Sample records for drug skill refusal

  1. Social Skills, Competence, and Drug Refusal Efficacy as Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the extent to which assertiveness and related social skills, personal competence, and refusal efficacy predict alcohol involvement in adolescents. Males were at higher risk for poor refusal skills and reported higher alcohol involvement. Youth characterized by poor social skill development reported lower refusal efficacy, lower grades,…

  2. SOCIAL SKILLS, COMPETENCE, AND DRUG REFUSAL EFFICACY AS PREDICTORS OF ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAWRENCE M. SCHEIER; GILBERT J. BOTVIN; TRACY DIAZ; KENNETH W. GRIFFIN

    1999-01-01

    Numerous alcohol and drug abuse prevention trials have included social resistance training as a strategy for reducing early-stage adolescent alcohol use. Evaluations of these trials has shown them to be moderately effective, although the precise impact of the resistance training in comparison to other programmatic features has not been clearly identified. The current study examined the extent to which assertiveness

  3. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  4. Ways to Say No: Refusal Skill Strategies among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations among adolescents' generated verbal strategies (ie, Simple No, Declarative Statements, Excuse, Alternatives) and underlying nonverbal assertiveness in 2 refusal situations: smoking and shoplifting. Methods: Sixth-grade urban minority students (N = 454) participated in videotaped role-play assessments of peer…

  5. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol...

  6. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol...

  7. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655...49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each employer...to submit to a post-accident drug and alcohol test required under §...

  8. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655.49...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each employer shall...

  9. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655.49...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each employer shall...

  10. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61...

  11. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63...

  12. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63...

  13. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65...

  14. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63...

  15. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61...

  16. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65...

  17. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65...

  18. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61...

  19. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61...

  20. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65...

  1. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61...

  2. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65...

  3. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63...

  4. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63...

  5. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199.103 Section 199.103 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail...

  6. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199.103 Section 199.103 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail...

  7. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199.103 Section 199.103 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail...

  8. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199.103 Section 199.103 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail...

  9. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199.103 Section 199.103 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail...

  10. The Impact of a Culturally Enhanced Drug Prevention Program on Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy among Urban African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Reed, Melba C.; Plybon, Laura E.; Corneille, Maya

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Specific Event Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy scale (SEDARE) as an outcome of a culturally enhanced drug abuse prevention program for urban African-American girls in early adolescence. The SEDARE captures the perceived likelihood that youth will use drugs and alcohol in specific situations. Ninety-two…

  11. 49 CFR 40.191 - What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences? 40.191...ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.191 What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?...

  12. 49 CFR 40.191 - What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences? 40...Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.191 What is a refusal to...

  13. Gender Differences in Drug Resistance Skills of Youth in Guanajuato, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Calderón-Tena, Carlos O.; Nuńo-Gutiérrez, Bertha L.

    2011-01-01

    Research is limited or absent on Mexican adolescents’ exposure to substance offers, ways of dealing with these offers, and possible gender differences in responses to offers. Extending U.S.-based research, this study examines how youth living in the Mexican state of Guanajuato employ the four drug resistance strategies—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave—that are part of the Keepin’ It REAL evidence-based drug prevention intervention. The analysis uses cross-sectional survey data from 702 students enrolled in eight alternative secondary education sites in 2007. Participants reported the drug resistance behaviors they used to deal with offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Using multivariate regression, findings indicate most youth had developed repertoires of drug resistance strategies that involved multiple REAL strategies and some other strategy as well. For those receiving offers, the most common strategy was to refuse the offer with a simple ‘‘no.’’ However, males used all the strategies significantly more often than females for situations involving cigarettes and marijuana as well as when using refuse and non-REAL strategies for alcohol. Possible reasons for the gender difference in use of strategies are discussed. The findings can help inform effective prevention programs based on teaching culturally appropriate drug resistance and communication skills. PMID:21424398

  14. The Impact of Mother-Daughter and Father-Daughter Relationships on Drug Refusal Self-Efficacy among African American Adolescent Girls in Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Kimberly; Ashcraft, Amie; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2006-01-01

    This study yielded interesting findings on the effect of mother-daughter and father-daughter relationships on drug refusal self-efficacy for urban African American girls between the ages of 11 and 14. The questionnaire consisted of assessments on the quality of the girls mother and father relationships and their perceived ability to refuse drugs.…

  15. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

  16. Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and the internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusal skills training program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Biglan; Herbert Severson; Dennis Ary; Carol Faller; Cheri Gallison; Robert Thompson; Russell Glasgow; Edward Lichtenstein

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a smoking prevention program that emphasized refusal skills training on 1730 adolescents in three high schools and six middle schools. Classes within these schools were randomly assigned to treatment or no-treatment conditions to avoid confounding schools with treatment condition. The effects of attrition on the internal and external validity of the study were examined.

  17. The influence of the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among injection drug users: Balancing competing risks

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean L.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens through receptive syringe sharing (RSS) and receptive paraphernalia sharing (RPS). Research into the influence of the perceived risk of HIV infection on injection risk behavior has yielded mixed findings. One explanation may be that consequences other than HIV infection are considered when IDUs are faced with decisions about whether or not to share equipment. We investigated the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among 187 IDUs recruited from a large syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, assessed their influence on RSS and RPS, and evaluated gender differences. Two sub-scales of perceived consequences were identified: structural/external consequences and social/internal consequences. In multiple linear regression, the perceived social/internal consequences of refusing to share were associated with both RSS and RPS, after controlling for other psychosocial constructs and demographic variables. Few statistically significant gender differences emerged. Assessing the consequences of refusing to share injection equipment may help explain persistent injection risk behavior, and may provide promising targets for comprehensive intervention efforts designed to address both individual and structural risk factors. PMID:21498004

  18. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same concentration as the listed drug, and, if it differs from the listed drug in a preservative, buffer, or antioxidant, the application contains sufficient information to...

  19. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same concentration as the listed drug, and, if it differs from the listed drug in a preservative, buffer, or antioxidant, the application contains sufficient information to...

  20. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same concentration as the listed drug, and, if it differs from the listed drug in a preservative, buffer, or antioxidant, the application contains sufficient information to...

  1. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same concentration as the listed drug, and, if it differs from the listed drug in a preservative, buffer, or antioxidant, the application contains sufficient information to...

  2. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same concentration as the listed drug, and, if it differs from the listed drug in a preservative, buffer, or antioxidant, the application contains sufficient information to...

  3. 21 CFR 316.25 - Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...in the United States, or that the drug is intended for use in prevention...United States; or (ii) Where the drug is intended for prevention...production costs will be recovered from sales of the drug for the orphan indication in...

  4. 21 CFR 316.25 - Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...in the United States, or that the drug is intended for use in prevention...United States; or (ii) Where the drug is intended for prevention...production costs will be recovered from sales of the drug for the orphan indication in...

  5. 21 CFR 316.25 - Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...in the United States, or that the drug is intended for use in prevention...United States; or (ii) Where the drug is intended for prevention...production costs will be recovered from sales of the drug for such disease or condition...

  6. 21 CFR 316.25 - Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...following reasons apply: (1) The drug is not intended for a rare disease or condition because: (i) There is insufficient...that already has orphan-drug exclusive approval for the same rare disease or condition and the sponsor has not submitted a...

  7. 21 CFR 316.25 - Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...following reasons apply: (1) The drug is not intended for a rare disease or condition because: (i) There is insufficient...that already has orphan-drug exclusive approval for the same rare disease or condition and the sponsor has not submitted a...

  8. 76 FR 46820 - Proposal To Refuse To Approve a Supplemental New Drug Application for Bromday (Bromfenac...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...beginning 1 day before surgery and continuing on the day of surgery and for 14 days thereafter...have cataract removal surgeries in both eyes, and...Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act...unnecessarily increases the risk of microbial...

  9. Skills for Drug-Free Living Curriculum Guide. Future Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Bridget M.; And Others

    The Future Quest curriculum is a functional curriculum to teach drug abuse prevention skills to youth with mild disabilities. The curriculum is a one-semester instructional program of lesson plans that incorporate research-based effective teaching practices and are specifically designed to meet the needs of students with learning and behavior…

  10. Academic skills of chronically unemployed drug-addicted adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtyn, August F.; DeFulio, Anthony; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The strong association between unemployment and drug addiction suggests that employment interventions are an important and needed focus of drug-addiction treatment. The increasing necessity of possessing basic academic skills to function in the workplace may require that some individuals receive educational training along with vocational training. OBJECTIVE This study investigated the academic skills of drug-addicted and chronically-unemployed adults (N = 559) who were enrolled in one of six studies conducted at the Center for Learning and Health in Baltimore, MD. METHODS Upon study enrollment, academic skills in math, spelling, and reading were examined using the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3 or WRAT-4) and educational history was examined using the Addiction Severity Index–Lite. RESULTS Although participants completed an average of 11 years of education, actual academic skill level was at or below the seventh grade level for 81% of participants in math, 61% in spelling, and 43% in reading, and most participants were classified as Low Average or below based on age group norms. Despite the fact that participants in this analysis were studied across several years and were from diverse populations, rates of high school completion and academic skill levels were remarkably similar. CONCLUSIONS Programs designed to improve the long-term employment status of drug-addicted individuals may benefit from the inclusion of basic adult education; future research on the topic is needed. Although establishing basic skills does not directly address chronic unemployment, it may help individuals obtain the jobs they desire and function effectively in those jobs. PMID:25635162

  11. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food...PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the...

  12. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food...PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the...

  13. Working with Family Members to Engage Treatment-Refusing Drinkers: The CRAFT Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Ellen Smith; Robert J. Meyers; Julia L. Austin

    2008-01-01

    Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is an empirically-supported program based on behavioral reinforcement that engages treatment-refusing alcohol-other drug abusers into treatment by working with their concerned family members. These concerned significant others (CSOs) are taught how to rearrange contingencies in the drinker's environment such that sober behavior is supported and drinking behavior is discouraged. CSOs receive behavioral skills training

  14. Effectiveness of Stress Management Skill Training on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Levels in Drug Addicts after Drug Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Zahra; Tourani, Somayeh; Sadeghi, Hasan; Abolghasemi, Abbass

    2013-01-01

    Background Stressful life events may cause initiation of drug use among people. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management skill training on depression, anxiety and stress levels in drug addicts after withdrawal. Objectives The population included all drug addicts after withdrawal in 2012 in Alborz province. Materials and Methods The study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with a control group. Levels of emotional reactions (depression, anxiety and stress) in all referrals to a counseling center for drug withdrawal in 2012 using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress (DASS-21) questionnaire was assessed. The study population included drug addicts after withdrawal. The sampling method was available sampling and random assignment. Thirty people who had higher emotional reactions were randomly selected and divided into two test (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. For the test group, a stress management skill training course was held in twelve 90-minute sessions, but the control group received no intervention. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-19 software with analysis of covariance. Results The results showed that stress management skill training has a significant effect on reducing emotional reactions (P < 0.01). It was noted that after 2 months test group follow-up, stress management training has retained its effect. Conclusion Apparently, training addicts about life skills, particularly stress management seems to be a good idea. PMID:24971280

  15. Minimum Knowledge and Skills Objectives for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.

    This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…

  16. Effect of Life Skills Training on Drug Abuse Preventive Behaviors among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected through quota random sampling and assigned randomly into two Intervention and control groups. Data were collected through a questionnaire, including two sections of demographic information and drug abuse preventive behaviors. The questionnaire was first assessed as to its validity and reliability and then administered both before and after educational intervention and also as a follow-up 4 years after intervention – Data were then analyzed using t-tests and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of post-test mean scores of drug abuse preventive behaviors of both groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) which remained stable 4 years after intervention. There was a significant relationship between father's educational level and drug abuse preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Life skills’ training is effective in the promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors of university students. PMID:24932389

  17. A Workshop Series Using Peer-grading to Build Drug Information, Writing, Critical-thinking, and Constructive Feedback Skills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To utilize a skills-based workshop series to develop pharmacy students’ drug information, writing, critical-thinking, and evaluation skills during the final didactic year of training. Design. A workshop series was implemented to focus on written (researched) responses to drug information questions. These workshops used blinded peer-grading to facilitate timely feedback and strengthen assessment skills. Each workshop was aligned to the didactic coursework content to complement and extend learning, while bridging and advancing research, writing, and critical thinking skills. Assessment. Attainment of knowledge and skills was assessed by rubric-facilitated peer grades, faculty member grading, peer critique, and faculty member-guided discussion of drug information responses. Annual instructor and course evaluations consistently revealed favorable student feedback regarding workshop value. Conclusion. A drug information workshop series using peer-grading as the primary assessment tool was successfully implemented and was well received by pharmacy students. PMID:25657378

  18. Integrating Life Skills Into a Theory-Based Drug-Use Prevention Program: Effectiveness among Junior High Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chien, Li-Yin; Cheng, Chin-Feng; Guo, Jong-Long

    2012-01-01

    Background: Drug use has been noted among students in Taiwan during the past decade and schools have a role in preventing or delaying students' drug use. We developed and evaluated a school-based, drug-use prevention program integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and life skills for junior high school students. Methods: We recruited…

  19. Refuse burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Lientz, laC.

    1983-08-23

    A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

  20. 21 CFR 516.131 - Refuse to file a request for determination of eligibility for indexing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.131 Refuse to file a request for determination...

  1. 21 CFR 516.131 - Refuse to file a request for determination of eligibility for indexing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.131 Refuse to file a request for determination...

  2. 21 CFR 516.131 - Refuse to file a request for determination of eligibility for indexing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.131 Refuse to file a request for determination...

  3. 21 CFR 516.147 - Refuse to file a request for addition to the index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.147 Refuse to file a request for addition to...

  4. 21 CFR 516.131 - Refuse to file a request for determination of eligibility for indexing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.131 Refuse to file a request for determination...

  5. 21 CFR 516.147 - Refuse to file a request for addition to the index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.147 Refuse to file a request for addition to...

  6. 21 CFR 516.131 - Refuse to file a request for determination of eligibility for indexing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.131 Refuse to file a request for determination...

  7. 21 CFR 516.147 - Refuse to file a request for addition to the index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.147 Refuse to file a request for addition to...

  8. 21 CFR 516.147 - Refuse to file a request for addition to the index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.147 Refuse to file a request for addition to...

  9. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal...

  10. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal...

  11. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal...

  12. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal...

  13. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal...

  14. Refusal to medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. PMID:24880186

  15. Panic disorder and school refusal.

    PubMed

    Hella, Bryce; Bernstein, Gail A

    2012-07-01

    This article provides clinical and research information about panic disorder, agoraphobia, and school refusal. Proposed changes to the definition of panic disorder and agoraphobia for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition are outlined. Treatment of panic disorder, and school refusal in children and adolescents is also discussed. PMID:22800996

  16. 21 CFR 516.147 - Refuse to file a request for addition to the index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Refuse to file a request for addition to the index. 516.147 Section 516.147 Food...DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal...Refuse to file a request for addition to the index. (a) If a request for addition...

  17. Recent Perspectives Concerning School Refusal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witts, Benjamin; Houlihan, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding school refusal was conducted. It was found that the term School Refusal Behavior has gone through many changes. These changes encompass nomenclature, etiology, and treatment. The names used to describe the behavior of school refusal have ranged from truancy in the 1930s to School Refusal Behavior in the 1990s.…

  18. 49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

  19. 49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

  20. 49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

  1. 49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

  2. 49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

  3. Refuse burning process and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Lientz, L.C.

    1982-07-13

    A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200* F., especially 700* F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere; a burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

  4. School-Based Drug Prevention Program: Quantitative Assessment of Life Skills Training Elementary School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindle, Silverlene J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1960s long-term studies have documented nation-wide patterns of adolescent smoking, drinking and illicit drug use. The federal government responded by passing the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, which funded school-based prevention programs. The problem for school counselors in a Georgia Public School District was…

  5. Drug interaction on psychomotor skills related to driving: Diazepam and alcohol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Linnoila; M. J. Mattila

    1973-01-01

    The effects of combinations of diazepam (5 and 10 mg) and alcohol (0.5 and 0.8 g\\/kg) on skills related to driving were studied in 200 volunteer students. A choice reaction test and two co-ordination tests were employed, one of which was carried out at a fixed speed, and in the other the speed was chosen by the subject himself. —

  6. 64 FR 34504 - Training and Technical Assistance for the Life Skills Training Drug Prevention Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-06-25

    ...D.P., Flay, B.R., Hansen, W.B., and Johnson, C...A., Trebow, E.A., Hansen, W.B., MacKinnon, D...self-directed, behavior-change techniques, adaptive coping...aid in developing a school climate in which drug use is not...

  7. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E. (Lewisville, TX); Venables, Barney J. (Denton, TX); Ohlsson, Oscar O. (Naperville, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  8. Risk taking and refusal assertiveness in a longitudinal model of alcohol use among inner-city adolescents.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J A; Griffin, K W; Botvin, G J

    2001-09-01

    Risk taking and refusal assertiveness have been shown to be important determinants of adolescent alcohol use. However, it remains unclear whether youth predisposed to risk taking would be less likely to assertively refuse. This study examined the relationships among risk taking, refusal assertiveness, and alcohol use in a sample of inner-city minority students (N = 1,459), using a cross-lagged longitudinal structural equation model. Data collectors administered the questionnaire to students following a standardized protocol during a 40-min class period. Based on the tested model, risk taking was more stable over time than refusal assertiveness. Furthermore, high risk takers reported less frequent subsequent refusal assertiveness, and less frequent refusal assertiveness predicted greater drinking. A predisposition toward risk taking appears to be an enduring characteristic that is associated with low refusal assertiveness and increased alcohol use. These findings suggest that alcohol prevention programs that emphasize refusal skills training may be less effective for high risk takers. But programs that focus on enhancing competence or reducing normative expectations for peer alcohol use might be more effective for high risk-taking youth. PMID:11678293

  9. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  10. Individual and Organizational Correlates of Promotion Refusal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campion, Michael A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined employees' reasons for refusing seniority-based promotions. Age, female sex, and number of employees in the department related positively to promotion refusal, while years of education and pay showed a negative relationship. Suggests potential explanations relate to stress avoidance, perceived inabilities, and equity theory. (Author)

  11. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...refuse an immigrant visa until either Form DS-230, Application for Immigrant Visa and Alien Registration, or Form DS-260, Electronic Application for...the refusal shall then be attached to Form DS-230 for retention in the refusal...

  12. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...refuse an immigrant visa until either Form DS-230, Application for Immigrant Visa and Alien Registration, or Form DS-260, Electronic Application for...the refusal shall then be attached to Form DS-230 for retention in the refusal...

  13. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...refuse an immigrant visa until either Form DS-230, Application for Immigrant Visa and Alien Registration, or Form DS-260, Electronic Application for...the refusal shall then be attached to Form DS-230 for retention in the refusal...

  14. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...refuse an immigrant visa until either Form DS-230, Application for Immigrant Visa and Alien Registration, or Form DS-260, Electronic Application for...the refusal shall then be attached to Form DS-230 for retention in the refusal...

  15. Caregivers Who Refuse Preventive Care for Their Children: The Relationship Between Immunization and Topical Fluoride Refusal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine caregivers’ refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Methods. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Results. The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR?=?1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.32, 1.96; P?refuse both immunizations and topical fluoride (P?refusal of immunizations is associated with topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children. PMID:24832428

  16. 21 CFR 515.25 - Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    21 ? Food and Drugs ? 6 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a license. ? 515.25 ? Section 515.25 ? Food and Drugs ? FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 21 CFR 515.25 - Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    21 ? Food and Drugs ? 6 ? 2011-04-01 ? 2011-04-01 ? false ? Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a license. ? 515.25 ? Section 515.25 ? Food and Drugs ? FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines, counseling 7. End-of-life measures: right to refuse 8. Comprehensive laws: right to refuse. PMID:20866024

  19. Ethical considerations of refusing nutrition after stroke.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Lars; Agren Bolmsjö, Ingrid; Westergren, Albert

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and discuss the ethically problematic conflict raised by patients with stroke who refuse nutritional treatment. In analysing this conflict, the focus is on four different aspects: (1) Is nutritional treatment biologically necessary? (2) If necessary, is the reason for refusal a functional disability, lack of appetite or motivation, misunderstanding of the situation or a genuine conflict of values? (3) If the latter, what values are involved in the conflict? (4) How should we deal with the different kinds of refusal of nutritional treatment? We argue that patients' autonomy should be respected as far as possible, while also considering that those who have suffered a stroke might re-evaluate their life as a result of a beneficial prognosis. However, if patients persist with their refusal, health care professionals should force nutritional treatment only when it is clear that the patients will re-evaluate their future life. PMID:18272606

  20. Food Refusal in Children: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Keith E.; Field, Douglas G.; Seiverling, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Food refusal is a severe feeding problem in which children refuse to eat all or most foods presented and exhibit problems with growth. This review discusses the definition, etiology, and interventions pertaining to food refusal. The interventions utilized for food refusal typically consist of several treatment components. These treatment…

  1. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  2. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusals to issue and revocation. 172.10 Section 172.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 172.10 Refusals to issue and revocation. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusals to issue and revocation. 172.10 Section 172.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 172.10 Refusals to issue and revocation. (a)...

  4. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Refusal of accreditation. 439.50 Section 439...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.50 Refusal of accreditation. Upon a determination...

  5. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Refusal of accreditation. 439.50 Section 439...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.50 Refusal of accreditation. Upon a determination...

  6. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Refusal of accreditation. 439.50 Section 439...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.50 Refusal of accreditation. Upon a determination...

  7. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Refusal of accreditation. 439.50 Section 439...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.50 Refusal of accreditation. Upon a determination...

