1–5000 per month and screening costs $600–1400 per person). Interpretation: Cost-effectiveness of oncology drugs whose prescribing is restricted to biomarker-positive subgroups should address the cost of detecting marker-positive patients. The cost of screening dominates at low frequencies and strategies to improve cost-effectiveness based on the assay cost, drug cost and the group screened should be considered in these scenarios. PMID:22374459

Atherly, A J; Camidge, D R

2012-01-01

66

21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.  

...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

2014-04-01

67

21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

2013-04-01

68

21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

2010-04-01

69

21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

2012-04-01

70

21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

2011-04-01

71

A Simple Assay to Screen Antimicrobial Compounds Potentiating the Activity of Current Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30%) in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics. PMID:23865073

Iqbal, Junaid; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2013-01-01

72

A simple assay to screen antimicrobial compounds potentiating the activity of current antibiotics.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30%) in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics. PMID:23865073

Iqbal, Junaid; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2013-01-01

73

Chemical Interrogation of the neuronal kinome using a primary cell-based screening assay  

PubMed Central

A fundamental impediment to functional recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury is the lack of sufficient axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system. There is thus a need to develop agents that can stimulate axon growth to re-establish severed connections. Given the critical role played by protein kinases in regulating axon growth and the potential for pharmacological intervention, small molecule protein kinase inhibitors present a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we report a robust cell-based phenotypic assay, utilizing primary rat hippocampal neurons, for identifying small molecule kinase inhibitors that promote neurite growth. The assay is highly reliable and suitable for medium throughput screening, as indicated by its Z?-factor of 0.73. A focused structurally diverse library of protein kinase inhibitors was screened, revealing several compound groups with the ability to strongly and consistently promote neurite growth. The best performing bioassay hit robustly and consistently promoted axon growth in a postnatal cortical slice culture assay. This study can serve as a jumping-off point for structure activity relationship (SAR) and other drug discovery approaches towards the development of drugs for treating SCI and related neurological pathologies. PMID:23480631

Al-Ali, Hassan; Schurer, Stephan C.; Lemmon, Vance P.; Bixby, John L.

2013-01-01

74

An LC-MS assay for the screening of cardiovascular medications in human samples  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular drugs are the most commonly prescribed medications. Some prior assays successfully detect cardiovascular drugs among multiple classes using a single sample. Here, we develop an assay to detect a broad range of cardiovascular drug classes to include commonly used cardiovascular drugs and evaluate the assay’s analytical and statistical properties in a clinical setting. We describe a protocol for drug detection that encompasses 34 commonly prescribed cardiovascular drugs or drug metabolites with a single LC-MS/MS method using 100µl of serum or plasma. Drug classes monitored by this assay include: anticoagulants, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, statins, and vasodilators, as well as digoxin, fenofibrate, and niacin. Analytical accuracy and precision for each drug was evaluated by repeating the assay on spiked samples at low, medium, and high concentrations. In 294 clinical samples obtained from hospitalized patients for whom medication administration was recorded, we evaluated the assay’s statistical sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. For the 34 drugs or drug metabolites, the assay was statistically sensitive (>0.90) for all drugs except captopril (0.25), isosorbide (0.81), and niacin (0.89). The assay was statistically specific for all drugs, with a minimum specificity of 0.94 (aspirin). To our knowledge, this method is the first method of simultaneous analysis of 34 cardiovascular drugs or drug metabolites from nine drug classes evaluated using clinical samples from hospitalized patients. PMID:24013190

Dias, Eduardo; Hachey, Brian; McNaughton, Candace; Nian, Hui; Yu, Chang; Straka, Britt; Brown, Nancy J.; Caprioli, Richard M.

2013-01-01

75

Clinical evaluation and use of urine screening for drug abuse.  

PubMed Central

Urine drug screening is indicated to evaluate patients who show mental status or behavioral changes and to monitor the abstinence of drug abusers. The appropriate timing for collecting urine specimens may vary depending on the suspected drug of abuse and on laboratory factors. Laboratories use a variety of techniques to do urine screens, and these must be understood by clinicians ordering the screens to interpret results correctly. In treating drug-abusing patients, clinicians must apply structured reinforcement in conjunction with urine screen results to aid patients in achieving abstinence. PMID:3176489

Saxon, A J; Calsyn, D A; Haver, V M; Delaney, C J

1988-01-01

76

Pharmacologically active metabolites, combination screening and target identification-driven drug repositioning in antituberculosis drug discovery.  

PubMed

There has been renewed interest in alternative strategies to address bottlenecks in antibiotic development. These include the repurposing of approved drugs for use as novel anti-infective agents, or their exploitation as leads in drug repositioning. Such approaches are especially attractive for tuberculosis (TB), a disease which remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally and, increasingly, is associated with the emergence of drug-resistance. In this review article, we introduce a refinement of traditional drug repositioning and repurposing strategies involving the development of drugs that are based on the active metabolite(s) of parental compounds with demonstrated efficacy. In addition, we describe an approach to repositioning the natural product antibiotic, fusidic acid, for use against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Finally, we consider the potential to exploit the chemical matter arising from these activities in combination screens and permeation assays which are designed to confirm mechanism of action (MoA), elucidate potential synergies in polypharmacy, and to develop rules for drug permeability in an organism that poses a special challenge to new drug development. PMID:24997576

Kigondu, Elizabeth M; Wasuna, Antonina; Warner, Digby F; Chibale, Kelly

2014-08-15

77

Cross-reactivity of designer drugs, including cathinone derivatives, in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of synthetic heroin, designer drugs have been increasing in prevalence in the United States drug market over the past few decades. Recently, 'legal highs' sold as 'bath salts' have become a household term for one such class of designer drugs. While a number of federal and state bans have been enacted, the abuse of these designer drugs still continues. Few assays have been developed for the comprehensive detection of such compounds, so it is important to investigate how they may or may not react in presumptive screens, i.e. pre-existing commercial immunoassays. In this experiment, 16 different ELISA reagents were evaluated to determine the cross-reactivity of 30 designer drugs, including 24 phenylethylamines (including 8 cathinone derivatives), 3 piperazines, and 3 tryptamines. Cross-reactivity towards most drugs was <4% in assays targeting amphetamine or methamphetamine. Compounds such as MDA, MDMA, ethylamphetamine, and ?-methyltryptamine demonstrated cross-reactivities in the range of 30-250%, but data were consistent with both manufacturer's inserts and published literature. When tested against the Randox Mephedrone/Methcathinone kit, cathinone derivatives demonstrated cross-reactivity at concentrations as low as 150 ng/ml. Since this same reagent did not cross-react with other amphetamine-like compounds, it opens the possibility to screen post-mortem specimens without the interference of putrefactive amines. All other assays demonstrated essentially no cross-reactivity towards any of the analytes evaluated. Given these results, a great need exists for more broad-range screening techniques to be applied when analyzing biological specimens by immunoassays for drugs of abuse, specifically the more recent designer drugs. PMID:23677923

Swortwood, Madeleine J; Hearn, W Lee; DeCaprio, Anthony P

2014-01-01

78

High throughput optical sensor arrays for drug screening  

E-print Network

In the world of drug discovery, high throughput whole cell assays are a critical step in discovering therapeutically relevant drug compounds [1]. This report details the development of several novel sensor systems capable ...

Harjes, Daniel I

2006-01-01

79

Drug Resistance Assays for Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of antimicrobial therapy of tuberculosis during the second half of the last century was a turning point in\\u000a the millennium-old history of this disease. However, the problem of drug resistance emerged, and with it, two levels of concern.\\u000a First, such resistance not only poses a public health threat to successful control of TB epidemics, but it also complicates

Leonid Heifets; Gerard Cangelosi

80

A Differential Drug Screen for Compounds That Select Against Antibiotic Resistance  

E-print Network

A Differential Drug Screen for Compounds That Select Against Antibiotic Resistance Remy Chait1, Massachusetts, United States of America Abstract Antibiotics increase the frequency of resistant bacteria of chemicals that counteracts antibiotic resistance. Finally, we show that our assay can more generally permit

Kishony, Roy

81

Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies - radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology - was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. PMID:24952337

Morton, M J; Armstrong, D; Abi Gerges, N; Bridgland-Taylor, M; Pollard, C E; Bowes, J; Valentin, J-P

2014-09-01

82

Screening for drugs of abuse. I: Opiates, amphetamines and cocaine.  

PubMed

(1) In order to provide an efficient and reliable service for drugs of abuse screening in urine, the laboratory should analyse 20-30 samples per week, and the staff should include a scientist with special expertise in the subject. (2) Turnaround times should be between 2-3 days of sample collection. To achieve this aim it may be necessary to make special arrangements for the delivery of samples to the laboratory. Results should preferably be transmitted by electronic mail or facsimile with the necessary precautions for security and confidentiality: hardcopy reports may also be required. (3) Good communications between the requesting clinician and the laboratory are essential. An advisory service should be provided by the laboratory and clinicians should be encouraged to discuss requests and results with laboratory staff. It is important that the laboratory inform doctors of the range of substances detected and the sensitivity and specificity of laboratory assays. (4) Assays should be performed according to the manufacturer's protocols, or by modified methods that have been rigorously validated. Quality control samples should be included in each analytical run and participation in an external quality assessment scheme, e.g. UKNEQAS, is essential to provide independent confirmation and confidence that results compare with those from other laboratories. Other requirements include adequate training and supervision of staff, and careful recording of samples and results. (5) Drugs to be tested will depend on the drug 'scene' in the area but should include those drugs regularly prescribed for maintenance therapy (e.g. methadone, dihydrocodeine, benzodiazepines), and drugs frequently misused (e.g. heroin, buprenorphine, amphetamines, cocaine). (6) Positive results obtained by preliminary screening methods e.g. EMIT, should be confirmed by another analytical technique, e.g. TLC, GC or GC-MS. If there are potentially serious or legal implications, and in employment and preemployment testing, confirmation of positive results is mandatory. In some cases, e.g. checking for methadone or benzodiazepine compliance, it may be considered unnecessary to confirm positive results although possible spiking of samples cannot be excluded without checking for the presence of metabolites by a chromatographic procedure. PMID:7785941

Braithwaite, R A; Jarvie, D R; Minty, P S; Simpson, D; Widdop, B

1995-03-01

83

Convenient cell fusion assay for rapid screening for HIV entry inhibitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV)-induced cell fusion is a critical pathway of HIV spread from infected cells to uninfected cells. A rapid and simple assay was established to measure HIV-induce cell fusion. This study is particularly useful to rapid screen for HIV inhibitors that block HIV cell-to-cell transmission. Present study demonstrated that coculture of HIV-infected cells with uninfected cells at 37 degree(s)C for 2 hours resulted in the highest cell fusion rate. Using this cell fusion assay, we have identified several potent HIV inhibitors targeted to the HIV gp41 core. These antiviral agents can be potentially developed as antiviral drugs for chemotherapy and prophylaxis of HIV infection and AIDS.

Jiang, Shibo; Radigan, Lin; Zhang, Li

2000-03-01

84

Development of high throughput screening assays and pilot screen for inhibitors of metalloproteases meprin ? and ?.  

PubMed

Zinc metalloproteinases meprin ? and meprin ? are implicated in a variety of diseases, such as fibrosis, inflammation and neurodegeneration, however, there are no selective small molecule inhibitors that would allow to study their role in these processes. To address this lack of molecular tools, we have developed high throughput screening assays to enable discovery of inhibitors of both meprin ? and meprin ? and screened a collection of well characterized pharmaceutical agents (library of pharmaceutically active compounds, n?=?1,280 compounds). Two compounds (PPNDS, NF449) confirmed their activity and selectivity for meprin ?. Kinetic studies revealed competitive (PPNDS) and mixed competitive/noncompetitive (NF449) inhibition mechanisms suggesting that binding occurs in meprin ? active site. Both PPNDS and NF449 exhibited low nanomolar IC50 and Ki values making them the most potent and selective inhibitors of meprin ? reported to the date. These results demonstrate the ability of meprin ? and ? assays to identify selective compounds and discard artifacts of primary screening. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 102: 396-406, 2014. PMID:25048711

Madoux, Franck; Tredup, Claudia; Spicer, Timothy P; Scampavia, Louis; Chase, Peter S; Hodder, Peter S; Fields, Gregg B; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Minond, Dmitriy

2014-09-01

85

Translation of a tumor microenvironment mimicking 3D tumor growth co-culture assay platform to high-content screening.  

PubMed

For drug discovery, cell-based assays are becoming increasingly complex to mimic more realistically the nature of biological processes and their diversifications in diseases. Multicellular co-cultures embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) matrix have been explored in oncology to more closely approximate the physiology of the human tumor microenvironment. High-content analysis is the ideal technology to characterize these complex biological systems, although running such complex assays at higher throughput is a major endeavor. Here, we report on adapting a 3D tumor co-culture growth assay to automated microscopy, and we compare various imaging platforms (confocal vs. nonconfocal) with correlating automated image analysis solutions to identify optimal conditions and settings for future larger scaled screening campaigns. The optimized protocol has been validated in repeated runs where established anticancer drugs have been evaluated for performance in this innovative assay. PMID:22923784

Krausz, Eberhard; de Hoogt, Ronald; Gustin, Emmanuel; Cornelissen, Frans; Grand-Perret, Thierry; Janssen, Lut; Vloemans, Nele; Wuyts, Dirk; Frans, Sandy; Axel, Amy; Peeters, Pieter Johan; Hall, Brett; Cik, Miroslav

2013-01-01

86

Simple and sensitive antimalarial drug screening in vitro and in vivo using transgenic luciferase expressing Plasmodium berghei parasites.  

PubMed

We report two improved assays for in vitro and in vivo screening of chemicals with potential anti-malarial activity against the blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodiumberghei. These assays are based on the determination of luciferase activity (luminescence) in small blood samples containing transgenic blood stage parasites that express luciferase under the control of a promoter that is either schizont-specific (ama-1) or constitutive (eef1alphaa). Assay 1, the in vitro drug luminescence (ITDL) assay, measured the success of schizont maturation in the presence of candidate drugs quantifying luciferase activity in mature schizonts only (ama-1 promoter). The ITDL assay generated drug-inhibition curves and EC(50) values comparable to those obtained with standard in vitro drug-susceptibility assays. The second assay, the in vivo drug-luminescence (IVDL) assay, measured parasite growth in vivo in a standard 4-day suppressive drug test, monitored by measuring the constitutive luciferase activity of circulating parasites (eef1alphaa promoter). The IVDL assay generates growth-curves that are identical to those obtained by manual counting of parasites in Giemsa-stained smears. The reading of luminescence assays is rapid, requires a minimal number of handling steps and no experience with parasite morphology or handling fluorescence-activated cell sorters, produces no radioactive waste and test-plates can be stored for prolonged periods before processing. Both tests are suitable for use in larger-scale in vitro and in vivo screening of drugs. The standard methodology of anti-malarial drug screening and validation, which includes testing in rodent models of malaria, can be improved by the incorporation of such assays. PMID:18590736

Franke-Fayard, B; Djokovic, D; Dooren, M W; Ramesar, J; Waters, A P; Falade, M O; Kranendonk, M; Martinelli, A; Cravo, P; Janse, C J

2008-12-01

87

The validation of an invitro colonic motility assay as a biomarker for gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions  

SciTech Connect

Motility-related gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (GADRs), such as constipation and diarrhea, are some of the most frequently reported adverse events associated with the clinical development of new chemical entities, and for marketed drugs. However, biomarkers capable of detecting such GADRs are lacking. Here, we describe an in vitro assay developed to detect and quantify changes in intestinal motility as a surrogate biomarker for constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. In vitro recordings of intraluminal pressure were used to monitor the presence of colonic peristaltic motor complexes (CPMCs) in mouse colonic segments. CPMC frequency, contractile and total mechanical activity were assessed. To validate the assay, two experimental protocols were conducted. Initially, five drugs with known gastrointestinal effects were tested to determine optimal parameters describing excitation and inhibition as markers for disturbances in colonic motility. This was followed by a 'blinded' evaluation of nine drugs associated with or without clinically identified constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. Concentration-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the effects were compared with their maximal free therapeutic plasma concentration in humans. The assay detected stimulatory and inhibitory responses, likely correlating to the occurrence of diarrhea or constipation. Concentration-related effects were identified and potential mechanisms of action were inferred for several drugs. Based on the results from the fourteen drugs assessed, the sensitivity of the assay was calculated at 90%, with a specificity of 75% and predictive capacity of 86%. These results support the potential use of this assay in screening for motility-related GADRs during early discovery phase, safety pharmacology assessment.

Keating, Christopher, E-mail: C.Keating@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Martinez, Vicente; Ewart, Lorna [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Gibbons, Stephen; Grundy, Luke [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Valentin, Jean-Pierre [Department of Safety Pharmacology, Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (United Kingdom); Grundy, David [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15

88

Considering the Need for Empirically Grounded Drug Court Screening Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary threat to the operative effectiveness of drug courts is high failure rates. Empirically supported screening devices could aid drug court administrators in maximizing resources, either through client selection or by helping to target problem clients in need of specialized assistance. Drawing from South Carolina county-level drug court records, success rates for participants with particular background characteristics were examined

J. Mitchell Miller; J. Eagle Shutt

2001-01-01

89

Assays for the identification and prioritization of drug candidates for spinal muscular atrophy.  

PubMed

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder resulting in degeneration of ?-motor neurons of the anterior horn and proximal muscle weakness. It is the leading cause of genetic mortality in children younger than 2 years. It affects ?1 in 11,000 live births. In 95% of cases, SMA is caused by homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. In addition, all patients possess at least one copy of an almost identical gene called SMN2. A single point mutation in exon 7 of the SMN2 gene results in the production of low levels of full-length survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein at amounts insufficient to compensate for the loss of the SMN1 gene. Although no drug treatments are available for SMA, a number of drug discovery and development programs are ongoing, with several currently in clinical trials. This review describes the assays used to identify candidate drugs for SMA that modulate SMN2 gene expression by various means. Specifically, it discusses the use of high-throughput screening to identify candidate molecules from primary screens, as well as the technical aspects of a number of widely used secondary assays to assess SMN messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression, localization, and function. Finally, it describes the process of iterative drug optimization utilized during preclinical SMA drug development to identify clinical candidates for testing in human clinical trials. PMID:25147906

Cherry, Jonathan J; Kobayashi, Dione T; Lynes, Maureen M; Naryshkin, Nikolai N; Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Zaworski, Phillip G; Rubin, Lee L; Jarecki, Jill

2014-08-01

90

High-throughput screening of FDA-approved drugs using oxygen biosensor plates reveals secondary mitofunctional effects.  

PubMed

Repurposing of FDA-approved drugs with effects on mitochondrial function might shorten the critical path to mitochondrial disease drug development. We improved a biosensor-based assay of mitochondrial O2 consumption, and identified mitofunctional defects in cell models of LHON and FXTAS. Using this platform, we screened a 1600-compound library of clinically used drugs. The assay identified drugs known to affect mitochondrial function, such as metformin and decoquinate. We also identified several drugs not previously known to affect mitochondrial respiration including acarbose, metaraminol, gallamine triethiodide, and acamprosate. These previously unknown 'mitoactives' represent novel links to targets for mitochondrial regulation and potentially therapy, for mitochondrial disease. PMID:25034306

Sahdeo, Sunil; Tomilov, Alexey; Komachi, Kelly; Iwahashi, Christine; Datta, Sandipan; Hughes, Owen; Hagerman, Paul; Cortopassi, Gino

2014-07-01

91

Cracking the molecular weight barrier: fragment screening of an aminotransferase using an NMR-based functional assay.  

PubMed

NMR-based screening of protein targets has become a well established part of the drug discovery process especially with respect to fragments. However, as target size increases the two-dimensional spectra typically used for such screening become more crowded due to the increased number of signals, and the individual signals broaden due to the decreased rotational correlation time of the protein. Here we present an NMR-based functional assay for the branched-chain aminotransferase BCATc, a dimer with a total molecular weight of 88 kDa, which overcomes the limitations of the typical protein-based NMR screening method. BCATc is involved in glutamate production in the brain and is a therapeutic target for neuronal disorders involving a glutamatergic mechanism. Several fragments which inhibit BCATc were discovered using this assay and these may serve as novel cores for the development of potent BCATc inhibitors. PMID:21840712

Mendoza, Renaldo; Petros, Andrew M; Liu, Yaya; Thimmapaya, Rama; Surowy, Carol S; Leise, Walter F; Pereda-Lopez, Ana; Panchal, Sanjay C; Sun, Chaohong

2011-09-15

92

ToxCast Workflow: High-throughput screening assay data processing, analysis and management (SOT)  

EPA Science Inventory

US EPA?s ToxCast program is generating data in high-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays for thousands of environmental chemicals, for use in developing predictive toxicity models. Currently the ToxCast screening program includes over 1800 unique c...

93

Efficient Screening of Marine Extracts for Protease Inhibitors by Combining FRET Based Activity Assays and Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy Based Binding Assays  

PubMed Central

The screening of extracts from marine organisms is a widely used strategy to discover new drug leads. A common problem in the screening process is the generation of false positive hits through unspecific effects from the complex chemical composition of the crude extracts. In this study, we explored a combination of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based activity assay and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based binding assay to avoid this problem. An aqueous extract was prepared from rest raw material of the Norwegian spring spawning herring, and further fractionated by methanol solubility and solid phase extraction. FRET based activity assays were used to determine the influence of each extract on the activity of different proteases. Several extracts showed more than 50% inhibition. The inhibition mechanisms were elucidated by SPR based competition experiments with known inhibitors. For the secreted aspartic proteases 1, 2, 3 and HIV-1 protease, the results indicated that some extracts contain inhibitors interacting specifically with the active site of the enzymes. The study shows that a combination of an activity assay and an SPR based binding assay is a powerful tool to identify potent inhibitors in marine extracts. Furthermore, the study shows that marine vertebrates offer an interesting source for new bioactive compounds, although they have rarely been explored for this purpose. PMID:24177674

Christopeit, Tony; ?verb?, Kersti; Danielson, U. Helena; Nilsen, Inge W.

2013-01-01

94

Efficient screening of marine extracts for protease inhibitors by combining FRET based activity assays and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy based binding assays.  

PubMed

The screening of extracts from marine organisms is a widely used strategy to discover new drug leads. A common problem in the screening process is the generation of false positive hits through unspecific effects from the complex chemical composition of the crude extracts. In this study, we explored a combination of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based activity assay and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based binding assay to avoid this problem. An aqueous extract was prepared from rest raw material of the Norwegian spring spawning herring, and further fractionated by methanol solubility and solid phase extraction. FRET based activity assays were used to determine the influence of each extract on the activity of different proteases. Several extracts showed more than 50% inhibition. The inhibition mechanisms were elucidated by SPR based competition experiments with known inhibitors. For the secreted aspartic proteases 1, 2, 3 and HIV-1 protease, the results indicated that some extracts contain inhibitors interacting specifically with the active site of the enzymes. The study shows that a combination of an activity assay and an SPR based binding assay is a powerful tool to identify potent inhibitors in marine extracts. Furthermore, the study shows that marine vertebrates offer an interesting source for new bioactive compounds, although they have rarely been explored for this purpose. PMID:24177674

Christopeit, Tony; Řverbř, Kersti; Danielson, U Helena; Nilsen, Inge W

2013-01-01

95

Preemployment drug screening in a large metropolitan medical center  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among job applicants, a large metropolitan medical center conducted preemployment\\u000a drug screening of all applicants during January 1988. Urine samples from 172 preinformed applicants were screened using Enzyme\\u000a Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (Emit d.a.u.™) followed by confirmatory gas chromatography\\/mass spectrophotometry. 4.1%\\u000a of tests were positive for marijuana and\\/or cocaine and none was positive

Donald Angehr Smith; Raymond Hanbury

1991-01-01

96

A Different Approach to Validating Screening Assays for Developmental Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: There continues to be many efforts around the world to develop assays that are shorter than the traditional embryofetal developmental toxicity assay, or use fewer or no mammals, or use less compound, or have all three attributes. Each assay developer needs to test th...

97

Microengineering Methods for Cell Based Microarrays and High-Throughput Drug Screening Applications  

PubMed Central

Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time-consuming and often face ethical concerns due to extensive use of animals. To improve cost-effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems have facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell based drug-screening models, which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell based drug screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds a great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility. PMID:21725152

Xu, Feng; Wu, JinHui; Wang, ShuQi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

2011-01-01

98

A Cell-based PDE4 Assay in 1536-well Plate format for High Throughput Screening  

PubMed Central

The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are intracellular enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotides, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), to their corresponding 5'-nucleotide monophosphates. These enzymes play an important role in controlling cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thus regulate a variety of cellular signaling events. PDEs are emerging as drug targets for several diseases including asthma, cardiovascular disease, ADHD, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Though biochemical assays with purified recombinant PDE enzymes and cAMP or cGMP substrate are commonly used for compound screening, cell-based assays would provide a better assessment of compound activity in a more physiological context. Here we report the development and validation of a new cell-based PDE4 assay using a constitutively active GPCR as a driving force for cAMP production and a cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) cation channel as a biosensor in 1536-well plates. PMID:18591513

Titus, Steven A.; Li, Xiao; Southall, Noel; Lu, Jianming; Inglese, James; Brasch, Michael; Austin, Christopher P.; Zheng, Wei

2009-01-01

99

A high-content screening assay in transgenic zebrafish identifies two novel activators of fgf signaling.  

PubMed

Zebrafish have become an invaluable vertebrate animal model to interrogate small molecule libraries for modulators of complex biological pathways and phenotypes. We have recently described the implementation of a quantitative, high-content imaging assay in multi-well plates to analyze the effects of small molecules on Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling in vivo. Here we have evaluated the capability of the assay to identify compounds that hyperactivate FGF signaling from a test cassette of agents with known biological activities. Using a transgenic zebrafish reporter line for FGF activity, we screened 1040 compounds from an annotated library of known bioactive agents, including FDA-approved drugs. The assay identified two molecules, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate and pyrithione zinc, that enhanced FGF signaling in specific areas of the brain. Subsequent studies revealed that both compounds specifically expanded FGF target gene expression. Furthermore, treatment of early stage embryos with either compound resulted in dorsalized phenotypes characteristic of hyperactivation of FGF signaling in early development. Documented activities for both agents included activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), consistent with FGF hyperactivation. To conclude, we demonstrate the power of automated quantitative high-content imaging to identify small molecule modulators of FGF. PMID:21932436

Saydmohammed, Manush; Vollmer, Laura L; Onuoha, Ezenwa Obi; Vogt, Andreas; Tsang, Michael

2011-09-01

100

Comparative drug pair screening across multiple glioblastoma cell lines reveals novel drug-drug interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults, and despite state-of-the-art treatment, survival remains poor and novel therapeutics are sorely needed. The aim of the present study was to identify new synergistic drug pairs for GBM. In addition, we aimed to explore differences in drug-drug interactions across multiple GBM-derived cell cultures and predict such differences by use of transcriptional biomarkers. Methods We performed a screen in which we quantified drug-drug interactions for 465 drug pairs in each of the 5 GBM cell lines U87MG, U343MG, U373MG, A172, and T98G. Selected interactions were further tested using isobole-based analysis and validated in 5 glioma-initiating cell cultures. Furthermore, drug interactions were predicted using microarray-based transcriptional profiling in combination with statistical modeling. Results Of the 5 × 465 drug pairs, we could define a subset of drug pairs with strong interaction in both standard cell lines and glioma-initiating cell cultures. In particular, a subset of pairs involving the pharmaceutical compounds rimcazole, sertraline, pterostilbene, and gefitinib showed a strong interaction in a majority of the cell cultures tested. Statistical modeling of microarray and interaction data using sparse canonical correlation analysis revealed several predictive biomarkers, which we propose could be of importance in regulating drug pair responses. Conclusion We identify novel candidate drug pairs for GBM and suggest possibilities to prospectively use transcriptional biomarkers to predict drug interactions in individual cases. PMID:24101737

Schmidt, Linnéa; Kling, Teresia; Monsefi, Naser; Olsson, Maja; Hansson, Caroline; Baskaran, Sathishkumar; Lundgren, Bo; Martens, Ulf; Häggblad, Maria; Westermark, Bengt; Forsberg Nilsson, Karin; Uhrbom, Lene; Karlsson-Lindahl, Linda; Gerlee, Philip; Nelander, Sven

2013-01-01

101

[In vitro screening of psychoactive drugs].  

PubMed

Prior to the designation of illegal drugs (psychoactive drugs) by prefectural regulations, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government conducts surveys on the risk of drugs, reports the results to the governor through the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Advisory Committee on Illegal Drugs, an affiliated organization, and provides the central government with information. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health conducts identification of the constituents of drugs and biological effect tests to help the committee analyze and assess information on the risks of drugs. Narcotics and stimulants increase the concentrations of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, i.e., neurotransmitters, in the presynaptic clefts, exerting an excitatory effect. In the postsynaptic region, these neurotransmitters are considered to directly combine with the receptors and activate guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, causing activation. We have developed nine types (categorized into three groups) of simple, high-throughput measurement systems and examined their measurement methods. The systems are designed to assess the following properties of drugs: effects of: 1) inhibiting reuptake; 2) stimulating the release of neurotransmitters in the presynaptic region; and 3) activating G proteins in the postsynaptic region. The systems provide useful information in that they allow searches for the effects of a variety of psychoactive substances that are expected to become widespread, e.g., designer drugs, hallucinogenic plants and synthetic cannabinoids; they also allow you to conduct a test using micrograms of a drug, facilitating testing even when it is not available in a large quantity. PMID:23292015

Satoh, Kanako; Ogata, Akio

2013-01-01

102

Microfluidics-assisted in vitro drug screening and carrier production  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic platforms provide several unique advantages for drug development. In the production of drug carriers, physical properties such as size and shape, and chemical properties such as drug composition and pharmacokinetic parameters, can be modified simply and effectively by tuning the flow rate and geometries. Large numbers of carriers can then be fabricated with minimal effort and with little to no batch-to-batch variation. Additionally, cell or tissue culture models in microfluidic systems can be used as in vitro drug screening tools. Compared to in vivo animal models, microfluidic drug screening platforms allow for high-throughput and reproducible screening at a significantly lower cost, and when combined with current advances in tissue engineering, are also capable of mimicking native tissues. In this review, various microfluidic platforms for drug and gene carrier fabrication are reviewed to provide guidelines for designing appropriate carriers. In vitro microfluidic drug screening platforms designed for high-throughput analysis and replication of in vivo conditions are also reviewed to highlight future directions for drug research and development. PMID:23856409

Tsui, Jonathan H.; Lee, Woohyuk; Pun, Suzie H.; Kim, Jungkyu; Kim, Deok-Ho

2013-01-01

103

Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MAMEF) with silver colloids in 96-well plates: Application to ultra fast and sensitive immunoassays, High Throughput Screening and drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence detection is the basis of most assays used in drug discovery and High Throughput Screening (HTS) today. In all of these assays, assay rapidity and sensitivity is a primary concern, the sensitivity determined by both the quantum yield of the fluorophores and efficiency of the detection system, while rapidity is determined by the physical and biophysical parameters of temperature,

Kadir Aslan; Patrick Holley; Chris D. Geddes

2006-01-01

104

Rapid diagnosis of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis by use of a reverse line blot hybridization assay.  

PubMed

Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is a matter of grave concern for TB control programs, as there is currently no cure for some extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. There is concern that this resistance could transmit, stressing the need for additional control measures, rapid diagnostic methods, and newer drugs for treatment. We developed an in-house assay that can rapidly detect resistance to drugs involved in the definition of XDR-TB directly from smear-positive specimens. Two hundred fifteen phenotypically XDR-TB isolates and 50 pansusceptible isolates were analyzed using a reverse line blot hybridization (RLBH) assay. The assay was also successfully applied to 73 smear-positive clinical specimens. The RLBH assay exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of resistance to isoniazid (99%), rifampin (99%), fluoroquinolones (95.3%), and second-line aminoglycosides (94.8%). The results from application of this assay on direct smear-positive clinical specimens revealed 93% concordance with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test (DST) results for the above-mentioned drugs. The time to accurate DST results was significantly reduced from weeks to 3 days. This molecular assay is a highly accurate tool for screening for XDR-TB, which achieves a substantial reduction in diagnostic delays. PMID:21613436

Ajbani, Kanchan; Shetty, Anjali; Mehta, Ajita; Rodrigues, Camilla

2011-07-01

105

Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening  

PubMed Central

Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

2012-01-01

106

A differential drug screen for compounds that select against antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

Antibiotics increase the frequency of resistant bacteria by providing them a competitive advantage over sensitive strains. Here, we develop a versatile assay for differential chemical inhibition of competing microbial strains, and use it to identify compounds that preferentially inhibit tetracycline-resistant relative to sensitive bacteria, thus "inverting" selection for resistance. Our assay distinguishes compounds selecting directly against specific resistance mechanisms and compounds whose selection against resistance is based on their physiological interaction with tetracycline and is more general with respect to resistance mechanism. A pilot screen indicates that both types of selection-inverting compounds are secreted by soil microbes, suggesting that nature has evolved a repertoire of chemicals that counteracts antibiotic resistance. Finally, we show that our assay can more generally permit simple, direct screening for drugs based on their differential activity against different strains or targets. PMID:21209699

Chait, Remy; Shrestha, Shreya; Shah, Aakash Kaushik; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Kishony, Roy

2010-01-01

107

Predicting phospholipidosis: a fluorescence noncell based in vitro assay for the determination of drug-phospholipid complex formation in early drug discovery.  

PubMed

This paper describes for the first time, a high-throughput fluorescence noncell based assay to screen for the drug-phospholipid interaction, which correlates to phospholipidosis. Anionic amphiphilic phospholipids can form complexes in aqueous solution, and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) can be determined using the fluorescence probe N,N-dimethyl-6-propionyl-2-naphthylamine (Prodan). Upon interaction with drug candidates, this CMC may shift to a lower value due to the association between lipids and drug candidates, the stronger the interaction, the greater the shift. Metabolism of a drug can change the degree of phospholipidosis depending on the rate of metabolism and the nature of the metabolite(s). Our data from 45 drugs and metabolites of 10 drugs using this fluorescence approach demonstrate a good correlation with phospholipidosis as reported with human studies, in vivo testing, and cellular assays. This assay therefore offers a fast, reliable, and cost-effective screening tool for early prediction of the phospholipidosis-inducing potential of drug candidates. PMID:21790130

Zhou, Liping; Geraci, Gina; Hess, Sloan; Yang, Linhong; Wang, Jianling; Argikar, Upendra

2011-09-15

108

EFFICIENT DRUG SCREENING AND GENE CORRECTION FOR TREATING LIVER DISEASE USING PATIENT-SPECIFIC STEM CELLS  

PubMed Central

Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a potential source for developing novel drugand cell- therapies. Although increasing numbers of disease-specific iPSCs have been generated, there has been limited progress in iPSC-based drug screening/discovery for liver diseases, and the low gene targeting efficiency in human iPSCs warrants further improvement. Using iPSC lines from patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, for which there is currently no drug- or gene- therapy available, we established a platform to discover new drug candidates and to correct disease-causing mutation with a high efficiency. A high-throughput format screening assay based on our hepatic differentiation protocol was implemented to facilitate automated quantification of cellular AAT accumulation using a 96-well immunofluorescence reader. To expedite the eventual application of lead compounds to patients, we conducted drug screening utilizing our established library of clinical compounds, the Johns Hopkins Drug Library, with extensive safety profiles. Through a blind large-scale drug screening, five clinical drugs were identified to reduce AAT accumulation in diverse patient iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells. In addition, using the recently developed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technology, we achieved high gene targeting efficiency in AAT-deficiency patient iPSCs with 25–33% of the clones demonstrating simultaneous targeting at both diseased alleles. The hepatocyte-like cells derived from the gene-corrected iPSCs were functional without the mutant AAT accumulation. This highly efficient and cost-effective targeting technology will broadly benefit both basic and translational applications. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the feasibility of effective large-scale drug screening using an iPSC-based disease model and highly robust gene targeting in human iPSCs; both of which are critical for translating the iPSC technology into novel therapies for untreatable diseases. PMID:23325555

Choi, Su Mi; Kim, Yonghak; Shim, Joong Sup; Park, Joon Tae; Wang, Rui-Hong; Leach, Steven D; Liu, Jun O.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Ye, Zhaohui; Jang, Yoon-Young

2013-01-01

109

Comprehensive drug screening in decision making of patients attending the emergency department for suspected drug overdose  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of a comprehensive drug screening method as a first line diagnostic tool on clinical decision making in patients attending an emergency department for suspected drug overdose in terms of agreement between physicians on patients' disposal. Methods: Five emergency physicians retrospectively evaluated the records of 142 adult patients, admitted to the emergency department of a community hospital for suspected drug overdose. They were asked for an expert opinion on patients' disposal at the end of the observation period, based on paired records, with/without the results of a comprehensive drug screening. Results: In the absence of the drug screening, a very poor agreement (? statistics) was observed between physicians. When the drug screening was available, the interobserver agreement for decision on patients' disposal increased to the fair to good range (global agreement: from 0.238 (0.019) to 0.461 (0.020) (mean(SE)); p<0.001). The agreement also increased when admission to an intensive care unit, to a general ward, and discharge from hospital were separately analysed. The availability of drug screening would have saved 21.7% of hospital admissions and 53.3% of high dependency and/or intensive care unit admissions. Conclusion: Comprehensive drug screening adds to decision making for patients attending an emergency department for suspected drug overdose, improving agreement among physicians on patients' disposal and potentially saving hospital resources. PMID:12533362

Fabbri, A; Marchesini, G; Morselli-Labate, A; Ruggeri, S; Fallani, M; Melandri, R; Bua, V; Pasquale, A; Vandelli, A

2003-01-01

110

Screening assays for epigenetic targets using native histones as substrates.  

PubMed

In the past years, a lot of attention has been given to the identification and characterization of selective and potent inhibitors of chromatin-modifying enzymes to better understand their specific role in transcriptional regulation. As aberrant histone methylation is involved in different pathological processes, the search for methyltransferase and demethylase inhibitors has emerged as a crucial issue in current medicinal chemistry research. High-throughput in vitro assays are important tools for the identification of new methyltransferase or demethylase inhibitors. These usually use oligopeptide substrates derived from histone sequences, although in many cases, they are not good substrates for these enzymes. Here, the authors report about the setup and establishment of in vitro assays that use native core histones as substrates, enabling an assay environment that better resembles native conditions. They have applied these substrates for the known formaldehyde dehydrogenase assay for the histone demethylase LSD1 and have established two new antibody-based assays. For LSD1, a heterogeneous assay format was set up, and a homogeneous assay was used for the characterization of the arginine methyltransferase PRMT1. Validation of the system was achieved with reference inhibitors in each case. PMID:21965113

Hauser, Alexander-Thomas; Bissinger, Elisabeth-Maria; Metzger, Eric; Repenning, Antje; Bauer, Uta-Maria; Mai, Antonello; Schüle, Roland; Jung, Manfred

2012-01-01

111

Development of a Flow Cytometry Live Cell Assay for the Screening of Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Replication  

PubMed Central

In this study, we established a flow cytometry live cell-based assay that permits the screening of hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors. Specifically, we created a stable cell line, which harbors a subgenomic replicon encoding an NS5A-YFP fusion protein. This system allows direct measurement of YFP fluorescence in live hepatoma cells in which the HCV replicon replicates. We demonstrated that this stable fluorescent system permits the rapid and sensitive quantification of HCV replication inhibition by direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) including protease and NS5A inhibitors and host-targeting antiviral agents (HTA) including cyclophilin inhibitors. This flow cytometry-based live cell assay is well suited for multiple applications such as the evaluation of HCV replication as well as antiviral drug screening. PMID:23230455

Garcia-Rivera, Jose A; Lin, Kai; Hopkins, Sam; Gregory, Matthew A; Wilkinson, Barrie; Gallay, Philippe A

2012-01-01

112

Drug screening for hearing loss: using the zebrafish lateral line to screen for drugs that prevent and cause hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Several animal models have been used for the study of mechanosensory hair cells and hearing loss. Because of the difficulty of tissue acquisition and large animal size, these traditional models are impractical for high-throughput screening. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful animal model for screening drugs that cause or prevent hair cell death. The unique characteristics of the zebrafish enable rapid in vivo imaging of hair cells and hair cell death. We have used this model to screen for and identify multiple drugs that protect hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced death. Identification of multiple drugs and drug-like compounds that inhibit multiple hair cell death pathways might enable the development of protective cocktails to achieve complete hair cell protection. PMID:20096805

Santos, Felipe; Raible, David W.; Simon, Julian A.; Rubel, Edwin W.

