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1

Media Resistance Skills and Drug Skill Refusal Techniques: What is Their Relationship with Alcohol Use Among Inner-City Adolescents?  

PubMed Central

Past research related to alcohol advertising examined whether underage adolescents were targets of the alcohol industry and what impact such adverting had on adolescent drinking. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the impact of media resistance skills on subsequent drinking among adolescents residing in inner-city regions of New York City. The study also tested whether drug skill refusal techniques (knowing how to say no to alcohol and other drugs) mediated the relationship between media resistance skills and adolescent drinking. A panel sample of baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-ups (N = 1318) from the control group of a longitudinal drug abuse prevention trial participated. A series of structural equations models showed that media resistance skills directly negatively predicted alcohol use two years later and that drug skill refusal techniques mediated this effect. Baseline media resistance skills were associated with 1-year drug skill refusal techniques, which in turn negatively predicted 2-year alcohol use. These findings provided empirical support for including media resistance skills and drug skill refusal techniques in alcohol prevention programs.

Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2008-01-01

2

The Relationship between Food Refusal and Social Skills in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Feeding problems are common among individuals with intellectual disabilities. The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship between food refusal and social skills in people with intellectual disability. Method: "The Screening Tool of Feeding Problems" (STEP) was administered to all residents of a large developmental…

Matson, Johnny L.; Cooper, Christopher L.; Mayville, Steven B.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.

2006-01-01

3

Refusal and Resistance Skills for Children and Adolescents: A Selected Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on refusal and resistance skill (RRS) training. Evaluates RRS training across different target behaviors and outcomes and its efficacy in preventing tobacco use. Identifies factors that influence RRS training and discusses process variables. These include age and gender, media formats, and teacher-led versus peer-led…

Herrmann, D. Scott; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

1997-01-01

4

49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655...49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each employer...to submit to a post-accident drug and alcohol test required under §...

2010-10-01

5

49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655...49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each employer...to submit to a post-accident drug and alcohol test required under §...

2009-10-01

6

A Randomized Trial of Two Methods for Engaging Treatment-Refusing Drug Users Through Concerned Significant Others  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized clinical trial, 90 concerned significant others (CSOs) of treatment-refusing illicit drug users were assigned to either (a) community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT), which teaches behavior change skills; (b) CRAFT with additional group aftercare sessions after the completion of the individual sessions; or (c) Al-Anon and Nar-Anon facilitation therapy (Al-Nar FT). All protocols received 12 hr of

Robert J. Meyers; William R. Miller; Jane Ellen Smith; J. Scott Tonigan

2002-01-01

7

A randomized trial of two methods for engaging treatment-refusing drug users through concerned significant others.  

PubMed

In a randomized clinical trial, 90 concerned significant others (CSOs) of treatment-refusing illicit drug users were assigned to either (a) community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT), which teaches behavior change skills, (b) CRAFT with additional group aftercare sessions after the completion of the individual sessions; or (c) Al-Anon and Nar-Anon facilitation therapy (Al-Nar FT). All protocols received 12 hr of manual-guided individual treatment. Follow-up rates for the CSOs were consistently at least 96%. The CRAFT conditions were significantly more effective than Al-Nar FT in engaging initially unmotivated drug users into treatment. CRAFT alone engaged 58.6%, CRAFT + aftercare engaged 76.7%, and Al-Nar FT engaged 29.0%. No CSO engaged a treatment-refusing loved one once individual sessions had been completed. PMID:12362968

Meyers, Robert J; Miller, William R; Smith, Jane Ellen; Tonigan, J Scott

2002-10-01

8

49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199.103 Section 199.103 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail...

2013-10-01

9

78 FR 60292 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Application Submissions-Refuse-to-Receive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Food and Drug Administration...Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (HFD-613), Food and Drug Administration...Refuse-to-Receive Standards.'' This guidance...enactment of the Generic Drug User Fee...improvement in the quality of...

2013-10-01

10

"I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

PubMed Central

This exploratory study examined the use of explanations for refusal as a drug resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai‘i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug resistance strategies in response to 15 hypothetical culturally specific drug-related problem scenarios developed from earlier research. The findings indicate that variations in the types of explanations used for refusal were based on the type of drug offerer in the associated scenario (i.e., peer/friend, cousin, or parent). Participants also described the rationales for the use of different explanations with different drug offerers. The findings suggest that culturally grounded drug prevention programs for Hawaiian youth should incorporate the use of specific types of explanations for refusal, depending on the youths’ relationship to the drug offerer.