  8. Hydrolytic enzyme activity in landfilled refuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Palmisano; B. S. Schwab; D. A. Maruscik

    1993-01-01

    Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity was assayed in 28 refuse samples excavated from 14 bore holes in Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island, N. Y. Esterases, proteases and amylases were present in all of the samples. Enzyme screening assays utilizing the API-ZYM test system showed the incidence of enzymes in the order: specific phosphatases > esterases > glycosyl hydrolases. Measurement of cellulase

  9. IMPACT OF COAL REFUSE DISPOSAL ON GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent of groundwater quality deterioration when coal mine refuse and power plant ashes were disposed of in open pits. In addition, disposal methods were developed and procedures for planning and designing disposal sites were formu...

  10. TIME-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSED REFUSE. PART III: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MILLED REFUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this laboratory investigation were to gain an understanding of the decomposition of milled refuse under anaerobic conditions, the rates of decomposition, and the gas production and composition. The rates of decomposition of cellulose and cellulosic materials, ga...

  11. School Refusal Behavior: Prevalence, Characteristics, and the Schools' Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 288 elementary and secondary North Dakota schools found 75% had a school refusal behavior (SRB) identification system in place, 57% had a school psychologist available, principals were most frequently responsible for identifying school refusers, 2.3% of students were identified as school refusers of which 49% falsely claimed illness,…

  12. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...A consular officer may not refuse an immigrant visa until Form DS-230, Application for Immigrant Visa and Alien Registration...document related to the refusal shall then be attached to Form DS-230 for retention in the refusal files. Any...

  13. Writing Skills in Business: Implications for Teachers of Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lariviere, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Surveys members of Professional Secretaries International (PSI) in Cleveland, Ohio, who rated their own and their bosses' business writing skills. Concludes that this survey indicates that technical writing students should be taught how to write criticisms and refusals. Outlines how these skills can be taught in a technical writing course. (MM)

  14. Practical Nursing Education. A Guide for Teaching Basic Concepts and Skills in the Use of Drugs. Pamphlet Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    Intended to assist teachers in either basic or continuing education programs to convey knowledge, techniques, and attitudes pertaining to drugs, the pamphlet outlines instruction which is estimated to require 70 to 100 hours of which 50 to 80 should be scheduled for classroom work and 20 hours for clinical work. Three units containing concepts…

  15. 78 FR 42381 - Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...Food and Drug Administration...Parts 1 and 16 Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use; Draft...Delaying, Denying, Limiting, or Refusing a Drug Inspection; Availability; Proposed...

  16. Leachate treatment using a demonstration aged refuse biofilter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongjiang Li; Yingying Gu; Youcai Zhao; Zhiping Wen

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 7000 m3 of aged refuse (AR) with a placement of over eight years was excavated from Shanghai Refuse Landfill, the largest landfill in China, and used for the construction of a two-stage bioreactor (AR biofilter) media for the biological treatment of 100 m3 of refuse landfill leachate. It was found that over 64% of COD, 96.9%–99.8% of NH4+-N, and

  17. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. PMID:23445457

  18. 37 CFR 2.184 - Refusal of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal of renewal. 2.184 Section 2.184 Patents, Trademarks...RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Term and Renewal § 2.184 Refusal of renewal. (a) If the renewal application is...

  19. 42 CFR 493.567 - Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. 493.567 Section 493...493.567 Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. (a) Laboratory with...accreditation that refuses to cooperate with a validation inspection by failing to comply with...

  20. 42 CFR 493.567 - Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. 493.567 Section 493...493.567 Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. (a) Laboratory with...accreditation that refuses to cooperate with a validation inspection by failing to comply with...

  1. 42 CFR 493.567 - Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. 493.567 Section 493...493.567 Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. (a) Laboratory with...accreditation that refuses to cooperate with a validation inspection by failing to comply with...

  2. 42 CFR 493.567 - Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. 493.567 Section 493...493.567 Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. (a) Laboratory with...accreditation that refuses to cooperate with a validation inspection by failing to comply with...

  3. 42 CFR 493.567 - Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. 493.567 Section 493...493.567 Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. (a) Laboratory with...accreditation that refuses to cooperate with a validation inspection by failing to comply with...

  4. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1...finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. (a) Any requester...the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other...

  5. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1...finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. (a) Any requester...the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other...

  6. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration...Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration...dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration...

  7. Map Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ali

    2010-02-23

    Map Skill Activities Map Skills Follow the directions below and write your answers on the worksheet provided. 1. Continents Quiz: Continents Quiz 2. Latitude/Longitude Reviews latitude and longitude quiz latitude/longitude map game lat/long multiple choice quiz 3. Map Scale Map Scale Activity 4.Map Skills map skills game map skills quiz ...

  8. Management of Pregnant Patients Who Refuse Medically Indicated Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Oxford, Corrina M

    2012-01-01

    The doctrine of informed refusal may become difficult to adhere to in obstetric practice, especially in situations in which the fetus’s life is at risk. One rare yet potentially problematic situation of informed refusal is the case of a pregnant woman who refuses to undergo a medically indicated cesarean delivery that would ensure the well-being of her fetus. Although some would argue that patient autonomy takes precedence and the woman’s informed refusal should be respected, others would argue that beneficence, justice, and doing no harm to the viable fetus should ethically overrule the refusal of a surgery. This article explores the profound conflict between maternal autonomy and the rights of the fetus, provides a framework to address when the two diverge, and poses suggestions for how providers can better navigate this dilemma. PMID:23483714

  9. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof [Institute of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, Agicolastrasse 4, 38 678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

  10. 21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...written recommendations. (a) FDA may refuse to provide written recommendations concerning the nonclinical laboratory studies and clinical investigations necessary for approval of a marketing application for any of the following reasons:...

  11. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in the payment of assessments, including penalties on account of...

  12. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98.9...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and...

  13. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section 98.20...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or...

  14. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section 98.20...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or...

  15. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98.9...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and...

  16. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98.9...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and...

  17. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section 98.20...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or...

  18. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98.9...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and...

  19. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section 98.20...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or...

  20. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section 98.20...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or...

  1. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98.9...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and...

  2. Activated carbon from coal refuse for water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Broderick; E. S. Hertzog

    1941-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon or char from high-coal fraction of coal refuse is described and these chars are evaluated to determine their suitability for removing tastes and odors from municipal water supplies.

  3. 9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...inspection. (a) The FSIS Administrator may refuse to grant Federal inspection because an applicant: (1) Does not have a HACCP plan as required by part 417 of this chapter; (2) Does not have Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures as required...

  4. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

  5. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

  6. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

  7. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

  8. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

  9. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

  10. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

  11. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

  12. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

  13. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices §...

  14. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices §...

  15. Understanding Partnerships: A Rural College's Role in Recycling Refuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the partnership that was formed by a county government, three city governments, Weyerhaeuser Company, and Cossatot Technical College in Arkansas to solve the refuse problem when the local landfill closed. (JOW)

  16. Large Steam Generating Units for the Combustion of Refuse 

    E-print Network

    Adams, P. J.; Robinson, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    into heat for process and the generation of power. Interest in the combustion of the most widely distributed waste products, household and industrial municipal refuse, is rapidly escalating. The assembly of a large complex for power and steam production...

  17. Guidelines for energetic load in three methods of refuse collecting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. W. FRINGS-DRESEN; H. C. G. KEMPER; A. R. A. STASSEN; A. M. T. MARKSLAG; M. P. DE LOOZE; H. M. TOUSSAINT

    1995-01-01

    The energetic load and guidelines were formulated for energetic load in three methods of refuse collecting. These methods were collecting refuse in polythene bags (in a city area and in a suburb), in two-wheeled mini-containers and in large four-wheeled containers. To determine the energetic load of the collecting methods, these collecting methods were simulated in the laboratory. The simulation protocols

  18. [Maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery, stillbirth].

    PubMed

    Defline, A; Obadia, M; El Djerbi, A; Plevy, P; Lepercq, J

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-lawyer perspective that we discuss is a maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery for a fetal indication in June 2011. Despite repeated information of the risks during a three-week hospitalization for pre-eclampsia, after being assured of the proper understanding of the seriousness of the situation by the patient and spouse, and after consideration to transfer to another hospital, the reiterated refusal led to a late fetal extraction resulting in term stillbirth. PMID:23972774

  19. Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, S.

    2011-09-01

    Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

  20. Conceptual design report of a refuse-fired steam plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, L. B.

    1982-08-01

    This is a conceptual design report for the installation of a refuse-fired boiler to produce steam. The refuse, mostly paper waste, would come from two adjacent facilities, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The new steam plant, to be located at SNLL, would produce close to 100% of the steam requirements at SNLL. Unfortunately it does not have an attractive payback.

  1. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    PubMed

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended. PMID:24255134

  2. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.

    This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…

  3. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  4. Skill Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Tom

    2007-01-01

    With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

  5. Behavioral assessment and treatment of chronic food refusal in handicapped children.

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, M M; Iwata, B A; Finney, J W; Wohl, M K; Stanley, A E

    1984-01-01

    In this study, we examined the eating behavior of four handicapped children, none of whom exhibited self-feeding skills. All children had a history of food refusal and were nutritionally at risk; one child received all nourishment by way of gastrostomy tube. Baseline data taken during mealtimes indicated that all children accepted very little food, expelled food frequently, and engaged in a number of disruptive behaviors. Treatments consisted of one or more of the following contingent events: social praise, access to preferred foods, brief periods of toy play, and forced feeding. Results of multiple-baseline and reversal designs showed marked behavioral improvement for each child and increases in the amount of food consumed. Further improvements were noted at follow-up, which ranged from 7 to 30 months posttreatment. PMID:6239853

  6. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  7. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  8. Responding to the refusal of care in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind; Davenport, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The emergency department (ED) serves as the primary gateway for acute care and the source of health care of last resort. Emergency physicians are commonly expected to rapidly assess and treat patients with a variety of life-threatening conditions. However, patients do refuse recommended therapy, even when the consequences are significant morbidity and even mortality. This raises the ethical dilemma of how emergency physicians and ED staff can rapidly determine whether patient refusal of treatment recommendations is based on intact decision-making capacity and how to respond in an appropriate manner when the declining of necessary care by the patient is lacking a basis in informed judgment. This article presents a case that illustrates the ethical tensions raised by the refusal of life-sustaining care in the ED and how such situations can be approached in an ethically appropriate manner. PMID:24748262

  9. Physicians' refusal to resuscitate at borderline gestational age.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mark R

    2005-11-01

    Most neonatologists believe there is a minimal gestational age, below which it is appropriate to refuse to provide resuscitation or intensive care. Determination of this threshold should involve knowledge of the outcome data, but also an understanding of the potential for misuse of these data. In particular, there is a risk of deception, of the parents and of ourselves, due to the uncertainty of the true gestational age, and the "self-fulfilling prophecy" that may occur when a center refuses to try below a certain gestational age because they have had no survivors below that age. Finally, any refusal to treat requires ethical justification. Concepts such as futility and patient's best interest should play a role in the determination of the gestational age threshold, applied in light of the data's inherent weaknesses. PMID:16252012

  10. Vaccine refusal and the endgame: walking the last mile first

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Omer, Saad B.

    2013-01-01

    As multiple papers within this special issue illustrate, the dynamics of disease eradication are different from disease control. When it comes to disease eradication, ‘the last mile is longest’. For social and ecological reasons such as vaccine refusal, further ending incidence of a disease when it has reached low levels is frequently complex. Issues of non-compliance within a target population often influence the outcome of disease eradication efforts. Past eradication efforts confronted such obstacles towards the tail end of the campaign, when disease incidence was lowest. This article provides a comparison of non-compliance within polio, measles and smallpox campaigns, demonstrating the tendency of vaccine refusal to rise as disease incidence falls. In order to overcome one of the most intractable challenges to eradication, future disease eradication efforts must prioritize vaccine refusal from the start, i.e. ‘walk the last mile first’. PMID:23798696

  11. Partner communication skills and condom use among college couples.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Heather E; McCaul, Kevin D; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Smyth, Joshua M

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of (1) communication-skills training, (2) relationship-specific education, or (3) risk information on the condom use of 106 heterosexual college students who were in sexually active relationships. Postintervention assessments of in vivo communication-skills demonstrated that participants in the communication-skills group acquired the skills to use direct requests for condom use and to counter partner refusal statements more effectively than participants in the other conditions (ps < .01). Despite successful skill acquisition, however, students failed to change their subsequent communication or condom-use behavior. This pattern of findings is considered in terms of how the development of sexual partnership in this cohort affects the interplay of motivation and skills for condom use. PMID:15134100

  12. 9 CFR 351.19 - Refusal of certification for specific lots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Refusal of certification for specific lots. 351.19 Section 351.19 Animals and...19 Refusal of certification for specific lots. If an inspector has reason to believe that a lot of technical animal fat is ineligible for...

  13. 9 CFR 351.19 - Refusal of certification for specific lots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Refusal of certification for specific lots. 351.19 Section 351.19 Animals and...19 Refusal of certification for specific lots. If an inspector has reason to believe that a lot of technical animal fat is ineligible for...

  14. 9 CFR 351.19 - Refusal of certification for specific lots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Refusal of certification for specific lots. 351.19 Section 351.19 Animals and...19 Refusal of certification for specific lots. If an inspector has reason to believe that a lot of technical animal fat is ineligible for...

  15. 9 CFR 156.8 - Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE § 156.8 Refusal of service; denial...refused if the conditions stated in §§ 156.5 and 156.6 are not met. ...hearing, and in that event shall report his actions to the...

  16. 9 CFR 156.8 - Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE § 156.8 Refusal of service; denial...refused if the conditions stated in §§ 156.5 and 156.6 are not met. ...hearing, and in that event shall report his actions to the...

  17. 37 CFR 2.186 - Petition to Director to review refusal of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Petition to Director to review refusal of renewal. 2.186 Section 2.186 Patents...PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Term and Renewal § 2.186 Petition to Director to review refusal of renewal. (a) A response to the...

  18. 49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. 382...REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.211 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test....

  19. 49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. 382...REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.211 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test....

  20. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  1. Cognition-Enhancing Drugs: Can We Say No?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquale, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Normative analysis of cognition-enhancing drugs frequently weighs the liberty interests of drug users against egalitarian values. Yet those who would refuse to engage in neuroenhancement may well find their liberty to do so limited in a society where such drugs are widespread. To the extent that unvarnished emotional responses are…

  2. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...135-117A] RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction AGENCY...Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing regulations published on May 14...describing refusals to submit to drug or alcohol tests; directed readers to an...

  3. Assisted Suicide Compared with Refusal of Treatment: A Valid Distinction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin G. Miller; Joseph J. Fins; Lois Snyder

    2000-01-01

    The continuing debate over the deeply controversial issue of physician-assisted suicide has been complicated by con- fusion about how this practice resembles or differs from refusal of life-sustaining treatment. Perspectives on ethics and policy hinge on the contested issue of whether a valid distinction can be made between assisted suicide and with- drawal of treatment. This paper uses three illustrative

  4. Characterization of leachate from abandoned coal refuse. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Essington; S. L. Hill; L. P. Jackson; D. B. Koesters; G. M. Mason

    1987-01-01

    The principle objective of the project was to identify and characterize all waste substances leaching from abandoned coal refuse. Waste substances are defined as those elements or compounds listed or classified as hazardous by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). A detailed examination was made of all regulations effecting hazardous waste disposal and a list of those

  5. 21 CFR 314.125 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...this section apply. (b) FDA may refuse to approve an application...labeling was not conducted in compliance with the good laboratory...chapter, was not conducted in compliance with those regulations such...the study when requested by FDA. (18) For a new...

  6. 21 CFR 314.125 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...this section apply. (b) FDA may refuse to approve an application...labeling was not conducted in compliance with the good laboratory...chapter, was not conducted in compliance with those regulations such...the study when requested by FDA. (18) For a new...

  7. 21 CFR 314.125 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...this section apply. (b) FDA may refuse to approve an application...labeling was not conducted in compliance with the good laboratory...chapter, was not conducted in compliance with those regulations such...the study when requested by FDA. (18) For a new...

  8. 21 CFR 314.125 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...this section apply. (b) FDA may refuse to approve an application...labeling was not conducted in compliance with the good laboratory...chapter, was not conducted in compliance with those regulations such...the study when requested by FDA. (18) For a new...

  9. 21 CFR 314.125 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...this section apply. (b) FDA may refuse to approve an application...labeling was not conducted in compliance with the good laboratory...chapter, was not conducted in compliance with those regulations such...the study when requested by FDA. (18) For a new...

  10. Treatment of Severe Feeding Refusal in Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Thomas; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of an inpatient multidisciplinary program for treatment of severe feeding refusal. Nineteen infants and toddlers recovering from medical and surgical disorders which had required non-oral feeding were studied. A modified method of rapid introduction of oral feedings resulted in conversion to…

  11. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  12. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01... 439.50 Section 439.50 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.50 Refusal of...

  13. Descriptive Analyses of Pediatric Food Refusal and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Woods, Julia N.; Borrero, John C.; Masler, Elizabeth A.; Lesser, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    Functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior typically include conditions to determine if the contingent delivery of attention, tangible items, or escape reinforce food refusal. In the current investigation, descriptive analyses were conducted for 25 children who had been admitted to a program for the assessment and treatment of food…

  14. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rajtar, Ma?gorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204

  15. Presentation skills.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Presentations are integral to my role as a learning and development practitioner. The CPD article enabled me to develop my presentation skills and those of my colleagues. Many healthcare staff have up-to-date knowledge, experience and understanding of the requirements of the organisation, yet lack confidence in their presentation skills. PMID:26153972

  16. INITIAL INTERNAL RELIABILITY AND DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR A BRIEF ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR THE LIFE SKILLS TRAINING DRUG-ABUSE PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARAXI P. MACAULAY; KENNETH W. GRIFFIN; GILBERT J. BOTVIN

    2002-01-01

    Summary.-Adolescent drug use in the United States remains the highest in the industrialized world. Fortunately there have been significant advances in developing effective prevention programs for adolescent drug use. An important issue in evaluat- ing such programs is that the self-report surveys have adequate psychometric proper- ties and assess constructs targeted by an intervention. A questionnaire focusing on knowledge and

  17. Healthcare provider perspectives on parental refusal of medical interventions: A qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Glas Gaspers

    2008-01-01

    Background. Healthcare providers in pediatrics are faced with parents making medical decisions for their children. Refusal to consent to interventions can have life threatening sequelae, yet healthcare workers are provided little training in handling refusals. The healthcare provider's experience in parental refusal has not been well described, yet is an important first step in addressing this problem. ^ Specific aims.

  18. Leaving Money on the Table: Learning from Recent Refusals of Federal Grants in the American States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Nicholson-Crotty

    Recent years have been marked by high-profile refusals of federal grant aid by state governments. These refusals raise several questions. First, is there anything new here? Second, does partisanship alone explain these decisions? And finally, do the explanations for recent decisions provide insights into state behavior over the longer term? This article reviews state refusals of federal money over the

  19. 10 CFR 709.13 - Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. 709.13 Section 709...13 Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. (a) Subject to...a covered person may refuse to take a polygraph examination pursuant to § 709.3...

  20. 10 CFR 709.13 - Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. 709.13 Section 709...13 Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. (a) Subject to...a covered person may refuse to take a polygraph examination pursuant to § 709.3...

  1. 10 CFR 709.13 - Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. 709.13 Section 709...13 Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. (a) Subject to...a covered person may refuse to take a polygraph examination pursuant to § 709.3...