2010-01-01

113

High-throughput screening using pseudotyped lentiviral particles: a strategy for the identification of HIV-1 inhibitors in a cell-based assay.  

PubMed

Two decades after its discovery the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still spreading worldwide and killing millions. There are 25 drugs formally approved for HIV currently on the market, but side effects as well as the emergence of HIV strains showing single or multiple resistances to current drug-therapy are causes for concern. Furthermore, these drugs target only 4 steps of the viral cycle, hence the urgent need for new drugs and also new targets. In order to tackle this problem, we have devised a cell-based assay using lentiviral particles to look for post-entry inhibitors of HIV-1. We report here the assay development, validation as well as confirmation of the hits using both wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 viruses. The screening was performed on an original library, rich in natural compounds and pure molecules from Traditional Chinese Medicine pharmacopoeia, which had never been screened for anti-HIV activity. The identified hits belong to four chemical sub-families that appear to be all non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Secondary tests with live viruses showed that there was good agreement with pseudotyped particles, confirming the validity of this approach for high-throughput drug screens. This assay will be a useful tool that can be easily adapted to screen for inhibitors of viral entry. PMID:19118579

Garcia, Jean-Michel; Gao, Anhui; He, Pei-Lan; Choi, Joyce; Tang, Wei; Bruzzone, Roberto; Schwartz, Olivier; Naya, Hugo; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia; Altmeyer, Ralf; Zuo, Jian-Ping

2009-03-01

114

[In vivo screening of illegal drug].  

PubMed

The neuro-behavioral observation scorebook that improved the previous observation methods of Irwin was followed, the test material was administered to 5 mice per each group, and the mean value of the obtained score was determined. The behavior of a normal animal was assumed to be point 0, animals showing suppressive behavior were scored in the minus region, and animals that showed excitement behavior were scored in the plus region. Each score was divided into three stages, according to the level of strength of the biological effect. The score of each observation item was totaled, and the level of the strength of the biological effect in the item was judged according to its mean value. These test methods of neuro-behavioral observations we proposed were able to detect the biological effects of a drug simply and promptly, and contributed sufficient data to support an administrative measure aimed at anticipating and improving the prevention of health damage in humans by non-regulated drugs from a scientific perspective. Recently, we developed a method of serial measurement of the quantity of monoamine in the mouse central nervous system by microdialysis, and performed it. The Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health conducted a study of the biological effect of non-regulated drugs. A characteristic here is what they examined about drug-dependency other than observing the behavior of the animal. PMID:23292016

Ogata, Akio; Satoh, Kanako; Fuwa, Tatsu; Tanaka, Toyohito; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Yano, Norio; Ando, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Ken-ichi; Miyazawa, Maki; Kojima, Takashi

2013-01-01

115

Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of nontargeted libraries.  

PubMed

The EPXH2 gene encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which has two distinct enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (Cterm-EH) and phosphatase (Nterm-phos). The Cterm-EH is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid epoxides that play important roles in blood pressure, cell growth, inflammation, and pain. While recent findings suggested complementary biological roles for Nterm-phos, research is limited by the lack of potent bioavailable inhibitors of this phosphatase activity. Also, a potent bioavailable inhibitor of this activity could be important in the development of therapy for cardiovascular diseases. We report herein the development of an HTS enzyme-based assay for Nterm-phos (Z'>0.9) using AttoPhos as the substrate. This assay was used to screen a wide variety of chemical entities, including a library of known drugs that have reached through clinical evaluation (Pharmakon 1600), as well as a library of pesticides and environmental toxins. We discovered that ebselen inhibits sEH phosphatase activity. Ebselen binds to the N-terminal domain of sEH (K(I)=550 nM) and chemically reacts with the enzyme to quickly and irreversibly inhibit Nterm-phos, and subsequently Cterm-EH, and thus represents a new class of sEH inhibitor. PMID:23219563

Morisseau, Christophe; Sahdeo, Sunil; Cortopassi, Gino; Hammock, Bruce D

2013-03-01

116

Development of a thyroperoxidase inhibition assay for high-throughput screening  

EPA Science Inventory

High-throughput screening (HTPS) assays to detect inhibitors of thyroperoxidase (TPO), the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, are not currently available. Herein we describe the development of a HTPS TPO inhibition assay. Rat thyroid microsomes and a fluores...

117

3D models of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer metastasis: high-throughput screening assay development, validation, and pilot screen.  

PubMed

Despite advancements in therapies developed for the treatment of cancer, patient prognosis and mortality rates have improved minimally, and metastasis remains the primary cause of cancer mortality worldwide. An underlying mechanism promoting metastasis in many types of cancer is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here the authors report a novel 3D model of EMT and metastatic breast cancer suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) drug discovery. The primary assay incorporates the expression of the prognostic biomarker vimentin, as a luciferase reporter of EMT, in basil-like/triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma spheroids. Using this model, the authors developed a number of known antitumor agents as control modulators of EMT. U0126, PKC412, PF2341066, dasatinib, and axitinib downregulated vimentin expression by 70% to 90% as compared to untreated spheroids. Counterassays were developed to measure spheroid viability and the invasive potential of MDA-MB-231 spheroids after small-molecule treatment and used to confirm hits from primary screening. Finally, the authors conducted a pilot screen to validate this model for HTS using a purified library of marine secondary metabolites. From 230 compounds screened, they obtained a Z' score of 0.64, indicative of an excellent assay, and confirmed 4 hits, including isonaamidine B, papuamine, mycalolide E, and jaspamide. This HTS model demonstrates the potential to identify small-molecule modulators of EMT that could be used to discover novel antimetastatic agents for the treatment of cancer. PMID:21297102

Li, Qun; Chen, Chaoyu; Kapadia, Amit; Zhou, Qiong; Harper, Mary Kay; Schaack, Jerome; LaBarbera, Daniel V

2011-02-01

118

Comparison of SYBR Green I-, PicoGreen-, and [ 3 H]-hypoxanthine-based assays for in vitro antimalarial screening of plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard method for in vitro antimalarial drug screening is based on the isotopic assay which is expensive and utilizes\\u000a radioactive materials with limited availability, safety, and disposal problems in developing countries. The use of non-radioactive\\u000a DNA stains SYBR Green I (SG) and PICO green® (PG) for antimalarial screening had been reported. However, the use of the two\\u000a DNA stains

Oyindamola O. Abiodun; Grace O. Gbotosho; Edith O. Ajaiyeoba; Christian T. Happi; Sandra Hofer; Sergio Wittlin; Akin Sowunmi; Reto Brun; Ayoade M. J. Oduola

2010-01-01

119

21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the dopamine receptor blocking activity of neuroleptic drugs and their active metabolites. A neuroleptic drug has...

2012-04-01

120

21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.  

...Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the dopamine receptor blocking activity of neuroleptic drugs and their active metabolites. A neuroleptic drug has...

2014-04-01

121

21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the dopamine receptor blocking activity of neuroleptic drugs and their active metabolites. A neuroleptic drug has...

2010-04-01

122

21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the dopamine receptor blocking activity of neuroleptic drugs and their active metabolites. A neuroleptic drug has...

2013-04-01

123

21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the dopamine receptor blocking activity of neuroleptic drugs and their active metabolites. A neuroleptic drug has...

2011-04-01

124

Highly sensitive method for assay of drug-induced apoptosis using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Apoptosis plays a crucial role in many biological processes and pathogenesis of various malignancies and diseases of the immune system. In this paper, we described a novel method for sensitive detection of drug-induced apoptosis by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The principle of this method is based on the assay of DNA fragmentation in the process of the drug-induced apoptosis. FCS is a single molecule method, and it can be used for sensitive and selective assay of DNA fragmentation without separation. We first developed a highly sensitive method for characterization of DNA fragments using a home-built FCS system and SYBR Green I as fluorescent DNA-intercalating dye, and then established a model of drug-induced apoptosis using human pancreatic cancer cells and a drug lidamycin. Furthermore, FCS method established was used to directly detect the fragmentation of DNA extracted from apoptotic cells or in the apoptotic cell lysate. In FCS assay, the single-component model and the multiple-components model were used to fit raw FCS data. The characteristic diffusion time of DNA fragments was used as an important parameter to distinguish the apoptotic status of cells. The obtained data documented that the characteristic diffusion time of DNA fragments from apoptotic cells significantly decreased with an increase of lidamycin concentration, which implied that DNA fragmentation occurred in lidamycin-induced apoptosis. The FCS results are well in line with the data obtained from flow cytometer and gel electrophoresis. Compared to current methods, the method described here is sensitive and simple, and more importantly, our detection volume is less than 1 fL, and the sample requirement can easily be reduced to nL level using a droplets array technology. Therefore, our method probably becomes a high throughput detection platform for early detection of cell apoptosis and screening of apoptosis-based anticancer drugs. PMID:22876965

Ruan, Lingao; Xu, Zhancheng; Lan, Tao; Wang, Jinjie; Liu, Heng; Li, Chaodong; Dong, Chaoqing; Ren, Jicun

2012-09-01

125

Dual-point competition association assay: a fast and high-throughput kinetic screening method for assessing ligand-receptor binding kinetics.  

PubMed

The concept of ligand-receptor binding kinetics is emerging as an important parameter in the early phase of drug discovery. Since the currently used kinetic assays are laborious and low throughput, we developed a method that enables fast and large format screening. It is a so-called dual-point competition association assay, which measures radioligand binding at two different time points in the absence or presence of unlabeled competitors. Specifically, this assay yields the kinetic rate index (KRI), which is a measure for the binding kinetics of the unlabeled ligands screened. As a prototypical drug target, the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R) was chosen for assay validation and optimization. A screen with 35 high-affinity A(1)R antagonists yielded seven compounds with a KRI value above 1.0, which indicated a relatively slow dissociation from the target. All other compounds had a KRI value below or equal to 1.0, predicting a relatively fast dissociation rate. Several compounds were selected for follow-up kinetic quantifications in classical kinetic assays and were shown to have kinetic rates that corresponded to their KRI values. The dual-point assay and KRI value may have general applicability at other G-protein-coupled receptors, as well as at drug targets from other protein families. PMID:23093571

Guo, Dong; van Dorp, Erika J H; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; van Veldhoven, Jacobus P D; Brussee, Johannes; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

2013-03-01

126

Discovery of FDA-Approved Drugs as Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 Using Molecular Docking Screening.  

PubMed

We first identified fluorescein, ketazolam, antrafenine, darifenacin, fosaprepitant, paliperidone, risperidone, pimozide, trovafloxacin, and levofloxacin as inhibitors of fatty acid binding protein 4 using molecular docking screening from FDA-approved drugs. Subsequently, the biochemical characterizations showed that levofloxacin directly inhibited FABP4 activity in both the in vitro ligand displacement assay and cell-based function assay. Furthermore, levofloxacin did not induce adipogenesis in adipocytes, which is the major adverse effect of FABP4 inhibitors. PMID:25360897

Wang, Yan; Law, Wai-Kit; Hu, Jian-Shu; Lin, Huang-Quan; Ip, Tsz-Ming; Wan, David Chi-Cheong

2014-11-24

127

Screening of Dengue Virus Antiviral Activity of Marine Seaweeds by an In Situ Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa) were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization. PMID:23227238

Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Zanello, Paula Rodrigues; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Bordignon, Juliano; Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Claudia

2012-01-01

128

In situ hybridization assay-based small molecule screening in zebrafish.  

PubMed

In vitro biochemical and cell-based small molecule screens have been widely used to identify compounds that target specific signaling pathways. But the identified compounds frequently fail at the animal testing stage, largely due to the in vivo absorption, metabolism and toxicity of chemicals. Zebrafish has recently emerged as a vertebrate whole organism model for small molecule screening. The in vivo bioactivity and specificity of compounds are examined from the very beginning of zebrafish screens. In addition, zebrafish is suitable for chemical screens at a large scale similar to cellular assays. This protocol describes an approach for in situ hybridization (ISH)-based chemical screening in zebrafish, which, in principle, can be used to screen any gene product. The described protocol has been used to identify small molecules affecting specific molecular pathways and biological processes. It can also be adapted to zebrafish screens with different readouts. PMID:23001521

Jing, Lili; Durand, Ellen M; Ezzio, Catherine; Pagliuca, Stephanie M; Zon, Leonard I

2012-06-01

129

Identification of Rift Valley Fever Virus Nucleocapsid Protein-RNA Binding Inhibitors Using a High-Throughput Screening Assay  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging infectious pathogen that causes severe disease in humans and livestock and has the potential for global spread. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment for RVFV infection and there is no licensed vaccine. Inhibition of RNA binding to the essential viral nucleocapsid (N) protein represents a potential anti-viral therapeutic strategy because all of the functions performed by N during infection involve RNA binding. To target this interaction, we developed a fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput drug screening assay and tested 26,424 chemical compounds for their ability to disrupt an N-RNA complex. From libraries of FDA approved drugs, drug-like molecules and natural products extracts we identified several lead compounds that are promising candidates for medicinal chemistry. PMID:22644268

Ellenbecker, Mary; Lanchy, Jean-Marc; Lodmell, J. Stephen

2012-01-01

130

Automated reporter quantification in vivo: high-throughput screening method for reporter-based assays in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Reporter-based assays underlie many high-throughput screening (HTS) platforms, but most are limited to in vitro applications. Here, we report a simple whole-organism HTS method for quantifying changes in reporter intensity in individual zebrafish over time termed, Automated Reporter Quantification in vivo (ARQiv). ARQiv differs from current "high-content" (e.g., confocal imaging-based) whole-organism screening technologies by providing a purely quantitative data acquisition approach that affords marked improvements in throughput. ARQiv uses a fluorescence microplate reader with specific detection functionalities necessary for robust quantification of reporter signals in vivo. This approach is: 1) Rapid; achieving true HTS capacities (i.e., >50,000 units per day), 2) Reproducible; attaining HTS-compatible assay quality (i.e., Z'-factors of ?0.5), and 3) Flexible; amenable to nearly any reporter-based assay in zebrafish embryos, larvae, or juveniles. ARQiv is used here to quantify changes in: 1) Cell number; loss and regeneration of two different fluorescently tagged cell types (pancreatic beta cells and rod photoreceptors), 2) Cell signaling; relative activity of a transgenic Notch-signaling reporter, and 3) Cell metabolism; accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In summary, ARQiv is a versatile and readily accessible approach facilitating evaluation of genetic and/or chemical manipulations in living zebrafish that complements current "high-content" whole-organism screening methods by providing a first-tier in vivo HTS drug discovery platform. PMID:22238673

Walker, Steven L; Ariga, Junko; Mathias, Jonathan R; Coothankandaswamy, Veena; Xie, Xiayang; Distel, Martin; Köster, Reinhard W; Parsons, Michael J; Bhalla, Kapil N; Saxena, Meera T; Mumm, Jeff S

2012-01-01

131

An Escherichia coli Expression Assay and Screen for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Variants with Decreased Susceptibility to Indinavir  

PubMed Central

We have developed a recombinant Escherichia coli screening system for the rapid detection and identification of amino acid substitutions in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease associated with decreased susceptibility to the protease inhibitor indinavir (MK-639; Merck & Co.). The assay depends upon the correct processing of a segment of the HIV-1 HXB2 gag-pol polyprotein followed by detection of HIV reverse transcriptase activity by a highly sensitive, colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highly sensitive system detects the contributions of single substitutions such as I84V, L90M, and L63P. The combination of single substitutions further decreases the sensitivity to indinavir. We constructed a library of HIV protease variant genes containing dispersed mutations and, using the E. coli recombinant system, screened for mutants with decreased indinavir sensitivity. The discovered HIV protease variants contain amino acid substitutions commonly associated with indinavir resistance in clinical isolates, including the substitutions L90M, L63P, I64V, V82A, L24I, and I54T. One substitution, W6R, is also frequently found by the screen and has not been reported elsewhere. Of a total of 12,000 isolates that were screened, 12 protease variants with decreased sensitivity to indinavir were found. The L63P substitution, which is also associated with indinavir resistance, increases the stability of the isolated protease relative to that of the native HXB2 protease. The rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this screen also make it useful for screening for novel inhibitors. We have found the approach described here to be useful for the detection of amino acid substitutions in HIV protease that have been associated with drug resistance as well as for the screening of novel compounds for inhibitory activity. PMID:9835523

Melnick, Laurence; Yang, Shiow-Shong; Rossi, Rick; Zepp, Charlie; Heefner, Donald

1998-01-01

132

Activity of Clinically Relevant Antimalarial Drugs on Plasmodium falciparum Mature Gametocytes in an ATP Bioluminescence "Transmission Blocking" Assay  

PubMed Central

Background Current anti-malarial drugs have been selected on the basis of their activity against the symptom-causing asexual blood stage of the parasite. Which of these drugs also target gametocytes, in the sexual stage responsible for disease transmission, remains unknown. Blocking transmission is one of the main strategies in the eradication agenda and requires the identification of new molecules that are active against gametocytes. However, to date, the main limitation for measuring the effect of molecules against mature gametocytes on a large scale is the lack of a standardized and reliable method. Here we provide an efficient method to produce and purify mature gametocytes in vitro. Based on this new procedure, we developed a robust, affordable, and sensitive ATP bioluminescence-based assay. We then assessed the activity of 17 gold-standard anti-malarial drugs on Plasmodium late stage gametocytes. Methods and Findings Difficulties in producing large amounts of gametocytes have limited progress in the development of malaria transmission blocking assays. We improved the method established by Ifediba and Vanderberg to obtain viable, mature gametocytes en masse, whatever the strain used. We designed an assay to determine the activity of antimalarial drugs based on the intracellular ATP content of purified stage IV–V gametocytes after 48 h of drug exposure in 96/384-well microplates. Measurements of drug activity on asexual stages and cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells were also obtained to estimate the specificity of the active drugs. Conclusions The work described here represents another significant step towards determination of the activity of new molecules on mature gametocytes of any strain with an automated assay suitable for medium/high-throughput screening. Considering that the biology of the forms involved in the sexual and asexual stages is very different, a screen of our 2 million-compound library may allow us to discover novel anti-malarial drugs to target gametocyte-specific metabolic pathways. PMID:22514702

Lozano, Sonia; Miguel, Celia; Franco, Virginia; Leroy, Didier; Herreros, Esperanza

2012-01-01

133

Research Paper Rapid Colorimetric Screening of Drug Interaction  

E-print Network

Research Paper Rapid Colorimetric Screening of Drug Interaction and Penetration Through Lipid on highly generic physicochemical parameters such as the partition coefficients between water and alcohol [so-called log P/log D values (1)], employ time- consuming chromatography methods (2) or artificial

Jelinek, Raz

134

A 1536-well Fluorescence Polarization Assay to Screen for Modulators of the MUSASHI Family of RNA-Binding Proteins  

PubMed Central

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) can act as stem cell modulators and oncogenic drivers, but have been largely ignored by the pharmaceutical industry as potential therapeutic targets for cancer. The MUSASHI (MSI) family has recently been demonstrated to be an attractive clinical target in the most aggressive cancers. Therefore, the discovery and development of small molecule inhibitors could provide a novel therapeutic strategy. In order to find novel compounds with MSI RNA binding inhibitory activity, we have developed a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay and optimized it for high throughput screening (HTS) in a 1536-well microtiter plate format. Using a chemical library of 6,208 compounds, we performed pilot screens, against both MSI1 and MSI2, leading to the identification of 7 molecules for MSI1, 15 for MSI2 and 5 that inhibited both. A secondary FP dose-response screen validated 3 MSI inhibitors with IC50 below 10?M. Out of the 25 compounds retested in the secondary screen only 8 demonstrated optical interference due to high fluorescence. Utilizing a SYBR-based RNA electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA), we further verified MSI inhibition of the top 3 compounds. Surprisingly, even though several aminoglycosides were present in the library, they failed to demonstrate MSI inhibitor activity challenging the concept that these compounds are pan-active against RBPs. In summary, we have developed an in vitro strategy to identify MSI specific inhibitors using an FP HTS platform, which will facilitate novel drug discovery for this class of RBPs. PMID:24912481

Minuesa, Gerard; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Li, Yueming; Djaballah, Hakim; Kharas, Michael G.

2014-01-01

135

Acute water intoxication during military urine drug screening.  

PubMed

Random mandatory urine drug screening is a routine practice in the military. The pressure to produce a urine specimen creates a temptation to consume large volumes of water, putting those individuals at risk of acute water intoxication. This occurs when the amount of water consumed exceeds the kidney's ability to excrete it, resulting in hyponatremia owing to excess amount of water compared to serum solutes. The acute drop in serum osmolality leads to cerebral edema, causing headaches, confusion, seizures, and death. There has been increasing awareness of the danger of overhydration among performance athletes, but dangers in other groups can be underappreciated. We present the case of a 37-year-old male Air Force officer who developed acute water intoxication during urine drug screening. Our case demonstrates the need for a clear Air Force policy for mandatory drug testing to minimize the risk of developing this potentially fatal condition. PMID:21539169

Tilley, Molly A; Cotant, Casey L

2011-04-01

136

Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489

Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

2013-02-01

137

Drosophila modifier screens to identify novel neuropsychiatric drugs including aminergic agents for the possible treatment of Parkinson's disease and depression.  

PubMed

Small molecules that increase the presynaptic function of aminergic cells may provide neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Model genetic organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster may enhance the detection of new drugs via modifier or 'enhancer/suppressor' screens, but this technique has not been applied to processes relevant to psychiatry. To identify new aminergic drugs in vivo, we used a mutation in the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (dVMAT) as a sensitized genetic background and performed a suppressor screen. We fed dVMAT mutant larvae ? 1000 known drugs and quantitated rescue (suppression) of an amine-dependent locomotor deficit in the larva. To determine which drugs might specifically potentiate neurotransmitter release, we performed an additional secondary screen for drugs that require presynaptic amine storage to rescue larval locomotion. Using additional larval locomotion and adult fertility assays, we validated that at least one compound previously used clinically as an antineoplastic agent potentiates the presynaptic function of aminergic circuits. We suggest that structurally similar agents might be used to development treatments for PD, depression and ADHD, and that modifier screens in Drosophila provide a new strategy to screen for neuropsychiatric drugs. More generally, our findings demonstrate the power of physiologically based screens for identifying bioactive agents for select neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23229049

Lawal, H O; Terrell, A; Lam, H A; Djapri, C; Jang, J; Hadi, R; Roberts, L; Shahi, V; Chou, M-T; Biedermann, T; Huang, B; Lawless, G M; Maidment, N T; Krantz, D E

2014-02-01

138

Drosophila modifier screens to identify novel neuropsychiatric drugs including aminergic agents for the possible treatment of Parkinson's disease and depression  

PubMed Central

Small molecules that increase the presynaptic function of aminergic cells may provide neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease as well as treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Model genetic organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster may enhance the detection of new drugs via modifier or “enhancer/suppressor” screens, but this technique has not been applied to processes relevant to psychiatry. To identify new aminergic drugs in vivo, we used a mutation in the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (dVMAT) as a sensitized genetic background, and performed a suppressor screen. We fed dVMAT mutant larvae ~1000 known drugs and quantitated rescue (suppression) of an amine-dependent locomotor deficit in the larva. To determine which drugs might specifically potentiate neurotransmitter release, we performed an additional secondary screen for drugs that require presynaptic amine storage to rescue larval locomotion. Using additional larval locomotion and adult fertility assays, we validated that at least one compound previously used clinically as an antineoplastic agent potentiates the presynaptic function of aminergic circuits. We suggest that structurally similar agents might be used to development treatments for Parkinson’s disease, depression and ADHD and that modifier screens in Drosophila provide a new strategy to screen for neuropsychiatric drugs. More generally, our findings demonstrate the power of physiologically based screens for identifying bioactive agents for select neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23229049

Lawal, Hakeem O.; Terrell, Ashley; Lam, Hoa A.; Djapri, Christine; Jang, Jennifer; Hadi, Richard; Roberts, Logan; Shahi, Varun; Chou, Man-Ting; Biedermann, Traci; Huang, Brian; Lawless, George M.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Krantz, David E.

2012-01-01

139

Chemical & RNAi screening at MSKCC: a collaborative platform to discover & repurpose drugs to fight disease.  

PubMed

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution's commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator's research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia. PMID:24661215

Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibanez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A; Djaballah, Hakim

2014-05-01

140

High throughput miniature drug-screening platform using bioprinting technology.  

PubMed

In the pharmaceutical industry, new drugs are tested to find appropriate compounds for therapeutic purposes for contemporary diseases. Unfortunately, novel compounds emerge at expensive prices and current target evaluation processes have limited throughput, thus leading to an increase of cost and time for drug development. This work shows the development of the novel inkjet-based deposition method for assembling a miniature drug-screening platform, which can realistically and inexpensively evaluate biochemical reactions in a picoliter-scale volume at a high speed rate. As proof of concept, applying a modified Hewlett Packard model 5360 compact disc printer, green fluorescent protein expressing Escherichia coli cells along with alginate gel solution have been arrayed on a coverslip chip under a repeatable volume of 180% ± 26% picoliters per droplet; subsequently, different antibiotic droplets were patterned on the spots of cells to evaluate the inhibition of bacteria for antibiotic screening. The proposed platform was compared to the current screening process, validating its effectiveness. The viability and basic function of the printed cells were evaluated, resulting in cell viability above 98% and insignificant or no DNA damage to human kidney cells transfected. Based on the reduction of investment and compound volume used by this platform, this technique has the potential to improve the actual drug discovery process at its target evaluation stage. PMID:22728820

Rodríguez-Dévora, Jorge I; Zhang, Bimeng; Reyna, Daniel; Shi, Zhi-dong; Xu, Tao

2012-09-01

141

Screening aquatic ecosystems for mutagens with fern bio-assays  

PubMed Central

Recent researches on the royal fern, Osmunda regalis, have documented a high incidence of post-zygotic mutational damage in a population growing in a river heavily polluted with paper processing wastes, whereas genetic studies of nearby populations in nonpolluted environments failed to detect mutational damage. Intensive genetic and cytogenetic studies of mutation in O. regalis indicates that natural populations of homosporous ferns may be useful in situ bioassay systems for monitoring the presence of mutagens in aquatic ecosystems. Since these organisms are long-lived perennials with an ontogenetic system which stores mutational damage, they can be manipulated to give an integrated estimate of mutational damage for specified blocks of time (in units of years). Thus, the fern bioassay may be an inexpensive means of detecting both chronic low dose and episodic high dose inputs of mutagenic pollutants into aquatic ecosystems. The fern mutagen bioassay is based upon the detection of numerous categories of post-zygotic mutation load in natural fern populations. The frequency of sporophytic and embryonic lethals, leaf or root mutations, auxotrophic gametophytic mutations as well as numerous phenotypic alterations of gametophyte morphology can be routinely detected and quantified. In addition, various two-break chromosome aberrations (paracentric inversions, reciprocal translocations and ring chromosomes) can be readily screened for in the spore mother cells of many homosporous ferns. PMID:738252

Klekowski, Edward J.

1978-01-01

142

Chemogenomics profiling of drug targets of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway in Leptospira interrogans by virtual screening approaches.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis of global concern caused by Leptospira interrogans. The availability of ligand libraries has facilitated the search for novel drug targets using chemogenomics approaches, compared with the traditional method of drug discovery, which is time consuming and yields few leads with little intracellular information for guiding target selection. Recent subtractive genomics studies have revealed the putative drug targets in peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathways in Leptospira interrogans. Aligand library for the murD ligase enzyme in the peptidoglycan pathway has also been identified. Our approach in this research involves screening of the pre-existing ligand library of murD with related protein family members in the putative drug target assembly in the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. A chemogenomics approach has been implemented here, which involves screening of known ligands of a protein family having analogous domain architecture for identification of leads for existing druggable protein family members. By means of this approach, one murC and one murF inhibitor were identified, providing a platform for developing an antileptospirosis drug targeting the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. Given that the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway is exclusive to bacteria, the in silico identified mur ligase inhibitors are expected to be broad-spectrum Gram-negative inhibitors if synthesized and tested in in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:23676922

Bhattacharjee, Biplab; Simon, Rose Mary; Gangadharaiah, Chaithra; Karunakar, Prashantha

2013-06-28

143

Identification and Validation of Novel Human Pregnane X Receptor Activators among Prescribed Drugs via Ligand-Based Virtual Screening  

PubMed Central

Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) plays a key role in regulating metabolism and clearance of endogenous and exogenous substances. Identification of novel hPXR activators among commercial drugs may aid in avoiding drug-drug interactions during coadministration. We applied ligand-based computational approaches for virtual screening of a commonly prescribed drug database (SCUT). Bayesian classification models were generated with a training set comprising 177 compounds using Fingerprints and 117 structural descriptors. A cell-based luciferase reporter assay was used for evaluation of chemical-mediated hPXR activation in HepG2 cells. All compounds were tested at 10 ?M concentration with rifampicin and dimethyl sulfoxide as positive and negative controls, respectively. The Bayesian models showed specificity and overall prediction accuracy up to 0.92 and 0.69 for test set compounds. Screening the SCUT database with this model retrieved 105 hits and 17 compounds from the top 25 hits were chosen for in vitro testing. The reporter assay confirmed that nine drugs, i.e., fluticasone, nimodipine, nisoldipine, beclomethasone, finasteride, flunisolide, megestrol, secobarbital, and aminoglutethimide, were previously unidentified hPXR activators. Thus, the present study demonstrates that novel hPXR activators can be efficiently identified among U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved and commonly prescribed drugs, which should lead to detection and prevention of potential drug-drug interactions. PMID:21068194

Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao; Kim, Gregory; Ekins, Sean; Wang, Hongbing

2011-01-01

144

UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT EL PASO DRUG SCREEN CONSENT AND RELEASE  

E-print Network

May 2009 UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT EL PASO DRUG SCREEN CONSENT AND RELEASE My signature below indicates that I have been advised that a drug screening is required for admittance to or continued to participate in the clinical component at the facility if the drug screening information is not provided

Ward, Karen

145

Automated fast perfusion of Xenopus oocytes for drug screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast (‘concentration jump’) applications of neurotransmitters are crucial for screening studies on ligand-gated ion channels. In this paper, we describe a method for automated fast perfusion of neurotransmitters (or drugs) during two-microelectrode voltage-clamp experiments on Xenopus oocytes. The oocytes are placed in a small bath chamber that is covered by a glass plate with two channels for the microelectrodes that

I. Baburin; S. Beyl; S. Hering

2006-01-01

146

Genome Editing-Enabled HTS Assays Expand Drug Target Pathways for Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.  

PubMed

Copy number variation resulting in excess PMP22 protein causes the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1A. To broadly interrogate chemically sensitive transcriptional pathways controlling PMP22 protein levels, we used the targeting precision of TALEN-mediated genome editing to embed reporters within the genetic locus harboring the Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (Pmp22) gene. Using a Schwann cell line with constitutively high endogenous levels of Pmp22, we obtained allelic insertion of secreted bioluminescent reporters with sufficient signal to enable a 1536-well assay. Our findings from the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of several thousand drugs and clinically investigated compounds using this assay design both overlapped and expanded results from a previous assay using a randomly inserted reporter gene controlled by a single regulatory element of the Pmp22 gene. A key difference was the identification of a kinase-controlled inhibitory pathway of Pmp22 transcription revealed by the activity of the Protein kinase C (PKC)-modulator bryostatin. PMID:25188731

Inglese, James; Dranchak, Patricia; Moran, John J; Jang, Sung-Wook; Srinivasan, Rajini; Santiago, Yolanda; Zhang, Lei; Guha, Rajarshi; Martinez, Natalia; MacArthur, Ryan; Cost, Gregory J; Svaren, John

2014-11-21

147

Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse/toxicology screening in emergency medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Laboratory tests for routine drug of abuse and toxicology (DOA/Tox) screening, often used in emergency medicine, generally utilize antibody-based tests (immunoassays) to detect classes of drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and tricyclic antidepressants, or individual drugs such as cocaine, methadone, and phencyclidine. A key factor in assay sensitivity and specificity is the drugs or drug metabolites that were used as antigenic targets to generate the assay antibodies. All DOA/Tox screening immunoassays can be limited by false positives caused by cross-reactivity from structurally related compounds. For immunoassays targeted at a particular class of drugs, there can also be false negatives if there is failure to detect some drugs or their metabolites within that class. Methods Molecular similarity analysis, a computational method commonly used in drug discovery, was used to calculate structural similarity of a wide range of clinically relevant compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target ('antigenic') molecules of DOA/Tox screening tests. These results were compared with cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for clinical testing. The causes for false positives for phencyclidine and tricyclic antidepressant screening immunoassays were investigated at the authors' medical center using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a confirmatory method. Results The results illustrate three major challenges for routine DOA/Tox screening immunoassays used in emergency medicine. First, for some classes of drugs, the structural diversity of common drugs within each class has been increasing, thereby making it difficult for a single assay to detect all compounds without compromising specificity. Second, for some screening assays, common 'out-of-class' drugs may be structurally similar to the target compound so that they account for a high frequency of false positives. Illustrating this point, at the authors' medical center, the majority of positive screening results for phencyclidine and tricyclic antidepressants assays were explained by out-of-class drugs. Third, different manufacturers have adopted varying approaches to marketed immunoassays, leading to substantial inter-assay variability. Conclusion The expanding structural diversity of drugs presents a difficult challenge for routine DOA/Tox screening that limit the clinical utility of these tests in the emergency medicine setting. PMID:19400959

Krasowski, Matthew D; Pizon, Anthony F; Siam, Mohamed G; Giannoutsos, Spiros; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

2009-01-01

148

Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring. PMID:24932595

Corstjens, Paul L A M; DE Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Tjon Kon Fat, Elisa M; Wilson, R Alan; Kariuki, Thomas M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; Loverde, Philip T; Abrams, William R; Tanke, Hans J; VAN Lieshout, Lisette; Deelder, André M; VAN Dam, Govert J

2014-12-01

149

MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES  

EPA Science Inventory

MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES. Authors: L E Gray 1 , J Furr 1 , M G Price 2 , C J Wolf 3 and J S Ostby 1 Institutions: 1. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NH...

150

Facilitating drug discovery: an automated high-content inflammation assay in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Zebrafish larvae are particularly amenable to whole animal small molecule screens due to their small size and relative ease of manipulation and observation, as well as the fact that compounds can simply be added to the bathing water and are readily absorbed when administered in a <1% DMSO solution. Due to the optical clarity of zebrafish larvae and the availability of transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins in leukocytes, zebrafish offer the unique advantage of monitoring an acute inflammatory response in vivo. Consequently, utilizing the zebrafish for high-content small molecule screens aiming at the identification of immune-modulatory compounds with high throughput has been proposed, suggesting inflammation induction scenarios e.g. localized nicks in fin tissue, laser damage directed to the yolk surface of embryos or tailfin amputation. The major drawback of these methods however was the requirement of manual larva manipulation to induce wounding, thus preventing high-throughput screening. Introduction of the chemically induced inflammation (ChIn) assay eliminated these obstacles. Since wounding is inflicted chemically the number of embryos that can be treated simultaneously is virtually unlimited. Temporary treatment of zebrafish larvae with copper sulfate selectively induces cell death in hair cells of the lateral line system and results in rapid granulocyte recruitment to injured neuromasts. The inflammatory response can be followed in real-time by using compound transgenic cldnB::GFP/lysC::DsRED2 zebrafish larvae that express a green fluorescent protein in neuromast cells, as well as a red fluorescent protein labeling granulocytes. In order to devise a screening strategy that would allow both high-content and high-throughput analyses we introduced robotic liquid handling and combined automated microscopy with a custom developed software script. This script enables automated quantification of the inflammatory response by scoring the percent area occupied by red fluorescent leukocytes within an empirically defined area surrounding injured green fluorescent neuromasts. Furthermore, we automated data processing, handling, visualization, and storage all based on custom developed MATLAB and Python scripts. In brief, we introduce an automated HC/HT screen that allows testing of chemical compounds for their effect on initiation, progression or resolution of a granulocytic inflammatory response. This protocol serves a good starting point for more in-depth analyses of drug mechanisms and pathways involved in the orchestration of an innate immune response. In the future, it may help identifying intolerable toxic or off-target effects at earlier phases of drug discovery and thereby reduce procedural risks and costs for drug development. PMID:22825322

Wittmann, Christine; Reischl, Markus; Shah, Asmi H; Mikut, Ralf; Liebel, Urban; Grabher, Clemens

2012-01-01

151

TR-FRET-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of UBC13 Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

UBC13 is a non-canonical Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme (E2) that has been implicated in a variety of cellular signaling processes due to its ability to catalyze formation of Lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains on various substrates. In particular, UBC13 is required for signaling by a variety of receptors important in immune regulation, making it a candidate target for inflammatory diseases. UBC13 is also critical for double-strand DNA repair, and thus a potential radiosensitizer and chemosensitizer target for oncology. We developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for UBC13 based on the method of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET). The TR-FRET assay combines fluorochrome (Fl)-conjugated ubiquitin (fluorescence acceptor) with terbium (Tb)-conjugated ubiquitin (fluorescence donor), such that the assembly of mixed chains of Fl- and Tb-ubiquitin creates a robust TR-FRET signal. We defined conditions for optimized performance of the TR-FRET assay in both 384 and 1536-well formats. Chemical library screens (total 456,865 compounds) were conducted in high-throughput mode using various compound collections, affording superb Z' scores (typically > 0.7) and thus validating the performance of the assays. Altogether, the HTS assays described here are suitable for large-scale, automated screening of chemical libraries in search of compounds with inhibitory activity against UBC13. PMID:22034497

Madiraju, Charitha; Welsh, Kate; Cuddy, Michael P.; Godoi, Paulo; Pass, Ian; Ngo, Tram; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard A.; Diaz, Paul; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Reed, John C.

2014-01-01

152

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for screening of bacterial integrons  

PubMed Central

Background The occurrence and prevalence of integrons in clinical microorganisms and their role played in antimicrobial resistance have been well studied recently. As screening and detection of integrons are concerned, current diagnostic methodologies are restricted by significant drawbacks and novel methods are required for integrons detection. Results In this study, three loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays targeting on class 1, 2 and 3 integrons were implemented and evaluated. Optimization of these detection assays were performed, including studing on the reaction temperature, volume, time, sensitivity and specificity (both primers and targets). Application of the established LAMP assays were further verified on a total of 1082 isolates (previously identified to be 397 integron-positive and 685 integron-negative strains). According to the results, the indispensability of each primer had been confirmed and the optimal reaction temperature, volume and time were found to be 65°C, 45 min and 25 ?L, respectively. As application was concerned, 361, 28 and 8 isolates carrying intI1, intI2 and intI3 yielded positive amplicons, respectively. Other 685 integron-negative bacteria were negative for the integron-screening LAMP assays, totaling the detection rate and specificity to be 100%. Conclusions The intI1-, intI2- and intI3-LAMP assays established in this study were demonstrated to be the valid and rapid detection methodologies for the screening of bacterial integrons.

2014-01-01

153

A high throughput screening assay for identifying glycation inhibitors on MALDI-TOF target.  

