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Sample records for drug screening assay

  1. Assay to Screen Anti-metastatic Drugs

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NCI's Mouse Cancer Genetics Program have developed a research tool, a murine cell line model (JygMC(A)) with a reporter construct, of spontaneous metastatic mammary carcinoma that resembles the human breast cancer metastatic process in a triple negative mammary tumor. The assay is useful for screening compounds that specifically inhibit pathways involved in mammary carcinoma and can improve clinical management of of triple negative breast cancer that are greatly refractory to conventional chemo and radiotherapy.

  2. Radioligand binding assays in the drug discovery process: potential pitfalls of high throughput screenings.

    PubMed

    Noël, F; Mendonça-Silva, D L; Quintas, L E

    2001-02-01

    Radioligand binding assays evaluating directly the ability of a drug to interact with a defined molecular target is part of the drug discovery process. The need for a high throughput rate in screening drugs is actually leading to simplified experimental schemes that increase the probability of false negative results. Special concern involves voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery where a great care is required in designing assays because of frequent multiplicity of (interacting) binding sites. To clearly illustrate this situation, three different assays used in the academic drug discovery program of the authors were selected because they are rich of intrinsic artifacts: (I) (20 mmol/l caffeine almost duplicated [3H]ryanodine binding (89% higher than control) to rat heart microsomes at 0.3 mumol/l free calcium but did not exert any effect when using a high (107 mumol/l) free calcium, as mostly used in ryanodine binding assays; (II) An agonist for the ionotropic glutamate receptor of the kainate type can distinctly affect [3H]kainate binding to chicken cerebellum membranes depending on its concentration: unlabelled kainic acid per se either stimulated about 30% (at 50-100 nmol/l), had no effect (at 200 nmol/l) or even progressively decreased (at 0.3-2 mumol/l) the binding of 5 nmol/l [3H]kainate, emphasizing the risk of using a single concentration for screening a drug; (III) in a classical [3H]flunitrazepam binding assay, the stimulatory effect of a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) agonist was only observed when using extensively washed rat brain synaptosomes (10 mumol/l GABA increased flunitrazepam binding by 90%). On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of a GABA antagonist was only observed when using crude synaptosomes (10 mumol/l bicuculine reduced [3H]flunitrazepam binding by 40%). It can be concluded that carefully designed radioligand assays which can be performed in an academic laboratory are appropriate for screening a small number of drugs, especially if these are potential hits because of their rational design. Therefore, the low throughput rate could be partially balanced by a higher performance when compared to what is done in a robotic high throughput screening where simplification of assay conditions can lead to false negative results. PMID:11258048

  3. Alternative to the soft-agar assay that permits high-throughput drug and genetic screens for cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Asaf; Janzer, Andreas; Izar, Benjamin; Ji, Zhe; Doench, John G.; Garraway, Levi A.; Struhl, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Colony formation in soft agar is the gold-standard assay for cellular transformation in vitro, but it is unsuited for high-throughput screening. Here, we describe an assay for cellular transformation that involves growth in low attachment (GILA) conditions and is strongly correlated with the soft-agar assay. Using GILA, we describe high-throughput screens for drugs and genes that selectively inhibit or increase transformation, but not proliferation. Such molecules are unlikely to be found through conventional drug screening, and they include kinase inhibitors and drugs for noncancer diseases. In addition to known oncogenes, the genetic screen identifies genes that contribute to cellular transformation. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of Food and Drug Administration-approved noncancer drugs to selectively kill ovarian cancer cells derived from patients with chemotherapy-resistant disease, suggesting this approach may provide useful information for personalized cancer treatment. PMID:25902495

  4. Alternative to the soft-agar assay that permits high-throughput drug and genetic screens for

    E-print Network

    formation in soft agar is the gold-standard assay for cellular transformation in vitro, but it is unsuited For nearly 50 y (1, 2), the gold-standard assay for cellular transformation/tumorigenicity has been the soft cells, drug and genetic screens are routinely performed on standard plates that permit efficient

  5. Development of specific dengue virus 2'-O- and N7-methyltransferase assays for antiviral drug screening.

    PubMed

    Barral, K; Sallamand, C; Petzold, C; Coutard, B; Collet, A; Thillier, Y; Zimmermann, J; Vasseur, J-J; Canard, B; Rohayem, J; Debart, F; Decroly, E

    2013-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 carries two mRNA cap methyltransferase (MTase) activities involved in the synthesis of a cap structure, (7Me)GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA, at the 5'-end of the viral mRNA. The methylation of the cap guanine at its N7-position (N7-MTase, (7Me)GpppA-RNA) is essential for viral replication. The development of high throughput methods to identify specific inhibitors of N7-MTase is hampered by technical limitations in the large scale synthesis of long capped RNAs. In this work, we describe an efficient method to generate such capped RNA, GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA??, by ligation of two RNA fragments. Then, we use GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA?? as a substrate to assess DENV N7-MTase activity and to develop a robust and specific activity assay. We applied the same ligation procedure to generate (7Me)GpppA-RNA?? in order to characterize the DENV 2'-O-MTase activity specifically on long capped RNA. We next compared the N7- and 2'-O-MTase inhibition effect of 18 molecules, previously proposed to affect MTase activities. These experiments allow the validation of a rapid and sensitive method easily adaptable for high-throughput inhibitor screening in anti-flaviviral drug development. PMID:23769894

  6. Optimization of a Fluorescence-Based Assay for Large-Scale Drug Screening against Babesia and Theileria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Terkawi, Mohamed Alaa; Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; El Said, El Said El Shirbini; Elsayed, Gehad; El-Khodery, Sabry; El-Ashker, Maged; Elsify, Ahmed; Omar, Mosaab; Salama, Akram; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and accurate assay for evaluating antibabesial drugs on a large scale is required for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia parasites. In the current study, we evaluated the usefulness of a fluorescence-based assay for determining the efficacies of antibabesial compounds against bovine and equine hemoparasites in in vitro cultures. Three different hematocrits (HCTs; 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) were used without daily replacement of the medium. The results of a high-throughput screening assay revealed that the best HCT was 2.5% for bovine Babesia parasites and 5% for equine Babesia and Theileria parasites. The IC50 values of diminazene aceturate obtained by fluorescence and microscopy did not differ significantly. Likewise, the IC50 values of luteolin, pyronaridine tetraphosphate, nimbolide, gedunin, and enoxacin did not differ between the two methods. In conclusion, our fluorescence-based assay uses low HCT and does not require daily replacement of culture medium, making it highly suitable for in vitro large-scale drug screening against Babesia and Theileria parasites that infect cattle and horses. PMID:25915529

  7. Development of a fluorescence-based assay to screen antiviral drugs against Kaposi's sarcoma– associated herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Nun, Tamara K.; Kroll, David J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Case, Ryan J.; Piskaut, Pius; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Hilscher, Chelsey; Wang, Ling; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Damania, Blossom

    2013-01-01

    Tumors associated with Kaposi's sarcoma–associated herpesvirus infection include Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. Virtually all of the tumor cells in these cancers are latently infected and dependent on the virus for survival. Latent viral proteins maintain the viral genome and are required for tumorigenesis. Current prevention and treatment strategies are limited because they fail to specifically target the latent form of the virus, which can persist for the lifetime of the host. Thus, targeting latent viral proteins may prove to be an important therapeutic modality for existing tumors as well as in tumor prevention by reducing latent virus load. Here, we describe a novel fluorescence-based screening assay to monitor the maintenance of the Kaposi's sarcoma–associated herpesvirus genome in B lymphocyte cell lines and to identify compounds that induce its loss, resulting in tumor cell death. PMID:17699731

  8. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePLUS

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  9. Cross-reactivity of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay in drugs-of-abuse screening: influence of dose and metabolites of opioids

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jon Andsnes; Schjøtt, Jan; Fossan, Kjell O; Riedel, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) for buprenorphine is applied for both urine drugs-of-abuse screening and compliance monitoring. Sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff of this assay have differed between studies. This may indicate that cross-reactivity has to be taken into account during assay evaluation. We therefore investigated the performance of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay for use in our patient population and explored the impact of cross-reactivity on assay accuracy. Methods The CEDIA buprenorphine assay and high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry were employed to analyze drugs-of-abuse in urine samples from a healthy drug-naïve male volunteer after intake of two tablets of a prescription drug containing 400 mg paracetamol +30 mg codeine phosphate, and in urine samples (n=2,272) from drug-addicted patients. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to express the diagnostic accuracy of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay. Results CEDIA buprenorphine was positive in one urine sample from the drug-naïve person after intake of the prescription drug. Twenty-five (1.1%) of the patient urine samples were positive for buprenorphine by CEDIA, but negative by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Codeine, morphine, and their respective metabolites were prevalent in samples that were false positive for buprenorphine. The specificity of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay increased to 99.7% when the cutoff was increased from 5 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL. Conclusion Intake of a therapeutic dose of codeine can yield a false-positive CEDIA buprenorphine result. Additive effects from metabolites of codeine contribute to cross-reactivity in concentrations much lower than listed in the manufacturer’s cross-reactivity guide. Raising the cutoff from 5 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL increased the diagnostic accuracy. Clinicians should be informed about the risk of false-positive results with the CEDIA buprenorphine assay. PMID:26604854

  10. Selection of drugs to test the specificity of the Tg.AC assay by screening for induction of the gadd153 promoter in vitro.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Karol L; Sistare, Frank D

    2003-08-01

    Short-term assays for carcinogenicity testing of chemicals that use transgenic mice designed to have altered expression of genes mechanistically relevant to carcinogenesis are attractive alternatives to two-year dosing studies in rodents. The models that have been the received the greatest level of performance evaluation include p53(+/-), rasH2, Xpa/p53(+/-), and Tg.AC mice. For use of these models in a regulatory setting to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals, it is important to establish an assurance of assay specificity and positive predictivity based on studies using drugs with a wide spectrum of pharmacologic activity. For this purpose, 99 noncarcinogenic drugs were prioritized based on their activity in an in vitro induction assay correlative with a positive response in the Tg.AC assay (induction of the gadd153 promoter in HepG2 cells). Activities in two assays less predictive of Tg.AC activity (induction of c-fos and zeta-globin gene promoters) were also measured. Nine percent of the screened drugs induced the gadd153 promoter by at least fourfold. Several criteria were used to select candidates for subsequent in vivo testing in the Tg.AC assay: (1) sufficient drug solubility in appropriate skin paint vehicles to elicit systemic toxicity, (2) the level of induction of the gadd153 promoter by the drug, (3) the in vitro potency of the drug, and (4) the cost of the drug required for a 6-month study. Based on these criteria, amiloride, dipyridamole, and pyrimethamine were selected from 99 rodent noncarcinogens in a drug database for testing the specificity of the Tg.AC assay. PMID:12730611

  11. Quantitative RT-PCR assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of drugs against the growth of Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haili; Zhu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously developed a qRT-PCR assay to assess drug efficacy on the growth of Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro by detecting the levels of parasite 18S rRNA. This approach displayed up to four orders of magnitude of linear dynamic range and was much less labor-intensive than the traditional microscopic methods. However, conventional qRT-PCR protocol is not very amendable to high-throughput analysis when total RNA needs to be purified by lengthy, multi-step procedures. Recently, several commercial reagents are available for preparing cell lysates that could be directly used in downstream qRT-PCR analysis (e.g., Ambion Cell-to-cDNA kit and Bio-Rad iScript sample preparation reagent). Using these reagents, we are able to adapt the qRT-PCR assay into high-throughput screening of drugs in vitro (i.e., 96-well and 384-well formats for the cultivation of parasites and qRT-PCR detection, respectively). This qRT-PCR protocol is able to give a >150-fold linear dynamic range using samples isolated from cells infected with various numbers of parasites. The new assay is also validated by the NIH-recommended intra-plate, inter-plate, and inter-day uniformity tests. The robustness and effectiveness of the assay are also confirmed by evaluating the anti-cryptosporidial efficacy of paromomycin and by a small scale screening of compounds. PMID:26441920

  12. Drug-induced Sensitization of Adenylyl Cyclase: Assay Streamlining and Miniaturization for Small Molecule and siRNA Screening Applications

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Jason M.; Brust, Tarsis F.; Xu, Ruqiang; Burris, Kevin D.; Watts, Val J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization of adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurologic disorders including substance abuse and Parkinson's disease. Acute activation of G?i/o-linked receptors inhibits AC activity, whereas persistent activation of these receptors results in heterologous sensitization of AC and increased levels of intracellular cAMP. Previous studies have demonstrated that this enhancement of AC responsiveness is observed both in vitro and in vivo following the chronic activation of several types of G?i/o-linked receptors including D2 dopamine and ? opioid receptors. Although heterologous sensitization of AC was first reported four decades ago, the mechanism(s) that underlie this phenomenon remain largely unknown. The lack of mechanistic data presumably reflects the complexity involved with this adaptive response, suggesting that nonbiased approaches could aid in identifying the molecular pathways involved in heterologous sensitization of AC. Previous studies have implicated kinase and Gb? signaling as overlapping components that regulate the heterologous sensitization of AC. To identify unique and additional overlapping targets associated with sensitization of AC, the development and validation of a scalable cAMP sensitization assay is required for greater throughput. Previous approaches to study sensitization are generally cumbersome involving continuous cell culture maintenance as well as a complex methodology for measuring cAMP accumulation that involves multiple wash steps. Thus, the development of a robust cell-based assay that can be used for high throughput screening (HTS) in a 384 well format would facilitate future studies. Using two D2 dopamine receptor cellular models (i.e. CHO-D2L and HEK-AC6/D2L), we have converted our 48-well sensitization assay (>20 steps 4-5 days) to a five-step, single day assay in 384-well format. This new format is amenable to small molecule screening, and we demonstrate that this assay design can also be readily used for reverse transfection of siRNA in anticipation of targeted siRNA library screening. PMID:24514897

  13. TOXICITY SCREENING WITH ZEBRAFISH ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed toxicity screening will help EPA to prioritize chemicals for further testing, and it may also alert chemical manufacturers that some of their commercial products may be toxic. The proposed toxicity pathway studies will improve the research community’s abi...

  14. A Novel Leishmania major Amastigote Assay in 96-Well Format for Rapid Drug Screening and Its Use for Discovery and Evaluation of a New Class of Leishmanicidal Quinolinium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Thomale, Katja; Bischof, Sebastian; Schneider, Christoph; Schultheis, Martina; Schwarz, Tobias; Moll, Heidrun

    2013-01-01

    In most laboratories, the screening for leishmanicidal compounds is carried out with Leishmania promastigotes or axenic amastigotes. However, the best approach to identify leishmanicidal compounds is the use of amastigotes residing in macrophages. Reporter gene-based assays are relatively new tools in the search for drugs against eucaryotic protozoa, permitting the development of faster, more automated assays. In this paper, we report on the establishment of a rapid screening assay in a 96-well format. A luciferase-transgenic (Luc-tg) Leishmania major strain was generated and used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Amastigote-infected BMDM were treated with different compound concentrations. Cells were lysed with a luciferin-containing buffer, and the resulting luminescence was measured to determine the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). To validate this new amastigote screening assay, a library of a new class of quinolinium salts was synthesized and tested for leishmanicidal activity. Some of the quinolinium salts showed very promising activities, with IC50s against intracellular amastigotes (IC50 < 1 ?g/ml) and selectivity indices (SI > 20) that match the criteria of World Health Organization (WHO) for hits. Compound 21c (IC50 = 0.03 ?g/ml; SI = 358) could become a new lead structure for the development of improved chemotherapeutic drugs against L. major. In summary, we describe the establishment of a new 96-well format assay with Luc-transgenic L. major for the rapid screening of compounds for leishmanicidal activity against intracellular amastigotes and its application to the identification of a new class of quinolinium salts with most promising leishmanicidal activity. PMID:23587955

  15. Can anti-migratory drugs be screened in vitro? A review of 2D and 3D assays for the quantitative analysis of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Decaestecker, Christine; Debeir, Olivier; Van Ham, Philippe; Kiss, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present review is to detail and analyze the pros and cons of in vitro tests available to quantify the anti-migratory effects of anti-cancer drugs for their eventual use in combating the dispersal of tumor cells, a clinical need which currently remains unsatisfied. We therefore briefly sum up why anti-migratory drugs constitute a promising approach in oncology while at the same time emphasizing that migrating cancer cells are resistant to apoptosis. To analyze the pros and cons of the various in vitro tests under review we also briefly sum up the molecular and cellular stages of cancer cell migration, an approach that enables us to argue both that no single in vitro test is sufficient to characterize the anti-migratory potential of a drug and that standardization is needed for the efficient quantitative analysis of cell locomotion in a 3D environment. Before concluding our review we devote the final two parts (i) to the description of new prototypes which, in the near future, could enter the screening process with a view to identifying novel anti-migratory compounds, and (ii) to the anti-migratory compounds currently developed against cancer, with particular emphasis on how these compounds were selected before entering the clinical trial phase. PMID:16888756

  16. Transporter assays and assay ontologies: useful tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Chichester, Christine; Zander Balderud, Linda; Engkvist, Ola; Gaulton, Anna; Overington, John P

    2014-06-01

    Transport proteins represent an eminent class of drug targets and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) associated genes. There exists a large number of distinct activity assays for transport proteins, depending on not only the measurement needed (e.g. transport activity, strength of ligand–protein interaction), but also due to heterogeneous assay setups used by different research groups. Efforts to systematically organize this (divergent) bioassay data have large potential impact in Public-Private partnership and conventional commercial drug discovery. In this short review, we highlight some of the frequently used high-throughput assays for transport proteins, and we discuss emerging assay ontologies and their application to this field. Focusing on human P-glycoprotein (Multidrug resistance protein 1; gene name: ABCB1, MDR1), we exemplify how annotation of bioassay data per target class could improve and add to existing ontologies, and we propose to include an additional layer of metadata supporting data fusion across different bioassays. PMID:25027375

  17. Final Paper Drug Screening and Genomics

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Adam Poole Final Paper Drug Screening and Genomics Beginning in the late 20th century, techniques for drug discovery have improved due to advancements in technology. One of the most practiced methods is drug screening. In this process, scientists can choose and test a new drug against a chosen target

  18. Sensitive radioenzymatic assay for catechol drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Durrett, L.R.; Ziegler, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    This assay measures picogram quantities of catechol drugs and endogenous catecholamines in body tissues and fluids. The catechols are converted to their 3H-O-methyl metabolites during incubation with 3H-S-adenosylmethionine then separated by solvent extraction and thin-layer chromatography. Most drugs containing the catechol structure can be radiolabeled and separated from norepinephrine and epinephrine by this technique to provide simultaneous measurement of endogenous and exogenously administered catechols. The disposition of isoproterenol in tissues and fluids of man and experimental animals is measured to illustrate the utility of this assay. The reactivity of several commonly administered catechol drugs with COMT is described and the possible implications discussed.

  19. Screening designs for drug development.

    PubMed

    Rossell, David; Müller, Peter; Rosner, Gary L

    2007-07-01

    We propose drug screening designs based on a Bayesian decision-theoretic approach. The discussion is motivated by screening designs for phase II studies. The proposed screening designs allow consideration of multiple treatments simultaneously. In each period, new treatments can arise and currently considered treatments can be dropped. Once a treatment is removed from the phase II screening trial, a terminal decision is made about abandoning the treatment or recommending it for a future confirmatory phase III study. The decision about dropping treatments from the active set is a sequential stopping decision. We propose a solution based on decision boundaries in the space of marginal posterior moments for the unknown parameter of interest that relates to each treatment. We present a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm to implement the proposed approach. We provide an implementation of the proposed method as an easy to use R library available for public domain download (http://www.stat.rice.edu/~rusi/ or http://odin.mdacc.tmc.edu/~pm/). PMID:17030589

  20. Urine drug screening: practical guide for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Karen E; Lee, Kelly C; Kissack, Julie C

    2008-01-01

    Drug testing, commonly used in health care, workplace, and criminal settings, has become widespread during the past decade. Urine drug screens have been the most common method for analysis because of ease of sampling. The simplicity of use and access to rapid results have increased demand for and use of immunoassays; however, these assays are not perfect. False-positive results of immunoassays can lead to serious medical or social consequences if results are not confirmed by secondary analysis, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Department of Health and Human Services' guidelines for the workplace require testing for the following 5 substances: amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine. This article discusses potential false-positive results and false-negative results that occur with immunoassays of these substances and with alcohol, benzodiazepines, and tricyclic antidepressants. Other pitfalls, such as adulteration, substitution, and dilution of urine samples, are discussed. Pragmatic concepts summarized in this article should minimize the potential risks of misinterpreting urine drug screens. PMID:18174009

  1. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  2. The use of cold plasma technology to reduce carryover in screening assays.

    PubMed

    Akhlaq, Mohammed; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Sattikar, Afrah; Kent, Toby C

    2013-08-01

    The accurate transfer of biological reagents represents a fundamental step in the drug screening process, and the elimination of carryover is critical for the generation of accurate measurements of biological activity. The introduction of automated liquid robotics into screening laboratories has transformed the drug screening process, enabling accurate and reproducible transfer of liquids to become a high-throughput activity, but has also introduced a new challenge for drug discoverers: to establish screening workflows that limit analyte carryover for the generation of high-quality screening data. The widespread use of pipetting tips on automated liquid handlers often necessitates the use of optimized wash protocols for removing contaminants and frequently requires the use and disposal of large quantities of organic solvents. Furthermore, many chemical and biological reagents are recalcitrant to removal from pipetting tips by treatment with organic solvents. The use of cold atmospheric plasma technology provides an alternative approach for removal of contaminants and offers many advantages over traditional decontamination protocols commonly used during biological screening. This report describes the evaluation of a cold plasma tip-cleaning system for reducing carryover in a range of biological screening assays requiring the transfer of low molecular weight compound, nucleic acid, and bacterial liquid transfers. The validation of this technology for biological screening assays is presented, and the impact of this technology for screening workflows is discussed. PMID:22983566

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL SCREENING ASSAY FOR TYLOSIN IN POLLEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tylosin residues have been isolated from pollen samples by adsorption on acidic solid-phase extraction cartridges, with subsequent determination using a disk-diffusion microbiological assay. While not providing identification of individual antibiotics present, the presence of a zone of inhibition pr...

  4. Application of the MultiScreen system to cytokine radioreceptor assays.

    PubMed

    Slack, J; Sims, J E; Pitt, A M; Dower, S K

    1989-01-01

    Radioreceptor assays are becoming increasingly valuable in the biotechnology community for a variety of basic and applied research applications. It is clear, for example, that assessing the potential spectrum of biological activities of a novel polypeptide regulatory factor can be greatly simplified by the development of a rapid radioreceptor assay, since a wide variety of cell types can be screened using a single type of assay. By contrast, searching for potentially diverse biological effects can be an extremely time-consuming process. In addition, screening for agonists/antagonists for hormones using radioreceptor assays has a marked advantage compared with biological assays, in that compounds or natural products that are toxic to cells will not read out as false positives in a binding assay. Our laboratory has developed a major program centered on the molecular characterization of receptors for polypeptide hormones involved in immune regulation, including a number of cytokines/interleukins and also several colony stimulating factors. We have developed a variety of radioreceptor- and fluorescence-based assay systems for ligand-receptor interactions, with applications in basic characterization, purification, cDNA cloning, and drug development screens for cytokine receptors. In this report we compare two assay formats, a standard phthalate oil centrifugation method and a novel plate filtration system, using the interaction between interleukin-1 alpha and its receptor as a test system. PMID:2534274

  5. Sulfonylureas and Glinides as New PPAR? Agonists:. Virtual Screening and Biological Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarsi, Marco; Podvinec, Michael; Roth, Adrian; Hug, Hubert; Kersten, Sander; Albrecht, Hugo; Schwede, Torsten; Meyer, Urs A.; Rücker, Christoph

    2007-12-01

    This work combines the predictive power of computational drug discovery with experimental validation by means of biological assays. In this way, a new mode of action for type 2 diabetes drugs has been unvealed. Most drugs currently employed in the treatment of type 2 diabetes either target the sulfonylurea receptor stimulating insulin release (sulfonylureas, glinides), or target PPAR? improving insulin resistance (thiazolidinediones). Our work shows that sulfonylureas and glinides bind to PPAR? and exhibit PPAR? agonistic activity. This result was predicted in silico by virtual screening and confirmed in vitro by three biological assays. This dual mode of action of sulfonylureas and glinides may open new perspectives for the molecular pharmacology of antidiabetic drugs, since it provides evidence that drugs can be designed which target both the sulfonylurea receptor and PPAR?. Targeting both receptors could in principle allow to increase pancreatic insulin secretion, as well as to improve insulin resistance.

  6. Using the BioAssay Ontology for analyzing high-throughput screening data.

    PubMed

    Zander Balderud, Linda; Murray, David; Larsson, Niklas; Vempati, Uma; Schürer, Stephan C; Bjäreland, Marcus; Engkvist, Ola

    2015-03-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is the main starting point for hit identification in drug discovery programs. This has led to a rapid increase of available screening data both within pharmaceutical companies and the public domain. We have used the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) 2.0 for assay annotation within AstraZeneca to enable comparison with external HTS methods. The annotated assays have been analyzed to identify technology gaps, evaluate new methods, verify active hits, and compare compound activity between in-house and PubChem assays. As an example, the binding of a fluorescent ligand to formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1, involved in inflammation, for example) in an in-house HTS was measured by fluorescence intensity. In total, 155 active compounds were also tested in an external ligand binding flow cytometry assay, a method not used for in-house HTS detection. Twelve percent of the 155 compounds were found active in both assays. By the annotation of assay protocols using BAO terms, internal and external assays can easily be identified and method comparison facilitated. They can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of different assay methods, design appropriate confirmatory and counterassays, and analyze the activity of compounds for identification of technology artifacts. PMID:25512330

  7. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

    1986-03-01

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium (/sup 47/Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO/sub 3/. In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the /sup 47/Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison.

  8. Development and Validation of a Novel Leishmania donovani Screening Cascade for High-Throughput Screening Using a Novel Axenic Assay with High Predictivity of Leishmanicidal Intracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nühs, Andrea; De Rycker, Manu; Manthri, Sujatha; Comer, Eamon; Scherer, Christina A.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Gray, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease of the developing world with a limited arsenal of drugs available for treatment. The existing drugs have significant deficiencies so there is an urgent need for new and improved drugs. In the human host, Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites which poses particular challenges in terms of drug discovery. To achieve sufficient throughput and robustness, free-living parasites are often used in primary screening assays as a surrogate for the more complex intracellular assays. We and others have found that such axenic assays have a high false positive rate relative to the intracellular assays, and that this limits their usefulness as a primary platform for screening of large compound collections. While many different reasons could lie behind the poor translation from axenic parasite to intracellular parasite, we show here that a key factor is the identification of growth slowing and cytostatic compounds by axenic assays in addition to the more desirable cytocidal compounds. We present a screening cascade based on a novel cytocidal-only axenic amastigote assay, developed by increasing starting density of cells and lowering the limit of detection, and show that it has a much improved translation to the intracellular assay. We propose that this assay is an improved primary platform in a new Leishmania screening cascade designed for the screening of large compound collections. This cascade was employed to screen a diversity-oriented-synthesis library, and yielded two novel antileishmanial chemotypes. The approach we have taken may have broad relevance to anti-infective and anti-parasitic drug discovery. PMID:26407168

  9. Biomimetic three-dimensional tissue models for advanced high-throughput drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Smith, Alec S.T.; Lone, Saifullah; Kwon, Sunghoon; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Most current drug screening assays used to identify new drug candidates are 2D cell-based systems, even though such in vitro assays do not adequately recreate the in vivo complexity of 3D tissues. Inadequate representation of the human tissue environment during a preclinical test can result in inaccurate predictions of compound effects on overall tissue functionality. Screening for compound efficacy by focusing on a single pathway or protein target, coupled with difficulties in maintaining long-term 2D monolayers, can serve to exacerbate these issues when utilizing such simplistic model systems for physiological drug screening applications. Numerous studies have shown that cell responses to drugs in 3D culture are improved from those in 2D, with respect to modeling in vivo tissue functionality, which highlights the advantages of using 3D-based models for preclinical drug screens. In this review, we discuss the development of microengineered 3D tissue models which accurately mimic the physiological properties of native tissue samples, and highlight the advantages of using such 3D micro-tissue models over conventional cell-based assays for future drug screening applications. We also discuss biomimetic 3D environments, based-on engineered tissues as potential preclinical models for the development of more predictive drug screening assays for specific disease models. PMID:25385716

  10. Biomimetic 3D Tissue Models for Advanced High-Throughput Drug Screening.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Smith, Alec S T; Lone, Saifullah; Kwon, Sunghoon; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Most current drug screening assays used to identify new drug candidates are 2D cell-based systems, even though such in vitro assays do not adequately re-create the in vivo complexity of 3D tissues. Inadequate representation of the human tissue environment during a preclinical test can result in inaccurate predictions of compound effects on overall tissue functionality. Screening for compound efficacy by focusing on a single pathway or protein target, coupled with difficulties in maintaining long-term 2D monolayers, can serve to exacerbate these issues when using such simplistic model systems for physiological drug screening applications. Numerous studies have shown that cell responses to drugs in 3D culture are improved from those in 2D, with respect to modeling in vivo tissue functionality, which highlights the advantages of using 3D-based models for preclinical drug screens. In this review, we discuss the development of microengineered 3D tissue models that accurately mimic the physiological properties of native tissue samples and highlight the advantages of using such 3D microtissue models over conventional cell-based assays for future drug screening applications. We also discuss biomimetic 3D environments, based on engineered tissues as potential preclinical models for the development of more predictive drug screening assays for specific disease models. PMID:25385716

  11. Bioluminescent, Nonlytic, Real-Time Cell Viability Assay and Use in Inhibitor Screening

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenhui; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Cali, James J.; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Real-time continuous monitoring of cellular processes offers distinct advantages over traditional endpoint assays. A comprehensive representation of the changes occurring in live cells over the entire length of an experiment provides information about the biological status of the cell and informs decisions about the timing of treatments or the use of other functional endpoint assays. We describe a homogeneous, nonlytic, bioluminescent assay that measures cell viability in real time. This time-dependent measurement allowed us to monitor cell health for 72?h from the same test samples, distinguish differential cell growth, and investigate drug mechanism of action by analyzing time- and dose-dependent drug effects. The real-time measurements also allowed us to detect cell death immediately (>75% signal decrease within 15?min of digitonin addition), analyze drug potency versus efficacy, and identify cytostatic versus toxic drug effects. We screened an oncology compound library (Z??=?0.7) and identified compounds with varying activity at different time points (1.6% of the library showed activity within 3?h, whereas 35.4% showed a response by 47?h). The assay compared well with orthogonal endpoint cell viability assays and additionally provided data at multiple time points and the opportunity to multiplex assays on the same cells. To test the advantage of time-dependent measurements to direct optimal timing of downstream applications, we used the real-time cell viability assay to determine the ideal time to measure caspase activity by monitoring the onset of cell death and multiplexing a luminescent caspase activation assay on the same test samples. PMID:26383544

  12. A Static-Cidal Assay for Trypanosoma brucei to Aid Hit Prioritisation for Progression into Drug Discovery

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    A Static-Cidal Assay for Trypanosoma brucei to Aid Hit Prioritisation for Progression into Drug that cure the disease in as few doses as possible. Screening assays used for hit- discovery campaigns often are required. Such studies usually do not have the throughput required to test the large numbers of hits

  13. Inhibition of Microglia Activation as a Phenotypic Assay in Early Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Figuera-Losada, Mariana; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S.

    2014-01-01

    Complex biological processes such as inflammation, cell death, migration, proliferation, and the release of biologically active molecules can be used as outcomes in phenotypic assays during early stages of drug discovery. Although target-based approaches have been widely used over the past decades, a disproportionate number of first-in-class drugs have been identified using phenotypic screening. This review details phenotypic assays based on inhibition of microglial activation and their utility in primary and secondary screening, target validation, and pathway elucidation. The role of microglia, both in normal as well as in pathological conditions such as chronic neurodegenerative diseases, is reviewed. Methodologies to assess microglia activation in vitro are discussed in detail, and classes of therapeutic drugs known to decrease the proinflammatory and cytotoxic responses of activated microglia are appraised, including inhibitors of glutaminase, cystine/glutamate antiporter, nuclear factor ?B, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. PMID:23945875

  14. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866...In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification . The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. 862.3645 Section...3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device...

  20. Membrane Assays to Characterize Interaction of Drugs with ABCB1.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Zsolt; Rajnai, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Tünde; Jakab, Katalin Tauberné; Kurunczi, Anita; Gémes, Katalin; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Fülöp, Ferenc; Tóth, Gábor K; Czerwinski, Maciej; Loewen, Greg; Krajcsi, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)] can affect the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of drugs making it important to identify compounds that interact with ABCB1. The ATPase assay and vesicular transport (VT) assay are membrane based assays that can be used to measure the interaction of compounds with ABCB1 at a lower cost and higher throughput compared to cellular-based assays and therefore can be used earlier in the drug development process. To that end, we tested compounds previously identified as ABCB1 substrates and inhibitors for interaction with ABCB1 using the ATPase and VT assays. All compounds tested interacted with ABCB1 in both the ATPase and VT assays. All compounds previously identified as ABCB1 substrates activated ABCB1-mediated ATPase activity in the ATPase assay. All compounds previously identified as ABCB1 inhibitors inhibited the ABCB1-mediated transport in the VT assay. Interestingly, six of the ten compounds previously identified as ABCB1 inhibitors activated the basal ATPase activity in activation assays suggesting that the compounds are substrates of ABCB1 but can inhibit ABCB1 in inhibition assays. Importantly, for ATPase activators the EC50 of activation correlated with the IC50 values from the VT assay showing that interactions of compounds with ABCB1 can be measured with similar levels of potency in either assay. For ATPase nonactivators the IC50 values from the ATPase inhibition and VT inhibition assay showed correlation. These results demonstrate the utility of membrane assays as tools to detect and rank order drug-transporter interactions. PMID:25926125

  1. Comparison of rapid screening assays using organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, S.A.; Robideau, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    In a continuation of a study presented last year using metals, the sensitivity of short term toxicity tests is examined using common organic chemicals. In toxicity testing, the focus has shifted from the traditional long-term studies utilizing the mortality of complex, multicellular eukaryotic organisms as the endpoint towards short-term studies in which transformation of biochemical pathways are monitored. The relative sensitivity of aquatic screening techniques are compared to the standardized 48-hr Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, 96-hr fathead minnow and 96-hr algal acute assays. The short-term test procedures investigated are: dehydrogenase enzyme activity assays utilizing triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin as the calorimetric indicators; TOXI-Chromotest, inhibition of {beta}-galactosidase; reduction in bioluminescence output utilizing the Microtox{reg_sign} test; nitrification inhibition assays with a commercial preparation of nitrifying bacteria (Nitroseed{trademark}) and municipal activated sludge; respiration inhibition assays with a commercial preparation of heterotrophic bacteria (Polytox{reg_sign}) and activated sludge; inhibition of root growth in terrestrial plants; and galactosidase inhibition through the use of a fluorometrically tagged substrate with the Daphnia magna IQ{trademark} test. Toxicity values generated by this laboratory on commonly used organic chemicals are compared.

  2. Stool DNA methylation assays in colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyska, Tanya; Nossikoff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is fourth most common cancer in men and third in women worldwide. Developing a diagnostic panel of sensitive and specific biomarkers for the early detection of CRC is recognised as to be crucial for early initial diagnosis, which in turn leads to better long term survival. Most of the research on novel potential CRC biomarkers in the last 2 decades has been focussed on stool DNA analysis. In this paper, we describe the recent advances in non-invasive CRC screening and more specifically in molecular assays for aberrantly methylated BMP3 and NDRG4 promoter regions. In several research papers these markers showed superior rates for sensitivity and specificity in comparison to previously described assays. These tests detected the majority of adenomas ? 1 cm in size and the detection rates progressively increased with larger adenomas. The methylation status of the BMP3 and NDRG4 promoters demonstrated effective detection of neoplasms at all sites throughout the colon and was not affected by common clinical variables. Recently, a multitarget stool DNA test consisting of molecular assays for aberrantly methylated BMP3 and NDRG4 promoter regions, mutant KRAS and immunochemical assay for human haemoglobin has been made commercially available and is currently reimbursed in the United States. Although this is the most sensitive non-invasive CRC screening test, there is the need for further research in several areas - establishment of the best timeframe for repeated DNA stool testing; validation of the results in populations outside of North America; usefulness for surveillance and prognosis of patients; cost-effectiveness of DNA stool testing in real-life populations. PMID:26401070

  3. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays: An Unexpected Challenge for the Choice of an Assay in Primary Cervical Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four assays. Positive agreement between the assays was measured as the conditional probability that the results of all compared assays were positive given that at least one assay returned a positive result. Of all 5,064 samples, 1,679 (33.2%) tested positive on at least one of the assays. Among these, 41% tested positive on all four. Agreement was lower in women aged ?30 years (30%, vs. 49% at <30 years), in primary screening samples (29%, vs. 38% in follow-up samples), and in women with concurrent normal cytology (22%, vs. 68% with abnormal cytology). Among primary screening samples from women aged 30–65 years (n?=?2,881), 23% tested positive on at least one assay, and 42 to 58% of these showed positive agreement on any compared pair of the assays. While 4% of primary screening samples showed abnormal cytology, 6 to 10% were discordant on any pair of assays. A literature review corroborated our findings of considerable disagreement between human papillomavirus assays. This suggested that the extent of disagreement in primary screening is neither population- nor storage media-specific, leaving assay design differences as the most probable cause. The substantially different selection of women testing positive on the various human papillomavirus assays represents an unexpected challenge for the choice of an assay in primary cervical screening, and for follow up of in particular HPV positive/cytology normal women. PMID:24466262

  4. High Throughput Screening for Anti–Trypanosoma cruzi Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Rodríguez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new therapeutic options against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, stands as a fundamental need. Currently, there are only two drugs available to treat this neglected disease, which represents a major public health problem in Latin America. Both available therapies, benznidazole and nifurtimox, have significant toxic side effects and their efficacy against the life-threatening symptomatic chronic stage of the disease is variable. Thus, there is an urgent need for new, improved anti–T. cruzi drugs. With the objective to reliably accelerate the drug discovery process against Chagas disease, several advances have been made in the last few years. Availability of engineered reporter gene expressing parasites triggered the development of phenotypic in vitro assays suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) as well as the establishment of new in vivo protocols that allow faster experimental outcomes. Recently, automated high content microscopy approaches have also been used to identify new parasitic inhibitors. These in vitro and in vivo early drug discovery approaches, which hopefully will contribute to bring better anti–T. cruzi drug entities in the near future, are reviewed here. PMID:25474364

  5. Testing Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy in a Zebrafish High-Throughput Translational Medicine Screen

    PubMed Central

    Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J.; Wiweger, Malgorzata I.; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H.; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P.

    2014-01-01

    The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

  6. Approaches to protozoan drug discovery: phenotypic screening.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Melissa L; Avery, Vicky M

    2013-10-24

    Determining the activity of a compound and the potential impact on a diseased state is frequently undertaken using phenotypic or target-based approaches. Phenotypic screens have the advantage of the whole organism being exposed to the compound and thus all the targets and biological pathways associated with it. Cell penetration and access to targets in their "natural" environment are taken into account. Unless utilizing a genetically modified organism with an additional target associated indicator, elucidation of specific target(s) of active compounds is necessary. Target discovery is desirable to allow development of chemical entities based upon knowledge of the target structure. Phenotypic drug discovery has successfully identified new molecular entities for neglected protozoan disease research. In this perspective, the phenotypic approaches used to identify chemical entities for drug discovery and for use as tools against the parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi will be outlined. PMID:23927763

  7. Comprehensive drug screening in blood for detecting abused drugs or drugs potentially hazardous for traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Lillsunde, P; Michelson, L; Forsstrom, T; Korte, T; Schultz, E; Ariniemi, K; Portman, M; Sihvonen, M L; Seppala, T

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive drug screening procedure for detecting drugs in the blood samples of car drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs, is presented. Amphetamines, cannabinoids, opioids, cocaine and benzodiazepines were screened by an immunological EMIT ETS system after acetone precipitation. Gas chromatographic methods were used to screen and quantitate basic, neutral and acidic drugs. The free amino groups of basic drugs were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Analysis was performed by a dual channel gas chromatograph combined with a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector. Phenyltrimethylammonium hydroxide was used as a methylathing agent for acidic substances before analysis with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus detector. A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry was used as a common confirmation method. Tetrahydrocannabinol was quantitated after bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide derivatization, opiates after pentafluoropropionic anhydride derivatization and benzoylecgonine after pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol derivatization. Excluding benzodiazepines, which were confirmed with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector, the other basic drugs as well as the acidic drugs were confirmed after the same derivatization procedures as in the screening methods. Alcohols were quantitated in triplicate by gas chromatography using three different kinds of columns. Although urine is the most important specimen for screening abused drugs, it has only limited use in forensic toxicology. The described system is most useful for analyzing a wide range of substances, including illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antidepressants and phenothiazenes in forensic samples when urine is not available. PMID:8819994

  8. Development of a Fluorescent Quenching Based High Throughput Assay to Screen for Calcineurin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Abhisek; Syeb, Kathleen; Concannon, John; Callegari, Keri; Soto, Claudio; Glicksman, Marcie A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no effective treatment available for major neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's disease. One of most promising therapeutic approaches under development focuses on inhibiting the misfolding and aggregation pathway. However, it is likely that by the time clinical symptoms appear, there is a large accumulation of misfolded aggregates and a very substantial damage to the brain. Thus, it seems that at the clinical stage of the disease it is necessary also to develop strategies aiming to prevent the neuronal damage produced by already formed misfolded aggregates. Chronic activation of calcineurin (CaN), a type IIB phosphatase, has been implicated as a pivotal molecule connecting synaptic loss and neuronal damage to protein misfolding. The fact that the crystal structure of CaN is also well established makes it an ideal target for drug discovery. CaN activity assays for High Throughput Screening (HTS) reported so far are based on absorbance. In this article we report the development of a fluorescent quenching based CaN activity assay suitable for robotic screening of large chemical libraries to find novel inhibitors. The assay yielded a Z score of 0.84 with coefficient of variance ? 15%. Our results also show that this assay can be used to identify CaN inhibitors with a wide range of potencies. PMID:26176772

  9. Efficient technique for screening drugs for activity against Trypanosoma cruzi using parasites expressing beta-galactosidase.

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, F S; Verlinde, C L; La Flamme, A C; Van Voorhis, W C

    1996-01-01

    A new drug screening method was devised utilizing Trypanosoma cruzi cells that express the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene. Transfected parasites catalyze a colorimetric reaction with chlorophenol red beta-D-galactopyranoside as substrate. Parasite growth in the presence of drugs in microtiter plates was quantitated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader. The assay was performed with the mammalian form of T. cruzi that requires intracellular growth on a monolayer of fibroblast cells. To determine if selective toxicity to the parasites was occurring, the viability of the host cells in the drug was assayed with AlamarBlue. The drugs benznidazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B were shown to inhibit the parasites at concentrations similar to those previously reported. Several compounds were tested that are inhibitors of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of the related organisms Leishmania mexicana and Trypanosoma brucei. One of these compounds, 2-guanidino-benzimidazole, had an 50% inhibitory concentration of 10 microM in our assay. Two derivatives of this compound were identified with in vitro activity at even lower concentrations. In addition, the assay was modified for testing compounds for lytic activity against the bloodstream form of the parasite under conditions used for storing blood products. Thus, an assay with beta-galactosidase-expressing T. cruzi greatly simplifies screening drugs for selective anti-T. cruzi activity, and three promising new compounds have been identified. PMID:8913471

  10. A systems approach for analysis of high content screening assay data with topic modeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High Content Screening (HCS) has become an important tool for toxicity assessment, partly due to its advantage of handling multiple measurements simultaneously. This approach has provided insight and contributed to the understanding of systems biology at cellular level. To fully realize this potential, the simultaneously measured multiple endpoints from a live cell should be considered in a probabilistic relationship to assess the cell's condition to response stress from a treatment, which poses a great challenge to extract hidden knowledge and relationships from these measurements. Method In this work, we applied a text mining method of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to analyze cellular endpoints from in vitro HCS assays and related to the findings to in vivo histopathological observations. We measured multiple HCS assay endpoints for 122 drugs. Since LDA requires the data to be represented in document-term format, we first converted the continuous value of the measurements to the word frequency that can processed by the text mining tool. For each of the drugs, we generated a document for each of the 4 time points. Thus, we ended with 488 documents (drug-hour) each having different values for the 10 endpoints which are treated as words. We extracted three topics using LDA and examined these to identify diagnostic topics for 45 common drugs located in vivo experiments from the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project (TGP) observing their necrosis findings at 6 and 24 hours after treatment. Results We found that assay endpoints assigned to particular topics were in concordance with the histopathology observed. Drugs showing necrosis at 6 hour were linked to severe damage events such as Steatosis, DNA Fragmentation, Mitochondrial Potential, and Lysosome Mass. DNA Damage and Apoptosis were associated with drugs causing necrosis at 24 hours, suggesting an interplay of the two pathways in these drugs. Drugs with no sign of necrosis we related to the Cell Loss and Nuclear Size assays, which is suggestive of hepatocyte regeneration. Conclusions The evidence from this study suggests that topic modeling with LDA can enable us to interpret relationships of endpoints of in vitro assays along with an in vivo histological finding, necrosis. Effectiveness of this approach may add substantially to our understanding of systems biology. PMID:24267543

  11. A Differential Drug Screen for Compounds That Select Against Antibiotic Resistance

    E-print Network

    Kishony, Roy

    A Differential Drug Screen for Compounds That Select Against Antibiotic Resistance Remy Chait1, Massachusetts, United States of America Abstract Antibiotics increase the frequency of resistant bacteria of chemicals that counteracts antibiotic resistance. Finally, we show that our assay can more generally permit

  12. High throughput optical sensor arrays for drug screening

    E-print Network

    Harjes, Daniel I

    2006-01-01

    In the world of drug discovery, high throughput whole cell assays are a critical step in discovering therapeutically relevant drug compounds [1]. This report details the development of several novel sensor systems capable ...

  13. Screening for inhibitors of low-affinity epigenetic peptide-protein interactions: an AlphaScreen-based assay for antagonists of methyl-lysine binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Tim J; Herold, J Martin; Senisterra, Guillermo A; Vedadi, Masoud; Kireev, Dmitri B; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Frye, Stephen V; Janzen, William P

    2010-01-01

    The histone code comprises many posttranslational modifications that occur mainly in histone tail peptides. The identity and location of these marks are read by a variety of histone-binding proteins that are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and development and are increasingly being implicated in numerous disease states. The authors describe the development of the first high-throughput screening assay for the discovery of inhibitors of methyl-lysine binding proteins that will be used to initiate a full-scale discovery effort for this broad target class. They focus on the development of an AlphaScreen-based assay for malignant brain tumor (MBT) domain-containing proteins, which bind to the lower methylation states of lysine residues present in histone tail peptides. This assay takes advantage of the avidity of the AlphaScreen beads to clear the hurdle to assay development presented by the low micromolar binding constants of the histone binding proteins for their cognate peptides. The assay is applicable to other families of methyl-lysine binding proteins, and it has the potential to be used in screening efforts toward the discovery of novel small molecules with utility as research tools for cellular reprogramming and ultimately drug discovery. PMID:20008125

  14. Convenient cell fusion assay for rapid screening for HIV entry inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shibo; Radigan, Lin; Zhang, Li

    2000-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV)-induced cell fusion is a critical pathway of HIV spread from infected cells to uninfected cells. A rapid and simple assay was established to measure HIV-induce cell fusion. This study is particularly useful to rapid screen for HIV inhibitors that block HIV cell-to-cell transmission. Present study demonstrated that coculture of HIV-infected cells with uninfected cells at 37 degree(s)C for 2 hours resulted in the highest cell fusion rate. Using this cell fusion assay, we have identified several potent HIV inhibitors targeted to the HIV gp41 core. These antiviral agents can be potentially developed as antiviral drugs for chemotherapy and prophylaxis of HIV infection and AIDS.

  15. Adapting high-throughput screening methods and assays for biocontainment laboratories.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Tigabu, Bersabeh; White, E Lucile; Bostwick, Robert; Tower, Nichole; Bukreyev, Alexander; Rockx, Barry; LeDuc, James W; Noah, James W

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has been integrated into the drug discovery process, and multiple assay formats have been widely used in many different disease areas but with limited focus on infectious agents. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of HTS campaigns using infectious wild-type pathogens rather than surrogates or biochemical pathogen-derived targets. Concurrently, enhanced emerging pathogen surveillance and increased human mobility have resulted in an increase in the emergence and dissemination of infectious human pathogens with serious public health, economic, and social implications at global levels. Adapting the HTS drug discovery process to biocontainment laboratories to develop new drugs for these previously uncharacterized and highly pathogenic agents is now feasible, but HTS at higher biosafety levels (BSL) presents a number of unique challenges. HTS has been conducted with multiple bacterial and viral pathogens at both BSL-2 and BSL-3, and pilot screens have recently been extended to BSL-4 environments for both Nipah and Ebola viruses. These recent successful efforts demonstrate that HTS can be safely conducted at the highest levels of biological containment. This review outlines the specific issues that must be considered in the execution of an HTS drug discovery program for high-containment pathogens. We present an overview of the requirements for HTS in high-level biocontainment laboratories. PMID:25710545

  16. The validation of an invitro colonic motility assay as a biomarker for gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Christopher; Martinez, Vicente; Ewart, Lorna; Gibbons, Stephen; Grundy, Luke; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Grundy, David

    2010-06-15

    Motility-related gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (GADRs), such as constipation and diarrhea, are some of the most frequently reported adverse events associated with the clinical development of new chemical entities, and for marketed drugs. However, biomarkers capable of detecting such GADRs are lacking. Here, we describe an in vitro assay developed to detect and quantify changes in intestinal motility as a surrogate biomarker for constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. In vitro recordings of intraluminal pressure were used to monitor the presence of colonic peristaltic motor complexes (CPMCs) in mouse colonic segments. CPMC frequency, contractile and total mechanical activity were assessed. To validate the assay, two experimental protocols were conducted. Initially, five drugs with known gastrointestinal effects were tested to determine optimal parameters describing excitation and inhibition as markers for disturbances in colonic motility. This was followed by a 'blinded' evaluation of nine drugs associated with or without clinically identified constipation/diarrhea-type GADRs. Concentration-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the effects were compared with their maximal free therapeutic plasma concentration in humans. The assay detected stimulatory and inhibitory responses, likely correlating to the occurrence of diarrhea or constipation. Concentration-related effects were identified and potential mechanisms of action were inferred for several drugs. Based on the results from the fourteen drugs assessed, the sensitivity of the assay was calculated at 90%, with a specificity of 75% and predictive capacity of 86%. These results support the potential use of this assay in screening for motility-related GADRs during early discovery phase, safety pharmacology assessment.

  17. Differential determinants of cancer cell insensitivity to antimitotic drugs discriminated by a one-step cell imaging assay.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yangzhong; Xie, Tiao; Florian, Stefan; Moerke, Nathan; Shamu, Caroline; Benes, Cyril; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2013-10-01

    Cancer cells can be drug resistant due to genetic variation at multiple steps in the drug response pathway, including drug efflux pumping, target mutation, and blunted apoptotic response. These are not discriminated by conventional cell survival assays. Here, we report a rapid and convenient high-content cell-imaging assay that measures multiple physiological changes in cells responding to antimitotic small-molecule drugs. Our one-step, no-wash assay uses three dyes to stain living cells and is much more accurate for scoring weakly adherent mitotic and apoptotic cells than conventional antibody-based assays. We profiled responses of 33 cell lines to 8 antimitotic drugs at multiple concentrations and time points using this assay and deposited our data and assay protocols into a public database (http://lincs.hms.harvard.edu/). Our data discriminated between alternative mechanisms that compromise drug sensitivity to paclitaxel and revealed an unexpected bell-shaped dose-response curve for BI2536, a highly selective inhibitor of Polo-like kinases. Our approach can be generalized, is scalable, and should therefore facilitate identification of molecular biomarkers for mechanisms of drug insensitivity in high-throughput screens and other assays. PMID:23788527

  18. Potential impact of drug effects, availability, pharmacokinetics, and screening on estimates of drugs implicated in cases of assault.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lawrence P

    2011-09-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a serious and troubling crime. It is important to know if and how different drugs might be used to facilitate assault in order to deter such crime. There are a number of ways in which drugs that are used for DFSA might not be detected by routine screens. The purpose of this analysis was to draw reasonable inferences regarding drugs with a high likelihood of being used for DFSA and not being detected by routine screens. National data from poison control centres, hospital emergency rooms, and law enforcement seizures were used to evaluate the relative magnitude of problems and illicit availability associated with different classes of drugs. General drug classes were examined to include additional drugs that might be used for DFSA on the basis of their amnesic effects, widespread availability, and pharmacokinetics (i.e. short half-life). The benzodiazepine-site ligands zolpidem and eszopiclone, 'club drugs' GHB and ketamine, muscle relaxants such as carisoprodol, and antihistamines such as diphenhydramine were identified as drugs that might be used for DFSA and remain undetected by routine screens. Future studies that are designed to examine the role of these drugs in DFSA cases could provide better estimates of their use for DFSA. A better understanding of what is being missed in DFSA cases might help prioritize the development of new assays, provide rationale for the availability of particular assays for routine testing, and inform practitioners and the general public of the potential DFSA risks of certain drugs. PMID:21960542

  19. Urine Drug Screening of Adolescents on Request of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest

    1994-01-01

    Of 100 adolescents screened for drug use, 43% tested positive for drugs of abuse. Twenty-five percent of these adolescents entered treatment, with 8% requiring medical detoxification or inpatient treatment. Urine screening, when done for clinical rather than punitive purposes, appeared to facilitate entry into treatment. (RJM)

  20. Assays for the Identification and Prioritization of Drug Candidates for Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Jonathan J.; Kobayashi, Dione T.; Lynes, Maureen M.; Naryshkin, Nikolai N.; Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Zaworski, Phillip G.; Rubin, Lee L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder resulting in degeneration of ?-motor neurons of the anterior horn and proximal muscle weakness. It is the leading cause of genetic mortality in children younger than 2 years. It affects ?1 in 11,000 live births. In 95% of cases, SMA is caused by homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. In addition, all patients possess at least one copy of an almost identical gene called SMN2. A single point mutation in exon 7 of the SMN2 gene results in the production of low levels of full-length survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein at amounts insufficient to compensate for the loss of the SMN1 gene. Although no drug treatments are available for SMA, a number of drug discovery and development programs are ongoing, with several currently in clinical trials. This review describes the assays used to identify candidate drugs for SMA that modulate SMN2 gene expression by various means. Specifically, it discusses the use of high-throughput screening to identify candidate molecules from primary screens, as well as the technical aspects of a number of widely used secondary assays to assess SMN messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression, localization, and function. Finally, it describes the process of iterative drug optimization utilized during preclinical SMA drug development to identify clinical candidates for testing in human clinical trials. PMID:25147906

  1. Screening system for drug-induced arrhythmogenic risk combining a patch clamp and heart simulator

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Jun-ichi; Yoshinaga, Takashi; Kurokawa, Junko; Washio, Takumi; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Sawada, Kohei; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    To save time and cost for drug discovery, a paradigm shift in cardiotoxicity testing is required. We introduce a novel screening system for drug-induced arrhythmogenic risk that combines in vitro pharmacological assays and a multiscale heart simulator. For 12 drugs reported to have varying cardiotoxicity risks, dose-inhibition curves were determined for six ion channels using automated patch clamp systems. By manipulating the channel models implemented in a heart simulator consisting of more than 20 million myocyte models, we simulated a standard electrocardiogram (ECG) under various doses of drugs. When the drug concentrations were increased from therapeutic levels, each drug induced a concentration-dependent characteristic type of ventricular arrhythmia, whereas no arrhythmias were observed at any dose with drugs known to be safe. We have shown that our system combining in vitro and in silico technologies can predict drug-induced arrhythmogenic risk reliably and efficiently. PMID:26601174

  2. High-throughput screening of FDA-approved drugs using oxygen biosensor plates reveals secondary mitofunctional effects.