  2. Dispreferred Responses in Interlanguage Pragmatics Refusal Sequences in Learner-NS Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the pragmatic strategies that learners utilize to negotiate a resolution when refusing a native speaker of higher status in three asymmetric situations (+Power, +Distance). Following Pomerantz's (1984) analysis of dispreferred responses, this study focuses on refusals to an invitation, a request, and a suggestion. Refusal

  3. Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Strategy Use in Egyptian Arabic and American English Refusals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gayle L.; Carson, Joan; Al Batal, Mahmoud; El Bakary, Waguida

    2002-01-01

    Investigated similarities and differences between Egyptian Arabic and American English refusals using a modified version of the discourse completion test. Thirty U.S. interviews resulted in 298 refusals, and 24 Egyptian interviews resulted in 250 refusals. Results indicate both groups use similar strategies with similar frequency in making…

  4. Characterizing combustible portions of urban refuse for potential use as fuel. Report of investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schultz; P. M. Sullivan; F. E. Walker

    1975-01-01

    Urban refuse that was mechanically separated at the U.S. Bureau of Mines pilot plant in College Park, Md., was successfully evaluated for its fuel values using standard coal analysis methods. Analyses performed on refuse samples taken from five sample points included moisture, ash, sulfur, chlorine, and heating value. It was recommended that characterization of the combustible portion of urban refuse

  5. Characterizing combustible portions of urban refuse for potential use as fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schultz; P. M. Sullivan; F. E. Walker

    1975-01-01

    Urban refuse that was mechanically separated at the U.S. Bureau of Mines pilot plant in College Park, Md., was successfully evaluated for its fuel values using standard coal analysis methods. Analyses performed on refuse samples taken from five sample points included moisture, ash, sulfur, chlorine, and heating value. It was recommended that characterization of the combustible portion of urban refuse

  6. Effects of Prechilling and Sequential Washing on Enumeration of Microorganisms from Refuse

    PubMed Central

    Barlaz, M. A.; Schaefer, D. M.; Ham, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques were evaluated for formation of a liquid inoculum from shredded municipal refuse, including chilling the refuse at 4°C prior to blending and multiple washing and blending cycles. The average count of cellulolytic bacteria from six different detachment treatments was 5.1 × 104 cells per g (dry weight) of refuse with a range of 0.7 × 104 to 12.7 × 104 cells per g (dry weight). The liquid obtained from blending the refuse in phosphate buffer followed by hand squeezing was the selected detachment procedure. The inoculum formation procedure was validated by the addition of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria to refuse and recovery of the cellulolytic bacteria by most-probable-number enumerations. The ratio of measured to expected cell counts among tests in which different volumes of ruminal fluid were added to refuse ranged from 2.7 to 14.4. There was no evidence of anaerobic cellulolytic fungi in a refuse sample. PMID:16347834

  7. Fire-side corrosion in refuse-fired boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Daniel; L. D. Paul; J. Barna

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews corrosive conditions in refuse-fired boilers and describes laboratory tests that define the relative corrosiveness of salts found in boiler deposits. Constituents of the salt mixtures tested include ZnClâ, PbClâ, FeClâ, NaCl, KCl, ZnSOâ, PbSOâ, NaâSOâ, and KâSOâ. The corrosiveness of the salt mixtures was determined by measuring the corrosion rates of SA-178 Grade C carbon steel and

  8. Prep plants adopt paste thickener for refuse disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B.; Johnson, J.; Slottee, S. [Paste Thick Associates (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Coal is the latest industry to apply paste thickener technology - it can improve the economics of coal refuse (tailings) handling. Pinn Oak's Pinnacle coal preparation plant was one of the first, using paste thickener to reclaim fine coal values from existing retention ponds and to process them to extract previously wasted coal values. Another paste thickener is to be used at Arch Coal's Lone Mountain plant in Virginia. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Sharing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealy, Virginia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

  10. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  11. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  12. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  13. Communications Skills I. Reading Skills, Writing Skills, Using a Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student workbook contains instructional units dealing with developing reading, writing, and listening skills and using a newspaper. Addressed in the unit on reading and writing skills are finding main ideas; mastering reading attack skills; improving memory skills; learning words from context; skimming; developing vocabulary; improving study…

  14. Skills for Adolescence. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Lions Quest "Skills for Adolescence" is a schoolwide program designed for middle school students (grades 6-8). The program was designed to promote good citizenship skills, core character values, and social-emotional skills and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol, and violence. The program includes a classroom curriculum, schoolwide practices to…

  15. Surveying Organization Development Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, D. D.; Donovan, Tom

    1979-01-01

    From a survey of leaders in organization development, the authors identified 40 major needed skills which they categorize under four headings: knowledge skills, consulting skills, conceptual skills, and human skills. They discuss concerns and needs in each category, providing a chart of the identified skills for self-evaluation. (MF)

  16. Standardizing and Evaluating the "Presenter" Variable in the Peer vs. Adult Debate in Youth Drug Prevention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Charles J.; McCarthy, Heather; Murff, Sherice; Thomas, Adrienne; Rosetti, Desila; Murillo, Natalie G.

    2009-01-01

    A "train-the-trainer" workshop was developed to evaluate and enhance presentational skills and offered to 14 youth in grades 6-12 and 9 administrators from youth-focused community agencies in Indiana. Upon workshop completion, 7 youth and 6 adults functioned as presenters of a 1 1/2-hour module on refusal and resistance skills to 95 youth enrolled…

  17. drug discovery drug discovery

    E-print Network

    drug discovery at Purdue #12;drug discovery 2 #12;drug discovery 3 Introduction The drug discovery and innovative drug candidates to treat chronic and acute illnesses. Our researchers also continue to be invested in various approaches to drug discovery, which include understanding of drug targets for future drug

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  19. APPLE against Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Camille B.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the formation of a citizens' group in Clarkesville, Tennessee, to educate the town's youth about the health risks of drug use. This group developed a curriculum entitled "I'm Special" designed to teach self-esteem and decision-making skills to fourth graders, to enable them to deal with peer pressure to try or use drugs. (CH)

  20. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  1. 30 CFR 253.50 - How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? 253...Revocation and Penalties § 253.50 How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? (a) If MMS determines that any OSFR evidence you...

  2. 30 CFR 253.50 - How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? 253...Revocation and Penalties § 253.50 How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? (a) If MMS determines that any OSFR evidence you...

  3. Outcome of patients who refused out-of-hospital medical assistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan L Burstein; Mark C Henry; Jeanne Alicandro; Henry C Thode; Judd E Hollander

    1996-01-01

    Activation of the emergency medical services (EMS) system does not always result in transport of a patient to the hospital. This study assessed the outcomes of patients who refused medical assistance in the field, to determine if refusal of medical assistance (RMA) is associated with poor outcomes. Four high-volume suburban volunteer ambulance corps participated in the study. Consecutive patients who

  4. Informed consent and the refusal of medical treatment in the correctional setting.

    PubMed

    Parker, F R; Paine, C J

    1999-01-01

    Authors note that the legal framework courts use for analyzing patients' decisions to refuse treatment does not accommodate the ethical issues arising when such decisions are made by patients in correctional settings. In lieu of the traditional model, they propose a more cautious approach when inmates refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. PMID:11067601

  5. School Absenteeism and School Refusal Behavior: A Review and Suggestions for School-Based Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Bensaheb, Arva

    2006-01-01

    School absenteeism and school refusal behavior are particularly difficult problems that school health professionals often face. Unfortunately, few recommendations are available to such professionals about how to address this population. In this article, we (1) outline the major characteristics of school absenteeism and school refusal behavior, (2)…

  6. The design of hydraulic control system about bidirectional compressing refuse collector based on PLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenguang Zhenga; Yao Yaob; Ping Tangc

    2011-01-01

    The control of the traditional refuse collector uses the operation of manual and remote controller, and operation, which causes the shortcomings of the low efficiency, the labor- intensive operation and mistakes in operation. An environmental sanitation company produces bidirectional compressing refuse collector, specific to which a hydraulic control system is designed based on PLC. This system is easy operating, and

  7. DENSIFICATION OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS: PREPARATION, PROPERTIES AND SYSTEMS FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) is produced by compacting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) into agglomerated pieces sufficiently cohesive to sustain storage and handling. The use of this d-RDF product as a substitute for coal in spreader-stoker boilers is a developing resource rec...

  8. Reclamation of coal refuse material on an abandoned mine site at Staunton, Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Wilkey; S. D. Zellmen

    1977-01-01

    In the State of Illinois lands that have been abandoned after deep mining or strip mining of coal present unique land reclamation problems. The old Consolidated Mine No. 14 was located in Macoupin County, northwest of the town of Staunton, Illinois. The refuse at this mine site was creating environmental problems typical of refuse areas in Illinois. Among these problems

  9. Prostate Cancer Patients' Refusal of Cancer-Directed Surgery: A Statewide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Islam, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in USA. The surgical outcomes of prostate cancer remain inconsistent. Barriers such as socioeconomic factors may play a role in patients' decision of refusing recommended cancer-directed surgery. Methods. The Nebraska Cancer Registry data was used to calculate the proportion of prostate cancer patients recommended the cancer-directed surgery and the surgery refusal rate. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to analyze the socioeconomic indicators that were related to the refusal of surgery. Results. From 1995 to 2012, 14,876 prostate cancer patients were recommended to undergo the cancer-directed surgery in Nebraska, and 576 of them refused the surgery. The overall refusal rate of surgery was 3.9% over the 18 years. Patients with early-stage prostate cancer were more likely to refuse the surgery. Patients who were Black, single, or covered by Medicaid/Medicare had increased odds of refusing the surgery. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors were related to the refusal of recommended surgical treatment for prostate cancer. Such barriers should be addressed to improve the utilization of surgical treatment and patients' well-being. PMID:25973276

  10. Making Sense of Iconic Symbols: A Study of Preschool Children Conducting a Refuse-Sorting Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Ĺberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Ottosson, Torgny; Beach, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of a larger project focusing upon explanatory illustrations that children encounter in pre- and primary school education. The research questions concerned (a) how preschool children make sense of iconic symbols when placing items of refuse on illustrations of refuse bins in a sorting task and (b) what stumbling blocks they…

  11. Social Work and the Right of Psychiatric Patients to Refuse Medication: A Family Advocate's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenson, Marilyn K.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that overriding a mentally ill person's refusal to take medications may pose a dilemma around the issue of patients' rights, despite opinion of many authorities that refusal is often illness related. Presents information to help promote understanding of reasons why those who work with mentally ill people should be ready to override their…

  12. Assessing Capacity in Psychiatric Patients With Acute Medical Illness Who Refuse Care

    PubMed Central

    Spike, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Three cases are presented that demonstrate the difficulty of assessing medical decision-making capacity in patients with psychiatric illness who are refusing care. Health professionals often assess capacity differently in practice. Provided their patients have some understanding of their illness and have some plans for meeting basic needs, psychiatrists are often inclined to give patients the freedom to refuse care even if they do not exhibit a full understanding of the medical facts of their case and why they are refusing it. Adult medicine physicians, in contrast, are inclined to require patients to state a more complete understanding of the benefits and burdens of evaluation and treatment before allowing them to refuse care when their refusals might result in adverse medical outcomes. The 3 cases exemplify the tension between these approaches and highlight the role of hospital ethics consultation in addressing this conflict. PMID:25834754

  13. 21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...determine that the disease or condition is rare in the United States; or (iii) The...the drug may be useful for treating the rare disease or condition with that drug; or...already been conducted on the drug for the rare disease or condition; or (v)...

  14. 21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...determine that the disease or condition is rare in the United States; or (iii) The...the drug may be useful for treating the rare disease or condition with that drug; or...already been conducted on the drug for the rare disease or condition; or (v)...

  15. 45 CFR 261.14 - What is the penalty if an individual refuses to engage in work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...individual refuses to engage in work? (a) If an individual refuses to engage in work required under section...reduce or terminate the amount of assistance payable...a minimum, reduce the amount of assistance otherwise...individual refuses to work. (2) The State...

  16. Skill acquisition Motor learning

    E-print Network

    Sergio, Lauren E.

    ·1 Skill acquisition · Motor learning theories ­ closed loop theory ­ schema theory ­ hierarchical theory · Motor learning practice ­ Fitt's three stages ­ motor imagery ­ physical changes Skill acquisition: Closed loop theory · Feedback guides learning a motor skill ­ memory trace selects and initiates

  17. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

  18. Biotechnology Skills Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

  19. Rages and refusals. Managing the many faces of adolescent anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Garland, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with a practical approach to recognition, assessment, and treatment of adolescent anxiety disorders complicated by avoidance or oppositional behaviour. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current literature was searched via MEDLINE using the MeSH headings Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders, focusing on epidemiology, clinical presentations in adolescence, and both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment. In addition, internationally accepted diagnostic criteria, current practice guidelines, and recent textbooks by recognized experts were reviewed. Research evidence and consensus recommendations were integrated with a practical approach developed in a provincial mood and anxiety disorders clinic. MAIN FINDINGS: Anxiety disorders are common in adolescents, with estimated prevalence of at least 10%. Substance abuse and avoiding school are common complications, and irritability with behavioural and rage problems can interfere with effective management. Current controlled research is examining the effectiveness of serotonergic medications known to benefit panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety in adults. While cognitive and behavioural treatments are effective for some child and adolescent anxiety disorders, they can be difficult to administer, and a supportive and psychoeducational approach could be as effective for those who refuse to go to school. CONCLUSION: Family physicians' awareness of the role of anxiety in adolescent school avoidance and in intense, oppositional emotional reactions at home can lead to more specific assessment and therapeutic intervention. Practical management strategies are recommended. PMID:11398717

  20. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...discharge into the navigable waters in the United States is required by subsection...b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...violate the applicable water quality standards...failure or refusal of the State, interstate...

  1. 32 CFR 720.9 - Circumstances in which delivery is refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...refused. (a) Disciplinary proceedings pending. When disciplinary proceedings involving military offenses are pending, commanding officers should obtain...Advocate General by telephone, or by message if telephone is impractical. The...

  2. 7 CFR 91.34 - When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused. 91.34...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Appeal of Laboratory Services § 91.34 When an...

  3. 7 CFR 91.34 - When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused. 91.34...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Appeal of Laboratory Services § 91.34 When an...

  4. 7 CFR 91.34 - When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused. 91.34...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Appeal of Laboratory Services § 91.34 When an...

  5. 7 CFR 4280.148 - Refusal to execute Loan Note Guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.148 Refusal to...

  6. 7 CFR 800.50 - Refusal of official services and civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...temporarily or indefinitely, by the Service for causes prescribed in section...of the Act. Such refusal by the Service may be restricted to the particular...in violation or to a particular type of service, as the facts may...

  7. 16 CFR 803.4 - Foreign persons refusing to file notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 803.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL RULES § 803.4 Foreign persons refusing to file...

  8. 7 CFR 319.8-3 - Refusal and cancellation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...authorized in § 319.8-12 of lint, linters, waste, cottonseed, and cottonseed hulls may be refused and existing permits...in § 319.8-13 of lint, linters, waste, cottonseed, cottonseed hulls, and covers that have...

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-3 - Refusal and cancellation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...authorized in § 319.8-12 of lint, linters, waste, cottonseed, and cottonseed hulls may be refused and existing permits...in § 319.8-13 of lint, linters, waste, cottonseed, cottonseed hulls, and covers that have...

  10. 16 CFR 803.4 - Foreign persons refusing to file notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL RULES § 803.4 Foreign persons refusing to file notification....

  11. 7 CFR 91.34 - When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused. 91.34...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Appeal of Laboratory Services § 91.34 When an...

  12. 7 CFR 91.34 - When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused. 91.34...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Appeal of Laboratory Services § 91.34 When an...

  13. [Refusal of breeding bulls to eat hay contaminated with horsetail (Equisetum palustre)].

    PubMed

    Kamphues, J

    1990-08-01

    Bulls refused hay from a new batch (coming from a nonintensively fertilized area in Southern Germany). The intake of other components of the ration (silage, concentrates) was not influenced. The visual inspection of the hay revealed a massive contamination (about 12% by mass) by horsetail. According to the reported observations it seems that cattle recognize the plant by its odour, and refuse it if alternative roughage is available, thereby escaping an intoxication. PMID:2219104

  14. Insulin therapy refusal among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Kubang Pasu district, Kedah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei Leong; Asahar, Siti Fairus; Harun, Noor Liani

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a rising non-communicable disease in Malaysia. Insulin therapy refusal is a challenge for healthcare providers, as it results in delayed insulin initiation. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of insulin therapy refusal and its associated factors. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted at seven public health clinics in Kubang Pasu district of Kedah, Malaysia, from March to October 2012. A newly developed and validated questionnaire was used and participants were selected via systematic random sampling. Only patients diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and under the public health clinic care in Kubang Pasu were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression was used to study the association between insulin therapy refusal and its associated factors. RESULTS There were 461 respondents and the response rate was 100%. Among these 461 patients with T2DM, 74.2% refused insulin therapy. The most common reason given for refusal was a lack of confidence in insulin injection (85.4%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that respondents who had secondary education were 55.0% less likely to refuse insulin therapy than those who had primary education or no formal education (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25–0.82, p = 0.009). There was also a significant inverse association between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level and insulin therapy refusal (adjusted OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–1.00, p = 0.047). CONCLUSION Insulin therapy refusal is common in Kubang Pasu. Educational status and HbA1c level should be taken into consideration when counselling patients on insulin therapy initiation. PMID:25532511

  15. Behavioral role-play and cognitive measures of women's ability to refuse unwanted sexual advances 

    E-print Network

    Flarity-White, Laurie Anne

    1988-01-01

    ) Laurie Anne Flarity-White, B. S. , University of Alaska, Anchorage Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Charlene L. Muehlenhard The incidence of date and acquaintance rape among college students has been reported to be as high as 15% (Rapaport & Burkhart..., 1984). The majority of these rapes are nonviolent in nature. Because most date rapes are nonviolent, a woman's assertive refusal is likely to be successful in stopping the man's advances. If a woman is unable to refuse unwanted sexual advances...

  16. Acquisition of cognitive skill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Anderson

    1982-01-01

    A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowl- edge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system

  17. Soft Skills, Hard Science

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    Soft Skills, Hard Science: A Program to Improve Job Placement of STEM Graduates with Disabilities 2013 Women & Science Conference1 Wednesday, May 22, 13 #12;Why focus on soft skills? What comes to mind rated recent grads on same skills Perception Reality 8 Wednesday, May 22, 13 #12;what are soft skills

  18. Core competence (knowledge) (skill)

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Core competence 8 5~8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PPS003 Ver. 1.1 2011/03/07 #12; 2 (knowledge) (skill) (attitude) Set of skill, knowledge or attitude which should be learned or acquired by each, 2000) (knowledge) (skill) (attitude) Set of skill, knowledge or attitude which should be learned

  19. Legislation and refusal of blood transfusion by a minor Jehovah-Witness in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Deneyer, M; Matthys, D; Ramet, J; Michel, L; Holsters, D; Vandenplas, Y

    2011-01-01

    The refusal of blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witnesses in critical situations constitutes an ethical and juridical dilemma. The refusal to receive blood products by Jehovah's Witnesses is based on biblical verses. Recurring arguments to sustain this refusal regard the right to self-determination and the right to freedom of faith. If minors are involved, the problem is rendered even more difficult as the parental authority over young children needs to be taken into account. When adolescents are concerned, the situation if even more ambiguous since adolescents might be considered as mature enough to provide autonomous consent. On the basis of three cases, the most frequent bottlenecks that can come up in paediatric emergency services are highlighted: (1) the refusal of a blood transfusion by the parents of a young child; (2) the refusal by an adolescent and (3) prior refusal based on a "No Blood"-document. Regarding minors, the law on patients' rights in Belgium contains safety mechanisms concerning the preservation of physical integrity. Therefore, a key responsibility has been assigned to the physician. A step-by-step plan and a synoptic diagram are presented. PMID:22299319

  20. Drug Offers as a Context for Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Susana; Okamoto, Scott; Kaliades, Alexis; Giroux, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Objective Drug use has been linked empirically with aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai`i samples. However, the nature of this link and its implications for prevention are unclear. Therefore, this paper explores the intersection of drugs with aggression and violence by using the drug offer context as the unit of analysis. Method Native Hawaiian youth are sampled because substance use rates tend to be higher and onset tends to be earlier than their non-Hawaiian peers. Fourteen sex-specific focus group discussions were held with rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N=64). Students discussed what they thought they would do in terms of drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Results While aggression and violence were perceived to be socially inappropriate, students nonetheless felt drug use would be less socially competent. Narrative analyses indicated aggression and violence were perceived to function as potential drug refusal strategies. As proximal drug resistance, aggression and violence perpetration served as an immediate deterrent to the drug offerer, and thus drug use. As distal drug resistance, victimization served as a rationale for avoiding drug using contexts. Conclusions Implications are discussed in terms of prevention policy and practice, specifically in terms of a school-based prevention curriculum. Future research in Hawaiian epistemology and gendered approaches are warranted. PMID:24564559

  1. 75 FR 44265 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...1995, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institutes of Health...Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse is a new program developed with funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The primary goal is to assess...

  2. 75 FR 74738 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...1995, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institutes of Health...Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse is a new program developed with funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The primary goal is to assess...

  3. A comparative evaluation of minerals and trace elements in the ashes from lignite, coal refuse, and biomass fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smriti Singh; Lal C. Ram; Reginald E. Masto; Santosh K. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Coal being a limited source of energy, extraction of energy from other sources like lignite, coal-refuse, and biomass is being attempted worldwide. The minerals and inorganic elements present in fuel feeds pose different technological and environmental concerns. Lignite ash, refuse ash, and biomass ash collected from Indian power plants burning lignite, coal-refuse, and mustard stalk, respectively, were analyzed for physico-chemical

  4. Characteristics, survival, and related factors of newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients refusing cancer treatments under a universal health insurance program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Few studies have addressed the causes and risks of treatment refusal in a universal health insurance setting. Methods We examined the characteristics and survival associated with treatment refusal in patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer in Taiwan during 2004–2008. Treatment refusal was defined as not undergoing any cancer treatment within 4 months of confirmed cancer diagnosis. Patient data were extracted from four national databases. Factors associated with treatment refusal were identified through logistic regression using the generalized estimating equation method, and survival analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of the 41,340 new colorectal cancer cases diagnosed, 3,612 patients (8.74%) refused treatment. Treatment refusal rate was higher in patients with less urbanized areas of residence, lower incomes, preexisting catastrophic illnesses, cancer stages of 0 and IV, and diagnoses at regional and district hospitals. Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients aged >75 years were the most likely to refuse treatment (OR, 1.87); patients with catastrophic illnesses (OR, 1.66) and stage IV cancer (OR, 1.43) had significantly higher refusal rates. The treatment refusers had 2.66 times the risk of death of those who received treatment. Factors associated with an increased risk of death in refusers included age ?75 years, insured monthly salary ?22,801 NTD, low-income household or aboriginal status, and advanced cancer stage (especially stage IV; HR, 11.33). Conclusion Our results show a lower 5-year survival for colorectal patients who refused treatment than for those who underwent treatment within 4 months. An age of 75 years or older, low-income household status, advanced stages of cancer, especially stage IV, were associated with higher risks of death for those who refused treatment. PMID:24938667

  5. Specialty Residency in Drug Information Practice Drug Information Center

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    The College of Pharmacy at Washington State University is recruiting applicants for a one-year Specialty expertise in drug information skills will be enhanced with the following experiences: Clinical Practice Service and Drug Facts & Comparisons; and articles for other publications. Teaching: Teaching will include

  6. Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Don

    The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

  7. Manufacturing Engineering Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Loughrey, Joe

    Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.