PubMed

The Maillard reaction plays an important role in the food industry, however, the deleterious effects generated by the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been well recognized. Many efforts have been made to seek new AGE inhibitors, in particular those natural ones without adverse effect. We have developed a rapid, mass spectrometry based, on-plate screening assay for novel AGE inhibitors. The glycation reaction, inhibition feedback as well as the subsequent MALDI mass spectrometric analysis occurred on one single MALDI plate. At 1:10M ratio of peptide to sugar, as little as 4h incubation time allowed the screening test to be ready for analysis. DSP, inhibition and IC50 were calculated to evaluate selected inhibitors and resulting inhibition efficiencies were consistent with available references. We demonstrated that this method provide a potential high throughput screening assay to analyze and identify the anti-glycation agents. PMID:25306331

Zhang, Qiuting; Tu, Zongcai; Wang, Hui; Fan, Liangliang; Huang, Xiaoqin; Xiao, Hui

2015-03-01

154

Optimization of Fluorescence Assay of Cellular Manganese Status for High Throughput Screening  

PubMed Central

The advent of high throughput screening (HTS) technology permits identification of compounds that influence various cellular phenotypes. However, screening for small molecule chemical modifiers of neurotoxicants has been limited by the scalability of existing phenotyping assays. Furthermore, the adaptation of existing cellular assays to HTS format requires substantial modification of experimental parameters and analysis methodology to meet the necessary statistical requirements. Here we describe the successful optimization of the Cellular Fura-2 Manganese Extraction Assay (CFMEA) for HTS. By optimizing cellular density, manganese (Mn) exposure conditions, and extraction parameters, the sensitivity and dynamic range of the fura-2 Mn response was enhanced to permit detection of positive and negative modulators of cellular manganese status. Finally, we quantify and report strategies to control sources of intra-and inter-plate variability by batch level and plate-geometric level analysis. Our goal is to enable HTS with the CFMEA to identify novel modulators of Mn transport. PMID:23169769

Kumar, Kevin K.; Aboud, Asad A.; Patel, Devin K.; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

2013-01-01

155

DNA transformation of Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes and their use in drug screening.  

PubMed

Protocols for DNA electroporation in Leishmania promastigote cells are well established. More recently, in vitro culture of axenic Leishmania amastigotes became possible. We have established conditions for DNA transformation of axenically grown Leishmania infantum amastigotes. Parameters for DNA electroporation of Leishmania axenic amastigotes were systematically studied using luciferase-mediated transient transfection. Cell lines expressing stable luciferase activity were then selected, and their ability to be used in an in vitro drug screening procedure was determined. A model was established, using axenic amastigotes expressing luciferase activity, for rapidly determining the activity of drugs directly against both axenic and intracellular amastigotes. For intracellular amastigotes, the 50% effective concentrations of pentamidine, sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), meglumine (Glucantime), and potassium antimonyl tartrate determined with the luciferase assay were 0.2 microM (0.12 microg/ml), 55 microg/ml, 95 microg/ml, and 0.12 microg/ml, respectively; these values are in agreement with values determined by more labor-intensive staining methods. We also showed the usefulness of luciferase-expressing parasites for analyzing drug resistance. The availability of luciferase-expressing amastigotes for use in high-throughput screening should facilitate the search for new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:11257031

Sereno, D; Roy, G; Lemesre, J L; Papadopoulou, B; Ouellette, M

2001-04-01

156

Automated high-throughput Vibrio fischeri assay for (eco)toxicity screening: application to ionic liquids.  

PubMed

An automated high-throughput Vibrio fischeri assay was developed and further applied to the evaluation of ionic liquids (ILs) (eco)toxicity. The assay was based on the reduction of bacterial bioluminescence in the presence of test compounds and the results were presented as EC(50). The assays were performed with eight commercially available ILs with distinct cationic head groups, alkyl side chains and anions. EC(50) values between 6.5 and 691.9 mmol L(-1) were obtained for the tested ILs, being hmim [Cl] the most toxic and bmim [Cl] the less toxic ones, confirming the influence of the different structural elements. Moreover, all the tested ILs exhibited a (eco)toxicity lower than Cu(II), used as a positive control during the optimization and analysis steps. The automated assay assured the precise control of the contact time between V. fischeri and test compound by means of a simple protocol that guaranteed adequate aspiration and handling of the solutions as well as the precise implementation of a computer controlled stop period. Furthermore, a significant reduction of the assay costs was achieved through automation mainly by a drastic reduction of the volume of bacterial suspension and test compound. The methodology was validated by comparison with a microplate assay; it was stated that the results, obtained after a 3min contact time, changed proportionally relatively to Cu(II) in both assays. This confirmed the applicability of the methodology as an (eco)toxicity screening assay, with reduction of time and increase of robustness and repeatability (n=10; rsd<1.1%). It is expected that due to its simplicity and reduced cost the developed assay can be integrated in the early stage of development of new compounds as a rapid screening test. PMID:22417674

Pinto, Paula C A G; Costa, Susana P F; Lima, José L F C; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

2012-06-01

157

Development of a cell-based, high-throughput screening assay for cholesterol efflux using a fluorescent mimic of cholesterol.  

PubMed

Reverse cholesterol transport is the process by which extrahepatic cells, including macrophage-derived foam cells in arterial atherosclerotic plaque, transport excessive cholesterol back to the liver for bile acid synthesis and excretion, thus lowering the peripheral lipid burden. Cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells is the first step in this process, and finding drugs and interventions that promote this event is an important endeavor. Radioisotope-labeled cholesterol traditionally has been employed in measuring efflux efficiency, but this reagent has limitations for high-throughput screening. We developed an alternative method to measure cholesterol efflux in macrophage-derived foam cells using a novel fluorescent cholesterol mimic comprising the Pennsylvania Green fluorophore, attached by a linker containing a glutamic acid residue, to a derivative of N-alkyl-3?-cholesterylamine. Compared with the traditional radioisotope-based assay, this fluorescence-based assay gave similar results in the presence of known modulators of cholesterol efflux, such as cyclic AMP, and different cholesterol acceptors. When the fluorescent probe was employed in a high-throughput screening format, a variety of chemicals and bioactive compounds with known and unknown effects on cholesterol efflux could be tested simultaneously by plate-reader in a short period of time. Treatment of THP-1-derived macrophages with inhibitors of the membrane transporter ATP-binding cassette A1, such as glyburide or a specific antibody, significantly reduced the export of this fluorescent compound, indicating that ATP-binding cassette A1 represents the primary mediator of its cellular efflux. This fluorescent mimic of cholesterol provides a safe, sensitive, and reproducible alternative to radioactive assays in efflux experiments and has great potential as a valuable tool when incorporated into a drug discovery program. PMID:21050070

Zhang, Jun; Cai, Sutang; Peterson, Blake R; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Heuvel, John P Vanden

2011-04-01

158

Detection of systemic hypersensitivity to drugs using standard guinea pig assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most commonly used assays designed to detect either skin or systemic immune-based hypersensitivity reactions are those using guinea pigs (GP). We obtained data from various FDA records to evaluate the correlation between GP assay results and reported post-marketing systemic hypersensitivity reactions. We examined the new drug application (NDA) reviews of approved drugs for the results of GP assays. Post-marketing

James L Weaver; David Staten; Joslyn Swann; George Armstrong; Melissa Bates; Kenneth L Hastings

2003-01-01

159

Screening for Noise in Gene Expression Identifies Drug Synergies  

PubMed Central

Stochastic fluctuations are inherent to gene expression and can drive cell-fate specification. We used such fluctuations to modulate reactivation of HIV from latency—a quiescent state that is a major barrier to an HIV cure. By screening a diverse library of bioactive small molecules, we identified over 80 compounds that modulated HIV gene-expression fluctuations (i.e. ‘noise’), without changing mean expression. These noise-modulating compounds would be neglected in conventional screens and strikingly they synergized with conventional transcriptional activators. Noise enhancers reactivated latent cells significantly better than existing best-in-class reactivation cocktails (and with reduced off-target cytotoxicity), while noise suppressors stabilized latency. Noise-modulating chemicals may provide novel probes for the physiological consequences of noise and an unexplored axis for drug discovery, allowing enhanced control over diverse cell-fate decisions. PMID:24903562

Dar, Roy D.; Hosmane, Nina N.; Arkin, Michelle R.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Weinberger, Leor S.

2014-01-01

160

The holistic integration of virtual screening in drug discovery.  

PubMed

During the past decade, virtual screening (VS) has come of age. In this review, we document the evolution and maturation of VS from a rather exotic, stand-alone method toward a versatile hit and lead identification technology. VS campaigns have become fully integrated into drug discovery campaigns, evenly matched and complementary to high-throughput screening (HTS) methods. Here, we propose a novel classification of VS applications to help to monitor the advances in VS and to support future improvement of computational hit and lead identification methods. Several relevant VS studies from recent publications, in both academic and industrial settings, were selected to demonstrate the progress in this area. Furthermore, we identify challenges that lie ahead for the development of integrated VS campaigns. PMID:23340112

Tanrikulu, Yusuf; Krüger, Björn; Proschak, Ewgenij

2013-04-01

161

Drug Screening of Preserved Oral Fluid by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oral fluid is an alternative matrix with potential applications in road-side drug screening, work-place testing, drug treatment programs, and epi- demiological surveys. Development of methods for ex- tensive drug screening in oral fluid is warranted. Methods: We developed a liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) method for drug screening of preserved oral fluid collected with the Intercept® collection device.

Elisabeth Leere Řiestad; Unni Johansen; Asbjorg Solberg Christophersen

162

Evaluation of a human neurite growth assay as specific screen for developmental neurotoxicants.  

PubMed

Organ-specific in vitro toxicity assays are often highly sensitive, but they lack specificity. We evaluated here examples of assay features that can affect test specificity, and some general procedures are suggested on how positive hits in complex biological assays may be defined. Differentiating human LUHMES cells were used as potential model for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Forty candidate toxicants were screened, and several hits were obtained and confirmed. Although the cells had a definitive neuronal phenotype, the use of a general cell death endpoint in these cultures did not allow specific identification of neurotoxicants. As alternative approach, neurite growth was measured as an organ-specific functional endpoint. We found that neurite extension of developing LUHMES was specifically inhibited by diverse compounds such as colchicine, vincristine, narciclasine, rotenone, cycloheximide, or diquat. These compounds reduced neurite growth at concentrations that did not compromise cell viability, and neurite growth was affected more potently than the integrity of developed neurites of mature neurons. A ratio of the EC50 values of neurite growth inhibition and cell death of >4 provided a robust classifier for compounds associated with a developmental neurotoxic hazard. Screening of unspecific toxicants in the test system always yielded ratios <4. The assay identified also compounds that accelerated neurite growth, such as the rho kinase pathway modifiers blebbistatin or thiazovivin. The negative effects of colchicine or rotenone were completely inhibited by a rho kinase inhibitor. In summary, we suggest that assays using functional endpoints (neurite growth) can specifically identify and characterize (developmental) neurotoxicants. PMID:23670202

Krug, Anne K; Balmer, Nina V; Matt, Florian; Schönenberger, Felix; Merhof, Dorit; Leist, Marcel

2013-12-01

163

A new automated screening assay for the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease.  

PubMed

A new, automated assay for von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity has recently become commercially available (HemosIL vWF activity assay, Instrumentation Laboratories, Lexington, MA). We prospectively studied 61 specimens from 58 patients undergoing laboratory testing for suspicion of von Willebrand disease with this new method, in comparison with the established ristocetin cofactor method. Assays for factor VIII and vWF antigen were also performed using an established method on an MDA-180 coagulation analyzer (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) and a new method on an ACL TOP coagulation analyzer (Instrumentation Laboratories). Blood types were determined. The results showed no significant difference between the assays for factor VIII (mean, 97% for MDA-180 and ACL TOP; P = .494) or vWF antigen (mean, MDA-180, 109%; ACL TOP, 111%; P = .766). The mean result for the ristocetin cofactor assay was 106% vs 93% with the automated vWF activity (P = .007). The automated activity assay was 100% sensitive and 86% specific for detecting vWF abnormalities and seems to be a suitable screening test. Abnormal results should be followed up with a ristocetin cofactor activity assay for confirmation. Further study is recommended to confirm these conclusions. PMID:17439831

Salem, Raneem O; Van Cott, Elizabeth M

2007-05-01

164

Time-schedule dependency of the inhibiting activity of various anticancer drugs in the clonogenic assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the discrepancy between the in vitro response in the clonogenic assay and the clinical response, the time-schedule dependencies of various anticancer drugs were determined by comparing the inhibiting effect against colony formation by PC-7 cells treated with the drugs for 1 h with that of those treated for 24h. According to their schedule dependency the drugs can be

Yuka Matsushima; Fumihiko Kanzawa; Akio Hoshi; Eiji Shimizu; Hiroaki Nomori; Yasutsuna Sasaki; Nagahiro Saijo

1985-01-01

165

A Systematic Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Biological Threat Agents  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid development of effective medical countermeasures against potential biological threat agents is vital. Repurposing existing drugs that may have unanticipated activities as potential countermeasures is one way to meet this important goal, since currently approved drugs already have well-established safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in patients, as well as manufacturing and distribution networks. Therefore, approved drugs could rapidly be made available for a new indication in an emergency. Methodology/Principal Findings A large systematic effort to determine whether existing drugs can be used against high containment bacterial and viral pathogens is described. We assembled and screened 1012 FDA-approved drugs for off-label broad-spectrum efficacy against Bacillus anthracis; Francisella tularensis; Coxiella burnetii; and Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fever viruses using in vitro cell culture assays. We found a variety of hits against two or more of these biological threat pathogens, which were validated in secondary assays. As expected, antibiotic compounds were highly active against bacterial agents, but we did not identify any non-antibiotic compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Lomefloxacin and erythromycin were found to be the most potent compounds in vivo protecting mice against Bacillus anthracis challenge. While multiple virus-specific inhibitors were identified, the most noteworthy antiviral compound identified was chloroquine, which disrupted entry and replication of two or more viruses in vitro and protected mice against Ebola virus challenge in vivo. Conclusions/Significance The feasibility of repurposing existing drugs to face novel threats is demonstrated and this represents the first effort to apply this approach to high containment bacteria and viruses. PMID:23577127

Madrid, Peter B.; Chopra, Sidharth; Manger, Ian D.; Gilfillan, Lynne; Keepers, Tiffany R.; Shurtleff, Amy C.; Green, Carol E.; Iyer, Lalitha V.; Dilks, Holli Hutcheson; Davey, Robert A.; Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L.; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G.; Warren, Travis K.; Wells, Jay B.; Moos, Walter H.; Burke, RaeLyn L.; Tanga, Mary J.

2013-01-01

166

Attitudes of Matriculating First-Year Pharmacy Students Toward a Mandatory, Random Drug-Screening Program  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the attitudes of incoming pharmacy students toward a mandatory, random urine drug-screening program. Methods. This was an anonymous, voluntary survey of students at the McWhorter School of Pharmacy (MSOP) using an instrument composed of 40 items. The instrument was administered during orientation week prior to the session during which the policies and procedures of MSOP's drug-screening program were to be discussed. Results. The survey instrument was completed by all 129 (100%) students in the class. Two-thirds of the students were aware of MSOP's drug-screening program prior to applying, but only a few felt uneasy about applying to the school because of the program. The greatest concerns expressed by the students included what would happen if a student unintentionally missed a drug screen or was busy with other matters when called for screening, how much time a drug-screening would take, and the possibility of false-positive drug screen results. The vast majority of students agreed with statements regarding the potential benefits of drug testing. Students who consumed alcohol in a typical week and those with current or past use of an illegal substance held less favorable attitudes toward MSOP’s mandatory drug-screening program compared with students who did not share those characteristics. Conclusion. Although there were definite concerns expressed regarding pragmatic issues surrounding drug screening, the first-year pharmacy students held generally favorable opinions about the school's mandatory drug-screening program. PMID:23193335

Oliver, Maggee; Hogue, Michael D.; Alverson, Susan P.; Woolley, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

167

Development of an Evidence biochip array kit for the multiplex screening of more than 20 anthelmintic drugs.  

PubMed

Anthelmintic drugs are used in clinical and veterinary practice for the treatment of infections caused by parasitic worms. Their extensive use in food-producing animals can cause the presence of residues in food. For consumer protection it is necessary to monitor the levels of anthelmintic residues to ensure that they remain within the legally permitted maximum acceptable concentrations. For this purpose, the use of multiplex screening methods is advantageous. Biochip array technology allows the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes from a single sample at a single point in time. This study reports the development of an Evidence biochip array for the multiplex screening of anthelmintic drugs. Simultaneous competitive chemiluminescent immunoassays are employed. The solid support and vessel is the biochip, which contains an array of discrete test sites. The assays were applied to the semiautomated bench-top analyser Evidence Investigator. The aminobenzimidazoles assay detected aminomebendazole, albendazole 2-aminosulphone and aminoflubendazole, the avermectins assay detected emamectin benzoate, eprinomectin, abamectin, ivermectin and doramectin, the benzimidazoles assay detected albendazole sulphone, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxibendazole, oxfendazole and flubendazole, the thiabendazole assay detected cambendazole, thiabendazole and 5-hydroxythiabendazole and the triclabendazole assay detected ketotriclabendazole, triclabendazole and triclabendazole sulphoxide. The limits of detection ranged from 0.3 ppb (aminobenzimidazoles) to 2.0 ppb (levamisole) in milk and from 0.15 ppb (aminobenzimidazoles) to 6.5 ppb (levamisole) in tissue. The average recovery range was 71-135 %. This multianalytical approach on a biochip platform is applicable to the screening of more than 20 anthelmintic drugs in different food matrices, leading to consolidation of tests and enhancement of the test result output. PMID:22566198

Porter, J; O'Loan, N; Bell, B; Mahoney, J; McGarrity, M; McConnell, R I; Fitzgerald, S P

2012-07-01

168

Drug Use Analysis Methodologies: Part I. Screening Methodology to Measure and Compare Normative and Criterial Drug Prescribing (An Example Using Schedule 2 Drug Products). Part II. Methodology to Forecast National Normative Drug Prescribing (An Example Using Schedule 2 Drugs).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A screening methodology for the purpose of measuring and comparing normative and criterial drug prescribing is demonstrated. Another methodology for forecasting national normative drug prescribing is described. Examples using Schedule 2 drugs are given.

D. E. Knapp, D. L. Crosby, T. F. Morgan, C. S. Lao, J. S. Kennedy

1976-01-01

169

Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors from Philippine Marine Invertebrate Samples Screened in a New Microplate Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new microplate assay for Ca 2+-induced platelet aggregation as detected by Giemsa dye was used to screen marine invertebrate samples from the Philippines for inhibitors of human platelet aggregation. Out of 261 crude methanol extracts of marine sponges and tunicates, 25 inhibited aggregation at 2 mg\\/ml. Inhibition of agonist-induced aggregation in an aggregometer was used to confirm results of

Sheila Marie V. Pimentel; Zenaida P. Bojo; Amy V. D. Roberto; Jose Enrico H. Lazaro; Gina C. Mangalindan; Leila M. Florentino; Pilar Lim-Navarro; Deniz Tasdemir; Chris M. Ireland; Gisela P. Concepcion

2003-01-01

170

A three-stage biophysical screening cascade for fragment-based drug discovery.  

PubMed

This protocol describes the screening of a library of low-molecular-weight compounds (fragments) using a series of biophysical ligand-binding assays. Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has emerged as a successful method to design high-affinity ligands for biomacromolecules of therapeutic interest. It involves detecting relatively weak interactions between the fragments and a target macromolecule using sensitive biophysical techniques. These weak binders provide a starting point for the development of inhibitors with submicromolar affinity. Here we describe an efficient fragment screening cascade that can identify binding fragments (hits) within weeks. It is divided into three stages: (i) preliminary screening using differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), (ii) validation by NMR spectroscopy and (iii) characterization of binding fragments by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography. Although this protocol is readily applicable in academic settings because of its emphasis on low cost and medium-throughput early-stage screening technologies, the core principle of orthogonal validation makes it robust enough to meet the quality standards of an industrial laboratory. PMID:24157549

Mashalidis, Ellene H; ?led?, Pawe?; Lang, Steffen; Abell, Chris

2013-11-01

171

Focused pseudostatic hydrazone libraries screened by mass spectrometry binding assay: optimizing affinities toward ?-aminobutyric acid transporter 1.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometric (MS) binding assays, a powerful tool to determine affinities of single drug candidates toward chosen targets, were recently demonstrated to be suitable for the screening of compound libraries generated with reactions of dynamic combinatorial chemistry when rendering libraries pseudostatic. Screening of small hydrazone libraries targeting ?-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 (GAT1), the most abundant ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter in the central nervous system, revealed two nipecotic acid derived binders with submicromolar affinities. Starting from the biphenyl carrying hit as lead structure, the objective of the present study was to discover novel high affinity GAT1 binders by screening of biphenyl focused pseudostatic hydrazone libraries formed from hydrazine 10 and 36 biphenylcarbaldehydes 11c-al. Hydrazone 12z that carried a 2',4'-dichlorobiphenyl residue was found to be the most potent binder with low nanomolar affinity (pK(i) = 8.094 ± 0.098). When stable carba analogues of representative hydrazones were synthesized and evaluated, the best binder 13z was again displaying the 2',4'-dichlorobiphenyl moiety (pK(i) = 6.930 ± 0.021). PMID:23336362

Sindelar, Miriam; Lutz, Toni A; Petrera, Marilena; Wanner, Klaus T

2013-02-14

172

A male and female gametocyte functional viability assay to identify biologically relevant malaria transmission-blocking drugs.  

PubMed

Malaria elimination will require interventions that prevent parasite transmission from the human host to the mosquito. Experimentally, this is usually determined by the expensive and laborious Plasmodium falciparum standard membrane feeding assay (PfSMFA), which has limited utility for high-throughput drug screening. In response, we developed the P. falciparum dual gamete formation assay (PfDGFA), which faithfully simulates the initial stages of the PfSMFA in vitro. It utilizes a dual readout that individually and simultaneously reports on the functional viability of male and female mature stage V gametocytes. To validate, we screen the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box library with the PfDGFA. Unique to this assay, we find compounds that target male gametocytes only and also compounds with reversible and irreversible activity. Most importantly, we show that compound activity in the PfDGFA accurately predicts activity in PfSMFAs, which validates and supports its adoption into the transmission-stage screening pipeline. PMID:25267664

Ruecker, A; Mathias, D K; Straschil, U; Churcher, T S; Dinglasan, R R; Leroy, D; Sinden, R E; Delves, M J

2014-12-01

173

[NMR screening in fragment-based drug discovery].  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a versatile technique for the pharmaceutical industry. From organic chemistry to MRI, there are a number of applications of NMR. Among them, biomolecular NMR has been used for structure determination of biomolecules and analyzing the interaction between a target protein and its inhibitors. In the context of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), NMR has been known as a fragment screening technique, because NMR is good at detecting a weak binding compound in an accurate manner. Generally, the NMR technique for fragment screening is classified into two families: the ligand-based technique and the protein-based technique. The latter technique requires stable isotope labeled protein and also can be applied to a relatively small MW protein target. In the ligand-based technique such as saturation transfer difference (STD) and WaterLOGSY, only the NMR signals of the ligands are observed. The disadvantage of STD and WaterLOGSY is that the non-specific binding is also observed and a competition experiment is required in order to select the specific binding compound. Due to the difference in the consumption of the protein sample, the ligand-based technique has generally been used recently as a primary screening. PMID:20190517

Hanzawa, Hiroyuki; Takizawa, Takeshi

2010-03-01

174

Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (inventors)

1977-01-01

175

Novel screening method for potential skin-whitening compounds by a luciferase reporter assay.  

PubMed

Measurement of the melanin content by using B16 melanoma cells is generally applied to find novel skin-whitening agents. However, this measurement method using B16 melanoma cells has such disadvantages, as the time taken, its sensitivity, and troublesomeness. We therefore attempted in the present study to establish a reporter assay system by measuring the tyrosinase promoter activity to use for convenient, high-throughput screening of new melanogenesis inhibitors. We first confirmed the validity of this reporter assay system by using such known skin-whitening agents, as arbutin, sulforaphane, and theaflavin 3,3'-digallate. We then compared the effect of 56 compounds on the tyrosinase promoter activity to test this reporter assay system. Carnosol, and rottlerin strongly inhibited the tyrosinase promoter activity. Moreover, carnosol and rottlerin decreased melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression in a dose-dependent manner when using B16 melanoma cells. These results indicate this new luciferase reported assay system to be an effective and convenient method for screening potential skin-whitening compounds. PMID:21071833

Shirasugi, Ichiro; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Yamasaki, Masao; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Matsui, Takashi; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Suiko, Masahito

2010-01-01

176

High-throughput screening with a miniaturized radioligand competition assay identifies new modulators of human ?2-adrenoceptors.  

PubMed

Human ?(2)-adrenoceptors (?(2)-ARs) are rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors, and potential drug targets. The three different human ?(2)-AR subtypes ?(2A), ?(2B) and ?(2C) are widely distributed in tissues, but so far only a few subtype-selective ligands have been identified. In this project, we set off to conduct a large chemical screen for activity on the human ?(2B)-AR and studied the selectivity of the active compounds towards the human ?(2A)- and ?(2C)-AR subtypes. We employed a radioligand competition binding assay that was optimized and miniaturized into a robotic environment. Membrane fractions containing recombinant human receptor subtypes were prepared from stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Initially identified hits were followed up and characterized, and chemoinformatics tools were applied to gain better understanding of the relevance of the results. After a primary screen against ?(2B)-AR, 176 compounds of the 17,952 included in the library were declared as active at 10 ?M, of which 89 compounds were further selected for potency and affinity determinations using the three human ?(2)-AR subtypes. One of the identified positive hits was 2?,2??-Bisepigallocatechin digallate, which was found to have high affinity at all three human ?(2)-AR subtypes. This represents the first non-protonable molecule identified as able to interact with these receptors. Additionally, results obtained with a functional assay (agonist-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTP?S binding) supported the identification of another positive hit, lysergol, as a partial agonist of the human ?(2)-AR subtypes. The dataset of confirmed active chemical species represents a readily available, high quality source for follow-up studies. Altogether, these results provide novel research approaches for drug discovery of modulators of the ?(2)-AR subtypes. PMID:22982401

Fallarero, Adyary; Pohjanoksa, Katariina; Wissel, Gloria; Parkkisenniemi-Kinnunen, Ulla-Mari; Xhaard, Henri; Scheinin, Mika; Vuorela, Pia

2012-12-18

177

A new homogeneous high-throughput screening assay for profiling compound activity on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel  

PubMed Central

Long QT syndrome, either inherited or acquired from drug treatments, can result in ventricular arrhythmia (torsade de pointes) and sudden death. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel inhibition by drugs is now recognized as a common reason for the acquired form of long QT syndrome. It has been reported that more than 100 known drugs inhibit the activity of the hERG channel. Since 1997, several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to the long QT syndrome caused by hERG inhibition. Food and Drug Administration regulations now require safety data on hERG channels for investigative new drug (IND) applications. The assessment of compound activity on the hERG channel has now become an important part of the safety evaluation in the process of drug discovery. During the past decade, several in vitro assay methods have been developed and significant resources have been used to characterize hERG channel activities. However, evaluation of compound activities on hERG have not been performed for large compound collections due to technical difficulty, lack of throughput, and/or lack of biological relevance to function. Here we report a modified form of the FluxOR thallium flux assay, capable of measuring hERG activity in a homogeneous 1536-well plate format. To validate the assay, we screened a 7-point dilution series of the LOPAC 1280 library collection and reported rank order potencies of ten common hERG inhibitors. A correlation was also observed for the hERG channel activities of 10 known hERG inhibitors determined in this thallium flux assay and in the patch clamp experiment. Our findings indicate that this thallium flux assay can be used as an alternative method to profile large-volume compound libraries for compound activity on the hERG channel. PMID:19583963

Titus, Steven A.; Beacham, Daniel; Shahane, Sampada A.; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Hooten, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yong; Shou, Louie; Austin, Christopher P.; Zheng, Wei

2009-01-01

178

A new homogeneous high-throughput screening assay for profiling compound activity on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel.  

PubMed

Long QT syndrome, either inherited or acquired from drug treatments, can result in ventricular arrhythmia (torsade de pointes) and sudden death. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel inhibition by drugs is now recognized as a common reason for the acquired form of long QT syndrome. It has been reported that more than 100 known drugs inhibit the activity of the hERG channel. Since 1997, several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to the long QT syndrome caused by hERG inhibition. Food and Drug Administration regulations now require safety data on hERG channels for investigative new drug (IND) applications. The assessment of compound activity on the hERG channel has now become an important part of the safety evaluation in the process of drug discovery. During the past decade, several in vitro assay methods have been developed and significant resources have been used to characterize hERG channel activities. However, evaluation of compound activities on hERG have not been performed for large compound collections due to technical difficulty, lack of throughput, and/or lack of biological relevance to function. Here we report a modified form of the FluxOR thallium flux assay, capable of measuring hERG activity in a homogeneous 1536-well plate format. To validate the assay, we screened a 7-point dilution series of the LOPAC 1280 library collection and reported rank order potencies of ten common hERG inhibitors. A correlation was also observed for the hERG channel activities of 10 known hERG inhibitors determined in this thallium flux assay and in the patch clamp experiment. Our findings indicate that this thallium flux assay can be used as an alternative method to profile large-volume compound libraries for compound activity on the hERG channel. PMID:19583963

Titus, Steven A; Beacham, Daniel; Shahane, Sampada A; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Hooten, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yong; Shou, Louie; Austin, Christopher P; Zheng, Wei

2009-11-01

179

A combined HPLC-immunoenzymatic comprehensive screening for suspected drug poisoning in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the results of a comprehensive drug screening as first line diagnostic tool in patients attending an emergency department for suspected drug poisoning. Methods: A comprehensive drug screening was carried out in plasma or urine, or both, of 310 patients combining an HPLC multidrug profiling system and a fluorescence polarisation immunoassay. Results: In 64.2% of cases the screening confirmed the diagnosis of drug poisoning, in 13.9% suspected drugs were measurable at non-toxic concentrations, and in 21.9% no drugs were found. The suspected drugs were fully confirmed in a minority of cases, (symptomatic patients: 28.2% compared with asymptomatic: 16.5%). Symptomatic patients were less likely to have at least one suspected drug (29.6% compared with 57.7%; p<0.001), and more likely to have at least one unsuspected drug found at analysis (17.4% compared with 3.1%; p = 0.005). In 5% of patients, asymptomatic when first observed, one or more unsuspected drugs were found. In 6 of 29 patients, with suspected poisoning of an unspecified drug, the screening identified the specific drug and excluded acute intoxication in the remaining cases. Conclusion: A rapid comprehensive drug screening adds to the diagnosis of patients with suspected drug poisoning, identifying unsuspected drugs in symptomatic patients and excluding drugs in asymptomatic subjects. PMID:15107370

Fabbri, A; Ruggeri, S; Marchesini, G; Vandelli, A

2004-01-01

180

Evaluation of the AID TB Resistance Line Probe Assay for Rapid Detection of Genetic Alterations Associated with Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains  

PubMed Central

The rapid accurate detection of drug resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for optimizing the treatment of tuberculosis and limiting the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains. The TB Resistance line probe assay from Autoimmun Diagnostika GmbH (AID) (Strassburg, Germany) was designed to detect the most prevalent mutations that confer resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, amikacin, capreomycin, fluoroquinolones, and ethambutol. This assay detected resistance mutations in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates from areas with low and high levels of endemicity (Switzerland, n = 104; South Africa, n = 52) and in selected Mycobacterium bovis BCG 1721 mutant strains (n = 5) with 100% accuracy. Subsequently, the line probe assay was shown to be capable of rapid genetic assessment of drug resistance in MGIT broth cultures, the results of which were in 100% agreement with those of DNA sequencing and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Finally, the line probe assay was assessed for direct screening of smear-positive clinical specimens. Screening of 98 clinical specimens demonstrated that the test gave interpretable results for >95% of them. Antibiotic resistance mutations detected in the clinical samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. We conclude that the AID TB Resistance line probe assay is an accurate tool for the rapid detection of resistance mutations in cultured isolates and in smear-positive clinical specimens. PMID:24403306

Ritter, C.; Lucke, K.; Sirgel, F. A.; Warren, R. W.; van Helden, P. D.; Bottger, E. C.

2014-01-01

181

Estrogenic activity of constituents of underarm deodorants determined by E-Screen assay.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether different kinds of underarm deodorants commercially available in Germany might contain substances with estrogenic potential which after use enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. Twenty five deodorants produced by ten different manufacturers in the form of sprays, roll-ons and sticks were investigated using an in vitro-test system (E-Screen assay) for the determination of estrogenic activity based on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Seven out of ten spray deodorant samples showed a quantifiable estrogenic activity. In the case of the sticks and roll-ons it was only one out of six and one out of nine, respectively. The 17?-estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs) of the samples ranged from 0.1 ng g(-1) to 9 ng g(-1) deodorant. Spray deodorant samples showed the highest activities in the E-Screen assay compared to the stick and roll-on deodorants. In order to identify substances possibly contributing to the observed biological activity the samples were additionally analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained results of this non-target screening led to the selection of 62 single substances present in the deodorants which for their part were analyzed by E-Screen assay. Eight of these single substances, all of them fragrances, showed estrogenic effects with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) similar to parabens, a group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters commonly used as preservatives in personal care products, which are known to have a slight estrogenic effect. Thus, these fragrances are obviously responsible to a substantial degree for the observed estrogenic activity of the deodorants. PMID:24875918

Lange, Claudia; Kuch, Bertram; Metzger, Jörg W

2014-08-01

182

Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay  

SciTech Connect

Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

Taxvig, Camilla, E-mail: camta@food.dtu.dk; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

2011-02-01

183

Optical oxygen sensing systems for drug discovery applications: Respirometric Screening Technology (RST)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quenched-fluorescence oxygen sensing allows non-chemical, reversible, real-time monitoring of molecular oxygen and rates of oxygen consumption in biological samples. Using this approach we have developed Respirometric Screening Technology (RST); a platform which facilitates the convenient analysis of cellular oxygen uptake. This in turn allows the investigation of compounds and processes which affect respiratory activity. The RST platform employs soluble phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive probes, which may be assessed in standard microtitter plates on a fluorescence plate reader. New formats of RST assays and time-resolved fluorescence detection instrumentation developed by Luxcel provide improvements in assay sensitivity, miniaturization and overall performance. RST has a diverse range of applications in drug discovery area including high throughput analysis of mitochondrial function; studies of mechanisms of toxicity and apoptosis; cell and animal based screening of compound libraries and environmental samples; and, sterility testing. RST has been successfully validated with a range of practical targets and adopted by several leading pharmaceutical companies.

Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Hynes, James; Fernandes, Richard

2005-11-01

184

MTT colorimetric assay system for the screening of anti-orthomyxo- and anti-paramyxoviral agents.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive method was developed for screening potential antiviral agents against orthomyxo- and paramyxoviruses, using the MTT method with cell culture suspensions. The cell lines used for the assay were as follows: MDCK cells for the influenza A virus (Fluv. A), HeLa cells for the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and Vero cells for the measles virus (MSV). Test compounds were diluted and plated in 96-well round-bottomed microtiter plates. Trypsinized cell suspensions and viruses were added to each well, the plates were then centrifuged (700 x g, 5 min, room temperature), and incubated for several days. The MTT assay was carried out after the degeneration of virus-infected cells became evident. The optical density (OD) of formazan was determined using a computer-controlled microplate reader. With this assay system, the EC50 values of Ribavirin (used as the reference compound) were 3.7 micrograms/ml for Fluv. A, 4.5 micrograms/ml for RSV, and 12.3 micrograms/ml for MSV, respectively. These EC50 values were equivalent to those obtained using the plaque reduction assay. The confluent cell culture system was inadequate for antiviral assays against RSV and MSV when the MTT method was used, because the inhibition of formazan formation was not observed in viral-infected cells. Moreover, the suspension method is more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of antiviral agents than the confluent cell culture system. PMID:7989442

Watanabe, W; Konno, K; Ijichi, K; Inoue, H; Yokota, T; Shigeta, S

1994-07-01

185

A new assay for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) and identification of drugs that elevate CIN in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Aneuploidy is a feature of most cancer cells that is often accompanied by an elevated rate of chromosome mis-segregation termed chromosome instability (CIN). While CIN can act as a driver of cancer genome evolution and tumor progression, recent findings point to the existence of a threshold level beyond which CIN becomes a barrier to tumor growth and therefore can be exploited therapeutically. Drugs known to increase CIN beyond the therapeutic threshold are currently few in number, and the clinical promise of targeting the CIN phenotype warrants new screening efforts. However, none of the existing methods, including the in vitro micronuclei (MNi) assay, developed to quantify CIN, is entirely satisfactory. Methods We have developed a new assay for measuring CIN. This quantitative assay for chromosome mis-segregation is based on the use of a non-essential human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a constitutively expressed EGFP transgene. Thus, cells that inherit the HAC display green fluorescence, while cells lacking the HAC do not. This allows the measurement of HAC loss rate by routine flow cytometry. Results Using the HAC-based chromosome loss assay, we have analyzed several well-known anti-mitotic, spindle-targeting compounds, all of which have been reported to induce micronuclei formation and chromosome loss. For each drug, the rate of HAC loss was accurately measured by flow cytometry as a proportion of non-fluorescent cells in the cell population which was verified by FISH analysis. Based on our estimates, despite their similar cytotoxicity, the analyzed drugs affect the rates of HAC mis-segregation during mitotic divisions differently. The highest rate of HAC mis-segregation was observed for the microtubule-stabilizing drugs, taxol and peloruside A. Conclusion Thus, this new and simple assay allows for a quick and efficient screen of hundreds of drugs to identify those affecting chromosome mis-segregation. It also allows ranking of compounds with the same or similar mechanism of action based on their effect on the rate of chromosome loss. The identification of new compounds that increase chromosome mis-segregation rates should expedite the development of new therapeutic strategies to target the CIN phenotype in cancer cells. PMID:23694679

2013-01-01

186

Ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric HIV-1 infection applying dried blood spots  

PubMed Central

Kaletra® (Abott Laboratories) is a co-formulated medication used in the treatment of HIV-1-infected children, and it contains the two antiretroviral protease inhibitor drugs lopinavir and ritonavir. We validated two new ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assays to be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations in whole blood and in plasma from HIV-1-infected children. Whole blood was blotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) collecting cards, and plasma was collected simultaneously. DBS collecting cards were extracted by an acetonitrile/water mixture while plasma samples were deproteinized with acetone. Drug concentrations were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS). The application of DBS made it possible to measure lopinavir and ritonavir in whole blood in therapeutically relevant concentrations. The MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS plasma assay was successfully cross-validated with a commonly used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–ultraviolet (UV) assay for the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of HIV-1-infected patients, and it showed comparable performance characteristics. Observed DBS concentrations showed as well, a good correlation between plasma concentrations obtained by MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS and those obtained by the HPLC-UV assay. Application of DBS for TDM proved to be a good alternative to the normally used plasma screening. Moreover, collection of DBS requires small amounts of whole blood which can be easily performed especially in (very) young children where collection of large whole blood amounts is often not possible. DBS is perfectly suited for TDM of HIV-1-infected children; but nevertheless, DBS can also easily be applied for TDM of patients in areas with limited or no laboratory facilities. PMID:20632164

van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Reedijk, Mariska L.; Scheuer, Rachel D.; Dekker, Lennard J. M.; Burger, David M.; Hartwig, Nico G.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Luider, Theo M.; Gruters, Rob A.