    PubMed

    Sahdeo, Sunil; Tomilov, Alexey; Komachi, Kelly; Iwahashi, Christine; Datta, Sandipan; Hughes, Owen; Hagerman, Paul; Cortopassi, Gino

    2014-07-01

    Repurposing of FDA-approved drugs with effects on mitochondrial function might shorten the critical path to mitochondrial disease drug development. We improved a biosensor-based assay of mitochondrial O2 consumption, and identified mitofunctional defects in cell models of LHON and FXTAS. Using this platform, we screened a 1600-compound library of clinically used drugs. The assay identified drugs known to affect mitochondrial function, such as metformin and decoquinate. We also identified several drugs not previously known to affect mitochondrial respiration including acarbose, metaraminol, gallamine triethiodide, and acamprosate. These previously unknown 'mitoactives' represent novel links to targets for mitochondrial regulation and potentially therapy, for mitochondrial disease. PMID:25034306

  3. High-throughput screening of FDA-approved drugs using oxygen biosensor plates reveals secondary mitofunctional effects

    PubMed Central

    Sahdeo, Sunil; Tomilov, Alexey; Komachi, Kelly; Iwahashi, Christine; Datta, Sandipan; Hughes, Owen; Hagerman, Paul; Cortopassi, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Repurposing of FDA-approved drugs with effects on mitochondrial function might shorten the critical path to mitochondrial disease drug development. We improved a biosensor-based assay of mitochondrial O2 consumption, and identified mitofunctional defects in cell models of LHON and FXTAS. Using this platform, we screened a 1600-compound library of clinically used drugs. The assay identified drugs known to affect mitochondrial function, such as metformin and decoquinate. We also identified several drugs not previously known to affect mitochondrial respiration including acarbose, metaraminol, gallamine triethiodide, and acamprosate. These previously unknown ‘mitoactives’ represent novel links to targets for mitochondrial regulation and potentially therapy, for mitochondrial disease. PMID:25034306

  4. Differentiation of drug and non-drug Cannabis using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay.

    PubMed

    Rotherham, D; Harbison, S A

    2011-04-15

    Cannabis sativa is both an illegal drug and a legitimate crop. The differentiation of illegal drug Cannabis from non-drug forms of Cannabis is relevant in the context of the growth of fibre and seed oil varieties of Cannabis for commercial purposes. This differentiation is currently determined based on the levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult plants. DNA based methods have the potential to assay Cannabis material unsuitable for analysis using conventional means including seeds, pollen and severely degraded material. The purpose of this research was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for the differentiation of "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis plants. An assay was developed based on four polymorphisms within a 399 bp fragment of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, utilising the snapshot multiplex kit. This SNP assay was tested on 94 Cannabis plants, which included 10 blind samples, and was able to differentiate between "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis in all cases, while also differentiating between Cannabis and other species. Non-drug plants were found to be homozygous at the four sites assayed while drug Cannabis plants were either homozygous or heterozygous. PMID:21036496

  5. Drug screening and confirmation by GC-MS: comparison of EMIT II and Online KIMS against 10 drugs between US and England laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lu, Natalie T; Taylor, Bruce G

    2006-03-10

    Drug screening through urinalysis is a widely accepted tool for rapid detection of potential drug use at a relatively low cost. It is, therefore, a potentially useful method for detecting and monitoring drug use in a variety of contexts such as the criminal justice system, pre-employment screening and a variety of treatment centers. This article explores the efficacy of two commercially available drug-screening assays: Online KIMS assay (Roche) and EMIT II assays. First, we evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of two immunoassays. A total of 738 urine samples were collected among adult arrestee populations from Chicago, New Orleans and Seattle through the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program. Partial samples were split within one laboratory and analyzed by both enzymes multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) II and kinetic interaction of microparticle in solution (KIMS) assays for a 10-drug panel (amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, marijuana, cocaine, methadone, methaqualone, opiate, phencyclidine and propoxyphene). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as a confirmation method for all positives from either EMIT II or KIMS for all experiments. Second, the paper examines whether using different testing laboratories plays a role in the final results. The same experiments were repeated at two different testing locations: one in California and one in London and England. Third, the paper studies whether drug testing results vary between two laboratories when each of them had used their own routine screening method: the Forensic Science Service (FSS) at Birmingham, United Kingdom with KIMS assay and Medscreen Limited at London, United Kingdom with EMIT II. In summary, both EMIT II and KIMS assays generate fairly consistent results. The concordance rate against each of the 10 drugs tested is relatively high (97.4-100%). The discrepancies, in most cases, occurred at drug concentrations near the cut-off levels. There were more discrepant results between two laboratories compared to when specimens were analyzed at the same laboratory using two different assays. PMID:15899564

  6. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers. PMID:19363796

  7. The changing face of screening and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Matthew A

    2012-04-01

    Screening Asia 2011, Singapore, 22–23 November 2011. The meeting covered traditional topics such as high-content screening and assay development, as well as more contemporary, emergent areas involving novel screening platforms and technologies, strategies to deal with biosimilars and biologics, and natural product diversity. Notably, many talks challenged established screening practices and the use of 'combichem' small-molecule libraries. Instead, speakers offered an alternate view of compound library design and screening strategies that could better mimic the target and cell status found in the relevant disease state. PMID:22462783

  8. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  10. Development of phenotypic screening assays for ?-globin induction using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Xie, Wensheng; Gore, Elizabeth R; Montoute, Monica N; Bee, Weilin Tiger; Zappacosta, Francesca; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Zining; Kallal, Lorena; Ames, Robert S; Pope, Andrew J; Benowitz, Andrew; Erickson-Miller, Connie L

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder of the ?-globin gene. SCA results in chronic ischemia with pain and tissue injury. The extent of SCA symptoms can be ameliorated by treatment with drugs, which result in increasing the levels of ?-globin in patient red blood cells. Hydroxyurea (HU) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for SCA, but it has dose-limiting toxicity, and patients exhibit highly variable treatment responses. To identify compounds that may lead to the development of better and safer medicines, we have established a method using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) to screen for compounds that induce ?-globin production. First, human marrow CD34(+) cells were cultured and expanded for 7 days and characterized for the expression of erythroid differentiation markers (CD71, CD36, and CD235a). Second, fresh or cryopreserved EPCs were treated with compounds for 3 days in 384-well plates followed by ?-globin quantification by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was validated using HU and decitabine. From the 7408 compounds screened, we identified at least one new compound with confirmed ?-globin-inducing activity. Hits are undergoing analysis in secondary assays. In this article, we describe the method of generating fit-for-purpose EPCs; the development, optimization, and validation of the ELISA and secondary assays for ?-globin detection; and screening results. PMID:24163393

  11. Evaluation of six computerized drug interaction screening programs.

    PubMed

    Jankel, C A; Martin, B C

    1992-06-01

    Six widely used computerized drug interaction screening programs were evaluated according to criteria developed by a panel of pharmacists. A panel of six pharmacists from various practice settings developed criteria that were used to evaluate six computerized drug interaction screening programs: Medicom Micro Plus, Medical Letter, S-O-A-P, Drug Interactions by Hansten, Drug Therapy Screening Systems (DTSS), and RxTriage. The criteria were that the programs be user friendly and efficient, provide guidance, and be relevant to the user's practice setting. Also, they should detect interactions, quickly alert the user, and guide the user to the appropriate action. The user should be able to set the level of clinical significance, screen only current drugs in a patient profile, and print out summaries. The panel selected nine known drug interactions to test the programs' knowledge bases. Only Medicom Micro Plus and DTSS detected all nine drug interactions; Medical Letter missed three. RxTriage and Drug Interactions received the highest ratings in user friendliness and efficiency, but both missed two interactions. RxTriage was rated most relevant to their practice by hospital and community pharmacists, and Drug Interactions was rated most relevant by faculty practitioners. S-O-A-P received low ratings overall. Of the six drug interaction screening programs evaluated, none was considered by the panel of pharmacists to be ideal. PMID:1529984

  12. Ca2+ mobilization assays in GPCR drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Woszczek, Grzegorz; Fuerst, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium mobilization can be measured using several methods varying in indicator dyes and devices used. In this chapter, we describe the fluorescence-based method (FLIPR Calcium 4 Assay) developed by Molecular Devices for a FlexStation and routinely used in our laboratory for detecting intracellular calcium changes. The assay is designed to study calcium mobilization induced by majority of GPCRs and calcium channels and allows for simultaneous concentration-dependent analysis of several receptor agonists and antagonists, useful in receptor characterization and drug discovery projects. PMID:25563178

  13. ToxCast Workflow: High-throughput screening assay data processing, analysis and management (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA’s ToxCast program is generating data in high-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays for thousands of environmental chemicals, for use in developing predictive toxicity models. Currently the ToxCast screening program includes over 1800 unique c...

  14. A High Throughput Screening Assay for Anti-Mycobacterial Small Molecules Based on Adenylate Kinase Release as a Reporter of Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Lauren; Ebsworth-Mojica, Katherine; DiDone, Louis; Li, Shao-Gang; Freundlich, Joel S.; Connell, Nancy; Dunman, Paul M.; Krysan, Damian J.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is well-established to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens for which new antimicrobial therapies are needed. Herein, we describe the development of a high throughput screening assay for the identification of molecules that are bactericidal against Mycobacteria. The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. We demonstrate that the assay is selective for mycobactericidal molecules and detects anti-mycobacterial activity at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration of many molecules. Thus, the AK assay is more sensitive than traditional growth assays. We have validated the AK assay in the HTS setting using the Mtb surrogate organism M. smegmatis and libraries of FDA approved drugs as well as a commercially available Diversity set. The screen of the FDA-approved library demonstrated that the AK assay is able to identify the vast majority of drugs with known mycobactericidal activity. Importantly, our screen of the Diversity set revealed that the increased sensitivity of the AK assay increases the ability of M. smegmatis-based screens to detect molecules with relatively poor activity against M. smegmatis but good to excellent activity against Mtb. PMID:26098625

  15. Screening for Small Molecules' Bilayer-Modifying Potential Using a Gramicidin-Based Fluorescence Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Many drugs and other small molecules used to modulate biological function are amphiphiles that adsorb at the bilayer/solution interface and thereby alter lipid bilayer properties. This is important because membrane proteins are energetically coupled to their host bilayer by hydrophobic interactions. Changes in bilayer properties thus alter membrane protein function, which provides a possible mechanism for “off-target” drug effects. We have previously shown that channels formed by the linear gramicidins are suitable probes for changes in lipid bilayer properties, as experienced by bilayer-spanning proteins. We now report a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay for changes in bilayer properties. The assay is based on measuring the time course of fluorescence quenching in fluorophore-loaded large unilamellar vesicles, due to entry of a gramicidin channel-permeable quencher. The method is scalable and suitable for both mechanistic studies and high-throughput screening for bilayer-perturbing, potential off-target effects, which we illustrate using capsaicin (Cap) and other compounds. PMID:20233091

  16. A fluorometric assay for high-throughput screening targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Qin, Ye; Lv, Xiao-Qun; Wang, Pei; Xu, Tian-Ying; Zhang, Lei; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2011-05-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) plays a crucial role in many cellular processes. As the rate-limiting enzyme of the predominant NAD biosynthesis pathway in mammals, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) regulates the cellular NAD level. Tumor cells are more sensitive to the NAD levels, making them more susceptible to Nampt inhibition than their nontumorigenic counterparts. Experimental evidence has indicated that Nampt might have proangiogenic activity and supports the growth of some tumors, so Nampt inhibitors may be promising as antitumor agents. However, only four Nampt inhibitors have been reported, and no high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy for Nampt has been proposed to date, largely limiting the drug discovery targeting Nampt. Therefore, the development of a robust HTS strategy for Nampt is both imperative and significant. Here we developed a fluorometric method for a Nampt activity assay by measuring the fluorescence of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) derivative resulting from the enzymatic product NMN through simple chemical reactions. Then we set up an HTS system after thorough optimizations of this method and validated that it is feasible and effective through a pilot screening on a small library. This HTS system should expedite the discovery of Nampt inhibitors as antitumor drug candidates. PMID:21211508

  17. A high-content screening assay in transgenic zebrafish identifies two novel activators of fgf signaling.

    PubMed

    Saydmohammed, Manush; Vollmer, Laura L; Onuoha, Ezenwa Obi; Vogt, Andreas; Tsang, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Zebrafish have become an invaluable vertebrate animal model to interrogate small molecule libraries for modulators of complex biological pathways and phenotypes. We have recently described the implementation of a quantitative, high-content imaging assay in multi-well plates to analyze the effects of small molecules on Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling in vivo. Here we have evaluated the capability of the assay to identify compounds that hyperactivate FGF signaling from a test cassette of agents with known biological activities. Using a transgenic zebrafish reporter line for FGF activity, we screened 1040 compounds from an annotated library of known bioactive agents, including FDA-approved drugs. The assay identified two molecules, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate and pyrithione zinc, that enhanced FGF signaling in specific areas of the brain. Subsequent studies revealed that both compounds specifically expanded FGF target gene expression. Furthermore, treatment of early stage embryos with either compound resulted in dorsalized phenotypes characteristic of hyperactivation of FGF signaling in early development. Documented activities for both agents included activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), consistent with FGF hyperactivation. To conclude, we demonstrate the power of automated quantitative high-content imaging to identify small molecule modulators of FGF. PMID:21932436

  18. A cell-free enzymatic activity assay for the evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance to protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Satoko; Masaoka, Takashi; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Morishita, Ryo; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Tatsumi, Masashi; Endo, Yaeta; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sugiura, Wataru; Ryo, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high frequency of genomic mutations, human retroviruses often develop resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The emergence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a significant obstacle to the effective long-term treatment of HIV infection. The development of a rapid and versatile drug-susceptibility assay would enable acquisition of phenotypic information and facilitate determination of the appropriate choice of antiretroviral agents. In this study, we developed a novel in vitro method, termed the Cell-free drug susceptibility assay (CFDSA), for monitoring phenotypic information regarding the drug resistance of HIV-1 protease (PR). The CFDSA utilizes a wheat germ cell-free protein production system to synthesize enzymatically active HIV-1 PRs directly from PCR products amplified from HIV-1 molecular clones or clinical isolates in a rapid one-step procedure. Enzymatic activity of PRs can be readily measured by AlphaScreen (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay Screen) in the presence or absence of clinically used protease inhibitors (PIs). CFDSA measurement of drug resistance was based on the fold resistance to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of various PIs. The CFDSA could serve as a non-infectious, rapid, accessible, and reliable alternative to infectious cell-based phenotypic assays for evaluation of PI-resistant HIV-1. PMID:26583013

  19. A Different Approach to Validating Screening Assays for Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: There continues to be many efforts around the world to develop assays that are shorter than the traditional embryofetal developmental toxicity assay, or use fewer or no mammals, or use less compound, or have all three attributes. Each assay developer needs to test th...

  20. Microengineering Methods for Cell Based Microarrays and High-Throughput Drug Screening Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Wu, JinHui; Wang, ShuQi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time-consuming and often face ethical concerns due to extensive use of animals. To improve cost-effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems have facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell based drug-screening models, which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell based drug screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds a great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility. PMID:21725152

  1. Identification of 53 compounds that block Ebola virus-like particle entry via a repurposing screen of approved drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Sun, Wei; Martínez-Romero, Carles; Tawa, Gregory; Shinn, Paul; Chen, Catherine Z; Schimmer, Aaron; Sanderson, Philip; McKew, John C; Zheng, Wei; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    In light of the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapeutics to treat Ebola infection, and drug repurposing screening is a potentially rapid approach for identifying such therapeutics. We developed a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) 1536-well plate assay to screen for entry inhibitors of Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) containing the glycoprotein (GP) and the matrix VP40 protein fused to a beta-lactamase reporter protein and applied this assay for a rapid drug repurposing screen of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. We report here the identification of 53 drugs with activity of blocking Ebola VLP entry into cells. These 53 active compounds can be divided into categories including microtubule inhibitors, estrogen receptor modulators, antihistamines, antipsychotics, pump/channel antagonists, and anticancer/antibiotics. Several of these compounds, including microtubule inhibitors and estrogen receptor modulators, had previously been reported to be active in BSL-4 infectious Ebola virus replication assays and in animal model studies. Our assay represents a robust, effective and rapid high-throughput screen for the identification of lead compounds in drug development for the treatment of Ebola virus infection. PMID:26038505

  2. Microfluidics-assisted in vitro drug screening and carrier production

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Jonathan H.; Lee, Woohyuk; Pun, Suzie H.; Kim, Jungkyu; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic platforms provide several unique advantages for drug development. In the production of drug carriers, physical properties such as size and shape, and chemical properties such as drug composition and pharmacokinetic parameters, can be modified simply and effectively by tuning the flow rate and geometries. Large numbers of carriers can then be fabricated with minimal effort and with little to no batch-to-batch variation. Additionally, cell or tissue culture models in microfluidic systems can be used as in vitro drug screening tools. Compared to in vivo animal models, microfluidic drug screening platforms allow for high-throughput and reproducible screening at a significantly lower cost, and when combined with current advances in tissue engineering, are also capable of mimicking native tissues. In this review, various microfluidic platforms for drug and gene carrier fabrication are reviewed to provide guidelines for designing appropriate carriers. In vitro microfluidic drug screening platforms designed for high-throughput analysis and replication of in vivo conditions are also reviewed to highlight future directions for drug research and development. PMID:23856409

  3. Establishment of a pancreatic ? cell proliferation model in vitro and a platform for diabetes drug screening.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jing; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Yongxia; Zheng, Xiaoliang; Tu, Linglan; Huang, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaoju

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes, a disease resulting from loss of functional ? cells, is globally an increasingly important condition. Based on the islet-differentiation ability of ductal epithelial cells and stimulating ? cell proliferation ability of the Reg I? gene, we aimed to establish an in vitro pancreatic ? cell proliferation model for screening therapeutic drugs of diabetes in the future. Pancreatic ductal epithelial cells were isolated from male Wistar rats, and induced to differentiate into pancreatic ? cells. Immunofluorescence staining assay, western blot, RT-PCR analysis, and dithizone staining were used to characterize the cells. Rat Reg I? protein was transiently expressed in vitro by transfection of HEK 293 cells with the PCMV6-entry-REG Ia plasmid, and expression was verified by RT-PCR analysis, proliferation assay, and apoptosis assay. The pancreatic ? cell proliferation model was further validated by a proliferation assay using differentiated pancreatic ? cells treated with transfection supernatant. Finally, we have successfully established an in vitro pancreatic ? cells proliferation model using transiently expressed rat Reg I? protein and differentiated pancreatic ? cells from pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. This model could be used as a platform to screen new drugs for islet neogenesis to cure diabetes, especially Chinese herbal drugs in the future. PMID:23979319

  4. [In vitro screening of psychoactive drugs].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kanako; Ogata, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the designation of illegal drugs (psychoactive drugs) by prefectural regulations, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government conducts surveys on the risk of drugs, reports the results to the governor through the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Advisory Committee on Illegal Drugs, an affiliated organization, and provides the central government with information. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health conducts identification of the constituents of drugs and biological effect tests to help the committee analyze and assess information on the risks of drugs. Narcotics and stimulants increase the concentrations of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, i.e., neurotransmitters, in the presynaptic clefts, exerting an excitatory effect. In the postsynaptic region, these neurotransmitters are considered to directly combine with the receptors and activate guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, causing activation. We have developed nine types (categorized into three groups) of simple, high-throughput measurement systems and examined their measurement methods. The systems are designed to assess the following properties of drugs: effects of: 1) inhibiting reuptake; 2) stimulating the release of neurotransmitters in the presynaptic region; and 3) activating G proteins in the postsynaptic region. The systems provide useful information in that they allow searches for the effects of a variety of psychoactive substances that are expected to become widespread, e.g., designer drugs, hallucinogenic plants and synthetic cannabinoids; they also allow you to conduct a test using micrograms of a drug, facilitating testing even when it is not available in a large quantity. PMID:23292015

  5. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  9. Screening and Brief Intervention for Drug Use in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Saitz, Richard; Palfai, Tibor P. A.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Alford, Daniel P.; Bernstein, Judith A.; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A.; Meli, Seville M.; Chaisson, Christine E.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The United States has invested substantially in screening and brief intervention for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse, based in part on evidence of efficacy for unhealthy alcohol use. However, it is not a recommended universal preventive service in primary care because of lack of evidence of efficacy. OBJECTIVE To test the efficacy of 2 brief counseling interventions for unhealthy drug use (any illicit drug use or prescription drug misuse)—a brief negotiated interview (BNI) and an adaptation of motivational interviewing (MOTIV)—compared with no brief intervention. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This 3-group randomized trial took place at an urban hospital-based primary care internal medicine practice; 528 adult primary care patients with drug use (Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test [ASSIST] substance-specific scores of $4) were identified by screening between June 2009 and January 2012 in Boston, Massachusetts. INTERVENTIONS Two interventions were tested: the BNI is a 10- to 15-minute structured interview conducted by health educators; the MOTIV is a 30- to 45-minute intervention based on motivational interviewing with a 20- to 30-minute booster conducted by master’s-level counselors. All study participants received a written list of substance use disorder treatment and mutual help resources. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcome was number of days of use in the past 30 days of the self-identified main drug as determined by a validated calendar method at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included other self-reported measures of drug use, drug use according to hair testing, ASSIST scores (severity), drug use consequences, unsafe sex, mutual help meeting attendance, and health care utilization. RESULTS At baseline, 63% of participants reported their main drug was marijuana, 19% cocaine, and 17% opioids. At 6 months, 98% completed follow-up. Mean adjusted number of days using the main drug at 6 months was 12 for no brief intervention vs 11 for the BNI group (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77-1.22) and 12 for the MOTIV group (IRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.84-1.32; P = .81 for both comparisons vs no brief intervention). There were also no significant effects of BNI or MOTIV on any other outcome or in analyses stratified by main drug or drug use severity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Brief intervention did not have efficacy for decreasing unhealthy drug use in primary care patients identified by screening. These results do not support widespread implementation of illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse screening and brief intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00876941 PMID:25096690

  10. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the dopamine receptor blocking activity of neuroleptic drugs and their active metabolites. A neuroleptic drug has...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the dopamine receptor blocking activity of neuroleptic drugs and their active metabolites. A neuroleptic drug has...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the dopamine receptor blocking activity of neuroleptic drugs and their active metabolites. A neuroleptic drug has...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identification. A neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the dopamine receptor blocking activity of neuroleptic drugs and their active metabolites. A neuroleptic drug has...

  14. Development of a thyroperoxidase inhibition assay for high-throughput screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTPS) assays to detect inhibitors of thyroperoxidase (TPO), the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, are not currently available. Herein we describe the development of a HTPS TPO inhibition assay. Rat thyroid microsomes and a fluores...

  15. Potent Human Telomerase Inhibitors: Molecular Dynamic Simulations, Multiple Pharmacophore-Based Virtual Screening, and Biochemical Assays.

    PubMed

    Shirgahi Talari, Faezeh; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Golestanian, Sahand; Jarstfer, Michael; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-12-28

    Telomere maintenance is a universal cancer hallmark, and small molecules that disrupt telomere maintenance generally have anticancer properties. Since the vast majority of cancer cells utilize telomerase activity for telomere maintenance, the enzyme has been considered as an anticancer drug target. Recently, rational design of telomerase inhibitors was made possible by the determination of high resolution structures of the catalytic telomerase subunit from a beetle and subsequent molecular modeling of the human telomerase complex. A hybrid strategy including docking, pharmacophore-based virtual screening, and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) were used to identify new human telomerase inhibitors. Docking methodology was applied to investigate the ssDNA telomeric sequence and two well-known human telomerase inhibitors' (BIBR1532 and MST-312) modes of interactions with hTERT TEN domain. Subsequently molecular dynamic simulations were performed to monitor and compare hTERT TEN domain, TEN-ssDNA, TEN-BIBR1532, TEN-MST-312, and TEN-ssDNA-BIBR1532 behavior in a dynamic environment. Pharmacophore models were generated considering the inhibitors manner in the TEN domain anchor site. These exploratory studies identified several new potent inhibitors whose IC50 values were generated experimentally in a low micromolar range with the aid of biochemical assays, including both the direct telomerase and the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assays. The results suggest that the current models of human telomerase are useful templates for rational inhibitor design. PMID:26529120

  16. Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of nontargeted libraries.

    PubMed

    Morisseau, Christophe; Sahdeo, Sunil; Cortopassi, Gino; Hammock, Bruce D

    2013-03-01

    The EPXH2 gene encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which has two distinct enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (Cterm-EH) and phosphatase (Nterm-phos). The Cterm-EH is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid epoxides that play important roles in blood pressure, cell growth, inflammation, and pain. While recent findings suggested complementary biological roles for Nterm-phos, research is limited by the lack of potent bioavailable inhibitors of this phosphatase activity. Also, a potent bioavailable inhibitor of this activity could be important in the development of therapy for cardiovascular diseases. We report herein the development of an HTS enzyme-based assay for Nterm-phos (Z'>0.9) using AttoPhos as the substrate. This assay was used to screen a wide variety of chemical entities, including a library of known drugs that have reached through clinical evaluation (Pharmakon 1600), as well as a library of pesticides and environmental toxins. We discovered that ebselen inhibits sEH phosphatase activity. Ebselen binds to the N-terminal domain of sEH (K(I)=550 nM) and chemically reacts with the enzyme to quickly and irreversibly inhibit Nterm-phos, and subsequently Cterm-EH, and thus represents a new class of sEH inhibitor. PMID:23219563

  17. CELL-FREE NEUROCHEMICAL SCREENING ASSAYS TO PREDICT ADVERSE EFFECTS IN MAMMALS, FISH, AND BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work will result in the establishment of a high-throughput screening assay that can be used to predict reproductive impairment across multiple ecologically relevant species (birds, fish, mammals). Resources exist to adapt this platform to screen 1,000s of toxicants. It...

  18. COMPARISON OF AN IN VIVO FISH VTG ASSAY WITH YES AND E-SCREEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compares the efficacy of two in vitro, estrogen-sensitive bioassays to rank the "relative estrogenicity" of five natural, pharmaceutical and xenoestrogens with a newly developed in vivo bioassay. The E-SCREEN (MCF-7 tumor cells) and YES (Yeast Estrogen Screen) assays w...

  19. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 ?g /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  20. A high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based endothelial cell apoptosis assay and its application for screening vascular disrupting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Fu, Afu; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An endothelial cell apoptosis assay using FRET-based biosensor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue during apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method was developed into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This assay was applied to screen vascular disrupting agents. -- Abstract: In this study, we developed a high-throughput endothelial cell apoptosis assay using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor. After exposure to apoptotic inducer UV-irradiation or anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, the fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue. We developed this method into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates by measuring the emission ratio of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to monitor the activation of a key protease, caspase-3, during apoptosis. The Z Prime factor for this assay was above 0.5 which indicates that this assay is suitable for a high-throughput analysis. Finally, we applied this functional high-throughput assay for screening vascular disrupting agents (VDA) which could induce endothelial cell apoptosis from our in-house compounds library and dioscin was identified as a hit. As this assay allows real time and sensitive detection of cell apoptosis, it will be a useful tool for monitoring endothelial cell apoptosis in living cell situation and for identifying new VDA candidates via a high-throughput screening.

  1. Yeast as a Model for Studies on A? Aggregation Toxicity in Alzheimer's Disease, Autophagic Responses, and Drug Screening.

    PubMed

    Porzoor, Afsaneh; Macreadie, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The A? peptide is widely considered a major cause of Alzheimer's disease since it causes neuronal death in an oligomerisation-dependent manner. In order to identify new inhibitors of A? that may be chemo preventative for Alzheimer's disease, a yeast assay that qualitatively determines the amounts and state of the human A?42 peptide has been developed. Yeast assays such as this can be applied to studies on aggregation toxicity, autophagic responses and drug screening in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26235069

  2. Student Compliance & Drug Screening x:\\son\\departments\\academicaffairs\\policy\\current policies\\20-01.15 student compliance & drug screening\\incoming student compliance policy july

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    :\\son\\departments\\academicaffairs\\policy\\current policies\\20-01.15 student compliance & drug screening\\incoming student compliance policy july 2010.doc:\\SON\\departments\\AcademicAffairs\\Policy\\Current Policies\\20-01.15 Student Compliance & Drug Screening\\Incoming student compliance policy July 2010.doc PageStudent Compliance & Drug Screening 7/16/2010 x

  3. High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Hidenori; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Miyata, Ryo; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro

    2009-02-20

    We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

  4. Preclinical epigenetic models for screening epigenetic drugs for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peedicayil, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is an important psychiatric disorder for which effective drugs are available. However, there are problems with current drug therapy of schizophrenia in that some patients do not respond adequately. Moreover, some patients show treatment resistance and some patients show cognitive decline despite treatment. Hence new and effective drugs will be useful for the treatment of this disorder. Since there is increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression are defective in schizophrenia, drugs that correct epigenetic defects, epigenetic drugs, could be useful in the treatment of this disorder. This paper discusses preclinical epigenetic models for screening epigenetic drugs for schizophrenia. It also discusses how such models could be useful for the discovery and development of such drugs. PMID:26370661

  5. A Phenotypic High Throughput Screening Assay for the Identification of Pharmacoperones for the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emery; Spicer, Timothy; Chase, Peter; Scampavia, Louis; Janovick, Jo Ann

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe a phenotypic high throughput screening (HTS) calcium flux assay designed to identify pharmacoperones for the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR). Pharmacoperones are target-specific, small molecules that diffuse into cells, rescue misfolded protein mutants, and restore them to function. Rescue is based on correcting the trafficking of mutants that would otherwise be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and unable to function correctly. This approach identifies drugs with a significant degree of novelty, relying on cellular mechanisms that are not currently exploited. Development of such assays is important, since the extensive use of agonist/antagonist screens alone means that useful chemical structures may be present in existing libraries but have not been previously identified using existing methods. Our assay utilizes cell lines stably expressing a GnRHR mutant under the control of a tetracycline (OFF) transactivator. This allows us to quantitate the level of functional and properly trafficked G protein coupled receptors present in each test well. Furthermore, since we are able to turn receptor expression on and off, we can rapidly eliminate the majority of false positives from our screening results. Our data show that this approach is likely to be successful in identifying hits from large chemical libraries. PMID:24831790

  6. An Escherichia coli Expression Assay and Screen for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Variants with Decreased Susceptibility to Indinavir

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Laurence; Yang, Shiow-Shong; Rossi, Rick; Zepp, Charlie; Heefner, Donald

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a recombinant Escherichia coli screening system for the rapid detection and identification of amino acid substitutions in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease associated with decreased susceptibility to the protease inhibitor indinavir (MK-639; Merck & Co.). The assay depends upon the correct processing of a segment of the HIV-1 HXB2 gag-pol polyprotein followed by detection of HIV reverse transcriptase activity by a highly sensitive, colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highly sensitive system detects the contributions of single substitutions such as I84V, L90M, and L63P. The combination of single substitutions further decreases the sensitivity to indinavir. We constructed a library of HIV protease variant genes containing dispersed mutations and, using the E. coli recombinant system, screened for mutants with decreased indinavir sensitivity. The discovered HIV protease variants contain amino acid substitutions commonly associated with indinavir resistance in clinical isolates, including the substitutions L90M, L63P, I64V, V82A, L24I, and I54T. One substitution, W6R, is also frequently found by the screen and has not been reported elsewhere. Of a total of 12,000 isolates that were screened, 12 protease variants with decreased sensitivity to indinavir were found. The L63P substitution, which is also associated with indinavir resistance, increases the stability of the isolated protease relative to that of the native HXB2 protease. The rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this screen also make it useful for screening for novel inhibitors. We have found the approach described here to be useful for the detection of amino acid substitutions in HIV protease that have been associated with drug resistance as well as for the screening of novel compounds for inhibitory activity. PMID:9835523

  7. Comprehensive Urine Drug Screen by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

    PubMed

    Ramoo, Bheemraj; Funke, Melissa; Frazee, Clint; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Drug screening is an essential component of clinical toxicology laboratory service. Some laboratories use only automated chemistry analyzers for limited screening of drugs of abuse and few other drugs. Other laboratories use a combination of various techniques such as immunoassays, colorimetric tests, and mass spectrometry to provide more detailed comprehensive drug screening. Mass spectrometry, gas or liquid, can screen for hundreds of drugs and is often considered the gold standard for comprehensive drug screening. We describe an efficient and rapid gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for comprehensive drug screening in urine which utilizes a liquid-liquid extraction, sample concentration, and analysis by GC/MS. PMID:26660182

  8. Multiple animal studies for medical chemical defense program in soldier/patient decontamination and drug development on task 88-36: Development of in vitro screening assays for candidate pretreatment and treatment compounds. Final report, 1 July 1988-1 July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, R.; Dill, G.; Hobson, D.; Blank, J.

    1990-03-01

    A task was instituted at the Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) to develop in vitro assays to screen pretreatment and treatment compounds for their ability to protect or reverse the toxic effects of organophosphates and vesicants. Four vesicant assays and three nerve agent assays were developed. Two of the vesicant assays were for cell viability of keratinocyte, one in the presence of distilled mustard and one lewisite. One assay determines the effect of vesicants on keratinocyte reproduction and the other the effect of distilled mustard on cellular coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide content. The organophosphate assays measure the effects on acetylcholinesterase of selected compounds measured by ability to reactivate, effect on aging rate, and directly. In vitro screen; HD; L; Cellular NAD+ cellular viability; GA; GD; VX; Acetylcholinesterase inhibition; Reactivators; RA 5; Aging rate; Keratinocytes; Treatment and pretreatments; Assaying; Tabun (GA); Sarin (GB); Soman (GD); Organoarsenic; Organophosphates; Chemical Surety Material (CSM); Blisters; Toxicity; Toxic agents; Nerve agents; Chemical warfare agents; G Agents; V Agents; Vesicants; Mustard agents.

  9. Toxicity screenings of nanomaterials: challenges due to interference with assay processes and components of classic in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Guadagnini, Rina; Halamoda Kenzaoui, Blanka; Walker, Laura; Pojana, Giulio; Magdolenova, Zuzana; Bilanicova, Dagmar; Saunders, Margaret; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Marcomini, Antonio; Huk, Anna; Dusinska, Maria; Fjellsbø, Lise M; Marano, Francelyne; Boland, Sonja

    2015-05-01

    Given the multiplicity of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a requirement to develop screening strategies to evaluate their toxicity. Within the EU-funded FP7 NanoTEST project, a panel of medically relevant NPs has been used to develop alternative testing strategies of NPs used in medical diagnostics. As conventional toxicity tests cannot necessarily be directly applied to NPs in the same manner as for soluble chemicals and drugs, we determined the extent of interference of NPs with each assay process and components. In this study, we fully characterized the panel of NP suspensions used in this project (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene oxide [PLGA-PEO], TiO2, SiO2, and uncoated and oleic-acid coated Fe3O4) and showed that many NP characteristics (composition, size, coatings, and agglomeration) interfere with a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (WST-1, MTT, lactate dehydrogenase, neutral red, propidium iodide, (3)H-thymidine incorporation, and cell counting), pro-inflammatory response evaluation (ELISA for GM-CSF, IL-6, and IL-8), and oxidative stress detection (monoBromoBimane, dichlorofluorescein, and NO assays). Interferences were assay specific as well as NP specific. We propose how to integrate and avoid interference with testing systems as a first step of a screening strategy for biomedical NPs. PMID:23889211

  10. High-Content Assay Multiplexing for Toxicity Screening in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian Alexander; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Bittner, Michael; Rusyn, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Cell-based high-content screening (HCS) assays have become an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional in vitro and in vivo testing in pharmaceutical drug development and toxicological safety assessment. The time- and cost-effectiveness of HCS assays, combined with the organotypic nature of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells, open new opportunities to employ physiologically relevant in vitro model systems to improve screening for potential chemical hazards. In this study, we used two human iPSC types, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, to test various high-content and molecular assay combinations for their applicability in a multiparametric screening format. Effects on cardiomyocyte beat frequency were characterized by calcium flux measurements for up to 90?min. Subsequent correlation with intracellular cAMP levels was used to determine if the effects on cardiac physiology were G-protein-coupled receptor dependent. In addition, we utilized high-content cell imaging to simultaneously determine cell viability, mitochondrial integrity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in both cell types. Kinetic analysis indicated that ROS formation is best detectable 30?min following initial treatment, whereas cytotoxic effects were most stable after 24?h. For hepatocytes, high-content imaging was also used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cytoskeletal integrity, as well as mitochondrial integrity and the potential for lipid accumulation. Lipid accumulation, a marker for hepatic steatosis, was most reliably detected 48?h following treatment with test compounds. Overall, our results demonstrate how a compendium of assays can be utilized for quantitative screening of chemical effects in iPSC cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes and enable rapid and cost-efficient multidimensional biological profiling of toxicity. PMID:26539751

  11. High-Content Assay Multiplexing for Toxicity Screening in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian Alexander; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Bittner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cell-based high-content screening (HCS) assays have become an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional in vitro and in vivo testing in pharmaceutical drug development and toxicological safety assessment. The time- and cost-effectiveness of HCS assays, combined with the organotypic nature of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells, open new opportunities to employ physiologically relevant in vitro model systems to improve screening for potential chemical hazards. In this study, we used two human iPSC types, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, to test various high-content and molecular assay combinations for their applicability in a multiparametric screening format. Effects on cardiomyocyte beat frequency were characterized by calcium flux measurements for up to 90?min. Subsequent correlation with intracellular cAMP levels was used to determine if the effects on cardiac physiology were G-protein-coupled receptor dependent. In addition, we utilized high-content cell imaging to simultaneously determine cell viability, mitochondrial integrity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in both cell types. Kinetic analysis indicated that ROS formation is best detectable 30?min following initial treatment, whereas cytotoxic effects were most stable after 24?h. For hepatocytes, high-content imaging was also used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cytoskeletal integrity, as well as mitochondrial integrity and the potential for lipid accumulation. Lipid accumulation, a marker for hepatic steatosis, was most reliably detected 48?h following treatment with test compounds. Overall, our results demonstrate how a compendium of assays can be utilized for quantitative screening of chemical effects in iPSC cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes and enable rapid and cost-efficient multidimensional biological profiling of toxicity. PMID:26539751

  12. High-Throughput Cytochrome P450 Cocktail Inhibition Assay for Assessing Drug-Drug and Drug-Botanical Interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Detection of drug-drug interactions is essential during the early stages of drug discovery and development, and the understanding of drug-botanical interactions is important for the safe use of botanical dietary supplements. Among the different forms of drug interactions that are known, inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is the most common cause of drug-drug or drug-botanical interactions. Therefore, a rapid and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based in vitro high-throughput P450 cocktail inhibition assay was developed that uses 10 substrates simultaneously against nine CYP isoforms. Including probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and two probes targeting different binding sites of CYP3A4/5, this cocktail simultaneously assesses at least as many P450 enzymes as previous assays while remaining among the fastest due to short incubation times and rapid analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated using known inhibitors of each P450 enzyme and then shown to be useful not only for single-compound testing but also for the evaluation of potential drug-botanical interactions using the botanical dietary supplement licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as an example. PMID:26285764

  13. A Podocyte-Based Automated Screening Assay Identifies Protective Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha Won; Khan, Samia Q; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Wei, Changli; Tardi, Nicholas J; Altintas, Mehmet M; Elshabrawy, Hatem A; Mangos, Steve; Quick, Kevin L; Sever, Sanja; Reiser, Jochen; Gupta, Vineet

    2015-11-01

    Podocyte injury and loss mark an early step in the pathogenesis of various glomerular diseases, making these cells excellent targets for therapeutics. However, cell-based high-throughput screening assays for the rational development of podocyte-directed therapeutics are currently lacking. Here, we describe a novel high-content screening-based phenotypic assay that analyzes thousands of podocytes per assay condition in 96-well plates to quantitatively measure dose-dependent changes in multiple cellular features. Our assay consistently produced a Z' value >0.44, making it suitable for compound screening. On screening with >2100 pharmacologically active agents, we identified 24 small molecules that protected podocytes against injury in vitro (1% hit rate). Among the identified hits, we confirmed an ?1-integrin agonist, pyrintegrin, as a podocyte-protective agent. Treatment with pyrintegrin prevented damage-induced decreases in F-actin stress fibers, focal adhesions, and active ?1-integrin levels in cultured cells. In vivo, administration of pyrintegrin protected mice from LPS-induced podocyte foot process effacement and proteinuria. Analysis of the murine glomeruli showed that LPS administration reduced the levels of active ?1 integrin in the podocytes, which was prevented by cotreatment with pyrintegrin. In rats, pyrintegrin reduced peak proteinuria caused by puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephropathy. Our findings identify pyrintegrin as a potential therapeutic candidate and show the use of podocyte-based screening assays for identifying novel therapeutics for proteinuric kidney diseases. PMID:25858967

  14. Phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay and EpiSkin® in assessment of drug therapies destined for skin administration.

    PubMed

    Engesland, André; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Flaten, Gøril Eide

    2015-03-01

    Cost-effective and efficient methods for permeability screening are crucial during early development of drugs, drug formulations, and cosmeceuticals. Alternatives to animal experiments are impelled for both economical and ethical reasons. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of the phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay (PVPA) to assess the effect of different formulations on drug permeability and thus establish its utility in formulation development. Three model drugs were tested in solutions and as liposomal formulations. The permeability results for the PVPA models were compared with the results for the reconstructed human skin model, EpiSkin(®). The drugs were ranked based on their estimated penetration potentials, and the results were in accordance with what was expected considering the physicochemical properties of the drugs. PVPAs (E-80, ceramide, cholesterol, cholesteryl sulfate, and palmitic acid) was able to distinguish between drug solutions and liposomal formulations; however, EpiSkin(®) detected only small differences between the drugs in solution and formulations. In contrast with EpiSkin(®), which is limited by a 3-day testing window, PVPA barriers can be stored frozen for up to 2 weeks or even up to 16 months, depending on their compositions. The PVPA models are thus more cost effective and efficient than the EpiSkin(®) model for permeability screening during early drug development. PMID:25558045

  15. Development of a high throughput screening assay for inhibitors of small ubiquitin-like modifier proteases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Liangli; Paschen, Wulf

    2013-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO1-3) is a small group of proteins that are ligated to lysine residues in target proteins. SUMO conjugation is a highly dynamic process, as SUMOylated proteins are rapidly deconjugated by SUMO proteases. SUMO conjugation/deconjugation plays pivotal roles in major cellular pathways, and is associated with a number of pathological conditions. It is therefore of significant clinical interest to develop new strategies to screen for compounds to specifically interfere with SUMO conjugation/deconjugation. Here, we describe a novel high throughput screening-compatible assay to identify inhibitors of SUMO proteases. The assay is based on AlphaScreen technology and uses His-tagged SUMO2 conjugated to Strep-tagged SUMO3 as a SUMO protease substrate. A bacterial SUMOylation system was used to generate this substrate. A three-step purification strategy was employed to yield substrate of high quality. Our data indicated that this unique substrate can be readily detected in the AlphaScreen assays in a dose-dependent manner. Cleavage reactions by SUMO protease with or without inhibitor were monitored based on AlphaScreen signals. Furthermore, the assay was adapted to a 384-well format, and the interplate and interday variability was evaluated in eight 384-well plates. The average Z’ factor was 0.83±0.04, confirming the suitability for high throughput screening applications. PMID:23470489

  16. Immune cell-based screening assay for response to anticancer agents: applications in pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Amber; Fedoriw, Yuri; Richards, Kristy; Damania, Blossom; Parks, Bethany; Suzuki, Oscar; Benton, Cristina S; Chan, Emmanuel; Thomas, Russell S; Wiltshire, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Interpatient variability in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely due to complex genetic differences and is difficult to ascertain in humans. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at examining interstrain differences in viability on normal, noncancerous immune cells following chemotherapeutic cytotoxic insult. Drug effects were investigated by comparing selective chemotherapeutic agents, such as BEZ-235 and selumetinib, against conventional cytotoxic agents targeting multiple pathways, including doxorubicin and idarubicin. Methods Splenocytes were isolated from 36 isogenic strains of mice using standard procedures. Of note, the splenocytes were not stimulated to avoid attributing responses to pathways involved with cellular stimulation rather than toxicity. Cells were incubated with compounds on a nine-point logarithmic dosing scale ranging from 15 nM to 100 ?M (37°C, 5% CO2). At 4 hours posttreatment, cells were labeled with antibodies and physiological indicator dyes and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. Cellular phenotypes (eg, viability) were collected and analyzed using flow cytometry. Dose-response curves with response normalized to the zero dose as a function of log concentration were generated using GraphPad Prism 6. Results Phenotypes were quantified using flow cytometry, yielding interstrain variation for measured endpoints in different immune cells. The flow cytometry assays produced over 16,000 data points that were used to generate dose-response curves. The more targeted agents, BEZ-235 and selumetinib, were less toxic to immune cells than the anthracycline agents. The calculated heritability for the viability of immune cells was higher with anthracyclines than the novel agents, making them better suited for downstream genetic analysis. Conclusion Using this approach, we identify cell lines of variable sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents and aim to identify robust, replicable endpoints of cellular response to drugs that provide the starting point for identifying candidate genes and cellular toxicity pathways for future validation in human studies. PMID:25897258

  17. Comparative drug screening in NUT midline carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beesley, A H; Stirnweiss, A; Ferrari, E; Endersby, R; Howlett, M; Failes, T W; Arndt, G M; Charles, A K; Cole, C H; Kees, U R

    2014-01-01

    Background: The NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but fatal cancer for which systematic testing of therapy options has never been performed. Methods: On the basis of disease biology, we compared the efficacy of the CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol (FP) with a panel of anticancer agents in NMC cell lines and mouse xenografts. Results: In vitro anthracyclines, topoisomerase inhibitors, and microtubule poisons were among the most cytotoxic drug classes for NMC cells, while efficacy of the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 varied considerably between lines carrying different BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4)–NUT (nuclear protein in testis) translocations. Efficacy of FP was comparable to vincristine and doxorubicin, drugs that have been previously used in NMC patients. All three compounds showed significantly better activity than etoposide and vorinostat, agents that have also been used in NMC patients. Statins and antimetabolites demonstrated intermediate single-agent efficacy. In vivo, vincristine significantly inhibited tumour growth in two different NMC xenografts. Flavopiridol in vivo was significantly effective in one of the two NMC xenograft lines, demonstrating the biological heterogeneity of this disease. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that FP may be of benefit to a subset of patients with NMC, and warrant a continued emphasis on microtubule inhibitors, anthracyclines, and topoisomerase inhibitors as effective drug classes in this disease. PMID:24518598

  18. Discovering novel neuroactive drugs through high-throughput behavior-based chemical screening in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Giancarlo; Lakhani, Parth; Kokel, David

    2014-01-01

    Most neuroactive drugs were discovered through unexpected behavioral observations. Systematic behavioral screening is inefficient in most model organisms. But, automated technologies are enabling a new phase of discovery-based research in central nervous system (CNS) pharmacology. Researchers are using large-scale behavior-based chemical screens in zebrafish to discover compounds with new structures, targets, and functions. These compounds are powerful tools for understanding CNS signaling pathways. Substantial differences between human and zebrafish biology will make it difficult to translate these discoveries to clinical medicine. However, given the molecular genetic similarities between humans and zebrafish, it is likely that some of these compounds will have translational utility. We predict that the greatest new successes in CNS drug discovery will leverage many model systems, including in vitro assays, cells, rodents, and zebrafish. PMID:25104936

  19. GMO detection in food and feed through screening by visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Li, Rong; Quan, Sheng; Shen, Ping; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    Isothermal DNA/RNA amplification techniques are the primary methodology for developing on-spot rapid nucleic acid amplification assays, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has been developed and applied in the detection of foodborne pathogens, plant/animal viruses, and genetically modified (GM) food/feed contents. In this study, one set of LAMP assays targeting on eight frequently used universal elements, marker genes, and exogenous target genes, such as CaMV35S promoter, FMV35S promoter, NOS, bar, cry1Ac, CP4 epsps, pat, and NptII, were developed for visual screening of GM contents in plant-derived food samples with high efficiency and accuracy. For these eight LAMP assays, their specificity was evaluated by testing commercial GM plant events and their limits of detection were also determined, which are 10 haploid genome equivalents (HGE) for FMV35S promoter, cry1Ac, and pat assays, as well as five HGE for CaMV35S promoter, bar, NOS terminator, CP4 epsps, and NptII assays. The screening applicability of these LAMP assays was further validated successfully using practical canola, soybean, and maize samples. The results suggested that the established visual LAMP assays are applicable and cost-effective for GM screening in plant-derived food samples. PMID:25822163

  20. Chemical & RNAi screening at MSKCC: a collaborative platform to discover & repurpose drugs to fight disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P.; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibáñez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A.; Djaballah, Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution’s commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator’s research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia. PMID:24661215

  1. Development of multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) culture from breast cancer cell and a high throughput screening method using the MTT assay.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wan Yong; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Chai Ling; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to monolayer cells, MCTS has been claimed as more suitable candidate for studying drug penetration due to the high resemblance to solid tumors. However, the cultivation of MCTS is cumbersome, time consuming, and most technique fail to generate spheroids with uniform sizes. Therefore, the application of spheroid cultures in high throughput screening has been rather limiting. Besides, the lack of a well established screening protocol method that is applicable to spheroid could also be attributed to this limitation. Here we report a simple way of cultivating homogenous MCTS cultures with compact and rigid structure from the MCF-7 cells. Besides, we had also made some modifications to the standard MTT assay to realize high throughput screening of these spheroids. Using the modified protocol, tamoxifen showed cytotoxicity effect towards MCTS cultures from MCF-7 with high consistency. The results correlated well with the cultures' response assessed by LDH release assay but the latter assay was not ideal for detecting a wide range of cytotoxicity due to high basal background reading. The MTT assay emerged as a better indicator to apoptosis event in comparison to the LDH release assay. Therefore, the method for spheroid generation and the modified MTT assay we reported here could be potentially applied to high throughput screening for response of spheroid cultures generated from MCF-7 as well as other cancer cell lines towards cytotoxic stimuli. PMID:22970274

  2. A survey of yeast genomic assays for drug and target discovery

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Ammar, Ron; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the development and application of chemical genomic assays using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has provided powerful methods to identify the mechanism of action of known drugs and novel small molecules in vivo. These assays identify drug target candidates, genes involved in buffering drug target pathways and also help to define the general cellular response to small molecules. In this review, we examine current yeast chemical genomic assays and summarize the potential applications of each approach. PMID:20546776

  3. Pharmacoinformatics: equations for serum drug assay error patterns; implications for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosage.

    PubMed Central

    Jelliffe, R. W.; Tahani, B.

    1993-01-01

    Pharmacoinformatics is the area of Medical Informatics concerned with modeling and simulation of the behavior of drugs, and control of such behavior by individualized dosage regimens for each patient to achieve explicitly chosen therapeutic goals. The credibility of serum concentration data is a major factor in such modeling. The present report examines a more precise way of describing the credibility of such data with a collection of polynomial equations, developed from routine survey data of the College of American Pathologists, which improve the description of the credibility of serum level results when compared to the usual practice of describing the assay coefficient of variation in the usual manner and then not using such information either in population pharmacokinetic modeling or in actual therapeutic drug monitoring. These equations can be used until each laboratory can develop its own assay error patterns with its own similar polynomial equations. PMID:8130527

  4. DEVELOPMENT, STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF THE MAMMALIAN IN VIVO ASSAYS IN THE PROPOSED TIER I SCREENING BATTERY FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research directly supports the development, standardization and validation of several Tier 1 screening mammalian in vivo assays. Through the development and use of many of these assays for testing specific hypothesis in their respective research programs, these investigato...

  5. Recommended Immunological Assays to Screen for Ricin-Containing Samples

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Stéphanie; Worbs, Sylvia; Avondet, Marc-André; Tracz, Dobryan M.; Dano, Julie; Schmidt, Lisa; Volland, Hervé; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Corbett, Cindi R.

    2015-01-01

    Ricin, a toxin from the plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most toxic biological agents known. Due to its availability, toxicity, ease of production and absence of curative treatments, ricin has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as category B biological weapon and it is scheduled as a List 1 compound in the Chemical Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT) was conducted to evaluate detection and quantification capabilities of 17 expert laboratories. In this exercise one goal was to analyse the laboratories’ capacity to detect and differentiate ricin and the less toxic, but highly homologuous protein R. communis agglutinin (RCA120). Six analytical strategies are presented in this paper based on immunological assays (four immunoenzymatic assays and two immunochromatographic tests). Using these immunological methods “dangerous” samples containing ricin and/or RCA120 were successfully identified. Based on different antibodies used the detection and quantification of ricin and RCA120 was successful. The ricin PT highlighted the performance of different immunological approaches that are exemplarily recommended for highly sensitive and precise quantification of ricin. PMID:26703725

  6. siRNA Genome Screening Approaches to Therapeutic Drug Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Perwitasari, Olivia; Bakre, Abhijeet; Tompkins, S. Mark; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Bridging high-throughput screening (HTS) with RNA interference (RNAi) has allowed for rapid discovery of the molecular basis of many diseases, and identification of potential pathways for developing safe and effective treatments. These features have identified new host gene targets for existing drugs paving the pathway for therapeutic drug repositioning. Using RNAi to discover and help validate new drug targets has also provided a means to filter and prioritize promising therapeutics. This review summarizes these approaches across a spectrum of methods and targets in the host response to pathogens. Particular attention is given to the utility of drug repurposing utilizing the promiscuous nature of some drugs that affect multiple molecules or pathways, and how these biological pathways can be targeted to regulate disease outcome. PMID:24275945

  7. Development of an HTS Compatible Assay for Discovery of ROR? Modulators using AlphaScreen® Technology

    PubMed Central

    Istrate, Monica A.; Spicer, Timothy P.; Wang, Yan; Bernard, Jerrold A.; Helvering, Leah M.; Bocchinfuso, Wayne P.; Richardson, Timothy I.; Zink, Richard; Kumar, Naresh; Montrose-Rafizadeh, Chahrzad; Dodge, Jeffrey; Hodder, Peter; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2015-01-01

    The retinoid acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs) represent important targets for treatment of metabolic and immune disorders. Here we describe the application of AlphaScreen® technology to develop an HTS compatible assay to facilitate the discovery of ROR? modulators. Using the ligand binding domain (LBD) of ROR? and a peptide derived from the NR1 box of the nuclear receptor coactivator PGC-1?, a 384-well format assay was developed exhibiting high sensitivity, requiring only low nanomolar concentration of reagents. Recently it was shown that oxysterols such as 7?-hydroxycholesterol (7?-OHC) function as modulators of the RORs. In this assay 7?-OHC produced a dose-dependent response with an EC50 of 162 nM, Z’ factor of 0.6 and a S/B ratio of 4.2 demonstrating that the assay is HTS compatible. Validation of the assay was afforded by screening against the Sigma LOPAC1280™ library in 384-well format. In summary, the results presented here demonstrate that this assay can be used to screen large chemical libraries to discover novel modulators of ROR?. PMID:21297105

  8. Genome editing-enabled HTS assays expand drug target pathways for Charcot-Marie-tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Inglese, James; Dranchak, Patricia; Moran, John J; Jang, Sung-Wook; Srinivasan, Rajini; Santiago, Yolanda; Zhang, Lei; Guha, Rajarshi; Martinez, Natalia; MacArthur, Ryan; Cost, Gregory J; Svaren, John

    2014-11-21

    Copy number variation resulting in excess PMP22 protein causes the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1A. To broadly interrogate chemically sensitive transcriptional pathways controlling PMP22 protein levels, we used the targeting precision of TALEN-mediated genome editing to embed reporters within the genetic locus harboring the Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (Pmp22) gene. Using a Schwann cell line with constitutively high endogenous levels of Pmp22, we obtained allelic insertion of secreted bioluminescent reporters with sufficient signal to enable a 1536-well assay. Our findings from the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of several thousand drugs and clinically investigated compounds using this assay design both overlapped and expanded results from a previous assay using a randomly inserted reporter gene controlled by a single regulatory element of the Pmp22 gene. A key difference was the identification of a kinase-controlled inhibitory pathway of Pmp22 transcription revealed by the activity of the Protein kinase C (PKC)-modulator bryostatin. PMID:25188731

  9. Genome Editing-Enabled HTS Assays Expand Drug Target Pathways for Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variation resulting in excess PMP22 protein causes the peripheral neuropathy Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, type 1A. To broadly interrogate chemically sensitive transcriptional pathways controlling PMP22 protein levels, we used the targeting precision of TALEN-mediated genome editing to embed reporters within the genetic locus harboring the Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (Pmp22) gene. Using a Schwann cell line with constitutively high endogenous levels of Pmp22, we obtained allelic insertion of secreted bioluminescent reporters with sufficient signal to enable a 1536-well assay. Our findings from the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of several thousand drugs and clinically investigated compounds using this assay design both overlapped and expanded results from a previous assay using a randomly inserted reporter gene controlled by a single regulatory element of the Pmp22 gene. A key difference was the identification of a kinase-controlled inhibitory pathway of Pmp22 transcription revealed by the activity of the Protein kinase C (PKC)-modulator bryostatin. PMID:25188731

  10. High efficacy vasopermeability drug candidates identified by screening in an ex ovo chorioallantoic membrane model

    PubMed Central

    Pink, Desmond; Luhrs, Keith A.; Zhou, Longen; Schulte, Wendy; Chase, Jennifer; Frosch, Christian; Haberl, Udo; Nguyen, Van; Roy, Aparna I.; Lewis, John D.; Zijlstra, Andries; Parseghian, Missag H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of rodent models to evaluate efficacy during testing is accompanied by significant economic and regulatory hurdles which compound the costs of screening for promising drug candidates. Vasopermeation Enhancement Agents (VEAs) are a new class of biologics that are designed to increase the uptake of cancer therapeutics at the tumor site by modifying vascular permeability in the tumor to increase the therapeutic index of co-administered drugs. To evaluate the efficacy of a panel of VEA clinical candidates, we compared the rodent Miles assay to an equivalent assay in the ex ovo chicken embryo model. Both model systems identified the same candidate (PVL 10) as the most active promoter of vasopermeation in non-tumor tissues. An ex ovo chicken embryo system was utilized to test each candidate VEA in two human tumor models at a range of concentrations. Vasopermeation activity due to VEA was dependent on tumor type, with HEp3 tumors displaying higher levels of vasopermeation than MDA-MB-435. One candidate (PVL 10) proved optimal for HEp3 tumors and another (PVL 2) for MDA-MB-435. The use of the ex ovo chicken embryo model provides a rapid and less costly alternative to the use of rodent models for preclinical screening of drug candidates. PMID:26510887

  11. Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse/toxicology screening in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Pizon, Anthony F; Siam, Mohamed G; Giannoutsos, Spiros; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Background Laboratory tests for routine drug of abuse and toxicology (DOA/Tox) screening, often used in emergency medicine, generally utilize antibody-based tests (immunoassays) to detect classes of drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and tricyclic antidepressants, or individual drugs such as cocaine, methadone, and phencyclidine. A key factor in assay sensitivity and specificity is the drugs or drug metabolites that were used as antigenic targets to generate the assay antibodies. All DOA/Tox screening immunoassays can be limited by false positives caused by cross-reactivity from structurally related compounds. For immunoassays targeted at a particular class of drugs, there can also be false negatives if there is failure to detect some drugs or their metabolites within that class. Methods Molecular similarity analysis, a computational method commonly used in drug discovery, was used to calculate structural similarity of a wide range of clinically relevant compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target ('antigenic') molecules of DOA/Tox screening tests. These results were compared with cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for clinical testing. The causes for false positives for phencyclidine and tricyclic antidepressant screening immunoassays were investigated at the authors' medical center using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a confirmatory method. Results The results illustrate three major challenges for routine DOA/Tox screening immunoassays used in emergency medicine. First, for some classes of drugs, the structural diversity of common drugs within each class has been increasing, thereby making it difficult for a single assay to detect all compounds without compromising specificity. Second, for some screening assays, common 'out-of-class' drugs may be structurally similar to the target compound so that they account for a high frequency of false positives. Illustrating this point, at the authors' medical center, the majority of positive screening results for phencyclidine and tricyclic antidepressants assays were explained by out-of-class drugs. Third, different manufacturers have adopted varying approaches to marketed immunoassays, leading to substantial inter-assay variability. Conclusion The expanding structural diversity of drugs presents a difficult challenge for routine DOA/Tox screening that limit the clinical utility of these tests in the emergency medicine setting. PMID:19400959

  12. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels

    PubMed Central

    CORSTJENS, PAUL L. A. M.; DE DOOD, CLAUDIA J.; KORNELIS, DIEUWKE; FAT, ELISA M. TJON KON; WILSON, R. ALAN; KARIUKI, THOMAS M.; NYAKUNDI, RUTH K.; LOVERDE, PHILIP T.; ABRAMS, WILLIAM R.; TANKE, HANS J.; VAN LIESHOUT, LISETTE; DEELDER, ANDRÉ M.; VAN DAM, GOVERT J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring. PMID:24932595

  13. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; De Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Fat, Elisa M Tjon Kon; Wilson, R Alan; Kariuki, Thomas M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; Loverde, Philip T; Abrams, William R; Tanke, Hans J; Van Lieshout, Lisette; Deelder, André M; Van Dam, Govert J

    2014-12-01

    The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring. PMID:24932595

  14. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. 862.3645 Section 862.3645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3645...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. 862.3645 Section 862.3645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3645...

  16. A rapid enzymatic assay for high-throughput screening of adenosine-producing strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Zu, Xin; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a major local regulator of tissue function and industrially useful as precursor for the production of medicinal nucleoside substances. High-throughput screening of adenosine overproducers is important for industrial microorganism breeding. An enzymatic assay of adenosine was developed by combined adenosine deaminase (ADA) with indophenol method. The ADA catalyzes the cleavage of adenosine to inosine and NH3, the latter can be accurately determined by indophenol method. The assay system was optimized to deliver a good performance and could tolerate the addition of inorganic salts and many nutrition components to the assay mixtures. Adenosine could be accurately determined by this assay using 96-well microplates. Spike and recovery tests showed that this assay can accurately and reproducibly determine increases in adenosine in fermentation broth without any pretreatment to remove proteins and potentially interfering low-molecular-weight molecules. This assay was also applied to high-throughput screening for high adenosine-producing strains. The high selectivity and accuracy of the ADA assay provides rapid and high-throughput analysis of adenosine in large numbers of samples. PMID:25580842

  17. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  18. A cell-based luciferase assay amenable to high-throughput screening of inhibitors of arenavirus budding

    PubMed Central

    Capul, Althea A.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Several Arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans for which there are no licensed vaccines, and current therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin (Rib) that is only partially effective and associated with significant side effects. In addition, compelling evidence indicates that the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Therefore, it is important to develop novel and effective antiarenaviral drugs. The arenavirus Z protein is the driving force of arenavirus budding, and PPPY and PTAP late (L) domain motifs within Z are critical for Z-mediated budding, which involves the interaction of Z with a variety of host cellular factors. Compounds capable of inhibiting these virus-host cell interactions represent candidate anti-arenaviral drugs. The identification of these candidate compounds would be facilitated by the availability of a Z budding assay amenable to high throughput screens (HTS). To this end, we have developed a novel assay that allows for rapid and quantitative assessment of Z-mediated budding. We provide evidence that this novel assay is amenable to HTS to identify small molecule inhibitors of Z-mediated budding, as well as to uncover cellular genes contributing to arenavirus budding. PMID:18929379

  19. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for Botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P.; Burnett, James C.; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D.; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons, and stem-cell derived neurons have been established. Stem cell-derived neurons are highly sensitive to BoNT intoxication and represent an ideal model to study the biological effects of BoNTs. Robust immunoassays are used to quantify BoNT activity and play a central role during inhibitor screening. In this review, we examine recent progress in physiologically relevant cell-based assays and high-throughput screening approaches for the identification of both direct and indirect BoNT inhibitors. PMID:24450833

  20. MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL
    ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES.
    Authors: L E Gray 1 , J Furr 1 , M G Price 2 , C J Wolf 3 and J S Ostby 1
    Institutions: 1. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NH...