  8. Skills in the city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marigee Bacolod; Bernardo S. Blum; William C. Strange

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents the allocation of skills across cities and estimates the impact of agglomeration on the hedonic prices of worker skills. We find that large cities are more skilled than are small cities, but only to a modest degree. We also show that the increase in productivity associated with agglomeration, as measured by the urban wage premium, is larger

  9. Enhancing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

  10. Unions, Wages, and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Barry T.; Schumacher, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    National Longitudinal Survey of Youth aptitude scores confirmed that differentials in union-nonunion wages are highest for workers with low measured skills and lowest for workers with high measured skills. Results suggest that unions are more successful where skills are homogenous and unionized employers are reluctant to hire both the most as well…

  11. Knowledge & Skills Foundations

    E-print Network

    Hood, Craig

    #12;Knowledge & Skills Foundations In the social sciences, incoming students succeed when they are armed with specific knowledge and skills--but above all, when they are ready to embrace the learning process. Basic Knowledge & Skills Students who are ready for entry-level courses are familiar

  12. Assessing Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Most educators are familiar with instances of authentic assessment of "content" within the disciplines or of authentic assessment of "discipline-specific skills." In such authentic assessments, students apply the knowledge and skills of the discipline to situations or tasks that replicate real world challenges. The measurement of skills is…

  13. Predictors of severity of absenteeism in children with anxiety-based school refusal.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C; Sanders, S L; Massaro, S; Last, C G

    1998-10-01

    Examined possible relations among sociodemographic, clinical, and familial variables and level of school absenteeism in children with anxiety-based school refusal. These children exhibit a great deal of variability in the severity of school refusal, with some youngsters missing only an occasional day of school, whereas other exhibit pervasive school absenteeism. Participants were 76 children referred for treatment of anxiety-based school refusal. Children and a parent completed a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children) and self-report measures that assess children's levels of fear (Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised), trait and somatic anxiety (Modified State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children), and depressive symptomatology (Children's Depression Inventory), as well as family environment characteristics (Family Environment Scale). Regression analyses revealed that older age, lower levels of fear, and less active families were primary predictors of greater levels of school absenteeism. PMID:9789185

  14. Performance and bacterial compositions of aged refuse reactors treating mature landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bing; Xiong, Shunzi; Liang, Shaobo; Hu, Chong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Aged landfill leachates become more refractory over time and difficulty to treat. Recently, aged refuse bioreactors show great promise in treating leachates. In this study, aged refuse bioreactors were constructed to simulate landfill leachate degradation process. The characteristics of leachate were: CODcr, ?2200 mg/L; BOD5, ?280 mg/L; total nitrogen, ?2030 mg/L; and ammonia, ?1900 mg/L. Results showed that bioreactor could remove leachate pollutants effectively at hydraulic loading of 20 L/m3 d. The removal rate reduced when hydraulic loading doubled or temperature lowered. Effluent recirculation could alleviate the temperature effect. Combining aged refuse and slag biofilters could treat leachate more efficiently. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that bacteria from Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, Bacillus and ?-proteobacter, Flexibacteraceae were more abundant in the samples. The Shannon index decreased at lower temperature, while evenness and equitability increased with recirculation. We suggest that filter medium and temperature may be the main factors for shaping bacterial community structure. PMID:22023964

  15. Confusing criminal and civil law: when may a hospital refuse to release a dead body?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    A United Kingdom bereavement advice group has expressed concern that hospitals in Britain may be acting "illegally" in refusing to release dead bodies to relatives unless they provide evidence that funeral arrangements have been made. In some cases, hospitals may have refused to release a body to anyone other than an undertaker. The charity argues that this behaviour constitutes the common law offence of preventing the lawful burial of a body. This article considers the confusion that may occur between this offence and interference with the right to possession of a body for lawful burial. The conclusion is that it is extremely unlikely a hospital or its employees would fall foul of the criminal law in refusing to release a dead body and may be liable in the civil courts if they release a body to someone who does not have the duty and consequent right to possession of the body for lawful burial. PMID:25715539

  16. Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Erickson, P.M.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hood, M.

    1984-12-01

    Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of two alternative acid control chemicals, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, was compared with the performance of SLS in pilot-scale experiments with extensively leached, fresh coal refuse. Chemical cost information is presented that indicates low benzoate and sorbate doses were more economical than comparable SLS doses under the experimental conditions of the study. The unique environmental compatibility of benzoate and sorbate, which are used in food and beverages in concentrations greater than those reported in this study for acid drainage suppression, is also discussed.

  17. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD. PMID:24928779

  18. The impacts of coal refuse/fly ash bulk bends on water quality and plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Stewar, B.R.; Daniels, W.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the beneficial reuse of coal fly ash as a soil amendment on coal refuse piles. One method of application would be to blend the coal refuse and the fly ash before deposition in a refuse pile. A field experiment was initiated to measure the effects of bulk blending fly ash with coal refuse on water quality and plant growth parameters. Fly ash (class F) from three sources were used in the experiment. Two of the fly ashes were acidic and the third was alkaline. Trenches were excavated in a coal refuse pile to a depth of 2 m and the refuse was blended with fly ash and then returned to the trench. In other plots the ash was applied as a surface amendment. A treatment of a bulk blend of 5% (w/w) rock phosphate was also included in the experiment. Large volume lysimeters were installed in some trenches to collect the leachates. The fly ash treatments appear to improve the quality of the leachates when compared to the leachates from the untreated plots. The fly ash amended treatments have lower leachate concentrations of Fe and Al. Initially the fly ash treatments showed high levels of leachate B, however those levels have decreased with time. Millet (Setaria italica) yields from the first year of the experiment were highest n the alkaline fly ash and rock phosphate blended plots. In the second growing season, the two bulk blends with alkaline fly ash had the highest yields. In the third growing season all treatments had higher yield levels than the untreated control plots. The positive effects of the fly ash on leachate quality were attributed to the alkalinity of the ash, and the increase in yield was attributed to the increases in water holding capacity due to fly ash treatments.

  19. Acceptability of alternative treatments for school refusal: evaluations by students, caregivers, and professionals.

    PubMed

    Gullone, E; King, N J

    1991-11-01

    School refusal is a debilitating condition that may be treated in various ways. This study examined the acceptability and perceived effectiveness of alternative treatments for school refusal. A total of 376 people comprising students, parents, and professionals, were required to evaluate several treatment options in relation to a vignette. Despite its potential aversiveness, behavioural management was the most acceptable treatment approach followed, in order, by home tuition with psychotherapy, hospitalisation, and medication. A strong positive relationship was found between acceptability and perceived effectiveness. PMID:1786213

  20. Frequency and Predictors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination and Reasons for Refusal Among Patients at a Large Tertiary Referral Hospital.

    PubMed

    Masnick, Max; Leekha, Surbhi

    2015-07-01

    We assessed frequency and predictors of seasonal influenza vaccination acceptance among inpatients at a large tertiary referral hospital, as well as reasons for vaccination refusal. Over 5 seasons, >60% of patients unvaccinated on admission refused influenza vaccination while hospitalized; "believes not at risk" was the reason most commonly given. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(7):841-843. PMID:25773676

  1. 25 CFR 103.39 - When will BIA refuse to pay all or part of a lender's claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false When will BIA refuse to pay all or part of a lender's claim? 103.39 ...BIA § 103.39 When will BIA refuse to pay all or part of a lender's claim? BIA may deny all or part of a lender's claim for loss...

  2. 25 CFR 103.39 - When will BIA refuse to pay all or part of a lender's claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false When will BIA refuse to pay all or part of a lender's claim? 103.39 ...BIA § 103.39 When will BIA refuse to pay all or part of a lender's claim? BIA may deny all or part of a lender's claim for loss...

  3. Revegetation of acidic coal refuse: effects of soil cover material depth and limiting rate on initial establishment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Jastrow; A. J. Dvorak; M. J. Knight; B. K. Mueller

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen plots were established in April 1977 on a recontoured coal refuse disposal site near the town of Staunton in southwestern Illinois, as a part of a larger project that is demonstrating and evaluating new and cost-effective methods for reclaiming abandoned coal refuse sites. The plots were designed to compare the effects of four soil cover material depths and two

  4. A trade-off generated by sexual conflict: Mediterranean wrasse males refuse present mates to increase future success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Henson Alonzo; Robert R. Warner

    1999-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms, including intrasexual competition, intersexual conflict, and physiological constraints, can explain patterns of reproduction and the adaptive value of specific behaviors. In a Mediterranean wrasse, Symphodus ocellatus (Labridae), large, nesting males occasionally refuse to spawn with willing females in the presence of small, sneaker males. We explored the possible adaptive significance of this behavior. Nesting males refuse

  5. The application of enzyme activity measurements to a study of factors affecting protein, starch and cellulose fermentation in domestic refuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Jones; J. M. Grainger

    1983-01-01

    Analysis indicated cellulose to be the principal component of unfermented domestic refuse and the cellulose: lignin ratio to be a constant value of 3.5:1. Extracellular enzyme determinations were found to be suitable for assessing microbial activity in fermenting refuse but not for quantifying rates of polymer hydrolysis. Initial stages of fermentation were associated with the breakdown of protein and starch.

  6. Gain just-in-time skills with a developerWorks skill Skill Level: Introductory

    E-print Network

    reach the desired skill objective. You'll also be able to search within the skill kit for specificGain just-in-time skills with a developerWorks skill kit Skill Level: Introductory Kevin Czap and technologies? Are you looking to increase your skills for your next promotion or assignment? Do you sometimes

  7. 7 CFR 75.29 - When an appeal may be refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... A request for an appeal inspection may be refused if: (a) The reasons for an appeal inspection are frivolous or not substantial; (b) The quality or condition of the seed has been altered since the inspection covering the seed on which the...

  8. Exploring the Roles of Requests, Refusals and Reasons in Preschoolers' Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rosemary

    Preschoolers' negotiations were studied for the purposes of linking two lines of research previously treated separately and extending the analysis of children's negotiations beyond the first move. A total of 24 boys and girls between 3.5 and 5.5 years of age were individually required to provide both requests and refusals in a controlled context.…

  9. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers.

    PubMed

    Markosyan, Karine; Lang, Delia L; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P < 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P < 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. PMID:25349727

  10. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Markosyan, Karine; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P < 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P < 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. PMID:25349727

  11. Why Do Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Refuse to Apply Topical Corticosteroids?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mototsugu Fukaya

    2000-01-01

    Background: The number of patients with atopic dermatitis who refuse to use topical corticosteroids because of personal fears seems to be increasing. However, studies on this subject are scarce. Consequently, we have investigated this issue further. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire. Between September 1998 and January 1999, a questionnaire was distributed to patients who responded to an

  12. Learner and Native Speaker Perspectives on a Culturally-Specific Japanese Refusal Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungheim, Nicholas O.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how learners of Japanese as a second language (n=16) and Japanese native speakers (n=17) interpret a Japanese refusal gesture, the so-called Hand Fan, to observe how these interpretations are accompanied by similar manual gestures, and to see how participants perceive its comprehensibility. Results…

  13. Emissions Resulting from the Full-Scale Cofiring of Pelletized Refuse-Derived Fuel and Coal 

    E-print Network

    Ohlsson, O. O.; Daugherty, K.; Venables, B.

    1988-01-01

    Full-scale cofiring tests of binder-enhanced pellets of densified, refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur coal were conducted during June and July of 1987 in Boiler #5 at Argonne National Laboratory. These tests were conducted with industry...

  14. Protected work refusals under Section 105(c)(1) of the Mine Safety and Health Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Biddle; T. C. Means; P. K. Levine

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission has had to define the parameters of when miners have the right to refuse to work because of unsafe or unhealthful mine conditions. Although the emergent law creates a reasonable and equitable balance between mine safety and mine discipline, neither the commission nor the courts has set a standard for how severe

  15. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COAL REFUSE PILES, ABANDONED MINES AND OUTCROPS, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from coal refuse piles, abandoned mines, and outcrops. The potential environmental effect of the source was evaluated using source severity (defined as the ratio of the maximum time-averaged ground level concentration of an e...

  16. Characteristics of Women Refusing Follow-up for Tests or Symptoms Suggestive of Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila Weinmann; Stephen H. Taplin; Joyce Gilbert; Robert K. Beverly; Ann M. Geiger; Marianne Ulcickas Yood; Judy Mouchawar; M. Michele Manos; Jane G. Zapka; Emily Westbrook; William E. Barlow

    2005-01-01

    Background: Delay in diagnosis of breast cancer can occur at several points on the diagnostic pathway. We examined characteristics of women with breast cancer who before diagnosis actively refused recommended follow-up of tests or symptoms suggestive of breast cancer. Methods: We iden- tifi ed women aged 50 years or older diagnosed with late- stage (metastatic disease or tumors ? 3cm

  17. TEST FIRING REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL IN AN INDUSTRIAL COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Research Program entitled, 'Test Firing Refuse Derived Fuel in an Industrial Coal-Fired Boiler' evaluates the performance of an industrial boiler when co-firing coal and RDF. An optimum boiler operating load and RDF feed rate was determined for the boiler tested. Boiler effic...

  18. APPLYING FABRIC FILTRATION TO REFUSE-FIRED BOILERS: A PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was sized to handle 9000 acfm at ...

  19. Resisting Colonial Education: Zitkala-Sa and Native Feminist Archival Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrance, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines resistance through a Native Feminist lens, employing the boarding school memoirs of Zitkala-Sa. Within a "story" of appropriation in methodology, it considers protest and parody, and presents archival refusal as modes of resistance to colonial education. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Metal contamination and infiltration into the soil at refuse dump sites in Awka, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu Chiemezugo; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ezenweke, Linus Obi; Abiakam, Chioma Alex; Nwanguma, Constance Kelechi; Maduabuchi, Ugwuona John-Moses

    2006-01-01

    Awka has been the site of increased human activities since it became a state capital in 1991. Because refuse dumps have hitherto been a disregarded environmental menace in Nigeria, the authors sought to find out how much of the current environmental metal pollutant load comes from refuse dumps. They investigated the metal contamination of the refuse dumps in Awka. The authors collected four soil samples (from the surface and from depths of 0.45 m, 0.90 m, and 1.35 m) from 5 dumpsites digested with nitric acid and perchloric acid, and they analyzed iron, sodium, arsenic, lead, magnesium, potassium, cobalt, zinc, nickel, copper, chromium, and cadmium by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Sites A and C showed the highest levels of arsenic (2300 mg/kg) and lead (2467 mg/kg), respectively. Site D had highest level of both iron (72,200 mg/kg) and sodium (3561 mg/kg), whereas Site E had the lowest level of lead (572 mg/kg). The metal levels exceed the limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This study suggests that the refuse dumps in Awka may increase the level of environmental heavy metals in Nigeria. PMID:17891887

  1. Noncontingent Reinforcement as Treatment for Food Refusal and Associated Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A.; Normand, Matthew; Atwell, Julie

    2005-01-01

    We examined the use of noncontingent reinforcement to decrease self-injury and increase bite acceptance in a child who exhibited food refusal. First, a brief functional analysis suggested that self-injury was maintained by escape from food presentation. Next, we evaluated an intervention that involved noncontingent access to a video during feeding…

  2. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR RECOVERY OF FINE COAL REFUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the economics of an oil-agglomeration process (with and without an oil recovery system) for recovering coal fines from a fine refuse stream of 105 ton/hr from a coal preparation plant. The two base case processes studied are oil-agglom...

  3. DEMONSTRATION TEST OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL AS A SUPPLEMENTAL FUEL IN CEMENT KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from Baltimore County, Maryland, residential solid waste was successfully tested as a supplementary fuel with pulverized coal in a large rotary cement kiln. RDF was produced at the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility, a joint project of Bal...

  4. Characteristics of H2S emission from aged refuse after excavation exposure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when aged refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from aged refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial exposure to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in aged municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided. PMID:25725388

  5. Using Food Redistribution to Reduce Packing in Children with Severe Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulotta, Charles S.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Layer, Stacy A.

    2005-01-01

    Positive- and negative-reinforcement-based procedures typically have targeted acceptance for children with severe food refusal; however, these procedures do not always result in successful swallowing. Once acceptance is achieved, some children expel the food repeatedly or pack (hold or pocket) it in their mouths for extended periods of time. This…

  6. COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

  7. The Stability of Family Decisions to Consent or Refuse Organ Donation: Would You Do It Again?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS E. BURROUGHS; BARRY A. HONG; DEAN F. KAPPEL; BARRY K. FREEDMAN

    Objective: Past organ donation research has studied attitudes toward donation, predictors of signing donor cards, and distinguishing characteristics of donors vs. nondonors. The current study is the first to examine predictors of family members's satisfaction with the decision to consent or refuse donation of a dying loved one's organs or tissue. Method: This study surveyed 225 family members who had

  8. Application of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel for refuse trucks in Texas

    E-print Network

    Gokhale, Bhushan

    2007-04-25

    truck operations. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a methodology that can be used to evaluate the use of LFG generated at landfills as a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fuel source for refuse trucks in Texas. The methodology simulates the gas...

  9. Correlates of HIV testing refusal among emergency department patients in the opt-out testing era.

    PubMed

    Setse, Rosanna W; Maxwell, Celia J

    2014-05-01

    Opt-out HIV screening is recommended by the CDC for patients in all healthcare settings. We examined correlates of HIV testing refusal among urban emergency department (ED) patients. Confidential free HIV screening was offered to 32,633 ED patients in an urban tertiary care facility in Washington, DC, during May 2007-December 2011. Demographic differences in testing refusals were examined using ?(2) tests and generalized linear models. HIV testing refusal rates were 47.7 % 95 % CI (46.7-48.7), 11.7 % (11.0-12.4), 10.7 % (10.0-11.4), 16.9 % (15.9-17.9) and 26.9 % (25.6-28.2) in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. Persons 33-54 years of age [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 1.42, (1.36-1.48)] and those ? 55 years [APR 1.39 (1.31-1.47)], versus 33-54 years; and females versus males [APR 1.07 (1.02-1.11)] were more likely to refuse testing. Opt-out HIV testing is feasible and sustainable in urban ED settings. Efforts are needed to encourage testing among older patients and women. PMID:24197971

  10. GASEOUS HC1 AND CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE FIRED WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from a water wall mass fired municipal waste incinerator and a refuse derived fuel (RDF) fired incinerator were sampled for chlorinated organic compounds and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The sampling was performed to evaluate the extractive sampling methods used to meas...

  11. ST. LOUIS DEMONSTRATION: REFUSE PROCESSING PLANT EQUIPMENT, FACILITIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of processing plant evaluations of the St. Louis-Union Electric Refuse Fuel Project, including equipment and facilities as well as assessment of environmental emissions at both the processing and power plants. Data on plant material flows and oper...

  12. CONTROL OF PCDD/PCDF EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents preliminary results of performance tests conducted at the Mid-Connecticut Refuse-Derived Fuel Facility in February 1989. The objectives of these performance tests were to evaluate the effects of combustion and flue gas cleaning process conditions on air pollut...

  13. A Program for Engaging Treatment-Refusing Substance Abusers into Treatment: CRAFT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Lash, Denise N.