2010-01-01

187

A microfluidic platform for high-sensitivity, real-time drug screening on C. elegans and parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new microfluidic platform for screening drugs and their dose response on the locomotion behavior of free living nematodes and parasitic nematodes. The system offers a higher sensitivity drug screening chip which employs a combination of existing and newly developed methods. Real-time observation of the entire drug application process (i.e. the innate pre-exposure locomotion, the transient response during drug exposure and the time-resolved, post-exposure behavior) at a single worm resolution is made possible. The chip enables the monitoring of four nematode parameters (number of worms responsive, number of worms leaving the drug well, average worm velocity and time until unresponsiveness). Each parameter generates an inherently different dose response; allowing for a higher resolution when screening for resistance. We expect this worm chip could be used as a robust cross species, cross drug platform. Existing nematode motility and migration assays do not offer this level of sophistication. The device comprises two principal components: behavioral microchannels to study nematode motility and a drug well for administering the dose and observing drug effects as a function of exposure time. The drug screening experiment can be described by three main steps: (i) 'pre-exposure study'- worms are inserted into the behavioral channels and their locomotion is characterized, (ii) 'dose exposure'- worms are guided from the behavioral microchannels into the drug well and held for a predefined time, during which time their transient response to the dose is characterized and (iii) 'post-exposure study'- worms are guided back into the behavioral microchannels where their locomotion (i.e. their time-resolved response to the dose) is characterized and compared to pre-exposure motility. The direction of nematodes' movement is reliably controlled by the application of an electric field within a defined range. Control experiments (e.g. in the absence of any drug) confirm that the applied electric fields do not affect the worms' motility or viability. We demonstrate the workability of the microfluidic platform on free living Caenorhabditis elegans (wild-type N2 and levamisole resistant ZZ15 lev-8) and parasitic Oesophagotomum dentatum (levamisole-sensitive, SENS and levamisole-resistant, LEVR) using levamisole (a well-studied anthelmintic) as the test drug. The proposed scheme of drug screening on a microfluidic device is expected to significantly improve the resolution, sensitivity and data throughput of in vivo testing, while offering new details on the transient and time-resolved exposure effects of new and existing anthelmintics. PMID:21647497

Carr, John A; Parashar, Archana; Gibson, Richard; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J; Pandey, Santosh

2011-07-21

188

In Vitro Reporter Assays for Screening of Chemicals That Disrupt Androgen Signaling  

PubMed Central

Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) modulate hormone signaling and cause developmental and reproductive anomalies. Today, there is a global concern regarding endocrine disruption effects, particularly those mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Androgen or male hormones are critical for the development and maintenance of male characteristics and numerous EDCs exist in the environment with the potential to disrupt androgen action. The threat is more during critical developmental windows when there is increased sensitivity to these compounds. Timely screening and detection of the EDCs is essential to minimize deleterious effects produced by these toxic chemicals. As a first line of screening, in vitro transcription assays are very useful due to their speed, convenience, and cost effectiveness. In this paper, recent in vitro reporter assays for detecting androgenic or antiandrogenic activity of EDCs have been reviewed. Two important cell systems used for this purpose, namely, the mammalian or yeast cell systems, have been discussed. Use of reporter genes such as bacterial luciferase (lux) and green fluorescent protein (gfp) has significantly improved speed and sensitivity of detection. Also, many of the current reporter assay systems can be used in a high throughput format allowing speedy evaluation of multiple potential EDCs at a lower price.

Paul Khurana, S. M.

2014-01-01

189

Two high throughput screening assays for Aberrant RNA-protein interactions in Myotonic Dystrophy Type-1  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1), the most prevalent form of adult muscular dystrophy, is caused by expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3? untranslated region of the DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The pathogenic effects of the CTG expansion arise from the deleterious effects of the mutant transcript. RNA with expanded CUG tracts alters the activities of several RNA binding proteins, including muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1). MBNL1 becomes sequestered in nuclear foci in complex with the expanded CUG repeat RNA. The resulting loss of MBNL1 activity causes mis-regulated alternative splicing of multiple genes, leading to symptoms of DM1. The binding interaction between MBNL1 and mutant RNA could be a key step in the pathogenesis of DM1 and serves as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We have developed two high throughput screen (HTS) suitable assays using both homogenous time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer (HTRF) and AlphaScreen technologies to detect the binding of a C-terminally His-tagged MBNL1 and a biotinylated (CUG)12 RNA. These assays are homogenous and successfully miniaturized to 1536-well plate format. Both assays were validated and show robust signal-to-basal ratios and Z’ factors. PMID:22218462

Chen, Catherine Z.; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Hoskins, Jason; Southall, Noel; Marugan, Juan J.; Zheng, Wei; Thornton, Charles A.; Austin, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

190

[Development of a novel screening assay for inhibitors targeting HIF-1alpha and P300 interaction].  

PubMed

Hypoxia is a general characteristic of most solid malignancies and intimately related to cancer progression. Homeostatic response to hypoxia is primarily mediated by hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) that elicits transcriptional activity through recruitment P300 coactivator. Targeting the interaction of HIF- alpha and P300 would thus constitute a novel approach for cancer treatment by suppressing tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, a screening assay was developed for inhibitors targeting the interaction between HIF-1alpha and P300. The nucleotide sequence of human HIF-1alpha and P300 were cloned into pBIND and pACT vectors, named pBIND-HIF1alpha and pACT-P300. The interaction of HIF-1alpha and P300 was identified in HEK293 cell using mammalian two-hybrid system. And compound chetomin decreased their interaction in this mammalian two-hybrid system. We further verified HIF-1 inhibition effect of chetomin in U251-HRE cells. Therefore, we established a screening assay combined HIF-1alpha and P300 mammalian two-hybrid system and U251-HRE reporter assay for HIF-1 selective inhibitors. PMID:25212031

Lai, Fang-Fang; Niu, Fei; Yang, Han-Ze; Zhou, Wan-Qi; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2014-06-01

191

Drug Screen Targeted at Plasmodium Liver Stages Identifies a Potent Multistage Antimalarial Drug  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium parasites undergo a clinically silent and obligatory developmental phase in the host’s liver cells before they are able to infect erythrocytes and cause malaria symptoms. To overcome the scarcity of compounds targeting the liver stage of malaria, we screened a library of 1037 existing drugs for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium hepatic development. Decoquinate emerged as the strongest inhibitor of Plasmodium liver stages, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, decoquinate kills the parasite’s replicative blood stages and is active against developing gametocytes, the forms responsible for transmission. The drug acts by selectively and specifically inhibiting the parasite’s mitochondrial bc1 complex, with little cross-resistance with the antimalarial drug atovaquone. Oral administration of a single dose of decoquinate effectively prevents the appearance of disease, warranting its exploitation as a potent antimalarial compound. PMID:22396598

da Cruz, Filipa P.; Martin, Cecilie; Buchholz, Kathrin; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Sonnichsen, Birte; Moreira, Rui; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Marti, Matthias; Mota, Maria M.; Hannus, Michael

2012-01-01

192

In vitro screening assays to identify natural or synthetic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: thin layer chromatography versus microplate methods.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) are currently still the best available pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer patients. Successful screening for new AChEI relies on effective and fast assays. Two colorimetric screening assays frequently used to search for new AChEI, namely a thin layer chromatography (TLC) assay with Fast Blue B salt as reagent and a 96-well plate assay based on Ellman's method, were compared. For the majority (83%) of the 138 test compounds of natural and synthetic origin, the results obtained with the two assays converged and both screening assays were considered suitable for the generation of new hits. Fifteen percent of investigated compounds were classified as active with the microplate assay but were shown to be inactive by TLC and about 2% were measured active by TLC but showed to be inactive with the microplate assay. These divergences were not due to the main differences between the experimental protocols of the two screening assays, namely the different colorimetric methods and pre-incubation of test compounds with acetylcholinesterase (AChE). They might be explained by the interaction of either AChE or test compounds with the silica of the TLC plates, resulting in an altered affinity of the enzyme for the compounds. PMID:18082383

Di Giovanni, Saviana; Borloz, Aline; Urbain, Aurélie; Marston, Andrew; Hostettmann, Kurt; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Reist, Marianne

2008-02-01

193

A spatiotemporally defined in vitro microenvironment for controllable signal delivery and drug screening.  

PubMed

Cancer metastasis and drug resistance are important malignant tumor phenotypes that cause roughly 90% mortality in human cancers. Current therapeutic strategies, however, face substantial challenges partially due to a lack of applicable pre-clinical models and drug-screening platforms. Notably, microscale and three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture platforms capable of mimicking in vivo microenvironments to replicate physiological conditions have become vital tools in a wide range of cellular and clinical studies. Here, we present a microfluidic device capable of mimicking a configurable tumor microenvironment to study in vivo-like cancer cell migration as well as screening of inhibitors on both parental tumors and migratory cells. In addition, a novel evaporation-based paper pump was demonstrated to achieve adaptable and sustainable concentration gradients for up to 6 days in this model. This straightforward modeling approach allows for fast patterning of a wide variety of cell types in 3D and may be further integrated into biological assays. We also demonstrated cell migration from tumor spheroids induced by an epidermal growth factor (EGF) gradient and exhibited lowered expression of an epithelial marker (EpCAM) compared with parental cells, indicative of partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in this process. Importantly, pseudopodia protrusions from the migratory cells - critical during cancer metastasis - were demonstrated. Insights gained from this work offer new opportunities to achieve active control of in vitro tumor microenvironments on-demand, and may be amenable towards tailored clinical applications. PMID:25089836

Kuo, Ching-Te; Liu, Hao-Kai; Huang, Guan-Syuan; Chang, Chi-Hao; Chen, Chen-Lin; Chen, Ken-Chao; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Lin, Ching-Hung; Lee, Hsinyu; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Wo, Andrew M

2014-10-01

194

Toxicology screen  

MedlinePLUS

... Analgesics - screen; Antidepressants - screen; Narcotics - screen; Phenothiazines - screen; Drug abuse screen; Blood alcohol test ... poisoning) Complicated alcohol abstinence (delirium tremens) Delirium ... Fetal alcohol syndrome Intentional overdose Seizures Stroke ...

195

Solution ELISA as a platform of choice for development of robust, drug tolerant immunogenicity assays in support of drug development.  

PubMed

Humanized monoclonal antibody therapeutics are in many ways indistinguishable from the anti-therapeutic/anti-drug antibodies generated in humans. Therefore, immunogenicity assessments to such therapeutics pose unique challenges in clinical trials especially when significant drug interference is encountered. There are several technology platforms based on the bridging immunogenicity assay format, which have been successfully used for detection and quantification of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) in serum or plasma samples. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay formats are among the most popular technology platforms. Pretreatment of samples with acid can also be used to lower drug interference. While ECL technology platform offered many advantages over traditional solid-phase ELISA methods, reliance on a single (or limited) vendor source became a significant concern within the biopharmaceutical industry especially for immunogenicity assays that need to be implemented over a period of many years in support of a single drug development program. We describe herein a systematic evaluation of solid-phase ELISA, GYROS, AlphaLISA, ECL Immunoassay, and solution ELISA platforms for detection of anti-drug antibodies with the goal of selection and development of a robust technology platform that meets the desired performance characteristics for most immunogenicity assays and can be easily implemented in a typical immunoassay laboratory. As part of this effort the Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was utilized in optimization of sample acid treatment conditions in order to improve drug tolerance in the evaluated assay platforms. After the initial evaluation of various technology platforms, a solution ELISA format was chosen for further development to support clinical trials for a humanized therapeutic antibody. As part of the assay development, flexible use of digoxigenin and 6-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) aminohexanoic acid (DNP) for labeling antibodies was evaluated and is presented in this manuscript. In addition, simple methods for evaluation and qualification of streptavidin-coated plates and overcoming soluble target interference in solution ELISA have also been investigated and highlights of these investigations are discussed. The selection of the solution ELISA format was based on availability of generic reagents, achievement of optimal drug tolerance and robust assay performance on a platform that is readily available in many laboratories. This approach removed the heavy reliance on specialized equipment sourced from a single vendor and assay conditions described here are broadly applicable to other immunogenicity assays across many biologics both during clinical development setting and in the post-marketing arena. PMID:21130095

Mikulskis, Alvydas; Yeung, Dave; Subramanyam, Meena; Amaravadi, Lakshmi

2011-02-28

196

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational  

E-print Network

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene- product alterations of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a `cytoblot

Stockwell, Brent R.

197

Simulating Henipavirus Multicycle Replication in a Screening Assay Leads to Identification of a Promising Candidate for Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

humans, with fatality rates of up to 75%. We designed a new high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for inhibitors of infection based on envelope glycoprotein pseudotypes. The assay simulates multicycle replication and thus identifies inhibitors that target several stages of the viral life cycle, but it still can be carried out under biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) conditions. These features permit a

Matteo Porotto; Gianmarco Orefice; Christine C. Yokoyama; Bruce A. Mungall; Ronald Realubit; Michael L. Sganga; Mohamad Aljofan; Michael Whitt; Fraser Glickman; Anne Moscona

2009-01-01

198

High-throughput screening of drug-binding dynamics to HERG improves early drug safety assessment.  

PubMed

The use of computational models to predict drug-induced changes in the action potential (AP) is a promising approach to reduce drug safety attrition but requires a better representation of more complex drug-target interactions to improve the quantitative prediction. The blockade of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channel is a major concern for QT prolongation and Torsade de Pointes risk. We aim to develop quantitative in-silico AP predictions based on a new electrophysiological protocol (suitable for high-throughput HERG screening) and mathematical modeling of ionic currents. Electrophysiological recordings using the IonWorks device were made from HERG channels stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. A new protocol that delineates inhibition over time was applied to assess dofetilide, cisapride, and almokalant effects. Dynamic effects displayed distinct profiles for these drugs compared with concentration-effects curves. Binding kinetics to specific states were identified using a new HERG Markov model. The model was then modified to represent the canine rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current at 37°C and carry out AP predictions. Predictions were compared with a simpler model based on conductance reduction and were found to be much closer to experimental data. Improved sensitivity to concentration and pacing frequency variables was obtained when including binding kinetics. Our new electrophysiological protocol is suitable for high-throughput screening and is able to distinguish drug-binding kinetics. The association of this protocol with our modeling approach indicates that quantitative predictions of AP modulation can be obtained, which is a significant improvement compared with traditional conductance reduction methods. PMID:23103500

Di Veroli, Giovanni Y; Davies, Mark R; Zhang, Henggui; Abi-Gerges, Najah; Boyett, Mark R

2013-01-01

199

A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures.

Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

2013-10-01

200

A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis.  

PubMed

There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures. PMID:24141454

Timm, David M; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A; Haisler, William L; Neeley, Shane K; Raphael, Robert M; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Killian, T C; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R

2013-01-01

201

A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis  

PubMed Central

There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures. PMID:24141454

Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

2013-01-01

202

A Review of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for High-Throughput Drug Discovery, Cardiotoxicity Screening and Publication Standards  

PubMed Central

Drug attrition rates have increased in past years, resulting in growing costs for the pharmaceutical industry and consumers. The reasons for this include the lack of in vitro models that correlate with clinical results, and poor preclinical toxicity screening assays. The in vitro production of human cardiac progenitor cells and cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells provides an amenable source of cells for applications in drug discovery, disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and cardiotoxicity screening. In addition, the ability to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells from somatic tissues, combined with current high-throughput screening and pharmacogenomics, may help realize the use of these cells to fulfill the potential of personalized medicine. In this review, we discuss the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for drug discovery and cardiotoxicity screening, as well as current hurdles that must be overcome for wider clinical applications of this promising approach. PMID:23229562

Mordwinkin, Nicholas M.; Burridge, Paul W.; Wu, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

203

HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING ASSAY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS REGULATING SELF-RENEWAL AND DIFFERENTIATION IN HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS  

PubMed Central

Summary High-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical libraries has become a critical tool in basic biology and drug discovery. However, its implementation and the adaptation of high content assays to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been hampered by multiple technical challenges. Here we present a strategy to adapt hESCs to HTS conditions, resulting in an assay suitable for the discovery of small molecules that drive hESC self-renewal or differentiation. Use of this new assay has led to the identification of several marketed drugs and natural compounds promoting short-term hESC maintenance and compounds directing early lineage choice during differentiation. Global gene expression analysis upon drug treatment defines known and novel pathways correlated to hESC self-renewal and differentiation. Our results demonstrate feasibility of hESC-based HTS and enhance the repertoire of chemical compounds for manipulating hESC fate. The availability of high content assays should accelerate progress in basic and translational hESC biology. PMID:18522853

Desbordes, Sabrina C.; Placantonakis, Dimitris G.; Ciro, Anthony; Socci, Nicholas D.; Lee, Gabsang; Djaballah, Hakim; Studer, Lorenz

2009-01-01

204

Evaluation of an in silico cardiac safety assay: Using ion channel screening data to predict QT interval changes in the rabbit ventricular wedge  

PubMed Central

Introduction Drugs that prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram present a major safety concern for pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies. Despite a range of assays performed to assess compound effects on the QT interval, QT prolongation remains a major cause of attrition during compound development. In silico assays could alleviate such problems. In this study we evaluated an in silico method of predicting the results of a rabbit left-ventricular wedge assay. Methods Concentration–effect data were acquired from either: the high-throughput IonWorks/FLIPR; the medium-throughput PatchXpress ion channel assays; or QSAR, a statistical IC50 value prediction model, for hERG, fast sodium, L-type calcium and KCNQ1/minK channels. Drug block of channels was incorporated into a mathematical differential equation model of rabbit ventricular myocyte electrophysiology through modification of the maximal conductance of each channel by a factor dependent on the IC50 value, Hill coefficient and concentration of each compound tested. Simulations were performed and agreement with experimental results, based upon input data from the different assays, was evaluated. Results The assay was found to be 78% accurate, 72% sensitive and 81% specific when predicting QT prolongation (>10%) using PatchXpress assay data (77 compounds). Similar levels of predictivity were demonstrated using IonWorks/FLIPR data (121 compounds) with 78% accuracy, 73% sensitivity and 80% specificity. QT shortening (assay demonstrates good predictive ability, and is suitable for very high-throughput use in early drug development. Adoption of such an assay into cardiovascular safety assessment, integrating ion channel data from routine screens to infer results of animal-based tests, could provide a cost- and time-effective cardiac safety screen. PMID:23624022

Beattie, Kylie A.; Luscombe, Chris; Williams, Geoff; Munoz-Muriedas, Jordi; Gavaghan, David J.; Cui, Yi; Mirams, Gary R.

2014-01-01

205

Optimized and comparative antioxidant assays and its applications in herbal and synthetic drug analysis as an antioxidants.  

PubMed

Drug development in the recent times often relies on use of natural and synthetic drugs that are promising candidates as therapeutic agents for prevention of diseases and disorders. They possess different chemical structures with wide range of therapeutic activities. Many natural and synthetic drugs act as antioxidant agents in various metabolic processes. Increasing epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have shown that intake of antioxidants drugs provide protection against various disorders and diseases related to oxidative stress. The factors responsible for this oxidative stress are mainly free radicals, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant drugs act as free radical scavenging, reducing and metal chelating substances; Antioxidants also show inhibition of various metabolic enzymes and factors responsible for inflammation. The present paper reviews different In vitro assays for determination of antioxidant activities (Table 1). The basic assays include DDPH assay, OH Scavenging assay, Reducing activity assay, TEAC assay, FCR assay, PRTC assay, ABTS assay, FRAP assay, ORAC assay, Ferric thiocynate assay, TRAP assay, Chemiluminescence assay, NBT assay, CUPRAC Assay. PMID:22625419

Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Khobragade, C N; Park, Se Won

2012-09-01

206

The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening Laboratory. Part II: enabling collaborative drug-discovery partnerships through cutting-edge screening technology  

PubMed Central

The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening (KU HTS) core is a state-of-the-art drug-discovery facility with an entrepreneurial open-service policy, which provides centralized resources supporting public- and private-sector research initiatives. The KU HTS core was established in 2002 at the University of Kansas with support from an NIH grant and the state of Kansas. It collaborates with investigators from national and international academic, nonprofit and pharmaceutical organizations in executing HTS-ready assay development and screening of chemical libraries for target validation, probe selection, hit identification and lead optimization. This is part two of a contribution from the KU HTS laboratory. PMID:21806374

McDonald, Peter R; Roy, Anuradha; Chaguturu, Rathnam

2011-01-01

207

A High-throughput Screening Assay using Krabbe Disease Patient Cells  

PubMed Central

Globoid-cell leukodystrophy (GLD) or Krabbe disease is a lysosomal disease caused by ?-galactocerebrosidase (GALC) deficiency resulting in a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Unfortunately, the only available treatment is hematopoietic bone marrow transplantation, which prevents its fulminant manifestation but without treating further neurological manifestations. Here we describe the development of a cellular high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using GLD patient fibroblasts to screen for small molecules that enhance the residual mutant GALC enzymatic activity. Small molecules have substantial therapeutic potential in GLD as they are more prone to cross the blood-brain barrier, reaching the neuronal affected cells. The transformation of primary skin fibroblasts with SV40 large T antigen showed to maintain the biochemical characteristics of the GLD cells and generates sufficient cells for the HTS. Using a specific fluorescent substrate, residual GALC activity from a SV40-transformed GLD patient fibroblast was measurable in high-dense microplates plates. The pilot quantitative HTS against a small compound collection showed robust statistics. The small molecules that showed active concentration-response curves were further studied in primary GLD fibroblasts. This cell-based HTS assay demonstrates the feasibility of employing live-GLD patient cells to identify therapeutic agents that can be potentially be used for the treatment of this progressive neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23138179

Ribbens, Jameson; Whiteley, Grace; Furuya, Hirokazu; Southall, Noel; Hu, Xin; Marugan, Juan; Ferrer, Marc; Maegawa, Gustavo H.B.

2013-01-01

208

High-throughput screen using a single-cell tyrosine phosphatase assay reveals biologically active inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatase CD45.  

PubMed

Many cellular signaling events are regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation and mediated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are emerging as drug targets, but poor cell permeability of inhibitors has limited the development of drugs targeting these enzymes [Tautz L, et al. (2006) Expert Opin Ther Targets 10:157-177]. Here we developed a method to monitor tyrosine phosphatase activity at the single-cell level and applied it to the identification of cell-permeable inhibitors. The method takes advantage of the fluorogenic properties of phosphorylated coumaryl amino propionic acid (pCAP), an analog of phosphotyrosine, which can be incorporated into peptides. Once delivered into cells, pCAP peptides were dephosphorylated by protein tyrosine phosphatases, and the resulting cell fluorescence could be monitored by flow cytometry and high-content imaging. The robustness and sensitivity of the assay was validated using peptides preferentially dephosphorylated by CD45 and T-cell tyrosine phosphatase and available inhibitors of these two enzymes. The assay was applied to high-throughput screening for inhibitors of CD45, an important target for autoimmunity and infectious diseases [Hermiston ML, et al. (2003) Annu Rev Immunol 21:107-137]. We identified four CD45 inhibitors that showed activity in T cells and macrophages. These results indicate that our assay can be applied to primary screening for inhibitors of CD45 and of other protein tyrosine phosphatases to increase the yield of biologically active inhibitors. PMID:22891353

Stanford, Stephanie M; Panchal, Rekha G; Walker, Logan M; Wu, Dennis J; Falk, Matthew D; Mitra, Sayantan; Damle, Sagar S; Ruble, David; Kaltcheva, Teodora; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Bavari, Sina; Barrios, Amy M; Bottini, Nunzio

2012-08-28

209

Screening of crude drug extracts for prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26) is an enzyme to play a role in metabolism of proline-containing neuropeptides, such as vasopressin, substance P and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which were suggested to be involved with learning and memory processes. Then, specific inhibitor of PEP is expected to have antiamnesic effects, and thus we screened forty-six water- and methanol-extracts from crude drugs selected on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine theory, for Flavobacterium prolyl endopeptidase inhibition. Among them, the water-extracts of Rhodiola sacra (IC50, 0.77 microgram/ml) and the methanol-extracts of Lycopodium clavatum (IC50, 1.3 micrograms/ml), Paeonia lactiflora var. trichocarpa (IC50, 5.7 micrograms/ml), Paeonia veitchii (IC50, 2.4 micrograms/ml) and Rhodiola sacra (IC50, 0.67 microgram/ml) showed strong inhibitory activity. In addition, we also examined the PEP inhibitory activity of eleven compounds from Salvia deserta, and found that in addition to a catechol group alpha-hydroxy-para-quinone group may be related to the PEP inhibition. PMID:10439485

Tezuka, Y; Fan, W; Kasimu, R; Kadota, S

1999-07-01

210

A real-time fluorescence polarization activity assay to screen for inhibitors of bacterial ribonuclease P  

PubMed Central

Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential endonuclease that catalyzes the 5? end maturation of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Bacterial RNase P is an attractive potential antibacterial target because it is essential for cell survival and has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts. To accelerate both structure-function studies and discovery of inhibitors of RNase P, we developed the first real-time RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) with a 5? end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNAAsp substrate. This FP/FA assay also detects binding of small molecules to pre-tRNA. Neomycin B and kanamycin B bind to pre-tRNAAsp with a Kd value that is comparable to their IC50 value for inhibition of RNase P, suggesting that binding of these antibiotics to the pre-tRNA substrate contributes to the inhibitory activity. This assay was optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify specific inhibitors of RNase P from a 2880 compound library. A natural product derivative, iriginol hexaacetate, was identified as a new inhibitor of Bacillus subtilis RNase P. The FP/FA methodology and inhibitors reported here will further our understanding of RNase P molecular recognition and facilitate discovery of antibacterial compounds that target RNase P. PMID:25249623

Liu, Xin; Chen, Yu; Fierke, Carol A.

2014-01-01

211

A real-time fluorescence polarization activity assay to screen for inhibitors of bacterial ribonuclease P.  

PubMed

Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential endonuclease that catalyzes the 5' end maturation of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Bacterial RNase P is an attractive potential antibacterial target because it is essential for cell survival and has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts. To accelerate both structure-function studies and discovery of inhibitors of RNase P, we developed the first real-time RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) with a 5' end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNA(Asp) substrate. This FP/FA assay also detects binding of small molecules to pre-tRNA. Neomycin B and kanamycin B bind to pre-tRNA(Asp) with a Kd value that is comparable to their IC50 value for inhibition of RNase P, suggesting that binding of these antibiotics to the pre-tRNA substrate contributes to the inhibitory activity. This assay was optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify specific inhibitors of RNase P from a 2880 compound library. A natural product derivative, iriginol hexaacetate, was identified as a new inhibitor of Bacillus subtilis RNase P. The FP/FA methodology and inhibitors reported here will further our understanding of RNase P molecular recognition and facilitate discovery of antibacterial compounds that target RNase P. PMID:25249623

Liu, Xin; Chen, Yu; Fierke, Carol A

2014-11-10

212

Screening assay for small-molecule inhibitors of synaptojanin 1, a synaptic phosphoinositide phosphatase.  

PubMed

Elevation of amyloid ?-peptide (A?) is critically associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. A?-induced synaptic abnormalities, including altered receptor trafficking and synapse loss, have been linked to cognitive deficits in AD. Recent work implicates a lipid critical for neuronal function, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], in A?-induced synaptic and behavioral impairments. Synaptojanin 1 (Synj1), a lipid phosphatase mediating the breakdown of PI(4,5)P2, has been shown to play a role in synaptic vesicle recycling and receptor trafficking in neurons. Heterozygous deletion of Synj1 protected neurons from A?-induced synaptic loss and restored learning and memory in a mouse model of AD. Thus, inhibition of Synj1 may ameliorate A?-associated impairments, suggesting Synj1 as a potential therapeutic target. To this end, we developed a screening assay for Synj1 based on detection of inorganic phosphate liberation from a water-soluble, short-chain PI(4,5)P2. The assay displayed saturable kinetics and detected Synj1's substrate preference for PI(4,5)P2 over PI(3,4,5)P3. The assay will enable identification of novel Synj1 inhibitors that have potential utility as chemical probes to dissect the cellular role of Synj1 as well as potential to prevent or reverse AD-associated synaptic abnormalities. PMID:24186361

McIntire, Laura Beth J; Lee, Kyu-In; Chang-Ileto, Belle; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Kim, Tae-Wan

2014-04-01

213

Assessment of estrogenic activity in Tunisian water and wastewater by E-screen assay.  

PubMed

Wastewater and surface water samples from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and three rivers in Tunisia were assayed for estrogenic activity using the E-screen assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that all the Tunisian raw wastewater samples as well as the Roriche river water sample induced a strong proliferative response in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Tunisian raw wastewater had an average 17beta-estradiol content of 2,705.4 pg/ml, whereas that of the Roriche river was 36.7 pg/ml, which is sufficient for inducing endocrine-mediated responses in aquatic organisms. Results further showed that the Mornag WWTP, which uses the activated-sludge treatment system, has a higher estrogen removal efficiency than the stabilization ponds of the Gammart and pilot WWTPs. This study, which is the first of such studies in Tunisia, and probably the first in the North African region, underscores the need to detect and monitor the estrogenic activity of water and wastewater, given the scarcity of water in Tunisia and the detrimental impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds on the physiology of both animals and humans. PMID:18382414

Limam, Atef; Talorete, Terence P N; Ali, Mourad Ben Sik; Kawano, Mitsuko; Jenhani, Amel Ben Rejeb; Abe, Yukuo; Ghrabi, Ahmed; Isoda, Hiroko

2007-01-01

214

AlphaScreen HTS and Live-Cell Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) Assays for Identification of Tau-Fyn SH3 Interaction Inhibitors for Alzheimer Disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and with Americans' increasing longevity, it is becoming an epidemic. There are currently no effective treatments for this disorder. Abnormalities of Tau track more closely with cognitive decline than the most studied therapeutic target in AD, amyloid-?, but the optimal strategy for targeting Tau has not yet been identified. On the basis of considerable preclinical data from AD models, we hypothesize that interactions between Tau and the Src-family tyrosine kinase, Fyn, are pathogenic in AD. Genetically reducing either Tau or Fyn is protective in AD mouse models, and a dominant negative fragment of Tau that alters Fyn localization is also protective. Here, we describe a new AlphaScreen assay and a live-cell bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay using a novel BRET pair for quantifying the Tau-Fyn interaction. We used these assays to map the binding site on Tau for Fyn to the fifth and sixth PXXP motifs to show that AD-associated phosphorylation at microtubule affinity regulating kinase sites increases the affinity of the Tau-Fyn interaction and to identify Tau-Fyn interaction inhibitors by high-throughput screening. This screen has identified a variety of chemically tractable hits, suggesting that the Tau-Fyn interaction may represent a good drug target for AD. PMID:25156556

Cochran, J Nicholas; Diggs, Pauleatha V; Nebane, N Miranda; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E Lucile; Bostwick, Robert; Maddry, Joseph A; Suto, Mark J; Roberson, Erik D

2014-12-01

215

Application of chemistry-based functional proteomics to screening for novel drug targets.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical companies are being forced by market competition to find new ways of novel drug target screening instead of traditional methods. The completion of human genome sequencing has provided a flood of new information that might help identify potential drug targets. Finding promising novel drug targets from this flood of information remains challenging. For de novo target screening, the interactions between a drug and cellular components must be comprehensively characterized for better understanding of the pharmacological activities of the drug. The multidisciplinary chemistry-based functional proteomics can be used to elucidate the interactions, because it provides a method to focus initial new drug target identification towards proteins that are more easily validated and most likely to be effective, thereby creating a higher potential for success. This review covers major chemistry-based functional proteomic approaches and highlights their recent advances in applications for novel drug target screening. PMID:20156143

Yuan, Kefei; Lei, Yunlong; Huang, Canhua

2010-06-01

216

Protein-based fluorescent metal nanoclusters for small molecular drug screening.  

PubMed

A facile drug screening method based on synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters inside albumin proteins loaded with small molecular drugs and comparing the relative fluorescence intensities of the resultant gold nanoclusters has been developed and successfully applied for the quantitative measurement of drug-protein binding constants. PMID:25253537

Yu, Yong; New, Siu Yee; Xie, Jianping; Su, Xiaodi; Tan, Yen Nee

2014-10-14

217

A Novel High-Throughput Screening Assay to Identify Inhibitors of HIV-1 gp120 Protein Interaction with DC-SIGN  

PubMed Central

The 2010 UNAIDS report states that approximately 34 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Despite being effective, ARV therapy has many disadvantages including a cost trajectory unsustainable for economically challenged countries, serious side effects, and the development of drug-resistant strains. Several measures are under way to develop alternatives for ARV therapy, particularly for the control of early HIV-1 infection, but lack of efficient drug targets and assays hinders the search of potential ARV molecules. The dendritic cells present in the mucosal tissue, together with CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages, are among the first cells to encounter HIV-1. The dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) molecule plays a crucial role in binding HIV-1 through high affinity interaction with viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. DC-SIGN, a mannose-binding C-type lectin expressed on cells in the mucosal tissue of the rectum, uterus and cervix, facilitates early HIV-1 infection after sexual transmission. In this study we report a novel target-specific high-throughput screening (HTS) assay capable of quantifying the binding as well as the inhibition of DC-SIGN and gp120. The specificity of the assay was determined through competitive inhibition while optimization occurred for DMSO tolerance (0.5%), Z’ factor (0.51), signal-to-noise ratio (3.26), and coefficient of variation (5.1%). For assay validation previously recognized antagonists of DC-SIGN/gp120 binding were tested to detect inhibition demonstrating the suitability of the assay for future HTS screen of potential inhibitors that block the binding between DC-SIGN and gp120 which may prevent early HIV-1 infection. PMID:22102941

Tran, Thuong H.; El Baz, Rasha; Cuconati, Andrea; Arthos, James; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K.

2011-01-01

218

Screening for Drug Abuse Among Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs in a Probability Sample of College Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of 4 classes of prescription drugs (opioid, stimulant, sleeping, and sedative or anxiety) and to assess probable drug abuse among 4 mutually exclusive groups of medical and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Design In 2005, a Web survey was self-administered by a probability sample of 3639 college students (68% response rate). Setting A large, midwestern 4-year university. Participants The sample had a mean age of 19.9 years, and respondents were 53.6% female, 67.4% white, 12.1% Asian, 6.0% African American, 4.2% Hispanic, and 10.2% other racial categories. Main Outcome Measures Medical and nonmedical use of prescription drugs was measured. Probable drug abuse was assessed using a modified version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Form. Results A total of 40.1% of respondents reported no lifetime use of at least 1 of 4 classes of prescription drugs, 39.7% reported medical use only, 15.8% reported both medical and nonmedical use, and 4.4% reported nonmedical use only. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse were greater among medical and nonmedical users (adjusted odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.4–7.3) and nonmedical users only (adjusted odds ratio, 6.5; 95% confidence interval, 4.0–10.6) compared with nonusers. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse did not differ between medical users only and nonusers. Conclusions Nonmedical users of prescription drugs are at heightened risk for drug abuse, whereas medical users without a history of nonmedical use are generally not at increased risk. Drug abuse screening should be routine for college students, especially among individuals with any history of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. PMID:18316659

McCabe, Sean Esteban

2008-01-01

219

Rapid throughput solubility screening assay development and its applications in preformulation;.  

E-print Network

??Drug solubility is an important physicochemical property for orally administered drugs because it can significantly influence drug dissolution and absorption profiles. Investigative drugs need to… (more)

Guo, Jeremy

2007-01-01

220

Cell-Based Hepatitis C Virus Infection Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Assay for Antiviral Compound Screening  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects an estimated 3% of the population and is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Since HCV therapeutic and preventative options are limited, the development of new HCV antivirals has become a global health care concern. This has spurred the development of cell-based infectious HCV high-throughput screening assays to test the ability of compounds to inhibit HCV infection. This unit describes methods that may be used to assess the in vitro efficacy of HCV antivirals using a cell-based high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) HCV infection screening assay, which allows for the identification of inhibitors that target HCV at any step in the viral life cycle. Basic protocols are provided for compound screening during HCV infection and analysis of compound efficacy using an HCV FRET assay. Support protocols are provided for propagation of infectious HCV and measurement of viral infectivity. PMID:20812217

Yu, Xuemei; Uprichard, Susan L.

2010-01-01

221

Evaluation of a benchtop HIV ultradeep pyrosequencing drug resistance assay in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed

Detection of low-abundance drug resistance mutations (DRMs) of HIV-1 is an evolving approach in clinical practice. Ultradeep pyrosequencing has shown to be effective in detecting such mutations. The lack of a standardized commercially based assay limits the wide use of this method in clinical settings. 454 Life Sciences (Roche) is developing an HIV ultradeep pyrosequencing assay for their benchtop sequencer. We assessed the prototype plate in the clinical laboratory. Plasma samples genotyped by the standardized TruGene kit were retrospectively tested by this assay. Drug-treated subjects failing therapy and drug-naive patients were included. DRM analysis was based on the International AIDS Society USA DRM list and the Stanford algorithm. The prototype assay detected all of the DRMs detected by TruGene and additional 50 low-abundance DRMs. Several patients had low-abundance D67N, K70R, and M184V reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations that persisted long after discontinuation of the drug that elicited these mutations. Additional patient harbored low-abundance V32I major protease inhibitor mutation, which under darunavir selection evolved later to be detected by TruGene. Stanford analysis suggested that some of the low-abundance DRMs were likely to affect the resistance burden in these subjects. The prototype assay performs at least as well as TruGene and has the advantage of detecting low-abundance drug resistance mutations undetected by TruGene. Its ease of use and lab-scale platform will likely facilitate its use in the clinical laboratory. The extent to which the detection of low-abundance DRMs will affect patient management is still unknown, but it is hoped that use of such an assay in clinical practice will help resolve this important question. PMID:23284027

Avidor, Boaz; Girshengorn, Shirley; Matus, Natalia; Talio, Hadass; Achsanov, Svetlana; Zeldis, Irene; Fratty, Ilana S; Katchman, Eugene; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Hassin, David; Alon, Danny; Bentwich, Zvi; Yust, Israel; Amit, Sharon; Forer, Relly; Vulih Shultsman, Ina; Turner, Dan

2013-03-01

222

Study on microvisualizing assay of delivered drug infiltration using 2-color optical coherence dosigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, clinical treatments applying drug delivery system (DDS) have been being developed. However, it is quite difficult to in vivo diagnose spatiotemporal distribution of drug infiltration, so the validation study should be too insufficient to progress the DDS development. In this study, we propose a visualizing assay of DDS, namely 2-Color Optical Coherence Dosigraphy (2C-OCD). 2C-OCD is based on optical coherence tomography using two waveband "2-Color" light sources having different optical absorbance of drug. This can simultaneously provide microscale tomographic images of scatterer density and drug concentration. In order to evaluate the efficacy of this technique, this was applied to drug-diffusion phenomena in microchannel and lipidrich plaques of rabbit with drug administration, respectively. As a result of diffusion experiment, it was confirmed that 2C-OCD can visualize a cross-sectional map of drug concentration, with spatial resolution 5 micro m × 10 ?m and accuracy plus-minus 13.0 ?M. In ex vivo animal experiment, the enhancement of absorptivity could be observed inside lipidrich plaques, in which DDS drug could be therein uptaken by drug administration. The absorption maps corresponding to drug concentration were calculated, comparing with their histological images. Consequently, they had good coincidence with histological examinations, therefore, it was concluded that 2C-OCD could visualize drug infiltration in biological tissue with almost the same spatial resolution as OCT system.

Nakamichi, Yu; Saeki, Souichi; Saito, Takashi; Hiro, Takafumi; Matsuzaki, Masunori

2009-02-01

223

High content screening analysis of phospholipidosis: validation of a 96-well assay with CHO-K1 and HepG2 cells for the prediction of in vivo based phospholipidosis.  

PubMed

Drug-induced phospholipidosis is marked by an excessive accumulation of phospholipids in lysosomes which can occur after exposure to cationic amphiphilic drugs. Phospholipidosis is considered as an adverse side effect and may delay or negatively affect registration of drug candidates. Currently, the gold standard method of phospholipidosis detection is electron microscopy on tissue samples. This technique is time consuming and only performed relatively late in drug development. Therefore, in vitro screening methods for phospholipidosis are essential in early drug development. In this study, an in vitro phospholipidosis detection assay is developed with CHO-K1 and HepG2 cells by using the fluorescent marker NBD-PE and high content screening analysis. Lysosomal localization of NBD-PE was demonstrated by colocalization with Lysotracker and lamellar body formation by electron microscopy. Upon drug exposure, lysosomal NBD-PE accumulation can be visualized and quantified. Validation with 56 reference compounds, divided in 25 phospholipidosis inducers and 31 negative compounds, showed that this new in vitro assay has a high sensitivity (CHO-K1=92.0% and HepG2=88.0%) and specificity (CHO-K1=87.1% and HepG2=80.6%) for predicting phospholipidosis in vivo. Thus a selective screening tool has been developed for early selection of drug candidates with low probability for phospholipidosis. PMID:21651975

van de Water, F M; Havinga, J; Ravesloot, W T; Horbach, G J M J; Schoonen, W G E J

2011-12-01

224

Implementation of an interferon-gamma release assay to screen for tuberculosis in refugees and immigrants.  