OKAMOTO, SCOTT K.; HELM, SUSANA; GIROUX, DANIELLE; KALIADES, ALEXIS

2011-01-01

11

The Impact of a Culturally Enhanced Drug Prevention Program on Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy among Urban African American Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the utility of the Specific Event Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy scale (SEDARE) as an outcome of a culturally enhanced drug abuse prevention program for urban African-American girls in early adolescence. The SEDARE captures the perceived likelihood that youth will use drugs and alcohol in specific situations. Ninety-two…

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Reed, Melba C.; Plybon, Laura E.; Corneille, Maya

2004-01-01

12

49 CFR 40.191 - What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences? 40.191...ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.191 What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?...

2013-10-01

13

Ethnic Identity, Neighborhood Risk, and Adolescent Drug and Sex Attitudes and Refusal Efficacy: The Urban African American Girls' Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…

Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2007-01-01

14

Reconceptualizing Efficacy in Substance Use Prevention Research: Refusal Response Efficacy and Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy in Adolescent Substance Use  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to utilize the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to expand the construct of efficacy in the adolescent substance use context. Using survey data collected from 2,129 seventh-grade students in 39 rural schools, we examined the construct of drug refusal efficacy and demonstrated relationships among response efficacy (RE), self-efficacy (SE), and adolescent drug use. Consistent with the hypotheses, confirmatory factor analyses of a 12-item scale yielded a three-factor solution: refusal RE, alcohol-resistance self-efficacy (ASE), and marijuana-resistance self-efficacy (MSE). Refusal RE and ASE/MSE were negatively related to alcohol use and marijuana use, whereas MSE was positively associated with alcohol use. These data demonstrate that efficacy is a broader construct than typically considered in drug prevention. Prevention programs should reinforce both refusal RE and substance-specific resistance SE.

Choi, Hye Jeong; Krieger, Janice L.; Hecht, Michael L.

2014-01-01

15

Do pharmacists have a right to refuse to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs?  

PubMed

Some pharmacists opposed to abortion on moral ground are concerned by having to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs like mifepristone (RU-486). The issue of the right of pharmacists to refuse to fill such prescriptions depends on the model of the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship. The libertarian model of pharmacy practice holds that physicians, pharmacists, and patients are bound only by the contract that they freely negotiate with one another, thus the pharmacist has no moral obligation to fill a prescription for mifepristone unless he or she has expressly contracted to do so. The American Pharmaceutical Association's 1981 Code of Ethics does not specify what a pharmacist ought to do in particular circumstances. The right to refuse is strongly supported by the principles of nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy. These are principles of the libertarian model of the pharmacist-patient relationship but are also present in the guild or societal models stressing the duty to avoid harming others. Justification for pharmacists right of refusal appeals to their autonomy rights as members of the moral community rather than the profession of pharmacy. Since the professional right to autonomy is not absolute, moral consideration circumscribe it: it is difficult to argue that a pharmacist who believes that homosexuality is immoral has the right to refuse to fill a prescription for AZT. Even if a person who presents such a prescription is homosexual there is no causal relationship between filling a prescription for AZT and participating in a homosexual act. At the opposite end the libertarians reject the notion of even a basic right to health care. A woman in the above situation would not have a right to the abortifacient drug, so a pharmacist has no duty to dispense it. According to the technician model of professionalism, the pharmacist's personal values do not matter, so a pharmacist has a duty to provide the service. PMID:1434764

Weinstein, B D

1992-01-01

16

A Condom Skill Scale: Assessing Condom Skills among Female Drug Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describe the development and properties of a scale measuring demonstrated condom use skill using a sample of 261 drug-using women. Analysis of scale scores revealed high levels of condom skill among the population. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Condom Skill Scale is a potentially valid and reliable instrument, and may have application as…

Farris, Coreen A.; Fenaughty, Andrea M.; Lindemann, Dana F.