    2005-01-01

    Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a scientifically-supported program for family members who are desperate to get a treatment-refusing substance abuser to enter treatment (Meyers & Wolfe, 2004; Sisson & Azrin, 1986; Smith & Meyers, 2004). CRAFT teaches these family members how to apply behavioral principles at home so that…

  14. Refusing in a Foreign Language: An Investigation of Problems Encountered by Chinese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuh-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the speech act of refusal is universal across language, the politeness value and the types of linguistic forms used to perform it vary across language and culture. The majority of the comparative pragmatic research findings were derived from one single source of data (i.e., either production data or perception data). Few attempts have been…

  15. Enzyme activity and microbial biomass in a field soil amended with municipal refuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Perucci

    1992-01-01

    Changes in enzyme activity levels, in biomass-C content, and in the rate of fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis were measured in a loamy soil to which solid municipal refuse had been applied as compost over a 3-year period at two different rates. Addition of the compost caused significant increases in the activity of all enzymes tested. The increases were much higher at

  16. Dewatering of fine coal and refuse slurries-problems and possibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Parekh

    2009-01-01

    Dewatering of fine clean coal and refuse slurry is one of the most important aspects of coal cleaning scenario. It is also adds significant cost to the price of clean coal. This article summarizes the current state-of-the art of dewatering being practiced around the world and discuses some of the upcoming novel dewatering technologies. Hyperbaric filter provides a low moisture

  17. Effects of inhaled municipal refuse incinerator fly ash in the guinea pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Alarie; M. Iwasaki; M. F. Stock; Renee C. Pearson; Barbara S. Shane; Donald J. Lisk

    1989-01-01

    Fly ash was collected from two municipal refuse incinerators. It was analyzed for heavy metals, elements, and a wide range of toxic organics. It was resuspended in air for inhalation exposure of guinea pigs. These animals were exposed at high concentrations of each ash 6 h\\/d for 5 d, and tissues were taken 45 d after the exposure. Following the

  18. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  19. Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

  20. Medical confidentiality and the protection of Jehovah's Witnesses' autonomous refusal of blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Muramoto

    2000-01-01

    Mr Ridley of the Watch Tower Society (WTS), the controlling religious organisation of Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs), mischaracterises the issue of freedom and confidentiality in JWs' refusal of blood by confusing inconsistent organisational policies with actual Biblical proscriptions. Besides exaggeration and distortion of my writings, Ridley failed to present substantive evidence to support his assertion that no pressure exists to conform

  1. Jehovah's Witnesses' refusal of blood: obedience to scripture and religious conscience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D T Ridley

    1999-01-01

    Jehovah's Witnesses are students of the Bible. They refuse transfusions out of obedience to the scriptural directive to abstain and keep from blood. Dr Muramoto disagrees with the Witnesses' religious beliefs in this regard. Despite this basic disagreement over the meaning of Biblical texts, Muramoto flouts the religious basis for the Witnesses' position. His proposed policy change about accepting transfusions

  2. Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

  3. Why skill matters

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival for humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards, and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (object skill) and acting on the object (action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high capacity memory on object-value association. When a learned object appears, the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579

  4. Bacterial Population Development and Chemical Characteristics of Refuse Decomposition in a Simulated Sanitary Landfill

    PubMed Central

    Barlaz, M. A.; Schaefer, D. M.; Ham, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Population development of key groups of bacteria involved in municipal refuse conversion to methane was measured from the time of initial incubation through the onset of methane production. Hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens, and acetate- and H2-plus-CO2-utilizing methanogens were enumerated by the most-probable-number technique with media containing oat spelt xylan, ball-milled cellulose, butyrate, acetate, and H2 plus CO2, respectively. Refuse decomposition was monitored in multiple replicate laboratory-scale sanitary landfills. A laboratory-scale landfill was dismantled weekly for microbial and chemical analysis. Leachate was neutralized and recycled to ensure methanogenesis. The methane concentration of the sampled containers increased to 64% by day 69, at which time the maximum methane production rate, 929 liters of CH4 per dry kg-year, was measured. Population increases of 2, 4, 5, 5, and 6 orders of magnitude were measured between fresh refuse and the methane production phase for the hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, butyrate-catabolizing acetogens, and acetate- and H2-CO2-utilizing methanogens, respectively. The cellulolytic bacteria and acetogens increased more slowly than the methanogens and only after the onset of methane production. The initial decrease in the pH of the refuse ecosystem from 7.5 to 5.7 was attributed to the accumulation of acidic end products of sugar fermentation, to the low acid-consuming activity of the acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria, and to levels of oxygen and nitrate in the fresh refuse sufficient for oxidation of only 8% of the sugars to carbon dioxide and water. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition was most rapid after establishment of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations and a reduction in the initial accumulation of carboxylic acids. A total of 72% of these carbohydrates were degraded in the container sampled after 111 days. Initially acetate utilization, but ultimately polymer hydrolysis, limited the rate of refuse conversion to methane. Microbial and chemical composition data were combined to formulate an updated description of refuse decomposition in four phases: an aerobic phase, an anaerobic acid phase, an accelerated methane production phase, and a decelerated methane production phase. PMID:16347835

  5. A Statics Skills Inventory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Danielson, Scott

    Engineering faculty recognize the value of assessment instruments to measure student learningand to evaluate changes in teaching. As a result, a number of engineering subject assessmentinstruments formulated as â??conceptâ?ť inventories have been developed. Taking a different tack,the authors of this paper decided to focus on assessment of student skills in statics and this paperprovides details of the development of a statics skills assessment tool. The use of only conceptinventories to provide proof of student learning is an incomplete assessment as effectiveapplication of engineering knowledge consists of both a sound understanding of conceptualknowledge and skill intertwined. For instance, while demonstrating understanding of theconcept of equilibrium is valuable, it is also important students are able to generate correctequations of equilibrium. A multi-step Delphi process involving statics educators was used toreach consensus on the important skills of statics. The Delphi rankings, including the importanceof the skill as judged by the Delphi participants as well as an estimate of the proportion ofstudents whom can perform the skill, were used to develop the final list of top ranked skills.Initial skill-based questions were developed to probe these areas and tested with students. Thecurrent status of the skill assessment instrument is discussed.

  6. Prevention of formation of acid drainage from high-sulfur coal refuse by inhibition of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. II. Inhibition in "run of mine" refuse under simulated field conditions.

    PubMed

    Dugan, P R

    1987-01-01

    The combination of sodium lauryl sulfate and benzoic acid effectively inhibits iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in coal refuse and prevents the conversion of iron pyrite to sulfate, ferric iron, and sulfuric acid, thereby significantly reducing the formation of acidic drainage from coal refuse. The inhibitors were effective in a concentration of 1.1 mg/kg refuse, and data indicate that the SLS was in excess of the concentration required. The treatment was compatible with the use of lime for neutralization of acid present prior to inhibition of its formation. PMID:18561128

  7. Communication Skills Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruice, Gary G., Jr.

    The first roadblock encountered in an effort to develop an interdisciplinary communications skills course at the university level was the discovery that no suitable textbooks exist for such a course. First, texts widely used for basic speech courses do not attempt to incorporate written and spoken communication, much less computer skills. Second,…

  8. The Employability Skills Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmer, Paul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    During 1990-91, Michigan schools piloted an innovative portfolio approach enabling students to discover, document, and develop employability skills in academics, personal management, and teamwork. Not an improved sorting system, the project encourages students to recognize successes, seek opportunities to improve skills, and gain confidence in…

  9. Survival Skills Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Charlie

    The manual describes a program in survival skills for use with delinquent youth. The program covers the following six areas of functional competency: interpersonal relations, occupational knowledge, consumer awareness, law, health, and community resources. The skills necessary for successful functioning are listed as communication, interpersonal…

  10. Study Skills Managing workload

    E-print Network

    Ainsworth, Mark

    Study Skills Managing workload A useful study skills guide, with advice on how to manage workload, and for reports, it is helpful both to you and to the reader if you provide headings for each of the main sections/or lists of references should be given at the end of the assignment. You should also incorporate page

  11. Critical Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the U.S. economy begins to show signs of improvement, executives say they need a workforce fully equipped with skills beyond just the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic (the three Rs). Skills such as critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation (the four Cs) will become even more…

  12. Building Web Literacy Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Isbell, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Describes web literacy instruction developed and implemented in response to students' needs as part of an English-as-a-Foreign-Language academic skills preparation curriculum. The goals of the instruction are to introduce critical reading strategies and develop computer literacy skills. (Author/VWL)

  13. Simple Number Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jo Edkins

    2010-01-01

    This is a collection of simple interactive activities to help young children practice early number skills. They use visual representations to develop counting and subitizing skills, number sense, place value concepts, and basic whole number operations (addition, subtraction, doubling). A teacher page summarizes the purpose and functions of each activity.

  14. Rural Thinking Skills Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Janice

    This catalog aims to help educators locate materials which will assist them in effectively teaching thinking skills. Research for Better Schools (RBS) serves as the lead educational laboratory for the Department of Education's national project on thinking skills. A total of 248 resources, including pamphlets, documents of activities, computer…

  15. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and the ways…

  16. Assessing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on assessing employee skills. "Bridging the Training Gap: Identifying Work Place Transferable Skills Needs in Manufacturing Organizations in East Central Minnesota" (K. Peter Kuchinke, James M. Brown, Howie Anderson, Joe Hobson) reports a study of a workplace education program in rural Minnesota…

  17. [Refusal of prenatal HIV-testing: a case study in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Desgrées du Loű, Annabel; Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Tijou-Traoré, Annick

    2007-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to HIV prevention in Africa remains the insufficient number of HIV tests performed. The low percentage of individuals aware of their serostatus is due in part to the insufficient availability of HIV testing, but also to individuals' refusal to have the HIV test. Because affordable treatment is now available, it is possible to implement on a much greater scale programs of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, accompanied by the expansion of prenatal HIV testing. It is therefore important to understand the reasons women refuse these tests. Here we analyse the women who refused the offer of prenatal HIV testing in the DITRAME Plus research program, intended to prevent mother-to-child transmission in Abidjan from 2001 through 2005. Three groups of women were followed for two years after they were offered HIV counselling and testing during an antenatal consultation: 347 HIV-infected women, 393 seronegative women, and 62 women who refused HIV testing. Nine months after delivery, HIV testing was again offered to the latter group. We collected quantitative data on social and demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and communication with their male partners about STIs, HIV, and HIV testing, before and after the pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women who refused HIV-testing. We sought to determine if their sociodemographic and behavioural profile was closer to that of HIV-positive or seronegative women, to assess the effects of prenatal counselling and the offer of testing on their attitudes about HIV risk, and to measure the percentage of women who accepted testing when the offer was repeated 9 months postpartum. Women who refused HIV-testing had a sociodemographic profile similar to that of the women who accepted testing and were seronegative. They did not have more at-risk behaviours. These women offered several reasons for their refusal, including avoidance of the anguish of a positive test result and the desire to ask their husbands first. Among the women who initially refused prenatal testing, only 23% had discussed STI/HIV issues with their male partner; after the testing offer, more than 90% suggested that their partner have an HIV test. Finally, 20% accepted the postpartum test offer, and those whose male partner had an HIV test were four times more likely than the others to accept (RR = 4.05 [1.55-10.58]). This study shows that prenatal counselling and the offer of HIV testing have beneficial effects on HIV prevention within the couple, even for women who refuse testing. It also points out that the decision to accept testing may take time and that repeating the offer is worthwhile. Finally, our results confirm the importance of the role of the regular partner in the acceptance of HIV testing, and reinforce the relevance of a couple-centred approach to voluntary counselling and testing. PMID:18180214

  18. 76 FR 1622 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...1995, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institutes of Health...Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse is a new program developed with funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The primary goal is to assess...

  19. Not-so-Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  20. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  1. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  2. Patient Refusal of Glaucoma Surgery and Associated Factors in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adekoya, Bola Josephine; Akinsola, Feyisayo B.; Balogun, Bola Grace; Balogun, Modupe Medinat; Ibidapo, Olajumoke O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of patient refusal of glaucoma surgery (GSR) and the associated factors in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted in Lagos state, Nigeria. Twelve centres were invited to participate, but data collection was completed in 10. Newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and interviewed from these sites over a four week period on prior awareness of glaucoma, surgery refusal, and reason(s) for the refusal. Presenting visual acuity was recorded from the patient files. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: A total of 208 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited. Sixty–five (31.2%) patients refused surgery. Fear of surgery (31 (47.7%) patients), and fear of going blind (19 (29.2%) patients) were the most common reasons. The odds ratio of surgery refusal were marital status – not married versus married (2.0; 95% CI, 1.02–3.94), use of traditional medication – users versus non users (2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–5.2), perception of glaucoma causing blindness – no versus yes (3.7; 95% CI, 1.3–10.5), type of institution - government versus private (5.7; 95% CI, 1.3–25.1), and visual acuity in the better eye - normal vision versus visual impairment (2.3; 95% CI, 1.1–4.9). Age, gender, level of education, family history of glaucoma, and prior awareness of the diagnosis of glaucoma, were not significantly associated with surgery refusal. Perception of patients concerning glaucoma blindness was the strongest factor on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: GSR was relatively low in this study. Unmarried status, use of traditional medications, perception that glaucoma cannot cause blindness, government hospital patients, and good vision in the better eye were associated with GSR. These factors might help in the clinical setting in identifying appropriate individuals for targeted counseling, as well as the need for increased public awareness about glaucoma. PMID:23741137

  3. Drug Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  4. Drug allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... Adverse reactions to drugs are common. (adverse means unwanted or unexpected.) Almost any drug can cause an adverse reaction. Reactions range from irritating ...

  5. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  6. Selecting tolerant grass seedlings and analyzing the possibility for using aged refuse as sward soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangke; Liu, Xiaofang; Han, Ming; Hou, Li; Sang, Nan

    2010-05-01

    In order to test the possibility for recycling use of aged refuse as sward soil, the study determined the responses of Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass), Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue), and Poa annua (annual bluegrass) to its leaching. The growth of three seedlings was significantly inhibited after treatment, especially for longer treatment duration and higher concentration leaching; however, with the better growth and chlorophyll content for shorter time and lower concentration, tall fescue was more tolerant to the stress. Afterwards, several physiological responses of tall fescue were determined. For shorter treatment duration, antioxidant enzyme activities remained unchanged, and no obvious oxidative damage was observed. Prolonging exposure time, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation occurred after treatment of higher concentration leaching, accompanying by changes of antioxidant status. It implicates that it is possible for using aged refuse as sward soil, and the critical point focused on selecting tolerant grass and controlling exposure condition. PMID:20036424

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis of the School Refusal Assessment Scale - Revised in an African American community sample.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Aaron R

    2009-11-22

    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis techniques to investigate the construct validity of the child version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale - Revised (SRAS-R) in a community sample of low socioeconomic status, urban, African American fifth and sixth graders (n = 174). The SRAS-R is the best-researched measure of school refusal behavior in youth and typically yields four functional dimensions. Results of the investigation suggested that a modified version of the four-factor model, in which three items from the tangible reinforcement dimension are removed, may have construct validity in the current sample of youth. In addition, youth endorsement of the dimension measuring avoidance of social and/or evaluative situations was positively associated with unexcused absences. Implications for further psychometric research and early identification and prevention of problematic absenteeism in low-SES, ethnic minority community samples are highlighted. PMID:20567603

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis of the School Refusal Assessment Scale – Revised in an African American community sample

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis techniques to investigate the construct validity of the child version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale – Revised (SRAS-R) in a community sample of low socioeconomic status, urban, African American fifth and sixth graders (n = 174). The SRAS-R is the best-researched measure of school refusal behavior in youth and typically yields four functional dimensions. Results of the investigation suggested that a modified version of the four-factor model, in which three items from the tangible reinforcement dimension are removed, may have construct validity in the current sample of youth. In addition, youth endorsement of the dimension measuring avoidance of social and/or evaluative situations was positively associated with unexcused absences. Implications for further psychometric research and early identification and prevention of problematic absenteeism in low-SES, ethnic minority community samples are highlighted. PMID:20567603

  9. Drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy in Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Kim, YoungHo

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of drinking behavior and sex differences were examined. A possible relationship between drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) also was investigated among a convenience sample of 582 Korean college students (309 men, 273 women). A drinking habit scale (from AUDIT-K) and drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire (DRSEQ-R) were administered. Results indicated 74.4% of the students drank alcohol and 80.1% of the students were regular drinkers (> 2 to 4 times per month). There were significant differences in drinking behavior by sex and in the DRSE constructs for current drinking statuses. Drinking behavior was significantly associated with sex and DRSE. The present study offers more information about practical interventions aimed at reasonably controlling the drinking behavior of Korean college students in a university setting. The findings may provide better understanding of Korean students' drinking behavior. PMID:25457098

  10. Presentation skills for nurses.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Mark

    2015-02-18

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters. PMID:25690236

  11. Library Skills Unit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bolle

    2008-10-20

    The Library Skills Unit teaches library resources and information to 9th grade classes, this is a list of resources that maybe helpful to the students. Take the survey after you have completed all 4 units of library skills. I would love your feedback on the unit so that I can change some things to make it more beneficial for you, the students! Library Skills Unit Survey Use these links to get to databases quickly: eLibrary Facts on File/Issues Controversies CQ Researcher ...

  12. Photojournalists Need Reporting Skills, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Jerry

    1980-01-01

    Argues that journalists and photojournalists require training in the same skills, including the skills needed in news judgment, organization, interviewing, story idea development, and copy writing. (AEA)

  13. To treat or not to treat: the legal, ethical and therapeutic implications of treatment refusal.

    PubMed Central

    Wear, A N; Brahams, D

    1991-01-01

    Health professionals faced with refusal of life-saving treatment may wish to override a person's wishes, especially if that person suffers from a mental disorder. Mental illness does not automatically mean a patient is incapable of making decisions of this nature. It is not always clear whether an individual is legally competent to decide whether to undergo treatment or not. This article discusses a clinical example and analyses some of the moral implications. PMID:1941953

  14. Court says French government's refusal to authorize adoption violates woman's human rights.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2008-07-01

    On 22 January 2008, the European Court of Human Rights held that there had been a violation of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention) in the case of E.B. v. France, concerning a refusal by the French authorities to grant E.B.'s request to adopt a child, allegedly on account of her sexual orientation. PMID:18727204

  15. Anesthetic management for ascending aorta replacement in a patient who refused autologous transfusion for religious reasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinju Obara; Masayuki Nakagawa; Shinichiro Takahashi; Masahiko Akatu; Tsuyoshi Isosu; Masahiro Murakawa

    2009-01-01

    We report on the anesthetic management of a 69-year-old female Jehovah’s Witness undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass to replace\\u000a the ascending aorta; the patient refused transfusion of stored autologous or allogeneic blood products for religious reasons.\\u000a The strategy involved preoperative hematopoiesis with recombinant human erythropoietin and iron, intraoperative acute normovolemic\\u000a hemodilution, the use of a cell-saver system, administration of high-dose tranexamic acid,

  16. Field assessment of stratified aged-refuse-based reactor for landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Zhao, Youcai; Zhou, Gongming; Huang, Minsheng

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the engineering applicability of the stratified aged-refuse-based process for landfill leachate treatment. In this work, a pilot-scale (10m(3)day(-1)) and a demonstration-scale (200m(3)day(-1)) stratified reactor, containing the aged refuse excavated from an 8-year-old closed landfill cell, were used as a medium by which to treat landfill leachate generated in the Shanghai Refuse Landfill (SRL). The preliminary-treated leachate with initial CODcr, NH(3)-N and total-N concentrations of 2387-8592, 1431-2145 and 1290-2188?mgL(-1), respectively, was intermittently sprayed over the refuse surface eight times a day with 3 h per interval in the pilot study. The results from the pilot operation showed that on average 89.5% of COD, 98.8% of NH(3)-N and 52.6% of total N could be removed from a hydraulic load of 0.267-0.444m(3)m(-3)refuseday(-1). Additionally, similar results were observed for the demonstration system even with the leachate of low BOD(5)/COD ratios (0.17-0.19). The investment and operational costs of this stratified process were about 20000yuan (€2200) and 1-2 yuan (€0.11-0.22) per m(3) leachate treated, respectively. Taken together, the stratified process has some significant advantages including low operation cost, easy maintenance and good adaptability to the leachate of variable quality, which makes this process a viable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachate. PMID:21669910

  17. Municipal incineration studies: Sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of incineration processes for the destruction of municipal wastes, including sewage sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. Topics include systems design and management, combustion and emissions studies, pollution and toxicity studies, heat recovery operations, pollution control devices, and economic aspects. Analytical methods for pollution identification, marine vessel incinerators, catalytic incineration, and risk assessment studies are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  19. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  20. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  1. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  2. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  3. 45 CFR 1182.11 - Procedures for appealing a refusal to amend or correct an Institute record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1182.11 Procedures for appealing a refusal to...

  4. 45 CFR 1182.11 - Procedures for appealing a refusal to amend or correct an Institute record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1182.11 Procedures for appealing a refusal to...

  5. 45 CFR 1182.11 - Procedures for appealing a refusal to amend or correct an Institute record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1182.11 Procedures for appealing a refusal to...

  6. 45 CFR 1182.11 - Procedures for appealing a refusal to amend or correct an Institute record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1182.11 Procedures for appealing a refusal to...

  7. DOE feasibility report on Lake Calumet area refuse-to-energy facility

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-06-18

    Site analyses and literature reviews were conducted to determine the feasibility of building an energy-producing municipal waste incinerator at Calumet Lake, Illinois. The amount of burnable waste produced within 5 and 10 miles of the near-Chicago site, the composition and heating value of this solid waste, and the air pollution impacts of waste incineration were determined, and the economic value of recovered material or of steam and electricity produced at the plant are discussed. It is concluded that there is sufficient refuse in the area to support a refuse processing center, that increasng landfill costs make such a center economically attractive, and that the Btu content of the refuse is adequate to produce steam for heat and power use. Replacing existing oil-fired power plants with this facility would result in an 88% reduction in current pollutant emission levels. There is a ready market for steam that could be produced. It is recommended that steps be taken to implement the establishment of the proposed waste processing center. (LCL)

  8. Collaborative dental skills teaching.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal disease is commonly encountered in companion animal practice and yet receives little coverage in British veterinary curricula. Andrew Gardiner of the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies explains how Edinburgh vet students polish their skills. PMID:25953886

  9. Drugs, drugs--who has the drugs?

    PubMed

    Blair, James

    2012-01-01

    Drug diversion, although on the increase, is not the only problem involving drugs that hospital security officials should be concerned with. Growing drug shortages, offshore production, counterfeiting, and weaknesses in the drug supply chain in case of a world-wide pandemic, are even greater causes for concern, the author claims. PMID:22423518

  10. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  11. Teaching Social Skills in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacek, E. Jane

    1988-01-01

    Many learning-disabled students experience social skill problems which call for training to promote success in school, work, and social settings. Social skill problems fall into three categories: skill deficits, performance deficits, and behavioral excesses. Interventions generally focus on increasing the individual's repertoire of skills, using…

  12. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  13. In search of searching skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Fairhall

    1985-01-01

    A set of skills thought to contribute to effectiveness in searching subject indexes is defined. Of these, one group was selected for study, namely skills thought to focus a search. An objective test to measure these skills was administered to 129 students and established to have content validity, and some degree of construct validity. The skills involved did not corre

  14. Soft skills and dental education.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. PMID:23574183

  15. Club Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    Club drugs are group of psychoactive drugs. They act on the central nervous system and can cause changes ... Molly, Hug Beans, and Love Drug Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), also known as G, Liquid Ecstasy, and Soap ...

  16. Drug Resistance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ... does poor medication adherence increase the risk of drug resistance? Medication adherence means taking HIV medicines every ...