PubMed

Despite increased use and accuracy of interferon-gamma release assays to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in foreign-born arrivals in the United States, risk characteristics associated with positive results are not well characterized. We conducted a retrospective record review of 541 refugees and immigrants screened for LTBI with QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) at the Spokane Public Health Clinic from January 2, 2008, through June 5, 2009. Overall, 24 % of the arrivals had a positive QFT-IT, with the greatest frequency of positive results occurring in arrivals from Liberia (100 %) and Bhutan (39 %). More than the expected number of Burmese had indeterminate QFT-IT results. A positive QFT-IT was associated with age, race, ethnicity, and extent of TB burden in the country of origin. QFT-IT is useful to screen for LTBI in foreign-born arrivals, particularly middle-aged adults from high-burden countries. However, the QFT-IT may not yield meaningful results in groups with significant immunocompromise. PMID:23179470

Simpson, Terri; Tomaro, Julie; Jobb, Cynthia

2013-08-01

225

Novel screening assay for in vivo selection of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes promoting gastrointestinal colonisation  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infections. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a key step in the development of infections; yet the specific factors important for K. pneumoniae to colonize and reside in the GI tract of the host are largely unknown. To identify K. pneumoniae genes promoting GI colonisation, a novel genomic-library-based approach was employed. Results Screening of a K. pneumoniae C3091 genomic library, expressed in E. coli strain EPI100, in a mouse model of GI colonisation led to the positive selection of five clones containing genes promoting persistent colonisation of the mouse GI tract. These included genes encoding the global response regulator ArcA; GalET of the galactose operon; and a cluster of two putative membrane-associated proteins of unknown function. Both ArcA and GalET are known to be involved in metabolic pathways in Klebsiella but may have additional biological actions beneficial to the pathogen. In support of this, GalET was found to confer decreased bile salt sensitivity to EPI100. Conclusions The present work establishes the use of genomic-library-based in vivo screening assays as a valuable tool for identification and characterization of virulence factors in K. pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens. PMID:22967317

2012-01-01

226

Detection of thyroid system-disrupting chemicals using in vitro and in vivo screening assays in Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

We developed a thyroid hormone (TH) inducible primary screening assay for the identification and assessment of man-made chemicals that interfere with the TH-signalling pathway within target cells. The assay was developed in a Xenopus laevis cell line that was transduced with a self-inactivating (SIN) lentivirus vector (LV) containing a luciferase gene. The luciferase activation in this cell line was TH-specific: 3,3',5-L-triiodothyronine (T(3)) > 3,3'5-L-triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac) > 3,3',5-D-triiodothyronine (D-T(3)), > L-thyroxine (T(4)) > 3,3',5'-L-triiodothyronine (rT(3)). The application of the ligand-dependent luciferase assay for screening for thyroid system-disrupting chemicals revealed that three phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, n-butylbenzyl phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate), two herbicides (ioxynil and pentachlorophenol) and a miticide (dicofol) had 3,3',5-L-triiodothyronine- T(3)- antagonist activity at concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-5) M. These chemicals also inhibited the expression of the endogenous primary T(3)-response TH nuclear receptor beta (TRbeta) gene. The inhibitory characteristics of these chemicals were similar for both assays performed, although the assay for T(3)-dependent activation of TRbeta gene was more sensitive than the luciferase assay. These results indicate that the luciferase assay was a rapid method with a small intra-assay variation for the primary screening of thyroid system-disrupting chemicals. Of the six chemicals, only n-butylbenzyl phthalate and pentachlorophenol exhibited T(3)-antagonist activity in an in vivo metamorphosis-based assay. It should be noted that chemicals elicited thyroid system-disrupting activity in the luciferase assay did not always interfere with the thyroid system in vivo. PMID:16179385

Sugiyama, Shin-Ichiro; Shimada, Naoyuki; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

2005-12-01

227

Rapid and Simple Kinetics Screening Assay for Electrophilic Dermal Sensitizers using Nitrobenzenethiol  

PubMed Central

The need for alternatives to animal based skin sensitization testing has spurred research on the use of in-vitro, in silico and in chemico methods. Glutathione and other select peptides have been used to determine the reactivity of electrophilic allergens to nucleophiles, but these methods are inadequate to accurately measure rapid kinetics observed with many chemical sensitizers. A kinetic spectrophotometric assay involving the reactivity of electrophilic sensitizers to nitrobenzenethiol was evaluated. Stopped flow techniques and conventional UV spectrophotometric measurements enabled determination of reaction rates with half-lives ranging from 0.4 ms (benzoquinone) to 46.2 s (ethyl acrylate). Rate constants were measured for 7 extreme, 5 strong, 7 moderate and 4 weak/non-sensitizers. 17 out of the 23 tested chemicals were pseudo-first order and 3 were second order. In 3 out of the 23 chemicals, deviations from first and second order were apparent where the chemicals exhibited complex kinetics whose rates are mixed order. The reaction rates of the electrophiles correlated positively with their EC3 values within the same mechanistic domain. Nonsensitizers such as benzaldehyde, sodium lauryl sulfate and benzocaine did not react with nitrobenzenethiol. Cyclic anhydrides, diones and aromatic aldehydes proved to be false negatives in this assay. The findings from this simple and rapid absorbance model show that for the same mechanistic domain, skin sensitization is driven mainly by electrophilic reactivity. This simple, rapid and inexpensive absorbance based method has great potential for use as a preliminary screening tool for skin allergens. PMID:20402462

Chipinda, Itai; Ajibola, Risikat O.; Morakinyo, Moshood K.; Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Simoyi, Reuben H.; Siegel, Paul D.

2010-01-01

228

GeneChip{sup {trademark}} screening assay for cystic fibrosis mutations  

SciTech Connect

GeneChip{sup {trademark}} assays are based on high density, carefully designed arrays of short oligonucleotide probes (13-16 bases) built directly on derivatized silica substrates. DNA target sequence analysis is achieved by hybridizing fluorescently labeled amplification products to these arrays. Fluorescent hybridization signals located within the probe array are translated into target sequence information using the known probe sequence at each array feature. The mutation screening assay for cystic fibrosis includes sets of oligonucleotide probes designed to detect numerous different mutations that have been described in 14 exons and one intron of the CFTR gene. Each mutation site is addressed by a sub-array of at least 40 probe sequences, half designed to detect the wild type gene sequence and half designed to detect the reported mutant sequence. Hybridization with homozygous mutant, homozygous wild type or heterozygous targets results in distinctive hybridization patterns within a sub-array, permitting specific discrimination of each mutation. The GeneChip probe arrays are very small (approximately 1 cm{sup 2}). There miniature size coupled with their high information content make GeneChip probe arrays a useful and practical means for providing CF mutation analysis in a clinical setting.

Cronn, M.T.; Miyada, C.G.; Fucini, R.V. [Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

229

Antimycobacterial screening of traditional medicinal plants using the microplate resazurin assay.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains have rapidly become a global health concern. North American First Nations communities have used traditional medicines for generations to treat many pulmonary infections. In this study, we evaluated the antimycobacterial activity of 5 medicinal plants traditionally used as general therapeutics for pulmonary illnesses and specifically as treatments for tuberculosis. Aqueous extracts of Aralia nudicaulis, Symplocarpus foetidus, Heracleum maximum, Juniperus communis, and Acorus calamus were screened for antimycobacterial activity against Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Mycobacterium avium, and M. tuberculosis H37Ra using the colorimetric microplate resazurin assay. Extracts of Acorus calamus and H. maximum root demonstrated significant antimycobacterial activity comparable to that of the rifampin control (2 microg/mL). Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of these 2 extracts using the MTT assay also showed that the extracts were less toxic to 3 human cell lines than was the DMSO positive control. This study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of the roots of H. maximum and Acorus calamus possess strong in vitro antimycobacterial activity, validates traditional knowledge, and provides potential for the development of urgently needed novel antituberculous therapeutics. PMID:20657619

Webster, Duncan; Lee, Timothy D G; Moore, Jill; Manning, Tracy; Kunimoto, Dennis; LeBlanc, Darren; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

2010-06-01

230

Are drunk-driving offenders referred for screening accurately reporting their drug use?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies report that a substantial percentage of offenders arrested for impaired driving test positive for drugs of abuse besides alcohol. Current guidelines recommend screening offenders for both alcohol and other drug use, yet little is known about the accuracy of self-reports of drug use in this population. We compared drug abuse and dependence DSM-III-R diagnoses from an initial, court-ordered

Sandra C Lapham; Janet C'de Baca; Iyiin Chang; William C Hunt; Lawrence R Berger

2002-01-01

231

Automated drug screening with contractile muscle tissue engineered from dystrophic myoblasts  

PubMed Central

Identification of factors that improve muscle function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) could lead to an improved quality of life. To establish a functional in vitro assay for muscle strength, mdx murine myoblasts, the genetic homologue of DMD, were tissue engineered in 96-microwell plates into 3-dimensional muscle constructs with parallel arrays of striated muscle fibers. When electrically stimulated, they generated tetanic forces measured with an automated motion tracking system. Thirty-one compounds of interest as potential treatments for patients with DMD were tested at 3 to 6 concentrations. Eleven of the compounds (insulin-like growth factor-1, creatine, ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate, trichostatin A, lisinopril, and 6 from the glucocorticoid family) significantly increased tetanic force relative to placebo-treated controls. The glucocorticoids methylprednisolone, deflazacort, and prednisone increased tetanic forces at low doses (EC50 of 6, 19, and 56 nM, respectively), indicating a direct muscle mechanism by which they may be benefitting DMD patients. The tetanic force assay also identified beneficial compound interactions (arginine plus deflazacort and prednisone plus creatine) as well as deleterious interactions (prednisone plus creatine inhibited by pentoxifylline) of combinatorial therapies taken by some DMD patients. Since mdx muscle in vivo and DMD patients respond in a similar manner to many of these compounds, the in vitro assay will be a useful tool for the rapid identification of new potential treatments for muscle weakness in DMD and other muscle disorders.—Vandenburgh, H., Shansky, J., Benesch-Lee, F., Skelly, K., Spinazzola, J.M., Saponjian, Y., Tseng, B.S. Automated drug screening with contractile muscle tissue engineered from dystrophic myoblasts. PMID:19487307

Vandenburgh, Herman; Shansky, Janet; Benesch-Lee, Frank; Skelly, Kirsten; Spinazzola, Janelle M.; Saponjian, Yero; Tseng, Brian S.

2009-01-01

232

Model for high-throughput screening of drug immunotoxicity--study of the anti-microbial G1 over peritoneal macrophages using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Quantitative Structure-Activity (mt-QSAR) techniques may become an important tool for prediction of cytotoxicity and High-throughput Screening (HTS) of drugs to rationalize drug discovery process. In this work, we train and validate by the first time mt-QSAR model using TOPS-MODE approach to calculate drug molecular descriptors and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) function. This model correctly classifies 8258 out of 9000 (Accuracy = 91.76%) multiplexing assay endpoints of 7903 drugs (including both train and validation series). Each endpoint correspond to one out of 1418 assays, 36 molecular and cellular targets, 46 standard type measures, in two possible organisms (human and mouse). After that, we determined experimentally, by the first time, the values of EC50 = 21.58 ?g/mL and Cytotoxicity = 23.6% for the anti-microbial/anti-parasite drug G1 over Balb/C mouse peritoneal macrophages using flow cytometry. In addition, the model predicts for G1 only 7 positive endpoints out 1251 cytotoxicity assays (0.56% of probability of cytotoxicity in multiple assays). The results obtained complement the toxicological studies of this important drug. This work adds a new tool to the existing pool of few methods useful for multi-target HTS of ChEMBL and other libraries of compounds towards drug discovery. PMID:24445280

Tenorio-Borroto, Esvieta; Peńuelas-Rivas, Claudia G; Vásquez-Chagoyán, Juan C; Castańedo, Nilo; Prado-Prado, Francisco J; García-Mera, Xerardo; González-Díaz, Humberto

2014-01-24

233

Assessment of ion-selective optical nanosensors for drug screening applications  

E-print Network

Ion channels represent an important category of drug targets. They play a significant role in numerous physiological functions, from membrane excitation and signaling to fluid absorption and secretion. An ion-channel assay ...

Yun, Hannah

2007-01-01

234

Intracellular Mechanics-Based Drug Screening for Cancer Metastasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007 alone, close to 1.5 million new cancer cases and over half of a million deaths from cancer are projected to occur in US. In general, cancer is much easier to be successfully treated before metastasis; the five-year survival rates for most of the cancers in the metastatic stage are lower than 10%. The origin of cancer is due to genomic instability; however, the genomics or proteomics studies focus on this phenomenon cannot thoroughly elucidate how cancer metastasis proceeds. During this process, cancer cells protrude and conquer their physical barriers, resist shear stress, establish anchorages and finally settle in a new environment. Each development in this process involves mechanical forces. Thus, whether force generation and cancer cells' mechanical properties can be integrated into the current mainstream of cancer research and offer new insight is worthy of being investigated. To measure the change of cell mechanics, specifically intracellular mechanics, a tool that least disrupts the probed cell's behavior and, simultaneously, can obtain real time quantitative measurement is necessary. To satisfy these criteria, we have developed a technique, ballistic intracellular nanorheology (BIN), in which we trace and analyze the trajectories of nanospheres that have been ballistically bombarded into the cytoplasm of individual cells. This technique allows us to probe the effects of chemical or mechanical stimuli on intracellular mechanics in various types of cells, on culture dishes or in a three-dimensional matrix. BIN is, currently, the first and only method available that can be applied to perform such tasks. Using this technique, we have gained detailed information about how the cytoskeletal remodeling pathways control the intracellular mechanics. We have also obtained information on the tempo-correlation between agonists and intracellular mechanics and how cells utilize their intracellular mechanics to react extracellular shear stress. These studies have set the framework for us to understand the mechanical mechanism of cancer cell metastasis on a molecular level. In this talk, I will describe the working principal using this technique to screen cancer drugs that prevent cancer metastasis.

Tseng, Yilder

2008-03-01

235

A highly specific cell-based high-throughput screening assay for ligands of cyclic adenosine monophosphate receptor protein in gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is a cell-cell communication process in bacteria that involves the production, release, and subsequent detection of chemical signal molecules called autoinducers. In Vibrio cholerae, multiple input signals activate the expression of the quorum sensing regulator HapR, which acts to repress the expression of virulence factors. We have shown that CRP, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptor protein, enhances quorum sensing by activating the biosynthesis of cholera autoinducer 1, the major signaling molecule that contributes to the activation of HapR. Thus, proquorum sensing CRP agonists could inhibit virulence and lead to new drugs to treat severe cholera. In this study, we show that expression of the quorum sensing-regulated luxCDABE operon can be used as a robust readout for CRP activity. Further, we describe and validate a highly specific cell-based luminescence high-throughput screening assay for proquorum sensing CRP ligands. A pilot screen of 9,425 compounds yielded a hit rate of 0.02%, one hit being cAMP itself. The Z' value for this assay was 0.76 and its coefficient of variance 8% for the positive control compound. To our knowledge, this is the first cell-based assay for ligands of the highly conserved CRP protein of Gram-negative bacteria. The use of this assay to screen large chemical libraries could identify lead compounds to treat cholera, as well as small molecules to probe ligand-receptor interactions in the CRP molecule. PMID:23906348

Wang, Hongxia; Silva, Anisia J; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E Lucile; Benitez, Jorge A

2013-07-01

236

Development and validation of a secondary screening assay for TRPM8 antagonists using QPatch HT.  

PubMed

QPatch HT is an automated patch clamp system with high data quality/content and greatly increased throughput over conventional patch clamp methods. To determine whether this platform is suitable for secondary screening of antagonists of TRPM8, a cold- and menthol-activated ion channel that belongs to the transient receptor potential channel family, we used QPatch HT to test a set of chemically diverse compounds identified as TRPM8 antagonists by FLIPR and conventional patch clamp. We found that most compounds exhibited slower inhibition kinetics compared with conventional patch clamp, requiring multiple applications to reach steady-state inhibition. For most compounds, there was a relatively small (< or =4-fold) right shift in potency compared with conventional patch clamp. Nonetheless, the compound potencies obtained from QPatch HT exhibited a highly significant correlation with those from either conventional patch clamp (r(2) = 0.98) or FLIPR (r(2) = 0.97), over a wide range of concentrations and cLogP values (approximately 4 orders of magnitude) and with virtually identical rank-order potency. The throughput by QPatch HT was at least 10-fold higher than that obtained by conventional patch clamp. Our results validate the use of QPatch HT for secondary screening of TRPM8 antagonists and, along with other recent studies, illustrate its utility as an important tool for ion channel drug discovery. PMID:20085457

Beck, Edward J; Hutchinson, Tasha L; Qin, Ning; Flores, Christopher M; Liu, Yi

2010-02-01

237

The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants.  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are defined by their ability to induce the proliferation of cells of the female genital tract. The wide chemical diversity of estrogenic compounds precludes an accurate prediction of estrogenic activity on the basis of chemical structure. Rodent bioassays are not suited for the large-scale screening of chemicals before their release into the environment because of their cost, complexity, and ethical concerns. The E-SCREEN assay was developed to assess the estrogenicity of environmental chemicals using the proliferative effect of estrogens on their target cells as an end point. This quantitative assay compares the cell number achieved by similar inocula of MCF-7 cells in the absence of estrogens (negative control) and in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol (positive control) and a range of concentrations of chemicals suspected to be estrogenic. Among the compounds tested, several "new" estrogens were found; alkylphenols, phthalates, some PCB congeners and hydroxylated PCBs, and the insecticides dieldrin, endosulfan, and toxaphene were estrogenic by the E-SCREEN assay. In addition, these compounds competed with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor and increased the levels of progesterone receptor and pS2 in MCF-7 cells, as expected from estrogen mimics. Recombinant human growth factors (bFGF, EGF, IGF-1) and insulin did not increase in cell yields. The aims of the work summarized in this paper were a) to validate the E-SCREEN assay; b) to screen a variety of chemicals present in the environment to identify those that may be causing reproductive effects in wildlife and humans; c) to assess whether environmental estrogens may act cumulatively; and finally d) to discuss the reliability of this and other assays to screen chemicals for their estrogenicity before they are released into the environment. PMID:8593856

Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C; Chung, K L; Fernandez, M F; Olea, N; Serrano, F O

1995-01-01

238

Comprehensive drug screening by integrated use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Remedi HS.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated an integrated approach for the screening of drugs in biosamples consisting of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of serum or whole blood (SB/GC-MS) and of high-performance liquid chromatographic and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis of urine with the REMEDi HS Biorad system (U/REM) (Bio-rad; Segrate, MI, Italy). Urine and blood samples from 26 suspected intoxicated patients and from 22 suspected lethal poisoning cases were examined. Eighty-one of the 99 parent drugs/main metabolites detected were identified by SB/GC-MS and 54 with U/REM. Thirty-six drugs/metabolites were identified with both methods, 45 by SB/GC-MS alone, and 18 by U/REM alone. Absence of the mass spectrometry (MS) spectra in the reference library and high polarity of the analytes were the main reasons for failed identification by SB/GC-MS. Unsuccessful identifications with U/REM were basically caused by the absence of the UV spectra in the reference library or by low chromatographic and spectroscopic selectivity as in the case of barbiturates and benzodiazepines (BZD), which represented 11% and 51%, respectively, of the 45 SB/GC-MS unique identifications. Urine samples of 14 BZD-positive cases were also submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis and analyzed with the REMEDi UBz assay, and results were compared with those obtained by SB/GC-MS: 14 of the 22 identified BZD were detected with both methods, three by U/REM only, and five by SB/GC-MS only. In conclusion, the integrated use of SB/GC-MS and U/REM approaches greatly enhances the amount and quality of analytical information obtainable by applying either method alone. PMID:11360040

Valli, A; Polettini, A; Papa, P; Montagna, M

2001-06-01

239

A high-throughput assay using dengue-1 virus-like particles for drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for 50–100 million human infections each year. The development of DENV chemotherapy requires high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. A dengue virus-like particle (VLP) has been constructed using viral structural proteins to package a Renilla luciferase reporter replicon. VLP could be produced by either the sequential electroporation of the replicon RNAs and the structural

Min Qing; Wei Liu; Zhiming Yuan; Feng Gu; Pei Yong Shi

2010-01-01

240

CARS based label-free assay for assessment of drugs by monitoring lipid droplets in tumour cells.  

PubMed

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is becoming an established tool for label-free multi-photon imaging based on molecule specific vibrations in the sample. The technique has proven to be particularly useful for imaging lipids, which are abundant in cells and tissues, including cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LD), which are recognized as dynamic organelles involved in many cellular functions. The increase in the number of lipid droplets in cells undergoing cell proliferation is a common feature in many neoplastic processes [1] and an increase in LD number also appears to be an early marker of drug-induced cell stress and subsequent apoptosis [3]. In this paper, a CARS-based label-free method is presented to monitor the increase in LD content in HCT116 colon tumour cells treated with the chemotherapeutic drugs Etoposide, Camptothecin and the protein kinase inhibitor Staurosporine. Using CARS, LDs can easily be distinguished from other cell components without the application of fluorescent dyes and provides a label-free non-invasive drug screening assay that could be used not only with cells and tissues ex vivo but potentially also in vivo. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:24343869

Steuwe, Christian; Patel, Imran I; Ul-Hasan, Mahmud; Schreiner, Alexander; Boren, Joan; Brindle, Kevin M; Reichelt, Stefanie; Mahajan, Sumeet

2014-11-01

241

Fluorescence-Based Assays for the Assessment of Drug Interaction with the Human Transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3  

PubMed Central

Hepatic disposition plays a significant role in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a variety drugs. Sinusoidal membrane transporters have been shown to participate in the hepatic disposition of many pharmaceuticals. Two sinusoidal membrane transporters with an established role in hepatic disposition are OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 have been implicated in the hepatic uptake of statin drugs and polymorphisms linked to OATP1B1 have been associated with deleterious patient endpoints. As a result, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 represent sites for potential drug-drug interactions. Numerous methods exist for identifying potential drug-drug interactions with transporters. However, relatively few offer the convenience and speed of fluorescence-based assays. Here, a fluorescence-based assay was developed for measuring the OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 mediated transport of 8-fluorescein-cAMP (8-FcA). The OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 mediated transport of 8-FcA was time dependent and saturable (Km = 2.9 ?M, Vmax = 0.20 pmol/min/cm2 and 1.8 ?M and 0.33 pmol/min/cm2, respectively). Molecules known to interact with OATPs, including cyclosporin A, rifampicin, and glibenclamide, each demonstrated concentration dependent inhibition of 8-FcA transport by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The in vitro fluorescence-based assays described here using 8-FcA as the substrate are convenient, rapid, and have utility in screening drug candidates for potential drug-drug interactions with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. PMID:20540932

BEDNARCZYK, DALLAS

2010-01-01

242

Development of a High-Throughput Screening-Compatible Assay for the Discovery of Inhibitors of the AF4-AF9 Interaction Using AlphaScreen Technology  

PubMed Central

Abstract Rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene occur predominately in pediatric leukemia cases and are generally predictors of a poor prognosis. These chromosomal rearrangements result in fusion of the protein MLL to one of more than 60 protein partners. MLL fusions are potent inducers of leukemia through activation of oncogene expression; therefore, targeting this transcriptional activation function may arrest MLL-rearranged (MLL-R) leukemia. Leukemic cell lines harboring the most common fusion protein, MLL-AF4, require the direct interaction of AF4 with the transcription factor AF9 to survive and self-renew; disrupting this interaction with a cell-penetrating AF4-derived peptide results in cell death, suggesting that the AF4-AF9 interaction could be a viable target for a novel MLL-R leukemia therapy. Here we describe the use of AlphaScreen technology to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to detect nonpeptidic inhibitors of AF4-AF9 binding. The assay is economical, requiring only low nanomolar concentrations of biotinylated AF4-derived peptide and FLAG-tagged AF9 in low-volume 384-well plates. A Z?-factor of 0.71 and a signal-to-background ratio of 21.3 showed the assay to be robust, and sensitivity to inhibition was demonstrated with competing AF4-derived peptides. Two pilot screens comprising 5,680 compounds served as validation for HTS at Nemours and the Broad Institute. Assay artifacts were excluded using a counterscreen comprising a biotinylated FLAG peptide. This is the first reported HTS-compatible assay to identify compounds that inhibit a key binding interaction of an MLL fusion partner, and the results presented here demonstrate suitability for screening large chemical libraries in high-density, low-volume plate formats. PMID:23679849

Watson, Venita Gresham; Drake, Katherine M.; Peng, Yu

2013-01-01

243

Evaluation of a 15Day Screening Assay Using Intact Male Rats for Identifying Steroid Biosynthesis Inhibitors and Thyroid Modulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vivo screening assay using intact adult male rats has been evaluated for its ability to detect four endocrine-active compounds (EACs) via oral (gavage) administration. The test compounds included the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (FAD), the testosterone biosynthesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KETO), and the thyroid mod- ulators phenobarbital (PB) and propylthiouracil (PTU). Three of the test compounds (KETO, PB, and PTU)

John C. O'Connor; Steven R. Frame; Gregory S. Ladics

2002-01-01

244

Screening ToxCast? Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) Assay  

EPA Science Inventory

An Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) in vitro assay with mouse embryonic stem cells was used to screen the ToxCast Phase I chemical library for effects on cellular differentiation and cell number. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ...

245

Using adverse outcome pathway analysis to guide development of high-throughput screening assays for thyroid-disruptors  

EPA Science Inventory

Using Adverse Outcome Pathway Analysis to Guide Development of High-Throughput Screening Assays for Thyroid-Disruptors Katie B. Paul1,2, Joan M. Hedge2, Daniel M. Rotroff4, Kevin M. Crofton4, Michael W. Hornung3, Steven O. Simmons2 1Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Post...

246

Whole Blood Interferon-Gamma Assay for Baseline Tuberculosis Screening among Japanese Healthcare Students  

PubMed Central

Background The whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON-TB-2G; QFT) has not been fully evaluated as a baseline tuberculosis screening test in Japanese healthcare students commencing clinical contact. The aim of this study was to compare the results from the QFT with those from the tuberculin skin test (TST) in a population deemed to be at a low risk for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Healthcare students recruited at Okayama University received both the TST and the QFT to assess the level of agreement between these two tests. The interleukin-10 levels before and after exposure to M tuberculosis-specific antigens (early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein [ESAT-6] and culture filtrate protein 10 [CFP-10]) were also measured. Of the 536 healthcare students, most of whom had been vaccinated with bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG), 207 (56%) were enrolled in this study. The agreement between the QFT and the TST results was poor, with positive result rates of 1.4% vs. 27.5%, respectively. A multivariate analysis also revealed that the induration diameter of the TST was not affected by the interferon-gamma concentration after exposure to either of the antigens but was influenced by the number of BCG needle scars (p?=?0.046). The whole blood interleukin-10 assay revealed that after antigen exposure, the median increases in interleukin-10 concentration was higher in the subgroup with the small increase in interferon-gamma concentration than in the subgroup with the large increase in interferon-gamma concentration (0.3 vs. 0 pg/mL; p?=?0.004). Conclusions/Significance As a baseline screening test for low-risk Japanese healthcare students at their course entry, QFT yielded quite discordant results, compared with the TST, probably because of the low specificity of the TST results in the BCG-vaccinated population. We also found, for the first time, that the change in the interleukin-10 level after exposure to specific antigens was inversely associated with that in the interferon-gamma level in a low-risk population. PMID:17726533

Hotta, Katsuyuki; Ogura, Toshio; Nishii, Kenji; Kodani, Tsuyoshi; Onishi, Masaru; Shimizu, Yukito; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Tobe, Kazuo

2007-01-01

247

A lactate dehydrogenase ELISA-based assay for the in vitro determination of Plasmodium berghei sensitivity to anti-malarial drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium berghei rodent malaria is a well-known model for the investigation of anti-malarial drug efficacy in vivo. However, the availability of drug in vitro assays in P. berghei is reduced when compared with the spectrum of techniques existing for Plasmodium falciparum. New alternatives to the current manual or automated methods described for P. berghei are attractive. The present study reports a new ELISA drug in vitro assay for P. berghei using two monoclonal antibodies against the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Methods This procedure includes a short-in vitro culture, the purification of schizonts and the further generation of synchronized mice infections. Early stages of the parasite are then incubated against different concentrations of anti-malarial drugs using micro-plates. The novelty of this procedure in P. berghei relies on the quantification of the drug activity derived from the amount of pLDH estimated by an ELISA assay using two monoclonal antibodies: 14C1 and 19G7. The IC50s obtained through the ELISA assay were compared with those from the micro-test. Results The initial parameters of the synchronized samples used in the in vitro assays were a parasitaemia of 0.5% and haematocrit of 1%, with an incubation period of 22 hours at 36.5°C. pLDH detection using a 14C1 coating at 10 ?g/ml and 19G7 at 2.5 × 10-3 ?g/ml provided good readouts of optical densities with low background in negative controls and specific detection levels for all parasite stages. IC50s values derived from the ELISA assay for artesunate, chloroquine, amodiaquine and quinine were: 15, 7, 2, and 144 nM, respectively. When artesunate and chloroquine IC50s were evaluated using the micro-test similar values were obtained. Conclusion This ELISA-based in vitro drug assay is easy to implement, fast, and avoids the use radioisotopes or expensive equipment. The utility of this simple assay for screening anti-malarial drug activity against P. berghei in vitro is demonstrated. PMID:23126583

2012-01-01

248

High-Throughput Screening of Ototoxic and Otoprotective Pharmacological Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drug ototoxicity research has relied traditionally on animal models for the discovery and development of therapeutic interventions. More than 50 years of research, however, has delivered few--if any--successful clinical strategies for preventing or ameliorating the ototoxic effects of common pharmacological drugs such as aminoglycoside…

Kalinec, Federico

2005-01-01

249

In silico screening of drug databases for TSE inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, thousands of different chemical compounds are used as drugs for a wealth of different indications. Here, we demonstrate the use of a novel conformational drug database for the search of compounds with a positive influence on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) by using two- and three-dimensional structural similarity to compounds with known effect. Both methods are combined to deduce a

Stephan Lorenzen; Mathias Dunkel; Robert Preissner

2005-01-01

250

Drug Screening Using a Library of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Reveals Disease Specific Patterns of Cardiotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiotoxicity is a leading cause for drug attrition during pharmaceutical development and has resulted in numerous preventable patient deaths. Incidents of adverse cardiac drug reactions are more common in patients with pre-existing heart disease than the general population. Here we generated a library of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from patients with various hereditary cardiac disorders to model differences in cardiac drug toxicity susceptibility for patients of different genetic backgrounds. Methods and Results Action potential duration (APD) and drug-induced arrhythmia were measured at the single cell level in hiPSC-CMs derived from healthy subjects and patients with hereditary long QT syndrome (LQT), familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Disease phenotypes were verified in LQT, HCM, and DCM iPSC-CMs by immunostaining and single cell patch clamp. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were used as controls. Single cell PCR confirmed expression of all cardiac ion channels in patient-specific hiPSC-CMs as well as hESC-CMs, but not in HEK293 cells. Disease-specific hiPSC-CMs demonstrated increased susceptibility to known cardiotoxic drugs as measured by APD and quantification of drug-induced arrhythmias such as early after depolarizations (EADs) and delayed after depolarizations (DADs). Conclusions We have recapitulated drug-induced cardiotoxicity profiles for healthy subjects, LQT, HCM, and DCM patients at the single cell level for the first time. Our data indicate that healthy and diseased individuals exhibit different susceptibilities to cardiotoxic drugs and that use of disease-specific hiPSC-CMs may predict adverse drug responses more accurately than standard hERG test or healthy control hiPSC-CM/hESC-CM screening assays. PMID:23519760

Liang, Ping; Lan, Feng; Lee, Andrew S.; Gong, Tingyu; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Wang, Yongming; Diecke, Sebastian; Sallam, Karim; Knowles, Joshua W.; Wang, Paul J.; Nguyen, Patricia K.; Bers, Donald M.; Robbins, Robert C.; Wu, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

251

Tuberculin Skin Tests versus Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in Tuberculosis Screening among Immigrant Visa Applicants.  

PubMed

Objective. Use of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) as part of tuberculosis (TB) screening among immigrants from high TB-burden countries has not been fully evaluated. Methods. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTBI) based on TST, or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G), was determined among immigrant applicants in Vietnam bound for the United States (US); factors associated with test results and discordance were assessed; predictive values of TST and QFT-G for identifying chest radiographs (CXRs) consistent with TB were calculated. Results. Of 1,246 immigrant visa applicants studied, 57.9% were TST positive, 28.3% were QFT-G positive, and test agreement was 59.4%. Increasing age was associated with positive TST results, positive QFT-G results, TST-positive but QFT-G-negative discordance, and abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. Positive predictive values of TST and QFT-G for an abnormal CXR were 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence of MTBI among US-bound visa applicants in Vietnam based on TST was twice that based on QFT-G, and 14 times higher than a TST-based estimate of MTBI prevalence reported for the general US population in 2000. QFT-G was not better than TST at predicting abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. PMID:24738031

Chuke, Stella O; Yen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Laserson, Kayla F; Phuoc, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Nguyen An; Nhung, Duong Thi Cam; Mai, Vo Thi Chi; Qui, An Dang; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Loan, Le Thien Huong; Jones, Warren G; Whitworth, William C; Shah, J Jina; Painter, John A; Mazurek, Gerald H; Maloney, Susan A

2014-01-01

252

Optimization and utilization of the SureFire phospho-STAT5 assay for a cell-based screening campaign.  

PubMed

The family of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) consists of seven transcription factors that respond to a variety of cytokines, hormones, and growth factors. STATs are activated by tyrosine phosphorylation, which results in their dimerization and translocation into the nucleus where they exert their effect on transcription of regulated target genes. The phosphorylation of STATs is mediated mainly by Janus kinases (JAKs). The JAK/STAT pathway plays a critical role in hematopoietic and immune cell function. Here we focus on one member of the STAT family, STAT5. STAT5 is phosphorylated by several JAKs, including Jak3, Jak2, and Tyk2, in response to interleukin-2, erythropoietin (EPO), and interleukin-22, respectively. Activation of STAT5 is essential to T cell development and has been associated with hematologic malignancies. Therefore, the ability to assess STAT5 phosphorylation is important for discovery efforts targeting these indications. The assay formats available to detect phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) are relatively low throughput and involve lengthy protocols. These formats include western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and flow cytometry. The SureFire (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA) pSTAT5 assay is a homogeneous assay that utilizes AlphaScreen (Perkin Elmer) technology to detect pSTAT5 in cell lysates. We have used this assay format to evaluate EPO-induced STAT5 phosphorylation in HEL cells and successfully complete a small-scale screening campaign to identify inhibitors of this event. The results obtained in these studies demonstrate that the SureFire pSTAT5 assay is a robust, reliable assay format that is amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS) applications. PMID:18336085

Binder, Christina; Lafayette, Amy; Archibeque, Ivonne; Sun, Yu; Plewa, Cherylene; Sinclair, Angus; Emkey, Renee

2008-02-01

253

Novel anti-Cryptosporidium activity of known drugs identified by high-throughput screening against parasite fatty acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP)  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptosporidium parvum causes an opportunistic infection in AIDS patients, and no effective treatments are yet available. This parasite possesses a single fatty acyl-CoA binding protein (CpACBP1) that is localized to the unique parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). The major goal of this study was to identify inhibitors from known drugs against CpACBP1 as potential new anti-Cryptosporidium agents. Methods A fluorescence assay was developed to detect CpACBP1 activity and to identify inhibitors by screening known drugs. Efficacies of top CpACBP1 inhibitors against Cryptosporidium growth in vitro were evaluated using a quantitative RT–PCR assay. Results Nitrobenzoxadiazole-labelled palmitoyl-CoA significantly increased the fluorescent emission upon binding to CpACBP1 (excitation/emission 460/538 nm), which was quantified to determine the CpACBP1 activity and binding kinetics. The fluorescence assay was used to screen a collection of 1040 compounds containing mostly known drugs, and identified the 28 most active compounds that could inhibit CpACBP1 activity with sub-micromolar IC50 values. Among them, four compounds displayed efficacies against parasite growth in vitro with low micromolar IC50 values. The effective compounds were broxyquinoline (IC50 64.9 ?M), cloxyquin (IC50 25.1 ?M), cloxacillin sodium (IC50 36.2 ?M) and sodium dehydrocholate (IC50 53.2 ?M). Conclusions The fluorescence ACBP assay can be effectively used to screen known drugs or other compound libraries. Novel anti-Cryptosporidium activity was observed in four top CpACBP1 inhibitors, which may be further investigated for their potential to be repurposed to treat cryptosporidiosis and to serve as leads for drug development. PMID:22167242

Fritzler, Jason M.; Zhu, Guan

2012-01-01

254

A clinical evaluation of the Janus Web Application, a software screening tool for drug-drug interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate the clinical relevance of the Janus Web Application (JWA) in screening for potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred and fifty patients taking two drugs or more were studied. Potential DDIs were identified by the JWA. Interviewing\\u000a the patient and looking into his\\/her medical records provided complementing information. A clinical pharmacologist judged\\u000a which potential DDIs were clinically relevant. Potentially

Buster Mannheimer; Johanna Ulfvarson; Sara Eklöf; Monica Bergqvist; Christer von Bahr

2008-01-01

255

Multiplexing Spheroid Volume, Resazurin and Acid Phosphatase Viability Assays for High-Throughput Screening of Tumour Spheroids and Stem Cell Neurospheres  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional cell culture has many advantages over monolayer cultures, and spheroids have been hailed as the best current representation of small avascular tumours in vitro. However their adoption in regular screening programs has been hindered by uneven culture growth, poor reproducibility and lack of high-throughput analysis methods for 3D. The objective of this study was to develop a method for a quick and reliable anticancer drug screen in 3D for tumour and human foetal brain tissue in order to investigate drug effectiveness and selective cytotoxic effects. Commercially available ultra-low attachment 96-well round-bottom plates were employed to culture spheroids in a rapid, reproducible manner amenable to automation. A set of three mechanistically different methods for spheroid health assessment (Spheroid volume, metabolic activity and acid phosphatase enzyme activity) were validated against cell numbers in healthy and drug-treated spheroids. An automated open-source ImageJ macro was developed to enable high-throughput volume measurements. Although spheroid volume determination was superior to the other assays, multiplexing it with resazurin reduction and phosphatase activity produced a richer picture of spheroid condition. The ability to distinguish between effects on malignant and the proliferating component of normal brain was tested using etoposide on UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and human neural stem cells. At levels below 10 µM etoposide exhibited higher toxicity towards proliferating stem cells, whereas at concentrations above 10 µM the tumour spheroids were affected to a greater extent. The high-throughput assay procedures use ready-made plates, open-source software and are compatible with standard plate readers, therefore offering high predictive power with substantial savings in time and money. PMID:25119185

Ivanov, Delyan P.; Parker, Terry L.; Walker, David A.; Alexander, Cameron; Ashford, Marianne B.; Gellert, Paul R.; Garnett, Martin C.

2014-01-01

256

Screening Carbohydrate Libraries for Protein Interactions Using the Direct ESI-MS Assay. Applications to Libraries of Unknown Concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semiquantitative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding assay suitable for analyzing mixtures of oligosaccharides, at unknown concentrations, for interactions with target proteins is described. The assay relies on the differences in the ratio of the relative abundances of the ligand-bound and free protein ions measured by ESI-MS at two or more initial protein concentrations to distinguish low affinity (?103 M-1) ligands from moderate and high affinity (>105 M-1) ligands present in the library and to rank their affinities. Control experiments were performed on solutions of a single chain antibody and a mixture of synthetic oligosaccharides, with known affinities, in the absence and presence of a 40-component carbohydrate library to demonstrate the implementation and reliability of the assay. The application of the assay for screening natural libraries of carbohydrates against proteins is also demonstrated using mixtures of human milk oligosaccharides, isolated from breast milk, and fragments of a bacterial toxin and human galectin 3.