2003-01-01

17

An investigation on the effect of Health Belief Model-based education on refusal skills in high risk situations among female students  

PubMed Central

Background: Various studies show an association between lack of social skills in adolescents and the future incidence of behavioral disorders. If girls, as future mothers, lack adequate health, awareness, self confidence and social skills, they may act as a source of many social problems. Therefore, the present study has tried to educate this group on one of the most essential social skills, refusal skill in high risk situation. Materials and Methods: This is a field quasi experimental study conducted on 145 female students in middle schools in Arak, Iran in 2010-2011. The schools were randomly selected. The subjects were selected through systematic random sampling from the schools’ log book. The data were collected by questionnaires containing personal and familial characteristics, three health belief model structures, and behavioral intention in high risk situations. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests (frequency distribution, mean, SD) and inferential tests of repetitive variance analysis and T-test through SPSS. Findings: In the present study, repetitive variance analysis showed that education by use of a health belief model had a positive effect on refusal skills in high risk situations as well as perceived barriers (p = 0.007), self-efficacy (p = 0.015), behavioral intention (p = 0.048) after educational intervention in the study group, but not on perceived benefits (p = 0.180). Conclusions: The results showed that education significantly increased refusal skills in high risk situations in the study group through the health belief model. With regard to the results, it is essential to equip the students with preventive behaviors to guarantee their physical, emotional and social health.

Boroumandfar, Khadijeh; Shabani, Fatemeh; Ghaffari, Mohtasham

2012-01-01

18

Skills Training for Drug Abusers: Generalization, Maintenance, and Effects on Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed follow-up data for drug abuse treatment study of residential drug treatment program clients (N=89) enrolled in control group or behavior skills training group. Found training group had higher skills than control group 12 months after training. Found, with exceptions of marijuana and amphetamine use, that skill training did not affect…

Hawkins, J. David; And Others

1989-01-01

19

Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

Hawkins, J. David; And Others

1986-01-01

20

Retention of drug administration skills after intensive teaching.  

PubMed

We have identified deficiencies in medical students' drug administration skills, and we attempted to address them with interactive online teaching modules and simulated critical incident scenarios. Short-term improvements have been evident with this intensive effort, but medium-term retention of skills has not been measured. A drug administration lecture, an online module and a simulated emergency scenario were offered to final year clinical students. None of the teaching was compulsory but participation was recorded, along with students' simulator performances and marks in an objective structured practical examination 9 months later. A poor simulator score predicted a poor performance in the later examination. Participation in the simulated scenario only significantly improved examination scores when supplemented by online teaching (p = 0.002). Intensive drug administration teaching using an online module and high fidelity simulation improves drug administration skills in the medium term. Students found simulation much more engaging than online teaching. PMID:18336488

Wheeler, D W; Degnan, B A; Murray, L J; Dunling, C P; Whittlestone, K D; Wood, D F; Smith, H L; Gupta, A K

2008-04-01

21

[Life skills and drug use among Mexican adolescent students].  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was carried out with the purpose of validating seven life skills scales reported in the literature as related to drug-abuse prevention, and which identify differences between these skills among non-user adolescent students and users of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and inhalants. The sample was made up of 425 adolescents, 196 (46.1%) male and 229 (53.9%) female. These participants were randomly selected from a private high school in the state of Morelos, and their mean age was 15.8 years, with a standard deviation of 1.97. To measure skills we used the scales validated in this survey, while patterns of drug use were measured with a scale based on the National Addiction Survey (2008) indicators. Results showed that students who did not use alcohol, tobacco, cannabis or inhalants scored higher in skills of empathy, future orientation and peer pressure resistance, compared to those who had used these substances in the last month. On the basis of these findings it would seem necessary to develop drug-abuse prevention programs for high school students based on a life skills training approach. PMID:22648318

Pérez De La Barrera, Citlalli

2012-01-01

22

Skills for Drug-Free Living Curriculum Guide. Future Quest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Future Quest curriculum is a functional curriculum to teach drug abuse prevention skills to youth with mild disabilities. The curriculum is a one-semester instructional program of lesson plans that incorporate research-based effective teaching practices and are specifically designed to meet the needs of students with learning and behavior…

de la Garza, Bridget M.; And Others

23

21 CFR 316.25 - Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in the United States, or that the drug is intended for use in prevention...United States; or (ii) Where the drug is intended for prevention...production costs will be recovered from sales of the drug for the orphan indication in...