  1. Development of Tyrosinase Promoter-Based Fluorescent Assay for Screening of Anti-melanogenic Agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, JaeHo; Lee, SeungJun; Lee, ByungMan; Roh, KyungBaeg; Park, DeokHoon; Jung, EunSun

    2015-10-01

    For screening of skin-whitening ingredients that modulate inhibition of melanogenesis, tyrosinase promoter-based assay using a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid culture technique is a beneficial tool to improve the accuracy of raw material screening in cosmetics through mimicking of the in vivo microenvironment. Although the advantages of high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely known, there has been little focus on specific cell-based promoter assays for HTS in identifying skin-whitening ingredients that inhibit accumulation of melanin. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a large-scale compatible assay through pTyr-EGFP, an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-based tyrosinase-specific promoter, to seek potential melanogenesis inhibitors for cosmetic use. Herein, a stably transfected human melanoma cell line expressing EGFP under the control of a 2.2-kb fragment derived from the tyrosinase gene was generated. Spontaneous induction of the tyrosinase promoter by 3D spheroid culture resulted in increased expression of EGFP, providing a significant correlation with the tyrosinase mRNA level, and subsequent inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Importantly, the pTyr-EGFP system provided successful tracking of the changes in the live image and real-time monitoring. Thus tyrosinase promoter-based fluorescent assay using a 3D spheroid culture can be useful as a screening system for exploring the efficiency of anti-melanogenesis ingredients. PMID:26179334

  2. A cell-based screening assay for Natural Killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Blom, W Marty; van Nielen, Wim G L; de Groene, Els M; Albers, Ruud

    2009-06-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are important in the first response against viruses and tumours. Compounds that modulate human NK cell activity offer interesting prophylactic and therapeutic options, however, a systematic screening tool is lacking. Development of suitable NK cell lines or receptor-based assays is hindered by the highly complicated regulation of the different NK cell subsets by multiple receptors. Here, we describe a cell-based flowcytometric activity assay adapted to identify NK cell modulating compounds. Fresh human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were incubated with NK-sensitive K562 target cells labelled with 5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester, followed by DNA-labelling with propidium iodide to identify dead cells. The assay demonstrated a good performance with an average Z'-factor of 0.6 and over 95% of the assays fulfilled the quality criteria, suggesting that it is possible to use a complex system with two different cell types to screen compounds. A large number of (natural) compounds and extracts were tested and normalized to the positive control, Interleukin-2. Promising and less promising compounds were distinguished. Effectiveness of compounds was based on the augmentation of NK cell activity as well as the number of responding subjects. To conclude the assay is robust, reliable and can be used for functional screening of natural compounds modulating NK cell activity. PMID:19293002

  3. Building a Tiered Approach to In Vitro Predictive Toxicity Screening: A Focus on Assays with In Vivo Relevance

    PubMed Central

    McKim, James M

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry today is the failure of promising new drug candidates due to unanticipated adverse effects discovered during preclinical animal safety studies and clinical trials. Late stage attrition increases the time required to bring a new drug to market, inflates development costs, and represents a major source of inefficiency in the drug discovery/development process. It is generally recognized that early evaluation of new drug candidates is necessary to improve the process. Building in vitro data sets that can accurately predict adverse effects in vivo would allow compounds with high risk profiles to be deprioritized, while those that possess the requisite drug attributes and a lower risk profile are brought forward. In vitro cytotoxicity assays have been used for decades as a tool to understand hypotheses driven questions regarding mechanisms of toxicity. However, when used in a prospective manner, they have not been highly predictive of in vivo toxicity. Therefore, the issue may not be how to collect in vitro toxicity data, but rather how to translate in vitro toxicity data into meaningful in vivo effects. This review will focus on the development of an in vitro toxicity screening strategy that is based on a tiered approach to data collection combined with data interpretation. PMID:20053163

  4. A new screening assay for allosteric inhibitors of cSrc.

    PubMed

    Simard, Jeffrey R; Klüter, Sabine; Grütter, Christian; Getlik, Matthäus; Rabiller, Matthias; Rode, Haridas B; Rauh, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Targeting kinases outside the highly conserved ATP pocket is thought to be a promising strategy for overcoming bottlenecks in kinase inhibitor research, such as limited selectivity and drug resistance. Here we report the development and application of a direct binding assay to detect small molecules that stabilize the inactive conformation of the tyrosine kinase cSrc. Protein X-ray crystallography validated the assay results and confirmed an exclusively allosteric binding mode. PMID:19396179

  5. Magnetically optimized SERS assay for rapid detection of trace drug-related biomarkers in saliva and fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianxi; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Shuyue; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-06-15

    New developments in the fields of human healthcare and social security call for the exploration of an easy and on-field method to detect drug-related biomarkers. In this paper, Au nanoparticles dotted magnetic nanocomposites (AMN) modified with inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) were used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to quickly monitor trace drug-related biomarkers in saliva and to on-site screen a trace drug biomarker in fingerprints. Due to inducing with an external magnet, such substrate presented a huge SERS activity, which has met the sensitivity requirement for assay to detect the drug biomarkers in saliva from the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and also the limit of detection for drug biomarker in fingerprint reached 100 nM. In addition, this AMN-based SERS assay was successfully conducted using a portable Raman spectrometer, which could be used to on-site and accurately differentiate between the smokers and drug addicts in near future. PMID:25603400

  6. Miniature Short Hairpin RNA Screens to Characterize Antiproliferative Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kittanakom, Saranya; Arnoldo, Anthony; Brown, Kevin R.; Wallace, Iain; Kunavisarut, Tada; Torti, Dax; Heisler, Lawrence E.; Surendra, Anuradha; Moffat, Jason; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2013-01-01

    The application of new proteomics and genomics technologies support a view in which few drugs act solely by inhibiting a single cellular target. Indeed, drug activity is modulated by complex, often incompletely understood cellular mechanisms. Therefore, efforts to decipher mode of action through genetic perturbation such as RNAi typically yields “hits” that fall into several categories. Of particular interest to the present study, we aimed to characterize secondary activities of drugs on cells. Inhibiting a known target can result in clinically relevant synthetic phenotypes. In one scenario, drug perturbation could, for example, improperly activate a protein that normally inhibits a particular kinase. In other cases, additional, lower affinity targets can be inhibited as in the example of inhibition of c-Kit observed in Bcr-Abl?positive cells treated with Gleevec. Drug transport and metabolism also play an important role in the way any chemicals act within the cells. Finally, RNAi per se can also affect cell fitness by more general off-target effects, e.g., via the modulation of apoptosis or DNA damage repair. Regardless of the root cause of these unwanted effects, understanding the scope of a drug’s activity and polypharmacology is essential for better understanding its mechanism(s) of action, and such information can guide development of improved therapies. We describe a rapid, cost-effective approach to characterize primary and secondary effects of small-molecules by using small-scale libraries of virally integrated short hairpin RNAs. We demonstrate this principle using a “minipool” composed of shRNAs that target the genes encoding the reported protein targets of approved drugs. Among the 28 known reported drug?target pairs, we successfully identify 40% of the targets described in the literature and uncover several unanticipated drug?target interactions based on drug-induced synthetic lethality. We provide a detailed protocol for performing such screens and for analyzing the data. This cost-effective approach to mammalian knockdown screens, combined with the increasing maturation of RNAi technology will expand the accessibility of similar approaches in academic settings. PMID:23797109

  7. Novel screening techniques for ion channel targeting drugs.

    PubMed

    Obergrussberger, Alison; Stölzle-Feix, Sonja; Becker, Nadine; Brüggemann, Andrea; Fertig, Niels; Möller, Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flux of ions across the cell membrane. They are involved in nearly all physiological processes, and malfunction of ion channels has been linked to many diseases. Until recently, high-throughput screening of ion channels was limited to indirect, e.g. fluorescence-based, readout technologies. In the past years, direct label-free biophysical readout technologies by means of electrophysiology have been developed. Planar patch-clamp electrophysiology provides a direct functional label-free readout of ion channel function in medium to high throughput. Further electrophysiology features, including temperature control and higher-throughput instruments, are continually being developed. Electrophysiological screening in a 384-well format has recently become possible. Advances in chip and microfluidic design, as well as in cell preparation and handling, have allowed challenging cell types to be studied by automated patch clamp. Assays measuring action potentials in stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, relevant for cardiac safety screening, and neuronal cells, as well as a large number of different ion channels, including fast ligand-gated ion channels, have successfully been established by automated patch clamp. Impedance and multi-electrode array measurements are particularly suitable for studying cardiomyocytes and neuronal cells within their physiological network, and to address more complex physiological questions. This article discusses recent advances in electrophysiological technologies available for screening ion channel function and regulation. PMID:26556400

  8. A High-Throughput Screen for Antibiotic Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Thomas C.; Dostal, Sarah M.; Griswold, Karl E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ultra-high-throughput screening platform enabling discovery and/or engineering of natural product antibiotics. The methodology involves creation of hydrogel-in-oil emulsions in which recombinant microorganisms are co-emulsified with bacterial pathogens; antibiotic activity is assayed by use of a fluorescent viability dye. We have successfully utilized both bulk emulsification and microfluidic technology for the generation of hydrogel microdroplets that are size-compatible with conventional flow cytometry. Hydrogel droplets are ~25 pL in volume, and can be synthesized and sorted at rates exceeding 3,000 drops/s. Using this technique, we have achieved screening throughputs exceeding 5 million clones/day. Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate efficient selection of antibiotic-secreting yeast from a vast excess of negative controls. In addition, we have successfully used this technique to screen a metagenomic library for secreted antibiotics that kill the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Our results establish the practical utility of the screening platform, and we anticipate that the accessible nature of our methods will enable others seeking to identify and engineer the next generation of antibacterial biomolecules. PMID:23955804

  9. Novel Phenotypic Outcomes Identified for a Public Collection of Approved Drugs from a Publicly Accessible Panel of Assays

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Sarah; Willard, Francis S.; Heidler, Steven; Peery, Robert B.; Oler, Jennifer; Chu, Shaoyou; Southall, Noel; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Smallwood, Jeffrey; Huang, Ruili; Guha, Rajarshi; Jadhav, Ajit; Cox, Karen; Austin, Christopher P.; Simeonov, Anton; Sittampalam, G. Sitta; Husain, Saba; Franklin, Natalie; Wild, David J.; Yang, Jeremy J.; Sutherland, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic assays have a proven track record for generating leads that become first-in-class therapies. Whole cell assays that inform on a phenotype or mechanism also possess great potential in drug repositioning studies by illuminating new activities for the existing pharmacopeia. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) pharmaceutical collection (NPC) is the largest reported collection of approved small molecule therapeutics that is available for screening in a high-throughput setting. Via a wide-ranging collaborative effort, this library was analyzed in the Open Innovation Drug Discovery (OIDD) phenotypic assay modules publicly offered by Lilly. The results of these tests are publically available online at www.ncats.nih.gov/expertise/preclinical/pd2 and via the PubChem Database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) (AID 1117321). Phenotypic outcomes for numerous drugs were confirmed, including sulfonylureas as insulin secretagogues and the anti-angiogenesis actions of multikinase inhibitors sorafenib, axitinib and pazopanib. Several novel outcomes were also noted including the Wnt potentiating activities of rotenone and the antifolate class of drugs, and the anti-angiogenic activity of cetaben. PMID:26177200

  10. An Enzymatic Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Cytidine-Producing Microbial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Liu, Yongfei; Zu, Xin; Li, Ning; Li, Feiran; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Cytidine is an industrially useful precursor for the production of antiviral compounds and a variety of industrial compounds. Interest in the microbial production of cytidine has grown recently and high-throughput screening of cytidine over-producers is an important approach in large-scale industrial production using microorganisms. An enzymatic assay for cytidine was developed combining cytidine deaminase (CDA) and indophenol method. CDA catalyzes the cleavage of cytidine to uridine and NH3, the latter of which can be accurately determined using the indophenol method. The assay was performed in 96-well plates and had a linear detection range of cytidine of 0.058 - 10 mM. This assay was used to determine the amount of cytidine in fermentation flasks and the results were compared with that of High Perfomance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The detection range of the CDA method is not as wide as that of the HPLC, furthermore the correlation factor of CDA method is not as high as that of HPLC. However, it was suitable for the detection of large numbers of crude samples and was applied to high-throughput screening for high cytidine-producing strains using 96-well deep-hole culture plates. This assay was proved to be simple, accurate, specific and suitable for cytidine detection and high-throughput screening of cytidine-producing strains in large numbers of samples (96 well or more). PMID:25816248

  11. Drug abuse in the workplace: employee screening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzeo, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    Recent studies show that as many as three to five percent of the employees of a medium- to large-sized plant may be dependent on drugs as a way of life. The detrimental effects of drug abuse in the workplace can be measured in lost productivity, poor quality control and other areas at an annual cost to the American economy of $30 billion. However, a price tag cannot be attached to the lives affected by this unrelenting problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the employee screening and hiring techniques available to industry to detect and eliminate potentially dangerous or fatal situations involving drug abuse in the workplace. The techniques are universal and can be effectively applied by the nuclear industry as well as other businesses to ensure that its work force is a reputable and reliable one.

  12. Quantification of cell viability and rapid screening anti-cancer drug utilizing nanomechanical fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangquan; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiarong; Liang, Xin M; Gao, Dayong; Liu, Hong; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-03-15

    Cancer is a serious threat to human health. Although numerous anti-cancer drugs are available clinically, many have shown toxic side effects due to poor tumor-selectivity, and reduced effectiveness due to cancers rapid development of resistance to treatment. The development of new highly efficient and practical methods to quantify cell viability and its change under drug treatment is thus of significant importance in both understanding of anti-cancer mechanism and anti-cancer drug screening. Here, we present an approach of utilizing a nanomechanical fluctuation based highly sensitive microcantilever sensor, which is capable of characterizing the viability of cells and quantitatively screening (within tens of minutes) their responses to a drug with the obvious advantages of a rapid, label-free, quantitative, noninvasive, real-time and in-situ assay. The microcantilever sensor operated in fluctuation mode was used in evaluating the paclitaxel effectiveness on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This study demonstrated that the nanomechanical fluctuations of the microcantilever sensor are sensitive enough to detect the dynamic variation in cellular force which is provided by the cytoskeleton, using cell metabolism as its energy source, and the dynamic instability of microtubules plays an important role in the generation of the force. We propose that cell viability consists of two parts: biological viability and mechanical viability. Our experimental results suggest that paclitaxel has little effect on biological viability, but has a significant effect on mechanical viability. This new method provides a new concept and strategy for the evaluation of cell viability and the screening of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:26406457

  13. Multidrug resistance reversal agent, NSC77037, identified with a cell-based screening assay.

    PubMed

    Susa, Michiro; Choy, Edwin; Yang, Cao; Schwab, Joseph; Mankin, Henry; Hornicek, Francis; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2010-03-01

    The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a significant obstacle in treating cancer patients with chemotherapy. To identify small-molecule compounds that can reverse MDR, the authors used a cell-based screening assay with an MDR ovarian cancer cell line. Incubating MDR cells with a sublethal concentration of paclitaxel in combination with each of 2000 small-molecule compounds from the National Cancer Institute Diversity Set Library, they identified NSC77037. The cytotoxic activity of NSC77037 and the duration of its effect were evaluated in vitro using a panel of cancer cell lines expressing permeability glycoprotein (Pgp), multiple drug resistance protein 1 (MRP 1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The mechanism of its effects was further analyzed by assessing the retention of calcein and Pgp-ATPase activity. The relative potency of MDR reversal by NSC77037 was significantly higher than that of frequently used MDR reversal agents such as verapamil and cyclosporine A. NSC77037 reversed Pgp without reversing MRP or BCRP-mediated MDR. NSC77037, at a concentration of >10 microM, moderately inhibited the proliferation of both sensitive and resistant cell lines, but the inhibitory effect of NSC77037 was not altered by coincubation with the Pgp inhibitor verapamil, suggesting that NSC77037 itself is not a substrate of Pgp. NSC77037 directly inhibited the function of Pgp in a dose-dependent manner, but it did not alter the protein expression level of Pgp. The use of NSC77037 to restore sensitivity to chemotherapy or to prevent resistance could be a potential treatment strategy for cancer patients. PMID:20150589

  14. Significantly improved performance of a multitarget assay over a commercial SCCmec-based assay for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening: applicability for clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Brukner, Ivan; Oughton, Matthew; Giannakakis, Anastasia; Kerzner, Ryan; Dascal, Andre

    2013-09-01

    Detection of the SCCmec gene is a common strategy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening assays. However, if SCCmec is used alone, it may not be specific for detecting MRSA. Herein, we describe an in-house MSRA PCR-based screening assay involving detection of three targets (nuc, coa, and mecA). The assay is suitable for a wide range of real-time PCR platforms used in clinical microbiological laboratories. Performance characteristics of the in-house assay were significantly improved compared with the commercial assay, leading to an increase of positive predictive value by 40%. Compared with the bacterial culture, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the in-house PCR assay were 100% (95% CI >83.2%), 99.2% (95% CI = 98.2% to 99.8%), 80% (95% CI = 59.3% to 93.2%), and 100% (95% CI >99.2%), respectively. PMID:23867076

  15. Key Learnings from the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 Rodent Uterotrophic and Hershberger Assays

    PubMed Central

    Marty, M Sue; O'Connor, John C

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, companies began screening compounds using the US Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). EDSP has two tiers: Tier 1 includes 11 assays to identify compounds with potential endocrine activity. This article describes two laboratories' experiences conducting Tier 1 uterotrophic and Hershberger assays. The uterotrophic assay detects estrogen receptor agonists through increases in uterine weight. The advantages of the uterotrophic rat models (immature vs. adult ovariectomized) and exposure routes are discussed. Across 29 studies, relative differences in uterine weights in the vehicle control group and 17?-ethynylestradiol–positive control group were reasonably reproducible. The Hershberger assay detects androgen receptor (AR) agonists, antagonists, and 5?-reductase inhibitors through changes in accessory sex tissue (AST) weights. Across 23 studies, AST weights were relatively reproducible for the vehicle groups (baseline), testosterone propionate (TP) groups (androgenic response), and flutamide + TP groups (antiandrogenic response). In one laboratory, one and four compounds were positive in the androgenic and antiandrogenic portions of the assay, respectively. Each compound was also positive for AR binding. In the other laboratory, three compounds showed potential antiandrogenic activity, but each compound was negative for AR binding and did not fit the profile for 5?-reductase inhibition. These compounds induced hepatic enzymes that enhanced testosterone metabolism/clearance, resulting in lower testosterone and decreased capacity to maintain AST weights. The Hershberger androgenic and antiandrogenic performance criteria were generally attainable. Overall, the uterotrophic and Hershberger assays were easily adopted and function as described for EDSP screening, although the mode of action for positive results may not be easily determined. PMID:24515841

  16. Dictyostelium discoideum developmental cycle (DDDC) assay: a tool for Hg toxicity assessment and soil health screening.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Amaia; Marigómez, Ionan; Boatti, Lara; Viarengo, Aldo

    2013-04-15

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has been proposed for assessing stress responses to pollutants in soil and it has already been successfully employed in the aquatic environment. Presently, we developed the DDDC assay (D. discoideum developmental cycle assay) for both soil toxicity assessment and soil health screening. The DDDC assay is primarily aimed at determining the capacity of D. discoideum to undergo its developmental programme forming a fruiting body, measured in terms of fruiting body formation inhibition and fruiting body size factor, which may be considered an indication of its ecological fitness (potential for spore dispersal). A second objective of the solid phase DDDC assay is to identify potential mechanisms of toxic action on the developmental cycle, for which three checkpoints are examined: (a) aggregation arrest, (b) migration arrest, and (c) culmination arrest. Presently, conditions for the DDDC assay such as soil texture, soil water content, soil pH, food availability and incubation time were investigated and optimized. In addition, both solid and liquid phase variants of the DDDC assay were applied to assess the toxicity of Hg, at regulatory concentrations. The developmental cycle and ecological fitness were affected from the exposure to 0.3 mg Hg/kg dry-wt soil onwards. The DDDC assay has been shown to be a high sensitivity test. PMID:23454908

  17. Tissue spheroid fusion-based in vitro screening assays for analysis of tissue maturation.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Zoltan; Mironov, Vladimir; Mehesz, Agnes Nagy; Norris, Russell A; Markwald, Roger R; Visconti, Richard P

    2010-12-01

    Organ printing or computer-aided robotic layer-by-layer additive biofabrication of thick three-dimensional (3D) living tissue constructs employing self-assembling tissue spheroids is a rapidly evolving alternative to classic solid scaffold-based approaches in tissue engineering. However, the absence of effective methods of accelerated tissue maturation immediately after bioprinting is the main technological imperative and potential impediment for further progress in the development of this emerging organ printing technology. Identification of the optimal combination of factors and conditions that accelerate tissue maturation ('maturogenic' factors) is an essential and necessary endeavour. Screening of maturogenic factors would be most efficiently accomplished using high-throughput quantitative in vitro tissue maturation assays. We have recently reviewed the formation of solid scaffold-free tissue constructs through the fusion of bioprinted tissue spheroids that have measurable material properties. We hypothesize that the fusion kinetics of these tissue spheroids will provide an efficacious in vitro assay of the level of tissue maturation. We report here the results of experimental testing of two simple quantitative tissue spheroid fusion-based in vitro high-throughput screening assays of tissue maturation: (a) a tissue spheroid envelopment assay; and (b) a tissue spheroid fusion kinetics assay. PMID:20603872

  18. A Novel High-Throughput Screening Assay for Discovery of Molecules That Increase Cellular Tetrahydrobiopterin

    PubMed Central

    LI, LI; DU, YUHONG; CHEN, WEI; FU, HAIAN; HARRISON, DAVID G.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the nitric oxide (NO) synthases and the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Insufficient BH4 has been implicated in various cardiovascular and neurological disorders. GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo biosynthesis of BH4. The authors have recently shown that the interaction of GTPCH-1 with GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) inhibits endothelial GTPCH-1 enzyme activity, BH4 levels, and NO production. They propose that agents that disrupt the GTPCH-1/GFRP interaction can increase cellular GTPCH-1 activity, BH4 levels, and NO production. They developed and optimized a novel time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay to monitor the interaction of GTPCH-1 and GFRP. This assay is highly sensitive and stable and has a signal-to-background ratio (S/B) greater than 12 and a Z? factor greater than 0.8. This assay was used in an ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) format to screen the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds. Using independent protein–protein interaction and cellular activity assays, the authors identified compounds that disrupt GTPCH-1/GFRP binding and increase endothelial cell biopterin levels. Thus, this TR-FRET assay could be applied in future uHTS of additional libraries to search for molecules that increase GTPCH-1 activity and BH4 levels. PMID:21693765

  19. Evaluation of a human neurite growth assay as specific screen for developmental neurotoxicants.

    PubMed

    Krug, Anne K; Balmer, Nina V; Matt, Florian; Schönenberger, Felix; Merhof, Dorit; Leist, Marcel

    2013-12-01

    Organ-specific in vitro toxicity assays are often highly sensitive, but they lack specificity. We evaluated here examples of assay features that can affect test specificity, and some general procedures are suggested on how positive hits in complex biological assays may be defined. Differentiating human LUHMES cells were used as potential model for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Forty candidate toxicants were screened, and several hits were obtained and confirmed. Although the cells had a definitive neuronal phenotype, the use of a general cell death endpoint in these cultures did not allow specific identification of neurotoxicants. As alternative approach, neurite growth was measured as an organ-specific functional endpoint. We found that neurite extension of developing LUHMES was specifically inhibited by diverse compounds such as colchicine, vincristine, narciclasine, rotenone, cycloheximide, or diquat. These compounds reduced neurite growth at concentrations that did not compromise cell viability, and neurite growth was affected more potently than the integrity of developed neurites of mature neurons. A ratio of the EC50 values of neurite growth inhibition and cell death of >4 provided a robust classifier for compounds associated with a developmental neurotoxic hazard. Screening of unspecific toxicants in the test system always yielded ratios <4. The assay identified also compounds that accelerated neurite growth, such as the rho kinase pathway modifiers blebbistatin or thiazovivin. The negative effects of colchicine or rotenone were completely inhibited by a rho kinase inhibitor. In summary, we suggest that assays using functional endpoints (neurite growth) can specifically identify and characterize (developmental) neurotoxicants. PMID:23670202

  20. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 “borderline” samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. PMID:25972403

  1. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    PubMed

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. PMID:25972403

  2. Comparison of Automated Treponemal and Nontreponemal Test Algorithms as First-Line Syphilis Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Park, Seong Yeon; Chae, Seok Lae

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated Mediace Treponema pallidum latex agglutination (TPLA) and Mediace rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assays are used by many laboratories for syphilis diagnosis. This study compared the results of the traditional syphilis screening algorithm and a reverse algorithm using automated Mediace RPR or Mediace TPLA as first-line screening assays in subjects undergoing a health checkup. Methods Samples from 24,681 persons were included in this study. We routinely performed Mediace RPR and Mediace TPLA simultaneously. Results were analyzed according to both the traditional algorithm and reverse algorithm. Samples with discordant results on the reverse algorithm (e.g., positive Mediace TPLA, negative Mediace RPR) were tested with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA). Results Among the 24,681 samples, 30 (0.1%) were found positive by traditional screening, and 190 (0.8%) by reverse screening. The identified syphilis rate and overall false-positive rate according to the traditional algorithm were lower than those according to the reverse algorithm (0.07% and 0.05% vs. 0.64% and 0.13%, respectively). A total of 173 discordant samples were tested with TPPA by using the reverse algorithm, of which 140 (80.9%) were TPPA positive. Conclusions Despite the increased false-positive results in populations with a low prevalence of syphilis, the reverse algorithm detected 140 samples with treponemal antibody that went undetected by the traditional algorithm. The reverse algorithm using Mediace TPLA as a screening test is more sensitive for the detection of syphilis. PMID:26522755

  3. A Male and Female Gametocyte Functional Viability Assay To Identify Biologically Relevant Malaria Transmission-Blocking Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ruecker, A.; Mathias, D. K.; Straschil, U.; Churcher, T. S.; Dinglasan, R. R.; Leroy, D.; Sinden, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria elimination will require interventions that prevent parasite transmission from the human host to the mosquito. Experimentally, this is usually determined by the expensive and laborious Plasmodium falciparum standard membrane feeding assay (PfSMFA), which has limited utility for high-throughput drug screening. In response, we developed the P. falciparum dual gamete formation assay (PfDGFA), which faithfully simulates the initial stages of the PfSMFA in vitro. It utilizes a dual readout that individually and simultaneously reports on the functional viability of male and female mature stage V gametocytes. To validate, we screen the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box library with the PfDGFA. Unique to this assay, we find compounds that target male gametocytes only and also compounds with reversible and irreversible activity. Most importantly, we show that compound activity in the PfDGFA accurately predicts activity in PfSMFAs, which validates and supports its adoption into the transmission-stage screening pipeline. PMID:25267664

  4. A breakthrough novel method to resolve the drug and target interference problem in immunogenicity assays.

    PubMed

    Zoghbi, Jad; Xu, Yuanxin; Grabert, Ryan; Theobald, Valerie; Richards, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Biological matrix interference in detection and quantitation immunoassays remains a major challenge in the field of bioanalysis. For example, circulating drug may interfere with the detection of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) and drug target, or ADA may interfere with quantitation of drug levels in PK/TK analysis. Monoclonal antibody drug interference, especially for human IgG4 drugs, presents an additional challenge for ADA analysis due to its longer half-life and higher dose. Assay tolerance to such interference may depend on assay platform and reagents. Various approaches have been used to improve drug tolerance in ADA analysis but limited success was observed. We have developed a breakthrough novel method that uses Precipitation and Acid dissociation (PandA) to overcome drug interference in the ADA assay. The method principle is based on four components for detection of total ADA (free ADA and drug bound ADA) in the presence of drug in patient samples: (1) use excess drug to saturate free ADA to form drug bound ADA as drug:ADA complexes, (2) precipitate the complex using an agent such as PEG, (3) acid dissociate ADA from drug and immobilize (capture) free ADA (and free drug) under acidic conditions (without neutralization) onto a large capacity surface, and (4) detect free ADA (not the captured drug) using specific anti-human Ig detection reagent. In this manuscript, we are describing case studies for three humanized monoclonal antibodies (an IgG1 and two IgG4 drugs). The three drug specific PandA ADA assays resulted in complete recovery of ADA in samples containing drug levels in excess of those expected in patients, in contrast to the commonly used acid dissociation approach in ECL bridging assays. This breakthrough novel method shows significant improvement over the current approaches. In fact, the drug interference or under detecting of ADA in all three cases was eliminated. This assay principle could be used not only for ADA assays but also PK and biomarker (drug target) analysis in the presence of interference factors. PMID:26255760

  5. Development of an Evidence biochip array kit for the multiplex screening of more than 20 anthelmintic drugs.

    PubMed

    Porter, J; O'Loan, N; Bell, B; Mahoney, J; McGarrity, M; McConnell, R I; Fitzgerald, S P

    2012-07-01

    Anthelmintic drugs are used in clinical and veterinary practice for the treatment of infections caused by parasitic worms. Their extensive use in food-producing animals can cause the presence of residues in food. For consumer protection it is necessary to monitor the levels of anthelmintic residues to ensure that they remain within the legally permitted maximum acceptable concentrations. For this purpose, the use of multiplex screening methods is advantageous. Biochip array technology allows the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes from a single sample at a single point in time. This study reports the development of an Evidence biochip array for the multiplex screening of anthelmintic drugs. Simultaneous competitive chemiluminescent immunoassays are employed. The solid support and vessel is the biochip, which contains an array of discrete test sites. The assays were applied to the semiautomated bench-top analyser Evidence Investigator. The aminobenzimidazoles assay detected aminomebendazole, albendazole 2-aminosulphone and aminoflubendazole, the avermectins assay detected emamectin benzoate, eprinomectin, abamectin, ivermectin and doramectin, the benzimidazoles assay detected albendazole sulphone, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxibendazole, oxfendazole and flubendazole, the thiabendazole assay detected cambendazole, thiabendazole and 5-hydroxythiabendazole and the triclabendazole assay detected ketotriclabendazole, triclabendazole and triclabendazole sulphoxide. The limits of detection ranged from 0.3 ppb (aminobenzimidazoles) to 2.0 ppb (levamisole) in milk and from 0.15 ppb (aminobenzimidazoles) to 6.5 ppb (levamisole) in tissue. The average recovery range was 71-135 %. This multianalytical approach on a biochip platform is applicable to the screening of more than 20 anthelmintic drugs in different food matrices, leading to consolidation of tests and enhancement of the test result output. PMID:22566198

  6. Bringing the light to high throughput screening: use of optogenetic tools for the development of recombinant cellular assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, Viviana; Di Silvio, Alberto; Rolland, Jean Francois; Mondini, Anna; Tremolada, Sara; Montag, Katharina; Scarabottolo, Lia; Redaelli, Loredana; Lohmer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The use of light-activated proteins represents a powerful tool to control biological processes with high spatial and temporal precision. These so called "optogenetic" technologies have been successfully validated in many recombinant systems, and have been widely applied to the study of cellular mechanisms in intact tissues or behaving animals; to do that, complex, high-intensity, often home-made instrumentations were developed to achieve the optimal power and precision of light stimulation. In our study we sought to determine if this optical modulation can be obtained also in a miniaturized format, such as a 384-well plate, using the instrumentations normally dedicated to fluorescence analysis in High Throughput Screening (HTS) activities, such as for example the FLIPR (Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader) instrument. We successfully generated optogenetic assays for the study of different ion channel targets: the CaV1.3 calcium channel was modulated by the light-activated Channelrhodopsin-2, the HCN2 cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel was modulated by the light activated bPAC adenylyl cyclase, and finally the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight was efficiently used to measure potassium, sodium or chloride channel activity. Our results showed that stable, robust and miniaturized cellular assays can be developed using different optogenetic tools, and efficiently modulated by the FLIPR instrument LEDs in a 384-well format. The spatial and temporal resolution delivered by this technology might enormously advantage the early stages of drug discovery, leading to the identification of more physiological and effective drug molecules.

  7. Validation of FRET Assay for the Screening of Growth Inhibitors of Escherichia coli Reveals Elongasome Assembly Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    van der Ploeg, René; Goudelis, Spyridon Theodoros; den Blaauwen, Tanneke

    2015-01-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria demands the development of new antibiotics against preferably new targets. The common approach is to test compounds for their ability to kill bacteria or to design molecules that inhibit essential protein activities in vitro. In the first case, the mode of action of the drug is unknown and in the second case, it is not known whether the compound will pass the impermeable barrier of the bacterial envelope. We developed an assay that detects the target of a compound, as well as its ability to pass the membrane(s) simultaneously. The Escherichia coli cytoskeletal protein MreB recruits protein complexes (elongasomes) that are essential for cell envelope growth. An in cell Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay was developed to detect the interaction between MreB molecules and between MreB and the elongasome proteins RodZ, RodA and PBP2. Inhibition of the polymerization of MreB by S-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl) isothiourea (A22) or of the activity of PBP2 by mecilinam resulted in loss or reduction of all measured interactions. This suggests that the interactions between the elongasome proteins are governed by a combination of weak affinities and substrate availability. This validated in cell FRET assay can be used to screen for cell envelope growth inhibitors. PMID:26263980

  8. A functional genomic study on NCI's anticancer drug screen.

    PubMed

    Li, K-C; Yuan, S

    2004-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics requires massive computer exploration on heterogeneous databases. COMPARE, the gateway to the NCI's anticancer drug screen database, allows users to correlate drug-sensitivity profiles with a functional genomic database. However, most drugs of known molecular mechanism turn out to be uncorrelated with their molecular-target gene expression. Based on a novel statistical concept, liquid association, we develop an on-line system to identify candidate genes that intervene, confound and weaken the drug-gene correlation. The system takes queries and returns button-clickable tables of functionally associated genes for rerouting to knowledgebases such as Locus Link, OMIM and PubMed. We report results that link methotrexate resistance to DNA component biosynthesis, and taxol sensitivity to genes associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The drug-sensitivity database can be synergistically coanalyzed with gene expression data to study proteins of poorly understood physiological roles. When applied to the human prion, a cellular context embroidered with the gene expression network of Alzheimer disease is revealed. PMID:14993929

  9. Drug cytotoxicity and signaling pathway analysis with three-dimensional tumor spheroids in a microwell-based microfluidic chip for drug screening.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongli; Gao, Dan; Liu, Hongxia; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2015-10-22

    Currently, there has been a growing need for developing in vitro models to better reflect organism response to chemotherapy at tissue level. For this reason, a microfluidic platform was developed for mimicking physiological microenvironment of solid tumor with multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) for anticancer drug screening. Importantly, the power of this system over traditional systems is that it is simple to operate and high integration in a more physiologically relevant context. As a proof of concept, long-term MTS cultures with uniform structure were realized on the microfluidic based platform. The response of doxorubicin and paclitaxel on different types of spheroids were simultaneously performed by in situ Live/Dead fluorescence stain to provide spatial distribution of dead cells as well as cytotoxicity information. In addition, the established platform combined with microplate reader was capable to determine the cytotoxicity of different sized MTS, showing a more powerful tool than cell staining examination at the end-point of assay. The HCT116 spheroids were then lysed on chip followed by signaling transduction pathway analysis. To our knowledge, the on chip drug screening study is the first to address the drug susceptibility testing and the offline detailed drug signaling pathway analysis combination on one system. Thus, this novel microfluidic platform provides a useful tool for drug screening with tumor spheroids, which is crucial for drug discovery and development. PMID:26526913

  10. Quantitative microtiter fibronectin fibrillogenesis assay: use in high throughput screening for identification of inhibitor compounds

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini-Johansson, Bianca R.; Johnson, Ian A.; Hoffmann, F. Michael; Mosher, Deane F.

    2012-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a plasma glycoprotein that circulates in the near micromolar concentration range and is deposited along with locally produced FN in the extracellular matrices of many tissues. Control of FN deposition is tightly controlled by cells. Agents that modulate FN assembly may be useful therapeutically in conditions characterized by excessive FN deposition, such as fibrosis, inflammatory diseases, and malignancies. To identify such agents by high throughput screening (HTS), we developed a microtiter assay of FN deposition by human fibroblasts. The assay provides a robust read-out of FN assembly. Alexa 488-FN (A488-FN) was added to cell monolayers, and the total fluorescence intensity of deposited A488-FN was quantified. The fluorescence intensity of deposited A488-FN correlated with the presence of FN fibrils visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The assay Z’ values were 0.67 or 0.54, respectively, when using background values of fluorescence either with no added A488-FN or with A488-FN added together with a known inhibitor of FN deposition. The assay was used to screen libraries comprising 4160 known bioactive compounds. Nine compounds were identified as non- or low-cytotoxic inhibitors of FN assembly. Four (ML-9, HA-100, tyrphostin and imatinib mesylate) are kinase inhibitors, a category of compounds known to inhibit FN assembly; two (piperlongumine and cantharidin) are promoters of cancer cell apoptosis; and three (maprotiline, CGS12066B, and aposcopolamine) are modulators of biogenic amine signaling. The latter six compounds have not been recognized heretofore as affecting FN assembly. The assay is straight-forward, adapts to 96- and 384-well formats, and should be useful for routine measurement of FN deposition and HTS. Screening of more diverse chemical libraries and identification of specific and efficient modulators of FN fibrillogenesis may result in therapeutics to control excessive connective tissue deposition. PMID:22986508

  11. Screening and quantitative determination of drugs of abuse in diluted urine by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Solfrid; Hermansson, Sigurd; Betnér, Ingvar; Spigset, Olav; Falch, Berit Margrethe Hasle

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a fast, robust and specific UPLC-MS/MS screening platform for the determination and quantification of a variety of commonly used drugs of abuse in urine, i.e. a high-throughput quantitative analysis. Substances in the drug classes opioids, central nervous system stimulants and benzodiazepines and related agents were included in addition to cannabis and pregabalin, a total of 35 different analytes. Based on the concentrations and the physico-chemical properties of the substances, three UPLC-MS/MS methods were developed in parallel. Prior to analysis, sample preparation consisted of two different simple dilutions with 60 and 100 ?L urine, respectively, using a Tecan Freedom Evo pipetting robot platform. A Waters Xevo TQ-S tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a Waters I-class UPLC was used for quantitative analysis of one quantitative and one qualifying MRM transition for each analyte, except for tramadol for which the metabolite O-desmethyl-tramadol was included in the MRM method to confirm tramadol identity. Deuterated analogs were included as internal standards. The between-assay relative standard deviations varied from 2% to 11% and the limits of quantification were in the range 1-200 ng/mL for the various analytes. After development and initial testing, the method has been successfully implemented and routinely used at our hospital for quantitative screening of drugs of abuse in more than 35,000 urinary samples. PMID:24413020

  12. Development of a homogeneous high-throughput screening assay for biological inhibitors of human rhinovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Newton, Philip; O'Shea, Desmond; Wells, Edward; Moakes, Kerry; Dunmore, Rebecca; Butler, Robin J; Wilkinson, Trevor; Ward, Alison; Casson, Nigel; Strain, Martin; Vousden, Katherine; Lowe, David C; Pattison, Debbie V; Carruthers, Alan M; Sleeman, Matthew A; Vaughan, Tristan J; Harrison, Paula

    2013-03-01

    Infection with human rhinovirus (HRV) is thought to result in acute respiratory exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). Consequently, prevention of HRV infection may provide therapeutic benefit to these patients. As all major group HRV serotypes infect cells via an interaction between viral coat proteins and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), it is likely that inhibitors of this interaction would prevent or reduce infections. Our objective was to use phage display technology in conjunction with naive human antibody libraries to identify anti-ICAM-1 antibodies capable of functional blockade of HRV infection. Key to success was the development of a robust, functionally relevant high-throughput screen (HTS) compatible with the specific challenges of antibody screening. In this article, we describe the development of a novel homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) assay based on the inhibition of soluble ICAM-1 binding to live HRV16. We describe the implementation of the method in an antibody screening campaign and demonstrate the biological relevance of the assay by confirming the activity of resultant antibodies in a cell-based in vitro HRV infection assay. PMID:23207740

  13. Continuous colorimetric assay that enables high-throughput screening of N-acetylamino acid racemases.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carrón, Guiomar; Fleming, Toni; Holt-Tiffin, Karen E; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    N-Acetyl amino acid racemases (NAAARs) have demonstrated their potential in the enzymatic synthesis of chiral amino acids, molecules of significant biotechnology interest. In order to identify novel activities and to improve these enzymes by engineering approaches, suitable screening methods are necessary. Previous engineering of the NAAAR from Amycolatopsis Ts-1-60 was achieved by relying on an in vivo selection system that linked the viability of an E. coli L-methionine auxotroph to the activity of the improved enzyme. However, this assay was only suitable for the screening of N-acetyl-D-methionine, therefore limiting the potential to evolve this enzyme toward other natural or non-natural acetylated amino acids. Here, we report the optimization and application of a spectrophotometric microtiter-plate-based assay for NAAAR. The assay is based on the detection of the amino acid reaction product formed by hydrolysis of the N-acylated substrate by an L-amino acid acylase and its subsequent oxidation by an FAD-dependent L-amino acid oxidase (L-AAO). Cofactor recycling of the L-AAO leads to the formation of hydrogen peroxide which is easily monitored using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and o-dianisidine. This method allowed for the determination of the kinetic parameters of NAAAR and led to the identification of N-acetyl-D-naphthylalanine as a novel NAAAR substrate. This robust method is also suitable for the high-throughput screening of NAAAR mutant gene libraries directly from cell lysates. PMID:25716802

  14. Screening of furanocoumarin derivatives in citrus fruits by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Saita, Tetsuya; Fujito, Hiroshi; Mori, Masato

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of furanocoumarin derivatives as cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in citrus fruits. Anti-6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin antibody was obtained by immunizing rabbits with 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin conjugated with bovine serum albumin using the N-succinimidyl ester method. An enzyme marker was similarly prepared by coupling 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin with beta-D-galactosidase. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is capable of detecting as little as 800 pg/ml of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and 4 ng/ml of bergamottin. Cross-reactivity data showed that the antibody well recognizes both the furanocoumarin and 6,7-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyloct-2-enyloxy moieties of the 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and is thus specific to the structure of furanocoumarin derivatives containing geranyloxy side chain as the cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit juice. The antibody was, therefore, used for screening a large number of citrus fruits for furanocoumarin derivatives such as 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. Fifteen citrus fruits were examined and significant reactivity was observed in 8 of these: red pummelo, sweetie, melogold, banpeiyu pummelo, hassaku, sour orange, lime and natsudaidai. This enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay may be a powerful tool for screening for furanocoumarin derivatives as cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit juice. PMID:15256725

  15. A Data Analysis Pipeline Accounting for Artifacts in Tox21 Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Sedykh, Alexander; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Tice, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    A main goal of the U.S. Tox21 program is to profile a 10K-compound library for activity against a panel of stress-related and nuclear receptor signaling pathway assays using a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) approach. However, assay artifacts, including nonreproducible signals and assay interference (e.g., autofluorescence), complicate compound activity interpretation. To address these issues, we have developed a data analysis pipeline that includes an updated signal noise–filtering/curation protocol and an assay interference flagging system. To better characterize various types of signals, we adopted a weighted version of the area under the curve (wAUC) to quantify the amount of activity across the tested concentration range in combination with the assay-dependent point-of-departure (POD) concentration. Based on the 32 Tox21 qHTS assays analyzed, we demonstrate that signal profiling using wAUC affords the best reproducibility (Pearson's r = 0.91) in comparison with the POD (0.82) only or the AC50 (i.e., half-maximal activity concentration, 0.81). Among the activity artifacts characterized, cytotoxicity is the major confounding factor; on average, about 8% of Tox21 compounds are affected, whereas autofluorescence affects less than 0.5%. To facilitate data evaluation, we implemented two graphical user interface applications, allowing users to rapidly evaluate the in vitro activity of Tox21 compounds. PMID:25904095

  16. Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

  17. High-content screening assay for identification of chemicals impacting spontaneous activity in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Tara D; Isales, Gregory M; Yozzo, Krystle L; Volz, David C

    2014-01-01

    Although cell-based assays exist, rapid and cost-efficient high-content screening (HCS) assays within intact organisms are needed to support prioritization for developmental neurotoxicity testing in rodents. During zebrafish embryogenesis, spontaneous tail contractions occur from late-segmentation (?19 h postfertilization, hpf) through early pharyngula (?29 hpf) and represent the first sign of locomotion. Using transgenic zebrafish (fli1:egfp) that stably express eGFP beginning at ?14 hpf, we have developed and optimized a 384-well-based HCS assay that quantifies spontaneous activity within single zebrafish embryos after exposure to test chemicals in a concentration-response format. Following static exposure of one embryo per well from 5 to 25 hpf, automated image acquisition procedures and custom analysis protocols were used to quantify total body area and spontaneous activity in live embryos. Survival and imaging success rates across control plates ranged from 87.5 to 100% and 93.3-100%, respectively. Using our optimized procedures, we screened 16 chemicals within the US EPA's ToxCast Phase-I library, and found that exposure to abamectin and emamectin benzoate-both potent avermectins-abolished spontaneous activity in the absence of gross malformations. Overall, compared to existing locomotion-based zebrafish assays conducted later in development, this method provides a simpler discovery platform for identifying potential developmental neurotoxicants. PMID:24328182

  18. Evaluation of the use of reporter antigens in an auricular lymph node assay to assess the immunosensitizing potential of drugs.

    PubMed

    Nierkens, Stefan; Nieuwenhuijsen, Leonie; Thomas, Mieke; Pieters, Raymond

    2004-05-01

    Immune-mediated idiosyncratic drug reactions are a major problem for susceptible patients, physicians, and the pharmaceutical industry. Validated screening tools to assess the immunosensitizing capacity of orally or intravenously administered pharmaceuticals are currently not available. To date, the popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) seems the most promising tool for this purpose. The PLNA has recently been extended with the use of reporter antigens (RA) that are coinjected together with the drug of interest. The measurement of isotypes of RA-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) enables the distinction of sensitizing chemicals and (nonsensitizing) irritants without radio-isotopic end points. However, the use of footpad injections raises ethical concerns. Therefore, we examined the use of RA after intradermal injection into the ear of BALB/c mice and measured RA-specific ASC in the draining auricular lymph node (ALN). We show that RA-specific IgG isotype ASC numbers are very useful and sensitive parameters to identify drug-induced hypersensitivity in both PLN and ALN. However, the type 1-associated parameters (CD8(+) cells, macrophages, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta) that are induced in the PLN by streptozotocin were less pronounced in the ALN. Thus, the PLNA may provide more immunologically relevant information on the mechanisms of certain chemical-induced hypersensitivity reactions. The RA-ALN assay may provide an alternative for the RA-PLNA; both assays can be used to distinguish sensitizing compounds from nonsensitizing ones. PMID:14976356

  19. Simple PCR Assays Improve the Sensitivity of HIV-1 Subtype B Drug Resistance Testing and Allow Linking of Resistance Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Jin-Fen; Wei, Xierong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Bennett, Diane; Brant, Ashley; Cong, Mian-er; Spira, Thomas; Shafer, Robert W.; Heneine, Walid

    2007-01-01

    Background The success of antiretroviral therapy is known to be compromised by drug-resistant HIV-1 at frequencies detectable by conventional bulk sequencing. Currently, there is a need to assess the clinical consequences of low-frequency drug resistant variants occurring below the detection limit of conventional genotyping. Sensitive detection of drug-resistant subpopulations, however, requires simple and practical methods for routine testing. Methodology We developed highly-sensitive and simple real-time PCR assays for nine key drug resistance mutations and show that these tests overcome substantial sequence heterogeneity in HIV-1 clinical specimens. We specifically used early wildtype virus samples from the pre-antiretroviral drug era to measure background reactivity and were able to define highly-specific screening cut-offs that are up to 67-fold more sensitive than conventional genotyping. We also demonstrate that sequencing the mutation-specific PCR products provided a direct and novel strategy to further detect and link associated resistance mutations, allowing easy identification of multi-drug-resistant variants. Resistance mutation associations revealed in mutation-specific amplicon sequences were verified by clonal sequencing. Significance Combined, sensitive real-time PCR testing and mutation-specific amplicon sequencing provides a powerful and simple approach that allows for improved detection and evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. PMID:17653265

  20. High throughput screening in duchenne muscular dystrophy: from drug discovery to functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Gintjee, Thomas J J; Magh, Alvin S H; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Centers for the screening of biologically active compounds and genomic libraries are becoming common in the academic setting and have enabled researchers devoted to developing strategies for the treatment of diseases or interested in studying a biological phenomenon to have unprecedented access to libraries that, until few years ago, were accessible only by pharmaceutical companies. As a result, new drugs and genetic targets have now been identified for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most prominent of the neuromuscular disorders affecting children. Although the work is still at an early stage, the results obtained to date are encouraging and demonstrate the importance that these centers may have in advancing therapeutic strategies for DMD as well as other diseases. This review will provide a summary of the status and progress made toward the development of a cure for this disorder and implementing high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies as the main source of discovery. As more academic institutions are gaining access to HTS as a valuable discovery tool, the identification of new biologically active molecules is likely to grow larger. In addition, the presence in the academic setting of experts in different aspects of the disease will offer the opportunity to develop novel assays capable of identifying new targets to be pursued as potential therapeutic options. These assays will represent an excellent source to be used by pharmaceutical companies for the screening of larger libraries providing the opportunity to establish strong collaborations between the private and academic sectors and maximizing the chances of bringing into the clinic new drugs for the treatment of DMD. PMID:25405319

  1. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity < 30% of normal control was 20.3% and a prevalence of severe deficiency that would predispose to primaquine-induced hemolysis (WHO Class I-II) of 6.9%. Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration. PMID:20684792

  2. A rapid survival assay to measure drug-induced cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects

    E-print Network

    Valiathan, Chandni

    We describe a rapid method to accurately measure the cytotoxicity of mammalian cells upon exposure to various drugs. Using this assay, we obtain survival data in a fraction of the time required to perform the traditional ...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the... has anti-psychotic action affecting principally psychomotor activity, is generally without...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... neuroleptic drugs radioceptor assay test system is a device intended to measure in serum or plasma the... has anti-psychotic action affecting principally psychomotor activity, is generally without...

  5. Ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric HIV-1 infection applying dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Reedijk, Mariska L.; Scheuer, Rachel D.; Dekker, Lennard J. M.; Burger, David M.; Hartwig, Nico G.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Luider, Theo M.; Gruters, Rob A.

    2010-01-01

    Kaletra® (Abott Laboratories) is a co-formulated medication used in the treatment of HIV-1-infected children, and it contains the two antiretroviral protease inhibitor drugs lopinavir and ritonavir. We validated two new ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assays to be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations in whole blood and in plasma from HIV-1-infected children. Whole blood was blotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) collecting cards, and plasma was collected simultaneously. DBS collecting cards were extracted by an acetonitrile/water mixture while plasma samples were deproteinized with acetone. Drug concentrations were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS). The application of DBS made it possible to measure lopinavir and ritonavir in whole blood in therapeutically relevant concentrations. The MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS plasma assay was successfully cross-validated with a commonly used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–ultraviolet (UV) assay for the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of HIV-1-infected patients, and it showed comparable performance characteristics. Observed DBS concentrations showed as well, a good correlation between plasma concentrations obtained by MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS and those obtained by the HPLC-UV assay. Application of DBS for TDM proved to be a good alternative to the normally used plasma screening. Moreover, collection of DBS requires small amounts of whole blood which can be easily performed especially in (very) young children where collection of large whole blood amounts is often not possible. DBS is perfectly suited for TDM of HIV-1-infected children; but nevertheless, DBS can also easily be applied for TDM of patients in areas with limited or no laboratory facilities. PMID:20632164

  6. In vitro transcription assay for resolution of drug-DNA interactions at defined DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Evison, Benny J; Phillips, Don R; Cutts, Suzanne M

    2010-01-01

    A major class of anticancer agents in current clinical use exerts its anticancer effects by binding covalently or non-covalently to DNA. A detailed understanding of the nature of these drug-DNA complexes would be expected to lead to better uses of these drugs, and also assist with the design of improved drug derivatives. Here, we present a transcriptional footprinting assay that can be implemented to define the DNA sequence specificity and kinetics associated with drug-DNA complexes. The basic steps involve the formation of drug-DNA complexes, the formation of synchronised initiated transcripts, and finally transcriptional elongation to reveal drug blockage sites that impede the progression of RNA polymerase. We have used the "in vitro transcription assay" to investigate many covalent drug-DNA interactions; most notably those obtained using anthracycline anticancer agents such as doxorubicin and anthracenedione-based anticancer agents, including mitoxantrone and pixantrone. PMID:19997886

  7. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    SciTech Connect

    Taxvig, Camilla Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  8. Progesterone receptor chaperone complex-based high-throughput screening assay: identification of capsaicin as an inhibitor of the Hsp90 machine.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Chaitanya A; Alfa, Eyad; Lu, Su; Chadli, Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Hsp90 and its co-chaperones are known to be important for cancer cell survival. The N-terminal inhibitors of Hsp90 that are in ongoing clinical trials as antitumor agents have unfortunately shown disappointing efficacies in the clinic. Thus, novel inhibitors of the Hsp90 machine with a different mechanism of action are urgently needed. We report here the development of a novel high-throughput screening assay platform to identify small-molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones. This assay quantitatively measures the ability of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones to refold/protect the progesterone receptor, a physiological client of Hsp90, in a 96-well plate format. We screened the National Institutes of Health clinical collection drug library and identified capsaicin as a hit molecule. Capsaicin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for topical use in pain management. Cell survival assays showed that capsaicin selectively kills cancer cells and destabilizes several Hsp90 client proteins. Thus, our data may explain the seemingly pleotropic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25184514

  9. Estrogenic activity of constituents of underarm deodorants determined by E-Screen assay.

    PubMed

    Lange, Claudia; Kuch, Bertram; Metzger, Jörg W

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether different kinds of underarm deodorants commercially available in Germany might contain substances with estrogenic potential which after use enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. Twenty five deodorants produced by ten different manufacturers in the form of sprays, roll-ons and sticks were investigated using an in vitro-test system (E-Screen assay) for the determination of estrogenic activity based on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Seven out of ten spray deodorant samples showed a quantifiable estrogenic activity. In the case of the sticks and roll-ons it was only one out of six and one out of nine, respectively. The 17?-estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs) of the samples ranged from 0.1 ng g(-1) to 9 ng g(-1) deodorant. Spray deodorant samples showed the highest activities in the E-Screen assay compared to the stick and roll-on deodorants. In order to identify substances possibly contributing to the observed biological activity the samples were additionally analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained results of this non-target screening led to the selection of 62 single substances present in the deodorants which for their part were analyzed by E-Screen assay. Eight of these single substances, all of them fragrances, showed estrogenic effects with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) similar to parabens, a group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters commonly used as preservatives in personal care products, which are known to have a slight estrogenic effect. Thus, these fragrances are obviously responsible to a substantial degree for the observed estrogenic activity of the deodorants. PMID:24875918

  10. Optical oxygen sensing systems for drug discovery applications: Respirometric Screening Technology (RST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Hynes, James; Fernandes, Richard

    2005-11-01

    Quenched-fluorescence oxygen sensing allows non-chemical, reversible, real-time monitoring of molecular oxygen and rates of oxygen consumption in biological samples. Using this approach we have developed Respirometric Screening Technology (RST); a platform which facilitates the convenient analysis of cellular oxygen uptake. This in turn allows the investigation of compounds and processes which affect respiratory activity. The RST platform employs soluble phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive probes, which may be assessed in standard microtitter plates on a fluorescence plate reader. New formats of RST assays and time-resolved fluorescence detection instrumentation developed by Luxcel provide improvements in assay sensitivity, miniaturization and overall performance. RST has a diverse range of applications in drug discovery area including high throughput analysis of mitochondrial function; studies of mechanisms of toxicity and apoptosis; cell and animal based screening of compound libraries and environmental samples; and, sterility testing. RST has been successfully validated with a range of practical targets and adopted by several leading pharmaceutical companies.