  17. Drug Reactions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as gingko and blood thinners ...

  18. Characteristics of the Delayed or Refusal Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su Jing; Huang, Kuang Hua; Wang, Yueh-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Background The evidence indicated breast cancer was a cancer with high survival rate. However, there were still some breast cancer patients delaying or refusing therapy. So we conducted a cohort study to explore the relationship between characteristics of breast cancer patients and delay or refusal of therapy within four months after cancer diagnosed. Methods This was a retrospective national population-based study from 2004 to 2010 in Taiwan. This study included 35,095 patients with new diagnosis breast cancer from Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. Several analysis methods, including t test, Chi-square test, generalized estimating equations of logistic regression analysis, and Cox proportional hazards model, were performed to explore the characteristics of these patients and the relative risk of mortality with delay or refusal of therapy. Results Our study showed that the overall survival rates were significantly different (p <0.05) between the breast cancer patients who delayed or refused therapy and those with treatment. The patients who delayed or refused therapy had lower 5-year overall survival rate compared with the treated group. The related factors included age, Charlson comorbidity index, cancer staging (OR = 1.30–19.69; p <0.05), other catastrophic illnesses or injuries and the level of diagnostic hospitals. However, the patients with different income levels and degree of urbanization in living area were not statistically significant factors. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that age and cancer staging were the main patient characteristics affecting whether the patients delayed or refused therapy. The delay or refusal of treatment was associated with the level of diagnosing hospital. PMID:26114875

  19. Disposable containers as larval habitats for Aedes aegypti in a city with regular refuse collection: a study in Marília, Săo Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazine, C A; Macoris, M L; Andrighetti, M T; Yasumaro, S; Silva, M E; Nelson, M J; Winch, P J

    1996-09-01

    In Marília, Brazil, refuse is collected at least every other day, yet non-useful, non-returnable containers such as cans, plastic bottles and tires account for almost half of the container habitats found positive for the Aedes aegypti mosquito. A study was therefore conducted to investigate why these containers exist despite regular refuse collection and a high level of awareness of dengue prevention, and how the control program could most effectively respond. Differing community perceptions as to what constitutes refuse were found to lead people to store a variety of containers in their yard. Other dimensions of the problem include the presence of informal refuse collectors in search of saleable materials, and dumping of refuse in vacant lots and along roads. An intervention based on these data will involve the informal refuse collectors in implementation of a community-based recycling project. PMID:8971274

  20. The communicative process of drug resistance among high school students.

    PubMed

    Alberts, J K; Hecht, M L; Miller-Rassulo, M; Krizek, R L

    1992-01-01

    This article reports the results of the second of two studies designed to examine social influences on adolescents' responses to drug offers. In the first study, a typology of both drug offers and drug resistance strategies was developed. The present study provides an analysis of the associations between offers and resistance and the differences between drug and alcohol offers. To accomplish this, sixty-nine narrative accounts of both successful and unsuccessful attempts to say no were collected from high school students. Analysis of the interviews indicated that peer pressure was applied in approximately 70% of the offers; however, much of that pressure was applied after the initial offer had been refused. It also was determined that simple offers were more likely with alcohol, while drug offers were more likely to be persuasive and involve pressure during the initial offer. PMID:1539497

  1. Developing critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Amanda J

    2007-07-01

    In a 1987 practicum report one researcher says, "Teaching children to become effective thinkers is increasingly recognized as an immediate goal of education ... If students are to function successfully in a highly technical society, then they must be equipped with the lifelong learning and thinking skills necessary to acquire and process information in an ever-changing world." There is no doubt that critical thinking skills will help you diagnose what is wrong with your patients and formulate a care plan, keep you and your partner safe, and make you more employable. PMID:17672280

  2. Teaching Receptive Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Grow, Laura; LeBlanc, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Receptive language refers to responding appropriately to another person's spoken language. Most curricula dedicate a proportion of early intervention to developing receptive language skills. The specific terms used to refer to the receptive language programs and the recommendations for teaching such skills vary considerably across the early intervention curricula. The present paper will provide a conceptual analysis of the desired controlling variables for different receptive language programs, teaching recommendations, a brief review of the literature to substantiate the teaching recommendations, and a discussion of the potential negative effects of deviating from the recommendations. PMID:25729507

  3. Editor's Note: Literacy Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chris Ohana

    2008-11-01

    Our science and literacy issue is always one of the most popular issues of the year, and we're betting this jam-packed issue will be no exception. Why? There are many probable reasons. Many elementary teachers are more comfortable with teaching science literacy so they look for ways to use their strengths. No Child Left Behind legislation has put the spotlight on literacy in the elementary grades, sometimes pushing science (and social studies and PE and art) out of the busy day. Teaching science with literacy skills may be one way to convey important science skills while still teaching and reinforcing literacy.

  4. Developmentally sensitive cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent school refusal: rationale and case illustration.

    PubMed

    Heyne, David; Sauter, Floor M; Ollendick, Thomas H; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-06-01

    School refusal can be difficult to treat and the poorest treatment response is observed among older school refusers. This poor response may be explained, in part, by the impact of developmental transitions and tasks upon the young person, their family, and the treatment process. This paper describes and illustrates the @school program, a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to promote developmental sensitivity when planning and delivering treatment for adolescent school refusal. Treatment is modularized and it incorporates progress reviews, fostering a planned yet flexible approach to CBT. The treatment is illustrated in the case of Allison, a 16-year-old female presenting with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A case formulation guided the selection, sequencing, and pacing of modules targeting predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and protective factors. Treatment comprised 16 sessions with Allison (interventions addressing depression, anxiety, and school attendance) and 15 concurrent sessions with her mother (strategies to facilitate an adolescent's school attendance), including two sessions with Allison and mother together (family communication and problem solving to reduce parent-adolescent conflict). Two treatment-related consultations were also conducted with Allison's homeroom teacher. Allison's school attendance improved during the course of treatment. By post-treatment, there was a decrease in internalizing behavior, an increase in self-efficacy, and remission of depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. Clinically significant treatment gains were maintained at 2-month follow-up. Factors influencing outcome may include those inherent to the @school program together with less specific factors. Special consideration is given to parents' use of both authoritative and autonomy-granting approaches when helping an adolescent to attend school. PMID:24338067

  5. Hydrogen gas generation from refuse-derived fuel (RDF) under wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakka, Kazuo; Ohmiya, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    An explosion has recently occurred at a silo containing refuse-derived fuels (RDF) in Japan. There is a possibility that microorganisms are involved in generation of combustible gas from RDF and this study was aimed at showing the presence of bacteria that can ferment RDF pellets. All RDF samples tested contained a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells, 1.4x10(5) to 3.2x10(6) viable cells/g. These bacteria in the RDF samples fermented them to generate heat and hydrogen gas. PMID:14981319

  6. Why did Swiss citizens refuse a comprehensive second-hand smoke ban?

    PubMed

    Durham, André-Dante; Diethelm, Pascal; Cornuz, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The ill effects of second-hand smoke are now well documented. To protect the population from exposure to tobacco smoke, comprehensive smoking bans are necessary as expressed in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its guidelines. Switzerland has only a partial smoking ban full of exceptions which has been in effect since 2010, which reproduces the so-called Spanish model. In September 2012, the Swiss citizens refused a proposal for a more comprehensive ban. This case study examines the reasons behind this rejection and draws some lessons that can be learnt from it. PMID:25058663

  7. Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families. PMID:25476572

  8. Working in Partnership: Skills Transfer in Developing a Cross-Cultural Research Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Jill; Dance, Phyll; Cubillo, Carmen; McDonald, David; Tongs, Julie; Brideson, Tom; Bammer, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    As part of a broader study on Indigenous illegal drug use, the authors undertook skills training to increase cross-cultural mutual understanding of the often different approaches and methodologies between research and practice, as well as Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal understandings of these approaches. The study and the skills transfer training…

  9. Effect of treatment with diazepam or lithium and alcohol on psychomotor skills related to driving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Linnoila; I. Saario; M. Maki

    1974-01-01

    The effects of diazepam, 5 mg t. i. d., or lithium administered for two weeks on psychomotor skills was examined in 20 healthy male volunteers. The drugs were administered either with alcohol 0.5 g\\/kg or a placebo. Psychomotor skills were measured by a choice reaction test, two co-ordination tests and an attention test. Serum drug concentrations and blood alcohol levels

  10. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Skills

    PubMed Central

    Alman, Martha; Gardner, Stephanie; Born, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a diagnostic test for assessing cognitive skills related to metacognition in a physiology course. Methods Cognitive skills believed to be related to metacognition (visualizing lecture information and interpreting diagrams) were identified in a first-professional year (P1) physiology course and test items were constructed for each. Analyses included overall reliability, item discrimination, and variance comparisons of 4 groups to assess the effect of prior physiology coursework and diagnostic test score level on the first examination in physiology. Results Overall reliability was 0.83 (N = 78). Eighty percent of the test items discriminated positively. The average diagnostic test scores of students with or without a prior physiology course did not differ significantly. Students who scored above the class mean on the diagnostic test and who had taken a prior physiology course also had the highest average scores on the physiology examination. Conclusion The diagnostic test provided a measure of a limited number of skills related to metacognition, and preliminary data suggest that such skills are especially important in retaining information. PMID:17429514

  11. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sunny

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

  12. Developing Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, A. Dean

    In the fall of 1980, a course titled Developing Critical Thinking Skills was approved at the University of Minnesota-Duluth for offering as one of the options in the liberal education category called Communication, Language, and Symbolic Systems. This paper provides a description of the course (designed to provide experiences with methods and…

  13. Testing Historical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillie, Ray

    1980-01-01

    Outlines methods for including skill testing in teacher-made history tests. Focuses on distinguishing fact and fiction, evaluating the reliability of a source, distinguishing between primary and secondary sources, recognizing statements which support generalizations, testing with media, mapping geo-politics, and applying knowledge to new…

  14. Skilled Veterans Corps

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-08-31

    once and for all. A group of elders has volunteered to clean up the reactors damaged by the tsunami and earthquake. Calling itself the Skilled Veteran Corps, the group consists of engineers and other specialists over 60 who are able?and willing--to do a...

  15. Skills for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitt, Judith

    2009-01-01

    People are born with three skills: (1) to breathe; (2) to feed; and (3) to learn. When they breathe they live today, when they eat they will live tomorrow, and while they learn they can survive a lifetime. For some fortunate people, what gets them up in the morning is the pleasure of learning something new. While perhaps not a conscious thought,…

  16. Skill in Expert Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Helton

    2007-01-01

    The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between

  17. Rapid Response Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Winders, Anna Faye

    2008-01-01

    Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College's (MGCCC) long-term commitment to providing workforce training in a post-Katrina environment became a catalyst for designing short-term flexible educational opportunities. Providing nationally recognized skills training for the recovery/rebuilding of communities challenged the college to develop innovative,…

  18. Math Skills Review

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wendy Keeney-Kennicutt

    1997-11-03

    This math skills review was written for first year college chemistry students who have weak math backgrounds, but is useful for all science students in high school and college. Topics covered include algebraic manipulation, dimensional analysis, significant figures, manipulation of exponents, scientific notation, logarithms, the quadratic equation and standard deviation.

  19. CAREER ENHANCEMENT SKILLS TRAINING

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    SOLICITOR BARRISTER CAREER ENHANCEMENT CONVERSION SKILLS TRAINING EMPLOYABILITY DEVOLUTION JUSTICE to a qualifying law degree and is recognised by the Solicitors Regulation Authority, The Bar, and ILEX (Institute in mooting competitions and in the School of Law's pro bono clinic. The GDL has allowed me to pursue a Ph

  20. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  1. Building Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony V.

    2006-01-01

    A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. The National Science Education Standards call for science teachers "to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources…

  2. Counseling Skills for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Kottler, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    By necessity, today's teachers do much more than deliver instruction. In the classroom, on the playground, or even in the parking lot, teachers are often called upon to respond quickly and appropriately to students' social and emotional needs, drawing from instinct more than anything else. In this second edition of "Counseling Skills for…

  3. Teaching Presentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William H.; Thompson, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Effective teaching of presentation skills focuses on the most important element of the presentation--the message itself. Some instructors place the heaviest emphasis on the messenger (the presenter) and focus their presentation feedback on all the presenter is doing wrong--saying "um," gesturing awkwardly, and so forth. When students receive this…

  4. Skills for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, John W.; Pfeiffer, Angela Laird

    This book was written for students who wish to enhance their leadership potential and skills. Chapter 1, The Challenge of Leadership, defines leadership and looks at the myths, challenges, costs, and rewards of leadership. Chapter 2, Understanding Communication, examines communication as a process, exposes myths about communication, discusses ways…

  5. Sizing Up Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostlund, Karen L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students' social skills can be assessed in the context of cooperative learning. Suggests that the following classroom protocols be assessed: (1) listen; (2) be responsible to others; (3) respect others; and (4) stay on task. Provides an assessment scale for these behaviors. (PR)

  6. THE SKILLS OF TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAWCETT, CLAUDE W.

    TEACHING SKILLS WHICH ARE A PART OF THE TEACHER'S LEADERSHIP ROLE IN THE TEACHING PROCESS WERE IDENTIFIED BY ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. IDENTIFICATION OF TEACHER LEADERSHIP ITEMS WAS DONE BY THE CONFERENCE METHOD WITH ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS OF TWO CALIFORNIA SCHOOL DISTRICTS. THE ITEMS WHICH WERE…

  7. Prevention of surgical skill decay.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ray S; Skinner, Anna; Weyhrauch, Peter; Niehaus, James; Lathan, Corinna; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Cao, Caroline G L

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. military medical community spends a great deal of time and resources training its personnel to provide them with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform life-saving tasks, both on the battlefield and at home. However, personnel may fail to retain specialized knowledge and skills if they are not applied during the typical periods of nonuse within the military deployment cycle, and retention of critical knowledge and skills is crucial to the successful care of warfighters. For example, we researched the skill and knowledge loss associated with specialized surgical skills such as those required to perform laparoscopic surgery (LS) procedures. These skills are subject to decay when military surgeons perform combat casualty care during their deployment instead of LS. This article describes our preliminary research identifying critical LS skills, as well as their acquisition and decay rates. It introduces models that identify critical skills related to laparoscopy, and proposes objective metrics for measuring these critical skills. This research will provide insight into best practices for (1) training skills that are durable and resistant to skill decay, (2) assessing these skills over time, and (3) introducing effective refresher training at appropriate intervals to maintain skill proficiency. PMID:24084308

  8. Overcoming healthcare workers vaccine refusal--competition between egoism and altruism.

    PubMed

    Betsch, C

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination reduces the risk of becoming infected with and transmitting pathogens. The role of healthcare workers (HCWs) in controlling and limiting nosocomial infections has been stressed repeatedly. This has also been recognised at a political level, leading the European Council of Ministers in 2009 to encourage coverage of 75% seasonal influenza vaccine in HCWs. Although there are policies, recommendations and well-tolerated vaccines, still many HCWs refuse to get vaccinated. This article uses literature from psychology and behavioural economics to understand vaccination decisions and the specific situation of HCWs. HCWs are expected to be highly motivated to protect others. However, their individual vaccination decisions follow the same principles (of weighting individual risks) as everyone else’s vaccination decisions. This will lead to decisional conflict in a typical social dilemma situation, in which individual interests are at odds with collective interests. Failure to get vaccinated may be the result. If we understand the motivations and mechanisms of HCWs’ vaccine refusal, interventions and campaigns may be designed more effectively. Strategies to increase HCWs’ vaccine uptake should be directed towards correcting skewed risk perceptions and activating pro-social motivation in HCWs. PMID:25496574

  9. The regeneration of waste foundry sand and residue stabilization using coal refuse.

    PubMed

    Park, Chong-Lyuck; Kim, Byoung-Gon; Yu, Youngchul

    2012-02-15

    The processes for recycling waste foundry sand are divided between regeneration and beneficial reuse, and the potential for regeneration is higher than that of reuse. In this study, two processes for the recycling and residue stabilization of waste foundry sands were considered. One is the dry mechanical process for recycling, and the other is the stabilization process for powdered residue. The dry mechanical process of regeneration consists of crushing, grinding, separation, and classification. To stabilize the residues that were generated through the regeneration process, powdered residues were pelletized by a high-shear pelletizer, and the surfaces of the pellets were subsequently coated with coal refuse powders that contained sodium silicate as a binder. Coated pellets were sintered by a self-propagating combustion method. The refractory index of the recycled sands, as measured by the Seger cone method, was over -34, and their SiO(2) contents of 94% was similar to that of green sand. The general conclusion that coal refuse and sodium silicate stabilize heavy metals better than other processes may lead to the development of a cost-effective solution for stabilizing heavy metals in residues. PMID:22197564

  10. [Recommendations for making decisions when parents refuse to vaccinate their children: ethical analysis].

    PubMed

    Riańo Galán, I; Martínez González, C; Sánchez Jacob, M

    2013-07-01

    Vaccinating children is the most effective primary prevention activity and many lives have been saved due to vaccines. Anti-vaccine movements have spread doubts about the safety and effectiveness of childhood vaccines, leading to some parents refusing to vaccinate their children. This refusal raises a conflict of values between the right of parents to the upbringing of their children according to their beliefs and justice, putting the immunity of the group at risk. In Spain, the law protects this ability for parents to decide not to comply with the official vaccine program. Pediatricians play an essential role in a parent's decision, and must provide accurate information about vaccination. It is necessary to explore The values of the parents, their concerns need to be empathetically examined, in order to reach an agreement. Respect for freedom does not exempt us from using discussion and persuasion to achieve attitudes and healthy choices for children. Our commitment to responsability promotion is essential for maintaining high vaccination levels that protect the health of children. PMID:23453399

  11. The Right Not To Hear: The Ethics of Parental Refusal of Hearing Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Serena; Shuman, Andrew G.; Kileny, Sharon; Kileny, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the ethics of parental refusal of auditory-oral hearing rehabilitation. Study Design Case study with medical ethical discussion and review. Methods Two young brothers present with severe-to-profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The parents, both of whom have normal hearing and work as sign language interpreters, have decided to raise their children with American Sign Language as their only form of communication. They have chosen not to pursue cochlear implantation nor support the use of hearing aids. Discussion This case raises significant questions concerning whether hearing rehabilitation should be mandated, and if there are circumstances in which parental preferences should be questioned or overridden with regard to this issue. In addition, legal concerns may be raised regarding the possible need to file a report with child protective services. Although similar cases involving the Deaf community have historically favored parental rights to forego hearing rehabilitation with either cochlear implantation or hearing aids, we explore whether conclusions should be different because the parents in this case are not hearing impaired. Conclusions The ethics of parental rights to refuse hearing augmentation are complex and strikingly context-dependent. A comprehensive appreciation of the medical, practical and legal issues is crucial prior to intervening in such challenging situations. PMID:21792972

  12. Asian Americans: Developing Marketable Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Robert A.; Friedenberg, Joan E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes special vocational education programs in New York City and San Francisco for adult immigrants. The programs offer English as a second language, office skills, survival training, counseling, and job search skills. (JOW)

  13. Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need to be transferred to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility. ... Common medical problems that often lead to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility care include: Joint replacement surgery, ...

  14. Evaluation of Characteristics of High Efficiency Power Generation Systems Utilizing Fermentation Gas of Simply Sorted Municipal Refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    This paper evaluates characteristics of two kinds of power generation systems utilizing fermentation gas of municipal refuse which is generated with use of a fermentation equipment of sorted refuse from ordinary collected garbage. In evaluation, a garbage incineration plant treating refuse of 100 t/d was adopted. The two systems investigated are the following systems: (a) gas engine power generation system (Sys-GE) and (b) steam turbine power generation system with super heater of steam (Sys-SH). The characteristics of two systems have been estimated together with the conventional steam turbine power generation system (Sys-C). It has been estimated that Sys-GE and Sys-SH has 2.11 and 2.55 times greater energy saving and CO2 reduction effect compared with Sys-C, respectively.

  15. Computational Skills for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    This interview with Distinguished Science Award recipient Louis J. Gross highlights essential computational skills for modern biology, including: (1) teaching concepts listed in the Math & Bio 2010 report; (2) illustrating to students that jobs today require quantitative skills; and (3) resources and materials that focus on computational skills.

  16. Student Math Skills Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Odell; And Others

    This mathematics support guide is intended for use by vocational students and instructors as a review of essential mathematics concepts and for problem-solving exercises in the vocations. It is designed to accompany the "Mathematical Skills Inventory," which tests mathematics skills, attitudes, and background. A section entitled Arithmetic Skills

  17. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  18. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

  19. Computational Skills for Biology Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Louis J. Gross (University of Tennessee, Knoxville; )

    2006-06-01

    The issue-focused interview explains how computational skills are essential for modern biology. Enhancements include teaching concepts listed in the Math & Bio 2010 report, illustrating to students that jobs today require quantitative skills, and the importance of using resources and materials that focus on computational skills.

  20. The Hunter Skills Trail

    E-print Network

    Trail, Tamara; Hysmith, Larry; Harmel-Garza, Denise

    2001-08-03

    students to make safe, legal, ethical decisions in actual hunting situations. Instructors may evaluate, encourage and correct student behavior instantly through effective field exercises and tests. These exercises let students practice what they have... are taken down the trail for testing or competition, discussion of the scenarios works best at the end of the trail. Participants are often put in ?shoot or don?t shoot? situations. They must rely on their knowledge and skills to answer three questions: 1...

  1. 29 CFR 101.25 - Appeal from the dismissal of a petition, or from the refusal to process it under the expedited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...dismissal of a petition, or from the refusal to process it under the expedited procedure. 101.25 Section...dismissal of a petition, or from the refusal to process it under the expedited procedure. If it is determined after investigation of the...

  2. 29 CFR 101.25 - Appeal from the dismissal of a petition, or from the refusal to process it under the expedited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...dismissal of a petition, or from the refusal to process it under the expedited procedure. 101.25 Section...dismissal of a petition, or from the refusal to process it under the expedited procedure. If it is determined after investigation of the...

  3. Personal Skills. Facilitator's Skill Packets 1-7. Social Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model Classrooms, Bellevue, WA.