Kitova, Elena N.; El-Hawiet, Amr; Klassen, John S.

2014-08-01

257

Development and validation of an assay method for the determination of trifluoroacetic acid in a cyclosporin-like drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method for the assay of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in a cyclosporin-like drug substance is presented, based on ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Column fouling by the drug molecule is avoided by use of a sample preparation method in which the drug substance is precipitated at alkaline pH whilst the TFA remains in solution. The new method requires

Mark Powell; David Humphreys; Adam Nagle; Karen Polowy; Michael Scannell

2011-01-01

258

A high-throughput assay using dengue-1 virus-like particles for drug discovery.  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for 50-100 million human infections each year. The development of DENV chemotherapy requires high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. A dengue virus-like particle (VLP) has been constructed using viral structural proteins to package a Renilla luciferase reporter replicon. VLP could be produced by either the sequential electroporation of the replicon RNAs and the structural gene RNAs or by electroporating replicon RNA into a stable cell line expressing the structural proteins. In both approaches, the key to produce high titer VLP (3x10(6)foci-forming unit/ml) is to use low temperature (30 degrees C) in the packaging step. In addition, exogenous expression of host protease furin increased VLP infectivity. The infection could be blocked by antibodies against viral envelope protein and by an inhibitor of viral NS5 polymerase, but not by an inhibitor of host alpha-glucosidase (castanospermine). The VLP infection assay was optimized for HTS in a 384-well format with consistent and robust signal, providing a simple and rapid cell-based assay for screening inhibitors against DENV entry, translation, and replication in an HTS format. PMID:20153777

Qing, Min; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Zhiming; Gu, Feng; Shi, Pei Yong

2010-05-01

259

Non-peptidic Cruzain Inhibitors with Trypanocidal Activity Discovered by Virtual Screening and In Vitro Assay  

PubMed Central

A multi-step cascade strategy using integrated ligand- and target-based virtual screening methods was developed to select a small number of compounds from the ZINC database to be evaluated for trypanocidal activity. Winnowing the database to 23 selected compounds, 12 non-covalent binding cruzain inhibitors with affinity values (Ki) in the low micromolar range (3–60 µM) acting through a competitive inhibition mechanism were identified. This mechanism has been confirmed by determining the binding mode of the cruzain inhibitor Nequimed176 through X-ray crystallographic studies. Cruzain, a validated therapeutic target for new chemotherapy for Chagas disease, also shares high similarity with the mammalian homolog cathepsin L. Because increased activity of cathepsin L is related to invasive properties and has been linked to metastatic cancer cells, cruzain inhibitors from the same library were assayed against it. Affinity values were in a similar range (4–80 µM), yielding poor selectivity towards cruzain but raising the possibility of investigating such inhibitors for their effect on cell proliferation. In order to select the most promising enzyme inhibitors retaining trypanocidal activity for structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, the most potent cruzain inhibitors were assayed against T. cruzi-infected cells. Two compounds were found to have trypanocidal activity. Using compound Nequimed42 as precursor, an SAR was established in which the 2-acetamidothiophene-3-carboxamide group was identified as essential for enzyme and parasite inhibition activities. The IC50 value for compound Nequimed42 acting against the trypomastigote form of the Tulahuen lacZ strain was found to be 10.6±0.1 µM, tenfold lower than that obtained for benznidazole, which was taken as positive control. In addition, by employing the strategy of molecular simplification, a smaller compound derived from Nequimed42 with a ligand efficiency (LE) of 0.33 kcal mol?1 atom?1 (compound Nequimed176) is highlighted as a novel non-peptidic, non-covalent cruzain inhibitor as a trypanocidal agent candidate for optimization. PMID:23991231

Wiggers, Helton J.; Rocha, Josmar R.; Fernandes, William B.; Sesti-Costa, Renata; Carneiro, Zumira A.; Cheleski, Juliana; da Silva, Albérico B. F.; Juliano, Luiz; Cezari, Maria H. S.; Silva, Joăo S.; McKerrow, James H.; Montanari, Carlos A.

2013-01-01

260

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUPPORT ON IN VITRO ASSAYS FOR THE AGENCY'S ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to the 1996 legislative mandate for an endocrine screening and testing program, we are helping develop, standardize and validate relatively sensitive, robust and relatively simple methods for in vitro screening of chemicals that affect estrogen, and androgen function ...

261

Protective activity of a human respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin prepared from donors screened by microneutralization assay.  

PubMed

To explore the feasibility of preparing a human immune globulin specific for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by screening plasma donors, the ability of seven RSV antibody assays to identify plasma-yielding IgG with high virus-neutralizing and animal-protective activities was compared. IgG prepared from plasma units selected by microneutralization assay had significantly higher activity in protecting mice from respiratory RSV challenge than did IgGs prepared from plasmas selected by three direct ELISAs using purified F protein, G protein, or RSV-infected cell lysate, by two competitive ELISAs with RSV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed to the F2 or F3 epitopes of the F protein, or by plaque reduction neutralization. Relative to IgG made from unselected plasma, microneutralization-screened IgG was enriched fivefold by plaque-reduction neutralization assays done with or without complement. The microneutralization assay identified RSV antibodies with highest animal protective activity. This assay will be useful for identifying plasma donors for the preparation of a human immune globulin with high protective activity against RSV and deserves further evaluation for prediction of protective antibody concentrations in children. PMID:1538152

Siber, G R; Leszcynski, J; Pena-Cruz, V; Ferren-Gardner, C; Anderson, R; Hemming, V G; Walsh, E E; Burns, J; McIntosh, K; Gonin, R

1992-03-01

262

Application of a fish DNA damage assay as a biological toxicity screening tool for metal plating wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The utility of a fish DNA damage assay as a rapid monitoring tool was investigated. Metal plating wastewater was chosen as a sample because it contains various genotoxic metal species. Fish DNA damage assay results were compared to data generated from the conventional whole effluent toxicity (WET) test procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay (Azur Environmental, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using Vibrio fischeri was also employed. Eleven samples from two metal plating companies were collected for this evaluation. For the fish DNA damage assay, 7-d-old fathead minnow larvae, Pimephales promelas, were utilized. They were exposed to a series of dilutions at 20 C for 2 h. Whole effluent toxicity tests conducted in this study included two acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and fathead minnows and two chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows. The fish DNA damage assay showed good correlations with both the acute and chronic WET test results, especially with those obtained with fathead minnows. The kappa values, an index of agreement, between the fish DNA damage assay and WET tests were shown to be acceptable. These findings imply that this novel fish DNA damage assay has use as an expedient toxicity screening procedure since it produces comparable results to those of the acute and chronic fathead minnow toxicity tests.

Choi, K.; Zong, M.; Meier, P.G.

2000-01-01

263

Drug screening and criminal prosecution of pregnant women.  

PubMed

According to the U.S. Supreme Court, the Fourth Amendment rights of 10 women were violated by a hospital that provided them prenatal care. The incidence of prenatal drug testing for criminal prosecution with or without a woman's knowledge is increasing. Concurrently, funding and availability of drug treatment programs for pregnant women are declining. Nurses and physicians who act as advocates for the state rather than the patient damage the patient-provider relationship and breach their ethical responsibility to the patient. PMID:11926395

Foley, Elizabeth M

2002-01-01

264

Screening Adverse Drug-Induced Arrhythmia Events Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Low-Impedance Microelectrode Arrays  

PubMed Central

Background Drug-induced arrhythmia is the most common cause of drug development failure and withdrawal from market. This study tested whether human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) combined with a low-impedance microelectrode array (MEA) system could improve upon industry-standard, preclinical cardiotoxicity screening methods, identify the effects of well-characterized drugs, and elucidate underlying risk factors for drug-induced arrhythmia. Human iPSC-CMs may be advantageous over immortalized cell lines because they possess similar functional characteristics as primary human cardiomyocytes and can be generated in unlimited quantities. Methods and Results Pharmacological responses of beating embryoid bodies (EBs) exposed to a comprehensive panel of drugs at 65 to 95 days post-induction were determined. Responses of hiPSC-CMs to drugs were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the reported drug effects in literature. Torsadogenic hERG blockers such as sotalol and quinidine produced statistically and physiologically significant effects, consistent with patch-clamp studies on human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs). False negative and false positive hERG blockers were identified accurately. Consistent with published studies using animal models, early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and ectopic beats were observed in 33% and 40% of embryoid bodies treated with sotalol and quinidine, respectively, compared to negligible EADs and ectopic beats in untreated controls. Conclusions We found that drug-induced arrhythmias can be recapitulated in hiPSC-CMs and documented with MEA. Our data indicate that the MEA/hiPSC-CM assay is a sensitive, robust, and efficient platform for testing drug effectiveness and for arrhythmia screening. We believe that this system holds great potential for reducing drug development costs and may provide significant advantages over current industry standard assays that use immortalized cell lines or animal models. PMID:24030418

Navarrete, Enrique G.; Liang, Ping; Lan, Feng; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Simmons, Chelsey; Gong, Tingyu; Sharma, Arun; Burridge, Paul W.; Patlolla, Bhagat; Lee, Andrew S; Wu, Haodi; Beygui, Ramin E.; Wu, Sean M.; Robbins, Robert C.; Bers, Donald M.; Wu, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

265

Second-line anti-tuberculosis drug concentrations for susceptibility testing in the MODS assay.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) threatens TB control worldwide. The microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay is a low-cost, high-performance TB diagnostic tool for rapid liquid culture and direct isoniazid and rifampicin drug susceptibility testing (DST). The objective of this study was to explore the potential for extending the MODS assay to rapid second-line DST and to identify critical concentrations of candidate drugs for prospective testing. Sputum samples from 94 TB culture-positive patients receiving second-line TB agents were cultured following standardised MODS protocols, with a range of titrations of antimicrobial drugs added. Critical concentrations were determined using a modified Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. Candidate critical concentrations were determined for capreomycin (10 ?g·mL(-1)), ciprofloxacin (1.25 ?g·mL(-1)), cycloserine (40 ?g·mL(-1)), ethambutol (10 ?g·mL(-1)), ethionamide (5 ?g·mL(-1)), kanamycin (5 ?g·mL(-1)), para-aminosalicylic acid (10 ?g·mL(-1)) and streptomycin (10 ?g·mL(-1)). No cut-off point was identified for the other second-line drugs or for pyrazinamide. At particular concentrations of some second-line TB drugs this novel Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly differentiated populations that were susceptible or resistant. These candidate critical concentrations should now be tested in a range of epidemiological settings to define the performance of direct, second-line TB DST with MODS, offering potential low-cost second-line TB DST capacity. PMID:22903960

Fitzwater, Sean Patrick; Sechler, G Andrew; Jave, Oswaldo; Coronel, Jorge; Mendoza, Alberto; Gilman, Robert H; Friedland, Jon S; Moore, David A J

2013-05-01

266

WormAssay: A Novel Computer Application for Whole-Plate Motion-based Screening of Macroscopic Parasites  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage) of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms. PMID:22303493

Marcellino, Chris; Gut, Jiri; Lim, K. C.; Singh, Rahul; McKerrow, James; Sakanari, Judy

2012-01-01

267

NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DRUG SCREENING POLICY AND PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

: Administrative, supervisory personnel assigned to positions having day-to-day responsibilities for supervision and procedure for detecting illegal drug usage. D. Reasonable Individualized Suspicion: An apparent state by the Associate Vice President, Facilities Management, which would induce a reasonably intelligent and prudent

268

Preventing drug interactions by online prescription screening in community pharmacies and medical practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drug interactions have been shown to be preventable by computerized prescription entry and screening only in hospitals and not in community-based practice.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the effect of online prescription screening in community pharmacies and physician offices of one health maintenance organization, phased in during 3 consecutive 6-month periods in 1998 to 1999 (period I, system active only in

Hillel Halkin; Itzhak Katzir; Irena Kurman; Joseph Jan; Becky Ben-Oz Malkin

2001-01-01

269

Finding a better drug for epilepsy: preclinical screening strategies and experimental trial design.  

PubMed

The antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) introduced during the past two decades have provided several benefits: they offered new treatment options for symptomatic treatment of seizures, improved ease of use and tolerability, and lowered risk for hypersensitivity reactions and detrimental drug-drug interactions. These drugs, however, neither attenuated the problem of drug-refractory epilepsy nor proved capable of preventing or curing the disease. Therefore, new preclinical screening strategies are needed to identify AEDs that target these unmet medical needs. New therapies may derive from novel targets identified on the basis of existing hypotheses for drug-refractory epilepsy and the biology of epileptogenesis; from research on genetics, transcriptomics, and epigenetics; and from mechanisms relevant for other therapy areas. Novel targets should be explored using new preclinical screening strategies, and new technologies should be used to develop medium- to high-throughput screening models. In vivo testing of novel drugs should be performed in models mimicking relevant aspects of drug refractory epilepsy and/or epileptogenesis. To minimize the high attrition rate associated with drug development, which arises mainly from a failure to demonstrate sufficient clinical efficacy of new treatments, it is important to define integrated strategies for preclinical screening and experimental trial design. An important tool will be the discovery and implementation of relevant biomarkers that will facilitate a continuum of proof-of-concept approaches during early clinical testing to rapidly confirm or reject preclinical findings, and thereby lower the risk of the overall development effort. In this review, we overview some of the issues related to these topics and provide examples of new approaches that we hope will be more successful than those used in the past. PMID:22708847

Simonato, Michele; Löscher, Wolfgang; Cole, Andrew J; Dudek, F Edward; Engel, Jerome; Kaminski, Rafal M; Loeb, Jeffrey A; Scharfman, Helen; Staley, Kevin J; Velíšek, Libor; Klitgaard, Henrik

2012-11-01

270

Finding a better drug for epilepsy: Preclinical screening strategies and experimental trial design  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) introduced during the past two decades have provided several benefits: they offered new treatment options for symptomatic treatment of seizures, improved ease of use and tolerability, and lowered risk for hypersensitivity reactions and detrimental drugdrug interactions. These drugs, however, neither attenuated the problem of drug-refractory epilepsy nor proved capable of preventing or curing the disease. Therefore, new preclinical screening strategies are needed to identify AEDs that target these unmet medical needs. New therapies may derive from novel targets identified on the basis of existing hypotheses for drug-refractory epilepsy and the biology of epileptogenesis; from research on genetics, transcriptomics, and epigenetics; and from mechanisms relevant for other therapy areas. Novel targets should be explored using new preclinical screening strategies, and new technologies should be used to develop medium- to high-throughput screening models. In vivo testing of novel drugs should be performed in models mimicking relevant aspects of drug refractory epilepsy and/or epileptogenesis. To minimize the high attrition rate associated with drug development, which arises mainly from a failure to demonstrate sufficient clinical efficacy of new treatments, it is important to define integrated strategies for preclinical screening and experimental trial design. An important tool will be the discovery and implementation of relevant biomarkers that will facilitate a continuum of proof-of-concept approaches during early clinical testing to rapidly confirm or reject preclinical findings, and thereby lower the risk of the overall development effort. In this review, we overview some of the issues related to these topics and provide examples of new approaches that we hope will be more successful than those used in the past. PMID:22708847

Simonato, Michele; Loscher, Wolfgang; Cole, Andrew J.; Dudek, F. Edward; Engel, Jerome; Kaminski, Rafal M.; Loeb, Jeffrey A.; Scharfman, Helen; Staley, Kevin J.; Velisek, Libor; Klitgaard, Henrik

2014-01-01

271

The US EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: In VItro and In Vivo Mammalian Tier 1 Screening Assays  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system, the Food Quality Protection Act mandated that the U.S. EPA develop and implement an endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP...

272

Investigation of a Broad-Spectrum PCR Assay for Human Papillomaviruses in Screening Benign Lesions of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A variety of different human papillomavirus (HPV) types can be found in benign and malignant lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Therefore a broad-spectrum assay is needed for screening reasons. Methods: A PCR system with degenerate consensus primers originating from a very conserved region (e.g. L1) of the HPV genome was applied. The sensitivity level was improved by combining

Markus Fischer

2005-01-01

273

Application of cell-free hemolymph of horseshoe crab in antimicrobial drug screening.  

PubMed

Horseshoe crabs are an ancient invertebrate which possesses powerful innate immune defense against microbes. The simplicity, specificity and rapidity of its antimicrobial response have accorded the horseshoe crab as an excellent animal model from which immune responsive tissues may be procured for biomedical research. Such usefulness is exemplified by the extensive application for nearly four decades, of the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) for sensitive detection of endotoxin in the medical industry. Apart from the amebocytes, the cell-free hemolymph (CFH) of this arthropod offers a large repertoire of evolutionarily conserved proteins, which are highly sensitive to pathogens. This makes the hemolymph an ideal physiological microenvironment for simulating an in vitro infection. We therefore propose to employ the CFH as a quick and convenient tool for antimicrobial drug screening in vitro. This specific drug screening system also provides further optimization of drug design, and selection of drugs with antioxidant properties. Being an easily accessible natural resource, and allowing high-throughput screening with uniform and reliable data output, the horseshoe crab CFH provides a desirable physiological milieu for drug screening and development. PMID:21470114

Du, Ruijuan; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling

2011-01-01

274

Design and optimization of SPR-based binding assay for evaluation and screening of MITF-E-box binding inhibitor.  

PubMed

Melanin synthesis is a complex phenomenon which involves about 192 known gene products. Among them, MITF is a key transcription factor for tyrosinase, Trp1 and Trp2 proteins, which are essential for melanin biosynthesis. Thus, intervening inhibitor for the MITF-E-box complex formation can downregulate melanin synthesis. The focus of the present study is to develop a surface plasmon resonance-based system to screen the MITF-E-box complex inhibitor. The standardization of the MITF and E-box binding assay was calibrated for kinetics and specificity, in the presence of a pre-incubated 22 mer sequence containing mutated E-box (CTTGAG) along MITF. The binding assay with C17 was optimized and the steady-state kinetics was evaluated. C17 was identified as inhibitor to MITF-E-box, by virtual screening followed by in vitro assessment and EMSA assay. The k(a) and k(d) were found to be 5.5 9 103 M?ą s?ą and 0.0014 s?ą, respectively, while the steady-state association constant (K(A)) was 3.928 9 106 M?ą. The resonance variations after inhibition were quantified and analyzed to develop the standard method for screening of microphthalmia transcription factor-E-box binding inhibitor. PMID:24078219

Morya, V K; Son, Manki; Lee, Hyang-Bok; Eun-ki, Eun-ki

2014-03-01

275

Bridging the gap from screening assays to estrogenic effects in fish: potential roles of multiple estrogen receptor subtypes.  

PubMed

This study seeks to delineate the ligand interactions that drive biomarker induction in fish exposed to estrogenic pollutants and provide a case study on the capacity of human (h) estrogen receptor (ER)-based in vitro screening assays to predict estrogenic effects in aquatic species. Adult male Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to solutions of singular steroidal estrogens or to the estrogenic extract of an anaerobic swine waste lagoon. All exposure concentrations were calibrated to be equipotent based on the yeast estrogen screen (YES), which reports activation of hER?. These exposures elicited significantly different magnitudes of hepatic vitellogenin and choriogenin gene induction in the male medaka. Effects of the same YES-calibrated solutions in the T47D-KBluc assay, which reports activation of hER? and hER?, generally recapitulated observations in medaka. Using competitive ligand binding assays, it was found that the magnitude of vitellogenin/choriogenin induction by different estrogenic ligands correlated positively with preferential binding affinity for medaka ER? subtypes, which are highly expressed in male medaka liver prior to estrogen exposure. Results support emerging evidence that ER? subtypes are critically involved in the teleost estrogenic response, with the ER?:ER? ratio being of particular importance. Accordingly, incorporation of multiple ER subtypes into estrogen screening protocols may increase predictive value for the risk assessment of aquatic systems, including complex estrogenic mixtures. PMID:24422420

Yost, Erin E; Lee Pow, Crystal; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Kullman, Seth W

2014-05-01

276

Pharmacological Screening Using an FXN-EGFP Cellular Genomic Reporter Assay for the Therapy of Friedreich Ataxia  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy. The presence of a GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of the FXN gene results in the inhibition of gene expression and an insufficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. There is a correlation between expansion length, the amount of residual frataxin and the severity of disease. As the coding sequence is unaltered, pharmacological up-regulation of FXN expression may restore frataxin to therapeutic levels. To facilitate screening of compounds that modulate FXN expression in a physiologically relevant manner, we established a cellular genomic reporter assay consisting of a stable human cell line containing an FXN-EGFP fusion construct, in which the EGFP gene is fused in-frame with the entire normal human FXN gene present on a BAC clone. The cell line was used to establish a fluorometric cellular assay for use in high throughput screening (HTS) procedures. A small chemical library containing FDA-approved compounds and natural extracts was screened and analyzed. Compound hits identified by HTS were further evaluated by flow cytometry in the cellular genomic reporter assay. The effects on FXN mRNA and frataxin protein levels were measured in lymphoblast and fibroblast cell lines derived from individuals with FRDA and in a humanized GAA repeat expansion mouse model of FRDA. Compounds that were established to increase FXN gene expression and frataxin levels included several anti-cancer agents, the iron-chelator deferiprone and the phytoalexin resveratrol. PMID:23418481

Li, Lingli; Voullaire, Lucille; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Pook, Mark A.

2013-01-01

277

Broad specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of residual phenothiazine drugs in swine tissues.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel generic hapten of phenothiazine drugs was synthesized by derivatization of 2-chlorophenothiazine with sodium bromoacetate. Then the hapten was coupled to bovine serum albumin for production of the monoclonal antibody. Results showed that the obtained monoclonal antibody recognized five phenothiazine drugs simultaneously: chlorpromazine, promethazine, acepromazine, perphenazine, and fluphenazine. After evaluation of different coating antigens, a heterologous competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to determine the residues of the five phenothiazine drugs in swine tissues (muscle, liver, and kidney). The cross-reactivities to the five analytes were in the range of 71 to 98%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 ng/ml, depending on the drug. Their recoveries from the fortified blank samples were in the range of 73.8 to 96.2%, with coefficients of variation in the range of 4.1 to 14.3%. This is the first study reporting a broad specific immunoassay for multi-determination of the residues of five phenothiazine drugs in animal-derived foods. PMID:24631517

Gao, Bao Long; Liu, Jing; Dong, Li Xue; Zhang, Lei; Qin, Jian Hua; Wang, Jian Ping

2014-06-01

278

Evaluation of California's Alcohol and Drug Screening and Brief Intervention Project for Emergency Department Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Visits to settings such as emergency departments (EDs) may present a “teachable moment” in that a patient may be more open to feedback and suggestions regarding their risky alcohol and illicit drug-use behaviors. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is an 'opportunistic' public health approach that targets low-risk users, in addition to those already dependent on alcohol and/or drugs. SBIRT programs provide patients with comprehensive screening and assessments, and deliver interventions of appropriate intensity to reduce risks related to alcohol and drug use. Methods: This study used a single group pre-post test design to assess the effect of the California SBIRT service program (i.e., CASBIRT) on 6 substance-use outcomes (past-month prevalence and number of days of binge drinking, illegal drug use, and marijuana use). Trained bilingual/bicultural Health Educators attempted to screen all adult patients in 12 EDs/trauma centers (regardless of the reason for the patient's visit) using a short instrument, and then delivered a brief motivational intervention matched to the patient's risk level. A total of 2,436 randomly selected patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or drug use consented to be in a 6-month telephone follow-up interview. Because of the high loss to follow-up rate, we used an intention-to-treat approach for the data analysis. Results: Results of generalized linear mixed models showed modest reductions in all 6 drug-and alcohol-use outcomes. Men (versus women), those at relatively higher risk status (versus lower risk), and those with only one substance of misuse (versus both alcohol and illicit drug misuse) tended to show more positive change. Conclusion: These results suggest that SBIRT services provided in acute care settings are associated with modest changes in self-reported recent alcohol and illicit drug use. PMID:23687546

Woodruff, Susan I.; Eisenberg, Kimberly; McCabe, Cameron T.; Clapp, John D.; Hohman, Melinda

2013-01-01

279

Optimization and validation of a reporter gene assay for screening of phosphodiesterase inhibitors in a high throughput system.  

PubMed

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) into inactive 5' monophosphates, and exist as 11 families. Inhibitors of PDEs allow the elevation of cAMP and cGMP, which leads to a variety of cellular effects including airway smooth muscle relaxation and inhibition of cellular inflammation or of immune responses. PDE4 inhibitors specifically prevent the hydrolysis of cAMP. We have validated the manually developed reporter gene assay in a high-throughput screening format that allows for fast and cost-effective identification of potential inhibitors of PDE4 isozymes. The assay is sensitive and robust, with a Z' value of >0.5. The assay is also amenable to 384-well format. PMID:18655041

Nanda, Kamna; Chatterjee, Mou; Arya, Ranjana; Mukherjee, Shohini; Saini, Kulvinder Singh; Dastidar, Sunanda; Ray, Abhijit

2008-10-01

280

Screening for Oxidative Stress Elicited by Engineered Nanomaterials: Evaluation of Acellular DCFH Assay  

PubMed Central

The DCFH assay is commonly used for measuring free radicals generated by engineered nanomaterials (ENM), a well-established mechanism of ENM toxicity. Concerns exist over susceptibility of the DCFH assay to: assay conditions, adsorption of DCFH onto ENM, fluorescence quenching and light scattering. These effects vary in magnitude depending on ENM physiochemical properties and concentration. A rigorous evaluation of this method is still lacking. The objective was to evaluate performance of the DCFH assay for measuring ENM-induced free radicals. A series of diverse and well-characterized ENM were tested in the acellular DCFH assay. We investigated the effect of sonication conditions, dispersion media, ENM concentration, and the use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the DCFH results. The acellular DCFH assay suffers from high background signals resulting from dye auto-oxidation and lacks sensitivity and robustness. DCFH oxidation is further enhanced by HRP. The number of positive ENM in the assay and their relative ranking changed as a function of experimental conditions. An inverse dose relationship was observed for several Carbon-based ENM. Overall, these findings indicate the importance of having standardized assays for evaluating ENM toxicity and highlights limitations of the DCFH assay for measuring ENM-induced free radicals. PMID:22942866

Pal, Anoop K.; Bello, Dhimiter; Budhlall, Bridgette; Rogers, Eugene; Milton, Donald K.

2012-01-01

281

The C3H/HeJ mouse and DEBR rat models for alopecia areata: review of preclinical drug screening approaches and results  

PubMed Central

The C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strain and the Dundee Experimental Bald Rat (DEBR) strain spontaneously develop adult onset alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated disease directed against actively growing hair follicles. The low frequency of AA and the inability to predict the stage of AA as it evolves in the naturally occuring C3H/HeJ model of AA can be converted into a highly predictable system by grafting full thickness skin from AA affected mice to normal haired mice of the same strain. The rat DEBR model develops spontaneous AA at a higher frequency than in the mouse model but they are more expensive to use in drug studies due to their larger size. Regardless of the shortcomings of either model, these rodent models can be used succesfully to screen novel or approved drugs for efficacy to treat human AA. Since the pathogenesis of AA follows the canonical lymphocytic co-stimulatory cascade in the mouse AA model, it can be used to screen compounds potentially useful to treat a variety of cell mediated diseases. Efficacy of various agents can easily be screened by simply observing the presence, rate, and cosmetic acceptability of hair regrowth. More sophisticated assays can refine how the drugs induce hair regrowth and evaluate the underlying pathogenesis of AA. Some drugs commonly used to treat human AA patients work equally as well in both rodent models validating their usefulness as models for drug efficacy and safety for human AA. PMID:18798913

Sun, Jing; Silva, Kathleen A.; McElwee, Kevin J.; King, Lloyd E.; Sundberg, John P.

2009-01-01

282

A Fluorescence Displacement Assay for Antidepressant Drug Discovery Based on Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots  

SciTech Connect

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) protein plays a central role in terminating 5-HT neurotransmission and is the most important therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders. We report an innovative, versatile, and target-selective quantum dot (QD) labeling approach for SERT in single Xenopus oocytes that can be adopted as a drug-screening platform. Our labeling approach employs a custom-made, QD-tagged indoleamine derivative ligand, IDT318, that is structurally similar to 5-HT and accesses the primary binding site with enhanced human SERT selectivity. Incubating QD-labeled oocytes with paroxetine (Paxil), a high-affinity SERT-specific inhibitor, showed a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in QD fluorescence, demonstrating the utility of our approach for the identification of SERT modulators. Furthermore, with the development of ligands aimed at other pharmacologically relevant targets, our approach may potentially form the basis for a multitarget drug discovery platform.

Chang, Jerry [Vanderbilt University; Tomlinson, Ian [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Warnement, Michael [Vanderbilt University; Iwamoto, Hideki [Vanderbilt University

2011-01-01

283

Toxicity Screening of the ToxCast Chemical Library Using a Zebrafish Developmental Assay  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the toxicity of the 320 ToxCast? Phase I chemicals were assessed using a vertebrate screen of developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos/larvae (Danio rerio) were exp...

284

Dose response screening of the Toxcast chemical library using a Zebrafish developmental assay  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the toxicity of the 320 ToxCaspM Phase I chemicals was assessed using a vertebrate screen of developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos/larvae (Danio rerio) were expo...

285

Algorithmic guided screening of drug combinations of arbitrary size for activity against cancer cells  

E-print Network

Algorithmic guided screening of drug combinations of arbitrary size for activity against cancer Imaging, and 3 Systems Biology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; 4 Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico Abstract The standard treatment for most advanced cancers is multidrug

Popova, Elmira

286

Docking and scoring in virtual screening for drug discovery: methods and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational approaches that 'dock' small molecules into the structures of macromolecular targets and 'score' their potential complementarity to binding sites are widely used in hit identification and lead optimization. Indeed, there are now a number of drugs whose development was heavily influenced by or based on structure-based design and screening strategies, such as HIV protease inhibitors. Nevertheless, there remain significant

Douglas B. Kitchen; Hélčne Decornez; John R. Furr; Jürgen Bajorath

2004-01-01

287

Ex vivo assay to determine the cyclooxygenase selectivity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  

PubMed Central

In this study we describe experiments to establish ex vivo the selectivity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) given in vivo.Anaesthetised (Inactin, 120?mg?kg?1) male Wistar rats (220–250?g) received an i.v. dose of one of the following compounds (dose mg?kg?1): aspirin (20), diclofenac (3), L-745,337 (30), nimesulide (15), salicylate (20), sulindac (10). Blood samples were taken before and up to 6?h after dosing and the plasma obtained from it was tested for its ability to inhibit prostanoid formation in IL-1?-treated A549 cells (COX-2 system) and human washed platelets (COX-1 system). For control the same compounds were also added directly to the assay systems.All drugs, except sodium salicylate, inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 when added directly to the test systems. Plasma from aspirin-treated rats was without effect on either COX-1 or COX-2, consistent with the rapid in vivo metabolism to salicylate. Conversely, plasma from sulindac-treated rats inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 with potencies according with in vivo metabolism to sulindac sulphide. Diclofenac was COX-1/2 non-selective when tested in vitro, but a slightly preferential inhibitor of COX-2 when tested ex vivo. Nimesulide was confirmed as preferential inhibitor of COX-2 both in vitro and ex vivo. L-745,337 was a selective COX-2 inhibitor when tested in vitro or ex vivo.In conclusion, our experiments show clearly (a) NSAIDs inactivation, (b) activation of pro-drugs, and (c) NSAIDs selectivity. Our assay provides useful information about the selectivity of NSAIDs that could be extended by the analysis of plasma samples taken from humans similarly treated with test drugs. PMID:10372826

Giuliano, Francesco; Warner, Timothy D

1999-01-01

288

Validation of Screening Assays for Developmental Toxicity: An Exposure-Based Approach  

EPA Science Inventory

There continue to be widespread efforts to develop assay methods for developmental toxicity that are shorter than the traditional Segment 2 study and use fewer or no animals. As with any alternative test method, novel developmental toxicity assays must be validated by evaluating ...

289

Molecular dynamics-based virtual screening: accelerating the drug discovery process by high-performance computing.  

PubMed

High-performance computing (HPC) has become a state strategic technology in a number of countries. One hypothesis is that HPC can accelerate biopharmaceutical innovation. Our experimental data demonstrate that HPC can significantly accelerate biopharmaceutical innovation by employing molecular dynamics-based virtual screening (MDVS). Without using HPC, MDVS for a 10K compound library with tens of nanoseconds of MD simulations requires years of computer time. In contrast, a state of the art HPC can be 600 times faster than an eight-core PC server is in screening a typical drug target (which contains about 40K atoms). Also, careful design of the GPU/CPU architecture can reduce the HPC costs. However, the communication cost of parallel computing is a bottleneck that acts as the main limit of further virtual screening improvements for drug innovations. PMID:24001302

Ge, Hu; Wang, Yu; Li, Chanjuan; Chen, Nanhao; Xie, Yufang; Xu, Mengyan; He, Yingyan; Gu, Xinchun; Wu, Ruibo; Gu, Qiong; Zeng, Liang; Xu, Jun

2013-10-28

290

DRIED BLOOD SPOT REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAYS TO SCREEN NEWBORNS FOR CONGENITAL CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION  

PubMed Central

Context Reliable methods to screen newborns for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are needed for identification of infants at increased risk for hearing loss. Since dried blood spots (DBS) are routinely collected for metabolic screening from all newborns in the United States, there has been interest in using DBS polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for newborn CMV screening. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of DBS real-time PCR assays for newborn CMV screening Design, Setting, and Participants Between March 2007 and May 2008, infants born at seven medical centers in the U.S. were enrolled in the CMV and Hearing Multicenter Screening (CHIMES) study. Newborn saliva specimens were tested for the detection of early antigen fluorescent foci (DEAFF). Results of saliva DEAFF were compared with a single-primer (from 03/07 to 12/07) and a two-primer (from 01/08 to 05/08) DBS real-time PCR. Infants positive by screening DEAFF or PCR were enrolled in follow-up to confirm congenital infection by the reference standard method, DEAFF on saliva or urine. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) of single-primer and two-primer DBS real-time PCR assays for identifying infants with confirmed congenital CMV infection. Results Congenital CMV infection was confirmed in 92 of 20,448 (0.45%; 95% CI, 0.36–0.55) infants. Ninety-one of 92 infants were saliva DEAFF positive on screening. Of the 11,422 infants screened using the single-primer DBS PCR, 17 of 60 (28%) infants were positive with this assay, whereas, among the 9,026 infants screened using the two-primer DBS PCR, 11 of 32 (34%) infants were positive. The single-primer DBS PCR identified congenital CMV infection with a sensitivity of 28.3% (95% CI, 17.4–41.4%), specificity, 99.9% (95% CI, 99.9–100%), positive LR, 803.7 (95% CI, 278.7–2317.9), and negative LR, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6–0.8). The positive and negative predictive values of the single-primer DBS PCR were 80.9% (95% CI, 58.1–94.5%) and 99.6% (95% CI, 99.5–99.7%), respectively. The two-primer DBS PCR assay identified infants with congenital CMV infection with a sensitivity of 34.4% (95% CI, 18.6–53.2%), specificity, 99.9% (95% CI, 99.9–100%), positive LR, 3088.9 (95% CI, 410.8–23226.7), and negative LR, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5–0.8). The positive and negative predictive values of the two-primer DBS PCR were 91.7% (95% CI, 61.5–99.8%) and 99.8% (95% CI, 99.6–99.9%), respectively. Conclusions Among newborns, CMV testing with DBS real-time PCR compared with saliva rapid culture had low sensitivity, limiting its value as a screening test. PMID:20388893

Boppana, Suresh B.; Ross, Shannon A.; Novak, Zdenek; Shimamura, Masako; Tolan, Robert W.; Palmer, April L.; Ahmed, Amina; Michaels, Marian G.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Bernstein, David I.; Britt, William J.; Fowler, Karen B.

2010-01-01

291

A High Content Drug Screen Identifies Ursolic Acid as an Inhibitor of Amyloid ? Protein Interactions with Its Receptor CD36*  

PubMed Central

A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is deposition of amyloid ? (A?) in the brain. A? binds to microglia via a receptor complex that includes CD36 leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic reactive oxygen species and subsequent neurodegeneration. Interruption of A? binding to CD36 is a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. To identify pharmacologic inhibitors of A? binding to CD36, we developed a 384-well plate assay for binding of fluorescently labeled A? to Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing human CD36 (CHO-CD36) and screened an Food and Drug Administration-approved compound library. The assay was optimized based on the cells' tolerance to dimethyl sulfoxide, A? concentration, time required for A? binding, reproducibility, and signal-to-background ratio. Using this assay, we identified four compounds as potential inhibitors of A? binding to CD36. These compounds were ursolic acid, ellipticine, zoxazolamine, and homomoschatoline. Of these compounds, only ursolic acid, a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid, successfully inhibited binding of A? to CHO-CD36 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The ursolic acid effect reached a plateau at ?20 ?m, with a maximal inhibition of 64%. Ursolic acid also blocked binding of A? to microglial cells and subsequent ROS production. Our data indicate that cell-based high-content screening of small molecule libraries for their ability to block binding of A? to its receptors is a useful tool to identify novel inhibitors of receptors involved in AD pathogenesis. Our data also suggest that ursolic acid is a potential therapeutic agent for AD via its ability to block A?-CD36 interactions. PMID:21835916

Wilkinson, Kim; Boyd, Justin D.; Glicksman, Marcie; Moore, Kathryn J.; El Khoury, Joseph

2011-01-01

292

An Algorithm for the Preclinical Screening of Anticancer Drugs Effective against Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

The anticancer drugs screening program is a long and expensive process. It is estimated that only 5% of drugs entering clinical trials are approved by the FDA. Moreover, many of the drugs that enter clinical trials are often of limited use in clinical practice, and most cancers remain untreatable. Brain tumors are particularly difficult to treat due to the presence of the blood brain barrier that limits the penetration of anticancer drugs. Additionally the isolation from most brain tumors of putative cancer stem cells and novel models of cancer stem cell biology suggest that anticancer drugs should be delivered for prolonged time and at higher concentrations to deplete any potential tumorigenic cell. In this paper, current concepts of cancer stem cell biology and novel concepts of anticancer drugs screening are integrated to develop a seven-steps algorithm as a guideline for the preclinical evaluation of active compounds for the treatment of brain tumors. The flexibility of the algorithm allows the inclusion of alternative studies to exhaustively investigate anticancer drugs and creates multiple opportunities where decisions to engage or not in early clinical trials can be made providing a useful tool for translational research in neurooncology. PMID:22830045

Yakisich, Juan Sebastian

2012-01-01

293

Corifungin, a new drug lead against Naegleria, identified from a high-throughput screen.  