  11. In vitro Assay for Screening of Optimal Targets for Antigen-Delivery to Murine Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Pugholm, L H; Varming, K; Agger, R

    2015-12-01

    Targeting of antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) increase the efficiency of immunization procedures and may facilitate the development of more effective vaccines. Several surface molecules on DCs have shown to be useful for antigen targeting, but many more deserves investigation for their efficacy in this respect. With this end in mind, a simple in vitro assay for screening of optimal targets for antigen-delivery to murine DCs was established. Splenocytes from mice immunized with rat IgG were targeted in vitro with a panel of different rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against surface markers on murine DCs. The resulting T-cell activation was analysed by determining the number of IFN-? and IL-4 secreting cells by ELISPOT. A positive effect of targeting was evident with several of the mAbs. Thus, mAbs against CD11c, CD36, CD205 and Clec7A all induced IFN-? responses that were significantly higher than those induced by non-targeting control mAbs. Anti-CD36 also induced IL-4 responses that were significantly higher than the control. The assay described here allows simultaneous analysis of a large number of potential target structures and facilitates direct comparison between the different targets regarding the strength of the T-cell responses induced by the targeted DCs. The assay could be useful as a first-line screening of potential target structures on murine DCs. PMID:26331836

  12. Research Resource: Modulators of Glucocorticoid Receptor Activity Identified by a New High-Throughput Screening Assay

    PubMed Central

    Blackford, John A.; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Dougherty, Edward J.; Pradhan, Madhumita; Shen, Min; Li, Zhuyin; Auld, Douglas S.; Chow, Carson C.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids affect almost every type of tissue and thus are widely used to treat a variety of human pathological conditions. However, the severity of numerous side effects limits the frequency and duration of glucocorticoid treatments. Of the numerous approaches to control off-target responses to glucocorticoids, small molecules and pharmaceuticals offer several advantages. Here we describe a new, extended high-throughput screen in intact cells to identify small molecule modulators of dexamethasone-induced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) transcriptional activity. The novelty of this assay is that it monitors changes in both GR maximal activity (Amax) and EC50 (the position of the dexamethasone dose-response curve). Upon screening 1280 chemicals, 10 with the greatest changes in the absolute value of Amax or EC50 were selected for further examination. Qualitatively identical behaviors for 60% to 90% of the chemicals were observed in a completely different system, suggesting that other systems will be similarly affected by these chemicals. Additional analysis of the 10 chemicals in a recently described competition assay determined their kinetically defined mechanism and site of action. Some chemicals had similar mechanisms of action despite divergent effects on the level of the GR-induced product. These combined assays offer a straightforward method of identifying numerous new pharmaceuticals that can alter GR transactivation in ways that could be clinically useful. PMID:24850414

  13. Two high throughput screening assays for Aberrant RNA-protein interactions in Myotonic Dystrophy Type-1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Catherine Z.; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Hoskins, Jason; Southall, Noel; Marugan, Juan J.; Zheng, Wei; Thornton, Charles A.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1), the most prevalent form of adult muscular dystrophy, is caused by expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3? untranslated region of the DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The pathogenic effects of the CTG expansion arise from the deleterious effects of the mutant transcript. RNA with expanded CUG tracts alters the activities of several RNA binding proteins, including muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1). MBNL1 becomes sequestered in nuclear foci in complex with the expanded CUG repeat RNA. The resulting loss of MBNL1 activity causes mis-regulated alternative splicing of multiple genes, leading to symptoms of DM1. The binding interaction between MBNL1 and mutant RNA could be a key step in the pathogenesis of DM1 and serves as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We have developed two high throughput screen (HTS) suitable assays using both homogenous time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer (HTRF) and AlphaScreen technologies to detect the binding of a C-terminally His-tagged MBNL1 and a biotinylated (CUG)12 RNA. These assays are homogenous and successfully miniaturized to 1536-well plate format. Both assays were validated and show robust signal-to-basal ratios and Z’ factors. PMID:22218462

  14. Identification of antifungal niphimycin from Streptomyces sp. KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yoon; Kim, Jeong Do; Hong, Jin Sung; Ham, Jong Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2013-07-01

    Microbial culture extracts are used for natural product screening to find antifungal lead compounds. A microbial culture extract library was constructed using 343 actinomycete isolates to examine the value of the adenylate kinase (AK) assay for screening to identify antifungal metabolites that disrupt cell integrity in plant pathogenic fungi. A culture extract of Streptomyces sp. strain KP6107 lysed cells of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici which resulted in high AK activity. The active ingredient N-1 was purified from the culture extract using various chromatographic procedures and identified to be the guanidyl-polyol macrolide antibiotic, niphimycin, which is a potent fungal cell membrane disruptor. Niphimycin showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Alternaria mali, Aspergillus oryzae, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cercospora canescens, Cylindrocarpon destructans, F. oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Rhizoctonia solani at concentrations of 8-64?µg?ml(-1). Anthracnose development in pepper plants was completely inhibited by treatment with 50 µg?ml(-1) niphimycin, which was as effective as chlorothalonil. These results show that the AK assay is an efficient and selective tool in screening for cell membrane/wall disruptors of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:22915202

  15. High-throughput Assay to Identify New Cancer Drugs

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology seeks parties interested in collaborative research to evaluate or commercialize a diagnostic tool that can identify new drugs that increase chromosome instability.

  16. A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

    2013-10-01

    There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures.

  17. A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis.

    PubMed

    Timm, David M; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A; Haisler, William L; Neeley, Shane K; Raphael, Robert M; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Killian, T C; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures. PMID:24141454

  18. Unbiased screening of polymer libraries to define novel substrates for functional hepatocytes with inducible drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hay, David C; Pernagallo, Salvatore; Diaz-Mochon, Juan Jose; Medine, Claire N; Greenhough, Sebastian; Hannoun, Zara; Schrader, Joerg; Black, James R; Fletcher, Judy; Dalgetty, Donna; Thompson, Alexandra I; Newsome, Philip N; Forbes, Stuart J; Ross, James A; Bradley, Mark; Iredale, John P

    2011-03-01

    Maintaining stable differentiated somatic cell function in culture is essential to a range of biological endeavors. However, current technologies, employing, for example, primary hepatic cell culture (essential to the development of a bio-artificial liver and improved drug and toxicology testing), are limited by supply, expense, and functional instability even on biological cell culture substrata. As such, novel biologically active substrates manufacturable to GMP standards have the potential to improve cell culture-based assay applications. Currently hepatic endoderm (HE) generated from pluripotent stem cells is a genotypically diverse, cheap, and stable source of "hepatocytes"; however, HE routine applications are limited due to phenotypic instability in culture. Therefore a manufacturable subcellular matrix capable of supporting long-term differentiated cell function would represent a step forward in developing scalable and phenotypically stable hESC-derived hepatocytes. Adopting an unbiased approach we screened polymer microarrays and identified a polyurethane matrix which promoted HE viability, hepatocellular gene expression, drug-inducible metabolism, and function. Moreover, the polyurethane supported, when coated on a clinically approved bio-artificial liver matrix, long-term hepatocyte function and growth. In conclusion, our data suggest that an unbiased screening approach can identify cell culture substrate(s) that enhance the phenotypic stability of primary and stem cell-derived cell resources. PMID:21277274

  19. Development of an HTS assay for EPHX2 phosphatase activity and screening of non-targeted libraries

    PubMed Central

    Morisseau, Christophe; Sahdeo, Sunil; Cortopassi, Gino; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The EPXH2 gene encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which has two distinct enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (Cterm-EH) and phosphatase (Nterm-phos). The Cterm-EH is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid epoxides that play important roles in blood pressure, cell growth, inflammation and pain. While recent findings suggested complementary biological roles for Nterm-phos, research is limited by the lack of potent bioavailable inhibitors of this phosphatase activity. Also, a potent bioavailable inhibitor of this activity could be important in the development of therapy for cardiovascular diseases. We report herein the development of a HTS enzyme-based assay for Nterm-phos (Z? > 0.9) using AttoPhos as the substrate. This assay was used to screen a wide variety of chemical entities, including a library of known drugs that have reached through clinical evaluation (Pharmakon 1600), as well as a library of pesticides and environmental toxins. We discovered ebselen inhibits sEH phosphatase activity. Ebselen binds to the N-terminal domain of sEH (KI = 550 nM) and chemically reacts with the enzyme to quickly and irreversibly inhibit Nterm-phos, and subsequently the Cterm-EH, and thus represents a new class of sEH inhibitor. PMID:23219563

  20. Modular real-time PCR screening assay for common European animal families.

    PubMed

    Naue, J; Lutz-Bonengel, S; Sänger, T; Schlauderer, N; Schmidt, U

    2014-01-01

    A screening assay based on real-time PCR and melt curve analysis was developed to detect DNA from nine common European animal families/species and human. The assay consists of a 10-cycle universal pre-amplification followed by specific nested PCR and was designed to exploit the different melting temperatures (T m) of family/species-specific 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and cytochrome b fragments, which are amplified in duplex reactions. Case-related modular application is possible. Beyond determination of the animal family and discrimination from human DNA, evaluation of the melt curve in some cases additionally allows for species determination (e.g. cat vs. lynx). The method presents a quick, flexible and sample-saving approach to assess non-human DNA at low expenses, and it is especially useful in resolution of DNA mixtures. PMID:23613031

  1. A First Application of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening Cyclodiene Insecticides in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Mohrman, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate kit for screening of cyclodiene insecticides (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, and heptachlor) was evaluated for sensitivity, cross reactivity, and overall performance using groundwater samples from a contaminated site. Ground-water contaminants included several pesticide compounds and their manufacturing byproducts, as well as many other organic and inorganic compounds. Cross-reactivity studies were carried out for the cyclodiene compounds, and results were compared to those listed by the manufacturer. Data obtained were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ELISA kit to the cyclodiene compounds in ground water samples with a contaminated matrix. The method quantitation limit for the ELISA kit was 15 ??g/L (as chlordane). Of the 56 ground-water samples analyzed using the ELISA plate kits, more than 85% showed cyclodiene insecticide contamination. The ELISA kit showed excellent potential as a screening tool for sites with suspected groundwater contamination by insecticides.

  2. Homogeneous single-label tyrosine kinase activity assay for high throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Tong-Ochoa, Natalia; Kopra, Kari; Syrjänpää, Markku; Legrand, Nicolas; Härmä, Harri

    2015-10-15

    Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) are regulatory mechanisms carried out by different enzymes in a cell. Kinase catalyzed phosphorylation is one of the most important PTM affecting the protein activity and function. We have developed a single-label quenching resonance energy transfer (QRET) assay to monitor tyrosine phosphorylation in a homogeneous high throughput compatible format. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) induced phosphorylation was monitored using Eu(3+)-chelate labeled peptide and label-free phosphotyrosine specific antibody in presence of a soluble quencher molecule. In the QRET kinase assay, antibody binding to phosphorylated Eu(3+)-peptide protects the Eu(3+)-chelate from luminescence quenching, monitoring high time-resolved luminescence (TRL) signals. In the presence of specific kinase inhibitor, antibody recognition and Eu(3+)-chelate protection is prevented, allowing an efficient luminescence quenching. The assay functionality was demonstrated with a panel of EGFR inhibitors (AG-1478, compound 56, erlotinib, PD174265, and staurosporine). The monitored IC50 values ranged from 0.08 to 155.3 nM and were comparable to those found in the literature. EGFR activity and inhibition assays were performed using low nanomolar enzyme and antibody concentration in a 384-well plate format, demonstrating its compatibility for high throughput screening (HTS). PMID:26515010

  3. A High-Content Assay to Screen for Modulators of EGFR Function.

    PubMed

    Antczak, Christophe; Djaballah, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based assays have the potential and advantage to identify cell-permeable modulators of kinase function, and hence provide an alternative to the conventional enzymatic activity-driven discovery approaches that rely on purified recombinant kinase catalytic domains. Here, we describe a domain-based high-content biosensor approach to study endogenous EGFR activity whereby EGF-induced receptor activation, subsequent trafficking, and internalization are imaged and quantified using time-dependent granule formation in cells. This method can readily be used to search for EGFR modulators in both chemical and RNAi screening; with potential applicability to other receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:26501905

  4. Biomimetic cardiac microsystems for pathophysiological studies and drug screens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyung; Razu, Md Enayet; Wang, Xinmei; Lacerda, Carla; Kim, Jungkyu Jay

    2015-04-01

    Microfabricated organs-on-chips consist of tissue-engineered 3D in vitro models, which rely on engineering design and provide the physiological context of human organs. Recently, significant effort has been devoted to the creation of a biomimetic cardiac system by using microfabrication techniques. By applying allometric scaling laws, microengineered cardiac systems simulating arterial flow, pulse properties, and architectural environments have been implemented, allowing high-throughput pathophysiological experiments and drug screens. In this review, we illustrate the recent trends in cardiac microsystems with emphasis on cardiac pumping and valving functions. We report problems and solutions brought to light by existing organs-on-chip models and discuss future directions of the field. We also describe the needs and desired design features that will enable the control of mechanical, electrical, and chemical environments to generate functional in vitro cardiac disease models. PMID:25524490

  5. Drug screen targeted at Plasmodium liver stages identifies a potent multistage antimalarial drug.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Filipa P; Martin, Cécilie; Buchholz, Kathrin; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria J; Rodrigues, Tiago; Sönnichsen, Birte; Moreira, Rui; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Marti, Matthias; Mota, Maria M; Hannus, Michael; Prudêncio, Miguel

    2012-04-15

    Plasmodium parasites undergo a clinically silent and obligatory developmental phase in the host's liver cells before they are able to infect erythrocytes and cause malaria symptoms. To overcome the scarcity of compounds targeting the liver stage of malaria, we screened a library of 1037 existing drugs for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium hepatic development. Decoquinate emerged as the strongest inhibitor of Plasmodium liver stages, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, decoquinate kills the parasite's replicative blood stages and is active against developing gametocytes, the forms responsible for transmission. The drug acts by selectively and specifically inhibiting the parasite's mitochondrial bc(1) complex, with little cross-resistance with the antimalarial drug atovaquone. Oral administration of a single dose of decoquinate effectively prevents the appearance of disease, warranting its exploitation as a potent antimalarial compound. PMID:22396598

  6. Drug Screen Targeted at Plasmodium Liver Stages Identifies a Potent Multistage Antimalarial Drug

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Filipa P.; Martin, Cécilie; Buchholz, Kathrin; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Sönnichsen, Birte; Moreira, Rui; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Marti, Matthias; Mota, Maria M.; Hannus, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites undergo a clinically silent and obligatory developmental phase in the host’s liver cells before they are able to infect erythrocytes and cause malaria symptoms. To overcome the scarcity of compounds targeting the liver stage of malaria, we screened a library of 1037 existing drugs for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium hepatic development. Decoquinate emerged as the strongest inhibitor of Plasmodium liver stages, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, decoquinate kills the parasite’s replicative blood stages and is active against developing gametocytes, the forms responsible for transmission. The drug acts by selectively and specifically inhibiting the parasite’s mitochondrial bc1 complex, with little cross-resistance with the antimalarial drug atovaquone. Oral administration of a single dose of decoquinate effectively prevents the appearance of disease, warranting its exploitation as a potent antimalarial compound. PMID:22396598

  7. High-throughput screen using a single-cell tyrosine phosphatase assay reveals biologically active inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatase CD45.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Stephanie M; Panchal, Rekha G; Walker, Logan M; Wu, Dennis J; Falk, Matthew D; Mitra, Sayantan; Damle, Sagar S; Ruble, David; Kaltcheva, Teodora; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Bavari, Sina; Barrios, Amy M; Bottini, Nunzio

    2012-08-28

    Many cellular signaling events are regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation and mediated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are emerging as drug targets, but poor cell permeability of inhibitors has limited the development of drugs targeting these enzymes [Tautz L, et al. (2006) Expert Opin Ther Targets 10:157-177]. Here we developed a method to monitor tyrosine phosphatase activity at the single-cell level and applied it to the identification of cell-permeable inhibitors. The method takes advantage of the fluorogenic properties of phosphorylated coumaryl amino propionic acid (pCAP), an analog of phosphotyrosine, which can be incorporated into peptides. Once delivered into cells, pCAP peptides were dephosphorylated by protein tyrosine phosphatases, and the resulting cell fluorescence could be monitored by flow cytometry and high-content imaging. The robustness and sensitivity of the assay was validated using peptides preferentially dephosphorylated by CD45 and T-cell tyrosine phosphatase and available inhibitors of these two enzymes. The assay was applied to high-throughput screening for inhibitors of CD45, an important target for autoimmunity and infectious diseases [Hermiston ML, et al. (2003) Annu Rev Immunol 21:107-137]. We identified four CD45 inhibitors that showed activity in T cells and macrophages. These results indicate that our assay can be applied to primary screening for inhibitors of CD45 and of other protein tyrosine phosphatases to increase the yield of biologically active inhibitors. PMID:22891353

  8. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tony J; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei; Andrews, David W

    2015-11-01

    A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose-response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds. PMID:26422066

  9. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Tony J.; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose–response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds. PMID:26422066

  10. A simple liposome assay for the screening of zinc ionophore activity of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Clergeaud, Gael; Dabbagh-Bazarbachi, Husam; Ortiz, Mayreli; Fernández-Larrea, Juan B; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2016-04-15

    An efficient liposomal system for screening the zinc ionophore activity of a selected library consisting of the most relevant dietary polyphenols is presented. The zinc ionophore activity was demonstrated by exploring the use of zinc-specific fluorophore FluoZin-3 loaded liposomes as simple membrane tools that mimic the cell membrane. The zinc ionophore activity was demonstrated as the capacity of polyphenols to transport zinc cations across the liposome membrane and increase the zinc-specific fluorescence of the encapsulated fluorophore FluoZin-3. In addition, the zinc chelation strength of the polyphenols was also tested in a competition assay based on the fluorescence quenching of zinc-dependent fluorescence emitted by zinc-FluoZin-3 complex. Finally, the correlation between the chelation capacity and ionophore activity is demonstrated, thus underlining the sequestering or ionophoric activity that the phenolic compounds can display, thus, providing better knowledge of the importance of the structural conformation versus their biological activity. Furthermore, the assays developed can be used as tools for rapid, high-throughput screening of families of polyphenols towards different biometals. PMID:26617034

  11. Minimizing DILI risk in drug discovery - A screening tool for drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Schadt, S; Simon, S; Kustermann, S; Boess, F; McGinnis, C; Brink, A; Lieven, R; Fowler, S; Youdim, K; Ullah, M; Marschmann, M; Zihlmann, C; Siegrist, Y M; Cascais, A C; Di Lenarda, E; Durr, E; Schaub, N; Ang, X; Starke, V; Singer, T; Alvarez-Sanchez, R; Roth, A B; Schuler, F; Funk, C

    2015-12-25

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute hepatic failure and a major reason for market withdrawal of drugs. Idiosyncratic DILI is multifactorial, with unclear dose-dependency and poor predictability since the underlying patient-related susceptibilities are not sufficiently understood. Because of these limitations, a pharmaceutical research option would be to reduce the compound-related risk factors in the drug-discovery process. Here we describe the development and validation of a methodology for the assessment of DILI risk of drug candidates. As a training set, 81 marketed or withdrawn compounds with differing DILI rates - according to the FDA categorization - were tested in a combination of assays covering different mechanisms and endpoints contributing to human DILI. These include the generation of reactive metabolites (CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition and glutathione adduct formation), inhibition of the human bile salt export pump (BSEP), mitochondrial toxicity and cytotoxicity (fibroblasts and human hepatocytes). Different approaches for dose- and exposure-based calibrations were assessed and the same parameters applied to a test set of 39 different compounds. We achieved a similar performance to the training set with an overall accuracy of 79% correctly predicted, a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 82%. This test system may be applied in a prospective manner to reduce the risk of idiosyncratic DILI of drug candidates. PMID:26407524

  12. Automated assay for screening the enzymatic release of reducing sugars from micronized biomass

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To reduce the production cost of bioethanol obtained from fermentation of the sugars provided by degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., second generation bioethanol), it is necessary to screen for new enzymes endowed with more efficient biomass degrading properties. This demands the set-up of high-throughput screening methods. Several methods have been devised all using microplates in the industrial SBS format. Although this size reduction and standardization has greatly improved the screening process, the published methods comprise one or more manual steps that seriously decrease throughput. Therefore, we worked to devise a screening method devoid of any manual steps. Results We describe a fully automated assay for measuring the amount of reducing sugars released by biomass-degrading enzymes from wheat-straw and spruce. The method comprises two independent and automated steps. The first step is the making of "substrate plates". It consists of filling 96-well microplates with slurry suspensions of micronized substrate which are then stored frozen until use. The second step is an enzymatic activity assay. After thawing, the substrate plates are supplemented by the robot with cell-wall degrading enzymes where necessary, and the whole process from addition of enzymes to quantification of released sugars is autonomously performed by the robot. We describe how critical parameters (amount of substrate, amount of enzyme, incubation duration and temperature) were selected to fit with our specific use. The ability of this automated small-scale assay to discriminate among different enzymatic activities was validated using a set of commercial enzymes. Conclusions Using an automatic microplate sealer solved three main problems generally encountered during the set-up of methods for measuring the sugar-releasing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes: throughput, automation, and evaporation losses. In its present set-up, the robot can autonomously process 120 triplicate wheat-straw samples per day. This throughput can be doubled if the incubation time is reduced from 24 h to 4 h (for initial rates measurements, for instance). This method can potentially be used with any insoluble substrate that is micronizable. A video illustrating the method can be seen at the following URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NFg6TxjuMWU PMID:20637080

  13. A Cell-Based Internalization and Degradation Assay with an Activatable Fluorescence–Quencher Probe as a Tool for Functional Antibody Screening

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peter Corbett; Shen, Yang; Snavely, Marshall D.; Hiraga, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    For the development of therapeutically potent anti-cancer antibody drugs, it is often important to identify antibodies that internalize into cells efficiently, rather than just binding to antigens on the cell surface. Such antibodies can mediate receptor endocytosis, resulting in receptor downregulation on the cell surface and potentially inhibiting receptor function and tumor growth. Also, efficient antibody internalization is a prerequisite for the delivery of cytotoxic drugs into target cells and is critical for the development of antibody–drug conjugates. Here we describe a novel activatable fluorescence–quencher pair to quantify the extent of antibody internalization and degradation in the target cells. In this assay, candidate antibodies were labeled with a fluorescent dye and a quencher. Fluorescence is inhibited outside and on the surface of cells, but activated upon endocytosis and degradation of the antibody. This assay enabled the development of a process for rapid characterization of candidate antibodies potentially in a high-throughput format. By employing an activatable secondary antibody, primary antibodies in purified form or in culture supernatants can be screened for internalization and degradation. Because purification of candidate antibodies is not required, this method represents a direct functional screen to identify antibodies that internalize efficiently early in the discovery process. PMID:26024945

  14. Simultaneous screening and quantitation of 18 antihistamine drugs in blood by liquid chromatography ionspray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gergov, M; Robson, J N; Ojanperä, I; Heinonen, O P; Vuori, E

    2001-09-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is presented for the simultaneous screening and quantitation of 18 antihistamine drugs in blood samples. Sample pretreatment involved liquid-liquid extraction of the basic antihistamines followed by a second extraction of the acidic antihistamines. The recoveries were 43-113% for basic drugs and 23-66% for acidic drugs. The combined extracts were run by LC on C(18) reversed phase column using acetonitrile-ammonium acetate mobile phase at pH 3.2. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed with a triple stage quadrupole mass analyzer. Screening was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and any compounds tentatively identified as antihistamine drugs were then automatedly verified by their Product Ion Spectra in a subsequent MS/MS run. Quantitation was based on the MRM data from the screening step. In validation tests, the method showed good linearity at the relevant concentrations. The attained limits of quantitation varied between 0.0005 and 0.01mg/l in blood and were lower than the therapeutic concentrations (C(max)). The limits for identification by Product Ion Spectra were also lower than C(max), except for clemastine, which has exceptionally low concentrations in blood. The intra-assay relative standard deviations were better than 10% and the inaccuracy varied between 39% for levocabastine and 5% for cyclizine, the majority of the values being <20%. PMID:11516895

  15. Screening assay for small molecule inhibitors of synaptojanin 1, a synaptic phosphoinositide phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    McIntire, Laura Beth J.; Lee, Kyu-In; Chang-IIeto, Belle; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Elevation of amyloid ?-peptide (A?) is critically associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. A?-induced synaptic abnormalities, including altered receptor trafficking and synapse loss, have been linked to cognitive deficits in AD. Recent work implicates a lipid critical for neuronal function, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], in A?-induced synaptic and behavioral impairments. Synaptojanin 1 (Synj1), a lipid phosphatase mediating the breakdown of PI(4,5)P2, has been shown to play a role in synaptic vesicle recycling and receptor trafficking in neurons. Heterozygous deletion of Synj1 protected neurons from A?-induced synaptic loss and restored learning and memory in a mouse model of AD. Thus, inhibition of Synj1 may ameliorate A?-associated impairments, suggesting Synj1 as a potential therapeutic target. To this end, we developed a screening assay for Synj1 based on detection of inorganic phosphate liberation from a water-soluble, short chain PI(4,5)P2. The assay displayed saturable kinetics and detected Synj1’s substrate preference for PI(4,5)P2 over PI(3,4,5)P3. The assay will enable identification of novel Synj1 inhibitors which have potential utility as chemical probes to dissect the cellular role of Synj1 as well as potential to prevent or reverse AD-associated synaptic abnormalities. PMID:24186361

  16. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. Results Here, we provide a cost effective method for the production of 96-well plate compatible zebrafish orientation tools using a desktop 3D printer. The printed tools enable the positioning and orientation of zebrafish embryos within cavities formed in agarose. Their applicability is demonstrated by acquiring lateral and dorsal views of zebrafish embryos arrayed within microtiter plates using an automated screening microscope. This enables the consistent visualization of morphological phenotypes and reporter gene expression patterns. Conclusions The designs are refined versions of previously demonstrated devices with added functionality and strongly reduced production costs. All corresponding 3D models are freely available and digital design can be easily shared electronically. In combination with the increasingly widespread usage of 3D printers, this provides access to the developed tools to a wide range of zebrafish users. Finally, the design files can serve as templates for other additive and subtractive fabrication methods. PMID:24886511

  17. Continuous colorimetric screening assays for the detection of specific L- or D-?-amino acid transaminases in enzyme libraries.

    PubMed

    Heuson, Egon; Petit, Jean-Louis; Debard, Adrien; Job, Aurélie; Charmantray, Franck; de Berardinis, Véronique; Gefflaut, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    In the course of a project devoted to the stereoselective synthesis of non-proteinogenic ?-amino acids using ?-transaminases (?-TA), we report the design and optimization of generic high-throughput continuous assays for the screening of ?-TA libraries. These assays are based on the use of L- or D-cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA) as irreversible amino donor and subsequent sulfite titration by colorimetry. The assays' quality was assessed under screening conditions. Hit selection thresholds were accurately determined for every couple of substrates and a library of 232 putative transaminases expressed in Escherichia coli host cells was screened. The reported high throughput screening assays proved very sensitive allowing the detection with high confidence of activities as low as 10 ?U (i.e., 0.01 nmol substrate converted per min). The assays were also evidenced to be stereochemically discriminant since L-CSA and D-CSA allowed the exclusive detection of L-TA and D-TA, respectively. These generic assays thus allow testing the stereoselective conversion of a wide range of ?-keto acids into ?-amino acids of interest. As a proof of principle, the use of 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid as acceptor substrate led to the identification of 54 new ?-TA offering an access to valuable L- or D-homophenylalanine. PMID:26452497

  18. Drug and bioactive molecule screening based on a bioelectrical impedance cell culture platform

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Sakthivel; Bennet, Devasier; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    This review will present a brief discussion on the recent advancements of bioelectrical impedance cell-based biosensors, especially the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system for screening of various bioactive molecules. The different technical integrations of various chip types, working principles, measurement systems, and applications for drug targeting of molecules in cells are highlighted in this paper. Screening of bioactive molecules based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing is a trial-and-error process toward the development of therapeutically active agents for drug discovery and therapeutics. In general, bioactive molecule screening can be used to identify active molecular targets for various diseases and toxicity at the cellular level with nanoscale resolution. In the innovation and screening of new drugs or bioactive molecules, the activeness, the efficacy of the compound, and safety in biological systems are the main concerns on which determination of drug candidates is based. Further, drug discovery and screening of compounds are often performed in cell-based test systems in order to reduce costs and save time. Moreover, this system can provide more relevant results in in vivo studies, as well as high-throughput drug screening for various diseases during the early stages of drug discovery. Recently, MEMS technologies and integration with image detection techniques have been employed successfully. These new technologies and their possible ongoing transformations are addressed. Select reports are outlined, and not all the work that has been performed in the field of drug screening and development is covered. PMID:25525360

  19. Large-Scale Phenotype-Based Antiepileptic Drug Screening in a Zebrafish Model of Dravet Syndrome1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Dinday, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in a voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN1A) result in Dravet Syndrome (DS), a catastrophic childhood epilepsy. Zebrafish with a mutation in scn1Lab recapitulate salient phenotypes associated with DS, including seizures, early fatality, and resistance to antiepileptic drugs. To discover new drug candidates for the treatment of DS, we screened a chemical library of ?1000 compounds and identified 4 compounds that rescued the behavioral seizure component, including 1 compound (dimethadione) that suppressed associated electrographic seizure activity. Fenfluramine, but not huperzine A, also showed antiepileptic activity in our zebrafish assays. The effectiveness of compounds that block neuronal calcium current (dimethadione) or enhance serotonin signaling (fenfluramine) in our zebrafish model suggests that these may be important therapeutic targets in patients with DS. Over 150 compounds resulting in fatality were also identified. We conclude that the combination of behavioral and electrophysiological assays provide a convenient, sensitive, and rapid basis for phenotype-based drug screening in zebrafish mimicking a genetic form of epilepsy. PMID:26465006

  20. Adaptation of High-Throughput Screening in Drug Discovery—Toxicological Screening Tests

    PubMed Central

    Szyma?ski, Pawe?; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, El?bieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound’s toxicity having only 1–3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study. PMID:22312262

  1. In vitro screening of clinical drugs identifies sensitizers of oncolytic viral therapy in glioblastoma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Berghauser Pont, L M E; Balvers, R K; Kloezeman, J J; Nowicki, M O; van den Bossche, W; Kremer, A; Wakimoto, H; van den Hoogen, B G; Leenstra, S; Dirven, C M F; Chiocca, E A; Lawler, S E; Lamfers, M L M

    2015-12-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OV) have broad potential as an adjuvant for the treatment of solid tumors. The present study addresses the feasibility of clinically applicable drugs to enhance the oncolytic potential of the OV Delta24-RGD in glioblastoma. In total, 446 drugs were screened for their viral sensitizing properties in glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) in vitro. Validation was done for 10 drugs to determine synergy based on the Chou Talalay assay. Mechanistic studies were undertaken to assess viability, replication efficacy, viral infection enhancement and cell death pathway induction in a selected panel of drugs. Four viral sensitizers (fluphenazine, indirubin, lofepramine and ranolazine) were demonstrated to reproducibly synergize with Delta24-RGD in multiple assays. After validation, we underscored general applicability by testing candidate drugs in a broader context of a panel of different GSCs, various solid tumor models and multiple OVs. Overall, this study identified four viral sensitizers, which synergize with Delta24-RGD and two other strains of OVs. The viral sensitizers interact with infection, replication and cell death pathways to enhance efficacy of the OV. PMID:26196249

  2. Animal models for screening anxiolytic-like drugs: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bourin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary biological psychiatry uses experimental animal models to increase our understanding of affective disorder pathogenesis. Modern anxiolytic drug discovery mainly targets specific pathways and molecular determinants within a single phenotypic domain. However, greater understanding of the mechanisms of action is possible through animal models. Primarily developed with rats, animal models in anxiety have been adapted with mixed success for mice, easy-to-use mammals with better genetic possibilities than rats. In this review, we focus on the three most common animal models of anxiety in mice used in the screening of anxiolytics. Both conditioned and unconditioned models are described, in order to represent all types of animal models of anxiety. Behavioral studies require careful attention to variable parameters linked to environment, handling, or paradigms; this is also discussed. Finally, we focus on the consequences of re-exposure to the apparatus. Test-retest procedures can provide new answers, but should be intensively studied in order to revalidate the entire paradigm as an animal model of anxiety. PMID:26487810

  3. High-throughput matrix screening identifies synergistic and antagonistic antimalarial drug combinations

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Bryan T.; Eastman, Richard T.; Guha, Rajarshi; Sherlach, Katy S.; Siriwardana, Amila; Shinn, Paul; McKnight, Crystal; Michael, Sam; Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; Patel, Paresma R.; Khine, Pwint; Sun, Hongmao; Kasbekar, Monica; Aghdam, Nima; Fontaine, Shaun D.; Liu, Dongbo; Mierzwa, Tim; Mathews-Griner, Lesley A.; Ferrer, Marc; Renslo, Adam R.; Inglese, James; Yuan, Jing; Roepe, Paul D.; Su, Xin-zhuan; Thomas, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance in Plasmodium parasites is a constant threat. Novel therapeutics, especially new drug combinations, must be identified at a faster rate. In response to the urgent need for new antimalarial drug combinations we screened a large collection of approved and investigational drugs, tested 13,910 drug pairs, and identified many promising antimalarial drug combinations. The activity of known antimalarial drug regimens was confirmed and a myriad of new classes of positively interacting drug pairings were discovered. Network and clustering analyses reinforced established mechanistic relationships for known drug combinations and identified several novel mechanistic hypotheses. From eleven screens comprising >4,600 combinations per parasite strain (including duplicates) we further investigated interactions between approved antimalarials, calcium homeostasis modulators, and inhibitors of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These studies highlight important targets and pathways and provide promising leads for clinically actionable antimalarial therapy. PMID:26403635

  4. Establishment of a novel cell-based assay for screening small molecule antagonists of human interleukin-6 receptor

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-yang; Yan, Yu; Zhang, Chang; Li, Peng-yuan; Wu, Ping; Du, Peng; Zeng, Da-di; Fang, Jian-song; Wang, Shuang; Du, Guan-hua

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Blockade of interleukin-6 (IL-6) or its receptor (IL-6R) is effective in preventing the progression of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we established a novel cell-based assay for identifying small molecule IL-6R antagonists. Methods: HEK293A cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids pTaglite-SNAP-IL6R and pABhFc-IL6 to obtain membrane-bound IL-6R and recombinant human IL-6 coupled with human Fc fragment (rhIL-6), respectively. A novel screening assay based on the interaction between IL-6R and rhIL-6 was established, optimized and validated. The stability of the assay was also assessed by calculating the Z?-factor. Results: RhIL-6 dose-dependently bound to IL-6R expressed at HEK293A cell surface. The IC50 value of the known antagonist ab47215 was 0.38±0.08 ?g/mL, which was consistent with that obtained using the traditional method (0.36±0.14 ?g/mL). The value of Z?-factor was 0.68, suggesting that the novel assay was stable for high throughput screening. A total of 474 compounds were screened using the novel screening assay, and 3 compounds exhibited antagonistic activities (IC50=8.73±0.28, 32.32±9.08, 57.83±4.24 ?g/mL). Furthermore, the active compounds dose-dependently inhibited IL-6-induced proliferation of 7TD1 cells, and reduced IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in U937 cells. Conclusion: A novel cell-based screening assay for identifying small molecule IL-6R antagonists was established, which simplifies the procedures in traditional cellular ELISA screening and profiling and reduces the costs. PMID:25345743

  5. A novel electrochemical sensor for assaying of antipsychotic drug quetiapine.

    PubMed

    Nigovi?, Biljana; Spaji?, Josipa

    2011-10-30

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on poly(2-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]benzoic acid) film modified glassy carbon electrode for fast and simple quantification of trace amount of quetiapine fumarate (QF) was developed. It exhibits excellent enhancement effects on the electrooxidation of QF facilitating preconcentration of drug molecules on the electrode surface. Based on its strong adsorptive activity, the concentration of QF in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids was determined directly by voltammetry with excellent sensitivity and high selectivity. The introduction of carboxylated and sulfonated functionalities in polymer film improves the uniform selectivity for positively charged target QF molecules. The calibration curve is linear in QF concentration range of 8.0 × 10(-8) to 7.5 × 10(-6)M with detection limit 1.9 × 10(-8) and sensitivity 8.96 × 10(5) ?A M(-1). The presented sensor has long term stability and good reproducibility with benefits of fast response time, ease of preparation and regeneration of the surface that makes the proposed method useful in the determination of QF in real samples. PMID:22063556

  6. Screening for antiradical efficiency of 21 semi-synthetic derivatives of quercetin in a DPPH assay

    PubMed Central

    Milackova, Ivana; Kovacikova, Lucia; Veverka, Miroslav; Gallovic, Ján

    2013-01-01

    The group of 21 novel semi-synthetic derivatives of quercetin was screened for the antiradical efficiency in a DPPH assay. The initial fast absorbance decrease of DPPH, corresponding to the transfer of the most labile H atoms, was followed by a much slower absorbance decline representing the residual antiradical activity of the antioxidant degradation products. Initial velocity of DPPH decolorization determined for the first 75-s interval was used as a marker of the antiradical activity. Application of the kinetic parameter allowed good discrimination between the polyphenolic compounds studied. The most efficient chloronaphthoquinone derivative (compound Ia) was characterized by antiradical activity higher than that of quercetin and comparable with that of trolox. Under the experimental conditions used, one molecule of Ia was found to quench 2.6±0.1 DPPH radicals. PMID:24170974

  7. A novel assay to assess the effectiveness of antiangiogenic drugs in human breast cancer.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cytotoxic drugs maintain antiangiogenic properties, but there are no human, tumor-based assays to evaluate their antiangiogenic potential. We used a fibrin-thrombin clot-based angiogenesis model to evaluate the angiogenic response of human breast cancer to various cytotoxic agents commonly used...

  8. Animal models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ex vivo assay design for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Seavey, Matthew M; Lu, Lily D; Stump, Kristine L

    2011-06-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a debilitating and often fatal autoimmune disease that involves multiple organ systems. It can develop for years before being diagnosed. Current treatments for SLE usually involve the use of cytotoxic or immunosuppressive agents that can lead to infection or cancer. The design of appropriate models and assays will determine the efficiency and speed with which an investigator can test a new chemical entity (NCE) or expect results to move a drug discovery program forward. This unit describes a series of preclinical assays for the identification of new agents for the treatment of SLE. Most importantly, this unit will guide the reader through a step-by-step process to select appropriate models, validation drugs, and readouts, depending on the objective of the study. The reader will acquire a working knowledge of what models are available and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each, including ex vivo assays relevant to the discovery of new SLE therapeutics. PMID:21935901

  9. Development of a voltammetric assay, using screen-printed electrodes, for clonazepam and its application to beverage and serum samples.

    PubMed

    Honeychurch, Kevin C; Brooks, Joshua; Hart, John P

    2016-01-15

    This paper describes the development of an electrochemical assay based on screen-printed carbon sensors for the determination of clonazepam in serum and in wine. The cyclic voltammetric behaviour of the drug was investigated and the effects of pH and scan rate on the peak current and peak potential determined. Two reduction peaks were recorded on the initial negative going scan, which were considered to result from the 2e(-), 2 H(+) reduction of the 4,5-azomethine and from the 4e(-), 4 H(+) reduction of the 7-NO2 to a hydroxylamine. On the return positive going scan an oxidation peak was seen, which was considered to result from the 2e(-), 2 H(+) oxidation (O1) of the hydroxylamine to the corresponding nitroso species. At pH 11 the solution of clonazepam was found to turn from clear to yellow in colour and the voltammetric signal of the O1 oxidation process was found to be adsorptive in nature, this was exploited in the development of an adsorptive stripping voltammetric assay. Experimental conditions were then optimised for the differential pulse adsorptive voltammetric measurement of clonazepam in wine and serum samples. It was shown that these analyses could be performed on only 100µL of sample which was deposited on the sensor surface. Mean recoveries of 79.53% (%CV=9.88%) and 88.22% (%CV=14.1%) were calculated for wine fortified with 3.16µg/mL and serum fortified with 12.6µg/mL. PMID:26592640

  10. Developing highER-throughput zebrafish screens for in-vivo CNS drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of brain disorders and the lack of their efficient treatments necessitate improved in-vivo pre-clinical models and tests. The zebrafish (Danio rerio), a vertebrate species with high genetic and physiological homology to humans, is an excellent organism for innovative central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery and small molecule screening. Here, we outline new strategies for developing higher-throughput zebrafish screens to test neuroactive drugs and predict their pharmacological mechanisms. With the growing application of automated 3D phenotyping, machine learning algorithms, movement pattern- and behavior recognition, and multi-animal video-tracking, zebrafish screens are expected to markedly improve CNS drug discovery. PMID:25729356

  11. Developing highER-throughput zebrafish screens for in-vivo CNS drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of brain disorders and the lack of their efficient treatments necessitate improved in-vivo pre-clinical models and tests. The zebrafish (Danio rerio), a vertebrate species with high genetic and physiological homology to humans, is an excellent organism for innovative central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery and small molecule screening. Here, we outline new strategies for developing higher-throughput zebrafish screens to test neuroactive drugs and predict their pharmacological mechanisms. With the growing application of automated 3D phenotyping, machine learning algorithms, movement pattern- and behavior recognition, and multi-animal video-tracking, zebrafish screens are expected to markedly improve CNS drug discovery. PMID:25729356

  12. GeneChip{sup {trademark}} screening assay for cystic fibrosis mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Cronn, M.T.; Miyada, C.G.; Fucini, R.V.

    1994-09-01

    GeneChip{sup {trademark}} assays are based on high density, carefully designed arrays of short oligonucleotide probes (13-16 bases) built directly on derivatized silica substrates. DNA target sequence analysis is achieved by hybridizing fluorescently labeled amplification products to these arrays. Fluorescent hybridization signals located within the probe array are translated into target sequence information using the known probe sequence at each array feature. The mutation screening assay for cystic fibrosis includes sets of oligonucleotide probes designed to detect numerous different mutations that have been described in 14 exons and one intron of the CFTR gene. Each mutation site is addressed by a sub-array of at least 40 probe sequences, half designed to detect the wild type gene sequence and half designed to detect the reported mutant sequence. Hybridization with homozygous mutant, homozygous wild type or heterozygous targets results in distinctive hybridization patterns within a sub-array, permitting specific discrimination of each mutation. The GeneChip probe arrays are very small (approximately 1 cm{sup 2}). There miniature size coupled with their high information content make GeneChip probe arrays a useful and practical means for providing CF mutation analysis in a clinical setting.

  13. Application of a resazurin-based high-throughput screening assay for the identification and progression of new treatments for human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, Tana; Mercer, Luke; Don, Robert; Jacobs, Robert; Nare, Bakela

    2012-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and the disease is fatal if untreated. There is an urgent need to develop new, safe and effective treatments for HAT because current drugs have extremely poor safety profiles and are difficult to administer. Here we report the development and application of a cell-based resazurin reduction assay for high throughput screening and identification of new inhibitors of T. b. brucei as starting points for the development of new treatments for human HAT. Active compounds identified in primary screening of ?48,000 compounds representing ?25 chemical classes were titrated to obtain IC50 values. Cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line was determined to provide indications of parasite versus host cell selectivity. Examples from hit series that showed selectivity and evidence of preliminary SAR were re-synthesized to confirm trypanocidal activity prior to initiating hit-to-lead expansion efforts. Additional assays such as serum shift, time to kill and reversibility of compound effect were developed and applied to provide further criteria for advancing compounds through the hit-to-lead phase of the project. From this initial effort, six distinct chemical series were selected and hit-to-lead chemistry was initiated to synthesize several key analogs for evaluation of trypanocidal activity in the resazurin-reduction assay for parasite viability. From the hit-to-lead efforts, a series was identified that demonstrated efficacy in a mouse model for T. b. brucei infection and was progressed into the lead optimization stage. In summary, the present study demonstrates the successful and effective use of resazurin-reduction based assays as tools for primary and secondary screening of a new compound series to identify leads for the treatment of HAT. PMID:24533287

  14. Electrochemical assay of ?-glucosidase activity and the inhibitor screening in cell medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Ying; Wang, Xiaonan; Chen, Yangyang; Li, Genxi

    2015-12-15

    An electrochemical method is established in this work for the assay of ?-glucosidase activity and the inhibitor screening through one-step displacement reaction, which can be directly used in cell medium. The displacement reaction can be achieved via strong binding of 4-aminophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (pAPG)/magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to pyrene boric acid (PBA) immobilized on the surface of graphite electrode (GE), compared to that of dopamine (DA)/sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Since ?-glucosidase can specifically catalyze MNPs/pAPG into MNPs/pAP which has no binding capacity with PBA, the activity of both isolated and membrane bound enzyme can be well evaluated by using this proposed method. Meanwhile, signal amplification can be accomplished via the immobilization of DA at the outer layer of AgNPs, and the accuracy can be strengthened through magnetic separation. Moreover, this method can also be utilized for inhibitor screening not only in the medium containing the enzyme but also in cell medium. With good precision and accuracy, it may be extended to other proteases and their inhibitors as well. PMID:26201984

  15. Cost-effectiveness of interferon-gamma release assay for entry tuberculosis screening in prisons.

    PubMed

    Kowada, A

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in inmates and prison staff is higher than that in the general population. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) provide more accurate diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection with higher specificity than the tuberculin skin test (TST). To assess the cost effectiveness of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) compared to TST, TST followed by QFT and chest X-ray, we constructed Markov models using a societal perspective on the lifetime horizon. The main outcome measure of effectiveness was quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness was compared. The QFT-alone strategy was the most cost-effective for entry TB screening in prisons in developed countries. Cost-effectiveness was not sensitive to the rates of BCG vaccination, LTBI, TB, HIV infection and multidrug-resistant TB. Entry TB screening using an IGRA in prisons should be considered on the basis of its cost-effectiveness by public health intervention. PMID:23286364

  16. A Fluorescence-Based Assay for Proteinuria Screening in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Nils; King, Benjamin L; Vaske, Bernhard; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of genes compromising the glomerular filtration barrier in rodent models using transgenic or knockdown approaches is time- and resource-consuming and often leads to unsatisfactory results. Therefore, it would be beneficial to have a selection tool indicating that your gene of interest is in fact associated with proteinuria. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a rapid screening tool to study effects in glomerular filtration barrier integrity after genetic manipulation. We use either injection of high-molecular-weight dextrans or a transgenic fluorescent fish line [Tg(l-fabp:DBP:EGFP)] expressing a vitamin D-binding protein fused with eGFP for indirect detection of proteinuria. A loss of high-molecular-weight proteins from the circulation of the fish into the urine can be identified by monitoring fluorescence intensity in the zebrafish eye. Paired with an optimized analysis method, this assay provides an effective screening solution to detect filtration barrier damage with proteinuria before moving to a mammalian system. PMID:26125680

  17. Olfactory receptor screening assay using nanovesicle-immobilized carbon nanotube transistor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jong Hyun; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory receptor (OR) genes are considered to be the largest superfamily of the mammalian genome, and in the case of humans, approximately 390 kinds of functional ORs play a role in perceiving odors. In spite of their significance in olfaction, the function of all ORs has not yet been fully revealed. In order to efficiently identify specific ligands of orphan ORs, methods that can generate olfactory signals in a reliable manner and that can convert the cellular signals into measurable responses are required. Here, we describe an OR screening assay method using olfactory sensors that are based on cell-derived nanovesicles combined with single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT-FETs). The nanovesicles contain ORs on their surface membrane and induce influx of calcium ions similar to olfactory signal transduction. This ion influx causes an electrical current change along the carbon nanotube, and then this change is measured by the SWNT-FET sensor. This technique facilitates the simple and rapid screening of OR functions. PMID:25563185

  18. Screening for small molecule modulators of Hsp70 chaperone activity using protein aggregation suppression assays: inhibition of the plasmodial chaperone PfHsp70-1.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Ingrid L; Pesce, Eva-Rachele; Pryzborski, Jude M; Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Clark, Peter G K; Keyzers, Robert A; Stephens, Linda L; Blatch, Gregory L

    2011-05-01

    Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 (PfHsp70-1) is thought to play an essential role in parasite survival and virulence in the human host, making it a potential antimalarial drug target. A malate dehydrogenase based aggregation suppression assay was adapted for the screening of small molecule modulators of Hsp70. A number of small molecules of natural (marine prenylated alkaloids and terrestrial plant naphthoquinones) and related synthetic origin were screened for their effects on the protein aggregation suppression activity of purified recombinant PfHsp70-1. Five compounds (malonganenone A-C, lapachol and bromo-?-lapachona) were found to inhibit the chaperone activity of PfHsp70-1 in a concentration dependent manner, with lapachol preferentially inhibiting PfHsp70-1 compared to another control Hsp70. Using growth inhibition assays on P. falciparum infected erythrocytes, all of the compounds, except for malonganenone B, were found to inhibit parasite growth with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Overall, this study has identified two novel classes of small molecule inhibitors of PfHsp70-1, one representing a new class of antiplasmodial compounds (malonganenones). In addition to demonstrating the validity of PfHsp70-1 as a possible drug target, the compounds reported in this study will be potentially useful as molecular probes for fundamental studies on Hsp70 chaperone function. PMID:21426241

  19. Validation of a serum screen for Alzheimer’s disease across assay platforms, species and tissues

    PubMed Central

    O’Bryant, Sid E; Xiao, Guanghua; Zhang, Fan; Edwards, Melissa; German, Dwight C; Yin, Xiangling; Como, Tori; Reisch, Joan; Huebinger, Ryan M; Graff-Radford, Neill; Dickson, Dennis; Barber, Robert; Hall, James; O’Suilleabhain, Padraig; Grammas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a significant need for rapid and cost-effective biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) for advancement of clinical practice and therapeutic trials. Objective The aim of the current study was to cross-validate our previously published serum-based algorithm on an independent assay platform as well as validate across tissues and species. Preliminary analyses were conducted to examine the utility in distinguishing AD from non-AD neurological disease (Parkinson’s Disease). Methods Serum proteins from our previously published algorithm were quantified from 150 AD cases and 150 controls on the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform. Serum samples were analyzed from 49 Parkinson’s disease (PD) cases and compared to a random sample of 51 AD cases and 62 controls. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to discriminate PD vs. AD vs. NC. Human and AD mouse model microvessel images were quantified with HAMAMATSU imaging software. Mouse serum biomarkers were assayed via MSD. Results Analysis of 21 serum proteins from 150 AD cases and 150 controls yielded an algorithm with sensitivity and specificity of 0.90 for correctly classifying AD. This multi-marker approach was then validated across species and tissue. Assay of the top proteins in human and AD mouse model brain microvessels correctly classified 90–100% of the samples. SVM analyses were highly accurate at distinguishing PD vs. AD vs. NC. Conclusions This serum-based biomarker panel should be tested in a community-based setting to determine its utility as a first-line screen for AD and non-AD neurological diseases for primary care providers. PMID:25024345

  20. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  1. A yeast-based assay identifies drugs that interfere with immune evasion of the Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Voisset, Cécile; Daskalogianni, Chrysoula; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Mazars, Anne; Arbach, Hratch; Le Cann, Marie; Soubigou, Flavie; Apcher, Sébastien; Fåhraeus, Robin; Blondel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is tightly associated with certain human cancers, but there is as yet no specific treatment against EBV-related diseases. The EBV-encoded EBNA1 protein is essential to maintain viral episomes and for viral persistence. As such, EBNA1 is expressed in all EBV-infected cells, and is highly antigenic. All infected individuals, including individuals with cancer, have CD8+ T cells directed towards EBNA1 epitopes, yet the immune system fails to detect and destroy cells harboring the virus. EBV immune evasion depends on the capacity of the Gly-Ala repeat (GAr) domain of EBNA1 to inhibit the translation of its own mRNA in cis, thereby limiting the production of EBNA1-derived antigenic peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway. Here we establish a yeast-based assay for monitoring GAr-dependent inhibition of translation. Using this assay we identify doxorubicin (DXR) as a compound that specifically interferes with the GAr effect on translation in yeast. DXR targets the topoisomerase-II–DNA complexes and thereby causes genomic damage. We show, however, that the genotoxic effect of DXR and various analogs thereof is uncoupled from the effect on GAr-mediated translation control. This is further supported by the observation that etoposide and teniposide, representing another class of topoisomerase-II–DNA targeting drugs, have no effect on GAr-mediated translation control. DXR and active analogs stimulate, in a GAr-dependent manner, EBNA1 expression in mammalian cells and overcome GAr-dependent restriction of MHC class I antigen presentation. These results validate our approach as an effective high-throughput screening assay to identify drugs that interfere with EBV immune evasion and, thus, constitute candidates for treating EBV-related diseases, in particular EBV-associated cancers. PMID:24558096

  2. CARS based label-free assay for assessment of drugs by monitoring lipid droplets in tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Steuwe, Christian; Patel, Imran I; Ul-Hasan, Mahmud; Schreiner, Alexander; Boren, Joan; Brindle, Kevin M; Reichelt, Stefanie; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2014-11-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is becoming an established tool for label-free multi-photon imaging based on molecule specific vibrations in the sample. The technique has proven to be particularly useful for imaging lipids, which are abundant in cells and tissues, including cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LD), which are recognized as dynamic organelles involved in many cellular functions. The increase in the number of lipid droplets in cells undergoing cell proliferation is a common feature in many neoplastic processes [1] and an increase in LD number also appears to be an early marker of drug-induced cell stress and subsequent apoptosis [3]. In this paper, a CARS-based label-free method is presented to monitor the increase in LD content in HCT116 colon tumour cells treated with the chemotherapeutic drugs Etoposide, Camptothecin and the protein kinase inhibitor Staurosporine. Using CARS, LDs can easily be distinguished from other cell components without the application of fluorescent dyes and provides a label-free non-invasive drug screening assay that could be used not only with cells and tissues ex vivo but potentially also in vivo. PMID:24343869

  3. Assessment of ion-selective optical nanosensors for drug screening applications

    E-print Network

    Yun, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    Ion channels represent an important category of drug targets. They play a significant role in numerous physiological functions, from membrane excitation and signaling to fluid absorption and secretion. An ion-channel assay ...

  4. Discovery of novel inhibitors of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase based on in silico high-throughput screening and a non-radioactive enzymatic assay.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chenzeng; Wang, Yanlin; Tan, Xiao; Sun, Lidan; Liu, Sen

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyamines are small polycationic molecules essential for cell growth and development, and elevated level of polyamines is positively correlated with various cancers. As a rate-limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) has been an attractive drug target. In this report, we present the discovery of novel human AdoMetDC (hAdoMetDC) inhibitors by coupling computational and experimental tools. We constructed a reasonable computational structure model of hAdoMetDC that is compatible with general protocols for high-throughput drug screening, and used this model in in silico screening of hAdoMetDC inhibitors against a large compound library using a battery of computational tools. We also established and validated a simple, economic, and non-radioactive enzymatic assay, which can be adapted for experimental high-throughput screening of hAdoMetDC inhibitors. Finally, we obtained an hAdoMetDC inhibitor lead with a novel scaffold. This study provides both new tools and a new lead for the developing of novel hAdoMetDC inhibitors. PMID:26030749

  5. The cellular thermal shift assay for evaluating drug target interactions in cells.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Rozbeh; Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Ignatushchenko, Marina; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär; Martinez Molina, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Thermal shift assays are used to study thermal stabilization of proteins upon ligand binding. Such assays have been used extensively on purified proteins in the drug discovery industry and in academia to detect interactions. Recently, we published a proof-of-principle study describing the implementation of thermal shift assays in a cellular format, which we call the cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA). The method allows studies of target engagement of drug candidates in a cellular context, herein exemplified with experimental data on the human kinases p38? and ERK1/2. The assay involves treatment of cells with a compound of interest, heating to denature and precipitate proteins, cell lysis, and the separation of cell debris and aggregates from the soluble protein fraction. Whereas unbound proteins denature and precipitate at elevated temperatures, ligand-bound proteins remain in solution. We describe two procedures for detecting the stabilized protein in the soluble fraction of the samples. One approach involves sample workup and detection using quantitative western blotting, whereas the second is performed directly in solution and relies on the induced proximity of two target-directed antibodies upon binding to soluble protein. The latter protocol has been optimized to allow an increased throughput, as potential applications require large numbers of samples. Both approaches can be completed in a day. PMID:25101824

  6. Cell-patterned glass spray for direct drug assay using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Shiqi; Chen, Qiushui; Jiang, Hao; Liang, Shuping; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2015-09-10

    In this work, the establishment of a glass spray mass spectrometry (GS-MS) platform for direct cell-based drug assay was described. Cell co-culture, drug-induced cell apoptosis, proliferation analysis and intracellular drug absorption measurement were performed simultaneously on this specifically designed platform. Two groups of co-cultured cells (NIH-3T3/HepG2 and HepG2/MCF-7) were cultivated and they showed high viability within 3 days. The biocompatibility of the platform facilitated the subsequent bioassays, in which, cyclophosphamide (CPA) and genistein were used as the model drugs. The distinctions of cell apoptosis and proliferation between the mono-cultured and co-cultured cells were clearly observed and well explained by in situ GS-MS measurements. A satisfactory linearity of the calibration curve between the relative MS intensity and CPA concentrations was obtained using stable isotope labeling method (y = 0.16545 + 0.0985x, R(2) = 0.9937). The variations in the quantity of absorbed drug were detected and the results were consistent with the concentration-dependence of cell apoptosis. All the results demonstrated that direct cell-based drug assay could be performed on the stable isotope labeling assisted GS-MS platform in a facile and quantitative manner. PMID:26388483

  7. Using adverse outcome pathway analysis to guide development of high-throughput screening assays for thyroid-disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Adverse Outcome Pathway Analysis to Guide Development of High-Throughput Screening Assays for Thyroid-Disruptors Katie B. Paul1,2, Joan M. Hedge2, Daniel M. Rotroff4, Kevin M. Crofton4, Michael W. Hornung3, Steven O. Simmons2 1Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Post...

  8. High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

  9. Screening ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) in vitro assay with mouse embryonic stem cells was used to screen the ToxCast Phase I chemical library for effects on cellular differentiation and cell number. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ...