    This document contains the following seven facilitators' skill packets on personal skills: (1) personal hygiene; (2) personal appearance; (3) locker hygiene; (4) dorm cleanliness; (5) punctuality and attendance; (6) responding to supervision; and (7) teamwork. Each packet contains the following sections: definition of personal skills; objective;…

  4. Mobile Drug-Delivery for Ambient Assisted Living: Implantable and Extracorporeal Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Haeberle; R. Gronmaier; T. Goettsche; M Vosseler; A. Kain; M. Reiterer; D. Hradetzky; C. Mueller; S. Messner; R. Zengerle

    Miniaturized smart drug delivery devices pave the way for a personalized treatment of many diseases by un- skilled persons outside the hospital. Many therapies require a repetitive delivery of a defined amount of drug in well defined time slots. Innovative drug delivery systems constitute an important prerequisite for ambient as- sisted living: The reliable delivery of drugs, in time and

  5. Market returns to agribusiness skills and competencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren P. Preston; Josef M. Broder

    1990-01-01

    Survey responses were used to develop career skill portfolios for a sample of former agriculture students. Cluster analysis identified three distinct career profiles differentiated by the relative need for communication skills; interpersonal skills; computer, quantitative, and management information; business and economics skills; and technical skills. Statistical tests supported the hypothesis that distinct skill and competency portfolios obtain differential values in

  6. Linking Life Skills and Norms with Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mary H.; Graham, John W.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Bradley, Stephanie A.; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome…

  7. Drug Cravings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2003-07-14

    Many drug users successfully break their habit in rehab, only to resume abusing drugs once they re-enter the real world. In this Science Update, you'll hear about new research in rats that reveals why staying off drugs can be so difficult.

  8. Which Psychosocial Factors Are Related to Drinking among Rural Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Spoth, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors with alcohol use for adolescents residing in rural Iowa. This association was also tested separately for boys and girls. Seventh graders (N = 1673) self-reported alcohol use, peer drinking norms, adult drinking norms, drug refusal assertiveness, drug refusal techniques, life skills,…

  9. Detection of hydrogen gas-producing anaerobes in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Ohmiya, Kunio; Sakka, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Recently, we reported that refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets contain a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells and that these bacteria generate heat and hydrogen gas during fermentation under wet conditions. In this study we analyzed bacterial cell numbers of RDF samples manufactured with different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, which is usually added to waste materials for the prevention of rotting of food wastes and the acceleration of drying of solid wastes, and determined the amount of hydrogen gas produced by them under wet conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed microflora of the RDF samples before and during fermentation by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA followed by sequencing. We found that the RDF samples contained various kinds of clostridia capable of producing hydrogen gas. PMID:16306688

  10. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluska, Jacek; Klein, Marek; Kazimierski, Pawe?; Karda?, Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  11. An obligation to provide abortion services: what happens when physicians refuse?

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, C; Woods, R D

    1996-01-01

    Access to abortion services in the United States continues to decline. It does so not because of significant changes in legislation or court rulings but because fewer and fewer physicians wish to perform abortions and because most states now have "conscientious objection" legislation that makes it easy for physicians to refuse to do so. We argue in this paper that physicians have an obligation to perform all socially sanctioned medical services, including abortions, and thus that the burden of justification lies upon those who wish to be excused from that obligation. That is, such persons should have to show how requiring them to perform abortions would represent a serious threat to their fundamental moral or religious beliefs. We use current California law as an example of legislation that does not take physicians' obligations into account and thus allows them too easily to declare conscientious objection. PMID:8731539

  12. The role of aerobic activity on refuse temperature rise: II. Experimental and numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Lanini, S; Houi, D; Aguilar, O; Lefebvre, X

    2001-02-01

    The biodegradation of a model waste is studied in a 300-litre pilot. The aim is to better understand the role of biochemical processes on the temperature rise, in relation to landfill management protocols. The variations of temperature and gas composition distributions in the waste are accurately measured and analysed. The observations confirm that biological consumption of the oxygen diffusing through the waste is the main source of heat. A theoretical modelling of coupled heat and oxygen transfers in fresh refuse is then proposed. Numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data, but it appears that biochemical kinetics should account for the carbon availability limitation. Finally, a prediction of the temperature field in a landfill is presented. PMID:11525476

  13. Conflicts between religious or spiritual beliefs and pediatric care: informed refusal, exemptions, and public funding.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Although respect for parents' decision-making authority is an important principle, pediatricians should report suspected cases of medical neglect, and the state should, at times, intervene to require medical treatment of children. Some parents' reasons for refusing medical treatment are based on their religious or spiritual beliefs. In cases in which treatment is likely to prevent death or serious disability or relieve severe pain, children's health and future autonomy should be protected. Because religious exemptions to child abuse and neglect laws do not equally protect all children and may harm some children by causing confusion about the duty to provide medical treatment, these exemptions should be repealed. Furthermore, public health care funds should not cover alternative unproven religious or spiritual healing practices. Such payments may inappropriately legitimize these practices as appropriate medical treatment. PMID:24167167

  14. Effects of inhaled municipal refuse incinerator fly ash in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Alarie, Y; Iwasaki, M; Stock, M F; Pearson, R C; Shane, B S; Lisk, D J

    1989-01-01

    Fly ash was collected from two municipal refuse incinerators. It was analyzed for heavy metals, elements, and a wide range of toxic organics. It was resuspended in air for inhalation exposure of guinea pigs. These animals were exposed at high concentrations of each ash 6 h/d for 5 d, and tissues were taken 45 d after the exposure. Following the first exposure and after each daily exposure the ventilatory response of these animals upon challenge with CO2 was found to be depressed. Recovery occurred following exposure. Heavy metals, cadmium, lead, zinc, and mercury were elevated in the lungs of these animals. Histologic evaluation of pulmonary tissue revealed multifocal pneumoconiosis. Interstitial infiltration by macrophages and smooth muscle hypertrophy of blood vessels and bronchioles were also observed. There was no evidence of a dioxinlike toxic effect following inhalation of these ashes. PMID:2506362

  15. Frequent Fliers, School Phobias, and the Sick Student: School Health Personnel's Perceptions of Students Who Refuse School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens Armstrong, Anna M.; McCormack Brown, Kelli R.; Brindley, Roger; Coreil, Jeannine; McDermott, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explored school personnel's perceptions of school refusal, as it has been described as a "common educational and public health problem" that is less tolerated due to increasing awareness of the potential socioeconomic consequences of this phenomenon. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with school personnel at the…

  16. Co-firing of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with natural gas in a cement kiln: Summary of test results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Reed; J. L. Conrad; C. D. Price

    1983-01-01

    In July of 1986, the Environmental Equipment Corporation, in association with the Portland Cement Association and the Gulf Coast Portland Cement Company, initiated a program to develop and test refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on a commercial scale as a supplemental energy source for the portland cement industry. The objectives of the work performed were to definitely determine the technical and operational

  17. Economic Feasibility of Converting Landfill Gas to Natural Gas for Use as a Transportation Fuel in Refuse Trucks 

    E-print Network

    Sprague, Stephen M.

    2011-02-22

    Approximately 136,000 refuse trucks were in operation in the United States in 2007. These trucks burn approximately 1.2 billion gallons of diesel fuel a year, releasing almost 27 billion pounds of greenhouse gases. In addition to contributing...

  18. Refusal Strategies in L1 and L2: A Study of Persian-Speaking Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babai Shishavan, Homa; Sharifian, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore pragmalinguistic strategies employed by a group of Iranian English language learners when making refusals to invitations, requests, offers and suggestions in their first (Persian) and second (English) languages. Data were collected from 86 participants through a Discourse Completion Test (DCT). The social…

  19. A Family-Centered Positive Behavior Support Approach to the Amelioration of Food Refusal Behavior: An Empirical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnendyk, Lauren; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-centered positive behavior support approach to the amelioration of food refusal behavior in a child with autism. The study was conducted with the child and his family in their home. It employed an empirical case study design with one meal routine: snack time. Following…

  20. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION, MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY, EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

  1. Understanding the Dimensions of Parental Influence on Alcohol Use and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Tademy, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that parental factors may be important protective factors for adolescents. Less is known about the dimensions of parental influence on alcohol use among African American adolescents. The purpose of this investigation was to examine parental influence and its relationship to alcohol refusal efficacy and use among…

  2. Understanding Treatment Refusal Among Adults Presenting for HIV-Testing in Soweto, South Africa: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Janan; Tshabalala, Gugu; Essien, Thandekile; Rough, Kathryn; Wright, Alexi A.; Bangsberg, David R.; Gray, Glenda E.; Ware, Norma C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV treatment initiatives have focused on increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). There is growing evidence, however, that treatment availability alone is insufficient to stop the epidemic. In South Africa, only one third of individuals living with HIV are actually on treatment. Treatment refusal has been identified as a phenomenon among people who are asymptomatic, however, factors driving refusal remain poorly understood. We interviewed 50 purposively sampled participants who presented for voluntary counseling and testing in Soweto to elicit a broad range of detailed perspectives on ART refusal. We then integrated our core findings into an explanatory framework. Participants described feeling “too healthy” to start treatment, despite often having a diagnosis of AIDS. This subjective view of wellness was framed within the context of treatment being reserved for the sick. Taking ART could also lead to unintended disclosure and social isolation. These data provide a novel explanatory model of treatment refusal, recognizing perceived risks and social costs incurred when disclosing one’s status through treatment initiation. Our findings suggest that improving engagement in care for people living with HIV in South Africa will require optimizing social integration and connectivity for those who test positive. PMID:25304330

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised in an African American Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Aaron R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis techniques to investigate the construct validity of the child version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) in a community sample of low socioeconomic status (SES), urban, African American, fifth and sixth graders (n = 174). The SRAS-R is the best-researched measure of school…

  4. Plant growth and trace-element uptake on acidic coal refuse amended with lime or fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Jastrow; C. A. Zimmerman; A. J. Dvorak; R. R. Hinchman

    1981-01-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.), were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) amended with either lime or alkaline powerplant fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt loam surface soil

  5. Growth response of Pinus halepensis to inoculation with Pisolithus arhizus in a terraced rangeland amended with urban refuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Roldan; I. Querejeta; J. Albaladejo; V. Castillo

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth response of Pinus halepensis seedlings inoculated with Pisolithus arhizus and planted in a terraced rangeland amended with urban solid refuse. The application of the organic amendment mediated a significant increase in soil fertility and soil water content. Twenty seven months after planting seedling survival rates did not differ significantly among

  6. The effect of urban refuse compost and different tractors tyres on soil physical properties, soil erosion and maize yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Bazzoffi; Sergio Pellegrini; Andrea Rocchini; Miranda Morandi; Olga Grasselli

    1998-01-01

    Application of urban refuse compost to agricultural soil could help to solve municipalities' problems related to the increasing production of waste only if soil property improvement and environmental conservation can be demonstrated. The use of low-pressure tractor tyres is another proposal in modern agriculture for reducing soil compaction. This study thus aimed to detect the effects of both compost and

  7. Impulsivity, Life Stress, Refusal Efficacy, and Problem Gambling Among Chinese: Testing the Diathesis-Stress-Coping Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine So-Kum Tang; Zhiren Chua; Anise M. S. Wu

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the diathesis-stress-coping model (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to understand problem gambling in Chinese societies. We examined core model components of impulsivity trait (diathesis), life stress, and gambling refusal efficacy (coping efficacy) with 942 Chinese college students and 153 Chinese gamblers. Results showed that the three core model components exerted main effects on problem gambling for both samples.

  8. Too Good for Drugs[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Too Good for Drugs"[TM] is designed to promote life skills, character values, resistance skills to negative peer influence, and resistance to the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. The program, which targets elementary and middle school students, is based on classroom discussions and structured activities that center on interactive…

  9. Drugs, AIDS, and Teens: Intervention and the School Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Smith, Patricia; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a model for intervention for addressing drug use and sexual permissiveness that seems to be effective and practical for use with adolescents. Describes four components of social cognitive learning theory of detrimental lifestyle change (informational, development of social and self-regulatory skills, skill enhancement through guided…

  10. Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tong Logan, Angela; Silverman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    One of the most clinically significant complications related to the use of pharmacotherapy is the potential for drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. The gastrointestinal system plays a large role in the pharmacokinetic profile of most medications, and many medications utilized in gastroenterology have clinically significant drug interactions. This review will discuss the impact of alterations of intestinal pH, interactions mediated by phase I hepatic metabolism enzymes and P-glycoprotein, the impact of liver disease on drug metabolism, and interactions seen with commonly utilized gastrointestinal medications. PMID:22933873

  11. Skill composition: Exploring a wage-based skill measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Řivind A. Nilsen; Arvid Raknerud; Marina Rybalka; Terje Skjerpen

    2008-01-01

    This study explores a wage-based skill measure using information from a wage equation. Evidence from matched employer-employee data show that skill is attributable to variables other than educational length, for instance experience and type of education. Applying our wage-based skill measure to TFP growth analysis, the TFP growth decreases, indicating that more of the change in value-added is picked up

  12. Parenting: The Underdeveloped Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This parent education curriculum contains a variety of materials designed to help local Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) hold meetings for parents on child rearing. The materials help organizers plan meetings on topics such as dating, drugs, and careers. The unit contains a leader's guide, which contains a description of how to plan meetings,…

  13. Young children's knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention: a pilot study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Luo, Xiaoling

    2013-09-01

    To examine the level of knowledge and skills related to prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a sample of Chinese preschoolers in Beijing and to explore the associations between children's scores on the knowledge and skills and their parents' reports on the knowledge and communication with children about CSA prevention. One hundred and thirty-six preschoolers were interviewed by researchers using the Chinese versions of Personal Safety Questionnaire and the "What If" Situation Test, and one parent of each child was invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding parental knowledge and parent-child communication about CSA prevention. Less than half children knew that strangers were not the only perpetrators and only 16% thought that children should report secret touching. In 3 inappropriate touching requests, less than 30% of the children were aware of using verbal response to definitely refuse the inappropriate touching and less than 20% of the children were aware of definitely removing themselves from the abusive situations. Parent-child communication about CSA and parental educational level were the significant factors for children's self-protection skills. Preschool children lack CSA prevention knowledge and related self-protection skills. Culturally relevant primary CSA prevention programs in China need to be developed and parental education should be a part of CSA prevention. Parents need to be informed about CSA knowledge concepts and need to be encouraged to communicate with their children about sexual abuse prevention. PMID:23768932

  14. Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.

    This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

  15. Heritability of motor skill.

    PubMed

    Williams, L R; Gross, J B

    1980-01-01

    A total of 22 monozygotic (MZ) and 41 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were given 72 trials on a stabilometer balance task over six days to study the extent of the genetic contribution to learning and performance of a gross motor skill. The expectations that interindividual differences would be less for the MZ than for the DZ twins and that intraindividual variability would not be different between the two groups were supported. Intraclass correlations were used to provide estimates for the proportions of total phenotypic variance accounted for by heritability (h2), systematic environmental variance (E2), and nonsystematic environmental effects (e2). Heritability was found to be low during the early stages of learning, before it increased to stabilize at approximately 65% for the remaining practice. E2 was highest during these early stages (24%), then declined quickly to stabilize at half that level. Error variance (e2) constituted the remaining variance. Learning profiles of the twin pairs were also analyzed, with a greater intrapair resemblance being found for the MZ twins. The present findings indicate that, for gross motor skills, there is considerable potential for influencing both the levels of performance (and learning) and the differences between individuals by judicious use of systematic environmental effects. PMID:7196128

  16. Course Objective 1 1a,1c Explain the basic concepts of drug-receptor interactions and second messenger sytems.

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    information. 14 3d Demonstrate skills necessary for assisting patients to understand at all levels from the receptor to the cell, organ, circulatory systems and whole medications, their drug history is comprehensively evaluated and they have printed drug

  17. Drug Rash (Unclassified Drug Eruption) in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Drug Eruption, Unclassified Information for adults A A A Acute drug eruption with numerous red, raised lesions. Overview A drug rash (drug eruption), also known as a drug ...

  18. Evaluating Medical Students' Skills in Obtaining Informed Consent for HIV Testing

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Geppert, Cynthia; McCarty, Teresita; Obenshain, S Scott

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate fourth-year medical students' abilities to obtain informed consent or refusal for HIV testing through a performance-based evaluation method. DESIGN Student competence was assessed in a standardized patient interaction in which the student obtained informed consent or refusal for HIV testing. A previously validated 16-item checklist was completed by the standardized patient. A subset was independently reviewed and scored by a faculty member to calculate interrater reliability for this report. Student feedback on the assessment was elicited. SETTING School of Medicine at the University of New Mexico. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS All senior medical students in the class of 2000 were included. INTERVENTIONS A 10-minute standardized patient interaction was administered within the context of a formal comprehensive performance assessment. MEASUREMENTS and MAIN RESULTS Seventy-nine students participated, and most (96%) demonstrated competence on the station. For the 15 specific items, the mean score was 25.5 out of 30 possible points (range, 13 to 30; SD, 3.5) on the checklist. A strong positive correlation (rs = .79) was found between the total score on the 15 Likert-scaled items and the score in response to the global item, “I would return to this clinician” (mean, 3.5; SD, 1.0). Scores given by the standardized patients and the faculty rater were well correlated. The station was generally well received by students, many of whom were stimulated to pursue further learning. CONCLUSIONS This method of assessing medical students' abilities to obtain informed consent or refusal for HIV testing can be translated to a variety of clinical settings. Such efforts may help in demonstrating competence in performing key ethics skills and may help ensure ethically sound clinical care for people at risk for HIV infection. PMID:12542585

  19. The Influence of Improved Reading Skill on Writing Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Joe; Martin, R. Glenn

    1984-01-01

    Four experimental reading-treatment classes (n=94) and four control classes (n=100) wrote pre- and post-compositions which were evaluated for overall quality, syntactic density, T-unit length, productivity, and selected grammatical errors. Analysis of results found significant differences in reading skills but no differences in writing skills. The…

  20. Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

  1. Drug Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NBOD2, a program developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to solve equations of motion coupled N-body systems is used by E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. to model potential drugs as a series of elements. The program analyses the vibrational and static motions of independent components in drugs. Information generated from this process is used to design specific drugs to interact with enzymes in designated ways.

  2. Social skills training for the complex offender: employment seeking skills.

    PubMed

    Twentyman, C T

    1978-04-01

    Compared 11 probationers with a history of psychiatric referral to a randomly selected group of unemployed persons from the State Unemployment Office in a number of job interview assessment situations. The probationers were rated as less skillful and also rated themselves as less likely to obtain employment than did the control Ss. After this pretest, the probationers were assigned to one of two treatment groups in which either monetary incentives for job interviews were provided or a skills training program was initiated. Posttest scores indicated that the skills program was most effective in changing behavioral and cognitive responses. These results generalized during the follow-up period; the skills training group obtained employment more frequently than did the incentive group. Implications for training critical skill deficits are discussed in terms of a response acquisition model. PMID:681505

  3. Knowledge and Skill Guidelines for Aquaculture Technicians

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) has provided this overview of knowledge and skill guidelines for aquaculture technicians. The report begins with detailing the background of the creation of these guidelines, which occurred at the third annual Rhode Island Aquaculture Conference in Warwick, Rhode Island. Competency areas for aquaculture technicians outlined in the report are laboratory skills, math skills, knowledge of basic chemistry, field experience, knowledge of basic biology, mechanical skills, communication skills, analytical skills, internship experience, time management skills, computer skills, basic business skills and staying up-to-date.

  4. Drug interactions with antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Taburet, A M; Singlas, E

    1996-05-01

    Antiviral drug interactions are a particular problem among immuno-compromised patients because these patients are often receiving multiple different drugs, i.e. antiretroviral drugs and drugs effective against herpesvirus. The combination of zidovudine and other antiretroviral drugs with different adverse event profiles, such as didanosine, zalcitabine and lamivudine, appears to be well tolerated and no relevant pharmacokinetic interactions have been detected. The adverse effects of didanosine and zalcitabine (i.e. peripheral neuropathy and pancreatitis) should be taken into account when administering these drugs with other drugs with the same tolerability profile. Coadministration of zidovudine and ganciclovir should be avoided because of the high rate of haematological intolerance. In contrast, zidovudine and foscarnet have synergistic effect and no pharmacokinetic interaction has been detected. No major change in zidovudine pharmacokinetics was seen when the drug was combined with aciclovir, famciclovir or interferons. However, concomitant use of zidovudine and ribavirin is not advised. Although no pharmacokinetic interaction was documented when didanosine was first administered with intravenous ganciclovir, recent studies have shown that concentration of didanosine are increased by 50% or more when coadministered with intravenous or oral ganciclovir. The mechanism of this interaction has not been elucidated. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction was demonstrated between foscarnet and didanosine or ganciclovir. Clinical trials have shown that zidovudine can be administered safely with paracetamol (acetaminophen), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oxazepam or codeine. Inhibition of zidovudine glucuronidation has been demonstrated with fluconazole, atovaquone, valproic acid (valproate sodium), methadone, probenecid and inosine pranobex; however, the clinical consequences of this have not been fully investigated. No interaction has been demonstrated with didanosine per se but care should be taken of interaction with the high pH buffer included in the tablet formulation. Drugs that need an acidic pH for absorption (ketoconazole, itraconazole but not fluconazole, dapsone, pyrimethamine) or those that can be chelated by the ions of the buffer (quinolones and tetracyclines) should be administered 2 hours before or 6 hours after didanosine. Very few interaction studies have been undertaken with other antiviral drugs. Coadministration of zalcitabine with the antacid 'Maalox' results in a reduction of its absorption. Dapsone does not influence the disposition of zalcitabine. Cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) causes an increase in lamivudine concentrations by 43%. Saquinavir, delavirdine and atevirdine appeared to be metabolised by cytochrome P450 and interactions with enzyme inducers or inhibitors could be anticipated. Some studies showed that interferons can reduce drug metabolism but only a few studies have evaluated the pathways involved. Further studies are required to better understand the clinical consequences of drug interactions with antiviral drugs. Drug-drug interactions should be considered in addition to individual drug clinical benefits and safety profiles. PMID:8743337

  5. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  6. National Health Care Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Health Science and Technology Education, Okemos, MI.