PubMed

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. The drug of choice in treating PAM is the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B, but its use is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, few patients treated with amphotericin B have survived PAM. Therefore, fast-acting and efficient drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of PAM. To facilitate drug screening for this pathogen, an automated, high-throughput screening methodology was developed and validated for the closely related species Naegleria gruberi. Five kinase inhibitors and an NF-kappaB inhibitor were hits identified in primary screens of three compound libraries. Most importantly for a preclinical drug discovery pipeline, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide with a higher activity against Naegleria than that of amphotericin B. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated with different concentrations of corifungin showed disruption of cytoplasmic and plasma membranes and alterations in mitochondria, followed by complete lysis of amebae. In vivo efficacy of corifungin in a mouse model of PAM was confirmed by an absence of detectable amebae in the brain and 100% survival of mice for 17 days postinfection for a single daily intraperitoneal dose of 9 mg/kg of body weight given for 10 days. The same dose of amphotericin B did not reduce ameba growth, and mouse survival was compromised. Based on these results, the U.S. FDA has approved orphan drug status for corifungin for the treatment of PAM. PMID:22869574

Debnath, Anjan; Tunac, Josefino B; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; McKerrow, James H

2012-11-01

294

Corifungin, a New Drug Lead against Naegleria, Identified from a High-Throughput Screen  

PubMed Central

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. The drug of choice in treating PAM is the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B, but its use is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, few patients treated with amphotericin B have survived PAM. Therefore, fast-acting and efficient drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of PAM. To facilitate drug screening for this pathogen, an automated, high-throughput screening methodology was developed and validated for the closely related species Naegleria gruberi. Five kinase inhibitors and an NF-kappaB inhibitor were hits identified in primary screens of three compound libraries. Most importantly for a preclinical drug discovery pipeline, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide with a higher activity against Naegleria than that of amphotericin B. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated with different concentrations of corifungin showed disruption of cytoplasmic and plasma membranes and alterations in mitochondria, followed by complete lysis of amebae. In vivo efficacy of corifungin in a mouse model of PAM was confirmed by an absence of detectable amebae in the brain and 100% survival of mice for 17 days postinfection for a single daily intraperitoneal dose of 9 mg/kg of body weight given for 10 days. The same dose of amphotericin B did not reduce ameba growth, and mouse survival was compromised. Based on these results, the U.S. FDA has approved orphan drug status for corifungin for the treatment of PAM. PMID:22869574

Debnath, Anjan; Tunac, Josefino B.; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko

2012-01-01

295

Cardiac Arrhythmia: In vivo screening in the zebrafish to overcome complexity in drug discovery  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Cardiac arrhythmias remain a major challenge for modern drug discovery. Clinical events are paroxysmal, often rare and may be asymptomatic until a highly morbid complication. Target selection is often based on limited information and though highly specific agents are identified in screening, the final efficacy is often compromised by unanticipated systemic responses, a narrow therapeutic index and substantial toxicities. Areas covered in this review Our understanding of complexity of arrhythmogenesis has grown dramatically over the last two decades, and the range of potential disease mechanisms now includes pathways previously thought only tangentially involved in arrhythmia. This review surveys the literature on arrhythmia mechanisms from 1965 to the present day, outlines the complex biology underlying potentially each and every rhythm disturbance, and highlights the problems for rational target identification. The rationale for in vivo screening is described and the utility of the zebrafish for this approach and for complementary work in functional genomics is discussed. Current limitations of the model in this setting and the need for careful validation in new disease areas are also described. What the reader will gain An overview of the complex mechanisms underlying most clinical arrhythmias, and insight into the limits of ion channel conductances as drug targets. An introduction to the zebrafish as a model organism, in particular for cardiovascular biology. Potential approaches to overcoming the hurdles to drug discovery in the face of complex biology including in vivo screening of zebrafish genetic disease models. Take home message In vivo screening in faithful disease models allows the effects of drugs on integrative physiology and disease biology to be captured during the screening process, in a manner agnostic to potential drug target or targets. This systematic strategy bypasses current gaps in our understanding of disease biology, but emphasizes the importance of the rigor of the disease model. PMID:20835353

MacRae, Calum A.

2010-01-01

296

Therapeutic Rescue of Misfolded Mutants: Validation of Primary High Throughput Screens for Identification of Pharmacoperone Drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Functional rescue of misfolded mutant receptors by small non-peptide molecules has been demonstrated. These small, target-specific molecules (pharmacological chaperones or “pharmacoperones”) serve as molecular templates, promote correct folding and allow otherwise misfolded mutants to pass the scrutiny of the cellular quality control system (QCS) and be expressed at the plasma membrane (PM) where they function similarly to wild type (WT) proteins. In the case of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), drugs that rescue one mutant typically rescue many mutants, even if the mutations are located at distant sites (extracellular loops, intracellular loops, transmembrane helices). This increases the value of these drugs. These drugs are typically identified, post hoc, from “hits” in screens designed to detect antagonists or agonists. The therapeutic utility of pharmacoperones has been limited due to the absence of screens that enable identification of pharmacoperones per se. Methods and Findings We describe a generalizable primary screening approach for pharmacoperone drugs based on measurement of gain of activity in stable HeLa cells stably expressing the mutants of two different model G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (hGnRHR[E90K] or hV2R[L83Q]). These cells turn off expression of the receptor mutant gene of interest in the presence of tetracycline and its analogs, which provides a convenient means to identify false positives. Conclusions The methods described and characterized here provide the basis of novel primary screens for pharmacoperones that detect drugs that rescue GPCR mutants of specific receptors. This approach will identify structures that would have been missed in screens that were designed to select only agonists or antagonists. Non-antagonistic pharmacoperones have a therapeutic advantage since they will not compete for endogenous agonists and may not have to be washed out once rescue has occurred and before activation by endogenous or exogenous agonists. PMID:21818389

Janovick, Jo Ann; Park, Byung S.; Conn, P. Michael

2011-01-01

297

Discovery of antagonists for human scavenger receptor CD36 via an ELISA-like high-throughput screening assay.  

PubMed

CD36, a member of the class B scavenger receptor, is a high-affinity receptor for oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Extensive evidence points to a significant role of CD36 in atherosclerosis and suggests that CD36 could be a potential target for treatment of atherosclerosis. Here, the extracellular domain of human CD36 (Gly(30)-Asn(439)) was expressed in Escherichia coli as His(6)-tagged soluble CD36 (sCD36), which could bind oxLDL specifically and effectively inhibit the uptake of oxLDL by murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like high-throughput screening (HTS) assay was developed for the discovery of CD36 antagonists, based on the competition of sCD36 binding to immobilized oxLDL and detection with a monoclonal antibody against His-tag. This assay was suitable for HTS in a 96-well format and was robust and reliable according to the evaluation parameter Z' value of 0.82. The developed HTS assay was applied to both pure chemical compounds and microbial secondary metabolite crude extracts to identify CD36 antagonists. Three active compounds-sodium danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB)-were shown to be antagonistic to sCD36-oxLDL binding and further validated by their inhibition of oxLDL uptake in RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that the ELISA-like assay represents a promising screening for identifying bioactive molecules targeting atherosclerosis at the level of CD36-ligand binding. PMID:20150587

Wang, Li; Bao, Yi; Yang, Yuan; Wu, Yexiang; Chen, Xiaofang; Si, Shuyi; Hong, Bin

2010-03-01

298

Rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: High throughput screening for enzyme activity  

PubMed Central

Dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (dual-color FCS) has previously been shown to be a suitable tool not only for binding but also for catalytic rate studies. In this work, its application as a rapid method for high-throughput screening (HTS) and evolutionary biotechnology is described. This application is called RAPID FCS (rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color FCS) and does not depend on the characterization of diffusion parameters that is the prerequisite for conventional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Dual-color FCS parameters were optimized to achieve the shortest analysis times. A simulated HTS with homogeneous assays for different restriction endonucleases (EcoRI, BamHI, SspI, and HindIII) achieved precise yes-or-no decisions within analysis times of about 1 s per sample. RAPID FCS combines these short analysis times with the development of fast and flexible assays resulting in sensitive, homogeneous fluorescence-based assays, where a chemical linkage between different fluorophores is either cleaved or formed, or where differently labeled molecules interact by noncovalent binding. In principle, assay volumes can be reduced to submicroliters without decreasing the signal strength, making RAPID FCS an ideal tool for ultra-HTS when combined with nanotechnology. RAPID FCS can accurately probe 104 to 105 samples per day, and possibly more. In addition, this method has the potential to be an efficient tool for selection strategies in evolutionary biotechnology, where rare and specific binding or catalytic properties have to be screened in large numbers of samples. PMID:9465030

Koltermann, Andre; Kettling, Ulrich; Bieschke, Jan; Winkler, Thorsten; Eigen, Manfred

1998-01-01

299

Rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: high throughput screening for enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (dual-color FCS) has previously been shown to be a suitable tool not only for binding but also for catalytic rate studies. In this work, its application as a rapid method for high-throughput screening (HTS) and evolutionary biotechnology is described. This application is called RAPID FCS (rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color FCS) and does not depend on the characterization of diffusion parameters that is the prerequisite for conventional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Dual-color FCS parameters were optimized to achieve the shortest analysis times. A simulated HTS with homogeneous assays for different restriction endonucleases (EcoRI, BamHI, SspI, and HindIII) achieved precise yes-or-no decisions within analysis times of about 1 s per sample. RAPID FCS combines these short analysis times with the development of fast and flexible assays resulting in sensitive, homogeneous fluorescence-based assays, where a chemical linkage between different fluorophores is either cleaved or formed, or where differently labeled molecules interact by noncovalent binding. In principle, assay volumes can be reduced to submicroliters without decreasing the signal strength, making RAPID FCS an ideal tool for ultra-HTS when combined with nanotechnology. RAPID FCS can accurately probe 10(4) to 10(5) samples per day, and possibly more. In addition, this method has the potential to be an efficient tool for selection strategies in evolutionary biotechnology, where rare and specific binding or catalytic properties have to be screened in large numbers of samples. PMID:9465030

Koltermann, A; Kettling, U; Bieschke, J; Winkler, T; Eigen, M

1998-02-17

300

Increasing speed and throughput when using HPLC-MS/MS systems for drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic screening.  

PubMed

Both combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis provide a valuable means for the production of large numbers of compounds with diverse molecular architectures that become available for various drug discovery experiments. In both the lead optimization and lead selection stages, one requirement that is common for many processes is the need for bioanalytical support. This review summarizes current high throughput strategies and efficient methodologies that are employed for drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) screens for a series of drug discovery compounds. For these types of assays, high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) has now become the technique of choice. The major high throughput strategies including sample reduction and cassette dosing are discussed. The methods for increasing the speed of HPLC-MS/MS-based analyses, such as fast chromatography, direct sample injection, parallel technologies and combined ionization interfaces are also presented in this review. In addition, the special challenges when performing HPLC-MS/MS bioanalysis, such as the choice of ionization sources, matrix ionization suppression and the potential for endogenous interferences, are addressed. PMID:16787157

Hsieh, Yunsheng; Korfmacher, Walter A

2006-06-01

301

A cellular test system expressing hERG K + channels for assaying drug cardiotoxicity: Elaboration and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many drugs are cardiotoxic because they inhibit hERG K+ channels, thus prolonging the repolarization phase of the cardiomyocyte action potential giving rise to cardiac arrhythmias.\\u000a Early detection of inhibiting effects of candidate drugs on the activity of K+ channels in cardiomyocytes is one of the main challenges in preclinical drug screening. The aim of this study was to obtain\\u000a a

A. A. Shutov; O. V. Lebedeva; R. A. Romanov; O. A. Rogachevskaya; N. V. Kabanova; S. S. Kolesnikov; E. R. Safarova

2008-01-01

302

A hydrogen peroxide electrode assay to measure thiol peroxidase activity for organoselenium and organotellurium drugs.  

PubMed

Molecular mimics of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are increasingly being evaluated as redox active drugs. Their molecular mechanism of action parallels that of the native enzyme; however, a major distinction is that GPx mimics can use alternative thiol substrates to glutathione. This generic thiol peroxidase activity implies that it is necessary to assess a GPx mimic's recognition of a range of cellular thiols in order to determine its potential therapeutic effects. We report an electrochemical assay that, by measuring the rate of decrease of the peroxide substrate, allows the activity of GPx mimics to be directly compared against an array of thiols. The derived pseudo zero-order rate constants, k(obs), for representative GPx mimics range between 0 and 6.6 min(-1) and can vary by more than an order of magnitude depending on the thiol electron donor. An additional advantage of the assay is that it enables synergistic interactions between GPx mimics and cellular proteins to be evaluated. Here we report that glutathione disulfide reductase, which is commonly used to evaluate GPx mimic activity, recognizes the GPx mimic ebselen as a substrate, increasing its apparent k(obs). Therefore, reports relying on glutathione disulfide reductase to evaluate GPx mimic activity may exaggerate drug antioxidant action. PMID:22813709

Giles, Niroshini M; Kumari, Sweta; Stamm, Rosemary A; Patel, Siddharth; Giles, Gregory I

2012-10-15

303

Availability of in vitro vitellogenin assay for screening of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of environmental chemicals.  

PubMed

Vitellogenin (VTG) protein, VTG mRNA, other egg yolk proteins, vitelline envelope proteins and their mRNAs are produced in the liver of oviparous species by stimulation of endogenous estrogen and exogenous estrogenic chemicals. The VTG assay based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been widely used for many fish species to screen estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of chemicals and sewage effluents using immature fish and/or male fish. In order to reduce the number of fish for screening of estrogenicity and anti-estrogenicity of chemicals, primary cultured fish hepatocytes can be used. In fact, primary cultured hepatocytes have been successfully used for the detection of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of environmental chemicals in selected OECD fish species, e.g., medaka (Oryzias latipes) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchys mykiss) together with other fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), bream (Abramis brama), Carassius auratus, silver eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctanus). In terms of hepatocyte assays relating to other taxa, these include frogs such as Xenopus laevis and the common green frog (Rana esculenta), chickens (Gallus domesticus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus). VTG mRNA measurement by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction has also been successfully applied in the primary cultured hepatocytes of various species. PMID:16883298

Iguchi, Taisen; Irie, Fumi; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Tooi, Osamu; Kawashima, Yukio; Roberts, Mike; Norrgren, Leif; Hutchinson, Thomas

2006-01-01

304

Application of firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to antimicrobial drug sensitivity testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a rapid method for determining microbial susceptibilities to antibiotics using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is documented. The reduction of bacterial ATP by an antimicrobial agent was determined to be a valid measure of drug effect in most cases. The effect of 12 antibiotics on 8 different bacterial species gave a 94 percent correlation with the standard Kirby-Buer-Agar disc diffusion method. A 93 percent correlation was obtained when the ATP assay method was applied directly to 50 urine specimens from patients with urinary tract infections. Urine samples were centrifuged first to that bacterial pellets could be suspended in broth. No primary isolation or subculturing was required. Mixed cultures in which one species was predominant gave accurate results for the most abundant organism. Since the method is based on an increase in bacterial ATP with time, the presence of leukocytes did not interfere with the interpretation of results. Both the incubation procedure and the ATP assays are compatible with automation.

Picciolo, G. L.; Tuttle, S. A.; Schrock, C. G.; Deming, J. W.; Barza, M. J.; Wienstein, L.; Chappelle, E. W.

1977-01-01

305

Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930‘s, and Vakhil’s historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda’s concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda’s aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm. PMID:21731372

Lele, R. D.

2010-01-01

306

A high-throughput assay for arylamine halogenation based on a peroxidase-mediated quinone-amine coupling with applications in the screening of enzymatic halogenations.  

PubMed

Arylhalides are important building blocks in many fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, and there has been increasing interest in the development of more "green" halogenation methods based on enzyme catalysis. However, the screening and development of new enzymes for biohalogenation has been hampered by a lack of high-throughput screening methods. Described herein is the development of a colorimetric assay for detecting both chemical and enzymatic arylamine halogenation reactions in an aqueous environment. The assay is based on the unique UV/Vis spectrum created by the formation of an ortho-benzoquinone-amine adduct, which is produced by the peroxidase-catalysed benzoquinone generation, followed by Michael addition of either a halogenated or non-halogenated arylamine. This assay is sensitive, rapid and amenable to high-throughput screening platforms. We have also shown this assay to be easily coupled to a flavin-dependent halogenase, which currently lacks any convenient colorimetric assay, in a "one-pot" workflow. PMID:25319801

Hosford, Joseph; Shepherd, Sarah A; Micklefield, Jason; Wong, Lu Shin

2014-12-01

307

AN APPROACH FOR SCREENING CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS IN DRINKING WATER USING AN IMMOBILIZED ENZYME ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple, inexpensive and sensitive method for detecting organophosphate and carbamate insecticides is reported. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized to PorexR Lateral-FloTM membrane material and remained active for several months at room temperature. The assay was sensitive ...

308

THYROID AXIS INHIBITION IN XENOPUS LAEVIS: DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIAN-BASED SCREENING ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to the initial EDSTAC recommendations, research was conducted on the development of a Xenopus laevis based tail resorption assay for evaluating thyroid axis disruption. These experiments highlighted key limitations associated with relying on tail resorption as a measu...

309

Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of nontargeted libraries  

E-print Network

Available online 3 December 2012 Keywords: Soluble epoxide hydrolase HTS assay Phosphatase Ebselen a b s t r and environmental toxins. We discovered that ebselen inhibits sEH phosphatase activity. Ebselen binds to the N

Hammock, Bruce D.

310

Screening of drug target proteins by 2D ligand matching approach.  

PubMed

Drugs interacting with off-target proteins would bring about side-effects. The identification of the proteins that a drug can bind is thus valuable for evaluating its side-effects. We established a system based on PDB database for screening for proteins a drug could bind. Firstly, all complexes in the PDB database were sorted by species; then, a ligand database was established by extracting ligands from the structure data files. Secondly, all proteins were clustered according to their sequence similarity with the protein originally bound with the ligand in PDB. To search the potential target proteins of a drug, the query drug structure is compared with all ligands in the database to obtain similar scores. Ligands with similar sores greater than a certain threshold were flagged. Protein clusters associating with these ligands would be considered as potential targets of the query drug. To test the reliability of this approach, three drugs from DrugBank were used to search for their binding proteins by our method. The results showed that all the corresponding target proteins were found. The method presented here was rapid, scalable and could be used for high efficient drug side-effects analysis. PMID:24034065

Feng, Jianyu; Guo, Hong; Wang, Jian; Lu, Tun

2014-02-01

311

A robust high-throughput sandwich cell-based drug screening platform.  

PubMed

Hepatotoxicity evaluation of pharmaceutical lead compounds in early stages of drug development has drawn increasing attention. Sandwiched hepatocytes exhibiting stable functions in culture represent a standard model for hepatotoxicity testing of drugs. We have developed a robust and high-throughput hepatotoxicity testing platform based on the sandwiched hepatocytes for drug screening. The platform involves a galactosylated microfabricated membrane sandwich to support cellular function through uniform and efficient mass transfer while protecting cells from excessive shear. Perfusion bioreactor further enhances mass transfer and cellular functions over long period; and hepatocytes are readily transferred to 96-well plate for high-throughput robotic liquid handling. The bioreactor design and perfusion flow rate are optimized by computational fluid dynamics simulation and experimentally. The cultured hepatocytes preserved 3D cell morphology, urea production and cytochrome p450 activity of the mature hepatocytes for 14 days. When the perfusion-cultured sandwich is transferred to 96-well plate for drug testing, the hepatocytes exhibited improved drug sensitivity and low variability in hepatotoxicity responses amongst cells transferred from different dates of perfusion culture. The platform enables robust high-throughput screening of drug candidates. PMID:20971505

Zhang, Shufang; Tong, Wenhao; Zheng, Baixue; Susanto, Thomas A K; Xia, Lei; Zhang, Chi; Ananthanarayanan, Abhishek; Tuo, Xiaoye; Sakban, Rashidah B; Jia, Ruirui; Iliescu, Ciprian; Chai, Kah-Hin; McMillian, Michael; Shen, Shali; Leo, Hwaliang; Yu, Hanry

2011-02-01

312

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti-white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

313

False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.  

PubMed

Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique. PMID:24986836

Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

2014-09-01

314

From Omics to Drug Metabolism and High Content Screen of Natural Product in Zebrafish: A New Model for Discovery of Neuroactive Compound  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a common model in the fields of genetics, environmental science, toxicology, and especially drug screening. Zebrafish has emerged as a biomedically relevant model for in vivo high content drug screening and the simultaneous determination of multiple efficacy parameters, including behaviour, selectivity, and toxicity in the content of the whole organism. A zebrafish behavioural assay has been demonstrated as a novel, rapid, and high-throughput approach to the discovery of neuroactive, psychoactive, and memory-modulating compounds. Recent studies found a functional similarity of drug metabolism systems in zebrafish and mammals, providing a clue with why some compounds are active in zebrafish in vivo but not in vitro, as well as providing grounds for the rationales supporting the use of a zebrafish screen to identify prodrugs. Here, we discuss the advantages of the zebrafish model for evaluating drug metabolism and the mode of pharmacological action with the emerging omics approaches. Why this model is suitable for identifying lead compounds from natural products for therapy of disorders with multifactorial etiopathogenesis and imbalance of angiogenesis, such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, cardiotoxicity, cerebral hemorrhage, dyslipidemia, and hyperlipidemia, is addressed. PMID:22919414

Hung, Ming Wai; Zhang, Zai Jun; Li, Shang; Lei, Benson; Yuan, Shuai; Cui, Guo Zhen; Man Hoi, Pui; Chan, Kelvin; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen

2012-01-01

315

Applicability of a blood-brain barrier specific artificial membrane permeability assay at the early stage of natural product-based CNS drug discovery.  

PubMed

While numerous natural products (NPs) possess activity on central nervous system (CNS) targets, there has been no analytical approach to effectively identify compounds with high brain penetration potential in complex mixtures at the early stage of drug discovery. To overcome this issue, the performance of an in vitro parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for the blood-brain barrier (PAMPA-BBB) for natural products and for plant extracts has been validated and characterized. It was found that the PAMPA-BBB assay preserves its predictive power in the case of natural products and provides high phytochemical selectivity, which enables its use as a unique filtering tool in terms of selecting brain-penetrable compounds from plant extracts. Moreover, the present study has demonstrated that simple modifications in the assay design allow the direct use of PAMPA-BBB filtered samples in a dereplication process, as performed by NMR and LC-MS. The applicability of this procedure was demonstrated using extracts prepared from Tanacetum parthenium, Vinca major, Salvia officinalis, and Corydalis cava, representing different types of chemical diversity and complexity. Thus, the proposed protocol represents a potentially valuable strategy in the NP-based CNS drug discovery environment with a high-throughput screening platform. PMID:23565574

Könczöl, Arpád; Müller, Judit; Földes, Emília; Béni, Zoltán; Végh, Krisztina; Kéry, Agnes; Balogh, György T

2013-04-26

316

Evaluating the predictivity of virtual screening for ABL kinase inhibitors to hinder drug resistance.  

PubMed

Virtual screening methods are now widely used in early stages of drug discovery, aiming to rank potential inhibitors. However, any practical ligand set (of active or inactive compounds) chosen for deriving new virtual screening approaches cannot fully represent all relevant chemical space for potential new compounds. In this study, we have taken a retrospective approach to evaluate virtual screening methods for the leukemia target kinase ABL1 and its drug-resistant mutant ABL1-T315I. 'Dual active' inhibitors against both targets were grouped together with inactive ligands chosen from different decoy sets and tested with virtual screening approaches with and without explicit use of target structures (docking). We show how various scoring functions and choice of inactive ligand sets influence overall and early enrichment of the libraries. Although ligand-based methods, for example principal component analyses of chemical properties, can distinguish some decoy sets from active compounds, the addition of target structural information via docking improves enrichment, and explicit consideration of multiple target conformations (i.e. types I and II) achieves best enrichment of active versus inactive ligands, even without assuming knowledge of the binding mode. We believe that this study can be extended to other therapeutically important kinases in prospective virtual screening studies. PMID:23746052

Gani, Osman A B S M; Narayanan, Dilip; Engh, Richard A

2013-11-01

317

Rapid Identification and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Standard Operating Procedure for Non-Commercial Assays: Part 2: Nitrate Reductase Assay v1.3.12  

PubMed Central

In the previous part, we presented the standard operating procedure (SOP) of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present SOP is devoted to another non-commercial culture and DST method known as nitrate reductase assay (NRA). As the name implies, the NRA detects the ability of M. tuberculosis to reduce nitrate to nitrite. In the assay, the presence of nitrite is detected by the addition of p-nitrobenzoate into the growth yield. The reaction is detected by the naked eye. The incorporation of drugs in the medium allows to use the test for DST, which can be interpreted with naked eyes. The identification and drug susceptibility results can be obtained in 2-3 weeks. This SOP document has been developed through the culture and DST subgroup of the STOP tuberculosis (TB) Partnership New Diagnostic Working Group. It is intended for laboratories that would want to use or already using this rapid non-commercial method for culture identification and DST of M. tuberculosis, notably in resource-constraint settings in Asia and Africa. PMID:23440455

Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Parveen; Sharma, Shreya; Mumbowa, Francis; Martin, Anandi; Durier, Nicolas

2012-01-01

318

Identification of small molecular weight inhibitors of Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) via in silico database screening combined with experimental assay  

PubMed Central

Virtual screening methods combined with experimental assays were used to identify low molecular weight inhibitors for Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) that is mutated and hyperactivated in Noonan syndrome and a significant portion of childhood leukemias. Virtual screening included multiple conformations of the protein, score normalization procedures, and chemical similarity considerations. As the catalytic core of SHP-2 shares extremely high homology to those of the related SHP-1 phosphatase and other tyrosine phosphatases, in order to identify selective inhibitors, we chose to target an adjacent protein surface pocket that is predicted to be important for binding to phospho-peptides and that has structural features unique to SHP-2. From a database of 1.3 million compounds, 9 out of 165 computationally selected compounds were shown to inhibit SHP-2 activity with IC50 values of ? 100 ?M. Two of the active compounds were further verified for their ability to inhibit SHP-2-mediated cellular functions. Fluorescence titration experiments confirmed their direct binding to SHP-2. Because of their simple chemical structures, these small organic compounds have the potential to act as lead compounds for the development of novel anti-SHP-2 drugs. PMID:19007293

Yu, Wen-Mei; Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Qu, Cheng-Kui

2008-01-01

319

Novel high-throughput polymer biocompatibility screening designed for SAR (structure-activity relationship): application for evaluating polymer coatings for cardiovascular drug-eluting stents.  

PubMed

The development of stents has been a major advancement over balloon angioplasty, improving vessel revascularization in obstructive coronary artery disease. The development of drug-eluting stents (DES) was the next breakthrough, designed to prevent the development of neointimal hyperplasia (restenosis) following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Several DES are currently in various stages of clinical development; these DES use different stent platforms, different antiproliferative drugs and different polymeric coatings that carry the drugs and control their delivery kinetics. Following DES implantation, when the entire drug is released, the polymeric coating is still retained on the stent and can influence subsequent tissue response and vascular healing. Therefore, the biocompatibility of the polymeric coatings is an important component of DES safety and needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Here we describe the development of a high-throughput screening platform for the evaluation of polymer biocompatibility, assaying whether a polymeric coating triggers inflammation in vascular cells. The data generated by these assays provides a structure-activity relationship (SAR) that can guide polymer chemists in polymer design. We have also applied this methodology to evaluate the components of a novel polymer system (BioLinx polymer system) designed in-house. In addition, we assayed other polymeric coatings similar to those currently used on various DES. The results of this evaluation reveal a remarkable correlation between polymer hydrophobicity and its ability to provoke inflammatory response. PMID:19531020

Hezi-Yamit, Ayala; Sullivan, Carol; Wong, Jennifer; David, Laura; Chen, Mingfei; Cheng, Peiwen; Shumaker, David; Wilcox, Josiah; Udipi, Kishore

2009-08-01

320

New-generation screening assays for the detection of anti-influenza compounds targeting viral and host functions  

PubMed Central

Current options for influenza antiviral therapy are limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors, and knowledge that high levels of oseltamivir resistance have been seen amongst previously circulating H1N1 viruses increases the urgency to find new influenza therapeutics. To feed this pipeline, assays that are appropriate for use in high-throughput screens are being developed and are discussed in this review. Particular emphasis is placed on cell-based assays that capture both inhibitors of viral functions as well as the host functions that facilitate optimal influenza virus replication. Success in this area has been fueled by a greater understanding of the genome structure of influenza viruses and the ability to generate replication-competent recombinant viruses that carry a reporter gene, allowing for easy monitoring of viral infection in a high-throughput setting. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “Treatment of influenza: targeting the virus or the host.” PMID:23933115

Beyleveld, Grant; White, Kris M.; Ayllon, Juan; Shaw, Megan L.

2013-01-01

321

Assays for determination of ertapenem for applications in therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacokinetics and sample stability.  

PubMed

Carbapanems are a class of ?-lactam antibiotics with broad-spectrum potency and high ?-lactamase resistance. Ertapenem, a member of this class, sold under the trade name Invanz™, has been of interest in the world of antibiotic therapeutic drug monitoring owing to its highly standardized 1?g dose and its high degree of plasma protein binding. Owing to the relative newness of this drug, fewer than 30 methods for ertapenem quantification have been published. Among these about half utilize biological matrices at the sample type. Liquid-liquid extraction and protein precipitation prevail as the most frequently used sample preparation techniques, despite their low recoveries compared with solid-phase extraction. Additionally, high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) is the instrumentation choice for most ertapenem assays. While these approaches may not achieve the highest possible sensitivity for ertapenem quantification, they provide clinically relevant tools for monitoring ertapenem in real patients. Sample stability is an ongoing concern for laboratories that handle ertapenem analysis, with buffering being of paramount importance, as well as low temperature (<-70°C) storage, to ensure minimal drug degradation in situ. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25088456

Pickering, Matthew K; Brown, Stacy D

2014-11-01

322

Setting Up a Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer High throughput Screening Assay to Search for Protein/Protein Interaction Inhibitors in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Each step of the cell life and its response or adaptation to its environment are mediated by a network of protein/protein interactions termed “interactome.” Our knowledge of this network keeps growing due to the development of sensitive techniques devoted to study these interactions. The bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technique was primarily developed to allow the dynamic monitoring of protein/protein interactions (PPI) in living cells, and has widely been used to study receptor activation by intra- or extra-molecular conformational changes within receptors and activated complexes in mammal cells. Some interactions are described as crucial in human pathological processes, and a new class of drugs targeting them has recently emerged. The BRET method is well suited to identify inhibitors of PPI and here is described why and how to set up and optimize a high throughput screening assay based on BRET to search for such inhibitory compounds. The different parameters to take into account when developing such BRET assays in mammal cells are reviewed to give general guidelines: considerations on the targeted interaction, choice of BRET version, inducibility of the interaction, kinetic of the monitored interaction, and of the BRET reading, influence of substrate concentration, number of cells and medium composition used on the Z? factor, and expected interferences from colored or fluorescent compounds. PMID:22973258

Couturier, Cyril; Deprez, Benoit

2012-01-01

323

Screening Carbohydrate Libraries for Protein Interactions Using the Direct ESI-MS Assay. Applications to Libraries of Unknown Concentration.  

PubMed

A semiquantitative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding assay suitable for analyzing mixtures of oligosaccharides, at unknown concentrations, for interactions with target proteins is described. The assay relies on the differences in the ratio of the relative abundances of the ligand-bound and free protein ions measured by ESI-MS at two or more initial protein concentrations to distinguish low affinity (?10(3) M(-1)) ligands from moderate and high affinity (>10(5) M(-1)) ligands present in the library and to rank their affinities. Control experiments were performed on solutions of a single chain antibody and a mixture of synthetic oligosaccharides, with known affinities, in the absence and presence of a 40-component carbohydrate library to demonstrate the implementation and reliability of the assay. The application of the assay for screening natural libraries of carbohydrates against proteins is also demonstrated using mixtures of human milk oligosaccharides, isolated from breast milk, and fragments of a bacterial toxin and human galectin 3. PMID:25135608

Kitova, Elena N; El-Hawiet, Amr; Klassen, John S

2014-11-01

324

Integration of Ligand-Based Drug Screening with Structure-Based Drug Screening by Combining Maximum Volume Overlapping Score with Ligand Doscking  

PubMed Central

Ligand-based and structure-based drug screening methods were integrated for in silico drug development by combining the maximum-volume overlap (MVO) method with a protein-compound docking program. The MVO method is used to select reliable docking poses by calculating volume overlaps between the docking pose in question and the known ligand docking pose, if at least a single protein-ligand complex structure is known. In the present study, the compounds in a database were docked onto a target protein that had a known protein-ligand complex structure. The new score is the summation of the docking score and the MVO score, which is the measure of the volume overlap between the docking poses of the compound in question and the known ligand. The compounds were sorted according to the new score. The in silico screening results were improved by comparing the MVO score to the original docking score only. The present method was also applied to some target proteins with known ligands, and the results demonstrated that it worked well. PMID:24281339

Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki

2012-01-01

325

Ex Vivo Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Assay for the Evaluation of pH-responsive Endosomolytic Agents for Cytosolic Delivery of Biomacromolecular Drugs  

PubMed Central

Phospholipid bilayers that constitute endo-lysosomal vesicles can pose a barrier to delivery of biologic drugs to intracellular targets. To overcome this barrier, a number of synthetic drug carriers have been engineered to actively disrupt the endosomal membrane and deliver cargo into the cytoplasm. Here, we describe the hemolysis assay, which can be used as rapid, high-throughput screen for the cytocompatibility and endosomolytic activity of intracellular drug delivery systems. In the hemolysis assay, human red blood cells and test materials are co-incubated in buffers at defined pHs that mimic extracellular, early endosomal, and late endo-lysosomal environments. Following a centrifugation step to pellet intact red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin released into the medium is spectrophotometrically measured (405 nm for best dynamic range). The percent red blood cell disruption is then quantified relative to positive control samples lysed with a detergent. In this model system the erythrocyte membrane serves as a surrogate for the lipid bilayer membrane that enclose endo-lysosomal vesicles. The desired result is negligible hemolysis at physiologic pH (7.4) and robust hemolysis in the endo-lysosomal pH range from approximately pH 5-6.8. PMID:23524982

Beavers, Kelsey R.; Kim, Arnold J.; Li, Hongmei; Nelson, Heather M.; Giorgio, Todd D.; Duvall, Craig L.

2013-01-01

326

Drug Literacy in Iran: the Experience of Using "The Single Item Health Literacy Screening (SILS) Tool"  

PubMed Central

Drug and health literacy is a key determinant of health outcomes. There are several tools to assess drug and health literacy. The objective of this article is to determine drug literacy level and its relationships with other factors using a single item screening tool. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1104 people in Qazvin province, Iran. Based on the proportional-to-size method, participants over 15 years old with ability to read were recruited randomly from 6 counties in Qazvin province and were interviewed directly. To determine drug literacy relationship with other variables, Chi-Square and t-test were used. Also, logistic regression model was used to adjust the relationship between drug literacy and other relevant variables. Response rate in clusters was 100%. Findings showed that inadequate drug literacy in Qazvin province is 30.3% and it was in association with (1) age (p = .000), (2) marital status (p = .000), (3) educational attainment (p = .000), (4) home county (p = .000), (5) residing area (p = .000), (6) type of basic health insurance (p = .000), (7) complementary health insurance status (p = .000), and (8) family socioeconomic status (p = .000). After adjusting for these variables using logistic regression model, the association between (1), (3), (4), (5) and (8) with drug literacy level was confirmed. The analysis also showed that this method can also be used in other health care settings in Iran for drug and health literacy rapid assessment. PMID:24711849

Peiravian, Farzad; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Jahani Hashemi, Hasan; Mohammadi, Navid; Jafari, Nahid; Fardi, Kianoosh

2014-01-01

327

Screening for adolescent alcohol and drug use in pediatric health-care settings: predictors and implications for practice and policy  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper used data from a study of pediatric primary care provider (PCP) screening practices to examine barriers to and facilitators of adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) screening in pediatric primary care. Methods A web-based survey (N?=?437) was used to examine the influence of PCP factors (attitudes and knowledge, training, self-efficacy, comfort with alcohol and drug issues); patient characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, comorbidities and risk factors); and organizational factors (screening barriers, staffing resources, confidentiality issues) on AOD screening practices. Self-reported and electronic medical record (EMR)-recorded screening rates were also assessed. Results More PCPs felt unprepared to diagnose alcohol abuse (42%) and other drug abuse (56%) than depression (29%) (p?screen boys than girls, and male PCPs were even more likely than female PCPs to screen boys (23% versus 6%, p?screen and review results were identified as potential screening facilitators. Self-reported screening rates were significantly higher than actual (EMR-recorded) rates for all substances. Feeling prepared to diagnose AOD problems predicted higher self-reported screening rates (OR?=?1.02, p <0.001), and identifying time constraints as a barrier to screening predicted lower self-reported screening rates (OR?=?0.91, p?screening rates (OR?=?1.11, p?screening may impact adolescent substance-abuse screening and intervention, but organizational approaches (e.g., EMR tools and workflow) may matter more than PCP or patient factors in determining screening. PMID:23186254

2012-01-01

328

A one-day, dispense-only IP-One HTRF assay for high-throughput screening of Galphaq protein-coupled receptors: towards cells as reagents.  

PubMed

Abstract: Compared to biochemical high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, cell-based functional assays are generally thought to be more time consuming and complex because of additional efforts for running continuous cell cultures as well as the numerous assay steps when transferring media and compounds. A common strategy to compensate the anticipated reduction in overall throughput is to implement highly automated cell culture and screening systems. However, such systems require substantial investments in sophisticated hardware and highly specialized personnel. In trying to set up alternatives to increasing throughput in functional cell-based screening, we combined several approaches. By using (1) cryopreserved cell aliquots instead of continuous cell culture, (2) cells in suspension instead of adherent cells, and (3) "ready-to-screen" assay plates with nanoliter aliquots of test compounds, an assay procedure was developed that very much resembles a standard biochemical, enzymatic assay comprising only a few dispense steps. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably overexpressing a Galphaq-coupled receptor were used as a model system to measure receptor activation by detection of intracellular D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate with the help of homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF, CISbio International, Bagnols-sur-Cčze, France). Initially established in 384-well adherent cell format, the assay was successfully transferred to 1,536-well format. The assay quality was sufficient to run HTS campaigns in both formats with good Z'-factors and excellent reproducibility of antagonists. Subsequently, the assay procedure was optimized for usage of suspension cells. The influences of cell culture media, plate type, cell number, and incubation time were assessed. Finally, the suspension cell assay was applied to pharmacological characterization of a small molecule antagonist by Schild plot analysis. Our data demonstrate not only the application of the IP-One HTRF assay (CISbio International) for HTS in a high-density format, but furthermore the successful use of cryopreserved and suspension cells in a one-day functional cell-based assay. PMID:18315499

Bergsdorf, Christian; Kropp-Goerkis, Carmen; Kaehler, Irene; Ketscher, Lars; Boemer, Ulf; Parczyk, Karsten; Bader, Benjamin

2008-02-01

329

Performance Evaluation of three Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Methods for Broad Spectrum Drug Screening  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem LC-MS (LC-MS/MS) are increasingly used in toxicology laboratories as a complementary method to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) for comprehensive drug screening (CDS). This study was designed to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of three LC-MS(/MS) vendor-supplied methods for targeted CDS and identify the current limitations associated with the use of these technologies. METHODS Five methods for broad spectrum CDS, including LC-UV (REMEDi), full scan GC-MS, LC-MS (ZQ™-Mass Detector with MassLynx™-software), LC-QTRAP-MS/MS (3200-QTRAP® with Cliquid®-software) and LC-LIT-MS/MS (LXQ™ Linear Ion Trap with ToxID™-software) were evaluated based on their ability to detect drugs in 48 patient urine samples. RESULTS The tandem MS methods identified 15% more drugs than the single stage MS or LC-UV methods. Use of two broad spectrum screening methods identified more drugs than any single system alone. False negatives and false positives generated by the LC-MS(/MS) software programs were identified upon manual review of the raw data. CONCLUSIONS The LC-MS/MS methods detected a broader menu of drugs; however, it is essential to establish manual data review criteria for all LC-MS(/MS) drug screening methods. Use of an EI-GC-MS and ESI-LC-MS/MS combination for targeted CDS may be optimal due to the complementary nature of the chromatographic and ionization techniques. PMID:20540936

Lynch, Kara L.; Breaud, Autumn R.; Vandenberghe, Hilde; Wu, Alan H. B.; Clarke, William

2010-01-01

330

Patterned Cardiomyocytes on Microelectrode Arrays as a Functional, High Information Content Drug Screening Platform  

PubMed Central

Cardiac side effects are one of the major causes of drug candidate failures in preclinical drug development or in clinical trials and are responsible for the retraction of several already marketed therapeutics. Thus, the development of a relatively high-throughput, high-information content tool to screen drugs and toxins would be important in the field of cardiac research and drug development. In this study, recordings from commercial multielectrode arrays were combined with surface patterning of cardiac myocyte monolayers to enhance the information content of the method; specifically, to enable the measurement of conduction velocity, refractory period after action potentials and to create a functional reentry model. Two drugs, 1-Heptanol, a gap junction blocker, and Sparfloxacin, a fluoroquinone antibiotic, were tested in this system. 1-Heptanol administration resulted in a marked reduction in conduction velocity, whereas Sparfloxacin caused rapid, irregular and unsynchronized activity, indicating fibrillation. As shown in these experiments, patterning of cardiac myocyte monolayers solved several inherent problems of multielectrode recordings, increased the temporal resolution of conduction velocity measurements, and made the synchronization of external stimulation with action potential propagation possible for refractory period measurements. This method could be further developed as a cardiac side effect screening platform after combination with human cardiomyocytes. PMID:21453966

Natarajan, Anupama; Stancescu, Maria; Dhir, Vipra; Armstrong, Christopher; Sommerhage, Frank; Hickman, James J.; Molnar, Peter

2011-01-01

331

Using in Vitro High Throughput Screening Assays to Identify Potential Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past 20 years, an increased focus on detecting environmental chemicals posing a risk of adverse effects due to endocrine disruption has driven the creation of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Thousands of chemicals are subject to the EDSP, whic...