  10. A screen of approved drugs and molecular probes identifies therapeutics with anti-Ebola virus activity.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Lisa M; DeWald, Lisa Evans; Shoemaker, Charles J; Hoffstrom, Benjamin G; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Stossel, Andrea; Nelson, Elizabeth; Delos, Sue E; Simmons, James A; Grenier, Jill M; Pierce, Laura T; Pajouhesh, Hassan; Lehár, Joseph; Hensley, Lisa E; Glass, Pamela J; White, Judith M; Olinger, Gene G

    2015-06-01

    Currently, no approved therapeutics exist to treat or prevent infections induced by Ebola viruses, and recent events have demonstrated an urgent need for rapid discovery of new treatments. Repurposing approved drugs for emerging infections remains a critical resource for potential antiviral therapies. We tested ~2600 approved drugs and molecular probes in an in vitro infection assay using the type species, Zaire ebolavirus. Selective antiviral activity was found for 80 U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs spanning multiple mechanistic classes, including selective estrogen receptor modulators, antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, and antidepressants. Results using an in vivo murine Ebola virus infection model confirmed the protective ability of several drugs, such as bepridil and sertraline. Viral entry assays indicated that most of these antiviral drugs block a late stage of viral entry. By nature of their approved status, these drugs have the potential to be rapidly advanced to clinical settings and used as therapeutic countermeasures for Ebola virus infections. PMID:26041706

  11. Systematic comparison of drug-tolerant assays for anti-drug antibodies in a cohort of adalimumab-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Karien; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Verbeek, Gerrit; Nurmohamed, Michael T; Wolbink, Gerrit Jan; van der Kleij, Desiree; Rispens, Theo

    2015-03-01

    Drug interference complicates assessment of immunogenicity of biologicals and results in an underestimation of anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation. Drug-tolerant assays have the potential to overcome such limitations. However, to which extent drug-tolerant assays provide an unbiased picture of the antibody response to a biological is unknown. In this study, we compared the measurement of ADA to adalimumab in 94 consecutive adalimumab-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients using the traditional antigen binding test (ABT) and four different drug-tolerant assays, the Ph-shift anti-Idiotype Antigen binding test (PIA) and three newly developed assays for this study: an acid-dissociation radioimmunoassay (ARIA), a temperature-shift radioimmunoassay (TRIA) and an electrochemoluminescence-based assay (ECL). Our results indicate that drug-tolerant assays provide a fairly consistent view on the antibody formation: quantitatively, the results from all four assays correlate well (Spearman r > 0.9). However, the percentage of ADA-positive patients ranges from 51 to 66% between assays, with the ARIA identifying the highest number of patients as positive. These differences are largely due to patients making low amounts of ADA; if ADA levels were above ca. 100 AU/ml, a patient was identified as positive in all four assays. Adalimumab concentrations were significantly lower in ADA-positive samples. Taken together, the results indicate that these different drug-tolerant assays provide a similar and reasonably consistent view on ADA responses, which however, breaks down at the lower end of the detectable range, and highlight that ADA is best reported quantitatively. Furthermore, if an even more sensitive drug-tolerant assay could be developed, one would probably find additional positive samples that will predominantly contain very low levels of ADA. PMID:25637408

  12. Urine Toxicology Screen in Multiple Sleep Latency Test: The Correlation of Positive Tetrahydrocannabinol, Drug Negative Patients, and Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Stolfi, Adrienne; Splaingard, Deborah; Earley, Elizabeth; Onadeko, Oluwole; Splaingard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Drugs can influence results of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We sought to identify the effect of marijuana on MSLT results in pediatric patients evaluated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: This is a retrospective study of urine drug screens performed the morning before MSLT in 383 patients < 21 years old referred for EDS. MSLT results were divided into those with (1) (?) urine drug screens, (2) urine drug screens (+) for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or THC plus other drugs, and (3) urine drug screens (+) for drugs other than THC. Groups were compared with Fisher exact tests or one-way ANOVA. Results: 38 (10%) urine drug tests were (+): 14 for THC and 24 for other drugs. Forty-three percent of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy, 0% consistent with idiopathic hypersomnia, 29% other, and 29% normal. This was statistically different from those with (?) screens (24% narcolepsy, 20% idiopathic hypersomnia, 6% other, 50% normal), and those (+) for drugs other than THC (17% narcolepsy, 33% idiopathic hypersomnia, 4% other, 46% normal (p = 0.01). Six percent (6/93) of patients with MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy were drug screen (+) for THC; 71% of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had multiple sleep onset REM periods (SOREMS). There were no (+) urine drug screens in patients < 13 years old. Conclusion: Many pediatric patients with (+) urine drug screens for THC met MSLT criteria for narcolepsy or had multiple SOREMs. Drug screening is important in interpreting MSLT findings for children ? 13 years. Citation: Dzodzomenyo S, Stolfi A, Splaingard D, Earley E, Onadeko O, Splaingard M. Urine toxicology screen in multiple sleep latency test: the correlation of positive tetrahydrocannabinol, drug negative patients, and narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):93–99. PMID:25348245

  13. Preclinical screening of anticancer drugs using infrared (IR) microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Caryn; Clemens, Graeme; Baker, Matthew J

    2015-08-01

    High-throughput label-free technologies such as IR microscopy can objectively assess the effect of drugs upon cellular systems, offering the potential of a valuable preclinical tool that can aid in the drug development process. PMID:25869233

  14. Maintaining Specimen Integrity for G6PD Screening by Cytofluorometric Assays.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Maria; Ward, Walter H J; LaRue, Nicole; Kalnoky, Michael; Pal, Sampa; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2015-06-01

    Cytochemical staining remains an efficient way of identifying females who are heterozygous for the X chromosome-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene. G6PD is highly polymorphic with certain alleles resulting in low intracellular G6PD activity in red blood cells. Low intracellular G6PD activity is associated with a risk of severe hemolysis when exposed to an oxidative stress such as fava beans, certain drugs and infections. Heterozygous females express the enzyme from both X-chromosome alleles resulting in two red blood cell populations each with G6PD enzyme characteristics representative of each allele; for example, normal and deficient. Cytochemical staining is the only way to determine the relative representation of each allele in red blood cells, a feature that is critical when assessing the risk for severe hemolysis when exposed to an oxidant such as the anti-malarial drug primaquine. This letter discusses red blood cell integrity with respect to the cytofluorometric assays for G6PD activity. An approach to making this test more robust is suggested. The approach makes this test more reliable and extends its use to a broader range of blood specimens. PMID:25786434

  15. Whole Blood Interferon-Gamma Assay for Baseline Tuberculosis Screening among Japanese Healthcare Students

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Katsuyuki; Ogura, Toshio; Nishii, Kenji; Kodani, Tsuyoshi; Onishi, Masaru; Shimizu, Yukito; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Tobe, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Background The whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON-TB-2G; QFT) has not been fully evaluated as a baseline tuberculosis screening test in Japanese healthcare students commencing clinical contact. The aim of this study was to compare the results from the QFT with those from the tuberculin skin test (TST) in a population deemed to be at a low risk for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Healthcare students recruited at Okayama University received both the TST and the QFT to assess the level of agreement between these two tests. The interleukin-10 levels before and after exposure to M tuberculosis-specific antigens (early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein [ESAT-6] and culture filtrate protein 10 [CFP-10]) were also measured. Of the 536 healthcare students, most of whom had been vaccinated with bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG), 207 (56%) were enrolled in this study. The agreement between the QFT and the TST results was poor, with positive result rates of 1.4% vs. 27.5%, respectively. A multivariate analysis also revealed that the induration diameter of the TST was not affected by the interferon-gamma concentration after exposure to either of the antigens but was influenced by the number of BCG needle scars (p?=?0.046). The whole blood interleukin-10 assay revealed that after antigen exposure, the median increases in interleukin-10 concentration was higher in the subgroup with the small increase in interferon-gamma concentration than in the subgroup with the large increase in interferon-gamma concentration (0.3 vs. 0 pg/mL; p?=?0.004). Conclusions/Significance As a baseline screening test for low-risk Japanese healthcare students at their course entry, QFT yielded quite discordant results, compared with the TST, probably because of the low specificity of the TST results in the BCG-vaccinated population. We also found, for the first time, that the change in the interleukin-10 level after exposure to specific antigens was inversely associated with that in the interferon-gamma level in a low-risk population. PMID:17726533

  16. A sensitive and high throughput bacterial luminescence assay for assessing aquatic toxicity--the BLT-Screen.

    PubMed

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-05-01

    Bioassays using naturally luminescent bacteria are commonly used to assess the toxicity of environmental contaminants, detected by a decrease in luminescence. Typically, this has involved the use of commercial test kits such as Microtox and ToxScreen. These commercial assays, however, have limitations for routine environmental monitoring, including the need for specialized equipment, a low throughput and high on-going costs. There is therefore a need to develop a bacteria bioassay that is sensitive, high-throughput and cost effective. This study presents the development and application of the BLT-Screen (Bacterial Luminescence Toxicity Screen), a 96-well plate bioassay using Photobacterium leiognathi. During development of the method, the concentration of the phosphate buffer in the experimental medium was adjusted to maximize the sensitivity of the assay, and protocols for analyzing both solid-phase extracts and raw water samples were established. A range of organic compounds and metals were analyzed in the assay, as well as extracts of various water samples, including drinking water, wastewater effluent and river water. The IC50 values of the organic compounds and metals tested in the BLT-Screen were comparable to previously published ToxScreen and Microtox data. In addition, the assay was sensitive enough to detect toxicity in all water types tested, and performed equally well for both solid-phase extracts and raw water samples. The BLT-Screen therefore presents a cost-effective, sensitive and high throughput method for testing the toxicity of environmental contaminants in a range of water types that has widespread applications for research, as well as for routine monitoring and operation of wastewater and drinking water plants. PMID:25845535

  17. Rapid and simple kinetics screening assay for electrophilic dermal sensitizers using nitrobenzenethiol.

    PubMed

    Chipinda, Itai; Ajibola, Risikat O; Morakinyo, Moshood K; Ruwona, Tinashe B; Simoyi, Reuben H; Siegel, Paul D

    2010-05-17

    The need for alternatives to animal-based skin sensitization testing has spurred research on the use of in vitro, in silico, and in chemico methods. Glutathione and other select peptides have been used to determine the reactivity of electrophilic allergens to nucleophiles, but these methods are inadequate to accurately measure rapid kinetics observed with many chemical sensitizers. A kinetic spectrophotometric assay involving the reactivity of electrophilic sensitizers to nitrobenzenethiol was evaluated. Stopped-flow techniques and conventional UV spectrophotometric measurements enabled the determination of reaction rates with half-lives ranging from 0.4 ms (benzoquinone) to 46.2 s (ethyl acrylate). Rate constants were measured for seven extreme, five strong, seven moderate, and four weak/nonsensitizers. Seventeen out of the 23 tested chemicals were pseudo-first order, and three were second order. In three out of the 23 chemicals, deviations from first and second order were apparent where the chemicals exhibited complex kinetics whose rates are mixed order. The reaction rates of the electrophiles correlated positively with their EC3 values within the same mechanistic domain. Nonsensitizers such as benzaldehyde, sodium lauryl sulfate, and benzocaine did not react with nitrobenzenethiol. Cyclic anhydrides, select diones, and aromatic aldehydes proved to be false negatives in this assay. The findings from this simple and rapid absorbance model show that for the same mechanistic domain, skin sensitization is driven mainly by electrophilic reactivity. This simple, rapid, and inexpensive absorbance-based method has great potential for use as a preliminary screening tool for skin allergens. PMID:20402462

  18. Novel anti-Cryptosporidium activity of known drugs identified by high-throughput screening against parasite fatty acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP)

    PubMed Central

    Fritzler, Jason M.; Zhu, Guan

    2012-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium parvum causes an opportunistic infection in AIDS patients, and no effective treatments are yet available. This parasite possesses a single fatty acyl-CoA binding protein (CpACBP1) that is localized to the unique parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). The major goal of this study was to identify inhibitors from known drugs against CpACBP1 as potential new anti-Cryptosporidium agents. Methods A fluorescence assay was developed to detect CpACBP1 activity and to identify inhibitors by screening known drugs. Efficacies of top CpACBP1 inhibitors against Cryptosporidium growth in vitro were evaluated using a quantitative RT–PCR assay. Results Nitrobenzoxadiazole-labelled palmitoyl-CoA significantly increased the fluorescent emission upon binding to CpACBP1 (excitation/emission 460/538 nm), which was quantified to determine the CpACBP1 activity and binding kinetics. The fluorescence assay was used to screen a collection of 1040 compounds containing mostly known drugs, and identified the 28 most active compounds that could inhibit CpACBP1 activity with sub-micromolar IC50 values. Among them, four compounds displayed efficacies against parasite growth in vitro with low micromolar IC50 values. The effective compounds were broxyquinoline (IC50 64.9 ?M), cloxyquin (IC50 25.1 ?M), cloxacillin sodium (IC50 36.2 ?M) and sodium dehydrocholate (IC50 53.2 ?M). Conclusions The fluorescence ACBP assay can be effectively used to screen known drugs or other compound libraries. Novel anti-Cryptosporidium activity was observed in four top CpACBP1 inhibitors, which may be further investigated for their potential to be repurposed to treat cryptosporidiosis and to serve as leads for drug development. PMID:22167242

  19. Research paper Screen of FDA-approved drug library reveals compounds that protect hair cells

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Accepted 9 August 2012 Available online xxx a b s t r a c t Loss of mechanosensory hair cells in the innerResearch paper Screen of FDA-approved drug library reveals compounds that protect hair cells from ear accounts for many hearing loss and balance disorders. Several beneficial pharmaceutical drugs

  20. Microplate assay for screening the antibacterial activity of Schiff bases derived from substituted benzopyran-4-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Rehab M.; Abdel-Kader, Nora S.; El-Ansary, Aida L.

    Schiff bases (SB1-SB3) were synthesized from the condensation of 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one with 2-aminopyridine (SB1), p-phenylenediamine (SB2) and o-phenylenediamine (SB3), while Schiff bases (SB4-SB6) were synthesized by condensation of 5,7-dihydroxy-6-formyl-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one with 2-aminopyridine (SB4), p-phenylenediamine (SB5) and o-phenylenediamine (SB6). Schiff bases were characterized using elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy. These compounds were screened for antibacterial activities by micro-plate assay technique. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus capitis were exposed to different concentrations of the Schiff bases. Results showed that the antibacterial effect of these Schiff bases on Gram-negative bacteria were higher than that on Gram-positive bacteria moreover, the Schiff bases containing substituent OCH3 on position five have higher antibacterial activity than that containing hydroxy group on the same position.

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 as an Assay System for Screening of Pharmacological Chaperones for Phenylketonuria Mutations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Min; Yang, Yun Gyeong; Kim, Hye-Lim; Park, Young Shik

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed an assay system for missense mutations in human phenylalanine hydroxylases (hPAHs). To demonstrate the reliability of the system, eight mutant proteins (F39L, K42I, L48S, I65T, R252Q, L255V, S349L, and R408W) were expressed in a mutant strain (pah(-)) of Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 disrupted in the indigenous gene encoding PAH. The transformed pah- cells grown in FM minimal medium were measured for growth rate and PAH activity to reveal a positive correlation between them. The protein level of hPAH was also determined by western blotting to show the impact of each mutation on protein stability and catalytic activity. The result was highly compatible with the previous ones obtained from other expression systems, suggesting that Dictyostelium is a dependable alternative to other expression systems. Furthermore, we found that both the protein level and activity of S349L and R408W, which were impaired severely in protein stability, were rescued in HL5 nutrient medium. Although the responsible component(s) remains unidentified, this unexpected finding showed an important advantage of our expression system for studying unstable proteins. As an economic and stable cell-based expression system, our development will contribute to mass-screening of pharmacological chaperones for missense PAH mutations as well as to the in-depth characterization of individual mutations. PMID:25563416

  2. High-throughput screening assay for the environmental water samples using cellular response profiles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianhong; Li, Haoran; Khare, Swanand; Huang, Biao; Yu Huang, Dorothy; Zhang, Weiping; Gabos, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Chemical and physical analyses are commonly used as screening methods for the environmental water. However, these methods can only look for the targeted substance but may miss unexpected toxicants. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of mixture cannot be detected. In order to set up the assay criteria for determining various biological activities at a cellular level that could potentially lead to toxicity of environmental water samples, a novel test based on cellular response by using Real-Time Cellular Analyzer (RTCA) is proposed in this study. First, the water sample is diluted to a series of strengths (80%, 60%, 40%, 30%, 20% and 10%) to get the multi-concentration cellular response profile. Then, the area under the cellular response profile (AUCRP) is calculated. Comparing to the normal cell growth of negative control, a new biological activity index named Percentage of Effect (PoE) has been presented which reflects the cumulative inhibitory activity of cell growth over the log-phase. Finally, a synthetical index PoE50 is proposed to evaluate the intensity of biological activities in water samples. The biological experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25637748

  3. Multiplexing Spheroid Volume, Resazurin and Acid Phosphatase Viability Assays for High-Throughput Screening of Tumour Spheroids and Stem Cell Neurospheres

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Delyan P.; Parker, Terry L.; Walker, David A.; Alexander, Cameron; Ashford, Marianne B.; Gellert, Paul R.; Garnett, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional cell culture has many advantages over monolayer cultures, and spheroids have been hailed as the best current representation of small avascular tumours in vitro. However their adoption in regular screening programs has been hindered by uneven culture growth, poor reproducibility and lack of high-throughput analysis methods for 3D. The objective of this study was to develop a method for a quick and reliable anticancer drug screen in 3D for tumour and human foetal brain tissue in order to investigate drug effectiveness and selective cytotoxic effects. Commercially available ultra-low attachment 96-well round-bottom plates were employed to culture spheroids in a rapid, reproducible manner amenable to automation. A set of three mechanistically different methods for spheroid health assessment (Spheroid volume, metabolic activity and acid phosphatase enzyme activity) were validated against cell numbers in healthy and drug-treated spheroids. An automated open-source ImageJ macro was developed to enable high-throughput volume measurements. Although spheroid volume determination was superior to the other assays, multiplexing it with resazurin reduction and phosphatase activity produced a richer picture of spheroid condition. The ability to distinguish between effects on malignant and the proliferating component of normal brain was tested using etoposide on UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and human neural stem cells. At levels below 10 µM etoposide exhibited higher toxicity towards proliferating stem cells, whereas at concentrations above 10 µM the tumour spheroids were affected to a greater extent. The high-throughput assay procedures use ready-made plates, open-source software and are compatible with standard plate readers, therefore offering high predictive power with substantial savings in time and money. PMID:25119185

  4. Screening Carbohydrate Libraries for Protein Interactions Using the Direct ESI-MS Assay. Applications to Libraries of Unknown Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitova, Elena N.; El-Hawiet, Amr; Klassen, John S.

    2014-08-01

    A semiquantitative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) binding assay suitable for analyzing mixtures of oligosaccharides, at unknown concentrations, for interactions with target proteins is described. The assay relies on the differences in the ratio of the relative abundances of the ligand-bound and free protein ions measured by ESI-MS at two or more initial protein concentrations to distinguish low affinity (?103 M-1) ligands from moderate and high affinity (>105 M-1) ligands present in the library and to rank their affinities. Control experiments were performed on solutions of a single chain antibody and a mixture of synthetic oligosaccharides, with known affinities, in the absence and presence of a 40-component carbohydrate library to demonstrate the implementation and reliability of the assay. The application of the assay for screening natural libraries of carbohydrates against proteins is also demonstrated using mixtures of human milk oligosaccharides, isolated from breast milk, and fragments of a bacterial toxin and human galectin 3.

  5. Hydration of nail plate: a novel screening model for transungual drug permeation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, P; Saini, T R

    2012-10-15

    Drug delivery by topical route for the treatment of onychomycosis, a nail fungal infection, is challenging due to the unique barrier properties of the nail plate which imparts high resistance to the passage of antifungal drugs. Permeation enhancers are used in transungual formulations to improve the drug flux across the nail plate. Selection of the effective permeation enhancer among the available large pool of permeation enhancers is a difficult task. Screening the large number of permeation enhancers using conventional Franz diffusion cells is laborious and expensive. The objective of present study was to evolve a simple, accurate and rapid method for screening of transungual drug permeation enhancers based on the principle of hydration of nail plate. The permeation enhancer which affects the structural or physicochemical properties of nail plate would also affect their hydration capacity. Two screening procedures namely primary and secondary screenings were evolved wherein hydration and uptake of ciclopirox olamine by nail plates were measured. Hydration enhancement factor, HEF(24) and drug uptake enhancement factor, UEF(24) were determined for screening of 23 typical permeation enhancers. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between HEF(24) and UEF(24) was determined. A good agreement between the HEF(24) and UEF(24) data proved the validity of the proposed nail plate hydration model as a screening technique for permeation enhancers. PMID:22705091

  6. Application of a fish DNA damage assay as a biological toxicity screening tool for metal plating wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.; Zong, M.; Meier, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The utility of a fish DNA damage assay as a rapid monitoring tool was investigated. Metal plating wastewater was chosen as a sample because it contains various genotoxic metal species. Fish DNA damage assay results were compared to data generated from the conventional whole effluent toxicity (WET) test procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay (Azur Environmental, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using Vibrio fischeri was also employed. Eleven samples from two metal plating companies were collected for this evaluation. For the fish DNA damage assay, 7-d-old fathead minnow larvae, Pimephales promelas, were utilized. They were exposed to a series of dilutions at 20 C for 2 h. Whole effluent toxicity tests conducted in this study included two acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and fathead minnows and two chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows. The fish DNA damage assay showed good correlations with both the acute and chronic WET test results, especially with those obtained with fathead minnows. The kappa values, an index of agreement, between the fish DNA damage assay and WET tests were shown to be acceptable. These findings imply that this novel fish DNA damage assay has use as an expedient toxicity screening procedure since it produces comparable results to those of the acute and chronic fathead minnow toxicity tests.

  7. Analysis of 75 marketed pharmaceuticals using the GADD45a-GFP 'GreenScreen HC' genotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Hastwell, Paul W; Webster, Thomas W; Tate, Matthew; Billinton, Nicholas; Lynch, Anthony M; Harvey, James S; Rees, Robert W; Walmsley, Richard M

    2009-09-01

    The GADD45a-GFP (GreenScreen HC) reporter assay detects genotoxic damage in the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line and gives positive results for all classes of genotoxin, including mutagens, aneugens and clastogens. In this study, a collection of 75 marketed pharmaceuticals were tested in the assay. Compounds in the collection represent a broad range of chemical structures, pharmacologies and therapeutic indications, including neoplasia and viral infection where positive genotoxicity results are often associated with the pharmacological activity. Based on the results of this study, two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the GreenScreen HC is more predictive of in vivo genotoxicity (88%) and genotoxic carcinogenicity (93%) data than the any of the other regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assay and (ii) no compounds were uniquely positive in the GADD45a-GFP assay. This analysis therefore provides additional evidence to support the use of the GADD45a-GFP assay as an effective tool either in early genotoxic liability identification or non-clinical safety assessment of candidate pharmaceuticals during development. PMID:19592503

  8. High-Throughput Screening of Ototoxic and Otoprotective Pharmacological Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinec, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Drug ototoxicity research has relied traditionally on animal models for the discovery and development of therapeutic interventions. More than 50 years of research, however, has delivered few--if any--successful clinical strategies for preventing or ameliorating the ototoxic effects of common pharmacological drugs such as aminoglycoside…

  9. Screening for alcohol and drug use disorders among adults in primary care: a review

    PubMed Central

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Background The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 supports integration of substance abuse interventions and treatments into the mainstream health care system. Thus, effective screening and intervention for substance use disorders in health care settings is a priority. Objective This paper reviews the prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders (abuse or dependence) in primary care settings and emergency departments, as well as current screening tools and brief interventions. Methods MEDLINE was searched using the following keywords: alcohol use, alcohol use disorder, drug use, drug use disorder, screening, primary care, and emergency departments. Using the related-articles link, additional articles were screened for inclusion. This review focuses on alcohol and drug use and related disorders among adults in primary care settings. Conclusion Screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment are feasible and effective in primary care settings, provided that funding for screening is available, along with brief interventions and treatment facilities to which patients can be referred and treated promptly. PMID:22553426

  10. NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DRUG SCREENING POLICY AND PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    of illegal or medically unauthorized controlled dangerous substances (herein "drugs"), and formally register for substance and/or prescribed medication abuse, and/or unregistered but medically prescribed use

  11. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUPPORT ON IN VITRO ASSAYS FOR THE AGENCY'S ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the 1996 legislative mandate for an endocrine screening and testing program, we are helping develop, standardize and validate relatively sensitive, robust and relatively simple methods for in vitro screening of chemicals that affect estrogen, and androgen function ...

  12. In vitro screen of prion disease susceptibility genes using the scrapie cell assay.

    PubMed

    Brown, Craig A; Schmidt, Christian; Poulter, Mark; Hummerich, Holger; Klöhn, Peter-C; Jat, Parmjit; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John; Lloyd, Sarah E

    2014-10-01

    Prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. While genome-wide association studies in human and quantitative trait loci mapping in mice have provided evidence for multiple susceptibility genes, few of these have been confirmed functionally. Phenotyping mouse models is generally the method of choice. However, this is not a feasible option where many novel genes, without pre-existing models, would need to be tested. We have therefore developed and applied an in-vitro screen to triage and prioritize candidate modifier genes for more detailed future studies which is faster, far more cost effective and ethical relative to mouse bioassay models. An in vitro prion bioassay, the scrapie cell assay, uses a neuroblastoma-derived cell line (PK1) that is susceptible to RML prions and able to propagate prions at high levels. In this study, we have generated stable gene silencing and/or overexpressing PK1-derived cell lines to test whether perturbation of 14 candidate genes affects prion susceptibility. While no consistent differences were determined for seven genes, highly significant changes were detected for Zbtb38, Sorcs1, Stmn2, Hspa13, Fkbp9, Actr10 and Plg, suggesting that they play key roles in the fundamental processes of prion propagation or clearance. Many neurodegenerative diseases involve the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates and 'prion-like' seeding and spread has been implicated in their pathogenesis. It is therefore expected that some of these prion-modifier genes may be of wider relevance in neurodegeneration. PMID:24833721

  13. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    PubMed

    Marcellino, Chris; Gut, Jiri; Lim, K C; Singh, Rahul; McKerrow, James; Sakanari, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage) of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms. PMID:22303493

  14. 78 FR 24425 - Assay Migration Studies for In Vitro Diagnostic Devices; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... studies on an old system. The draft of this guidance was issued on January 5, 2009 (74 FR 302). The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Assay Migration Studies for In Vitro Diagnostic Devices... availability of the guidance entitled ``Assay Migration Studies for In Vitro Diagnostic Devices.''...

  15. Development and validation of a high-throughput anti-Wolbachia whole-cell screen: a route to macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Clare, Rachel H; Cook, Darren A N; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Ward, Stephen A; Taylor, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new, safe, and affordable macrofilaricidal drugs for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis treatment and control. The Anti-Wolbachia Consortium (A·WOL) aims to provide a novel treatment with macrofilaricidal activity by targeting the essential bacterial symbiont Wolbachia. The consortium is currently screening a diverse range of compounds to find new chemical space to drive this drug discovery initiative and address this unmet demand. To increase the throughput and capacity of the A·WOL cell-based screen, we have developed a 384-well format assay using a high-content imaging system (Operetta) in conjunction with optimized Wolbachia growth dynamics in the C6/36 Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line. This assay uses texture analysis of cells stained with SYTO 11 as a direct measure of bacterial load. This validated assay has dramatically increased the capacity and throughput of the A·WOL compound library screening program 25-fold, enriching the number of new anti-Wolbachia hits identified for further development as potential macrofilaricides for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. PMID:25278497

  16. Finding a better drug for epilepsy: preclinical screening strategies and experimental trial design.

    PubMed

    Simonato, Michele; Löscher, Wolfgang; Cole, Andrew J; Dudek, F Edward; Engel, Jerome; Kaminski, Rafal M; Loeb, Jeffrey A; Scharfman, Helen; Staley, Kevin J; Velíšek, Libor; Klitgaard, Henrik

    2012-11-01

    The antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) introduced during the past two decades have provided several benefits: they offered new treatment options for symptomatic treatment of seizures, improved ease of use and tolerability, and lowered risk for hypersensitivity reactions and detrimental drug-drug interactions. These drugs, however, neither attenuated the problem of drug-refractory epilepsy nor proved capable of preventing or curing the disease. Therefore, new preclinical screening strategies are needed to identify AEDs that target these unmet medical needs. New therapies may derive from novel targets identified on the basis of existing hypotheses for drug-refractory epilepsy and the biology of epileptogenesis; from research on genetics, transcriptomics, and epigenetics; and from mechanisms relevant for other therapy areas. Novel targets should be explored using new preclinical screening strategies, and new technologies should be used to develop medium- to high-throughput screening models. In vivo testing of novel drugs should be performed in models mimicking relevant aspects of drug refractory epilepsy and/or epileptogenesis. To minimize the high attrition rate associated with drug development, which arises mainly from a failure to demonstrate sufficient clinical efficacy of new treatments, it is important to define integrated strategies for preclinical screening and experimental trial design. An important tool will be the discovery and implementation of relevant biomarkers that will facilitate a continuum of proof-of-concept approaches during early clinical testing to rapidly confirm or reject preclinical findings, and thereby lower the risk of the overall development effort. In this review, we overview some of the issues related to these topics and provide examples of new approaches that we hope will be more successful than those used in the past. PMID:22708847

  17. Development and model testing of antemortem screening methodology to predict required drug withholds in heifers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shuna A; Salter, Robert S; Goldsmith, Tim; Quintana, Julio; Rapnicki, Paul; Shuck, Karen; Wells, Jim E; Schneider, Marilyn J; Griffin, Dee

    2014-02-01

    A simple, cow-side test for the presence of drug residues in live animal fluids would provide useful information for tissue drug residue avoidance programs. This work describes adaptation and evaluation of rapid screening tests to detect drug residues in serum and urine. Medicated heifers had urine, serum, and tissue biopsy samples taken while on drug treatment. Samples were tested by rapid methods and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The adapted microbial inhibition method, kidney inhibition swab test, was useful in detecting sulfadimethoxine in serum, and its response correlated with the prescribed withdrawal time for the drug, 5 to 6 days posttreatment. The lateral flow screening method for flunixin and beta-lactams, adapted for urine, was useful in predicting flunixin in liver detected by HPLC, 96 h posttreatment. The same adapted methods were not useful to detect ceftiofur in serum or urine due to a lack of sensitivity at the levels of interest. These antemortem screening test studies demonstrated that the method selected, and the sampling matrix chosen (urine or serum), will depend on the drug used and should be based on animal treatment history if available. The live animal tests demonstrated the potential for verification that an individual animal is free of drug residues before sale for human consumption. PMID:24490924

  18. The US EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: In VItro and In Vivo Mammalian Tier 1 Screening Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system, the Food Quality Protection Act mandated that the U.S. EPA develop and implement an endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP...

  19. Comparison of antiproliferative effects of experimental and established antipsoriatic drugs on human keratinocytes, using a simple 96-well-plate assay.

    PubMed

    Pol, Arno; Bergers, Mieke; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacological treatments for psoriasis are generally based on antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, or differentiation-modifying activity, or a combination of two or more of these actions. Potentially new drugs for treatment of psoriasis, which act on proliferation, can be identified by screening large compound libraries in a cell proliferation model that allows for characterization of drug effects on in vitro growth of normal human keratinocytes. High-throughput programs based on biological testing of diverse collections of compounds can rapidly identify leads for potential drug candidates in the treatment of psoriasis. In this study, we describe nonradioactive measurement of keratinocyte proliferation in the exponential growth phase in a 96-well format, using a sensitive deoxyribonucleic acid-binding dye to analyze drugs that are pharmacologically active in growth inhibition. Release of lactate dehydrogenase was used to exclude cytotoxic effects. We examined a number of compounds in a test range of 10(-7) to 10(-5) M, including known antipsoriatic drugs, and experimental drugs that are potentially useful in the treatment of psoriasis. We found strong concentration-dependent growth inhibition by dithranol, an antipsoriatic compound that is presumed to target the epidermal compartment. Methotrexate, cyclosporin A, and all-trans retinoic acid did not significantly affect proliferation at therapeutically relevant concentrations. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB220025, and curcumin, a natural phytochemical, inhibited keratinocyte proliferation at 10(-5) M. We conclude that this assay, in combination with the previously developed assays for psoriatic differentiation, provides a useful tool for identification of antipsoriatic drugs. PMID:12892525

  20. A Fluorescence Displacement Assay for Antidepressant Drug Discovery Based on Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jerry; Tomlinson, Ian; Warnement, Michael; Iwamoto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) protein plays a central role in terminating 5-HT neurotransmission and is the most important therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders. We report an innovative, versatile, and target-selective quantum dot (QD) labeling approach for SERT in single Xenopus oocytes that can be adopted as a drug-screening platform. Our labeling approach employs a custom-made, QD-tagged indoleamine derivative ligand, IDT318, that is structurally similar to 5-HT and accesses the primary binding site with enhanced human SERT selectivity. Incubating QD-labeled oocytes with paroxetine (Paxil), a high-affinity SERT-specific inhibitor, showed a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in QD fluorescence, demonstrating the utility of our approach for the identification of SERT modulators. Furthermore, with the development of ligands aimed at other pharmacologically relevant targets, our approach may potentially form the basis for a multitarget drug discovery platform.

  1. Chemosensitivity of anaplastic thyroid cancer based on a histoculture drug response assay.

    PubMed

    Uruno, Takashi; Masaki, Chie; Akaishi, Junko; Matsuzu, Kenichi; Suzuki, Akifumi; Ohkuwa, Keiko; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nagahama, Mitsuji; Sugino, Kiminori; Ito, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The chemosensitivity of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) to some cytotoxic agents was investigated by the histoculture drug response assay (HDRA). Thirty specimens from 22 patients with ATC were obtained from surgically resected subjects. The drugs tested were paclitaxel (PTX), docetaxel (DOC), adriamycin (ADM), nedaplatin (254-S), cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin (CBDCA), etoposide (VP-16), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), mitomycin C (MMC), and cyclophosphamide (CPA). PTX was the most effective agent, and 25 of 29 cases (86.2%) had high inhibition rates (IRs; over 70%), while DOC, another taxane, had lower IRs (median, 32.6%). 254-S had the second highest IR (median 68.1%), higher than other platins, CDDP (median 47.3%) and CBDCA (median 27.4%). The IR of 50% dose PTX (20??g/mL, median 30.6%) was markedly decreased, while that of 50% dose 254-S (10??g/mL, median 63.3%) still retained its inhibition effect compared to 100% dose. Most recurrent samples had higher IRs than primary lesions, but the IRs of different drugs differed between primary and recurrent lesions, even with samples from the same patients. PTX has a higher IR to ATC tissues in the HDRA, which suggests that it may be a key drug for the treatment of patients with ATC. PMID:25866510

  2. Second-line drug susceptibility breakpoints for Mycobacterium tuberculosis using MODS assay

    PubMed Central

    Trollip, A.P.; Moore, D.; Coronel, J.; Caviedes, L.; Klages, S.; Victor, T.; Romancenco, E.; Crudu, V.; Ajbani, K.; Vineet, V.P.; Rodriques, C.; Jackson, R.L.; Eisenach, K.; Garfein, R.S.; Rodwell, T.C.; Desmond, E.; Groessl, E.J.; Ganiats, T.G.; Catanzaro, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this study was to establish breakpoint concentrations for the fluoroquinolones (MOX and OFX) and injectable second-line drugs (AMK, KAN and CAP) using the MODS assay. Setting A multinational study conducted between February 2011 and August 2012 in Peru, India, Moldova and South Africa. Design First phase determined the breakpoints to the fluoroquinolones and injectable second-line drugs (n = 58). Second phase evaluated the MODS second-line DST as an indirect test compared to MGIT DST (n = 89). The third (n = 30) and fourth (n = 156) phases determined reproducibility and concordance of the MODS 2nd line DST directly from sputum. Results Breakpoints for moxifloxacin (0.5 ?g/ml), ofloxacin (1 ?g/ml), amikacin (2 ?g/ml), kanamycin (5 ?g/ml) and capreomycin (2.5 ?g/ml) were determined. In all phases the MODS results were highly concordant with MGIT DST. The few discrepancies suggest that the MODS breakpoint concentrations for some drugs may be too low. Conclusion The MODS second-line DST yielded comparable results to MGIT second-line DST, and is thus a promising alternative. Further studies are needed to confirm the accuracy of the drug breakpoints and the reliability of the MODS second-line DST as a direct test. PMID:24429318

  3. Integrated Model of Chemical Perturbations of a Biological PathwayUsing 18 In Vitro High Throughput Screening Assays for the Estrogen Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    We demonstrate a computational network model that integrates 18 in vitro, high-throughput screening assays measuring estrogen receptor (ER) binding, dimerization, chromatin binding, transcriptional activation and ER-dependent cell proliferation. The network model uses activity pa...

  4. DRIED BLOOD SPOT REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAYS TO SCREEN NEWBORNS FOR CONGENITAL CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Boppana, Suresh B.; Ross, Shannon A.; Novak, Zdenek; Shimamura, Masako; Tolan, Robert W.; Palmer, April L.; Ahmed, Amina; Michaels, Marian G.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Bernstein, David I.; Britt, William J.; Fowler, Karen B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Reliable methods to screen newborns for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are needed for identification of infants at increased risk for hearing loss. Since dried blood spots (DBS) are routinely collected for metabolic screening from all newborns in the United States, there has been interest in using DBS polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for newborn CMV screening. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of DBS real-time PCR assays for newborn CMV screening Design, Setting, and Participants Between March 2007 and May 2008, infants born at seven medical centers in the U.S. were enrolled in the CMV and Hearing Multicenter Screening (CHIMES) study. Newborn saliva specimens were tested for the detection of early antigen fluorescent foci (DEAFF). Results of saliva DEAFF were compared with a single-primer (from 03/07 to 12/07) and a two-primer (from 01/08 to 05/08) DBS real-time PCR. Infants positive by screening DEAFF or PCR were enrolled in follow-up to confirm congenital infection by the reference standard method, DEAFF on saliva or urine. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) of single-primer and two-primer DBS real-time PCR assays for identifying infants with confirmed congenital CMV infection. Results Congenital CMV infection was confirmed in 92 of 20,448 (0.45%; 95% CI, 0.36–0.55) infants. Ninety-one of 92 infants were saliva DEAFF positive on screening. Of the 11,422 infants screened using the single-primer DBS PCR, 17 of 60 (28%) infants were positive with this assay, whereas, among the 9,026 infants screened using the two-primer DBS PCR, 11 of 32 (34%) infants were positive. The single-primer DBS PCR identified congenital CMV infection with a sensitivity of 28.3% (95% CI, 17.4–41.4%), specificity, 99.9% (95% CI, 99.9–100%), positive LR, 803.7 (95% CI, 278.7–2317.9), and negative LR, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6–0.8). The positive and negative predictive values of the single-primer DBS PCR were 80.9% (95% CI, 58.1–94.5%) and 99.6% (95% CI, 99.5–99.7%), respectively. The two-primer DBS PCR assay identified infants with congenital CMV infection with a sensitivity of 34.4% (95% CI, 18.6–53.2%), specificity, 99.9% (95% CI, 99.9–100%), positive LR, 3088.9 (95% CI, 410.8–23226.7), and negative LR, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5–0.8). The positive and negative predictive values of the two-primer DBS PCR were 91.7% (95% CI, 61.5–99.8%) and 99.8% (95% CI, 99.6–99.9%), respectively. Conclusions Among newborns, CMV testing with DBS real-time PCR compared with saliva rapid culture had low sensitivity, limiting its value as a screening test. PMID:20388893

  5. A rapid in vitro screening system for the identification and evaluation of anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.W.; Collins, J.L. )

    1989-01-01

    We report the development of an in vitro screening system that can be used to identify new anticancer drugs that are specifically cytotoxic for dividing cells. The screening system takes advantage of the potential of many cell lines, including tumor cells, to stop dividing when they are plated at high cell density. The cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs on dividing (i.e., cells plated at low cell density) and nondividing cells (i.e., cells plated at high cell density) is measured by the incorporation of 51Cr. This in vitro system was evaluated by measuring the cytotoxic effects of the anticancer drugs cisplatin, thiotepa, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and vinblastine on the cell lines B/C-N, ME-180, and MCF-7. In this in vitro system the concentrations of the anticancer drugs that produced significant cytotoxicity on only dividing cells are similar to the concentrations that are used clinically. The fact that this in vitro system is rapid, simple, applicable to many cell types, and able to predict effective concentrations of anticancer drugs should make it useful for the screening of new anticancer drugs and for the design of preclinical studies.

  6. Validation of Screening Assays for Developmental Toxicity: An Exposure-Based Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    There continue to be widespread efforts to develop assay methods for developmental toxicity that are shorter than the traditional Segment 2 study and use fewer or no animals. As with any alternative test method, novel developmental toxicity assays must be validated by evaluating ...

  7. A High-Throughput Assay for Arylamine Halogenation Based on a Peroxidase-Mediated Quinone–Amine Coupling with Applications in the Screening of Enzymatic Halogenations

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Joseph; Shepherd, Sarah A; Micklefield, Jason; Wong, Lu Shin

    2014-01-01

    Arylhalides are important building blocks in many fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, and there has been increasing interest in the development of more “green” halogenation methods based on enzyme catalysis. However, the screening and development of new enzymes for biohalogenation has been hampered by a lack of high-throughput screening methods. Described herein is the development of a colorimetric assay for detecting both chemical and enzymatic arylamine halogenation reactions in an aqueous environment. The assay is based on the unique UV/Vis spectrum created by the formation of an ortho-benzoquinone-amine adduct, which is produced by the peroxidase-catalysed benzoquinone generation, followed by Michael addition of either a halogenated or non-halogenated arylamine. This assay is sensitive, rapid and amenable to high-throughput screening platforms. We have also shown this assay to be easily coupled to a flavin-dependent halogenase, which currently lacks any convenient colorimetric assay, in a “one-pot” workflow. PMID:25319801

  8. A high-throughput assay for arylamine halogenation based on a peroxidase-mediated quinone-amine coupling with applications in the screening of enzymatic halogenations.

    PubMed

    Hosford, Joseph; Shepherd, Sarah A; Micklefield, Jason; Wong, Lu Shin

    2014-12-01

    Arylhalides are important building blocks in many fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, and there has been increasing interest in the development of more "green" halogenation methods based on enzyme catalysis. However, the screening and development of new enzymes for biohalogenation has been hampered by a lack of high-throughput screening methods. Described herein is the development of a colorimetric assay for detecting both chemical and enzymatic arylamine halogenation reactions in an aqueous environment. The assay is based on the unique UV/Vis spectrum created by the formation of an ortho-benzoquinone-amine adduct, which is produced by the peroxidase-catalysed benzoquinone generation, followed by Michael addition of either a halogenated or non-halogenated arylamine. This assay is sensitive, rapid and amenable to high-throughput screening platforms. We have also shown this assay to be easily coupled to a flavin-dependent halogenase, which currently lacks any convenient colorimetric assay, in a "one-pot" workflow. PMID:25319801

  9. Application of firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to antimicrobial drug sensitivity testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Tuttle, S. A.; Schrock, C. G.; Deming, J. W.; Barza, M. J.; Wienstein, L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a rapid method for determining microbial susceptibilities to antibiotics using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is documented. The reduction of bacterial ATP by an antimicrobial agent was determined to be a valid measure of drug effect in most cases. The effect of 12 antibiotics on 8 different bacterial species gave a 94 percent correlation with the standard Kirby-Buer-Agar disc diffusion method. A 93 percent correlation was obtained when the ATP assay method was applied directly to 50 urine specimens from patients with urinary tract infections. Urine samples were centrifuged first to that bacterial pellets could be suspended in broth. No primary isolation or subculturing was required. Mixed cultures in which one species was predominant gave accurate results for the most abundant organism. Since the method is based on an increase in bacterial ATP with time, the presence of leukocytes did not interfere with the interpretation of results. Both the incubation procedure and the ATP assays are compatible with automation.

  10. Dose response screening of the Toxcast chemical library using a Zebrafish developmental assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the toxicity of the 320 ToxCaspM Phase I chemicals was assessed using a vertebrate screen of developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos/larvae (Danio rerio) were expo...

  11. Toxicity Screening of the ToxCast Chemical Library Using a Zebrafish Developmental Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the toxicity of the 320 ToxCast™ Phase I chemicals were assessed using a vertebrate screen of developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos/larvae (Danio rerio) were exp...

  12. Development of a CERT START Domain-Ceramide HTRF Binding Assay and Application to Pharmacological Studies and Screening.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Laurence; Faux, Céline; Santos, Cécile; Ballereau, Stéphanie; Génisson, Yves; Ausseil, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism deregulation was recently associated with cell metastasis and chemoresistance, and several pharmacological strategies targeting SM metabolism have emerged. The ceramide (Cer) generated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is transferred to the Golgi apparatus to be transformed into SM. CERamide Transfer (CERT) protein is responsible for the nonvesicular trafficking of Cer to Golgi. Blocking the CERT-mediated ER-to-Golgi Cer transfer is an interesting antioncogenic therapeutic approach. Here, we developed a protein-lipid interaction assay for the identification of new CERT-Cer interaction inhibitors. Frequently used for protein-protein interaction by enzymatic and analyte dosage assays, homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technology was adapted for the first time to a lipid-protein binding assay. This test was developed for high-throughput screening, and a library of 672 molecules was screened. Seven hits were identified, and their inhibitory effect quantified by EC50 measurements showed binding inhibition three orders of magnitude more potent than that of HPA12, the unique known CERT antagonist to date. Each compound was tested on an independent test, confirming its high affinity and pharmacological potential. PMID:25716975

  13. Evaluation of cytotoxicity by flow cytometric drug sensitivity assay in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sava?an, Süreyya; Buck, Steven; Ozdemir, Oner; Hamre, Merlin; Asselin, Barbara; Pullen, Jeannette; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi

    2005-06-01

    Risk-based treatment strategies have improved outcome in childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and in vitro drug sensitivity assessment using methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) assay has been shown to be an independent prognostic marker. To date, such strategies in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) have proved elusive, and in vitro drug sensitivity testing has had limited success in T-ALL due to poor T-cell lymphoblast survival in vitro. We have developed the flow cytometric drug sensitivity assay (FCDSA) to evaluate in vitro drug sensitivity. We studied 68 cases of childhood T-ALL for cytarabine (Ara-C) and daunorubicin sensitivity by FCDSA and compared the results with those obtained by MTT assay. Spontaneous apoptosis was correlated with cytotoxicity rates for both drugs by FCDSA, but not with the results obtained by MTT assay. Daunorubicin sensitivity had a positive correlation with Ara-C in individual cases by FCDSA; but not by MTT assay. Studies repeated on stored samples had comparable results for both drugs by FCDSA (P<0.01), but not for Ara-C by MTT assay. Comparison of T-ALL sensitivity with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases revealed a unique pattern difference. Median cytotoxicity (expressed in arbitrary units) for Ara-C was 8 (0-47) and 27 (0-81), and daunorubicine cytotoxicity for T-ALL and AML samples was 79 (5-100) and 34 (0-98), respectively. Although age or white blood cell count at diagnosis was not associated with any particular drug response pattern, CD13 expression on T-lymphoblasts was associated with in vitro resistance. FCDSA is a reliable, practical and reproducible method that can be integrated into studies of drug-target cell interactions in T-ALL. PMID:16019527

  14. Development of a one-step embryonic stem cell-based assay for the screening of sprouting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hermant, Bastien; Desroches-Castan, Agnès; Dubessay, Marie-Laure; Prandini, Marie-Hélène; Huber, Philippe; Vittet, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis assays are important tools for the identification of regulatory molecules and the potential development of therapeutic strategies to modulate neovascularization. Although numerous in vitro angiogenesis models have been developed in the past, they exhibit limitations since they do not recapitulate the entire angiogenic process or correspond to multi-step procedures that are not easy to use. Convenient, reliable, easily quantifiable and physiologically relevant assays are still needed for pharmacological screenings of angiogenesis. Results Here, we have optimized an angiogenesis model based on ES cell differentiation for screening experiments. We have established conditions leading to angiogenic sprouting of embryoid bodies during ES cell differentiation in type I three-dimensional collagen gels. Immunostaining experiments carried out during these cultures showed the formation of numerous buds comprising CD31 positive cells, after 11 days of culture of ES cells. Moreover, this one-step model has been validated in response to activators and inhibitors of angiogenesis. Sprouting was specifically stimulated in the presence of VEGF and FGF2. Alternatively, endothelial sprouting induced by angiogenic activators was inhibited by angiogenesis inhibitors such as angiostatin, TGF? and PF4. Sprouting angiogenesis can be easily quantified by image analysis after immunostaining of endothelial cells with CD31 pan-endothelial marker. Conclusion Taken together, these data clearly validate that this one-step ES differentiation model constitutes a simple and versatile angiogenesis system that should facilitate, in future investigations, the screening of both activators and inhibitors of angiogenesis. PMID:17437635

  15. Screening Helix-threading Peptides for RNA Binding Using a Thiazole Orange Displacement Assay

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Malathy; Schirle, Nicole T.; Beal, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescent intercalator displacement assay using thiazole orange has been adapted to the study of RNA-binding helix-threading peptides (HTPs). This assay is highly sensitive with HTP-binding RNAs and provides binding affinity data in good agreement with quantitative ribonuclease footprinting without the need for radiolabeling or gel electrophoresis. The FID assay was used to define structure activity relationships for a small library of helix-threading peptides. Results of these studies indicate their RNA binding is dependent on peptide sequence, ?-amino acid stereochemistry, and cyclization (versus linear peptides), but independent of macrocyclic ring size for the penta-, tetra- and tri peptides analyzed. PMID:18789700

  16. The Effectiveness of Screening with Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in a University Health Care Setting with a Diverse Global Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Samantha J.; Golbeck, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This analysis examined the effectiveness of utilizing interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) technology in a TB (TB) screening program at a university. Participants: Participants were 2299 students at a Montana university who had presented to the university health center for TB screening during 2012 and 2013. Methods: A retrospective…

  17. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  18. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  19. Cardiac Arrhythmia: In vivo screening in the zebrafish to overcome complexity in drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Calum A.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Cardiac arrhythmias remain a major challenge for modern drug discovery. Clinical events are paroxysmal, often rare and may be asymptomatic until a highly morbid complication. Target selection is often based on limited information and though highly specific agents are identified in screening, the final efficacy is often compromised by unanticipated systemic responses, a narrow therapeutic index and substantial toxicities. Areas covered in this review Our understanding of complexity of arrhythmogenesis has grown dramatically over the last two decades, and the range of potential disease mechanisms now includes pathways previously thought only tangentially involved in arrhythmia. This review surveys the literature on arrhythmia mechanisms from 1965 to the present day, outlines the complex biology underlying potentially each and every rhythm disturbance, and highlights the problems for rational target identification. The rationale for in vivo screening is described and the utility of the zebrafish for this approach and for complementary work in functional genomics is discussed. Current limitations of the model in this setting and the need for careful validation in new disease areas are also described. What the reader will gain An overview of the complex mechanisms underlying most clinical arrhythmias, and insight into the limits of ion channel conductances as drug targets. An introduction to the zebrafish as a model organism, in particular for cardiovascular biology. Potential approaches to overcoming the hurdles to drug discovery in the face of complex biology including in vivo screening of zebrafish genetic disease models. Take home message In vivo screening in faithful disease models allows the effects of drugs on integrative physiology and disease biology to be captured during the screening process, in a manner agnostic to potential drug target or targets. This systematic strategy bypasses current gaps in our understanding of disease biology, but emphasizes the importance of the rigor of the disease model. PMID:20835353

  20. A Comparison of Real-Time and Endpoint Cell Viability Assays for Improved Synthetic Lethal Drug Validation.

    PubMed

    Single, Andrew; Beetham, Henry; Telford, Bryony J; Guilford, Parry; Chen, Augustine

    2015-12-01

    Cell viability assays fulfill a central role in drug discovery studies. It is therefore important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the wide variety of available assay methodologies. In this study, we compared the performance of three endpoint assays (resazurin reduction, CellTiter-Glo, and nuclei enumeration) and two real-time systems (IncuCyte and xCELLigence). Of the endpoint approaches, both the resazurin reduction and CellTiter-Glo assays showed higher cell viabilities when compared directly to stained nuclei counts. The IncuCyte and xCELLigence real-time systems were comparable, and both were particularly effective at tracking the effects of drug treatment on cell proliferation at sub-confluent growth. However, the real-time systems failed to evaluate contrasting cell densities between drug-treated and control-treated cells at full growth confluency. Here, we showed that using real-time systems in combination with endpoint assays alleviates the disadvantages posed by each approach alone, providing a more effective means to evaluate drug toxicity in monolayer cell cultures. Such approaches were shown to be effective in elucidating the toxicity of synthetic lethal drugs in an isogenic pair of MCF10A breast cell lines. PMID:26384394

  1. AN APPROACH FOR SCREENING CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS IN DRINKING WATER USING AN IMMOBILIZED ENZYME ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, inexpensive and sensitive method for detecting organophosphate and carbamate insecticides is reported. Acetylcholinesterase was immobilized to PorexR Lateral-FloTM membrane material and remained active for several months at room temperature. The assay was sensitive ...

  2. THYROID AXIS INHIBITION IN XENOPUS LAEVIS: DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIAN-BASED SCREENING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the initial EDSTAC recommendations, research was conducted on the development of a Xenopus laevis based tail resorption assay for evaluating thyroid axis disruption. These experiments highlighted key limitations associated with relying on tail resorption as a measu...

  3. A novel assay for the detection of bioactive volatiles evaluated by screening of lichen-associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cernava, Tomislav; Aschenbrenner, Ines A.; Grube, Martin; Liebminger, Stefan; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microorganisms are known both for their effect on pathogens and their role as mediators in various interactions and communications. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of VOCs for ecosystem functioning as well as their biotechnological potential, but screening for bioactive volatiles remained difficult. We have developed an efficient testing assay that is based on two multi-well plates, separated by a sealing silicone membrane, two tightening clamps, and variable growth media, or indicators. The experiment design as presented here is a novel and robust technique to identify positive as well as negative VOC effects on the growth of a target organism and to test for specific substances e.g., hydrogen cyanide which can be detected with a suitable indicator. While the first pre-screening assay is primarily based on indicator color change and visible growth diameter reduction, we also introduce an advanced and quantitatively precise experiment design. This adaptation involves qPCR-based quantification of viable target cells after concluding the treatment with VOCs. Therefore, we chose preselected active isolates and compared the partial 16S rRNA gene copy number of headspace-exposed E. coli with non-treated controls. Separately obtained headspace SPME and GC/MS-based profiles of selected bacterial isolates revealed the presence of specific and unique signatures which suggests divergent modes of action. The assay was evaluated by screening 100 isolates of lung lichen-associated bacteria. Approximately one quarter of the isolates showed VOC-based antibacterial and/or antifungal activity; mainly Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas species were identified as producers of bioactive volatiles. PMID:25983730

  4. Tissue engineering the cardiac microenvironment: Multicellular microphysiological systems for drug screening.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Yosuke K; George, Steven C

    2016-01-15

    The ability to accurately detect cardiotoxicity has become increasingly important in the development of new drugs. Since the advent of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, researchers have explored their use in creating an in vitro drug screening platform. Recently, there has been increasing interest in creating 3D microphysiological models of the heart as a tool to detect cardiotoxic compounds. By recapitulating the complex microenvironment that exists in the native heart, cardiac microphysiological systems have the potential to provide a more accurate pharmacological response compared to current standards in preclinical drug screening. This review aims to provide an overview on the progress made in creating advanced models of the human heart, including the significance and contributions of the various cellular and extracellular components to cardiac function. PMID:26212156

  5. Genotype-Selective Combination Therapies for Melanoma Identified by High Throughput Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Held, Matthew A.; Langdon, Casey G.; Platt, James T.; Graham-Steed, Tisheeka; Liu, Zongzhi; Chakraborty, Ashok; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Koo, Andrew; Bosenberg, Marcus W.; Stern, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance and partial responses to targeted monotherapy are major obstacles in cancer treatment. Systematic approaches to identify efficacious drug combinations for cancer are not well established, especially in the context of genotype. To address this, we have tested pairwise combinations of an array of small molecule inhibitors on early passage melanoma cultures using combinatorial drug screening. Results reveal several inhibitor combinations effective for melanomas with activating RAS or BRAF mutations, including mutant BRAF melanomas with intrinsic or acquired resistance to vemurafenib. Inhibition of both EGFR and AKT sensitized treatment-resistant BRAF-mutant melanoma cultures to vemurafenib. Melanomas with RAS mutations were more resistant to combination therapies relative to BRAF mutants, but were sensitive to combinations of statins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate the utility of combinatorial drug screening for discovering unique treatment regimens that overcome resistance phenotypes of mutant BRAF and RAS driven melanomas. PMID:23239741

  6. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Untargeted Drug Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Alan H B; Colby, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    While gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) continues to be the forensic standard for toxicology, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem MS offers significant operational advantages for targeted confirmatory analysis. LC-high-resolution (HR)-MS has recently been available that offers advantages for untargeted analysis. HR-MS analyzers include the Orbitrap and time-of-flight MS. These instruments are capable of detecting 1 ppm mass resolution. Following soft ionization, this enables the assignment of exact molecular formula, limiting the number of candidate compounds. With this technique, presumptive identification of unknowns can be conducted without the need to match MS library spectra or comparison against known standards. For clinical toxicology, this can greatly expand on the number of drugs and metabolites that can be detected and reported on a presumptive basis. Definitive assignments of the compound's identity can be retrospectively determined with acquisition of the appropriate reference standard. PMID:26660184

  7. New-generation screening assays for the detection of anti-influenza compounds targeting viral and host functions

    PubMed Central

    Beyleveld, Grant; White, Kris M.; Ayllon, Juan; Shaw, Megan L.

    2013-01-01

    Current options for influenza antiviral therapy are limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors, and knowledge that high levels of oseltamivir resistance have been seen amongst previously circulating H1N1 viruses increases the urgency to find new influenza therapeutics. To feed this pipeline, assays that are appropriate for use in high-throughput screens are being developed and are discussed in this review. Particular emphasis is placed on cell-based assays that capture both inhibitors of viral functions as well as the host functions that facilitate optimal influenza virus replication. Success in this area has been fueled by a greater understanding of the genome structure of influenza viruses and the ability to generate replication-competent recombinant viruses that carry a reporter gene, allowing for easy monitoring of viral infection in a high-throughput setting. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “Treatment of influenza: targeting the virus or the host.” PMID:23933115

  8. A comparative study of ultrasonication, Fenton's oxidation and ferro-sonication treatment for degradation of carbamazepine from wastewater and toxicity test by Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-03-01

    A comparative study of ultrasonication (US), Fenton's oxidation (FO) and ferro-sonication (FS) (combination of ultrasonication and Fenton's oxidation) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) from wastewater (WW) is reported for the first time. CBZ is a worldwide used antiepileptic drug, found as a persistent emerging contaminant in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluents and other aquatic environments. The oxidation treatments of WW caused an effective removal of the drug. Among the various US, FO and FS pre-treatments carried out, higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and soluble organic carbon (SOC) increment (63 to 86% and 21 to 34%, respectively) was observed during FO pre-treatment process, resulting in higher removal of CBZ (84 to 100%) from WW. Furthermore, analysis of by-products formed during US, FO and FS pre-treatment in WW was carried out by using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD-APCI) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). LDTD-APCI-MS/MS analysis indicated formation of two by-products, such as epoxycarbamazepine and hydroxycarbamazepine due to the reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with CBZ during the three types of pre-treatment processes. In addition, the estrogenic activity of US, FO and FS pre-treated sample with CBZ and its by-products was carried out by Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay method. Based upon the YES test results, none of the pre-treated samples showed estrogenic activity. PMID:23410855

  9. False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.

    PubMed

    Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique. PMID:24986836

  10. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

  11. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

  12. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  13. Sediment toxicity screening with cost-effective microbiotests and conventional assays: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Vanciheluwe, M.L.; Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G.

    1995-12-31

    A large monitoring study of freshwater sediments, using the TRIAD approach, was conducted in Flanders (Belgium). This paper reports on the results of the toxicity assessment of 80 sediment samples evaluated with a battery of microbiotests and conventional assays. Sediment pore waters, extracted by squeezing, were tested with the Microtox{reg_sign} (Vibrio fischerii) and Thamnotoxkit{trademark} F (Thamnocephalus platyurus) microbiotests and the conventional (acute) assays with algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) and daphnids (Daphnia magna). A newly developed 5 day ELS test with the catfish Clarias gariepinus was also applied to the pore waters. Solid-phase testing was performed with the Microtox Sp{reg_sign} assay and the 10 day tests with Chironomus riparius and Hyalella azteca. Uni- and multivariate statistical techniques were applied to the data matrix to select a minimal test battery from the water phase and solid phase assays and from all tests combined. The influence of sediment associated confounding factors on the validity of the test results obtained with the various assays will be discussed. Finally a comparison of the predictive power of the selected battery of signal tests and that of the complete battery will be made and the potential use of the minimal battery for the initial hazard assessment of contaminated sediments will be reviewed.

  14. Set-up of an infrared fast behavioral assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, and its application in compound biotoxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Bichara, Darío; Calcaterra, Nora B; Arranz, Silvia; Armas, Pablo; Simonetta, Sergio H

    2014-02-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly employed for evaluating toxicity and drug discovery assays. Commonly experimental approaches for biotoxicity assessment are based on visual inspection or video recording. However, these techniques are limited for large-scale assays, as they demand either a time-consuming detailed inspection of the animals or intensive computing resources in order to analyze a considerable amount of screenshots. Recently, we have developed a simple methodology for tracking the locomotor activity of small animals cultured in microtiter plates. In this work, we implemented this automatic methodology, based on infrared (IR) microbeam scattering, for measuring behavioral activity in zebrafish larvae. We determined the appropriate culture conditions, number of animals and stage of development to get robust results. Furthermore, we validated this methodology as a rapid test for evaluating toxicity. By measuring the effects of reference compounds on larvae activity, we were able to estimate the concentration that could cause a 50% decrease in activity events values (AEC??), showing a strong linear correlation (R² ?=?0.91) with the LC?? values obtained with the standard DarT test. The toxicity order of the measured compounds was CuSO4 ?>?2,4-dinitrophenol?>?3,4-dichloroaniline?>?SDS?>?sodium benzoate?>?EDTA?>?K?CrO4 ; regarding solvents, EtOH???DMSO. In this study, we demonstrate that global swimming behavior could be a simple readout for toxicity, easy to scale-up in automated experiments. This approach is potentially applicable for fast ecotoxicity assays and whole-organism high-throughput compound screening, reducing the time and money required to evaluate unknown samples and to identify leading pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23401233

  15. Synthetic-peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening human serum or plasma for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, L; Boyle, R W; Zhang, M; Castillo, J; Whittier, S; Della-Latta, P; Clarke, L M; George, J R; Fang, X; Wang, J G; Hosein, B; Wang, C Y

    1997-01-01

    A synthetic-peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) capable of screening for antibodies to both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 has been developed for use in blood banks and diagnostic laboratories. Microtiter wells are coated with two synthetic peptides, one corresponding to the highly conserved envelope region of HIV-1 and another corresponding to the conserved envelope region of HIV-2. Overall, sensitivity was 100% in 303 individuals diagnosed with AIDS and 96 individuals diagnosed with AIDS-related complex, 14.8% in a study of 500 high-risk group members, 99.9% in 600 EIA repeatedly reactive (RR)-HIV-1 Western blot (WB)-positive repository specimens, and 100% for 222 geographically diverse HIV-1 specimens and 216 confirmed HIV-2-positive specimens evaluated. The specificity was determined to be 99.72% for a total of 13,004 serum and plasma samples from random volunteer donors evaluated across five blood banks. Forty donors who were found to be EIA RR-WB indeterminate but nonreactive on the United Biomedical, Inc., test (UBI HIV 1/2 EIA) were prospectively followed as an additional measure of specificity. None of the 40 low-risk cases evolved into a positive WB pattern at follow-up. The sensitivity and specificity of this new assay are comparable to those of other Food and Drug Administration-licensed HIV-1 and HIV-1-HIV-2 assays that are currently available in the United States. The UBI HIV 1/2 EIA affords laboratories another choice in the detection of antibodies for HIV-1 and HIV-2 with a test based on an alternative antigen format. PMID:9302212

  16. Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lele, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930‘s, and Vakhil’s historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda’s concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda’s aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm. PMID:21731372

  17. Estimation of Drug Binding to Brain Tissue: Methodology and in Vivo Application of a Distribution Assay in Brain Polar Lipids.