    This document presents the National Health Care Skill Standards, which were developed by the National Consortium on Health Science and Technology and West Ed Regional Research Laboratory, in partnership with educators and health care employers. The document begins with an overview of the purpose and benefits of skill standards. Presented next are…

  7. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  8. Teaching Prevention Skills to Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond G. Miltenberger; Ellyn Thiesse-Duffy; Christopher Kozak; Janet Bruellman

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a prevention program implemented by parents in the home. Sexual abuse prevention skills were assessed through children's responses to verbally presented descriptions of sexual abuse situations. Abduction prevention skills were assessed through children's responses to verbal descriptions and role-plays of abduction situations. One week and two or four month in situ assessment probes were

  9. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

  10. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  11. Quality and Generic (Professional) Skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara De La Harpe; Alex Radloff; John Wyber

    2000-01-01

    Feedback from employers of graduates indicates a need to include a focus on generic skills to complement disciplinary expertise. Educational research shows that such skills are most effectively taught in the disciplinary context. Therefore, in order to better meet the requirements of employers for graduates who are more 'fit for purpose', universities may need to change the curriculum and how

  12. Social Skilling through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Don W.; Le Metais, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    An Australian study implemented social skill and cooperative learning activities with 26 10- and 12-year olds. Case studies of six of the children after 10 weeks indicated that students became more socially aware and more skilled, as demonstrated by collaboration and on-task behavior. (JOW)

  13. Leadership Skills for Migrant Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaker, Mary Lou Nava

    Written for staff developers and resource personnel who work with parents, this curriculum guide is designed to develop leadership skills in migrant parents who have been elected to leadership positions in their respective Parent Advisory Committees. The booklet focuses on developing such skills as knowing how to use parliamentary procedure,…

  14. Separation of harmful impurities from refuse derived fuels (RDF) by a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Krüger, B; Mrotzek, A; Wirtz, S

    2014-02-01

    In firing systems of cement production plants and coal-fired power plants, regular fossil fuels are increasingly substituted by alternative fuels. Rising energy prices and ambitious CO2-reduction goals promote the use of alternative fuels as a significant contribution to efficient energy recovery. One possibility to protect energy resources are refuse-derived fuels (RDF), which are produced during the treatment of municipal solid, commercial and industrial waste. The waste fractions suitable for RDF have a high calorific value and are often not suitable for material recycling. With current treatment processes, RDF still contains components which impede the utilization in firing systems or limit the degree of substitution. The content of these undesired components may amount to 4 wt%. These, in most cases incombustible particles which consist of mineral, ceramic and metallic materials can cause damages in the conveying systems (e. g. rotary feeder) or result in contaminations of the products (e. g. cement, chalk). Up-to-date separation processes (sieve machine, magnet separator or air classifier) have individual weaknesses that could hamper a secure separation of these particles. This article describes a new technology for the separation of impurities from refuse derived fuels based on a rotating fluidized bed. In this concept a rotating motion of the particle bed is obtained by the tangential injection of the fluidization gas in a static geometry. The RDF-particles experience a centrifugal force which fluidized the bed radially. The technical principle allows tearing up of particle clusters to single particles. Radially inwards the vertical velocity is much lower thus particles of every description can fall down there. For the subsequent separation of the particles by form and density an additionally cone shaped plate was installed in the centre. Impurities have a higher density and a compact form compared to combustible particles and can be separated with a high efficiency. The new technology was experimentally investigated and proven using model-RDF, actual-RDF and impurities of different densities. In addition, numerical simulations were also done. The fluidization chamber was operated in batch mode. The article describes experiences and difficulties in using rotating fluidized bed systems. PMID:24252370

  15. Developing a Research Skill Set

    PubMed Central

    You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917

  16. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs > Street drugs and pregnancy Smoking, alcohol and drugs Don’t smoke, drink alcohol or use drugs ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Street drugs and pregnancy A street drug (also called illegal ...

  17. Antineoplastic Drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadée, Wolfgang; El Sayed, Yousry Mahmoud

    The limited scope of therapeutic drug-level monitoring in cancer chemotherapy results from the often complex biochemical mechanisms that contribute to antineoplastic activity and obscure the relationships among drug serum levels and therapeutic benefits. Moreover, new agents for cancer chemotherapy are being introduced at a more rapid rate than for the treatment of other diseases, although the successful application of therapeutic drug-level monitoring may require several years of intensive study of the significance of serum drug levels. However, drug level monitoring can be of considerable value during phase I clinical trials of new antineoplastic agents in order to assess drug metabolism, bioavailability, and intersubject variability; these are important parameters in the interpretation of clinical studies, but have no immediate benefit to the patient. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) probably represents the most versatile and easily adaptable analytical technique for drug metabolite screening (1). HPLC may therefore now be the method of choice during phase I clinical trials of antineoplastic drugs. For example, within a single week we developed an HPLC assay—using a C18 reverse-phase column, UV detection, and direct serum injection after protein precipitation—for the new radiosensitizer, misonidazole (2).

  18. Drug Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legal Memorandum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    A number of legal issues are involved in conducting a drug testing program to determine whether students--and occasionally teachers--are using illegal drugs. Two legal issues have been raised concerning the accuracy of the urinalysis test: whether it is chemically accurate and whether appropriate procedures have been followed to make certain that…

  19. Drugs and Alcohol: A Handbook for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jim

    This booklet, suitable for intermediate grade and junior high school students, concerns drug education and development of decision-making skills regarding drug use. Following an introduction, material is divided into four parts. Part 1, a glossary, defines such basic vocabulary as addiction, overdose, withdrawal, and dependence, and differentiates…

  20. Bioethics of the refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses: Part 1. Should bioethical deliberation consider dissidents' views?

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, O

    1998-01-01

    Jehovah's Witnesses' (JWs) refusal of blood transfusions has recently gained support in the medical community because of the growing popularity of "no-blood" treatment. Many physicians, particularly so-called "sympathetic doctors", are establishing a close relationship with this religious organization. On the other hand, it is little known that this blood doctrine is being strongly criticized by reform-minded current and former JWs who have expressed conscientious dissent from the organization. Their arguments reveal religious practices that conflict with many physicians' moral standards. They also suggest that a certain segment of "regular" or orthodox JWs may have different attitudes towards the blood doctrine. The author considers these viewpoints and argues that there are ethical flaws in the blood doctrine, and that the medical community should reconsider its supportive position. The usual physician assumption that JWs are acting autonomously and uniformly in refusing blood is seriously questioned. PMID:9752623

  1. Communication skills in palliative surgery: skill and effort are key.

    PubMed

    Miner, Thomas J

    2011-04-01

    Excellence as a surgeon requires not only the technical and intellectual ability to effectively take care of surgical disease but also an ability to respond to the needs and questions of patients. This article provides an overview of the importance of communication skills in optimal surgical palliation and offers suggestions for a multidisciplinary team approach, using the palliative triangle as the ideal model of communication and interpersonal skills. This article also discusses guidelines for advanced surgical decision making and outlines methods to improve communication skills. PMID:21419258

  2. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  3. Skill Alternatives to Aggression. Facilitator's Skill Packets 30-38. Social Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model Classrooms, Bellevue, WA.

    These facilitator's skill packets contain nine individual packets on skill alternatives to aggression: (1) asking permission; (2) sharing something; (3) helping others; (4) negotiating; (5) using self-control; (6) standing up for one's rights; (7) responding to teasing; (8) avoiding trouble with others; and (9) keeping out of fights. Each packet…

  4. Cognitive Skills: A Modest Way of Learning through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethy, Satya Sundar

    2012-01-01

    Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills

  5. Superheater corrosion in a boiler fired with refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bakker, W.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Steinbeck, T. [United Power Association, Elk River, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The environment in the superheater of a boiler firing refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is very aggressive. The high wastage rate for the standard T-22 material necessitated a materials testing program. Simples of Types 304H, HR3C, T-22 chromized, 825 and 625 were assembled into tubular test sections and welded into the superheater tubing. After 1,180 hours the test sections were evaluated and the wastage rates calculated for each material. The chlorides contained in the RDF are believed to be the primary corrodent. The chlorine may be interacting with the metal samples as HCl, a low-melting-point eutectic or a combination of these. Of the six materials tested, Alloy 625 exhibited the best resistance--substantially better than the next-best Type 304. Alloy 825 and HR3C corroded approximately 1.5 times the rate of Type 304. The chromized layer on T-22 showed no resistance to the environment and was consumed in large areas.

  6. Emissions of C&D refuse in landfills: a European case.

    PubMed

    López, Ana; Lobo, Amaya

    2014-08-01

    A field study was developed in a new landfill for refuse from construction and demolition (C&D) material recovery plants of small size (4 Ha.) in Europe, with the aim of evaluating the liquid and gas emissions in this type of facility at a large scale. It included characterization of the materials, monitoring leachate and gas quantity and composition. Besides thermometers, piezometers and sampling ports were placed in several points within the waste. This paper presents the data obtained for five years of the landfill life. The materials disposed were mainly made up of wood and concrete, similar to other C&D debris sites, but the amount of gypsum drywall (below 3% of the waste) was significantly smaller than other available studies, where percentages above 20% had been reported. Leachate contained typical C&D pollutants, such as different inorganic ions and metals, some of which exceeded other values reported in the literature (conductivity, ammonium, lead and arsenic). The small net precipitation in the area and the leachate recirculation into the landfill surface help explain these higher concentrations, thus highlighting the impact of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio on leachate characteristics. In contrast to previous studies, neither odor nuisances nor significant landfill gas over the surface were detected. However, gas samples taken from the landfill inside revealed sulfate reducing and methanogenic activity. PMID:24824964

  7. Treating chronic food refusal in young children: home-based parent training.

    PubMed Central

    Werle, M A; Murphy, T B; Budd, K S

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of behavioral parent training program on parent and child feeding-related behaviors in the home. We trained mothers to initiate regular offerings of previously rejected (target) foods and to provide contingent attention (i.e., specific prompts, positive reinforcement) to increase their child's acceptance of nonpreferred foods. For 1 subject, we also directed training at increasing self-eating. Results of a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across 3 mother-child dyads demonstrated that, with training, all mothers increased offerings of target foods and use of specific prompts, and 2 mothers increased levels of positive attention. In turn, children increased their acceptance of target foods and self-eating, thus demonstrating the functional effects of parent training on in-home meal times. Temporary increases in food refusals occurred when treatment was initiated but declined as treatment continued. We discuss the results in terms of the potential benefits and limitations of a home-based treatment model. PMID:8307827

  8. Nitrogen removal pathway of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in on-site aged refuse bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Youcai; Xie, Bing; Peng, Qing; Hassan, Muhammad; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-05-01

    The nitrogen removal pathways and nitrogen-related functional genes in on-site three-stage aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) treating landfill leachate were investigated. It was found that on average 90.0% of CODCr, 97.6% of BOD5, 99.3% of NH4(+)-N, and 81.0% of TN were removed with initial CODCr, BOD5, NH4(+)-N, and TN concentrations ranging from 2323 to 2754, 277 to 362, 1237 to 1506, and 1251 to 1580 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the functional genes amoA, nirS and anammox 16S rRNA gene were found to coexist in every bioreactor, and their relative proportions in each bioreactor were closely related to the pollutant removal performance of the corresponding bioreactor, which indicated the coexistence of multiple nitrogen removal pathways in the ARB. Detection of anammox expression proved the presence of the anammox nitrogen removal pathway during the process of recirculating mature leachate to the on-site ARB, which provides important information for nitrogen management in landfills. PMID:24657757

  9. Determinants of efficiency in the provision of municipal street-cleaning and refuse collection services

    SciTech Connect

    Benito-Lopez, Bernardino, E-mail: benitobl@um.es [University of Murcia (Spain); Rocio Moreno-Enguix, Maria del, E-mail: mrmoreno@um.es [University of Murcia (Spain); Solana-Ibanez, Jose, E-mail: jsolana@um.es [University of Murcia (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Effective waste management systems can make critical contributions to public health, environmental sustainability and economic development. The challenge affects every person and institution in society, and measures cannot be undertaken without data collection and a quantitative analysis approach. In this paper, the two-stage double bootstrap procedure of is used to estimate the efficiency determinants of Spanish local entities in the provision of public street-cleaning and refuse collection services. The purpose is to identify factors that influence efficiency. The final sample comprised 1072 municipalities. In the first stage, robust efficiency estimates are obtained with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We apply the second stage, based on a truncated-regression, to estimate the effect of a group of environmental factors on DEA estimates. The results show the existence of a significant relation between efficiency and all the variables analysed (per capita income, urban population density, the comparative index of the importance of tourism and that of the whole economic activity). We have also considered the influence of a dummy categorical variable - the political sign of the governing party - on the efficient provision of the services under study. The results from the methodology proposed show that municipalities governed by progressive parties are more efficient.

  10. Preparation and sorption properties of porous materials from refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF).

    PubMed

    Kadirova, Z; Kameshima, Y; Nakajima, A; Okada, K

    2006-09-01

    Porous materials consisting of activated carbon and amorphous CaO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2) (CAS) compound were prepared from refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF), (a mixture of old paper and plastic) by carbonizing and/or activating treatments. Samples formed by chemical activation using K(2)CO(3) showed a high specific surface area (S(BET)) of 1330 m(2)/g but a lower ash content due to being washed after activation. By contrast, samples prepared by physical activation using steam showed rather lower S(BET) (510 m(2)/g) due to higher ash contents. The physically activated samples showed much higher uptake properties for Ni(2+) (a representative heavy metal) and phosphate ions (a representative of a harmful oxyanion) than the chemically activated samples because of the higher content of amorphous CAS in the former samples. By contrast, the chemically activated samples showed higher uptake for methylene blue (MB, a representative organic material) than the physically activated samples because of the higher activated carbon content of higher surface area. Although differences in the sorption properties for Ni(2+), phosphate ion and MB were found between the physically and chemically activated samples, both samples show excellent multiple sorption properties for cation-anion combinations and inorganic-organic sorbents. PMID:16530942

  11. Determinants of efficiency in the provision of municipal street-cleaning and refuse collection services.

    PubMed

    Benito-López, Bernardino; Moreno-Enguix, María del Rocio; Solana-Ibańez, José

    2011-06-01

    Effective waste management systems can make critical contributions to public health, environmental sustainability and economic development. The challenge affects every person and institution in society, and measures cannot be undertaken without data collection and a quantitative analysis approach. In this paper, the two-stage double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007) is used to estimate the efficiency determinants of Spanish local entities in the provision of public street-cleaning and refuse collection services. The purpose is to identify factors that influence efficiency. The final sample comprised 1072 municipalities. In the first stage, robust efficiency estimates are obtained with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We apply the second stage, based on a truncated-regression, to estimate the effect of a group of environmental factors on DEA estimates. The results show the existence of a significant relation between efficiency and all the variables analysed (per capita income, urban population density, the comparative index of the importance of tourism and that of the whole economic activity). We have also considered the influence of a dummy categorical variable - the political sign of the governing party - on the efficient provision of the services under study. The results from the methodology proposed show that municipalities governed by progressive parties are more efficient. PMID:21339060

  12. Use of aged refuse-based bioreactor/biofilter for landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad; Xie, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Sanitary landfilling is a proven way for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developed countries in general and in developing countries in particular, owing to its low immediate costs. On the other hand, landfilling is a matter of concern due to its generation of heavily polluted leachate. Landfill leachate becomes more refractory with time and is very difficult to treat using conventional biological processes. The aged refuse-based bioreactor/biofilter (ARB) has been shown to be a promising technology for the removal of various pollutants from landfill leachate and validates the principle of waste control by waste. Based on different environmental and operational factors, many researchers have reported remarkable pollutant removal efficiencies using ARB. This paper gives an overview of various types of ARBs used; their efficiencies; and certain factors like temperatures, loading rates, and aerobic/anaerobic conditions which affect the performance of ARBs in eliminating pollutants from leachate. Treating leachate by ARBs has been proved to be more cost-efficient, environment friendly, and simple to operate than other traditional biological techniques. Finally, future research and developments are also discussed. PMID:24878749

  13. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in a fixed bed reactor for syngas production

    SciTech Connect

    Dalai, Ajay K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)], E-mail: ajay.dalai@usask.ca; Batta, Nishant [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Eswaramoorthi, I. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Schoenau, Greg J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Steam gasification of two different refuse derived fuels (RDFs), differing slightly in composition as well as thermal stability, was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The proximate and ultimate analyses reveal that carbon and hydrogen are the major components in RDFs. The thermal analysis indicates the presence of cellulose and plastic based materials in RDFs. H{sub 2} and CO are found to be the major products, along with CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons resulting from gasification of RDFs. The effect of gasification temperature on H{sub 2} and CO selectivities was studied, and the optimum temperature for better H{sub 2} and CO selectivity was determined to be 725 deg. C. The calorific value of product gas produced at lower gasification temperature is significantly higher than that of gas produced at higher process temperature. Also, the composition of RDF plays an important role in distribution of products gas. The RDF with more C and H content is found to produce more amounts of CO and H{sub 2} under similar experimental conditions. The steam/waste ratio showed a notable effect on the selectivity of syngas as well as calorific value of the resulting product gas. The flow rate of carrier gas did not show any significant effect on products yield or their distribution.

  14. Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae-Sung

    Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in the commercial scale Tonghae CFB Power Plant. As the feeding ratio of the RDF to the anthracites increased to 5%, temperature and pressure were not changed in comparison with firing only anthracites. The amount of the required air was reduced due to high O2 content in RDF relative to the anthracites. The emissions of NOx, SOx, HCl and Dioxin were also measured. According to higher mixing ratio of the RDF to the anthracites, SOx, NOx emissions slightly decreased and HCl emissions increased, because RDF has relatively smaller S, N and higher CI than the anthracites. Heavy metals of the fly ash and bottom ash and the dioxin emissions were far below Korean maximum permissible concentration level at incinerator. The results showed that it is of great use and technically possible to co-combustion of RDF with the anthracites by 5% in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in commercial scale CFB boiler.

  15. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, M.A.; Creamer, K.S.; Tweksbury, T.L.; Taylor, D.R. (Battelle Columbus Div., Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels. The specific fuel studied was refuse derived fuel (RDF) which is a prepared municipal solid waste (MSW). The use of RDF, while providing a valuable fuel, can also provide a solution to MSW disposal problems. Gasification of MSW provides advantages over land fill or mass burn technology since a more usable form of energy, medium Btu gas, is produced. Land filling of wastes produces no usable products and mass burning while greatly reducing the volume of wastes for disposal can produce only steam. This steam must be used on site or very nearby this limiting the potential locations for mass burn facilities. Such a gas, if produced from currently available supplies of MSW, can contribute 2 quads to the US energy supply. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Incomplete cytokinesis and re-fusion of small mononucleated Hodgkin cells lead to giant multinucleated Reed–Sternberg cells

    PubMed Central

    Rengstl, Benjamin; Newrzela, Sebastian; Heinrich, Tim; Weiser, Christian; Thalheimer, Frederic B.; Schmid, Frederike; Warner, Kathrin; Hartmann, Sylvia; Schroeder, Timm; Küppers, Ralf; Rieger, Michael A.; Hansmann, Martin-Leo

    2013-01-01

    Multinucleated Reed–Sternberg (RS) cells are pathognomonic for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and their presence is essential for diagnosis. How these giant tumor cells develop is controversial, however. It has been postulated that RS cells arise from mononucleated Hodgkin cells via endomitosis. Conversely, continuous single-cell tracking of HL cell lines by long-term time-lapse microscopy has identified cell fusion as the main route of RS cell formation. In contrast to growth-induced formation of giant Hodgkin cells, fusion of small mononuclear cells followed by a size increase gives rise to giant RS cells. Of note, fusion of cells originating from the same ancestor, termed re-fusion, is seen nearly exclusively. In the majority of cases, re-fusion of daughter cells is preceded by incomplete cytokinesis, as demonstrated by microtubule bonds among the cells. We confirm at the level of individual tracked cells that giant Hodgkin and RS cells have little proliferative capacity, further supporting small mononuclear Hodgkin cells as the proliferative compartment of the HL tumor clone. In addition, sister cells show a shared propensity for re-fusion, providing evidence of early RS cell fate commitment. Thus, RS cell generation is related neither to cell fusion of unrelated Hodgkin cells nor to endomitosis, but rather is mediated by re-fusion of daughter cells that underwent mitosis. This surprising finding supports the existence of a unique mechanism for the generation of multinuclear RS cells that may have implications beyond HL, given that RS-like cells are frequently observed in several other lymphoproliferative diseases as well. PMID:24302766

  17. Municipal incineration studies: Sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of incineration processes for the destruction of municipal wastes, including sewage sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. Topics include systems design and management, combustion and emissions studies, pollution and toxicity studies, heat recovery operations, pollution control devices, and economic aspects. Analytical methods for pollution identification, marine vessel incinerators, catalytic incineration, and risk assessment studies are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Municipal incineration studies: Sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of incineration processes for the destruction of municipal wastes, including sewage sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. Topics include systems design and management, combustion and emissions studies, pollution and toxicity studies, heat recovery operations, pollution control devices, and economic aspects. Analytical methods for pollution identification, marine vessel incinerators, catalytic incineration, and risk assessment studies are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-02-29

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coals with refuse derived fuels were two-fold. First, the effects of different experimental parameters such as temperature, flow rates and reaction times on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds were studied using the tubular furnace as a reactor followed by GC/MS analysis. Secondly, the effect of fuel/air ratio on the flue gas composition and combustion efficiency were studied with the AFBC system.

  20. BEHAVIOR AND ASSIMILATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANTS CODISPOSED WITH MUNICIPAL REFUSE. A Project Summary. (EPA/SR-93/137)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to demonstrate and evaluate the capacity of landfill systems to assimilate and attenuate inorganic and organic priority pollutants loadings codisposed with municipal refuse and to determine the fate and effect of the codisposed pollutants as landfill stabi...