332

Functional Assays and Alternative Species: Using Larval Zebrafish in Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening**  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. As such, we are exploring a behavioral testing paradigm, which can assess the effect of sublethal and subteratogenic concentrations of de...

333

Functional Assays and Alternative Species: Using Larval Zebrafish in Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing and evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. Towards this goal, we are exploring methods to detect developmental neurotoxicants in very young larval zebrafish. We have...

334

Using pathway modules as targets for assay development in xenobiotic screening  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicology and pharmaceutical research is increasingly making use of high throughout-screening (HTS) methods to assess the effects of chemicals on molecular pathways, cells and tissues. Whole-genome microarray analysis provides broad information on the response of biological syst...

335

Direct Multiplex Assay of Lysosomal Enzymes in Dried Blood Spots for Newborn Screening  

E-print Network

. Gelb1,5* Background: Newborn screening for deficiency in the lysosomal enzymes that cause Fabry -glucosidase present in neutrophils, which allowed the lysosomal enzyme im- plicated in Pompe disease­Pick A/B, 11 with Pompe, 5 with Fabry, and 12 with Krabbe disease, and in all cases the enzyme activities

Gelb, Michael

336

Comprehensive screening and quantification of veterinary drugs in milk using UPLC–ToF-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–ToF-MS) has been used for screening\\u000a and quantification of more than 100 veterinary drugs in milk. The veterinary drugs represent different classes including benzimidazoles,\\u000a macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, sulphonamides, pyrimidines, tetracylines, nitroimidazoles, tranquillizers, ionophores,\\u000a amphenicols and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). After protein precipitation, centrifugation and solid-phase\\u000a extraction (SPE), the extracts were analysed by

A. A. M. Stolker; P. Rutgers; E. Oosterink; J. J. P. Lasaroms; R. J. B. Peters; J. A. van Rhijn; M. W. F. Nielen

2008-01-01

337

Alcohol screening and brief intervention among drug users in primary care: a discussion paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Problem alcohol use is common among problem drug users (PDU) and associated with adverse health outcomes. Primary care has\\u000a an important role in the overall stepped approach to alcohol treatment, especially screening and brief intervention (SBI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim   To discuss three themes that emerged from an exploration of the literature on SBI for problem alcohol use in drug users attending\\u000a primary

C. A. Field; J. Klimas; J. Barry; G. Bury; E. Keenan; S. Lyons; B. P. Smyth; W. Cullen

338

Automation and validation of the Transflour technology: a universal screening assay for G protein-coupled receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the richest targets for drug discovery, accounting for nearly 60 percent of prescription drugs. The ligands and functions of only 200 out of possibly 1000 GPCRs are known. Screening methods that directly and accurately measure GPCR activation and inhibition are required to identify ligands for orphan receptors and cultivate superior drugs for known GPCRs. Norak Biosciences utilizes the redistribution of a fluorescently-labeled protein, arrestin, as a novel screen for monitoring GPCR activation. In contrast to the present methods of analyzing GPCR function, the power of the Transfluor technology is in its simplicity, large signal to noise ratio, and applicability to all GPCRs. Here, we demonstrate that the Transfluor technology can be automated and quantitated on high throughput image analysis systems. Cells transfected with an arrestin-green fluorescent protein conjugate and the neurokinin-1 GPCR were seeded on 96-well plates. Activation of the NK-1 receptor with Substance P induced translocation of arrestin-GFP from the cytosol to the receptor. Image quantitation of the arrestin-GFP translocation was used to generate dose dependent curves. These results reveal that the Transfluor technology combined with an image analysis system forms a universal platform capable of measuring ligand-receptor interactions for all GPCRs.

Hudson, Christine C.; Oakley, Robert H.; Cruickshank, Rachael D.; Rhem, Shay M.; Loomis, Carson R.

2002-06-01

339

Development of a high throughput screen for allosteric modulators of melanocortin-4 receptor signaling using a real time cAMP assay  

PubMed Central

The melanocortin MC4 receptor is a potential target for the development of drugs for both obesity and cachexia. Melanocortin MC4 receptor ligands known thus far are orthosteric agonists or antagonists, however the agonists, in particular, have generally exhibited unwanted side effects. For some receptors, allosteric modulators are expected to reduce side-effect profiles. To identify allosteric modulators of the melanocortin MC4 receptor, we created HEK293 cell lines coexpressing the human melanocortin MC4 receptor and a modified luciferase-based cAMP sensor. Monitoring luminescence as a readout of real-time intracellular cAMP concentration, we demonstrate this cell line is able to report melanocortin agonist responses, as well as inverse agonist response to the physiological AgRP peptide. Based on the MC4R-GLO cell line, we developed an assay that was shown to meet HTS standards (Z’=0.50). A pilot screen run on the Microsource Spectrum compound library (n= 2,000) successfully identified 62 positive modulators. This screen identified predicted families of compounds: ?2AR agonists –the ?2AR being endogenously expressed in HEK293 cells-, an adenylyl cyclase activator and finally a distribution of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors well characterized or recently identified. In this last category, we identified a structural family of coumarin-derived compounds (imperatorin, osthol and prenyletin), along with deracoxib, a drug in veterinary use for its COX2 inhibitory properties. This latter finding unveiled a new off-target mechanism of action for deracoxib as a PDE inhibitor. Overall, these data are the first report of an HTS for allosteric modulators for a Gs protein coupled receptor. PMID:21296065

Pantel, Jacques; Williams, Savannah Y.; Mi, Dehui; Sebag, Julien; Corbin, Jackie D.; Weaver, C. David; Cone, Roger D.

2011-01-01

340

Development of a high throughput screen for allosteric modulators of melanocortin-4 receptor signaling using a real time cAMP assay.  

PubMed

The melanocortin MC(4) receptor is a potential target for the development of drugs for both obesity and cachexia. Melanocortin MC(4) receptor ligands known thus far are orthosteric agonists or antagonists, however the agonists, in particular, have generally exhibited unwanted side effects. For some receptors, allosteric modulators are expected to reduce side-effect profiles. To identify allosteric modulators of the melanocortin MC(4) receptor, we created HEK293 cell lines coexpressing the human melanocortin MC(4) receptor and a modified luciferase-based cAMP sensor. Monitoring luminescence as a readout of real-time intracellular cAMP concentration, we demonstrate that this cell line is able to report melanocortin agonist responses, as well as inverse agonist response to the physiological AgRP peptide. Based on the MC4R-GLO cell line, we developed an assay that was shown to meet HTS standards (Z'=0.50). A pilot screen run on the Microsource Spectrum compound library (n=2000) successfully identified 62 positive modulators. This screen identified predicted families of compounds: ?(2)AR agonists - the ?(2)AR being endogenously expressed in HEK293 cells, an adenylyl cyclase activator and finally a distribution of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors well characterized or recently identified. In this last category, we identified a structural family of coumarin-derived compounds (imperatorin, osthol and prenyletin), along with deracoxib, a drug in veterinary use for its COX2 inhibitory properties. This latter finding unveiled a new off-target mechanism of action for deracoxib as a PDE inhibitor. Overall, these data are the first report of a HTS for allosteric modulators for a Gs protein coupled receptor. PMID:21296065

Pantel, Jacques; Williams, Savannah Y; Mi, Dehui; Sebag, Julien; Corbin, Jackie D; Weaver, C David; Cone, Roger D

2011-06-11

341

VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

342

SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

343

A Call for Nominations of Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Assays from Relevant Human Toxicity Pathways  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Research Council of the United States National Academies of Science has recently released a document outlining a long-range vision and strategy for transforming toxicity testing from largely whole animal-based testing to one based on in vitro assays. ?Toxicity Testin...

344

A novel microfluidic platform with stable concentration gradient for on chip cell culture and screening assays.  

PubMed

In this work a novel microfluidic platform for cell culture and assay is developed. On the chip a static cell culture region is coupled with dynamic fluidic nutrition supply structures. The cell culture unit has a sandwich structure with liquid channels on the top, the cell culture reservoir in the middle and gas channels on the bottom. Samples can be easily loaded into the reservoir and exchange constantly with the external liquid environment by diffusion. Since the flow direction is perpendicular to the liquid channel on the top of the reservoir, the cells in the reservoir are shielded from shear-force. By assembling the basic units into an array, a steady concentration gradient can be generated. Cell culture models both for continuous perfusion and one-off perfusion were established on the chip. Both adherent and suspended cells were successfully cultured on the chip in 2D and 3D culture modes. After culturing, the trapped cells were recovered for use in a later assay. As a competitive candidate for a standard cell culture and assay platform, this chip is also adaptable for cytotoxicity and cell growth assays. PMID:23884407

Xu, Bi-Yi; Hu, Shan-Wen; Qian, Guang-Sheng; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

2013-09-21

345

Simple and sensitive antimalarial drug screening in vitro and in vivo using transgenic luciferase expressing Plasmodium berghei parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two improved assays for in vitro and in vivo screening of chemicals with potential anti-malarial activity against the blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodiumberghei. These assays are based on the determination of luciferase activity (luminescence) in small blood samples containing transgenic blood stage parasites that express luciferase under the control of a promoter that is either

B. Franke-Fayard; D. Djokovic; M. W. Dooren; J. Ramesar; A. P. Waters; M. O. Falade; M. Kranendonk; A. Martinelli; P. Cravo; C. J. Janse

2008-01-01

346

An electrochemical assay for DNA methylation, methyltransferase activity and inhibitor screening based on methyl binding domain protein.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is one of important epigenetics events, and responsible to transcription, genomic imprinting and cellular differentiation. Aberrant DNA methylation is always contacted with various diseases. Methyl binding domain (MBD) proteins can specifically bind to the methylated CpG dinucleotides. Conventional assay for DNA methylation normally need bisulfide treatment, methylated nucleotide labeling or PCR amplification. Here, we fabricated a novel electrochemical biosensor for detection of DNA methylation, assay of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity and screening of MTase inhibitor based on MBD protein and coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBB-G250), where the electrochemical signal of CBB-G250 was used to monitor the methylation event. After the hybrids of DNA S1 and DNA S2 were treated with M. SssI MTase in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine, the MBD proteins were specifically conjugated to the methylation site of CpG dinucleotides, and then, the MBD proteins were stained with CBB-G250. The electrochemical signal of CBB-G250 increased linearly with increasing M. SssI MTase concentration in the range from 0.1 to 40 unit/mL. Furthermore, the inhibition investigation demonstrates that fisetin and chlorogenic acid can inhibit the M. SssI MTase activity with the IC(50) value of 153.12 and 137.07 ?M, respectively. Therefore, we think that this study may provide a sensitive platform for screening of DNA MTase inhibitors. PMID:23021851

Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Xu, Zhenning; Chen, Lijian; Zhang, Di; Ai, Shiyun

2013-03-15

347

E-screen and vitellogenin assay for the detection of the estrogenic activity of alkylphenols and trace elements.  

PubMed

The estrogenic potential of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), p-t-octylphenol (p-t-OP) and three trace elements, lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd(NO(3))(2) and CdCl(2)), were compared in two different tests, a proliferation assay with estrogen receptor-positive human MCF-7 breast cancer cells (E-screen) and the induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus). The results showed differences in the bioassays' sensitivity and potency with the following order: E-screen>Vtg. Among alkylphenols, both in vitro and in vivo, 4-NP and 4-OP showed the highest estrogen-like activity while p-t-OP was inferior. For trace elements, Pb and Cu showed estrogenic activity in vitro and they were also active in vivo. A range of estrogenicity was observed for different species of cadmium (Cd(NO(3))(2) and CdCl(2)) which showed the highest relative proliferative effect (RPE %) in vitro, when compared with the 17beta-estradiol (E(2); RPE=100%) but, Cd(NO(3))(2) was not estrogenic in vivo. The results suggest that an integrated approach using in vitro and in vivo assays is necessary for a correct risk assessment of the endocrine disrupting activity induced by environmental contaminants. PMID:20197112

Isidori, Marina; Cangiano, Margherita; Palermo, Francesco A; Parrella, Alfredo

2010-06-01

348

Adaptation of the bivalve embryotoxicity assay for the high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in Mytilus galloprovincialis.  

PubMed

Emerging contaminants (such as Endocrine disrupting chemicals-EDCs, brominated and perfluorinated compounds-BFRs and PFCs, pharmaceuticals) are chemicals currently not included in regulatory monitoring programs, and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood. Assessment of ecosystem health with respect to these chemicals is of particular concern also in the marine environment: in this respect, data on the effects on early life stages are important to establish the sensitivity of marine species. In this work, the acute (48 h) bivalve embryo toxicity test was applied for screening the developmental effects of different emerging contaminants in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The assay was adapted to 96-microwell plates, and standardized in order to obtain to normal D-shaped larvae with acceptability of test results based on negative control and positive control (copper) comparable with those reported in literature for Mytilus spp. The effects of different model compounds representative of EDCs (Nonylphenol-NP and Bisphenol A-BPA), BFRs (Tetrabromobisphenol A-TBBPA), PFCs (perfluorooctanoid acid-PFOA and perfluorooctane sulphonate-PFOAS) and pharmaceuticals (Ibuprofen-IBU, Diclofenac-DCF, Bezafibrate-BEZA) in a wide concentration range (0.01-0.1-1-10-100-1000 ?g/L) were evaluated. The assay proved as a sensitive tool for high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in a marine species, leading to production of significant amounts of data that may be useful for regulatory purposes. PMID:25081847

Fabbri, Rita; Montagna, Michele; Balbi, Teresa; Raffo, Enrico; Palumbo, Franca; Canesi, Laura

2014-08-01

349

An Adaptable Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for Measuring and Screening Protein-Protein Interactions and their Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are central to biological processes and represent an important class of therapeutic targets. Here we show that the interaction between FK506 binding protein 12 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP-FKBP) and the rapamycin-binding domain of mTor fused to Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (FRB-eDHFR) can be sensitively detected (signal-to-background (S:B) >100) and accurately quantified within an impure cell lysate matrix using a luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) assay. Ascomycin-mediated inhibition of GFP-FKBP/rapamycin/FRB-eDHFR complex formation was also detected at high S:B (>80) and Z’-factor (0.89). The method leverages the selective, stable binding of trimethoprim (TMP)-terbium complex conjugates to eDHFR, and time-resolved, background-free detection of the long-lifetime (~ms) terbium-to-GFP LRET signal that indicates target binding. TMP/eDHFR labeling can be adapted to develop high-throughput screening assays and complementary, quantitative counter-screens for a wide variety of PPI targets with a broad range of affinities that may not be amenable to purification. PMID:22271654

Yapici, Engin; Reddy, D. Rajasekhar

2013-01-01

350

Rapid assay for screening and characterizing microorganisms for the ability to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

A rapid assay has been designed that (i) assesses the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degradative competence and congener specificity of aerobic microorganisms, (ii) identifies strains capable of degrading highly chlorinated biphenyls, and (iii) distinguishes among those that degrade PCBs by alternative pathways. Prior attempts to assay PCB-degradative competence by measuring disappearance of Aroclors (commercial PCB mixtures) have frequently produced false-positive findings because of volatilization, adsorption, or absorption losses. Furthermore, these assays have generally left the chemical nature of the competence obscure because of incomplete gas chromatographic resolution and uncertain identification of Aroclor peaks. These problems were avoided by using defined mixtures of PCB congeners and by adopting incubation and extraction methods that prevent physical loss of PCB's. The assay mixtures include PCB congeners ranging from dichloro- to hexachlorobiphenyls and representing various structural classes, e.g., congeners chlorinated on a single ring (2,3-dichlorobiphenyl), blocked at 2,3 sites (2,5,2'5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl), blocked at 3,4 sites (4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl), and lacking adjacent unchlorinated sites (2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl). The PCB-degradative ability of microorganisms is assessed by packed-column gas chromatographic analysis of these defined congener mixtures following 24-h incubation with resting cells. When tested with 25 environmental isolates, this assay (i) revealed a broad range of PCB-degradative competence, (ii) highlighted differences in congener specificity and in the extent of degradation of individual congeners, (iii) predicted degradative competence on commercial PCBs, and (iv) identified strains with superior PCB-degradative ability.

Bedard, D.L.; Unterman, R.; Bopp, L.H.; Brennan, M.J.; Haberl, M.L.; Johnson, C.

1986-04-01

351

Thiopurine S -methyltransferase polymorphisms: efficient screening method for patients considering taking thiopurine drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMore than 11% of the Caucasian population are heterozygous or homozygous carriers of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) mutants and are at risk for toxic side effects when treated with thiopurine drugs. Therefore, screening for TPMT polymorphisms in a patient prior to prescribing these agents is recommended. The goal of this study was to determine a cut-off concentration of the TPMT activity

Barbara Wusk; G. A. Kullak-Ublick; C. Rammert; A. von Eckardstein; M. Fried; K. M. Rentsch

2004-01-01

352

Synthetic-peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening human serum or plasma for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and type 2.  

PubMed Central

A synthetic-peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) capable of screening for antibodies to both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 has been developed for use in blood banks and diagnostic laboratories. Microtiter wells are coated with two synthetic peptides, one corresponding to the highly conserved envelope region of HIV-1 and another corresponding to the conserved envelope region of HIV-2. Overall, sensitivity was 100% in 303 individuals diagnosed with AIDS and 96 individuals diagnosed with AIDS-related complex, 14.8% in a study of 500 high-risk group members, 99.9% in 600 EIA repeatedly reactive (RR)-HIV-1 Western blot (WB)-positive repository specimens, and 100% for 222 geographically diverse HIV-1 specimens and 216 confirmed HIV-2-positive specimens evaluated. The specificity was determined to be 99.72% for a total of 13,004 serum and plasma samples from random volunteer donors evaluated across five blood banks. Forty donors who were found to be EIA RR-WB indeterminate but nonreactive on the United Biomedical, Inc., test (UBI HIV 1/2 EIA) were prospectively followed as an additional measure of specificity. None of the 40 low-risk cases evolved into a positive WB pattern at follow-up. The sensitivity and specificity of this new assay are comparable to those of other Food and Drug Administration-licensed HIV-1 and HIV-1-HIV-2 assays that are currently available in the United States. The UBI HIV 1/2 EIA affords laboratories another choice in the detection of antibodies for HIV-1 and HIV-2 with a test based on an alternative antigen format. PMID:9302212

Gonzalez, L; Boyle, R W; Zhang, M; Castillo, J; Whittier, S; Della-Latta, P; Clarke, L M; George, J R; Fang, X; Wang, J G; Hosein, B; Wang, C Y

1997-01-01

353

Fully automated screening of veterinary drugs in milk by turbulent flow chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing interest in screening methods for quick and sensitive analysis of various classes of veterinary drugs with limited sample pre-treatment. Turbulent flow chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time as an efficient screening method in routine analysis of milk samples. Eight veterinary drugs, belonging to seven different classes were selected for this study. After developing and optimising the method, parameters such as linearity, repeatability, matrix effects and carry-over were studied. The screening method was then tested in the routine analysis of 12 raw milk samples. Even without internal standards, the linearity of the method was found to be good in the concentration range of 50 to 500 µg/L. Regarding repeatability, RSDs below 12% were obtained for all analytes, with only a few exceptions. The limits of detection were between 0.1 and 5.2 µg/L, far below the maximum residue levels for milk set by the EU regulations. While matrix effects—ion suppression or enhancement—are obtained for all the analytes the method has proved to be useful for screening purposes because of its sensitivity, linearity and repeatability. Furthermore, when performing the routine analysis of the raw milk samples, no false positive or negative results were obtained. PMID:20379812

Stolker, Alida A. M.; Peters, Ruud J. B.; Zuiderent, Richard; DiBussolo, Joseph M.

2010-01-01

354

Leveraging structure determination with fragment screening for infectious disease drug targets: MECP synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease, we seek to enhance structural genomics with ligand-bound structure data which can serve as a blueprint for structure-based drug design. We have adapted fragment-based screening methods to our structural genomics pipeline to generate multiple ligand-bound structures of high priority drug targets from pathogenic organisms. In this study, we report fragment screening methods and structure determination results for 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclo-diphosphate (MECP) synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the gram-negative bacterium which causes melioidosis. Screening by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as crystal soaking followed by X-ray diffraction led to the identification of several small molecules which bind this enzyme in a critical metabolic pathway. A series of complex structures obtained with screening hits reveal distinct binding pockets and a range of small molecules which form complexes with the target. Additional soaks with these compounds further demonstrate a subset of fragments to only bind the protein when present in specific combinations. This ensemble of fragment-bound complexes illuminates several characteristics of MECP synthase, including a previously unknown binding surface external to the catalytic active site. These ligand-bound structures now serve to guide medicinal chemists and structural biologists in rational design of novel inhibitors for this enzyme.

Begley, Darren W.; Hartley, Robert C.; Davies, Douglas R.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Leonard, Jess T.; Abendroth, Jan; Burris, Courtney A.; Bhandari, Janhavi; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J. (UWASH); (Emerald)

2011-09-28

355

Interferences by anti-TB drugs in a validated HPLC assay for urinary catecholamines and their successful removal.  

PubMed

A validated high performance liquid chromatographic assay for urinary catecholamines is presented. After addition of 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine as internal standard (IS) to urine, norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), dopamine (DA) are extracted by ion exchange chromatography and eluted with boric acid. After paired ion separation, quantitation is by electrochemical (coulometric) detection after correction of internal standard recovery. Novel interferences by anti-TB drugs on norepinephrine assay are discussed. A simple method for their removal using alumina is presented. PMID:18760975

Manickum, T

2008-09-15

356

Controversies in ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies: A Focus on Assessing Irreproducibility.  

PubMed

Has the impact of irreproducibility on the discovery and development of drugs, as with global warming, metaphorically speaking, crept up on us as we slept? Or is the problem more an issue of heightened awareness? We currently find ourselves in a time when the impact of irreproducibility can easily be amplified by the combinatorial effect of our increasing reliance on advanced technologies and unrealistic expectations of how scientific truths unfold. How and why we got here is a topic that has been written on extensively (1-3) and is probably as complex as any other problem, given the dependence of science today on so many external forces. Through a series of questions, we asked members of our editorial board their opinions on scientific irreproducibility. They chose to answer the same questions from different levels, indicating the depth of the problem and perhaps where they each believe change for the better needs to begin. My thanks to the participants. -Jim Inglese, PhD Editor-in-Chief Assay and Drug Development Technologies. PMID:25383720

Glickman, J Fraser; Lundbäck, Thomas; Napper, Andrew D; Niles, Walter D; Simeonov, Anton; Weaver, C David; Yin, Hongwei Holly; Zaman, Guido J R; Osada, Hiroyuki

2014-10-01

357

Screening of Marine Bacteria for the Production of Microbial Repellents Using a Spectrophotometric Chemotaxis Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   A method for screening marine bacteria for the production of microbial repellents has been developed. The spectrophotometer\\u000a provided quantitative information on bacterial chemotaxis in response to extracts from other strains of marine bacteria. Aqueous\\u000a extracts were incorporated into an agar plug at the base of a cuvette, which was overlaid with a suspension of a motile strain.\\u000a Negative chemotaxis

Kenneth G. Boyd; Andrew Mearns-Spragg; J. Grant Burgess

1999-01-01

358

Validation of the performance of a GMO multiplex screening assay based on microarray detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new screening method for the detection and identification of GMO, based on the use of multiplex PCR followed by microarray,\\u000a has been developed and is presented. The technology is based on the identification of quite ubiquitous GMO genetic target\\u000a elements first amplified by PCR, followed by direct hybridisation of the amplicons on a predefined microarray (DualChip® GMO, Eppendorf, Germany).

Serge Leimanis; Sandrine Hamels; Florence Naze ´; Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Myriam Sneyers; Rupert Hochegger; Hermann Broll; Lillian Roth; Klára Dallmann; Adrienn Micsinai; Maria Pla; Claudia Brünen-Nieweler; Nina Papazova; Isabel Taverniers; Norbert Hess; Britta Kirschneit; Yves Bertheau; Colette Audeon; Valérie Laval; Ulrich Busch; Sven Pecoraro; Katrin Neumann; Sibylle Rösel; Jeroen van Dijk; Esther Kok; Gianni Bellocchi; Nicoletta Foti; Marco Mazzara; William Moens; José Remacle; Guy Van Den Eede

2008-01-01

359

A fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay for membrane protein precrystallization screening.  

PubMed

Optimization of membrane protein stability under different solution conditions is essential for obtaining crystals that diffract to high resolution. Traditional methods that evaluate protein stability require large amounts of material and are, therefore, ill suited for medium- to high-throughput screening of membrane proteins. Here we present a rapid and efficient fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay (FSEC-TS). In this method, the target protein is fused to GFP. Heated protein samples, treated with a panel of additives, are then analyzed by FSEC. FSEC-TS allows one to evaluate the thermostability of nanogram-to-microgram amounts of the target protein under a variety of conditions without purification. We applied this method to the Danio rerio P2X4 receptor and Caenorhabditis elegans GluCl to screen ligands, ions, and lipids, including newly designed cholesterol derivatives. In the case of GluCl, the screening results were used to obtain crystals of the receptor in the presence of lipids. PMID:22884106

Hattori, Motoyuki; Hibbs, Ryan E; Gouaux, Eric

2012-08-01

360

A high-content screening assay for small molecule modulators of oncogene-induced senescence  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence is a state of stable cell growth arrest. Activation of oncogenes such as RAS in mammalian cells typically triggers cellular senescence. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is an important tumor suppression mechanism, and suppression of OIS contributes to cell transformation. Oncogenes trigger senescence through a multitude of incompletely understood downstream signaling events that frequently involve protein kinases. To identify target proteins required for RAS-induced senescence, we developed a small molecule screen in primary human fibroblasts undergoing senescence induced by oncogenic RAS (H-RasG12V). Using a high-content imaging system to monitor two hallmarks of senescence, senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity expression and inhibition of proliferation, we screened a library of known small molecule kinase inhibitors for those that suppressed OIS. Identified compounds were subsequently validated and confirmed using a third marker of senescence, senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. In summary, we have established a novel high-content screening platform that may be useful for elucidating signaling pathways mediating OIS by targeting critical pathway components. PMID:23733845

Bitler, BG; Fink, LS; Wei, Z; Peterson, JR; Zhang, R

2013-01-01

361

Novel Cell-Based Hepatitis C Virus Infection Assay for Quantitative High-Throughput Screening of Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Compounds  

PubMed Central

Therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has advanced with the recent approval of direct-acting antivirals in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin. New antivirals with novel targets are still needed to further improve the treatment of hepatitis C. Previously reported screening methods for HCV inhibitors either are limited to a virus-specific function or apply a screening method at a single dose, which usually leads to high false-positive or -negative rates. We developed a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assay platform with a cell-based HCV infection system. This highly sensitive assay can be miniaturized to a 1,536-well format for screening of large chemical libraries. All candidates are screened over a 7-concentration dose range to give EC50s (compound concentrations at 50% efficacy) and dose-response curves. Using this assay format, we screened a library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC). Based on the profile of dose-dependent curves of HCV inhibition and cytotoxicity, 22 compounds with adequate curves and EC50s of <10 ?M were selected for validation. In two additional independent assays, 17 of them demonstrated specific inhibition of HCV infection. Ten potential candidates with efficacies of >70% and CC50s (compound concentrations at 50% cytotoxicity) of <30 ?M from these validated hits were characterized for their target stages in the HCV replication cycle. In this screen, we identified both known and novel hits with diverse structural and functional features targeting various stages of the HCV replication cycle. The pilot screen demonstrates that this assay system is highly robust and effective in identifying novel HCV inhibitors and that it can be readily applied to large-scale screening of small-molecule libraries. PMID:24277038

Hu, Zongyi; Lan, Keng-Hsin; He, Shanshan; Swaroop, Manju; Hu, Xin; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei

2014-01-01

362

A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting HIV-1 Gp41 core structure.  

PubMed

The gp41 subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein mediates the fusion of viral and host cell membranes. As the HIV-1 enters the host cells, the 2 helical regions, HR1 and HR2, in the ectodomain of gp41 can form a 6-helix bundle, which brings the viral and target cell membranes to close proximity and serves as an attractive target for developing HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. Now, there are several cell- and molecule-based assays to identify potential HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting gp41. However, these assays cannot be used universally because they are time-consuming, inconvenient, and expensive. In the present study, the authors expressed and purified GST-HR121 and C43-30a proteins that were derived from the HIV-1 gp41 ectodomain region. GST-HR121 has a function similar to the HR1 peptide of gp41, whereas C43-30a is an HR2-derived peptide that added 50 amino acid residues (aa) in the N-terminal of C43. Further research found they could interact with each other, and a potential HIV-1 fusion inhibitor could inhibit this interaction. On the basis of this fact, a novel, rapid, and economic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established, which can be developed for high-throughput screening of HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. PMID:21297108

Pang, Wei; Wang, Rui-Rui; Gao, Yue-Dong; Yang, Liu-Meng; Sun, Yi; Huang, Jing-Fei; Tien, Po; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2011-02-01

363

In Silico Assay Development for Screening of Tetracyclic Triterpenoids as Anticancer Agents against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF7  

PubMed Central

Experimental activity of a compound on cancer cell line/target is mostly analyzed in the form of percentage inhibition at different concentration gradient and time of incubation. In this study a statistical model has been developed referred as in silico assay using support vector regression model, which can act with change in concentration gradient and time of incubation. This model is a function of concentration gradient, treatment hour and independent components; which calculate the percentage inhibition in combination of above three components. This model is designed to screen tetracyclic triterpenoids active against human breast cancer cell line MCF7. The model has been statistically validated, checked for applicability domain and predicted results were reconfirmed by MTT assay, for example Oenotheranstrol derivatives, OenA & B. Computational SAR, target and docking studies were performed to understand the cytotoxic mechanism of action of Oenotheranstrol compounds. The proposed in silico assay model will work for specific chemical family for which it will be optimized. This model can be used to analyze growth kinetics pattern on different human cancer cell lines for designed compounds. PMID:25365399

Prakash, Om; Ahmad, Ateeque; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Tandon, Sudeep; Pant, Aditya Bhusan; Khan, Feroz

2014-01-01

364

Use of the enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay for screening cattle for Brucella antibodies in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Brucella antibodies in settled Fulani cattle herds in Kaduna State, Nigeria, was determined by using the enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Out of a total of 762 animals drawn randomly from 40 cattle herds in various areas of the state, 50 (6.6%) tested positive. There was no significant difference (P<0.01) in the number of reactors between male

P. A. Ocholi; C. D. Ezeokoli; O. O. Akerejola; D. I. Saror

1996-01-01

365

A c-Myc activation sensor-based high throughput drug screening identifies an anti-neoplastic effect of Nitazoxanide  

PubMed Central

Deregulation of c-Myc plays a central role in the tumorigenesis of many human cancers. Yet, the development of drugs regulating c-Myc activity has been challenging. To facilitate the identification of c-Myc inhibitors, we developed a molecular imaging sensor based high throughput-screening (HTS) system. This system uses a cell-based assay to detect c-Myc activation in a HTS format, which is established from a pure clone of a stable breast cancer cell line that constitutively expresses a c-Myc activation sensor. Optimization of the assay performance in the HTS format resulted in uniform and robust signals at the baseline. Using this system, we performed a quantitative HTS against approximately 5,000 existing bioactive compounds from five different libraries. Thirty-nine potential hits were identified, including currently known c-Myc inhibitors. There are a few among the top potent hits that are not known for anti-c-Myc activity. One of these hits is nitazoxanide (NTZ), a thiazolide for treating human protozoal infections. Validation of NTZ in different cancer cell lines revealed a high potency for c-Myc inhibition with IC50 ranging between 10 - 500nM. Oral administration of NTZ in breast cancer xenograft mouse models significantly suppressed tumor growth by inhibition of c-Myc and induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest a potential of NTZ to be repurposed as a new anti-tumor agent for inhibition of c-Myc associated neoplasia. Our work also demonstrated the unique advantage of molecular imaging in accelerating discovery of drugs for c-Myc targeted cancer therapy. PMID:23825064

Fan-Minogue, Hua; Bodapati, Sandhya; Solow-Cordero, David; Fan, Alice; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F.; Felsher, Dean; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

2013-01-01

366

A c-Myc activation sensor-based high-throughput drug screening identifies an antineoplastic effect of nitazoxanide.  

PubMed

Deregulation of c-Myc plays a central role in the tumorigenesis of many human cancers. Yet, the development of drugs regulating c-Myc activity has been challenging. To facilitate the identification of c-Myc inhibitors, we developed a molecular imaging sensor-based high-throughput screening (HTS) system. This system uses a cell-based assay to detect c-Myc activation in a HTS format, which is established from a pure clone of a stable breast cancer cell line that constitutively expresses a c-Myc activation sensor. Optimization of the assay performance in the HTS format resulted in uniform and robust signals at the baseline. Using this system, we conducted a quantitative HTS against approximately 5,000 existing bioactive compounds from five different libraries. Thirty-nine potential hits were identified, including currently known c-Myc inhibitors. There are a few among the top potent hits that are not known for anti-c-Myc activity. One of these hits is nitazoxanide, a thiazolide for treating human protozoal infections. Validation of nitazoxanide in different cancer cell lines revealed a high potency for c-Myc inhibition with IC50 ranging between 10 and 500 nmol/L. Oral administration of nitazoxanide in breast cancer xenograft mouse models significantly suppressed tumor growth by inhibition of c-Myc and induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest a potential of nitazoxanide to be repurposed as a new antitumor agent for inhibition of c-Myc-associated neoplasia. Our work also demonstrated the unique advantage of molecular imaging in accelerating discovery of drugs for c-Myc-targeted cancer therapy. PMID:23825064

Fan-Minogue, Hua; Bodapati, Sandhya; Solow-Cordero, David; Fan, Alice; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F; Felsher, Dean W; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

2013-09-01

367

In vitro screening assay for detecting aromatase activity using rat ovarian microsomes and estrone ELISA.  

PubMed

Aromatase, a key steroidogenic enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens to estrogens, present a target for endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, little is known about the effect of pollutants on aromatase enzymes. In this study, we first optimized a non-radioisotope aromatase assay using rat ovarian microsomes in vitro and measuring the estrone level with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA method). The sensitivity of the EIA method was about ten times as high as that of the radioisotope (RI) method. A significant positive correlation was indicated between EIA and RI method. We used this EIA assay system to investigate the effects of aromatase activity on 45 chemicals that had previously been reported to act as endocrine disruptors or to have the possibility of having such an effect. Six of the chemicals, rose bengal, erythrosine, phloxine, allura red, gallic acid, and tributyltin, inhibited aromatase activity. The inhibitory effect of rose bengal was the strongest (IC50=2.4 x 10(-8) M), and its strength of inhibition was about 100 times that of a known aromatase inhibitor, 4-hydroxy-androstenedione (IC50=2.6 x 10(-6) M) but was about 1/25 that of fadrazole (IC50=1.0 x 10(-9) M). It is thought that this EIA method would be useful for measuring the aromatase activity of microstructures. PMID:18310892

Satoh, Kanako; Nonaka, Rhouichi; Ishikawa, Fusako; Ogata, Akio; Nagai, Fumiko

2008-03-01

368

Simplification of aggregate culture of human mesenchymal stem cells as a chondrogenic screening assay  

PubMed Central

Aggregate culture provides a three-dimensional (3-D) environment for differentiating or differentiated cells; it is particularly useful to study in vitro chondrogenesis and cartilage biology. We have recently ported this method from a conical tube-based format to a 96-well plate format for the study of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis. The microplate format has greatly reduced the workload and materials cost, while maintaining reproducible chondrogenic differentiation. A long-term goal is to fully automate aggregate culture—this requires critically identifying all the indispensable steps of the protocol. Robotic laboratory equipment for manipulating microplate assays are commercially available; however, centrifugation steps are difficult to implement automatically. We, therefore, tested whether the centrifugation step can be eliminated, thus significantly streamlining the assay work-flow. By comparing aggregates prepared from human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) that were formed either through centrifugation or through free sedimentation, we found that both methods produce aggregates with similar formation kinetics, and that there was no perceptible difference in the timing of the appearance of markers of chondrogenesis. Thus, it appears safe to eliminate the centrifugation step from the aggregate culture protocol. This results in significant time and effort savings and paves the way for future full automation of the aggregate assay. PMID:17612296

Welter, Jean F.; Solchaga, Luis A.; Penick, Kitsie J.

2011-01-01

369

Multidrug-resistant Phenotype of Disease-oriented Panels of Human Tumor Cell Lines Used for Anticancer Drug Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease-oriented panels of human tumor cell lines used by the National Cancer Institute for large-scale in vitro anticancer drug screening were evaluated for multidrug-resistant phenotype at the functional (in vitro drug sensitivity) and molecular levels. The cell line panels manifested a broad range of sensitivities to drugs typically associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) as well as to drugs not associated

Lin Wu; Anne M. Smythe; Sherman F. Stinson; Leslie A. Mullendore; Anne Monks; Dominic A. Scudiero; Kenneth D. Paull; Antonis D. Koutsoukos; Lawrence V. Rubinstein; Michael R. Boyd; Robert H. Shoemaker

1992-01-01

370

Mass General researchers find that direct drug screening of patient biopsies could overcome resistance to targeted therapy  

Cancer.gov

A new screening platform using cells grown directly from tumor biopsy samples may lead to truly individualized treatment strategies that would get around the problem of treatment resistance, which limits the effectiveness of current targeted therapy drugs.

371

Drug-eluting microarrays for cell-based screening of chemical-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Traditional high throughput screening (HTS) is carried out in centralized facilities that require extensive robotic liquid and plate handling equipment. This model of HTS is restrictive as such facilities are not accessible to many researchers. We have designed a simple microarray platform for cell-based screening that can be carried out at the bench top. The device creates a microarray of 2100 individual cell-based assays in a standard microscope slide format. A microarray of chemical-laden hydrogels addresses a matching array of cell-laden microwells thus creating a microarray of sealed microscale cell cultures each with unique conditions. We demonstrate the utility of the device by screening the extent of apoptosis and necrosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in response to exposure to a small library of chemical compounds. From a set of screens we produced a rank order of chemicals that preferentially induce apoptosis over necrosis in MCF-7 cells. Treatment with doxorubicin induced high levels of apoptosis in comparison with staurosporine, ethanol, and hydrogen peroxide, while treatment with 100 ?M ethanol induced minimal apoptosis with high levels of necrosis. We anticipate broad application of the device for various research and discovery applications as it is easy to use, scalable and can be fabricated and operated with minimal peripheral equipment. PMID:21476591

Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Wheeldon, Ian; Kachouie, Nezamoddin N.; Lee, Seung Hwan; Bae, Hojae; Sant, Shilpa; Fukuda, Junji; Kang, Jeong Won; Khademhosseini, Ali

2011-01-01

372

Development of a cell-based assay system considering drug metabolism and immune- and inflammatory-related factors for the risk assessment of drug-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety concern in drug development and clinical pharmacotherapy. However, prediction of DILI is difficult because the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To establish a novel cell-based screening system to suggest drugs with hepatotoxic potential in preclinical drug development, comprehensive gene expression analyses during in vivo DILI are necessary. Using in viv