    PubMed

    Belli, Sara; Assmus, Frauke; Wagner, Bjoern; Honer, Michael; Fischer, Holger; Schuler, Franz; Alvarez-Sánchez, Rubén

    2015-12-01

    The unbound drug concentration-effect relationship in brain is a key aspect in CNS drug discovery and development. In this work, we describe an in vitro high-throughput distribution assay between an aqueous buffer and a microemulsion of porcine brain polar lipids (BPL). The derived distribution coefficient LogDBPL was applied to the prediction of unbound drug concentrations in brain (Cu,b) and nonspecific binding to brain tissue. The in vivo relevance of the new assay was assessed for a large set of proprietary drug candidates and CNS drugs by (1) comparing observed compound concentrations in rat CSF with Cu,b calculated using the LogDBPL assay in combination with total drug brain concentrations, (2) comparing Cu,b derived from LogDBPL and total drug brain concentrations to Cu,b estimated using in vitro P-glycoprotein efflux ratio data and unbound drug plasma levels, and (3) comparing tissue nonspecific binding data from human brain autoradiography studies for 17 PET tracer candidates to distribution in BPL. In summary, the LogDBPL assay provides a predicted drug fraction unbound in brain tissue that is nearly identical to brain homogenate equilibrium dialysis with an estimation of in vivo Cu,b that is superior to LogD in octanol. LogDBPL complements the approach for predicting Cu,b based on in vitro P-glycoprotein efflux ratio and in vivo unbound plasma concentration and stands as a fast and cost-effective tool for nonspecific brain binding optimization of PET ligand candidates. PMID:26560069

  18. Sarcoma Cell Line Screen of Oncology Drugs and Investigational Agents Identifies Patterns Associated with Gene and microRNA Expression.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Beverly A; Polley, Eric; Kunkel, Mark; Evans, David; Silvers, Thomas; Delosh, Rene; Laudeman, Julie; Ogle, Chad; Reinhart, Russell; Selby, Michael; Connelly, John; Harris, Erik; Monks, Anne; Morris, Joel

    2015-11-01

    The diversity in sarcoma phenotype and genotype make treatment of this family of diseases exceptionally challenging. Sixty-three human adult and pediatric sarcoma lines were screened with 100 FDA-approved oncology agents and 345 investigational agents. The investigational agents' library enabled comparison of several compounds targeting the same molecular entity allowing comparison of target specificity and heterogeneity of cell line response. Gene expression was derived from exon array data and microRNA expression was derived from direct digital detection assays. The compounds were screened against each cell line at nine concentrations in triplicate with an exposure time of 96 hours using Alamar blue as the endpoint. Results are presented for inhibitors of the following targets: aurora kinase, IGF-1R, MEK, BET bromodomain, and PARP1. Chemical structures, IC50 heat maps, concentration response curves, gene expression, and miR expression heat maps are presented for selected examples. In addition, two cases of exceptional responders are presented. The drug and compound response, gene expression, and microRNA expression data are publicly available at http://sarcoma.cancer.gov. These data provide a unique resource to the cancer research community. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(11); 2452-62. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26351324

  19. An improved high-throughput screening assay for tunicamycin sensitivity in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Maggie E.; Liu, Xiaoyu; Jordan, Melissa R.; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina M.

    2015-01-01

    Tunicamycin (Tm) sensitivity assays are a useful method for studies of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in eukaryotic cells. While Tm sensitivity and Tm recovery assays have been previously described, these existing methods are time-consuming, labor intensive, and subjected to mechanical wounding. This study shows an improved method of testing Tm sensitivity in Arabidopsis using liquid Murashige and Skoog medium versus the traditional solid agar plates. Liquid medium bypasses the physical manipulation of seedlings, thereby eliminating the risk of potential mechanical damage and additional unwanted stress to seedlings. Seedlings were subjected to comparative treatments with various concentrations of Tm on both solid and liquid media and allowed to recover. Determination of fresh weight, chlorophyll contents analysis and qRT-PCR results confirm the efficacy of using liquid medium to perform quantitative Tm stress assays. PMID:26441998

  20. Assessment of the TLC/Salmonella assay for screening hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; Claxton, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    Using a modified version of the TLC/Salmonella assay developed by Bjorseth et al. (1982), 10 complex hazardous wastes were tested for mutagenic activity. The method couples thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome (Ames) assay for the detection of mutagenic constituents in complex mixtures. Crude hazardous wastes and selected hazardous-waste extracts were fractionated on commercially available cellulose TLC plates. Mutagenicity testing was performed by applying a single overlay of minimal growth agar containing a tester strain of Salmonella and the optional metabolic activation system directly onto the developed chromatogram. Seven of 10 hazardous wastes demonstrated mutagenic activity when tested by the method. To assess the sensitivity of the modified TLC/Salmonella assay, 14 Salmonella mutagens from a wide range of chemical classes and polarities were tested. Eleven of the 14 mutagens were positive in the test system.

  1. Screening of potential cancer preventing chemicals as aromatase inhibitors in an in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    White, E L; Ross, L J; Steele, V E; Kelloff, G J; Hill, D L

    1999-01-01

    The inhibition of human placental aromatase was used to rank a series of compounds, with the objective of selecting compounds for further evaluation as chemopreventive agents. (+/-)-p-Aminoglutethimide, introduced over two decades ago as a treatment for breast cancer, had an IC50 of 6.5 microM. Five compounds were more potent than aminoglutethimide in this assay: (+)- vorozole, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione, miconazole nitrate, plomestane, and 4-methoxy-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione. Other compounds with known chemoprevention activity, such as curcumin and genistein, were inactive. This assay for aromatase inhibitors is a rapid, economical way of ranking compounds for further development as chemoprevention agents. PMID:10368648

  2. Screening for adolescent alcohol and drug use in pediatric health-care settings: predictors and implications for practice and policy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper used data from a study of pediatric primary care provider (PCP) screening practices to examine barriers to and facilitators of adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) screening in pediatric primary care. Methods A web-based survey (N?=?437) was used to examine the influence of PCP factors (attitudes and knowledge, training, self-efficacy, comfort with alcohol and drug issues); patient characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, comorbidities and risk factors); and organizational factors (screening barriers, staffing resources, confidentiality issues) on AOD screening practices. Self-reported and electronic medical record (EMR)-recorded screening rates were also assessed. Results More PCPs felt unprepared to diagnose alcohol abuse (42%) and other drug abuse (56%) than depression (29%) (p?screen boys than girls, and male PCPs were even more likely than female PCPs to screen boys (23% versus 6%, p?screen and review results were identified as potential screening facilitators. Self-reported screening rates were significantly higher than actual (EMR-recorded) rates for all substances. Feeling prepared to diagnose AOD problems predicted higher self-reported screening rates (OR?=?1.02, p <0.001), and identifying time constraints as a barrier to screening predicted lower self-reported screening rates (OR?=?0.91, p?screening rates (OR?=?1.11, p?screening may impact adolescent substance-abuse screening and intervention, but organizational approaches (e.g., EMR tools and workflow) may matter more than PCP or patient factors in determining screening. PMID:23186254

  3. Undetectable pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in antenatal serum Down's syndrome screening: a case of assay interference.

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Hambridge, K; Petchey, M; Martin, J A; Spencer, K

    2015-09-01

    Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is measured in Down's syndrome screening, routinely offered to women in pregnancy. We present the case of an undetectable pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A concentration on the PerkinElmer AutoDELFIA system where immunoassay interference was suspected. Investigations performed, including dilution and recovery studies and antibody-blocking tube incubations, all yielded serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A concentrations of <25?mU/L. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A was also undetectable on two alternative pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A assays. An experimental manual Delfia procedure suggested the site of interference was between the secondary antibody and the pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A molecule. This case of negative interference in the PerkinElmer pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A assay produced a falsely high Down's syndrome risk that might have led to an unnecessary invasive procedure with the potential for fetal loss. This highlights the need for Down's syndrome screening laboratories to be vigilant to immunoassay interference due to the significant impact of the results on patient decision outcome. PMID:25995284

  4. Development and model testing of anti-mortem screening methodology to predict prescribed drug withholds in heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, cow-side test for the presence of drug residues in live animal fluids would provide useful information for tissue drug residue avoidance programs. This work describes adaptation and evaluation of rapid screening tests to detect drug residues in serum and urine. Medicated herd animals had...

  5. Docking, virtual high throughput screening and in silico fragment-based drug design

    PubMed Central

    Zoete, Vincent; Grosdidier, Aurélien; Michielin, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The drug discovery process has been profoundly changed recently by the adoption of computational methods helping the design of new drug candidates more rapidly and at lower costs. In silico drug design consists of a collection of tools helping to make rational decisions at the different steps of the drug discovery process, such as the identification of a biomolecular target of therapeutical interest, the selection or the design of new lead compounds and their modification to obtain better affinities, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Among the different tools available, a particular emphasis is placed in this review on molecular docking, virtual high-throughput screening and fragment-based ligand design. PMID:19183238

  6. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  7. Screening metagenomic data for viruses using the E-Probe Diagnostic Nucleic Acid Assay (EDNA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many plant pathogen-specific diagnostic assays, based on PCR and immune-detection. However, the ability to test for large numbers of pathogens simultaneously is lacking. Next generation sequencing (NGS) allows one to detect all organisms within a given sample, but has computational limitat...

  8. A novel microfluidic platform with stable concentration gradient for on chip cell culture and screening assays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bi-Yi; Hu, Shan-Wen; Qian, Guang-Sheng; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2013-09-21

    In this work a novel microfluidic platform for cell culture and assay is developed. On the chip a static cell culture region is coupled with dynamic fluidic nutrition supply structures. The cell culture unit has a sandwich structure with liquid channels on the top, the cell culture reservoir in the middle and gas channels on the bottom. Samples can be easily loaded into the reservoir and exchange constantly with the external liquid environment by diffusion. Since the flow direction is perpendicular to the liquid channel on the top of the reservoir, the cells in the reservoir are shielded from shear-force. By assembling the basic units into an array, a steady concentration gradient can be generated. Cell culture models both for continuous perfusion and one-off perfusion were established on the chip. Both adherent and suspended cells were successfully cultured on the chip in 2D and 3D culture modes. After culturing, the trapped cells were recovered for use in a later assay. As a competitive candidate for a standard cell culture and assay platform, this chip is also adaptable for cytotoxicity and cell growth assays. PMID:23884407

  9. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  10. A Call for Nominations of Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Assays from Relevant Human Toxicity Pathways

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Research Council of the United States National Academies of Science has recently released a document outlining a long-range vision and strategy for transforming toxicity testing from largely whole animal-based testing to one based on in vitro assays. “Toxicity Testin...

  11. Using pathway modules as targets for assay development in xenobiotic screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicology and pharmaceutical research is increasingly making use of high throughout-screening (HTS) methods to assess the effects of chemicals on molecular pathways, cells and tissues. Whole-genome microarray analysis provides broad information on the response of biological syst...

  12. High-Throughput/High-Content Screening Assays with Engineered Nanomaterials in ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput and high-content screens are attractive approaches for prioritizing nanomaterial hazards and informing targeted testing due to the impracticality of using traditional toxicological testing on the large numbers and varieties of nanomaterials. The ToxCast program a...

  13. Using in Vitro High Throughput Screening Assays to Identify Potential Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 20 years, an increased focus on detecting environmental chemicals posing a risk of adverse effects due to endocrine disruption has driven the creation of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Thousands of chemicals are subject to the EDSP, whic...

  14. Functional Assays and Alternative Species: Using Larval Zebrafish in Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening**

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. As such, we are exploring a behavioral testing paradigm, which can assess the effect of sublethal and subteratogenic concentrations of de...

  15. Functional Assays and Alternative Species: Using Larval Zebrafish in Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing and evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. Towards this goal, we are exploring methods to detect developmental neurotoxicants in very young larval zebrafish. We have...

  16. Comprehensive screening and quantification of veterinary drugs in milk using UPLC–ToF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Rutgers, P.; Oosterink, E.; Lasaroms, J. J. P.; Peters, R. J. B.; van Rhijn, J. A.; Nielen, M. W. F.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–ToF-MS) has been used for screening and quantification of more than 100 veterinary drugs in milk. The veterinary drugs represent different classes including benzimidazoles, macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, sulphonamides, pyrimidines, tetracylines, nitroimidazoles, tranquillizers, ionophores, amphenicols and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). After protein precipitation, centrifugation and solid-phase extraction (SPE), the extracts were analysed by UPLC–ToF-MS. From the acquired full scan data the drug-specific ions were extracted for construction of the chromatograms and evaluation of the results. The analytical method was validated according to the EU guidelines (2002/657/EC) for a quantitative screening method. At the concentration level of interest (MRL level) the results for repeatability (%RSD?drug concentrations below or above the MRL. A set of 100 samples of raw milk were screened for residues. No suspected (positive) results were obtained except for the included blind reference sample containing sulphamethazine (88 ?g/l) that tested positive for this compound. UPLC–ToF-MS combines high resolution for both LC and MS with high mass accuracy which is very powerful for the multi-compound analysis of veterinary drugs. The technique seems to be powerful enough for the analysis of not only veterinary drugs but also organic contaminants like pesticides, mycotoxins and plant toxins in one single method. PMID:18491081

  17. Microfluidic cell-phoresis enabling high-throughput analysis of red blood cell deformability and biophysical screening of antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Aline T; Deng, Xiaoyan; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Matthews, Kerryn; Duffy, Simon P; Islamzada, Emel; McFaul, Sarah M; Myrand-Lapierre, Marie-Eve; Ma, Hongshen

    2015-11-11

    Changes in red blood cell (RBC) deformability are associated with the pathology of many diseases and could potentially be used to evaluate disease status and treatment efficacy. We developed a simple, sensitive, and multiplexed RBC deformability assay based on the spatial dispersion of single cells in structured microchannels. This mechanism is analogous to gel electrophoresis, but instead of transporting molecules through nano-structured material to measure their length, RBCs are transported through micro-structured material to measure their deformability. After transport, the spatial distribution of cells provides a readout similar to intensity bands in gel electrophoresis, enabling simultaneous measurement on multiple samples. We used this approach to study the biophysical signatures of falciparum malaria, for which we demonstrate label-free and calibration-free detection of ring-stage infection, as well as in vitro assessment of antimalarial drug efficacy. We show that clinical antimalarial drugs universally reduce the deformability of RBCs infected by Plasmodium falciparum and that recently discovered PfATP4 inhibitors, known to induce host-mediated parasite clearance, display a distinct biophysical signature. Our process captures key advantages from gel electrophoresis, including image-based readout and multiplexing, to provide a functional screen for new antimalarials and adjunctive agents. PMID:26477590

  18. HO-1-u-1 model for screening sublingual drug delivery--influence of pH, osmolarity and permeation enhancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfeng; Zuo, Zhong; Chow, Moses S S

    2009-03-31

    HO-1-u-1 (Ueda-1) is a human tumor cell line established from human sublingual squamous cell carcinoma. In previous study, HO-1-u-1 cell line was grown on cell culture inserts and utilized as in vitro model for screening sublingual drug delivery. The aim of current study was to further investigate the effects of pH, osmolarity and permeation enhancer, sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDC) on the permeability of three beta-blockers with different lipophilicities. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTS/PES assay. The permeability studies were carried out using the cell culture model and compared with that obtained from fresh porcine sublingual mucosa. The results showed the enhancement effects caused by pH, osmolarity and GDC were highly lipophilicity-dependent and in the order atenolol>metoprolol>propranolol. The apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of all the three beta-blockers were significantly increased by increasing pH. However, less enhancing effects were observed by non-physiological osmolarity or the presence of GDC in permeability study using both cell culture and porcine sublingual mucosa. The present results suggested that the HO-1-u-1 cell culture model maybe a useful and effective in vitro model for evaluating the enhancement effects and mechanism in sublingual drug delivery. PMID:19071203

  19. Overcoming the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid extracts in the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay.

    PubMed

    Citulski, Joel; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2012-04-01

    For nearly two decades, the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) has been used as a valuable tool for determining the total estrogenic potency of various environmental samples, including influent and effluent streams at municipal wastewater plants. However, applying the YES assay to wastewater sludges and stabilized biosolids has been problematic. This is due to co-extracted compounds from the solids either proving toxic to the yeast or masking the presence of estrogenic substances. The present research describes the development and validation of sample preparation steps that mitigate the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid samples in the YES assay, while allowing for reliable dose-dependent expression of estrogenic activity. A copper work-up for sulfur removal and chromatographic cleanup with silica and alumina were required in addition to solid-phase extraction to adequately remove interfering compounds. Sample stabilization methods such as autoclaving, lyophilization and formaldehyde treatment were found to be detrimental to the assay. Hence, heat-drying is recommended to prevent cytotoxicity and the degradation of estrogenic substances. PMID:22277884

  20. Nanotechnology in drug delivery: the need for more cell culture based studies in screening

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Advances in biomedical science are leading to upsurge synthesis of nanodelivery systems for drug delivery. The systems were characterized by controlled, targeted and sustained drug delivery ability. Humans are the target of these systems, hence, animals whose systems resembles humans were used to predict outcome. Thus, increasing costs in money and time, plus ethical concerns over animal usage. However, with consideration and planning in experimental conditions, in vitro pharmacological studies of the nanodelivery can mimic the in vivo system. This can function as a simple method to investigate the effect of such materials without endangering animals especially at screening phase. PMID:25057288

  1. Antibody-drug conjugates nonclinical support: from early to late nonclinical bioanalysis using ligand-binding assays.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Seema; King, Lindsay E; Clark, Tracey H; Gorovits, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The objective of antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) bioanalysis at different stages of drug development may vary and so are the associated bioanalytical challenges. While at early drug discovery stage involving candidate selection, optimization and preliminary nonclinical assessments, the goal of ADC bioanalysis is to provide PK, toxicity and efficacy data that assists in the design and selection of potential drug candidates, the late nonclinical and clinical drug development stage typically involves regulated ADC bioanalysis that delivers TK data to define and understand pharmacological and toxicological properties of the lead ADC candidate. Bioanalytical strategies and considerations involved in developing successful ligand binding assays for ADC characterization from early discovery to late nonclinical stages of drug development are presented here. PMID:26226310

  2. A c-Myc activation sensor-based high-throughput drug screening identifies an antineoplastic effect of nitazoxanide.

    PubMed

    Fan-Minogue, Hua; Bodapati, Sandhya; Solow-Cordero, David; Fan, Alice; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F; Felsher, Dean W; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2013-09-01

    Deregulation of c-Myc plays a central role in the tumorigenesis of many human cancers. Yet, the development of drugs regulating c-Myc activity has been challenging. To facilitate the identification of c-Myc inhibitors, we developed a molecular imaging sensor-based high-throughput screening (HTS) system. This system uses a cell-based assay to detect c-Myc activation in a HTS format, which is established from a pure clone of a stable breast cancer cell line that constitutively expresses a c-Myc activation sensor. Optimization of the assay performance in the HTS format resulted in uniform and robust signals at the baseline. Using this system, we conducted a quantitative HTS against approximately 5,000 existing bioactive compounds from five different libraries. Thirty-nine potential hits were identified, including currently known c-Myc inhibitors. There are a few among the top potent hits that are not known for anti-c-Myc activity. One of these hits is nitazoxanide, a thiazolide for treating human protozoal infections. Validation of nitazoxanide in different cancer cell lines revealed a high potency for c-Myc inhibition with IC50 ranging between 10 and 500 nmol/L. Oral administration of nitazoxanide in breast cancer xenograft mouse models significantly suppressed tumor growth by inhibition of c-Myc and induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest a potential of nitazoxanide to be repurposed as a new antitumor agent for inhibition of c-Myc-associated neoplasia. Our work also demonstrated the unique advantage of molecular imaging in accelerating discovery of drugs for c-Myc-targeted cancer therapy. PMID:23825064

  3. Discovery of cancer drug targets by CRISPR-Cas9 screening of protein domains

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junwei; Wang, Eric; Milazzo, Joseph P.; Wang, Zhihua; Kinney, Justin B.; Vakoc, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology holds great promise for discovering therapeutic targets in cancer and other diseases. Current screening strategies target CRISPR-induced mutations to the 5’ exons of candidate genes1–5, but this approach often produces in-frame variants that retain functionality, which can obscure even strong genetic dependencies. Here we overcome this limitation by targeting CRISPR mutagenesis to exons encoding functional protein domains. This generates a higher proportion of null mutations and substantially increases the potency of negative selection. We show that the magnitude of negative selection reports the functional importance of individual protein domains of interest. A screen of 192 chromatin regulatory domains in murine acute myeloid leukemia cells identifies six known drug targets and 19 additional dependencies. A broader application of this approach may allow comprehensive identification of protein domains that sustain cancer cells and are suitable for drug targeting. PMID:25961408

  4. Rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs using thermal desorption - SALDI mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnikov, A. A.; Kubasov, A. E.; Georgieva, V. B.; Borodkov, A. S.; Nikiforov, S. M.; Simanovsky, Ya O.; Alimpiev, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach to the rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs by surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry with the rotating ball interface coupled with temperature programmed thermal desorption has been developed. Analytes were thermally desorbed and deposited onto the surface of amorphous silicon substrate attached to the rotating ball. The ball was rotated and the deposited analytes were analyzed using SALDI. The effectiveness of coupling SALDI mass spectrometry with thermal desorption was evaluated by the direct and rapid analysis of tablets containing lidocaine, diphenhydramine and propranolol without any sample pretreatment. The overall duration of the screening procedure was 30÷40 sec. Real urine samples were studied for drug analysis. It is shown that with simple preparation steps, urine samples can be quantitatively analyzed using the proposed technique with the detection limits in the range of 0.2÷0.5 ng/ml.

  5. Development of a Novel Screening Strategy Designed to Discover a New Class of HIV Drugs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nancy; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Donover, P Scott; Reichman, Mel; Schiffer, Celia A; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Swanstrom, Ronald; Janzen, William P

    2013-12-01

    Current antiretroviral treatments target multiple pathways important for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) multiplication, including viral entry, synthesis and integration of the DNA provirus, and the processing of viral polyprotein precursors. However, HIV is becoming increasingly resistant to these "combination therapies." Recent findings show that inhibition of HIV Gag protein cleavage into its two structural proteins, matrix (MA) and capsid (CA), has a devastating effect on viral production, revealing a potential new target class for HIV treatment. Unlike the widely used HIV protease inhibitors, this new class of inhibitor would target the substrate, not the protease enzyme itself. This approach offers a distinct advantage in that inhibitors of MA/CA would only need to affect a subset of the Gag molecules to disable viral replication. To discover MA/CA-specific inhibitors, we constructed a modified MA/CA fusion peptide (MA/CA?) that contains the HIV protease (PR) cleavage site as well as a tetracysteine motif for fluorescent labeling. The HIV PR cleavage of MA/CA? can then be monitored via fluorescence polarization (FP). We have adapted this FP assay for high-throughput screening and validated it according to industry standards using a 384-well plate format. We have currently tested 24,000 compounds in this assay and here detail the screening methodology and the results of this screening campaign. PMID:24305957

  6. Human Genetics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Guides a High-Throughput Drug Screen of the CD40 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Diogo, Dorothée; Wu, Di; Spoonamore, Jim; Dancik, Vlado; Franke, Lude; Kurreeman, Fina; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Duclos, Grant; Hartland, Cathy; Zhou, Xuezhong; Li, Kejie; Liu, Jun; De Jager, Philip L.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Gupta, Namrata; Clemons, Paul A.; Stahl, Eli; Tolliday, Nicola; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant in RA discovered by a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) and to perform a high-throughput drug screen for modulators of CD40 signaling based on human genetic findings. First, we fine-map the CD40 risk locus in 7,222 seropositive RA patients and 15,870 controls, together with deep sequencing of CD40 coding exons in 500 RA cases and 650 controls, to identify a single SNP that explains the entire signal of association (rs4810485, P?=?1.4×10?9). Second, we demonstrate that subjects homozygous for the RA risk allele have ?33% more CD40 on the surface of primary human CD19+ B lymphocytes than subjects homozygous for the non-risk allele (P?=?10?9), a finding corroborated by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 1,469 healthy control individuals. Third, we use retroviral shRNA infection to perturb the amount of CD40 on the surface of a human B lymphocyte cell line (BL2) and observe a direct correlation between amount of CD40 protein and phosphorylation of RelA (p65), a subunit of the NF-?B transcription factor. Finally, we develop a high-throughput NF-?B luciferase reporter assay in BL2 cells activated with trimerized CD40 ligand (tCD40L) and conduct an HTS of 1,982 chemical compounds and FDA–approved drugs. After a series of counter-screens and testing in primary human CD19+ B cells, we identify 2 novel chemical inhibitors not previously implicated in inflammation or CD40-mediated NF-?B signaling. Our study demonstrates proof-of-concept that human genetics can be used to guide the development of phenotype-based, high-throughput small-molecule screens to identify potential novel therapies in complex traits such as RA. PMID:23696745

  7. Identification of novel potential antibiotics for tuberculosis by in silico structure-based drug screening.

    PubMed

    Izumizono, Yuya; Arevalo, Shiho; Koseki, Yuji; Kuroki, Masato; Aoki, Shunsuke

    2011-05-01

    The enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a key enzyme of the type II fatty acid synthesis system. It is involved in the production of mycolic acid and is a known target for isoniazid, an effective antibiotic for tuberculosis treatment. The increasing prevalence of tuberculosis in many areas of the world, which is associated with the rise of drug-resistant MTB strains, presents a major global health threat. In this study, we attempted to identify novel antibiotics specifically targeting the MTB enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase. We performed in silico structure-based drug screening using the crystal structure data for the MTB enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (PDB code; 2H7I) and a virtual compound library, which includes 152,102 chemicals. By a two-step screening method using DOCK (first screening) and GOLD (second screening), we identified 5 chemical compounds expected to have high binding affinity to the active center of the MTB enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase. Moreover, we examined the antibiotic effects of these chemical compounds on model bacterial strains by in vitro experiments. We found that a chemical compound, which has a basic skeleton comprised of dibenzofuran, acetoamide, trizol, furyl and methylphenyl groups, completely inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii and had no toxic effects on enterobacteria and cultured mammalian cells. Therefore, the chemical compound is likely to be useful in the research and development of new antibiotics for tuberculosis. PMID:21397998

  8. Leveraging structure determination with fragment screening for infectious disease drug targets: MECP synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, Darren W.; Hartley, Robert C.; Davies, Douglas R.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Leonard, Jess T.; Abendroth, Jan; Burris, Courtney A.; Bhandari, Janhavi; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J.

    2011-09-28

    As part of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease, we seek to enhance structural genomics with ligand-bound structure data which can serve as a blueprint for structure-based drug design. We have adapted fragment-based screening methods to our structural genomics pipeline to generate multiple ligand-bound structures of high priority drug targets from pathogenic organisms. In this study, we report fragment screening methods and structure determination results for 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclo-diphosphate (MECP) synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the gram-negative bacterium which causes melioidosis. Screening by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as crystal soaking followed by X-ray diffraction led to the identification of several small molecules which bind this enzyme in a critical metabolic pathway. A series of complex structures obtained with screening hits reveal distinct binding pockets and a range of small molecules which form complexes with the target. Additional soaks with these compounds further demonstrate a subset of fragments to only bind the protein when present in specific combinations. This ensemble of fragment-bound complexes illuminates several characteristics of MECP synthase, including a previously unknown binding surface external to the catalytic active site. These ligand-bound structures now serve to guide medicinal chemists and structural biologists in rational design of novel inhibitors for this enzyme.

  9. An exhaustive yet simple virtual screening campaign against Sortase A from multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Reaz; Saeed, Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the challenging bacterial pathogen due to its acquired resistance to the ? lactam antibiotics. The Sortase A is an enzyme of Gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus to anchor surface proteins to the cell wall. Sortase A is well studied enzyme and considered as the drug target against MRSA. Sortase A plays active role in anchoring the virulence proteins on the cell wall of the Gram-positive bacteria. The inhibition of Sortase A activity results in the separation of S. aureus from the host cells and ultimately alleviation of the infection. Here, we adapted a structure-based virtual screening protocol which helped in identification of novel potential inhibitors of Sortase A. The protocol involved the docking of a chemical library of druglike compounds with the Sortase A binding site represented by multiple crystal structures. The compounds were ranked by multiple scoring functions and shortlisted for future experimental screening. The method resulted in shortlisting of three compounds as potential novel inhibitors of Sortase A out of a large chemical library. The high rankings of shortlisted compounds estimated by multiple scoring functions showed their binding potential with Sortase A. The results are proved to be a simple yet efficient choice of structure-based virtual screening. The identified compounds are druglike and show high rankings among all set protocols of the virtual screening. We hope that the study would eventually help to expedite the discovery of novel drug candidates against MRSA. PMID:24797540

  10. Screening putative antigens as stimulators in the Mycobacterium bovis interferon-gamma release assay for cattle.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chuang; Wan, Ting; Xu, Zhengzhong; Liu, Yan; Shan, Fa; Sun, Lin; Yin, Yuelan; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-11-15

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) represents not only a significant economic concern, but also an important public health problem. Currently, interferon-gamma (IFN-?) release assays (IGRAs) are widely used as an adjunct to the tuberculin test (TST) for the diagnosis of BTB. A great number of international studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of the IFN-? assay, which uses purified protein derivatives (PPDs) as diagnostic reagents, is superior to that of the TST. However, there are concerns about its specificity, largely because of the cross reactivity of common antigens shared by pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacterial species. The use of pathogen-specific antigens theoretically offers the most effective way to improve the specificity of IGRAs. In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of 13 purified recombinant putative antigens, which are highly specific to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, as diagnostic reagents in IGRAs. A CFP-10-ESAT-6 fusion protein (abbreviated CE) displayed the greatest potential, whereas four region of difference 2 (RD2) antigens, especially Rv1985c were identified as potential candidate antigens, and can be included in an IGRA cocktail, together with CE as stimulators in the IFN-? release assay for the diagnosis of BTB. PMID:26375813

  11. The screening of everyday life chemicals in validated assays targeting the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, H; Colombel, S; Blanck, O; Bars, R

    2013-07-01

    Ten structurally diverse chemicals (vitamins C, B9, B6, B3, sucrose, caffeine, gingerol, xanthan gum, paracetamol, ibuprofen) deemed intrinsic to modern life but not considered as endocrine active, were tested in vitro using the human estrogen receptor transcriptional activation (hERTa) and the H295R steroidogenesis assays. All were inactive in the hERTa assay but paracetamol, gingerol, caffeine and vitamin C affected steroidogenesis in vitro from 250, 25, 500 and 750 ?M respectively. One molecule, caffeine, was further tested in rat pubertal assays at the tumorigenic dose-level and at dose-levels relevant for human consumption. In females pubertal parameters (vaginal opening, estrus cycle), ovarian weight and Fsh and prolactin transcript levels were affected. In males, plasma progesterone levels and prostate and seminal vesicle weights were affected. Although the current regulatory focus is synthetic chemicals that can cause adverse effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, our data infer that the range of natural chemicals with the potential to affect this axis may be extensive and is probably overlooked. Thus, to avoid regulation of an overwhelming number of chemicals, a weight of evidence approach, combining hazard identification and characterization with exposure considerations, is needed to identify those chemicals of real regulatory concern. PMID:23590819

  12. A novel nucleic lateral flow assay for screening of PHA-producing haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Muangsuwan, Wannaporn; Ruangsuj, Pattarawan; Chaichanachaicharn, Pichai; Yasawong, Montri

    2015-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are important for biodegradable plastic production, and prokaryotes play a very important role in PHA production. PHA synthase is a key enzyme for the polymerization of PHAs. There are four classes of PHA synthase. The phaC gene is necessary for the production of all classes of PHA synthase, whereas the phaE gene is necessary for the production of class III PHA synthase. This gene is a biomarker for microorganisms that contain class III PHA synthase, such as haloarchaea. Standard techniques for screening of PHA-producing haloarchaea require time for culturing and have poor specificity and sensitivity. Thus, the phaE biosensor was developed to overcome these issues. PCR and DNA lateral flow biosensor techniques were combined for construction of the phaE biosensor. The phaE biosensor has a high specificity for PHA-producing haloarchaea. The lowest amount of genomic DNA of Haloquadratum walsbyi DSM 16854 that the phaE gene could be detected by the biosensor was approximately 250 fg. The phaE biosensor can be applied for screening of PHA-producing haloarchaea from environmental samples. The phaE biosensor is easy to handle and dispose. For screening PHA-producing haloarchaea, the phaE biosensor requires less time and costs less than the standard methods. PMID:26122310

  13. Genome-wide Protein-protein Interaction Screening by Protein-fragment Complementation Assay (PCA) in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Marie; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Dubé, Alexandre K.; Landry, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are the building blocks, effectors and signal mediators of cellular processes. A protein’s function, regulation and localization often depend on its interactions with other proteins. Here, we describe a protocol for the yeast protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA), a powerful method to detect direct and proximal associations between proteins in living cells. The interaction between two proteins, each fused to a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) protein fragment, translates into growth of yeast strains in presence of the drug methotrexate (MTX). Differential fitness, resulting from different amounts of reconstituted DHFR enzyme, can be quantified on high-density colony arrays, allowing to differentiate interacting from non-interacting bait-prey pairs. The high-throughput protocol presented here is performed using a robotic platform that parallelizes mating of bait and prey strains carrying complementary DHFR-fragment fusion proteins and the survival assay on MTX. This protocol allows to systematically test for thousands of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) involving bait proteins of interest and offers several advantages over other PPI detection assays, including the study of proteins expressed from their endogenous promoters without the need for modifying protein localization and for the assembly of complex reporter constructs. PMID:25867901

  14. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of infliximab.

    PubMed

    Ternant, David; Mulleman, Denis; Degenne, Danielle; Willot, Stéphanie; Guillaumin, Jean-Maurice; Watier, Hervé; Goupille, Philippe; Paintaud, Gilles

    2006-04-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measuring serum infliximab concentrations in treated patients was developed. Microtiter plates were sensitized with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and saturated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA). Samples diluted 1:100 in PBS-1% BSA were added and bound infliximab was detected using peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-human immunoglobulin G specific for Fc fragment (HRP-anti hIgG). Reading was performed using an ELISA plate reader. The limit of detection, calculated by assaying 10 replicates of a drug-free serum sample or blank sample and defined as the lowest concentration distinguishable from zero at 2 standard deviations, was 0.014 microg/mL. Each quality control sample was tested on 7 occasions on 1 day and on 5 separate days. The intraday precision indices of the method were (percent coefficients of variation, CV%) 11.7%, 6.2%, and 6.9% for 0.04 microg/mL, 2 microg/mL, and 4.5 microg/mL, respectively. The corresponding bias measures (percent deviation) were -5.5%, -1.9%, and -7.9%, respectively. The between-days precision was 9.8%, 5.3%, and 5.3% for 0.04 microg/mL, 2 microg/mL, and 4.5 microg/mL, respectively. The corresponding bias were +0.3%, -0.3%, and -7.8%, respectively. Lower limit of quantitation and upper limit of quantitation were 0.04 microg/mL and 4.5 microg/mL, respectively. Trough serum concentrations of infliximab were measured in 6 adult patients with various diseases and in 5 pediatric patients with Crohn's disease. For the latter group, samples drawn 1 hour after the end of the infusion and repeated measurements also were available. Data were described using a 1-compartment population pharmacokinetic model. Terminal elimination half-life was 10.9 days. This method is rapid, accurate, and reproducible, and may be useful in therapeutic drug monitoring of infliximab. PMID:16628126

  15. A multilayer microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chong; Wang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Li, Jingmin; Ding, Xiping; Wang, Qi; Chunyu, Li

    2012-06-01

    A multilayer polydimethylsiloxane microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening is described in this paper. This established microdevice was based on a modularization method and it integrated a drug/medium concentration gradient generator (CGG), pneumatic microvalves and a cell culture microchamber array. The CGG was able to generate five steps of linear concentrations with the same outlet flow rate. The medium/drug flowed through CGG and then into the pear-shaped cell culture microchambers vertically. This vertical perfusion mode was used to reduce the impact of the shear stress on the physiology of cells induced by the fluid flow in the microchambers. Pear-shaped microchambers with two arrays of miropillars at each outlet were adopted in this microdevice, which were beneficial to cell distribution. The chemotherapeutics Cisplatin (DDP)-induced Cisplatin-resistant cell line A549/DDP apoptotic experiments were performed well on this platform. The results showed that this novel microdevice could not only provide well-defined and stable conditions for cell culture, but was also useful for cell-based high-throughput drug screening with less reagents and time consumption.

  16. Colorimetric endpoint assay for enzyme-catalyzed iodide ion release for high-throughput screening in microtiter plates.

    PubMed

    Kurtovic, Sanela; Jansson, Ronnie; Mannervik, Bengt

    2007-08-15

    Efforts are being made to engineer enzymes with enhanced activities against haloalkanes, a toxicologically important class of compounds widely used and frequently occurring in the environment. Here we describe a facile, inexpensive, and robust method for the screening of libraries of mutated enzymes with iodoalkane substrates. Iodide formed in the enzymatic reaction is oxidized to iodine, which in the presence of starch gives blue color that can be measured at 610nm or scored with the human eye. The assay can be performed with enzymes in crude cell lysates in 96-wells microtiter plates. Expression clones of several glutathione transferases showed diverse activities with different iodoalkanes, and a mutant library of human glutathione transferase A1-1 expressed variants with enhanced substrate selectivities. PMID:17490601

  17. A miniaturized electrochemical assay for homocysteine using screen-printed electrodes with cytochrome c anchored gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J F

    2015-09-01

    Determination of homocysteine (HcySH) is highly beneficial in human physiology and pathophysiology for diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Unfortunately, the practicability of the existing methodologies for the determination of HcySH is limited in terms of sample requirements, preparation time and instrumentation cost. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new miniaturized electrochemical assay for HcySH in which cytochrome c (cyt c) immobilized on gold nanoparticle (GNP) modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPE) is employed as a biosensing element. The electrochemical characterization of the biosensor (cyt c-GNP-SPE) shows quasi-reversible redox peaks at the potentials 0 and -0.2 V, confirming the cyt c binding. The methodology of quantification is based on the electrochemical oxidation of HcySH by the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) crevice of cyt c, observed at a potential of +0.56 V. Using the amperometric technique, the detection limit of HcySH is found to be 0.3 ± 0.025 ?M in the linear range between 0.4 ?M and 700 ?M, with a sensitivity of 3.8 ± 0.12 nA ?M(-1) cm(-2). The practical application of the present assay is validated through the measurement of HcySH in blood plasma samples and the selectivity is ensured by eliminating the impact of the common interfering biological substrates using a Nafion membrane. This biosensor shows striking analytical properties of good repeatability, reproducibility (2.85% SD) and high stability (83% of its initial current response after 4 weeks). This work paves the way for cheap, efficient and reliable point-of-care biosensors for screening one of the major causes of deaths both in the developed and developing countries. PMID:26198379

  18. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening aflatoxin B1 in cottonseed products and mixed feed: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Park, D L; Miller, B M; Hart, L P; Yang, G; McVey, J; Page, S W; Pestka, J; Brown, L H

    1989-01-01

    A joint AOAC/IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) interlaboratory study of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent screening assay (ELISA) for aflatoxins was conducted in laboratories in Canada, France, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Tunisia, and the United States. Twenty-eight samples of raw and roasted peanuts, corn, whole cottonseed, cottonseed meal, ammoniated cottonseed meal, and poultry feed containing various quantities of natural aflatoxins and supplemented when appropriate with aflatoxin B1 were distributed to participating laboratories for testing. The assay is based on conjugation of pure aflatoxin B1 to an enzyme and the competition between this conjugate and (free) aflatoxins in the product for aflatoxin-specific antibodies coated onto microtiter well walls. After a wash step to remove all unbound aflatoxins, a substrate, added to each well, is catalyzed from a colorless to a green solution by any bound enzyme-conjugated aflatoxin B1 present. The intensity of the color decreases as the amount of free aflatoxin B1 in the product increases. Overall correlation was good between ELISA and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) results for cottonseed products and mixed feed. Variable results were reported for corn and peanut product samples. Although some positive samples (greater than 15 ng/g) of cottonseed products and mixed feed were reported to contain less than 15 ng/g by visual determination, a review of data for absorbance measurements showed that the contamination level was close to the greater than or equal to 15 ng/g standard and would not have been reported as negative under routine screening.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2496100

  19. Population-based Tay-Sachs screening among Ashkenazi Jewish young adults in the 21st century: Hexosaminidase A enzyme assay is essential for accurate testing.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Adele; Nakagawa, Sachiko; Keep, Rosanne; Dorsainville, Darnelle; Charrow, Joel; Aleck, Kirk; Hoffman, Jodi; Minkoff, Sherman; Finegold, David; Sun, Wei; Spencer, Andrew; Lebow, Johannah; Zhan, Jie; Apfelroth, Stephen; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; Gross, Susan

    2009-11-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening, initiated in the 1970s, has reduced the birth-rate of Ashkenazi Jews with TSD worldwide by 90%. Recently, several nationwide programs have been established that provide carrier screening for the updated panel of Jewish genetic diseases on college campuses and in Jewish community settings. The goals of this study were to determine the performance characteristics of clinical TSD testing in college- and community-based screening programs and to determine if molecular testing alone is adequate in those settings. Clinical data for TSD testing were retrospectively anonymized and subsequently analyzed for 1,036 individuals who participated in these programs. The performance characteristics of the serum and the platelet Hexosaminidase assays were compared, and also correlated with the results of targeted DNA analysis. The serum assay identified 29 carriers and the platelet assay identified 35 carriers for carrier rates of 1/36 and 1/29, respectively. One hundred sixty-nine samples (16.3%) were inconclusive by serum assay in marked contrast to four inconclusive samples (0.4%) by the platelet assay. Molecular analysis alone would have missed four of the 35 carriers detected by the platelet assay, yielding a false negative rate of 11.4% with a sensitivity of 88.6%. Based on the results of this study, platelet assay was superior to serum with a minimal inconclusive rate. Due to changing demographics of the Ashkenazi Jewish population, molecular testing alone in the setting of broad-based population screening programs is not sufficient, and biochemical analysis should be the assay of choice. PMID:19876898

  20. The Use of Virtual Laboratories and Other Web-based Tools in a Drug Assay Course

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Marissa Waldman; Ghirtis, Konstantine

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine students’ perceptions of and performance in a drug assay laboratory course after the addition of Web-based multimedia tools. Design. Video modules and other Web-based tools to deliver instructions and emulate the laboratory set up for experiments were implemented in 2005 to improve student preparation for laboratory sessions and eliminate the need for graduate students to present instructions live. Assessment. Data gathered from quizzes, final examinations, and post-course surveys administered over 6 years were analyzed. Students’ scores on online quizzes after implementation of the virtual laboratories reflected improved student understanding and preparation. Students’ perception of the course improved significantly after the introduction of the tools and the new teaching model. Conclusions. Implementation of an active-learning model in a laboratory course led to improvement in students’ educational experience and satisfaction. Additional benefits included improved resource use, student exposure to a variety of educational methods, and having a highly structured laboratory format that reduced inconsistencies in delivered instructions. PMID:22761525

  1. Cytotoxicity screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials using a test matrix of ten cell lines and three different assays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Engineered nanomaterials display unique properties that may have impact on human health, and thus require a reliable evaluation of their potential toxicity. Here, we performed a standardized in vitro screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials. We thoroughly characterized the physicochemical properties of the nanomaterials and adapted three classical in vitro toxicity assays to eliminate nanomaterial interference. Nanomaterial toxicity was assessed in ten representative cell lines. Results Six nanomaterials induced oxidative cell stress while only a single nanomaterial reduced cellular metabolic activity and none of the particles affected cell viability. Results from heterogeneous and chemically identical particles suggested that surface chemistry, surface coating and chemical composition are likely determinants of nanomaterial toxicity. Individual cell lines differed significantly in their response, dependent on the particle type and the toxicity endpoint measured. Conclusion In vitro toxicity of the analyzed engineered nanomaterials cannot be attributed to a defined physicochemical property. Therefore, the accurate identification of nanomaterial cytotoxicity requires a matrix based on a set of sensitive cell lines and in vitro assays measuring different cytotoxicity endpoints. PMID:21345205

  2. Electrochemical assay for the determination of nitric oxide metabolites using copper(II) chlorophyllin modified screen printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Murugesan; Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Pandiaraj, Manickam; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2015-06-01

    This work presents a novel electrochemical assay for the collective measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and its metabolites nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) in volume miniaturized sample at low cost using copper(II) chlorophyllin (CuCP) modified sensor electrode. Zinc oxide (ZnO) incorporated screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was used as a host matrix for the immobilization of CuCP. The morphological changes of the ZnO and CuCP modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterization of CuCP-ZnO-SPCE exhibited the characteristic quasi-reversible redox peaks at the potential +0.06 V versus Ag/AgCl. This biosensor electrode showed a wide linear range of response over NO concentrations from 200 nM to 500 ?M with a detection limit of 100 nM and sensitivity of 85.4 nA ?M(-1). Furthermore, NO2(-) measurement showed linearity of 100 nM to 1mM with a detection limit of 100 nM for NO2(-) and sensitivity of 96.4 nA ?M(-1). Then, the concentration of NO3(-) was measured after its enzymatic conversion into NO2(-). Using this assay, the concentrations of NO, NO2(-), and NO3(-) present in human plasma samples before and after beetroot supplement were estimated using suitable membrane coated CuCP-ZnO-SPCE and validated with the standard Griess method. PMID:25700865

  3. A fluorescence-based assay to monitor autopalmitoylation of zDHHC proteins applicable to high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Laura D; Deschenes, Robert J; Mitchell, David A

    2014-09-01

    Palmitoylation, the posttranslational thioester-linked modification of a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid onto the cysteine residue of a protein, has garnered considerable attention due to its implication in a multitude of disease states. The signature DHHC motif (Asp-His-His-Cys) identifies a family of protein acyltransferases (PATs) that catalyze the S-palmitoylation of target proteins via a two-step mechanism. In the first step, autopalmitoylation, palmitate is transferred from palmitoyl-CoA to the PAT, creating a palmitoyl:PAT intermediate and releasing reduced CoA. The palmitoyl moiety is then transferred to a protein substrate in the second step of the reaction. We have developed an in vitro, single-well, fluorescence-based enzyme assay that monitors the first step of the PAT reaction by coupling the production of reduced CoA to the reduction of NAD(+) using the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. This assay is suitable for determining PAT kinetic parameters, elucidating lipid donor specificity and measuring PAT inhibition by 2-bromopalmitate. Finally, it can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns for modulators of protein palmitoylation. PMID:24878334

  4. An efficient high-throughput screening assay for rapid directed evolution of halohydrin dehalogenase for preparation of ?-substituted alcohols.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nan-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Feng; Huang, Kai; Tang, Ling-Jiao; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-05-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenases (HHDHs) are an important class of enzymes for preparing optically active haloalcohols, epoxides, and ?-substituted alcohols. However, natural HHDHs rarely meet the requirements of industrial applications. Here, a novel high-throughput screening (HTS) methodology for directed evolution of HHDH was developed based on the colorimetric determination of azide. In this method, azide was involved in the HHDH-catalyzed ring-opening process and the decrease of azide was used to quantitatively evaluate HHDH activity. The HTS methodology was simple and sensitive (?460?=?1.2173?×?10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1)) and could be performed in a microplate format using whole cells. To verify the efficiency of the HTS methodology, it was adopted to engineer a HHDH (HHDH-PL) from Parvibaculum lavamentivorans DS-1, which was applied in the process for ethyl (R)-4-cyano-3-hydroxybutanoate (HN) by the conversion of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ((S)-CHBE)). A random mutant library containing 2500 colonies was screened using the HTS methodology, and three beneficial mutants F176M, A187R, and A187S were obtained. By combining the beneficial mutated residues, the variant F176M/A187R was identified with 2.8-fold higher catalytic efficiency for preparation of HN. The high-throughput colorimetric assay would be very useful for directed evolution of HHDH for preparing ?-substituted alcohols. PMID:25805343

  5. Rapid and Specific Drug Quality Testing Assay for Artemisinin and Its Derivatives Using a Luminescent Reaction and Novel Microfluidic Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nga T.; Desai, Darash; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that about 10–30% of pharmaceuticals are of poor quality. Poor-quality drugs lead to long-term drug resistance, create morbidity, and strain the financial structure of the health system. The current technologies for substandard drug detection either are too expensive for low-resource regions or only provide qualitative results. To address the current limitations with point-of-care technologies, we have developed an affordable and robust assay to quantify the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to test product quality. Our novel assay consists of two parts: detection reagent (probe) and a microfluidic testing platform. As antimalarials are of high importance in the global fight against malaria and are often substandard, they are chosen as the model to validate our assay. As a proof-of-concept, we have tested the assay with artesunate pure and substandard samples (Arsuamoon tablets) from Africa and compared with the conventional 96-well plate with spectrophotometer to demonstrate the quantitative efficacy and performance of our system. PMID:25897061

  6. Drug Synergy Screen and Network Modeling in Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Identifies CDK4 and IGF1R as Synergistic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Martin L.; Molinelli, Evan J.; Nair, Jayasree S.; Sheikh, Tahir; Samy, Rita; Jing, Xiaohong; He, Qin; Korkut, Anil; Crago, Aimee M.; Singer, Samuel; Schwartz, Gary K.; Sander, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) is a rare but aggressive cancer with high recurrence and low response rates to targeted therapies. Increasing treatment efficacy may require combinations of targeted agents that counteract the effects of multiple abnormalities. To identify a possible multicomponent therapy, we performed a combinatorial drug screen in a DDLS-derived cell line and identified cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as synergistic drug targets. We measured the phosphorylation of multiple proteins and cell viability in response to systematic drug combinations and derived computational models of the signaling network. These models predict that the observed synergy in reducing cell viability with CDK4 and IGF1R inhibitors depend on activity of the AKT pathway. Experiments confirmed that combined inhibition of CDK4 and IGF1R cooperatively suppresses the activation of proteins within the AKT pathway. Consistent with these findings, synergistic reductions in cell viability were also found when combining CDK4 inhibition with inhibition of either AKT or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), another receptor similar to IGF1R that activates AKT. Thus, network models derived from context-specific proteomic measurements of systematically perturbed cancer cells may reveal cancer-specific signaling mechanisms and aid in the design of effective combination therapies. PMID:24065146

  7. Orbitrap technology for comprehensive metabolite-based liquid chromatographic-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometric urine drug screening - Exemplified for cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Andreas G; Michely, Julian A; Weber, Armin A; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-09-01

    LC-high resolution (HR)-MS well established in proteomics has become more and more important in bioanalysis of small molecules over the last few years. Its high selectivity and specificity provide best prerequisites for its use in broad screening approaches. Therefore, Orbitrap technology was tested for developing a general metabolite-based LC-HR-MS/MS screening approach for urinalysis of drugs necessary in clinical and forensic toxicology. After simple urine precipitation, the drugs and their metabolites were separated within 10 min and detected by a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer in full scan with positive/negative switching, and subsequent data dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. Identification criteria were the presence of accurate precursor ions, isotopic patterns, five most intense fragment ions, and comparison with full HR-MS/MS library spectra. The current library contains over 1900 parent drugs and 1200 metabolites. The method was validated for typical drug representatives and metabolites concerning recovery, matrix effects, process efficiency, and limits showed acceptable results. The applicability was tested first for cardiovascular drugs, which should be screened for in poisoning cases and for medication adherence of hypertension patients. The novel LC-HR-MS/MS method allowed fast, simple, and robust urine screening, particularly for cardiovascular drugs showing the usefulness of Orbitrap technology for drug testing. PMID:26388381

  8. A screen of the NIH Clinical Collection small molecule library identifies potential anti-coronavirus drugs.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianzhong; Forrest, J Craig; Zhang, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    With the recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in humans and the outbreak of devastating porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus in swine, therapeutic intervention is urgently needed. However, anti-coronavirus drugs currently are not available. In an effort to assist rapid development of anti-coronavirus drugs, here we screened the NIH Clinical Collection in cell culture using a luciferase reporter-expressing recombinant murine coronavirus. Of the 727 compounds screened, 84 were found to have a significant anti-coronavirus effect. Further experiments revealed that 51 compounds blocked virus entry while 19 others inhibited viral replication. Additional validation studies with the top 3 inhibitors (hexachlorophene, nitazoxanide and homoharringtonine) demonstrated robust anti-coronavirus activities (a reduction of 6 to 8log10 in virus titer) with an IC50 ranging from 11nM to 1.2?M. Furthermore, homoharringtonine and hexachlorophene exhibited broad antiviral activity against diverse species of human and animal coronaviruses. Since the NIH Clinical Collection consists of compounds that have already been through clinical trials, these small molecule inhibitors have a great potential for rapid development as anti-coronavirus drugs. PMID:25451075

  9. Screening and personalizing nootropic drugs and cognitive modulator regimens in silico.

    PubMed

    Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alexander; Buzdin, Anton; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The go-to cognitive enhancers of today are those that are widely available rather than optimal for the user, including drugs typically prescribed for treatment of ADHD (e.g., methylphenidate) and sleep disturbances such as narcolepsy (modafinil). While highly effective in their intended therapeutic role, performance gains in healthy populations are modest at best and profoundly inconsistent across subgroups and individuals. We propose a method for in silico screening of possible novel cognitive enhancers followed by high-throughput in vivo and in vitro validation. The proposed method uses gene expression data to evaluate the the collection of activated or suppressed signaling pathways in tissues or neurons of the cognitively enhanced brain. An algorithm maps expression data onto signaling pathways and quantifies their individual activation strength. The collective pathways and their activation form what we term the signaling pathway cloud, a biological fingerprint of cognitive enhancement (or any other condition of interest). Drugs can then be screened and ranked based on their ability to minimize, mimic, or exaggerate pathway activation or suppression within that cloud. Using this approach, one may predict the efficacy of many drugs that may enhance various aspects of cognition before costly preclinical studies and clinical trials are undertaken. PMID:25705179

  10. Screening and personalizing nootropic drugs and cognitive modulator regimens in silico

    PubMed Central

    Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alexander; Buzdin, Anton; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The go-to cognitive enhancers of today are those that are widely available rather than optimal for the user, including drugs typically prescribed for treatment of ADHD (e.g., methylphenidate) and sleep disturbances such as narcolepsy (modafinil). While highly effective in their intended therapeutic role, performance gains in healthy populations are modest at best and profoundly inconsistent across subgroups and individuals. We propose a method for in silico screening of possible novel cognitive enhancers followed by high-throughput in vivo and in vitro validation. The proposed method uses gene expression data to evaluate the the collection of activated or suppressed signaling pathways in tissues or neurons of the cognitively enhanced brain. An algorithm maps expression data onto signaling pathways and quantifies their individual activation strength. The collective pathways and their activation form what we term the signaling pathway cloud, a biological fingerprint of cognitive enhancement (or any other condition of interest). Drugs can then be screened and ranked based on their ability to minimize, mimic, or exaggerate pathway activation or suppression within that cloud. Using this approach, one may predict the efficacy of many drugs that may enhance various aspects of cognition before costly preclinical studies and clinical trials are undertaken. PMID:25705179

  11. Rapid screening of active ingredients in drugs by mass spectrometry with low-temperature plasma probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueying; Lin, Ziqing; Zhang, Sichun; Yang, Chengdui; Zhang, Xinrong

    2009-10-01

    A high-throughput method for rapid screening of active ingredients in drugs has been developed with mass spectrometry coupled to a low-temperature plasma (LTP) probe ion source. Without sample preparation or pretreatment, the active ingredients of 11 types of commercial pharmaceuticals, including hormones, antipyretic analgesics, cardiovascular, digestant, neuro-psychotherapeutic, diuretic, antithyroid, sulfa anti-inflammatory, antiparastic, sedative-hypnotics, and antibacterial, were directly desorbed/ionized and detected by a linear ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). The structures of these ingredients were elucidated by tandem MS. The analysis of 18 methyltestosterone tablets could be accomplished within 1.9 min, which allows fast detection with a speed of approximate 600 samples within 1 h. This work demonstrated that LTP probe ion source combined with MS is a high-throughput method for screening of pharmaceuticals and potentially applied to on-line quality control in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:19641907

  12. Optimized assays for human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities: altered alamethicin concentration and utility to screen for UGT inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Walsky, Robert L; Bauman, Jonathan N; Bourcier, Karine; Giddens, Georgina; Lapham, Kimberly; Negahban, Andre; Ryder, Tim F; Obach, R Scott; Hyland, Ruth; Goosen, Theunis C

    2012-05-01

    The measurement of the effect of new chemical entities on human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) marker activities using in vitro experimentation represents an important experimental approach in drug development to guide clinical drug-interaction study designs or support claims that no in vivo interaction will occur. Selective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry functional assays of authentic glucuronides for five major hepatic UGT probe substrates were developed: ?-estradiol-3-glucuronide (UGT1A1), trifluoperazine-N-glucuronide (UGT1A4), 5-hydroxytryptophol-O-glucuronide (UGT1A6), propofol-O-glucuronide (UGT1A9), and zidovudine-5'-glucuronide (UGT2B7). High analytical sensitivity permitted characterization of enzyme kinetic parameters at low human liver microsomal and recombinant UGT protein concentration (0.025 mg/ml), which led to a new recommended optimal universal alamethicin activation concentration of 10 ?g/ml for microsomes. Alamethicin was not required for recombinant UGT incubations. Apparent enzyme kinetic parameters, particularly for UGT1A1 and UGT1A4, were affected by nonspecific binding. Unbound intrinsic clearance for UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 increased significantly after addition of 2% bovine serum albumin, with minimal changes for UGT1A1, UGT1A4, and UGT1A6. Eleven potential UGT and cytochrome P450 inhibitors were evaluated as UGT inhibitors, resulting in observation of nonselective UGT inhibition by chrysin, mefenamic acid, silibinin, tangeretin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir, and verapamil. The pan-cytochrome P450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, minimally inhibited UGT activities and may be useful in reaction phenotyping of mixed UGT and cytochrome P450 substrates. These methods should prove useful in the routine assessments of the potential for new drug candidates to elicit pharmacokinetic drug interactions via inhibition of human UGT activities and the identification of UGT enzyme-selective chemical inhibitors. PMID:22357286

  13. Development of a screening assay to identify teratogenic and embryotoxic chemicals using the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Selderslaghs, Ingrid W T; Van Rompay, An R; De Coen, Wim; Witters, Hilda E

    2009-11-01

    We developed and optimized a screening procedure, in which zebrafish embryos were explored as a model for the evaluation of the specific embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of chemicals. A selection of known positive (retinoic acid, valproic acid, caffeine, lithium chloride) and negative (glucose, saccharin) compounds for developmental toxicity were used to evaluate this method. We exposed embryos and evaluated embryotoxicity and morphological characteristics of the embryos at 24, 48, 72 and 144 h post fertilization. After evaluation of the induced effects, concentration-response curves were created for both embryotoxicity and teratogenic effects. Values for teratogenic indices (TI) were calculated as the ratio LC(50)/EC(50). The results obtained were compared to existing data from studies with laboratory animals and humans. We demonstrated that our classification of the compounds, based on TI values, allows to distinguish teratogens from non-teratogens and supports the application of zebrafish embryos as an alternative method for developmental toxicity studies to predict effects in mammals. PMID:19447169

  14. Modulators of the microRNA biogenesis pathway via arrayed lentiviral enabled RNAi screening for drug and biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Shum, David; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous and conserved non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Although the first miRNA was discovered well over sixteen years ago, little is known about their biogenesis and it is only recently that we have begun to understand their scope and diversity. For this purpose, we performed an RNAi screen aimed at identifying genes involved in their biogenesis pathway with a potential use as biomarkers. Using a previously developed miRNA 21 (miR-21) EGFP-based biosensor cell based assay monitoring green fluorescence enhancements, we performed an arrayed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen against a lentiviral particle ready TRC1 library covering 16,039 genes in 384-well plate format, and interrogating the genome one gene at a time building a panoramic view of endogenous miRNA activity. Using the BDA method for RNAi data analysis, we nominate 497 gene candidates the knockdown of which increased the EGFP fluorescence and yielding an initial hit rate of 3.09%; of which only 22, with reported validated clones, are deemed high-confidence gene candidates. An unexpected and surprising result was that only DROSHA was identified as a hit out of the seven core essential miRNA biogenesis genes; suggesting that perhaps intracellular shRNA processing into the correct duplex may be cell dependent and with differential outcome. Biological classification revealed several major control junctions among them genes involved in transport and vesicular trafficking. In summary, we report on 22 high confidence gene candidate regulators of miRNA biogenesis with potential use in drug and biomarker discovery. PMID:23977983

  15. Design or screening of drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease: what shows the most promise?

    PubMed Central

    Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Endemic in Latin America, Chagas disease is now becoming a serious global health problem, and yet has no financial viability for the pharmaceutical industry and remains incurable. In 2012, two antimycotic drugs inhibitors of fungal sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) – posaconazole and ravuconazole – entered clinical trials. Availability of the X-ray structure of the orthologous enzyme from the causative agent of the disease, protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, determined in complexes with posaconazole as well as with several experimental protozoa-specific CYP51 inhibitors opens an excellent opportunity to improve the situation. Areas covered This article summarizes the information available in PubMed and Google on the outcomes of treatment of the chronic Chagas disease. It also outlines the major features of the T. cruzi CYP51 structure and the possible structure-based strategies for rational design of novel T. cruzi specific drugs. Expert opinion There is no doubt that screenings for alternative drug-like molecules as well as mining the T. cruzi genome for novel drug targets are of great value and might eventually lead to groundbreaking discoveries. However, all newly identified molecules must proceed through the long, expensive and low-yielding drug optimization process, and all novel potential drug targets must be validated in terms of their essentiality and druggability. CYP51 is already a well-validated and highly successful target for clinical and agricultural antifungals. With minimal investments into the final stages of their development/trials, T. cruzi-specific CYP51 inhibitors can provide an immediate treatment for Chagas disease, either on their own or in combination with the currently available drugs. PMID:24079515

  16. Screening for thyroid disease in a primary care unit with a thyroid stimulating hormone assay with a low detection limit.

    PubMed Central

    Eggertsen, R.; Petersen, K.; Lundberg, P. A.; Nyström, E.; Lindstedt, G.

    1988-01-01

    In a study at a primary care centre in a predominantly rural area of Sweden the records of all patients with established thyroid disease were scrutinised and 2000 consecutive adult patients screened with an immunoenzymometric thyroid stimulating hormone assay. The aims of the study were fourfold: firstly, to assess the total burden of thyroid disease in primary care centres in Sweden; secondly, to assess the efficacy of clinical diagnosis of the disease in unselected populations of patients; thirdly, to assess the efficacy of clinical evaluation of treatment with thyroxine; and, lastly, to see whether a single analysis of the serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentration by recent methods would be enough to identify an abnormality of thyroid function. Of the roughly 17,400 adults in the study community, 111 women and 10 men were being treated for thyroid disease. Screening detected 68 patients (3.5%) not receiving thyroxine who had a serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentration of 0.20 mU/l or less, all of whom were followed up clinically. Fifty of these patients were also studied biochemically during follow up. Only nine of the 68 patients had thyroid disease (three with thyrotoxicosis requiring treatment), no evidence of the disease being found in the remainder. Sixteen patients had spontaneous hypothyroidism requiring treatment, and neither these nor three patients with thyrotoxicosis had been detected at the preceding clinical examination. Of 35 patients in whom thyroid disease was suspected clinically at screening, none had laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction. In this series 1.3% of all women in the study community (2.6% of all 50-59 year olds) and 0.1% of the men were being treated for thyroid disease at the primary care centre, roughly 1.0% of adults subjected to screening were found to have thyroid disease requiring treatment, and most patients with a thyroid stimulating hormone concentration of 0.20 mU/l or less did not have thyroid dysfunction. It is concluded that measuring the basal serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentration by present methods is insufficient for the biochemical assessment of thyroid dysfunction in unselected populations. PMID:3147087

  17. PROGRESS TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIAN-BASED THYROID SCREENING ASSAY USING XENOPUS LAEVIS: ORGANISMAL AND THYROIDAL RESPONSES TO THE MODEL COMPOUNDS 6-PROPYLTHIOURACIL, METHIMAZOLE, AND THYROXINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data presented in this manuscript specifically addresses the development and standardization needs associated with an amphibian thyroid axis screening assay. A protocol for an amphibian growth and reproduction test has been requested by the Office of Science Council and Polic...

  18. Application of Targeted Functional Assays to Assess a Putative Vascular Disruption Developmental Toxicity Pathway Informed By ToxCast High-Throughput Screening Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical perturbation of vascular development is a putative toxicity pathway which may result in developmental toxicity. EPA’s high-throughput screening (HTS) ToxCast program contains assays which measure cellular signals and biological processes critical for blood vessel develop...

  19. In Vitro Screening of 1877 Industrial and Consumer Chemicals, Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals in up to 782 Assays: ToxCast Phase I and II (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase II of the ToxCast program, the U.S. EPA and Tox21 partners screened 1,877 chemicals, including pesticides; food, cosmetics and personal care ingredients; pharmaceuticals; and industrial chemicals. Testing used a 782 in vitro assays across 7 technologies and multiple bi...

  20. Development and validation of duplex, triplex, and pentaplex real-time PCR screening assays for the detection of genetically modified organisms in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Huber, Ingrid; Block, Annette; Sebah, Daniela; Debode, Frédéric; Morisset, Dany; Grohmann, Lutz; Berben, Gilbert; Stebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Zel, Jana; Busch, Ulrich

    2013-10-30

    Worldwide, qualitative methods based on PCR are most commonly used as screening tools for genetically modified material in food and feed. However, the increasing number and diversity of genetically modified organisms (GMO) require effective methods for simultaneously detecting several genetic elements marking the presence of transgenic events. Herein we describe the development and validation of a pentaplex, as well as complementary triplex and duplex real-time PCR assays, for the detection of the most common screening elements found in commercialized GMOs: P-35S, T-nos, ctp2-cp4-epsps, bar, and pat. The use of these screening assays allows the coverage of many GMO events globally approved for commercialization. Each multiplex real-time PCR assay shows high specificity and sensitivity with an absolute limit of detection below 20 copies for the targeted sequences. We demonstrate by intra- and interlaboratory tests that the assays are robust as well as cost- and time-effective for GMO screening if applied in routine GMO analysis. PMID:23971699

  1. High-throughput Screening of ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell (mESC) Assay Reveals Disruption of Potential Toxicity Pathways

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little information is available regarding the potential for many commercial chemicals to induce developmental toxicity. The mESC Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytoxicity (ACDC) assay is a high-throughput screen used to close this data gap. Thus, ToxCast™ Phase I chemicals wer...

  2. Synergistic drug-cytokine induction of hepatocellular death as an in vitro approach for the study of inflammation-associated idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity

    E-print Network

    Xu, Jinghai J.

    Idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity represents a major problem in drug development due to inadequacy of current preclinical screening assays, but recently established rodent models utilizing bacterial LPS co-administration ...

  3. New high-throughput screening protease assay based upon supramolecular self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, David G.; Tang, Yanli; Zhou, Zhijun; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2008-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that the supramolecular self-assembly of cyanines could be useful for developing fluorescent enzymatic assays. We took that concept a step further by synthesizing a covalent adduct of the tetrapeptide Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) and a cyanine (DEVD-cyanine). The DEVD-cyanine due to its canonical sequence was recognized and hydrolyzed by the proteases, Caspase-3 and -7 in 96- or 384-microwell plate reactions. The catalytically liberated cyanine self-assembled upon scaffolds of carboxymethylamylose (CMA), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), or a mixture of CMA and CMC resulting in a J aggregate exhibiting bright fluorescence at a 470 nm emission wavelength (optimum signal/background using excitation wavelengths of 415-440 nm). The fluorescence intensity increased with enzyme and substrate concentrations or reaction time and exhibited classical saturation profiles of a rectangular hyperbola. Saturation of the reaction was at 30 U/mL (1 {micro}g/mL) Caspase-3 and 250 {micro}M DEVD-cyanine. The reaction kinetics was linear between 1 and 20 min and saturated at 60 min. The affinity constant (Km) for DEVD-cyanine was 23 {micro}M, similar to those of previously reported values for other DEVD substrates of Caspase-3. Maximal fluorescence emission was observed by using a mixture of CMA and CMC scaffolds at 65 and 35 {micro}M, respectively. The reaction kinetics of Caspase-7 executed in a 384-well plate was similar to the reaction kinetics of Caspase-3 conducted in a 96-well plate. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a cyanine liberated from a covalent adduct due to protease action, leading to supramolecular self-assembly and the detection of protease activity.

  4. Factors Influencing Uptake of Rapid HIV and Hepatitis C Screening Among Drug Misusing Adult Emergency Department Patients: Implications for Future HIV/HCV Screening Interventions.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Roland C; DeLong, Allison K; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R

    2015-11-01

    In this randomized, controlled trial among 957 English- or Spanish-speaking drug misusing adult emergency department (ED) patients, we determined if a tailored brief intervention (BI) increased uptake of rapid HIV/HCV screening, and identified factors associated with greater screening uptake. Rapid HIV/HCV screening uptake was greater in the control than the BI arm (45 vs. 38 %; p < 0.04). Screening uptake depended on elapsed study time and which research staff member offered testing. In the control arm, uptake was lowest for those spending <30 or ?90 min in the study. In the BI arm, screening uptake generally increased over time. Tailored BI content specifically addressing participant HIV/HCV knowledge, HIV/HCV risk behaviors, or need for HIV/HCV screening was not associated with greater screening uptake. These study findings suggested factors that should be considered when designing future ED-based screening initiatives, such as elapsed study time, who offers testing, and the content of interventions. PMID:26036465

  5. [Comparison of the clinical performance of the ECLusys HIV combi assay with the Lumipulse f and HISCL 2000-i HIV-1/2 ab screening assays].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Aya; Iwahara, Kunihiro; Suga, Yasuyuki; Uchiyama, Sachinori; Maekawa, Masato

    2012-04-01

    We compared the ECLusys HIV combi assay (ECL HIV Ag/Ab) to the Lumipulse Forte (LPf HIV 1/2 Ab) and HISCL (HIS HIV 1/2 Ab) assays. In a dilution sensitivity test using dilution panels of WHO HIV antibody international reference panel (HIV-1 Subtype A, B, C, E, HIV-1 Group O, HIV-2) and HIV-1/2 Ab CE marked material(HIV-1, HIV-2) parent specimens, the ECL assay enabled detection at a higher level of sensitivity than either the LPf assay or the HIS assay for all dilution panels. In an early detection test in the early phase of infection in which a BBI HIV seroconversion panel was used, the ECL assay enabled detection 7 days after initial blood sample collection, whereas the LPf and HIS assays enabled detection after 27 days. In a specificity test using high RF positive specimens (n=33), pregnancy specimens (n=35), cytomegalovirus antibody positive specimens (n=36), and high M protein positive specimens (n=21) that were confirmed negative for HIV-1/2 antibodies by the LPf assay, negative results were obtained for all specimens on both the ECL assay and the HIS assay. In a correlation test using routinely collected clinical specimens (n=121), including positive stock specimens, the ECL and HIS assays demonstrated the highest agreement rate 98.3%. The above results confirmed that the fourth-generation reagent ECL assay, which simultaneously detects both HIV-1/2 antibodies and p24 antigens, is both highly sensitive and specific, and is a suitable assay for use in routine testing. PMID:22686038

  6. Centrifugal microfluidic platform for single-cell level cardiomyocyte-based drug profiling and screening.

    PubMed

    Espulgar, W; Aoki, W; Ikeuchi, T; Mita, D; Saito, M; Lee, J-K; Tamiya, E

    2015-09-01

    Drug screening and profiling is an important phase in drug discovery, development, and marketing. However, some profiling tests are not routinely done because of the needed additional technical skills and costly maintenance, which leads to cases of unexpected side effects or adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study presents the design and operation of a microfluidic chip for single-cell level drug screening and profiling as an alternative platform for this purpose. Centrifugation was utilized to trap isolated single and groups of primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in the same chip. In the off-spin operation of the chip, the cells can be observed under a microscope and movies of the beat motion can be recorded. The beat profiles of the cells were generated by image correlation analysis of the recorded video to study the contractile characteristics (beating rate, beating strength, and inter-beat duration). By utilizing this non-invasive tool, long term continuous monitoring, right after trapping, was made possible and cell growth and dynamics were successfully observed in the chip. Media and liquid replacement does not require further centrifugation but instead utilizes capillary flow only. The effect of carbachol (100 ?M) and isoproterenol (4 ?g mL(-1)) on single cells and groups of cells was demonstrated and the feature for immunostaining (?-actin) applicability of the chip was revealed. Furthermore, these findings can be helpful for the headway of non-invasive profiling of cardiomyocytes and for future chip design and operation of high-throughput lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:26215661

  7. A sensitive and microscale method for drug screening combining affinity probes and single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Lingao; Su, Di; Shao, Chang; Wang, Jinjie; Dong, Chaoqing; Huang, Xiangyi; Ren, Jicun

    2015-02-21

    In this paper, a sensitive and microscale method for drug screening is described using single molecule spectroscopy fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The principle of this method is mainly based on the competition of candidate drugs to the fluorescent probe-target complexes and the excellent capacity of FCS for sensitively distinguishing the free fluorescent probes and the fluorescent probe-target complexes in solution. In this study, the screening of protein kinase inhibitors was used as a model, tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 was used as a target and a known inhibitor dasatinib derivative labeled with a fluorescent dye was used as a fluorescent affinity probe. We firstly established the theoretical model of drug screening based on the binding process of fluorescent probes and targets, the competition of candidate drugs to the fluorescent probe-target complexes and FCS theory. Then, the dasatinib derivatives were synthesized and labeled with the fluorescent dye Alexa 488, and the binding and dissociation processes of Alexa 488-dasatinib and ABL1 were systematically investigated. The dissociation constant and the dissociation rate for the Alexa 488-dasatinib-ABL1 complex were determined. Finally, the established method was used to screen candidate drugs. The dissociation constants of ABL1 kinase to six known drugs for treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were evaluated and the results obtained are well consistent with the reported values. Furthermore, a homemade chip with micro-wells was successfully utilized in FCS measurements as the carrier of samples, and the sample requirements were only 1-2 ?L in this case. Our results demonstrated that the drug screening method described here is universal, sensitive and shows small sample and reagent quantity requirements. We believe that this method will become a high throughput platform for screening of small molecule drugs. PMID:25526365

  8. A Two-Tiered-Testing Decision Tree for Assays in the USEPA-EDSP Screening Battery: Using 15 years of experience to improve screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outline of the presentationEDCs – from 1991 to 1996 – Wingspread and Our Stolen Future 1996 – FQPA and SDWA mandates endocrine screening 1996-1998 – EDSTAC (the assays, debates over modes of action included) The final battery – EAT in vivo and in vit...

  9. Computational Systems Bioinformatics and Bioimaging for Pathway Analysis and Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2009-01-01

    The premise of today’s drug development is that the mechanism of a disease is highly dependent upon underlying signaling and cellular pathways. Such pathways are often composed of complexes of physically interacting genes, proteins, or biochemical activities coordinated by metabolic intermediates, ions, and other small solutes and are investigated with molecular biology approaches in genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics. Nevertheless, the recent declines in the pharmaceutical industry’s revenues indicate such approaches alone may not be adequate in creating successful new drugs. Our observation is that combining methods of genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics with techniques of bioimaging will systematically provide powerful means to decode or better understand molecular interactions and pathways that lead to disease and potentially generate new insights and indications for drug targets. The former methods provide the profiles of genes, proteins, and metabolites, whereas the latter techniques generate objective, quantitative phenotypes correlating to the molecular profiles and interactions. In this paper, we describe pathway reconstruction and target validation based on the proposed systems biologic approach and show selected application examples for pathway analysis and drug screening. PMID:20011613

  10. [Comparison of the clinical performance of the ECLusys HBsAg II assay with the Lumipulse f and HISCL 2000-i HBsAg screening assays].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Aya; Iwahara, Kunihiro; Suga, Yasuyuki; Uchiyama, Sachinori; Maekawa, Masato

    2012-02-01

    We compared the ECLusys HBsAgII (ECL HBsAg) assay to the Lumipulse Forte (LPf HBsAg) and HISCL (HIS HBsAg) assays. Measurement of dilution panels for which the WHO HBsAg international reference panel was the parent specimen revealed that the ECL and HIS assays enabled detection to a theoretical level of 0.04 IU/mL, whereas the LPf assay enabled detection to a level of 0.08 IU/mL. In a specificity test using high RF positive specimens (n = 33), pregnancy specimens (n = 35), cytomegalovirus antibody positive specimens (n = 36), and high M protein positive specimens (n = 21) that were confirmed negative for HBsAg by the LPf assay, negative results were obtained for all specimens on the HIS assay, but the ECL assay yielded a positive result for one of the high RF positive specimens. This individual was suggested on further testing to be an HBV carrier who was strongly positive for HBc antibody. In HBsAg mutants detection test, the detection rate was 92.3% with the ECL assay and 69.2% with the HIS assay. In a correlation test using routinely collected clinical specimens (n = 155), including positive stock specimens, aside from the one case where the LPf assay gave a negative result but both the ECL and HIS assays gave positive results, all of the results were consistent for all specimens. The above results confirmed that the ECL assay is both highly sensitive and specific, and also enables a high rate of HBsAg mutant detection. PMID:22568090

  11. The development and validation of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS): a 13-item screening instrument for alcohol and drug and mental health risk.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Carla M; Ober, Coralie; McCarthy, Molly M; Watson, Joanne D; Seinen, Anita

    2007-03-01

    The study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS) as a screening instrument for determining (i) the presence of alcohol and drug and mental health risk in Indigenous adult Australians and (ii) the cut-off scores that discriminate most effectively between the presence and absence of risk. A cross-sectional survey was used in clinical and non-clinical Indigenous and non-Indigenous services across Queensland Australia. A total of 175 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from urban, rural, regional and remote locations in Queensland took part in the study. Measures included the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ). Additional Mental Health measures included the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Principle axis factoring analysis of the IRIS revealed two factors corresponding with (i) alcohol and drug and (ii) mental health. The IRIS alcohol and drug and mental health subscales demonstrated good convergent validity with other well-established screening instruments and both subscales showed high internal consistency. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to generate cut-offs for the two subscales and t-tests validated the utility of these cut-offs for determining risky levels of drinking. The study validated statistically the utility of the IRIS as a screen for alcohol and drug and mental health risk. The instrument is therefore recommended as a brief screening instrument for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. PMID:17364845

  12. High-specificity and high-sensitivity genotoxicity assessment in a human cell line: validation of the GreenScreen HC GADD45a-GFP genotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Hastwell, Paul W; Chai, Li-Leng; Roberts, Kevin J; Webster, Thomas W; Harvey, James S; Rees, Robert W; Walmsley, Richard M

    2006-09-01

    The battery of genetic toxicity tests required by most regulatory authorities includes both bacterial and mammalian cell assays and identifies practically all genotoxic carcinogens. However, the relatively high specificity of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test) is offset by the low specificity of the established mammalian cell assays, which leads to difficulties in the interpretation of the biological relevance of results. This paper describes a new high-throughput assay that links the regulation of the human GADD45a gene to the production of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). A study of 75 well-characterised genotoxic and non-genotoxic compounds with diverse mechanisms of DNA-damage induction (including aneugens) reveals that the assay responds positively to all classes of genotoxic damage with both high specificity and high sensitivity. The current micro-well assay format does not include metabolic activation, but a separate low-throughput protocol demonstrates a successful proof-of-principle for an S9 metabolic activation assay with the model pro-mutagen cyclophosphamide. The test should be of value both as a tool in the selection of candidate compounds for further development, where additional data may be required because of conflicting information from the in vitro test battery, or in product development areas where the use of animals is to be discontinued. As a microplate assay however, it has the qualities of high throughput and low compound use that will facilitate its application in early screening for genotoxic liability. PMID:16781187

  13. Role of Open Source Tools and Resources in Virtual Screening for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Advancement in chemoinformatics research in parallel with availability of high performance computing platform has made handling of large scale multi-dimensional scientific data for high throughput drug discovery easier. In this study we have explored publicly available molecular databases with the help of open-source based integrated in-house molecular informatics tools for virtual screening. The virtual screening literature for past decade has been extensively investigated and thoroughly analyzed to reveal interesting patterns with respect to the drug, target, scaffold and disease space. The review also focuses on the integrated chemoinformatics tools that are capable of harvesting chemical data from textual literature information and transform them into truly computable chemical structures, identification of unique fragments and scaffolds from a class of compounds, automatic generation of focused virtual libraries, computation of molecular descriptors for structure-activity relationship studies, application of conventional filters used in lead discovery along with in-house developed exhaustive PTC (Pharmacophore, Toxicophores and Chemophores) filters and machine learning tools for the design of potential disease specific inhibitors. A case study on kinase inhibitors is provided as an example. PMID:26138575

  14. TCM Database@Taiwan: The World's Largest Traditional Chinese Medicine Database for Drug Screening In Silico

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advancing computational technologies have greatly speeded up the development of computer-aided drug design (CADD). Recently, pharmaceutical companies have increasingly shifted their attentions toward traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for novel lead compounds. Despite the growing number of studies on TCM, there is no free 3D small molecular structure database of TCM available for virtual screening or molecular simulation. To address this shortcoming, we have constructed TCM Database@Taiwan (http://tcm.cmu.edu.tw/) based on information collected from Chinese medical texts and scientific publications. TCM Database@Taiwan is currently the world's largest non-commercial TCM database. This web-based database contains more than 20,000 pure compounds isolated from 453 TCM ingredients. Both cdx (2D) and Tripos mol2 (3D) formats of each pure compound in the database are available for download and virtual screening. The TCM database includes both simple and advanced web-based query options that can specify search clauses, such as molecular properties, substructures, TCM ingredients, and TCM classification, based on intended drug actions. The TCM database can be easily accessed by all researchers conducting CADD. Over the last eight years, numerous volunteers have devoted their time to analyze TCM ingredients from Chinese medical texts as well as to construct structure files for each isolated compound. We believe that TCM Database@Taiwan will be a milestone on the path towards modernizing traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:21253603

  15. A Rapid, High-Throughput Viability Assay for Blastocystis spp. Reveals Metronidazole Resistance and Extensive Subtype-Dependent Variations in Drug Susceptibilities?

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Haris; Teo, Joshua D. W.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Blastocystis is an emerging protistan parasite of controversial pathogenesis. Although metronidazole (Mz) is standard therapy for Blastocystis infections, there have been accumulating reports of treatment failure, suggesting the existence of drug-resistant isolates. Furthermore, very little is known about Blastocystis susceptibility to standard antimicrobials. In the present study, we established resazurin and XTT viability microassays for Blastocystis spp. belonging to subtypes 4 and 7, both of which have been suggested to represent pathogenic zoonotic subtypes. The optimized resazurin assay was used to screen a total of 19 compounds against both subtypes. Interestingly, subtype 7 parasites were resistant to Mz, a 1-position-substituted 5-nitroimidazole (5-NI), while subtype 4 parasites were sensitive. Some cross-resistance was observed to tinidazole, another 1-position 5-NI. Conversely, subtype 4 parasites were resistant to emetine, while subtype 7 parasites were sensitive. Position 2 5-NIs were effective against both subtypes, as were ornidazole, nitazoxanide, furazolidone, mefloquine, quinicrine, quinine, cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), and iodoacetamide. Both subtypes were resistant to chloroquine, doxycycline, paromomycin, ampicillin, and pyrimethamine. This is the first study to report extensive variations in drug sensitivities among two clinically important subtypes. Our study highlights the need to reevaluate established treatment regimens for Blastocystis infections and offers clear new treatment options for Mz treatment failures. PMID:21098237

  16. Reduced turn-around time for Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing with a proportional agar microplate assay.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V A T; Nguyen, H Q; Vu, T T; Nguyen, N A T; Duong, C M; Tran, T H T; Nguyen, H V; Dang, D A; Bañuls, A-L

    2015-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a major issue worldwide; however, accessibility to drug susceptibility testing (DST) is still limited in developing countries, owing to high costs and complexity. We developed a proportion method on 12-well microplates for DST. The assay reduced the time to results to <12 days and <10 days when bacterial growth was checked with the naked eye or a microscope, respectively. Comparison with the Canetti-Grosset method showed that the results of the two assays almost overlapped (kappa index 0.98 (95% CI 0.91-1.00) for isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin; and kappa index 0.92 (95% CI 0.85-0.99) for ethambutol). The sequencing of genes involved in drug resistance showed similar level of phenotype-genotype agreement between techniques. Finally, measurement of the MICs of rifampicin and ethambutol suggests that the currently used critical ethambutol concentration should be revised, and that the current molecular drug susceptibility tests for rifampicin need to be re-evaluated, as in vitro rifampicin-sensitive isolates could harbour drug resistance-associated mutation(s). PMID:26348263

  17. Assessment of re-aggregated human pancreatic islets for secondary drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, K; Peng, X; Bokvist, K; Stehno-Bittel, L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets is a pivotal assay in developing novel insulin secretagogues, given its good correlation with in vivo efficacy. Because the supply of human islets is limited, this assay is typically run with rodent islets, which do not address species differences and are low-throughput, because of the size matching or volume normalization required. Here we have evaluated the suitability of human re-aggregated islets for this assay. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We generated re-aggregated human islets of a consistent size, using micromolds and compared their responses with those of native human and rat islets, to known secretagogues and inhibitors of insulin release. KEY RESULTS Insulin secretion from rat islets, human islets and human re-aggregated cell clusters was concentration-dependently increased by glucose. The calcium channel agonist, Bay K 8644, stimulated insulin secretion in native rat islets and human re-aggregated islets, but not native human islets. Glibenclamide and tolbutamide were more effective and potent in re-aggregated human clusters compared with the other two preparations. Rat islets outperformed both human preparations of islets in response to caffeine, carbachol and glucagon-like peptide-1. Re-aggregated human islet clusters were more sensitive to somatostatin, diazoxide and sodium azide, but rodent islets were more sensitive to nifedipine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Human re-aggregated clusters of islet cells, of a constant size were more responsive to all compounds tested than native human islets. Importantly, the assay variability was less in the re-aggregated cluster preparations, which suggests that such re-aggregated cells could be useful for drug development. PMID:24641508

  18. Tartrazine and sunset yellow are xenoestrogens in a new screening assay to identify modulators of human oestrogen receptor transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Axon, Andrew; May, Felicity E B; Gaughan, Luke E; Williams, Faith M; Blain, Peter G; Wright, Matthew C

    2012-08-16

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that occurs most frequently in post-menopausal women. Since the female sex hormone oestrogen can be cholestatic, we hypothesised that PBC may be triggered in part by chronic exposure to xenoestrogens (which may be more active on a background of low endogenous oestrogen levels seen in post-menopausal women). A reporter gene construct employing a synthetic oestrogen response element predicted to specifically interact with oestrogen receptors (ER) was constructed. Co-transfection of this reporter into an ER null cell line with a variety of nuclear receptor expression constructs indicated that the reporter gene was trans-activated by ER? and ER?, but not by the androgen, thyroid, progesterone, glucocorticoid or vitamin D receptors. Chemicals linked to PBC were then screened for xenoestrogen activity in the human ER?-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Using this assay, the coal-derived food and cosmetic colourings--sunset yellow and tartrazine--were identified as novel human ER? activators, activating the human ER with an EC(50%) concentration of 220 and 160 nM, respectively. PMID:22562034

  19. Risk-based high-throughput chemical screening and prioritization using exposure models and in vitro bioactivity assays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shin, Hyeong -Moo; Ernstoff, Alexi; Arnot, Jon A.; Wetmore, Barbara A.; Csiszar, Susan A.; Fantke, Peter; Zhang, Xianming; McKone, Thomas E.; Jolliet, Olivier; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2015-05-01

    We present a risk-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method to identify chemicals for potential health concerns or for which additional information is needed. The method is applied to 180 organic chemicals as a case study. We first obtain information on how the chemical is used and identify relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate dailymore »intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry. Bioactivity quotients (BQs) are calculated as iR/OED to obtain estimates of potential impact associated with each relevant use scenario. Of the 180 chemicals considered, 38 had maximum iRs exceeding minimum OEDs (i.e., BQs > 1). For most of these compounds, exposures are associated with direct intake, food/oral contact, or dermal exposure. The method provides high-throughput estimates of exposure and important input for decision makers to identify chemicals of concern for further evaluation with additional information or more refined models.« less

  20. Risk-based high-throughput chemical screening and prioritization using exposure models and in vitro bioactivity assays

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Hyeong -Moo; Ernstoff, Alexi; Arnot, Jon A.; Wetmore, Barbara A.; Csiszar, Susan A.; Fantke, Peter; Zhang, Xianming; McKone, Thomas E.; Jolliet, Olivier; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2015-05-01

    We present a risk-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method to identify chemicals for potential health concerns or for which additional information is needed. The method is applied to 180 organic chemicals as a case study. We first obtain information on how the chemical is used and identify relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate daily intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry. Bioactivity quotients (BQs) are calculated as iR/OED to obtain estimates of potential impact associated with each relevant use scenario. Of the 180 chemicals considered, 38 had maximum iRs exceeding minimum OEDs (i.e., BQs > 1). For most of these compounds, exposures are associated with direct intake, food/oral contact, or dermal exposure. The method provides high-throughput estimates of exposure and important input for decision makers to identify chemicals of concern for further evaluation with additional information or more refined models.

  1. Big Data in Chemical Toxicity Research: The Use of High-Throughput Screening Assays To Identify Potential Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) assays that measure the in vitro toxicity of environmental compounds have been widely applied as an alternative to in vivo animal tests of chemical toxicity. Current HTS studies provide the community with rich toxicology information that has the potential to be integrated into toxicity research. The available in vitro toxicity data is updated daily in structured formats (e.g., deposited into PubChem and other data-sharing web portals) or in an unstructured way (papers, laboratory reports, toxicity Web site updates, etc.). The information derived from the current toxicity data is so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using available database management tools or traditional data processing applications. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a big data approach when conducting modern chemical toxicity research. In vitro data for a compound, obtained from meaningful bioassays, can be viewed as a response profile that gives detailed information about the compound’s ability to affect relevant biological proteins/receptors. This information is critical for the evaluation of complex bioactivities (e.g., animal toxicities) and grows rapidly as big data in toxicology communities. This review focuses mainly on the existing structured in vitro data (e.g., PubChem data sets) as response profiles for compounds of environmental interest (e.g., potential human/animal toxicants). Potential modeling and mining tools to use the current big data pool in chemical toxicity research are also described. PMID:25195622

  2. Fast apple (Malus x domestica) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) leaf polyphenol oxidase activity assay for screening transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, W; McPherson, J; Li, B; Randall, E; Lane, W D; Wiersma, P A

    2000-12-01

    A spectrophotometric assay method for the analysis of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), in apple and tobacco leaves, has been optimized to increase efficiency in the screening of large numbers of transgenic plants. Crude protein extracts from leaf punches were prepared in a FastPrep homogenizer. The addition of Triton X-100 during extraction resulted in 44 and 74% increases in the PPO activity recovered, from apple and tobacco, respectively. The enzyme kinetics differed markedly between apple and tobacco. Apple leaf PPO was isolated in a latent state and was activated by the addition of SDS. In contrast, tobacco PPO activity was inhibited by SDS, particularly at acidic pH. Apple PPO showed a pronounced pH optimum around pH 6, whereas the pH profile for tobacco PPO was much flatter, with a broad optimum around pH 4. The calculated Km' value for apple PPO, using 4-methylcatechol as substrate, was 8.1, and for tobacco the Km was 4.3. The PPO reaction was strongly inhibited by tropolone, a Cu competitor, and restored by the addition of Cu2+. Several factors affecting variability in leaf PPO activity levels in plants are discussed. PMID:11141262

  3. Risk-Based High-Throughput Chemical Screening and Prioritization using Exposure Models and in Vitro Bioactivity Assays.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Ernstoff, Alexi; Arnot, Jon A; Wetmore, Barbara A; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter; Zhang, Xianming; McKone, Thomas E; Jolliet, Olivier; Bennett, Deborah H

    2015-06-01

    We present a risk-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method to identify chemicals for potential health concerns or for which additional information is needed. The method is applied to 180 organic chemicals as a case study. We first obtain information on how the chemical is used and identify relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate daily intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry. Bioactivity quotients (BQs) are calculated as iR/OED to obtain estimates of potential impact associated with each relevant use scenario. Of the 180 chemicals considered, 38 had maximum iRs exceeding minimum OEDs (i.e., BQs > 1). For most of these compounds, exposures are associated with direct intake, food/oral contact, or dermal exposure. The method provides high-throughput estimates of exposure and important input for decision makers to identify chemicals of concern for further evaluation with additional information or more refined models. PMID:25932772

  4. Structure-Based Virtual Screening for Drug Discovery: Principles, Applications and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lionta, Evanthia; Spyrou, George; Vassilatis, Demetrios K.; Cournia, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Structure-based drug discovery (SBDD) is becoming an essential tool in assisting fast and cost-efficient lead discovery and optimization. The application of rational, structure-based drug design is proven to be more efficient than the traditional way of drug discovery since it aims to understand the molecular basis of a disease and utilizes the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the biological target in the process. In this review, we focus on the principles and applications of Virtual Screening (VS) within the context of SBDD and examine different procedures ranging from the initial stages of the process that include receptor and library pre-processing, to docking, scoring and post-processing of topscoring hits. Recent improvements in structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) efficiency through ensemble docking, induced fit and consensus docking are also discussed. The review highlights advances in the field within the framework of several success studies that have led to nM inhibition directly from VS and provides recent trends in library design as well as discusses limitations of the method. Applications of SBVS in the design of substrates for engineered proteins that enable the discovery of new metabolic and signal transduction pathways and the design of inhibitors of multifunctional proteins are also reviewed. Finally, we contribute two promising VS protocols recently developed by us that aim to increase inhibitor selectivity. In the first protocol, we describe the discovery of micromolar inhibitors through SBVS designed to inhibit the mutant H1047R PI3K? kinase. Second, we discuss a strategy for the identification of selective binders for the RXR? nuclear receptor. In this protocol, a set of target structures is constructed for ensemble docking based on binding site shape characterization and clustering, aiming to enhance the hit rate of selective inhibitors for the desired protein target through the SBVS process. PMID:25262799

  5. Case Reports of Aripiprazole Causing False-Positive Urine Amphetamine Drug Screens in Children.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Justin; Shah, Pooja; Faley, Brian; Siegel, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    Urine drug screens (UDSs) are used to identify the presence of certain medications. One limitation of UDSs is the potential for false-positive results caused by cross-reactivity with other substances. Amphetamines have an extensive list of cross-reacting medications. The literature contains reports of false-positive amphetamine UDSs with multiple antidepressants and antipsychotics. We present 2 cases of presumed false-positive UDSs for amphetamines after ingestion of aripiprazole. Case 1 was a 16-month-old girl who accidently ingested 15 to 45 mg of aripiprazole. She was lethargic and ataxic at home with 1 episode of vomiting containing no identifiable tablets. She remained sluggish with periods of irritability and was admitted for observation. UDS on 2 consecutive days came back positive for amphetamines. Case 2 was of a 20-month-old girl who was brought into the hospital after accidental ingestion of an unknown quantity of her father's medications which included aripiprazole. UDS on the first day of admission came back positive only for amphetamines. Confirmatory testing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on the blood and urine samples were also performed for both patients on presentation to detect amphetamines and were subsequently negative. Both patients returned to baseline and were discharged from the hospital. To our knowledge, these cases represent the first reports of false-positive amphetamine urine drug tests with aripiprazole. In both cases, aripiprazole was the drug with the highest likelihood of causing the positive amphetamine screen. The implications of these false-positives include the possibility of unnecessary treatment and monitoring of patients. PMID:26527556

  6. A Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Screening Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in the United States for Evidence of an Asian Genotype.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Barr, N B; Braswell, W E; Martinez, M; Ledezma, L A; Molongoski, J; Mastro, V; Schuenzel, E L

    2015-10-01

    European gypsy moth populations (Lymantria dispar L.) are well established and a proven destructive force in hardwood trees throughout the United States and Canada. Introduction of the exotic Asian gypsy moth into North America would be even more impactful, as Asian gypsy moth populations have wider host ranges, and are capable of naturally dispersing more rapidly due to female flight ability. To support early detection and exclusion of Asian gypsy moth, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) uses molecular techniques to screen moths trapped in North America for evidence of common Asian genotype. In order to strengthen U.S. domestic capacity to screen moths quickly and efficiently, we report a real-time PCR assay for this pest. A probe system using TaqMan 5' nuclease chemistry is reported for detection of an allele associated with common Asian gypsy moth genotypes. The targeted allele is located at the nuclear FS1 locus currently used by the USDA in conventional PCR tests to screen for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introductions or introgression. The diagnostic probe is successfully multiplexed with a conserved 18S probe system to detect reaction failure due to poor sample quality or quantity. The specificity, sensitivity, and repeatability of the FS1-18S multiplex real-time PCR assay were tested on laboratory-reared and field-collected moths to demonstrate diagnostic utility. Implications of the new assay as a screening tool for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introgression and introduction are discussed. PMID:26453734

  7. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three ?-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5?nM, 7.6±2.4??M, and 1.6±0.4??M, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) set for compounds that inhibited AR-TIF2 PPI formation or disrupted preexisting complexes. Eleven modulators of steroid family nuclear receptors (NRs) and 6 non-NR ligands inhibited AR-TIF2 PPI formation, and 10 disrupted preexisting complexes. The hits appear to be either AR antagonists or nonspecific inhibitors of NR activation and trafficking. Given that the LOPAC set represents such a small and restricted biological and chemical diversity, it is anticipated that screening a much larger and more diverse compound library will be required to find AR-TIF2 PPI inhibitors/disruptors. The AR-TIF2 protein–protein interaction biosensor (PPIB) approach offers significant promise for identifying molecules with potential to modulate AR transcriptional activity in a cell-specific manner that is distinct from the existing antiandrogen drugs that target AR binding or production. Small molecules that disrupt AR signaling at the level of AR-TIF2 PPIs may also overcome the development of resistance and progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:25181412

  8. High performance in silico virtual drug screening on many-core processors

    PubMed Central

    Price, James; Sessions, Richard B; Ibarra, Amaurys A

    2015-01-01

    Drug screening is an important part of the drug development pipeline for the pharmaceutical industry. Traditional, lab-based methods are increasingly being augmented with computational methods, ranging from simple molecular similarity searches through more complex pharmacophore matching to more computationally intensive approaches, such as molecular docking. The latter simulates the binding of drug molecules to their targets, typically protein molecules. In this work, we describe BUDE, the Bristol University Docking Engine, which has been ported to the OpenCL industry standard parallel programming language in order to exploit the performance of modern many-core processors. Our highly optimized OpenCL implementation of BUDE sustains 1.43 TFLOP/s on a single Nvidia GTX 680 GPU, or 46% of peak performance. BUDE also exploits OpenCL to deliver effective performance portability across a broad spectrum of different computer architectures from different vendors, including GPUs from Nvidia and AMD, Intel’s Xeon Phi and multi-core CPUs with SIMD instruction sets. PMID:25972727

  9. Human iPSC-based Cardiac Microphysiological System For Drug Screening Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Anurag; Loskill, Peter; Shao, Kaifeng; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Hong, SoonGweon; Marcus, Sivan G.; Marks, Natalie; Mandegar, Mohammad; Conklin, Bruce R.; Lee, Luke P.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Drug discovery and development are hampered by high failure rates attributed to the reliance on non-human animal models employed during safety and efficacy testing. A fundamental problem in this inefficient process is that non-human animal models cannot adequately represent human biology. Thus, there is an urgent need for high-content in vitro systems that can better predict drug-induced toxicity. Systems that predict cardiotoxicity are of uppermost significance, as approximately one third of safety-based pharmaceutical withdrawals are due to cardiotoxicty. Here, we present a cardiac microphysiological system (MPS) with the attributes required for an ideal in vitro system to predict cardiotoxicity: i) cells with a human genetic background; ii) physiologically relevant tissue structure (e.g. aligned cells); iii) computationally predictable perfusion mimicking human vasculature; and, iv) multiple modes of analysis (e.g. biological, electrophysiological, and physiological). Our MPS is able to keep human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiac tissue viable and functional over multiple weeks. Pharmacological studies using the cardiac MPS show half maximal inhibitory/effective concentration values (IC50/EC50) that are more consistent with the data on tissue scale references compared to cellular scale studies. We anticipate the widespread adoption of MPSs for drug screening and disease modeling. PMID:25748532

  10. Drug screening of whole blood by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Johansen, Unni; Oiestad, Ase Marit Leere; Christophersen, Asbjørg Solberg

    2011-06-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for screening of drugs in whole blood has been developed and validated. Samples were prepared by supported liquid-liquid extraction on ChemElute(®) columns with ethyl acetate/heptane (4:1). LC separation was achieved with an Acquity HSS T3-column (2.1 100 mm, 1.8-?m particle). Mass detection was performed by positive ion mode electrospray MS-MS and included the following drugs/metabolites: morphine, codeine, ethyl morphine, oxycodone, buprenorphine, methadone, cocaine, methylphenidate, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), fentanyl, alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, nordiazepam, 3-OH-diazepam, fenazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, zopiclone, zolpidem, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. The cycle time was 9 min, and within- and between-day relative coefficients of variation varied from 1% to 33% and 2% to 58%, respectively. Extraction recoveries from whole blood were > 50% except for morphine and THC. The limit of quantitation was 0.1 to 521 ng/mL, depending on the drug. PMID:21619723

  11. Human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 on graphene oxide for drug metabolism screening.

    PubMed

    Castrignanò, Silvia; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J

    2015-03-01

    Human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (hFMO3), a membrane-bound hepatic protein, belonging to the second most important class of phase-1 drug-metabolizing enzymes, was immobilized in its active form on graphene oxide (GO) for enhanced electrochemical response. To improve protein stabilization and to ensure the electrocatalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) was used to mimic lipid layers of biological membranes and acted as an interface between GO nanomaterial and the hFMO3 biocomponent. Grazing angle attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (GATR-FT-IR) experiments confirmed the preservation of the protein secondary structure and fold. Electrochemical characterization of the immobilized enzyme with GO and DDAB on glassy carbon electrodes was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, where several parameters including redox potential, electron transfer rate, and surface coverage were determined. This system's biotechnological application in drug screening was successfully demonstrated by the N-oxidation of two therapeutic drugs, benzydamine (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory) and tamoxifen (antiestrogenic widely used in breast cancer therapy and chemoprevention), by the immobilized enzyme. PMID:25630629

  12. Integrated Model of Chemical Perturbations of a Biological Pathway Using 18 In Vitro High-Throughput Screening Assays for the Estrogen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Judson, Richard S; Magpantay, Felicia Maria; Chickarmane, Vijay; Haskell, Cymra; Tania, Nessy; Taylor, Jean; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Rotroff, Daniel M; Filer, Dayne L; Houck, Keith A; Martin, Matthew T; Sipes, Nisha; Richard, Ann M; Mansouri, Kamel; Setzer, R Woodrow; Knudsen, Thomas B; Crofton, Kevin M; Thomas, Russell S

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a computational network model that integrates 18 in vitro, high-throughput screening assays measuring estrogen receptor (ER) binding, dimerization, chromatin binding, transcriptional activation, and ER-dependent cell proliferation. The network model uses activity patterns across the in vitro assays to predict whether a chemical is an ER agonist or antagonist, or is otherwise influencing the assays through a manner dependent on the physics and chemistry of the technology platform ("assay interference"). The method is applied to a library of 1812 commercial and environmental chemicals, including 45 ER positive and negative reference chemicals. Among the reference chemicals, the network model correctly identified the agonists and antagonists with the exception of very weak compounds whose activity was outside the concentration range tested. The model agonist score also correlated with the expected potency class of the active reference chemicals. Of the 1812 chemicals evaluated, 111 (6.1%) were predicted to be strongly ER active in agonist or antagonist mode. This dataset and model were also used to begin a systematic investigation of assay interference. The most prominent cause of false-positive activity (activity in an assay that is likely not due to interaction of the chemical with ER) is cytotoxicity. The model provides the ability to prioritize a large set of important environmental chemicals with human exposure potential for additional in vivo endocrine testing. Finally, this model is generalizable to any molecular pathway for which there are multiple upstream and downstream assays available. PMID:26272952

  13. High-throughput microplate phosphorylation assays based on DevR-DevS/Rv2027c 2-component signal transduction pathway to screen for novel antitubercular compounds.

    PubMed

    Saini, Deepak Kumar; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2005-04-01

    DevR-DevS (Rv3133c-Rv3132c) and DevR-Rv2027c have been established through their autophosphorylation and phospho-transfer properties to constitute bonafide regulatory 2-component systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DevR has also been shown by others to play a key regulatory role in the expression of M. tuberculosis genes comprising the dormancy regulon. The authors describe high-throughput phosphorylation assays in a microplate format using DevS and Rv2027c histidine kinases and DevR response regulator proteins from M. tuberculosis. The assays were designed to measure [gamma-(32)P]ATP-dependent autophosphorylation of DevS/Rv2027c and also the phosphotransfer reaction to DevR. First, the optimal reaction conditions were established using the conventional method of radiolabeling the 2-component proteins by [gamma-(32)P]ATP and followed by gel electrophoresis-based analysis. Next, the assays were converted to a high-throughput format in which the radiolabeled protein retained on a filter using mixed cellulose ester-based 96-well filter plates was analyzed for radioactivity retention by scintillation counting. The utility of these assays to screen for inhibitors is illustrated using 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, ethidium bromide, and EDTA. The high quality and flexibility of these assays will enable their use in high-throughput screening for new antitubercular compounds directed against 2-component systems that comprise a novel target in dormant mycobacteria. PMID:15809317

  14. A High-Throughput Drug Screening Strategy for Detecting Rhodopsin P23H Mutant Rescue and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Tang, Hong; Seibel, William; Papoian, Ruben; Li, Xiaoyu; Lambert, Nevin A.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Inherent instability of the P23H mutant opsin accounts for approximately 10% of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa cases. Our purpose was to develop an overall set of reliable screening strategies to assess if either stabilization or enhanced degradation of mutant rhodopsin could rescue rod photoreceptors expressing this mutant protein. These strategies promise to reveal active compounds and clarify molecular mechanisms of biologically important processes, such as inhibition of target degradation or enhanced target folding. Methods. Cell-based bioluminescence reporter assays were developed and validated for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds that promote either stabilization or degradation of P23H mutant opsin. Such assays were further complemented by immunoblotting and image-based analyses. Results. Two stabilization assays of P23H mutant opsin were developed and validated, one based on ?-galactosidase complementarity and a second assay involving bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. Moreover, two additional assays evaluating mutant protein degradation also were employed, one based on the disappearance of luminescence and another employing the ALPHA immunoassay. Imaging of cells revealed the cellular localization of mutant rhodopsin, whereas immunoblots identified changes in the aggregation and glycosylation of P23H mutant opsin. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that these initial HTS and following assays can identify active therapeutic compounds, even for difficult targets such as mutant rhodopsin. The assays are readily scalable and their function has been proven with model compounds. High-throughput screening, supported by automated imaging and classic immunoassays, can further characterize multiple steps and pathways in the biosynthesis and degradation of this essential visual system protein. PMID:25783607

  15. Evaluation of the toxic effects of four anti-cancer drugs in plant bioassays and its potency for screening in the context of waste water reuse for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Kern, Deivid Ismael; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Anti-cancer drugs are compounds that are of high environmental relevance because of their lack of specific mode of action. They can be extremely harmful to living organisms even at low concentrations. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of four frequently used anti-cancer drugs against plant seedlings, namely Cyclophosphamide (CP), Methotrexate (MTX), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Imatinib (IM). The phytotoxicity experiments were performed with Lactuca sativa seedlings whereas cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity investigations were performed with the well-established Allium cepa assays. MTX was the most phytotoxic compound, followed by 5-FU, CP and IM. Significant differences in the Mitotic Indexes (MI) were observed in three of the studied compounds (MTX, 5-FU and CP), indicating potential cytotoxic activity of these substances. Chromosome aberrations were registered in cells that were exposed to 5-FU, CP and IM. All the four compounds caused the formation of micronucleated cells indicating mutagenic potential. Besides, the assays performed with MTX samples presented a high number of cell apoptosis (cell death). Although it is unlikely that the pharmaceuticals concentrations measured in the environment could cause lethal effects in plants, the obtained results indicate that these compounds may affect the growth and normal development of these plants. So, both tests can constitute important tools for a fast screening of environmental contamination e.g. in the context of the reuse of treated wastewater and biosolids of agricultural purpose. PMID:26002047

  16. A combination turbidity and supernatant microplate assay to rank-order the supersaturation limits of early drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John S; Nophsker, Michelle J; Haskell, Roy J

    2014-10-01

    A unique opportunity exists at the drug discovery stage to overcome inherently poor solubility by selecting drug candidates with superior supersaturation propensity. Existing supersaturation assays compare either precipitation-resistant or precipitation-inhibiting excipients, or higher-energy polymorphic forms, but not multiple compounds or multiple concentrations. Furthermore, these assays lack sufficient throughput and compound conservation necessary for implementation in the discovery environment. A microplate-based combination turbidity and supernatant concentration assay was therefore developed to determine the extent to which different compounds remain in solution as a function of applied concentration in biorelevant media over a specific period of time. Dimethyl sulfoxide stock solutions at multiple concentrations of four poorly soluble, weak base compounds (Dipyridamole, Ketoconazole, Albendazole, and Cinnarizine) were diluted with pH 6.5 buffer as well as FaSSIF. All samples were monitored for precipitation by turbidity at 600 nm over 1 h and the final supernatant concentrations were measured. The maximum supersaturation ratio was calculated from the supersaturation limit and the equilibrium solubility in each media. Compounds were rank-ordered by supersaturation ratio: Ketoconazole > Dipyridamole > Cinnarizine ? Albendazole. These in vitro results correlated well with oral AUC ratios from published in vivo pH effect studies, thereby confirming the validity of this approach. PMID:25070886

  17. An in vivo large-scale chemical screening platform using Drosophila for anti-cancer drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Lee F.; Schlosser, Tanja; Manning, Samuel A.; Parisot, John P.; Street, Ian P.; Richardson, Helena E.; Humbert, Patrick O.; Brumby, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Anti-cancer drug development involves enormous expenditure and risk. For rapid and economical identification of novel, bioavailable anti-tumour chemicals, the use of appropriate in vivo tumour models suitable for large-scale screening is key. Using a Drosophila Ras-driven tumour model, we demonstrate that tumour overgrowth can be curtailed by feeding larvae with chemicals that have the in vivo pharmacokinetics essential for drug development and known efficacy against human tumour cells. We then develop an in vivo 96-well plate chemical screening platform to carry out large-scale chemical screening with the tumour model. In a proof-of-principle pilot screen of 2000 compounds, we identify the glutamine analogue, acivicin, a chemical with known activity against human tumour cells, as a potent and specific inhibitor of Drosophila tumour formation. RNAi-mediated knockdown of candidate acivicin target genes implicates an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis, CTP synthase, as a possible crucial target of acivicin-mediated inhibition. Thus, the pilot screen has revealed that Drosophila tumours are glutamine-dependent, which is an emerging feature of many human cancers, and has validated the platform as a powerful and economical tool for in vivo chemical screening. The platform can also be adapted for use with other disease models, thus offering widespread applications in drug development. PMID:22996645

  18. Tankyrase 1 Inhibitors with Drug-like Properties Identified by Screening a DNA-Encoded Chemical Library.

    PubMed

    Samain, Florent; Ekblad, Torun; Mikutis, Gediminas; Zhong, Nan; Zimmermann, Mauro; Nauer, Angela; Bajic, Davor; Decurtins, Willy; Scheuermann, Jörg; Brown, Peter J; Hall, Jonathan; Gräslund, Susanne; Schüler, Herwig; Neri, Dario; Franzini, Raphael M

    2015-06-25

    We describe the synthesis and screening of a DNA-encoded chemical library containing 76230 compounds. In this library, sets of amines and carboxylic acids are directly linked producing encoded compounds with compact structures and drug-like properties. Affinity screening of this library yielded inhibitors of the potential pharmaceutical target tankyrase 1, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. These compounds have drug-like characteristics, and the most potent hit compound (X066/Y469) inhibited tankyrase 1 with an IC50 value of 250 nM. PMID:26061013

  19. Setting Clinical Exposure Levels of Concern for Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) Using Mechanistic in vitro Assays.

    PubMed

    Shah, Falgun; Leung, Louis; Barton, Hugh A; Will, Yvonne; Rodrigues, A David; Greene, Nigel; Aleo, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    Severe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a major safety issue due to its frequency of occurrence, idiosyncratic nature, poor prognosis, and diverse underlying mechanisms. Numerous experimental approaches have been published to improve human DILI prediction with modest success. A retrospective analysis of 125 drugs (70 = most-DILI, 55 = no-DILI) from the Food and Drug Administration Liver Toxicity Knowledge Base was used to investigate DILI prediction based on consideration of human exposure alone or in combination with mechanistic assays of hepatotoxic liabilities (cytotoxicity, bile salt export pump inhibition, or mitochondrial inhibition/uncoupling). Using this dataset, human plasma Cmax,total ? 1.1 µM alone distinguished most-DILI from no-DILI compounds with high sensitivity/specificity (80/73%). Accounting for human exposure improved the sensitivity/specificity for each assay and helped to derive predictive safety margins. Compounds with plasma Cmax,total ? 1.1 µM and triple liabilities had significantly higher odds ratio for DILI than those with single/dual liabilities. Using this approach, a subset of recent pharmaceuticals with evidence of liver injury during clinical development was recognized as potential hepatotoxicants. In summary, plasma Cmax,total ? 1.1 µM along with multiple mechanistic liabilities is a major driver for predictions of human DILI potential. In applying this approach during drug development the challenge will be generating accurate estimates of plasma Cmax,total at efficacious doses in advance of generating true exposure data from clinical studies. In the meantime, drug candidates with multiple hepatotoxic liabilities should be deprioritized, since they have the highest likelihood of causing DILI in case their efficacious plasma Cmax,total in humans is higher than anticipated. PMID:26206150

  20. Comprehensive screening of genes resistant to an anticancer drug in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Mai; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Hayashida, Testsu; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Rieko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Wada, Norihito; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Omori, Tai; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-09-01

    Drug resistance to chemotherapy is a major issue in esophageal cancer management. Drug resistance may be mediated by genetic changes in the tumor; therefore, the identification of gene mutations may lead to better therapeutic outcomes. We used a novel method involving transposons to screen and identify drug-resistant genes. Transposons are DNA sequences that move from one location on the gene to another. A modified piggyBac transposon was designed as an insertion mutagen, and a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter sequence was added to induce strong transcription. When the transposon is inserted to the upstream of a certain gene, the gene will be overexpressed while when intserted down or intragenically, it will be downregulated. After establishing a transposon-tagged cell library, we treated cell lines derived from esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) [Tohoku esophagus (TE)] with cisplatin (CDDP). We performed splinkerette PCR and TOPO cloning on the resistant colonies. Bacterial colonies were sequenced, and next-generation sequencing was used to identify the overexpressed/downregulated sequences as candidate genes for CDDP resistance. We established 4 cell lines of transposon-tagged cells, TE4, 5, 9 and 15. We treated the two relatively viable cell lines, TE4 and TE15, with CDDP. We identified 37 candidate genes from 8 resistant colonies. Eight genes were overexpressed whilst 29 were downregulated. Among these genes was Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) that is implicated in the progression of myeloproliferative neoplasms. We identified 37 candidate genes responsible for CDDP resistance in the two cell lines derived from ESCC cells. The method is inexpensive, relatively simple, and capable of introducing activating and de-activating mutations in the genome, allowing for drug-resistant genes to be identified. PMID:26202837

  1. Identification of compounds with potential antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium through structure-based drug screening.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Tomohiro; Koseki, Yuji; Kobayashi, Maiko; Yamada, Atsumi; Morita, Koji; Yamaguchi, Kento; Tsurusawa, Ryoya; Gulten, Gulcin; Komatsu, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sacchettini, James C; Kitamura, Mitsuru; Aoki, Shunsuke

    2013-05-24

    To identify novel antibiotics against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we performed a hierarchical structure-based drug screening (SBDS) targeting the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) with a compound library of 154,118 chemicals. We then evaluated whether the candidate hit compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of two model mycobacterial strains: Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii. Two compounds (KE3 and KE4) showed potent inhibitory effects against both model mycobacterial strains. In addition, we rescreened KE4 analogs, which were identified from a compound library of 461,383 chemicals through fingerprint analysis and genetic algorithm-based docking simulations. All of the KE4 analogs (KES1-KES5) exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of M. smegmatis and/or M. vanbaalenii. Based on the predicted binding modes, we probed the structure-activity relationships of KE4 and its analogs and found a correlative relationship between the IC50 values and the interaction residues/LogP values. The most potent inhibitor, compound KES4, strongly and stably inhibited the long-term growth of the model bacteria and showed higher inhibitory effects (IC50 = 4.8 ?M) than isoniazid (IC50 = 5.4 ?M), which is a first-line drug for tuberculosis therapy. Moreover, compound KES4 did not exhibit any toxic effects that impede cell growth in several mammalian cell lines and enterobacteria. The structural and experimental information of these novel chemical compounds will likely be useful for the development of new anti-TB drugs. Furthermore, the methodology that was used for the identification of the effective chemical compound is also likely to be effective in the SBDS of other candidate medicinal drugs. PMID:23600706

  2. Comprehensive screening of genes resistant to an anticancer drug in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    TSUTSUI, MAI; KAWAKUBO, HIROFUMI; HAYASHIDA, TESTSU; FUKUDA, KAZUMASA; NAKAMURA, RIEKO; TAKAHASHI, TSUNEHIRO; WADA, NORIHITO; SAIKAWA, YOSHIRO; OMORI, TAI; TAKEUCHI, HIROYA; KITAGAWA, YUKO

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance to chemotherapy is a major issue in esophageal cancer management. Drug resistance may be mediated by genetic changes in the tumor; therefore, the identification of gene mutations may lead to better therapeutic outcomes. We used a novel method involving transposons to screen and identify drug-resistant genes. Transposons are DNA sequences that move from one location on the gene to another. A modified piggyBac transposon was designed as an insertion mutagen, and a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter sequence was added to induce strong transcription. When the transposon is inserted to the upstream of a certain gene, the gene will be overexpressed while when intserted down or intragenically, it will be downregulated. After establishing a transposon-tagged cell library, we treated cell lines derived from esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) [Tohoku esophagus (TE)] with cisplatin (CDDP). We performed splinkerette PCR and TOPO cloning on the resistant colonies. Bacterial colonies were sequenced, and next-generation sequencing was used to identify the overexpressed/downregulated sequences as candidate genes for CDDP resistance. We established 4 cell lines of transposon-tagged cells, TE4, 5, 9 and 15. We treated the two relatively viable cell lines, TE4 and TE15, with CDDP. We identified 37 candidate genes from 8 resistant colonies. Eight genes were overexpressed whilst 29 were downregulated. Among these genes was Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) that is implicated in the progression of myeloproliferative neoplasms. We identified 37 candidate genes responsible for CDDP resistance in the two cell lines derived from ESCC cells. The method is inexpensive, relatively simple, and capable of introducing activating and de-activating mutations in the genome, allowing for drug-resistant genes to be identified. PMID:26202837

  3. Discovering new mTOR inhibitors for cancer treatment through virtual screening methods and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Chen, Lei; Yu, Miao; Xu, Li-Hui; Cheng, Bao; Lin, Yong-Sheng; Gu, Qiong; He, Xian-Hui; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an attractive target for new anticancer drug development. We recently developed in silico models to distinguish mTOR inhibitors and non-inhibitors. In this study, we developed an integrated strategy for identifying new mTOR inhibitors using cascaded in silico screening models. With this strategy, fifteen new mTOR kinase inhibitors including four compounds with IC50 values below 10??M were discovered. In particular, compound 17 exhibited potent anticancer activities against four tumor cell lines, including MCF-7, HeLa, MGC-803, and C6, with IC50 values of 1.90, 2.74, 3.50 and 11.05??M. Furthermore, cellular studies and western blot analyses revealed that 17 induces cell death via apoptosis by targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2 within cells and arrests the cell cycle of HeLa at the G1/G0-phase. Finally, multi-nanosecond explicit solvent simulations and MM/GBSA analyses were carried out to study the inhibitory mechanisms of 13, 17, and 40 for mTOR. The potent compounds presented here are worthy of further investigation. PMID:26732172

  4. Drug Discovery for Schistosomiasis: Hit and Lead Compounds Identified in a Library of Known Drugs by Medium-Throughput Phenotypic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Brian; Snedecor, June; Lim, Kee-Chong; Xu, Fengyun; Renslo, Adam R.; Williams, Janice; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only widely available drug to treat schistosomiasis. Given the potential for drug resistance, it is prudent to search for novel therapeutics. Identification of anti-schistosomal chemicals has traditionally relied on phenotypic (whole organism) screening with adult worms in vitro and/or animal models of disease—tools that limit automation and throughput with modern microtiter plate-formatted compound libraries. Methods A partially automated, three-component phenotypic screen workflow is presented that utilizes at its apex the schistosomular stage of the parasite adapted to a 96-well plate format with a throughput of 640 compounds per month. Hits that arise are subsequently screened in vitro against adult parasites and finally for efficacy in a murine model of disease. Two GO/NO GO criteria filters in the workflow prioritize hit compounds for tests in the animal disease model in accordance with a target drug profile that demands short-course oral therapy. The screen workflow was inaugurated with 2,160 chemically diverse natural and synthetic compounds, of which 821 are drugs already approved for human use. This affords a unique starting point to ‘reposition’ (re-profile) drugs as anti-schistosomals with potential savings in development timelines and costs. Findings Multiple and dynamic phenotypes could be categorized for schistosomula and adults in vitro, and a diverse set of ‘hit’ drugs and chemistries were identified, including anti-schistosomals, anthelmintics, antibiotics, and neuromodulators. Of those hits prioritized for tests in the animal disease model, a number of leads were identified, one of which compares reasonably well with PZQ in significantly decreasing worm and egg burdens, and disease-associated pathology. Data arising from the three components of the screen are posted online as a community resource. Conclusions To accelerate the identification of novel anti-schistosomals, we have developed a partially automated screen workflow that interfaces schistosomula with microtiter plate-formatted compound libraries. The workflow has identified various compounds and drugs as hits in vitro and leads, with the prescribed oral efficacy, in vivo. Efforts to improve throughput, automation, and rigor of the screening workflow are ongoing. PMID:19597541

  5. Multiclass comparative virtual screening to identify novel Hsp90 inhibitors: a therapeutic breast cancer drug target.

    PubMed

    Dunna, Nageswara Rao; Bandaru, Srinivas; Akare, Uday Raj; Rajadhyax, Siddheshwar; Gutlapalli, Venkata Ravi; Yadav, Mukesh; Nayarisseri, Anuraj

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of Hsp90, a decade ago, it has surfaced as a potential target in breast cancer therapy along with other cancers. In present study, we have selected seven established Hsp inhibitors viz., PU3, CCT-018159, CNF-2024, SNX-5422, NVP (AUY-922), EGCG and IPI-504 used in the treatment of cancer. Considering these seven inhibitors as a parent compound, ligand based search was carried out with 90% similarity in Pubchem database (31 million compounds). All the similar molecules belonging to respective parent compound along with similar compound were subjected to virtual screening using MolDock and PLP algorithm aided molecular docking. Compounds with highest docking rerank scores were selected and filtered through Lipinski's drug-likeness filters and toxicity parameters. New candidate (Pubchem CID: 11363378) qualified to demonstrate considerable affinity towards Hsp90. The selected compound was further pharmcophorically incited for receptor- ligand interactions like H-bond, electrostatic, hydrophobic interactions etc. PMID:25579569

  6. Novel Phenotypic Fluorescent Three-Dimensional Platforms for High-throughput Drug Screening and Personalized Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changge; Avis, Ingalill; Salomon, David; Cuttitta, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We have developed novel phenotypic fluorescent three-dimensional co-culture platforms that efficiently and economically screen anti-angiogenic/anti-metastatic drugs on a high-throughput scale. Individual cell populations can be identified and isolated for protein/gene expression profiling studies and cellular movement/interactions can be tracked by time-lapse cinematography. More importantly, these platforms closely parallel the in vivo angiogenic and metastatic outcomes of a given tumor xenograft in the nude mouse model but, unlike in vivo models, our co-culture platforms produce comparable results in five to nine days. Potentially, by incorporating cancer patient biopsies, the co-culture platforms should greatly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of personalized chemotherapy. PMID:23833685

  7. Novel Phenotypic Fluorescent Three-Dimensional Platforms for High-throughput Drug Screening and Personalized Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Changge; Avis, Ingalill; Salomon, David; Cuttitta, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We have developed novel phenotypic fluorescent three-dimensional co-culture platforms that efficiently and economically screen anti-angiogenic/anti-metastatic drugs on a high-throughput scale. Individual cell populations can be identified and isolated for protein/gene expression profiling studies and cellular movement/interactions can be tracked by time-lapse cinematography. More importantly, these platforms closely parallel the in vivo angiogenic and metastatic outcomes of a given tumor xenograft in the nude mouse model but, unlike in vivo models, our co-culture platforms produce comparable results in five to nine days. Potentially, by incorporating cancer patient biopsies, the co-culture platforms should greatly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of personalized chemotherapy. PMID:23833685

  8. Drug screening boosted by hyperpolarized long-lived states in NMR.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Roberto; Bornet, Aurélien; Milani, Jonas; Mammoli, Daniele; Vuichoud, Basile; Salvi, Nicola; Singh, Maninder; Laguerre, Aurélien; Passemard, Solène; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Transverse and longitudinal relaxation times (T1? and T1) have been widely exploited in NMR to probe the binding of ligands and putative drugs to target proteins. We have shown recently that long-lived states (LLS) can be more sensitive to ligand binding. LLS can be excited if the ligand comprises at least two coupled spins. Herein we broaden the scope of ligand screening by LLS to arbitrary ligands by covalent attachment of a functional group, which comprises a pair of coupled protons that are isolated from neighboring magnetic nuclei. The resulting functionalized ligands have longitudinal relaxation times T1((1)H) that are sufficiently long to allow the powerful combination of LLS with dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Hyperpolarized weak "spy ligands" can be displaced by high-affinity competitors. Hyperpolarized LLS allow one to decrease both protein and ligand concentrations to micromolar levels and to significantly increase sample throughput. PMID:25196781

  9. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  10. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF PROPOSED PROTOCOLS FOR IN VITRO SCREENING ASSAYS AND QSAR FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR AND ANDROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening EDCs for androgenic and antiandrogenic activities was recommended by the EDSTAC Committee in it Final Report. This research will develop in vitro approaches to assess estrogen receptor binding, develop cell lines that stably express estrogen receptor for screening EDC...

  11. Noninvasive stool antigen assay for screening of Helicobacter pylori infection and assessing success of eradication therapy in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Falaknazi, Kianoosh; Jalalzadeh, Mojgan; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid

    2010-10-01

    INTRODUCTION. Helicobacter pylori infection can be diagnosed by biopsy-based or noninvasive methods. Our aim was to identify H pylori-positive patients on hemodialysis by the noninvasive method of H pylori stool antigen (HPSA) and investigate its diagnostic accuracy for assessment of the eradication of infection after treatment in comparison with urea breath test (UBT). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Serology, HPSA, and UBT were performed on 87 hemodialysis patients. Infection with H pylori was confirmed if at least 2 tests were positive. Patients with H pylori infection received a 2-week course of triple therapy. To evaluate success of eradication HPSA and UBT were done after 8 weeks. RESULTS. Eighty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 39 (44.8%) were proved to have H pylori infection. The HPSA was positive in the stool specimens of 37 patients (42.5%) and the serology test was positive in 39 (44.8%). The HPSA had a 87.1% sensitivity and a 93.7% specificity for detection of H pylori infection. Thirty-seven patients completed the treatment period. Success of H pylori eradication was documented in 30 of the 37 patients (81.1%) based on UBT. After the treatment, the HPSA was negative in 32 of 37 of the stool specimens (86.4%), showing a 42.8% sensitivity and a 93.3% specificity to detect the failure of eradication of H pylori. CONCLUSIONS. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen assay is a noninvasive reliable tool to screen H pylori infection before therapy and assess the success of eradication in patients on hemodialysis. PMID:20852374

  12. Protonation sites and dissociation mechanisms of t-butylcarbamates in tandem mass spectrometric assays for newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Spá?il, Zden?k; Hui, Renjie; Gelb, Michael H; Ture?ek, František

    2011-10-01

    Structures of tert-butylcarbamate ions in the gas-phase and methanol solution were studied for simple secondary and tertiary carbamates as well as for carbamate-containing products and internal standards for lysosomal enzyme assays used in newborn screening of a ?-galactosidase A deficiency (Fabry disease), mucopolysaccharidosis I (Hurler disease), and mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter disease). The protonation of simple t-butylcarbamates can occur at the carbonyl group, which is the preferred site in the gas phase. Protonation in methanol solution is more favorable if occurring at the carbamate nitrogen atom. The protonation of more complex t-butylcarbamates occurs at amide and carbamate carbonyl groups, and the ions are stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding, which is affected by solvation. Tertiary carbamates containing aminophenol amide groups were calculated to have substantially greater gas-phase basicities than secondary carbamates containing coumarin amide groups. The main diagnostically important ion dissociation by elimination of 2-methylpropene (isobutylene, i-C(4)H(8)) and carbon dioxide is shown by experiment and theory to proceed in two steps. Energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation of the Hurler's disease enzymatic product ion, which is a coumarin-diamine linker-t-butylcarbamate conjugate (3a(+)), indicated separate energy thresholds for the loss of i-C(4)H(8) and CO(2). Computational investigation of the potential energy surface along two presumed reaction pathways indicated kinetic preference for the migration of a t-butyl hydrogen atom to the carbamate carbonyl resulting in the isobutylene loss. The consequent loss of CO(2) required further proton migrations that had to overcome energy barriers. PMID:22012676

  13. Evaluation of the on-site immunoassay drug-screening device Triage-TOX in routine forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    Instrumental identification of drugs with quantification is essential in forensic toxicology, while on-site immunoassay urinalysis drug-screening devices conveniently provide preliminary information when adequately used. However, suitable or sufficient urine specimens are not always available. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new on-site immunoassay drug-screening device Triage-TOX (Alere Inc., San Diego, CA, USA), which has recently been developed to provide objective data on the one-step automated processor, using 51 urine and 19 pericardial fluid samples from 66 forensic autopsy cases, compared with Triage-Drug of Abuse (DOA) and Monitect-9. For benzodiazepines, the positive predictive value and specificity of Triage-TOX were higher than those of Triage-DOA; however, sensitivity was higher with Monitect-9, despite frequent false-positives. The results for the other drugs with the three devices also included a few false-negatives and false-positives. These observations indicate the applicability of Triage-TOX in preliminary drug screening using urine or alternative materials in routine forensic autopsy, when a possible false-negative is considered, especially for benzodiazepines, providing objective information; however, the combined use of another device such as Monitect-9 can help minimize misinterpretation prior to instrumental analysis. PMID:26593997

  14. Discovery of a drug targeting microenvironmental support for lymphoma cells by screening using patient-derived xenograft cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Keiki; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Shimada, Satoko; Morishita, Takanobu; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Katakai, Tomoya; Tomita, Akihiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Cell lines have been used for drug discovery as useful models of cancers; however, they do not recapitulate cancers faithfully, especially in the points of rapid growth rate and microenvironment independency. Consequently, the majority of conventional anti-cancer drugs are less sensitive to slow growing cells and do not target microenvironmental support, although most primary cancer cells grow slower than cell lines and depend on microenvironmental support. Here, we developed a novel high throughput drug screening system using patient-derived xenograft (PDX) cells of lymphoma that maintained primary cancer cell phenotype more than cell lines. The library containing 2613 known pharmacologically active substance and off-patent drugs were screened by this system. We could find many compounds showing higher cytotoxicity than conventional anti-tumor drugs. Especially, pyruvinium pamoate showed the highest activity and its strong anti-tumor effect was confirmed also in vivo. We extensively investigated its mechanism of action and found that it inhibited glutathione supply from stromal cells to lymphoma cells, implying the importance of the stromal protection from oxidative stress for lymphoma cell survival and a new therapeutic strategy for lymphoma. Our system introduces a primary cancer cell phenotype into cell-based phenotype screening and sheds new light on anti-cancer drug development. PMID:26278963

  15. Frequency of oestrogen and progesterone receptor positivity by immunohistochemical analysis in 7016 breast carcinomas: correlation with patient age, assay sensitivity, threshold value, and mammographic screening

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, A; Jasani, B; Balaton, A; Barnes, D; Miller, K

    2000-01-01

    Aims—A routine immunohistochemical (IHC) assay is now commonly used for determining the oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of women with breast cancer. To date, no large studies have been conducted that report the expected frequency of receptor positivity in relation to patient age and sensitivity of the IHC assay. Data on 7016 breast carcinomas from 71 laboratories were analysed to determine the frequency of receptor positivity and investigate possible causes of the observed variation in detection rates. Methods—Members of UK NEQAS-ICC (UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Immunocytochemistry) provided data on the receptor status of cases routinely assayed in their departments over a period of two to 26 months between June 1996 and September 1998. Data on 7016 breast carcinomas were stratified according to patient age and receptor status. Frequency of receptor positivity was correlated with IHC assay sensitivity, the threshold value used to determine receptor positivity, and the presence or absence of mammographic screening in the hospitals or clinics served by the laboratories. Results—The highest proportion of receptor positive cases occurred in patients in the age ranges > 65 years for ER and 41–50 years for PR. There was a significant positive correlation between frequency of receptor positivity and the sensitivity of the IHC assay, for both ER (rs = 0.346; p = 0.019; two tailed) and PR (rs = 0.561; p = 0.003; two tailed). The mean frequency of receptor positivity for laboratories using the same 10% threshold value was 77% for ER (95% confidence interval (CI), 74% to 80%) in laboratories with high sensitivity and 72% (95% CI, 68% to 76%) for those with low assay sensitivity (p = 0.025). For PR, the mean frequency of receptor positivity for laboratories using the same 10% threshold value and having high assay sensitivity was 63% (95% CI, 57% to 69%), and 51% (95% CI, 38% to 65%) for laboratories with assays of low sensitivity (p = 0.022). The mean frequency of ER positivity for laboratories serving hospitals and clinics where mammographic screening does and does not take place was 73.4% and 75.7%, respectively (p = 0.302; two tailed). Conclusions—Of the parameters investigated, patient age and IHC assay sensitivity were found to be the main variables influencing the frequency of receptor positivity. We recommend the range of receptor values obtained by laboratories achieving high assay sensitivity as a useful guide against which all laboratories can gauge their own results. Key Words: immunohistochemistry • oestrogen receptors • progesterone receptors • frequency of positivity PMID:11041059

  16. Spontaneously-forming spheroids as an in vitro cancer cell model for anticancer drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Theodoraki, Maria A.; Rezende, Celso O.; Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Corben, Adriana D.; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.; Alpaugh, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    The limited translational value in clinic of analyses performed on 2-D cell cultures has prompted a shift toward the generation of 3-dimensional (3-D) multicellular systems. Here we present a spontaneously-forming in vitro cancer spheroid model, referred to as spheroidsMARY-X, that precisely reflects the pathophysiological features commonly found in tumor tissues and the lymphovascular embolus. In addition, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive means to evaluate response following drug treatment where spheroid dissolution indices from brightfield image analyses are used to construct dose-response curves resulting in relevant IC50 values. Using the spheroidsMARY-X model, we demonstrate the unique ability of a new class of molecules, containing the caged Garcinia xanthone (CGX) motif, to induce spheroidal dissolution and apoptosis at IC50 values of 0.42 +/?0.02 ?M for gambogic acid and 0.66 +/?0.02 ?M for MAD28. On the other hand, treatment of spheroidsMARY-X with various currently approved chemotherapeutics of solid and blood-borne cancer types failed to induce any response as indicated by high dissolution indices and subsequent poor IC50 values, such as 7.8 +/?3.1 ?M for paclitaxel. Our studies highlight the significance of the spheroidsMARY-X model in drug screening and underscore the potential of the CGX motif as a promising anticancer pharmacophore. PMID:26101913

  17. Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Tuchin, Valery V; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2007-01-01

    Using animal mesentery with intravital optical microscopy is a well-established experimental model for studying blood and lymph microcirculation in vivo. Recent advances in cell biology and optical techniques provide the basis for extending this model for new applications, which should generate significantly improved experimental data. This review summarizes the achievements in this specific area, including in vivo label-free blood and lymph photothermal flow cytometry, super-sensitive fluorescence image cytometry, light scattering and speckle flow cytometry, microvessel dynamic microscopy, infrared (IR) angiography, and high-speed imaging of individual cells in fast flow. The capabilities of these techniques, using the rat mesentery model, were demonstrated in various studies; e.g., real-time quantitative detection of circulating and migrating individual blood and cancer cells, studies on vascular dynamics with a focus on lymphatics under normal conditions and under different interventions (e.g. lasers, drugs, nicotine), assessment of lymphatic disturbances from experimental lymphedema, monitoring cell traffic between blood and lymph systems, and high-speed imaging of cell transient deformability in flow. In particular, the obtained results demonstrated that individual cell transportation in living organisms depends on cell type (e.g., normal blood or leukemic cells), the cell’s functional state (e.g., live, apoptotic, or necrotic), and the functional status of the organism. Possible future applications, including in vivo early diagnosis and prevention of disease, monitoring immune response and apoptosis, chemo- and radio-sensitivity tests, and drug screening, are also discussed. PMID:17226898

  18. Evolving the EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: The case for and against using high-throughput screening assays in EDSP Tier 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing has begun as part of the EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 battery of 11 in vitro and in vivo tests. A recognized issue with the EDSP is that the current Tier 1 screening battery is highly resource intensive in terms of cost, time and animal usage fo...

  19. A cell-based high-throughput screening assay to measure cellular histone h3 lys27 trimethylation with a modified dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wensheng; Ames, Robert S; Li, Hu

    2012-01-01

    Histone proteins are subject to several modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination. These posttranslational modifications play critical roles in chromatin structure and gene transcription. Because of their involvement in the progression of a variety of diseases, histone modifications are attracting increased attention. We report herein a high-throughput DELFIA assay to quantify H3K27me3 in the prostate cancer cell line, PC3. Using a high binding MaxiSorp plate, we were able to eliminate the need for the capture antibody. We also developed an effective method, a combination of "freeze-thaw" and 0.2 N HCl, to extract histone proteins in PC3 cells cultured in a 384-well plate. To compensate for cell viability change, we normalized H3K27me3 signal to the total amount of H3 in each sample well. As a result, we show that the assay has a good dynamic range with a robust assay window. Using a methlytransferase inhibitor, DZNep, we show that the change of H3K27me3 signal is target specific. This method simplifies the logistics in screening and profiling and reduces the cost per well to an acceptable level for high-throughput screening. The findings presented here should be applicable to other assays involving binding and extraction of histone proteins. PMID:22086723

  20. 77 FR 59208 - Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Screening and Eviction for Drug Abuse and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Screening and Eviction for Drug... lease enforcement and eviction of those individuals in the public housing and Section 8 programs who... INFORMATION CONTACT: Colette Pollard., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and...

  1. The SASSI-3 Face Valid other Drugs Scale: A Psychometric Investigation (Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Perera-Diltz, Dilani; Smirnoff, Jennifer B.; Salyers, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric capabilities of the Face Valid Other Drugs (FVOD) scale of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3; G. A. Miller, 1999). Internal consistency reliability estimates and construct validity factor analysis for 230 college students provided initial support for the psychometric properties of…

  2. Computational Assay of H7N9 Influenza Neuraminidase Reveals R292K Mutation Reduces Drug Binding Affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Christopher J.; Malaisree, Maturos; Long, Ben; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of a novel H7N9 avian influenza that infects humans is a serious cause for concern. Of the genome sequences of H7N9 neuraminidase available, one contains a substitution of arginine to lysine at position 292, suggesting a potential for reduced drug binding efficacy. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir bound to H7N9, H7N9-R292K, and a structurally related H11N9 neuraminidase. They show that H7N9 neuraminidase is structurally homologous to H11N9, binding the drugs in identical modes. The simulations reveal that the R292K mutation disrupts drug binding in H7N9 in a comparable manner to that observed experimentally for H11N9-R292K. Absolute binding free energy calculations with the WaterSwap method confirm a reduction in binding affinity. This indicates that the efficacy of antiviral drugs against H7N9-R292K will be reduced. Simulations can assist in predicting disruption of binding caused by mutations in neuraminidase, thereby providing a computational `assay.'

  3. [Chemical evaluation by cancer cell line panel and its role in molecular target-based anticancer drug screening].

    PubMed

    Yamori, Takao

    2004-04-01

    Mechanism-based or target-based evaluation of chemicals is important in the discovery and development of anticancer drugs. A new scale for the mechanism-oriented evaluation is acquired by creating a database of drugs that includes their activities concerning growth inhibition against a set of cancer cell lines and by employing a specific data-mining method (Paull KD, et al: J Natl Cancer Inst 81: 1088-1092, 1989). According to this principle, we have established a new system for drug evaluation using a panel of 39 human cancer cell lines, JFCR-39 Cell Line Panel. The JFCR-39 Cell Line Panel is a system combining a wet system (drug-sensitivity test) and a dry system (data base and its mining), and can predict the mechanism of action of chemicals. Therefore, it is useful in anticancer drug discovery. The JFCR-39 Cell Line Panel now plays an important role as a core drug evaluation system in the molecular target-based drug screening conducted by Screening Committee of New Anticancer Agents supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Area "Cancer" from The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. I outlined the JFCR-39 Cell Line Panel in this review. PMID:15114687

  4. Hooking the big one: the potential of zebrafish xenotransplantation to reform cancer drug screening in the genomic era.

    PubMed

    Veinotte, Chansey J; Dellaire, Graham; Berman, Jason N

    2014-07-01

    The current preclinical pipeline for drug discovery can be cumbersome and costly, which limits the number of compounds that can effectively be transitioned to use as therapies. Chemical screens in zebrafish have uncovered new uses for existing drugs and identified promising new compounds from large libraries. Xenotransplantation of human cancer cells into zebrafish embryos builds on this work and enables direct evaluation of patient-derived tumor specimens in vivo in a rapid and cost-effective manner. The short time frame needed for xenotransplantation studies means that the zebrafish can serve as an early preclinical drug screening tool and can also help personalize cancer therapy by providing real-time data on the response of the human cells to treatment. In this Review, we summarize the use of zebrafish embryos in drug screening and highlight the potential for xenotransplantation approaches to be adopted as a preclinical tool to identify and prioritize therapies for further clinical evaluation. We also discuss some of the limitations of using zebrafish xenografts and the benefits of using them in concert with murine xenografts in drug optimization. PMID:24973744

  5. A quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay for the assessment of drug activities against intracellular Theileria annulata schizonts

    PubMed Central

    Hostettler, Isabel; Müller, Joachim; Stephens, Chad E.; Haynes, Richard; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular schizonts of the apicomplexans Theileria annulata and Theileria parva immortalize bovine leucocytes thereby causing fatal immunoproliferative diseases. Buparvaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone related to parvaquone, is the only drug available against Theileria. The drug is only effective at the onset of infection and emerging resistance underlines the need for identifying alternative compounds. Current drug assays employ monitoring of proliferation of infected cells, with apoptosis of the infected host cell as a read-out, but it is often unclear whether active compounds directly impair the viability of the parasite or primarily induce host cell death. We here report on the development of a quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR method based on two Theileria genes, tasp and tap104, which are both expressed in schizonts. Upon in vitro treatment of T. annulata infected bovine monocytes with buparvaquone, TaSP and Tap104 mRNA expression levels significantly decreased in relation to host cell actin already within 4 h of drug exposure, while significant differences in host cell proliferation were detectable only after 48–72 h. TEM revealed marked alterations of the schizont ultrastructure already after 2 h of buparvaquone treatment, while the host cell remained unaffected. Expression of TaSP and Tap104 proteins showed a marked decrease only after 24 h. Therefore, the analysis of expression levels of mRNA coding for TaSP and Tap104 allows to directly measuring impairment of parasite viability. We subsequently applied this method using a series of compounds affecting different targets in other apicomplexan parasites, and show that monitoring of TaSP- and Tap104 mRNA levels constitutes a suitable tool for anti-theilerial drug development. PMID:25516828

  6. A quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay for the assessment of drug activities against intracellular Theileria annulata schizonts.

    PubMed

    Hostettler, Isabel; Müller, Joachim; Stephens, Chad E; Haynes, Richard; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular schizonts of the apicomplexans Theileria annulata and Theileria parva immortalize bovine leucocytes thereby causing fatal immunoproliferative diseases. Buparvaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone related to parvaquone, is the only drug available against Theileria. The drug is only effective at the onset of infection and emerging resistance underlines the need for identifying alternative compounds. Current drug assays employ monitoring of proliferation of infected cells, with apoptosis of the infected host cell as a read-out, but it is often unclear whether active compounds directly impair the viability of the parasite or primarily induce host cell death. We here report on the development of a quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR method based on two Theileria genes, tasp and tap104, which are both expressed in schizonts. Upon in vitro treatment of T. annulata infected bovine monocytes with buparvaquone, TaSP and Tap104 mRNA expression levels significantly decreased in relation to host cell actin already within 4 h of drug exposure, while significant differences in host cell proliferation were detectable only after 48-72 h. TEM revealed marked alterations of the schizont ultrastructure already after 2 h of buparvaquone treatment, while the host cell remained unaffected. Expression of TaSP and Tap104 proteins showed a marked decrease only after 24 h. Therefore, the analysis of expression levels of mRNA coding for TaSP and Tap104 allows to directly measuring impairment of parasite viability. We subsequently applied this method using a series of compounds affecting different targets in other apicomplexan parasites, and show that monitoring of TaSP- and Tap104 mRNA levels constitutes a suitable tool for anti-theilerial drug development. PMID:25516828

  7. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Determination of One Hundred Kinds of Pure Chemical Compounds Using Offline and Online Screening HPLC Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Jin; Oh, You Chang; Cho, Won Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of one hundred kinds of pure chemical compounds found within a number of natural substances and oriental medicinal herbs (OMH). Three different methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of DPPH radical-scavenging activity, ABTS radical-scavenging activity, and online screening HPLC-ABTS assays. The results indicated that 17 compounds exhibited better inhibitory activity against ABTS radical than DPPH radical. The IC50 rate of a more practical substance is determined, and the ABTS assay IC50 values of gallic acid hydrate, (+)-catechin hydrate, caffeic acid, rutin hydrate, hyperoside, quercetin, and kaempferol compounds were 1.03 ± 0.25, 3.12 ± 0.51, 1.59 ± 0.06, 4.68 ± 1.24, 3.54 ± 0.39, 1.89 ± 0.33, and 3.70 ± 0.15??g/mL, respectively. The ABTS assay is more sensitive to identifying the antioxidant activity since it has faster reaction kinetics and a heightened response to antioxidants. In addition, there was a very small margin of error between the results of the offline-ABTS assay and those of the online screening HPLC-ABTS assay. We also evaluated the effects of 17 compounds on the NO secretion in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and also investigated the cytotoxicity of 17 compounds using a cell counting kit (CCK) in order to determine the optimal concentration that would provide an effective anti-inflammatory action with minimum toxicity. These results will be compiled into a database, and this method can be a powerful preselection tool for compounds intended to be studied for their potential bioactivity and antioxidant activity related to their radical-scavenging capacity. PMID:26504472

  8. Development of a drug assay using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, S. M.; Roe, Jeffrey N.; Andresen, Brian D.; Myrick, Michael L.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1990-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to detect low levels of several chemical compounds, including the drugs of abuse -cocaine hydrochloride and methamphetamme hydrochloride. Raman spectra of these substances have also been taken over optical fibers using red-wavelength excitation. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the remote determination of various target chemicals using diode laser excitation and diode array detection.

  9. Toxicity Screening of the ToxCast Phase II Chemical Library Using a Zebrafish Developmental Assay (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the US EPA, the ToxCast Phase II chemicals were assessed using a vertebrate screen for developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were exposed in 96-well plates from late-blastula stage (6hr pos...

  10. High-throughput screening for fatty acid uptake inhibitors in humanized yeast identifies atypical antipsychotic drugs that cause dyslipidemias.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Black, Paul N; Chokshi, Aalap; Sandoval-Alvarez, Angel; Vatsyayan, Ravi; Sealls, Whitney; DiRusso, Concetta C

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids are implicated in the development of dyslipidemias, leading to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We used a standardized small compound library to screen humanized yeast to identify compounds that inhibit fatty acid transport protein (FATP)-mediated fatty acid uptake into cells. This screening procedure used live yeast cells expressing human FATP2 to identify small compounds that reduced the import of a fluorescent fatty acid analog, 4,4-difluoro-5-methyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoic acid (C(1)-BODIPY-C(12)). The library used consisted of 2,080 compounds with known biological activities. Of these, approximately 1.8% reduced cell-associated C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) fluorescence and were selected as potential inhibitors of human FATP2-mediated fatty acid uptake. Based on secondary screens, 28 compounds were selected as potential fatty acid uptake inhibitors. Some compounds fell into four groups with similar structural features. The largest group was structurally related to a family of tricyclic, phenothiazine-derived drugs used to treat schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders, which are also known to cause metabolic side effects, including hypertriglyceridemia. Potential hit compounds were studied for specificity of interaction with human FATP and efficacy in human Caco-2 cells. This study validates this screening system as useful to assess the impact of drugs in preclinical screening for fatty acid uptake. PMID:17928635

  11. Evaluation of the performance of nitrate reductase assay for rapid drug-susceptibility testing of mycobacterium tuberculosis in north India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anamika; Sen, Malay Ranjan; Mohapatra, Tribhuban Mohan; Anupurba, Shampa

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of nitrate reductase assay (NRA) as a rapid, reliable and inexpensive method for drug-susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against first-line antitubercular drugs, such as rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (STR), and ethambutol (EMB). In total, 286 isolates were subjected to test by proportion method (PM) and NRA. By comparing the results of NRA with those of the gold standard PM, sensitivities and specificities were 98.4%, 97%, 88.5%, and 94.2% and 100%, 100%, 94%, and 99% for RIF, INH, STR, and EMB respectively. The positive predictive values were 100%, 100%, 95%, and 98% for RIF, INH, STR, and EMB respectively. The negative values were 99%, 98%, 87%, and 96% for RIF, INH, STR, and EMB respectively. The median time of obtaining results was shorter using NRA (10 days) compared to PM (28 days). An excellent agreement was observed between the two phenotypic tests with the K values of 0.98, 0.97, 0.81, and 0.93 for RIF, INH, STR, and EMB respectively. The results demonstrated that NRA is suitable for the early determination of INH and RIF resistance and has the potential to be a useful tool for rapid drug-sensitivity test of M. tuberculosis in resource-constrained settings. PMID:21528787

  12. The Use of the LanthaScreen TR-FRET CAR Coactivator Assay in the Characterization of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Inverse Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Carazo, Alejandro; Pávek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a critical nuclear receptor in the gene regulation of xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. The LanthaScreenTM TR-FRET CAR coactivator assay provides a simple and reliable method to analyze the affinity of a ligand to the human CAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) with no need to use cellular models. This in silico assay thus enables the study of direct CAR ligands and the ability to distinguish them from the indirect CAR activators that affect the receptor via the cell signaling-dependent phosphorylation of CAR in cells. For the current paper we characterized the pharmacodynamic interactions of three known CAR inverse agonists/antagonists—PK11195, clotrimazole and androstenol—with the prototype agonist CITCO (6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime) using the TR-FRET LanthaScreenTM assay. We have confirmed that all three compounds are inverse agonists of human CAR, with IC50 0.51, 0.005, and 0.35 ?M, respectively. All the compounds also antagonize the CITCO-mediated activation of CAR, but only clotrimazole was capable to completely reverse the effect of CITCO in the tested concentrations. Thus this method allows identifying not only agonists, but also antagonists and inverse agonists for human CAR as well as to investigate the nature of the pharmacodynamic interactions of CAR ligands. PMID:25905697

  13. ASSAY DEVELOPMENT AND HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING FOR INHIBITORS OF KAPOSI'S SARCOMA-ASSOCIATED HERPESVIRUS N-TERMINAL LANA BINDING TO NUCLEOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    Beauchemin, Chantal; Moerke, Nathan J.; Faloon, Patrick; Kaye, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has a causative role in several human malignancies, especially in immunocompromised hosts. KSHV latently infects tumor cells and persists as an extrachromosomal episome (plasmid). KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates KSHV episome persistence. LANA binds specific KSHV sequence to replicate viral DNA. In addition, LANA tethers KSHV genomes to mitotic chromosomes to efficiently segregate episomes to daughter nuclei after mitosis. N-terminal LANA binds histones H2A/H2B to attach to chromosomes. Currently, there are no specific inhibitors of KSHV latent infection. To enable high throughput screening of inhibitors of N-LANA binding to nucleosomes, here we develop, miniaturize, and validate a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay that detects fluorophore labeled N-LANA peptide binding to nucleosomes. We also miniaturize a counterscreen to identify DNA intercalators that nonspecifically inhibit N-LANA binding to nucleosomes, and also develop an ELISA to assess N-LANA binding to nucleosomes in the absence of fluorescence. High throughput screening of libraries containing more than 350,000 compounds identified multiple compounds that inhibited N-LANA binding to nucleosomes. However, no compounds survived all counterscreens. More complex small molecule libraries will likely be necessary to identify specific inhibitors of N-LANA binding to histones H2A/H2B; these assays should prove useful for future screens. PMID:24518064

  14. Tools for GPCR drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ru; Xie, Xin

    2012-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate many important physiological functions and are considered as one of the most successful therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The design and implementation of high-throughput GPCR assays that allow the cost-effective screening of large compound libraries to identify novel drug candidates are critical in early drug discovery. Early functional GPCR assays depend primarily on the measurement of G-protein-mediated 2nd messenger generation. Taking advantage of the continuously deepening understanding of GPCR signal transduction, many G-protein-independent pathways are utilized to detect the activity of GPCRs, and may provide additional information on functional selectivity of candidate compounds. With the combination of automated imaging systems and label-free detection systems, such assays are now suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS). In this review, we summarize the most widely used GPCR assays and recent advances in HTS technologies for GPCR drug discovery. PMID:22266728

  15. Development of a drug assay using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, S.M.; Roe, J.N.; Andresen, B.D.; Myrick, M.L.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1990-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to detect low levels of several chemical compounds, including the drugs of abuse -- cocaine hydrochloride and methamphetamine hydrochloride. Raman spectra of these substances have also been taken over optical fibers using red-wavelength excitation. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the remote red-wavelength excitation. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the remote determination of various target chemicals using diode excitation and diode array detection. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Limitations and relative utility of screening assays to assess engineered nanoparticle toxicity in a human cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro-Riviere, N.A.; Inman, A.O.; Zhang, L.W.

    2009-01-15

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), fullerenes (C{sub 60}), carbon black (CB), nC{sub 60}, and quantum dots (QD) have been studied in vitro to determine their toxicity in a number of cell types. Here, we report that classical dye-based assays such as MTT and neutral red (NR) that determine cell viability produce invalid results with some NM (nanomaterials) due to NM/dye interactions and/or NM adsorption of the dye/dye products. In this study, human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) were exposed in vitro to CB, SWCNT, C{sub 60}, nC{sub 60}, and QD to assess viability with calcein AM (CAM), Live/Dead (LD), NR, MTT, Celltiter 96 AQueous One (96 AQ), alamar Blue (aB), Celltiter-Blue (CTB), CytoTox One{sup TM} (CTO), and flow cytometry. In addition, trypan blue (TB) was quantitated by light microscopy. Assay linearity (R{sup 2} value) was determined with HEK plated at concentrations from 0 to 25,000 cells per well in 96-well plates. HEK were treated with serial dilutions of each NM for 24 h and assessed with each of the viability assays. TB, CAM and LD assays, which depend on direct staining of living and/or dead cells, were difficult to interpret due to physical interference of the NM with cells. Results of the dye-based assays varied a great deal, depending on the interactions of the dye/dye product with the carbon nanomaterials (CNM). Results show the optimal high throughput assay for use with carbon and noncarbon NM was 96 AQ. This study shows that, unlike small molecules, CNM interact with assay markers to cause variable results with classical toxicology assays and may not be suitable for assessing nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Therefore, more than one assay may be required when determining nanoparticle toxicity for risk assessment.

  17. A High-Throughput Radiometric Kinase Assay.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant kinase signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases. While kinases have become attractive drug targets, only a small fraction of human protein kinases have validated inhibitors. Screening of libraries of compounds against a kinase or kinases of interest is routinely performed during kinase inhibitor development to identify promising scaffolds for a particular target and to identify kinase targets for compounds of interest. Screening of more focused compound libraries may also be conducted in the later stages of inhibitor development to improve potency and optimize selectivity. The dot blot kinase assay is a robust, high-throughput kinase assay that can be used to screen a number of small-molecule compounds against one kinase of interest or several kinases. Here, a protocol for a dot blot kinase assay used for measuring insulin receptor kinase activity is presented. This protocol can be readily adapted for use with other protein kinases. PMID:26501904

  18. THYROID AXIS INHIBITION IN XENOPUS LAEVIS: DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIAN-BASED SCREENING ASSAY FOR THYROID DISRUPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the initial EDSTAC recommendations, research was conducted on the development of a Xenopus laevis based tail resorption assay for evaluating thyroid axis disruption. These experiments highlighted key limitations associated with reliance on tail resorption as a meas...

  19. Evaluation of layers of the rat airway epithelial cell line RL-65 for permeability screening of inhaled drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Hutter, V; Hilgendorf, C; Cooper, A; Zann, V; Pritchard, D I; Bosquillon, C

    2012-09-29

    A rat respiratory epithelial cell culture system for in vitro prediction of drug pulmonary absorption is currently lacking. Such a model may however enhance the understanding of interspecies differences in inhaled drug pharmacokinetics by filling the gap between human in vitro and rat in/ex vivo drug permeability screens. The rat airway epithelial cell line RL-65 was cultured on Transwell inserts for up to 21 days at an air-liquid (AL) interface and cell layers were evaluated for their suitability as a drug permeability measurement tool. These layers were found to be morphologically representative of the bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium when cultured for 8 days in a defined serum-free medium. In addition, RL-65 layers developed epithelial barrier properties with a transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) >300 ? cm(2) and apparent (14)C-mannitol permeability (P(app)) values between 0.5-3.0 × 10(-6)cm/s; i.e., in the same range as established in vitro human bronchial epithelial absorption models. Expression of P-glycoprotein was confirmed by gene analysis and immunohistochemistry. Nevertheless, no vectorial transport of the established substrates (3)H-digoxin and Rhodamine123 was observed across the layers. Although preliminary, this study shows RL-65 cell layers have the potential to become a useful in vitro screening tool in the pre-clinical development of inhaled drug candidates. PMID:22820031

  20. Deployable, field-sustainable, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid screening and serotype identification of dengue virus in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    McAvin, James C; Powers, Michael D; Blow, Jamie A; Putnam, John L; Huff, William B; Swaby, James A

    2007-03-01

    Dengue virus universal and serotype 1 to 4 fluorogenic probe hydrolysis, reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and positive-control RNA template were freeze-dried in a thermally stable, hydrolytic enzyme-resistant format and deployed for testing in a dengue fever-endemic region of Thailand. The study site presented austere testing conditions. Field-collected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes spiked with inoculated A. aegypti mosquitoes and individual and pooled, field-collected, A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes were used for RT-PCR assay evaluations. For dengue virus-inoculated A. aegypti mosquitoes and spiked samples, in vitro sensitivity and specificity results for all five assays were concordant with indirect fluorescent antibody assay results. A single pool of field-collected, female, A. aegypti mosquitoes was identified as dengue virus positive. Cross-reactivity was not observed across heterologous serotypes, mosquito vectors, or human DNA. The limit of detection was >7 to < or =70 genomic equivalents. Sample processing and analysis required <2 hours. These results show promise of field-formatted RT-PCR reagents for rapid, sensitive, specific dengue virus screening and serotype identification in mosquitoes under field-deployed conditions. PMID:17436782

  1. Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay Detects HIV Drug Resistance Associated with Virologic Failure among Antiretroviral-Naïve Adults in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Michael H.; Beck, Ingrid A.; Dross, Sandra; Tapia, Kenneth; Kiarie, James N.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Overbaugh, Julie; Sakr, Samah R.; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is increasing in some areas of Africa. Detection of TDR may predict virologic failure of first-line non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated the utility of a relatively inexpensive oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) to detect clinically relevant TDR at time of ART initiation. Methods Pre-ART plasmas from ART-naive Kenyans initiating an NNRTI-based fixed-dose combination ART in a randomized adherence trial conducted in 2006 were retrospectively analyzed by OLA for mutations conferring resistance to NNRTI (K103N, Y181C, and G190A) and lamivudine (M184V). Post-ART plasmas were analyzed for virologic failure (?1,000 copies/mL) at 6 month intervals over 18-month follow-up. Pre-ART plasmas of those with virologic failure were evaluated for drug resistance by consensus and 454-pyrosequencing. Results Among 386 participants, TDR was detected by OLA in 3.89% [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 2.19-6.33], and was associated with a 10-fold higher rate of virologic failure [Hazard Ratio (HR), 10.39; 95% CI, 3.23-32.41; p<0.001) compared to those without TDR. OLA detected 24 TDR mutations (K103N, n=13; Y181C, n=5; G190A, n=3; M184V, n=3) in 15 subjects (NNRTI, n=15; 3TC, n=3). Among 51 participants who developed virologic failure, consensus sequencing did not detect additional TDR mutations conferring high-level resistance, and pyrosequencing only detected additional mutations at frequencies <2%. Mutant frequencies <2% at ART initiation were significantly less likely to be found at the time of virologic failure compared to frequencies ?2% (22% vs. 63%; p<0.001). Conclusions Detection of TDR by a point mutation assay may prevent use of sub-optimal ART. PMID:25140907

  2. Validation of a newly developed hexaplex real-time PCR assay for screening for presence of GMOs in food, feed and seed.

    PubMed

    Bahrdt, C; Krech, A B; Wurz, A; Wulff, D

    2010-03-01

    For years, an increasing number and diversity of genetically modified plants has been grown on a commercial scale. The need for detection and identification of these genetically modified organisms (GMOs) calls for broad and at the same time flexible high throughput testing methods. Here we describe the development and validation of a hexaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening assay covering more than 100 approved GMOs containing at least one of the GMO targets of the assay. The assay comprises detection systems for Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens NOS terminator, Figwort Mosaic Virus 34S promoter and two construct-specific sequences present in novel genetically modified soybean and maize that lack common screening elements. Additionally a detection system for an internal positive control (IPC) indicating the presence or absence of PCR inhibiting substances was included. The six real-time PCR systems were allocated to five detection channels showing no significant crosstalk between the detection channels. As part of an extensive validation, a limit of detection (LOD(abs)) < or = ten target copies was proven in hexaplex format. A sensitivity < or = ten target copies of each GMO detection system was still shown in highly asymmetric target situations in the presence of 1,000 copies of all other GMO targets of each detection channel. Furthermore, the applicability to a broad sample spectrum and reliable indication of inhibition by the IPC system was demonstrated. The presented hexaplex assay offers sensitive and reliable detection of GMOs in processed and unprocessed food, feed and seed samples with high efficiency. PMID:20101506

  3. Identification of Candidate Agents Active against N. ceranae Infection in Honey Bees: Establishment of a Medium Throughput Screening Assay Based on N. ceranae Infected Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

  4. Rapid screening and identification of dominant B cell epitopes of HBV surface antigen by quantum dot-based fluorescence polarization assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhongji; Song, Ruihua; Chen, Yue; Zhu, Yang; Tian, Yanhui; Li, Ding; Cui, Daxiang

    2013-03-01

    A method for quickly screening and identifying dominant B cell epitopes was developed using hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen as a target. Eleven amino acid fragments from HBV surface antigen were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy, and then CdTe quantum dots were used to label the N-terminals of all peptides. After optimizing the factors for fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay, the antigenicities of synthetic peptides were determined by analyzing the recognition and combination of peptides and standard antibody samples. The results of FP assays confirmed that 10 of 11 synthetic peptides have distinct antigenicities. In order to screen dominant antigenic peptides, the FP assays were carried out to investigate the antibodies against the 10 synthetic peptides of HBV surface antigen respectively in 159 samples of anti-HBV surface antigen-positive antiserum. The results showed that 3 of the 10 antigenic peptides may be immunodominant because the antibodies against them existed more widely among the samples and their antibody titers were higher than those of other peptides. Using three dominant antigenic peptides, 293 serum samples were detected for HBV infection by FP assays; the results showed that the antibody-positive ratio was 51.9% and the sensitivity and specificity were 84.3% and 98.2%, respectively. In conclusion, a quantum dot-based FP assay is a very simple, rapid, and convenient method for determining immunodominant antigenic peptides and has great potential in applications such as epitope mapping, vaccine designing, or clinical disease diagnosis in the future.

  5. Identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infection in honey bees: establishment of a medium throughput screening assay based on N. ceranae infected cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

  6. Drug repurposing screen reveals FDA-approved inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase and isoprenoid synthesis that block Cryptosporidium parvum growth.

    PubMed

    Bessoff, Kovi; Sateriale, Adam; Lee, K Kyungae; Huston, Christopher D

    2013-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease usually caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis in humans, can result in fulminant diarrhea and death in AIDS patients and chronic infection and stunting in children. Nitazoxanide, the current standard of care, has limited efficacy in children and is no more effective than placebo in patients with advanced AIDS. Unfortunately, the lack of financial incentives and the technical difficulties associated with working with Cryptosporidium parasites have crippled efforts to develop effective treatments. In order to address these obstacles, we developed and validated (Z' score = 0.21 to 0.47) a cell-based high-throughput assay and screened a library of drug repurposing candidates (the NIH Clinical Collections), with the hopes of identifying safe, FDA-approved drugs to treat cryptosporidiosis. Our screen yielded 21 compounds with confirmed activity against C. parvum growth at concentrations of <10 ?M, many of which had well-defined mechanisms of action, making them useful tools to study basic biology in addition to being potential therapeutics. Additional work, including structure-activity relationship studies, identified the human 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor itavastatin as a potent inhibitor of C. parvum growth (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 0.62 ?M). Bioinformatic analysis of the Cryptosporidium genomes indicated that the parasites lack all known enzymes required for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. Additionally, itavastatin-induced growth inhibition of C. parvum was partially reversed by the addition of exogenous isopentenyl pyrophosphate, suggesting that itavastatin reduces Cryptosporidium growth via on-target inhibition of host HMG-CoA reductase and that the parasite is dependent on the host cell for synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. PMID:23380723

  7. Relative potency of macrocyclic lactones in in vitro assays with larvae of susceptible and drug-resistant Australian isolates of Haemonchus contortus and H. placei.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Andrew C; Ruffell, Angela P; Knox, Malcolm R; Kelly, Gareth A

    2014-07-14

    The present study used in vitro assays to determine the relative potency of commercial macrocyclic lactone (ML) anthelmintics against larvae of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Australian isolates of important parasites of sheep and cattle, Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei, respectively. Cattle pour-on products containing abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin or moxidectin were diluted in DMSO and used in larval development assays. Abamectin was the most potent chemical (lowest IC50 value) towards the drug-susceptible H. contortus Kirby isolate. The abamectin IC50 was approximately 2-fold lower than those for ivermectin, moxidectin, eprinomectin and doramectin. Moxidectin and abamectin were the most potent chemicals towards the resistant H. contortus Wallangra isolate. This isolate showed resistance ratios up to 70-fold towards eprinomectin. The resistance ratio for this species was lowest with moxidectin (ratio of 4.0-fold). Abamectin was also the most potent chemical towards both drug-susceptible (Bremner) and drug-resistant (Dayboro) H. placei isolates. The larval development assay only showed low levels of resistance for the drug-resistant H. placei, with resistance ratios ranging from 1.7 to 2.0 fold for moxidectin and abamectin, up to 3.3-fold for eprinomectin. This study examined the readily-accessible larval life stages of these parasites in in vitro assays, and, hence, the relationship between our findings and relative drug efficacies in vivo remains to be determined. Despite this, the study accords with some evidence from the use of these anthelmintics in the field in demonstrating the potency of moxidectin and abamectin against ML-resistant H. contortus. The study also highlights the usefulness of eprinomectin as a readily-available compound which is a more sensitive marker for ML resistance in in vitro larval development assays than the other commercial ML compounds examined. PMID:24813746

  8. Highly Sensitive and Validated Spectrophotometric Technique for the Assay of Some Antidepressant Drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepakumari, H. N.; Prashanth, M. K.; Kumar, B. C. Vasantha; Revanasiddappa, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes a simple, rapid, reproducible, and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs: amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT), imipramine hydrochloride (IMH), clomipramine hydrochloride (CPH) and desipramine hydrochloride (DPH) in pure and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the bromination of the above drugs with known excess of bromine. The unreacted bromine is determined based on its ability to bleach the dye methyl red quantitatively at 520 nm. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed a good correlation in the concentration range 0.0-2.5, 0-1.4, 0-1.4, and 0-1.0 ?g/ml for AMT, IMH, CPH, and DPH, respectively. The molar absorptivity values were found to be 0.65 × 105, 1.41 × 105, 1.93 × 105, and 2.96 × 105l/mol/cm, with the corresponding Sandell's sensitivity values were 0.0048, 0.0022, 0.0018, and 0.0010 ?g/cm2 for AMT, IMH, CPH, and DPH, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are also reported for the developed method. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision was established according to the current ICH guidelines. Application of the procedure to the analysis of various pharmaceutical preparations gave reproducible and accurate results. Further, the validity of the proposed method was confirmed by applying the standard addition technique, and the results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official method.

  9. 78 FR 24425 - Assay Migration Studies for In Vitro Diagnostic Devices; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...Docket No. FDA-2008-D-0642] Assay Migration Studies for In Vitro Diagnostic Devices...availability of the guidance entitled ``Assay Migration Studies for In Vitro Diagnostic Devices...guidance document entitled ``Assay Migration Studies for In Vitro Diagnostic...

  10. A surface plasmon resonance assay for measurement of neuraminidase inhibition, sensitivity of wild-type influenza neuraminidase and its H274Y mutant to the antiviral drugs zanamivir and oseltamivir.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Balaji; Fee, Conan J; Fredericks, Rayleen; Watson, Andrew J A; Fairbanks, Antony J; Hall, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Antiviral resistance is currently monitored by a labelled enzymatic assay, which can give inconsistent results because of the short half-life of the labelled product, and variations in assay conditions. In this paper, we describe a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) inhibition assay for measuring the sensitivities of wild-type neuraminidase (WT NA) and the H274Y (histidine 274 tyrosine) NA mutant to antiviral drugs. The two NA isoforms were expressed in High-five™ (Trichoplusia ni) insect cells. A spacer molecule (1,6-hexanediamine (HDA)) was conjugated to the 7-hydroxyl group of zanamivir, and the construct (HDA-zanamivir) was immobilized onto a SPR sensor chip to obtain a final immobilization response of 431 response units. The immobilized HDA-zanamivir comprised a bio-specific ligand for the WT and mutant proteins. The effects of the natural substrate (sialic acid) and two inhibitors (zanamivir and oseltamivir) on NA binding to the immobilized ligand were studied. The processed SPR data was analysed to determine 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50-spr ), using a log dose-response curve fit. Although both NA isoforms had almost identical IC50-spr values for sialic acid (WT?=?5.5?nM; H274Y mutant?=?3.25?nM) and zanamivir (WT?=?2.16?nM; H274Y mutant?=?2.42?nM), there were significant differences between the IC50-spr values obtained for the WT (7.7?nM) and H274Y mutant (256?nM) NA in the presence of oseltamivir, indicating that oseltamivir has a reduced affinity for the H274Y mutant. The SPR inhibition assay strategy presented in this work could be applied for the rapid screening of newly emerging variants of NA for their sensitivity to antiviral drugs. PMID:25727669

  11. Using population screening for recruitment of young adults engaged in illicit drug use: methodological issues and sampling outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Kemp, Robert; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Najman, Jake M

    2014-05-01

    Social stigma, legal sanctions and the associated lack of sampling frames create barriers to the probabilistic sampling of those engaged in a variety of behaviour, including illicit drug use. We used a novel sampling approach to recruit respondents into a longitudinal study examining amphetamine-type stimulant use. A young adult population was screened for lifetime drug use to create a sampling frame of amphetamine-type stimulant users and non-users. We posted 12,118 screening questionnaires to a random selection of young adults listed on the electoral roll for Brisbane and the Gold Coast, Australia (N=107,275). Using a small pre-paid incentive and intensive telephone and postal reminders we attained a screening response rate of 49.9%. Eligible amphetamine-type stimulant users (used ecstasy or methamphetamine?3 times in past 12 months) and non-users (never used ecstasy or methamphetamine) were identified by screening responses. About two-thirds of each selected group took part in the longitudinal study. Comparisons with large-scale population survey data suggest the sample was broadly representative of young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users in Australia. PMID:24576629

  12. Application of an in vitro OAT assay in drug design and optimization of renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Soars, Matthew G; Barton, Patrick; Elkin, Lisa L; Mosure, Kathleen W; Sproston, Joanne L; Riley, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    1.?Optimization of renal clearance is a complex balance between passive and active processes mediated by renal transporters. This work aimed to characterize the interaction of a series of compounds with rat and human organic anion transporters (OATs) and develop quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) to optimize renal clearance. 2.?In vitro inhibition assays were established for human OAT1 and rat Oat3 and rat in vivo renal clearance was obtained. Statistically significant quantitative relationships were explored between the compounds' physical properties, their affinity for OAT1 and oat3 and the inter-relationship with unbound renal clearance (URC) in rat. 3.?Many of the compounds were actively secreted and in vitro analysis demonstrated that these were ligands for rat and human OAT transporters (IC50 values ranging from <1 to >100?µM). Application of resultant QSAR models reduced renal clearance in the rat from 24 to <0.1?ml/min/kg. Data analysis indicated that the properties associated with increasing affinity at OATs are the same as those associated with reducing URC but orthogonal in nature. 4.?This study has demonstrated that OAT inhibition data and QSAR models can be successfully used to optimize rat renal clearance in vivo and provide confidence of translation to humans. PMID:24417751

  13. Is platelet adhesion assay able to quantify drug-induced platelet dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Schumann, Alrun; Bucha, Elke; Nowak, Götz

    2005-01-01

    The platelet adhesion assay (PADA) is an innovative method for the detection of both normal, pathologically increased or decreased platelet adhesiveness. Adhesion is the first important phase of platelet activation, followed by shape change and aggregation. Adhesion is triggered by glycoproteins (GP) on the platelet surface, mainly by GPIIb/IIIa, and to a lesser extent also by GPIb/V/IX. Since fibrinogen serves as adhesive protein for GPIIb/IIIa receptors, and since the PADA uses polymer particles that become coated with fibrinogen, the PADA is able to monitor GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonists and to detect overdosing, potentially leading to bleeding complications. Ex vivo, citrated whole blood from healthy volunteers and patients was spiked with increasing GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor concentrations and PADA was measured. Comparing these results with GPIIb/IIIa receptor occupancy, determined by FACS, a basic consistency of the data was shown. Via intracellular signaling, the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor mechanism is closely involved in the activation of GPIIb/IIIa receptors so that also ADP receptor antagonists of the thienopyridine type, especially clopidogrel, can be quantitatively determined by the PADA. In patients under clopidogrel therapy, the therapeutic effect was monitored and also individual dose adjustments were realized. Furthermore, patients having partial or full clopidogrel resistance were identified. Overdoses can be detected as well. PMID:16149027

  14. A New Screen for Tuberculosis Drug Candidates Utilizing a Luciferase-Expressing Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guéren

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Masayuki; Doe, Matsumi; Tamaru, Aki; Kinoshita, Naoko; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Sawa, Ryuichi; Umekita, Maya; Enany, Shymaa; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Niki, Mamiko; Tateishi, Yoshitaka; Hatano, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease caused by a bacterial pathogen. Mortality from tuberculosis was estimated at 1.5 million deaths worldwide in 2013. Development of new TB drugs is needed to not only to shorten the medication period but also to treat multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) grows slowly and only multiplies once or twice per day. Therefore, conventional drug screening takes more than 3 weeks. Additionally, a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) facility is required. Thus, we developed a new screening method to identify TB drug candidates by utilizing luciferase-expressing recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guéren (rBCG). Using this method, we identified several candidates in 4 days in a non-BSL-3 facility. We screened 10,080 individual crude extracts derived from Actinomyces and Streptomyces and identified 137 extracts which possessed suppressive activity to the luciferase of rBCG. Among them, 41 compounds inhibited the growth of both Mtb H37Rv and the extensively dru