2013-04-01

24

EXPANDING URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN YOUTHS' REPERTOIRE OF DRUG RESISTANCE SKILLS: PILOT RESULTS FROM A CULTURALLY ADAPTED PREVENTION PROGRAM  

PubMed Central

This article examines changes in the drug resistance strategies used by urban American Indian (UAI) middle school students during a pilot test of a substance use prevention curriculum designed specifically for UAI youth, Living in 2 Worlds (L2W). L2W teaches four drug resistance strategies (refuse, explain, avoid, leave [R-E-A-L]) in culturally appropriate ways. Data come from 57 UAI students (53% female; mean age = 12.5 years) who participated in L2W during an academic enrichment class for Native youth at two Phoenix schools. Students completed a pre-test questionnaire before the L2W lessons and a post-test 7 months later. Questions assessed the use of R-E-A-L and alternative strategies commonly reported by UAI youth (change the subject, use humor). Tests of mean differences from pre-test to post-test showed significant increases in use of refuse, R-E-A-L repertoire. Use of more passive strategies (avoid, use humor) did not change significantly, except for change the subject, which increased. Changes in the use of strategies did not differ significantly by gender, age, school grades, parental education, or length of urban residence. The L2W curriculum appears effective in teaching culturally relevant communication strategies that expand UAI youths’ repertoire of drug resistance skills.

Kulis, Stephen; Dustman, Patricia A.; Brown, Eddie F.; Martinez, Marcos

2013-01-01

25

School Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

Wimmer, Mary

2008-01-01

26

Student nurses need more than maths to improve their drug calculating skills.  

PubMed

Nurses need to be able to calculate accurate drug calculations in order to safely administer drugs to their patients (NMC, 2002). Studies have shown however that nurses do not always have the necessary skills to calculate accurate drug dosages and are potentially administering incorrect dosages of drugs to their patients (Hutton, M. 1998. Nursing Mathematics: the importance of application. Nursing Standard 13(11), 35-38; Kapborg, I. 1994. Calculation and administration of drug dosage by Swedish nurses, Student Nurses and Physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 6(4), 389-395; O'Shea, E. 1999. Factors contributing to medication errors: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 8, 496-504; Wilson, A. 2003. Nurses maths: researching a practical approach. Nursing Standard 17(47), 33-36). The literature indicates that in order to improve drug calculations strategies need to focus on both the mathematical skills and conceptual skills of student nurses so they can interpret clinical data into drug calculations to be solved. A study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of implementing several strategies which focussed on developing the mathematical and conceptual skills of student nurses to improve their drug calculation skills. The study found that implementing a range of strategies which addressed these two developmental areas significantly improved the drug calculation skills of nurses. The study also indicates that a range of strategies has the potential ensuring that the skills taught are retained by the student nurses. Although the strategies significantly improved the drug calculation skills of student nurses, the fact that only 2 students were able to achieve 100% in their drug calculation test indicates a need for further research into this area. PMID:16876919

Wright, Kerri

2007-05-01

27

Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Communication Skills--English IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Four integrated learning activities for communication skills/ English IV and healthful living are presented. Communication skills/literature goals include experiencing young adult literature, using effective techniques…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

28

Social Skills Training for Drug Prevention in High-Risk Female Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.The effectiveness of social skills training\\/social network restructuring in the primary and secondary prevention of drug use was examined in a multiethnic cohort of 296 female adolescents ages 14 to 19 years who were pregnant or parenting and\\/or at risk for drug use.Methods.Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) PALS Skills Training or (b) a control intervention

Lawrence A. Palinkas; Catherine J. Atkins; Christopher Miller; Diane Ferreira

1996-01-01

29

Regional Refuse Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents a regional refuse disposal report which basically sets forth the existing refuse disposal situation in the region. Discussed are approaches to sanitary landfill, state laws and regulations, and a proposal for cooperative approaches t...

1969-01-01

30

Effectiveness of Stress Management Skill Training on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Levels in Drug Addicts after Drug Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background Stressful life events may cause initiation of drug use among people. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management skill training on depression, anxiety and stress levels in drug addicts after withdrawal. Objectives The population included all drug addicts after withdrawal in 2012 in Alborz province. Materials and Methods The study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with a control group. Levels of emotional reactions (depression, anxiety and stress) in all referrals to a counseling center for drug withdrawal in 2012 using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress (DASS-21) questionnaire was assessed. The study population included drug addicts after withdrawal. The sampling method was available sampling and random assignment. Thirty people who had higher emotional reactions were randomly selected and divided into two test (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. For the test group, a stress management skill training course was held in twelve 90-minute sessions, but the control group received no intervention. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-19 software with analysis of covariance. Results The results showed that stress management skill training has a significant effect on reducing emotional reactions (P < 0.01). It was noted that after 2 months test group follow-up, stress management training has retained its effect. Conclusion Apparently, training addicts about life skills, particularly stress management seems to be a good idea.

Habibi, Zahra; Tourani, Somayeh; Sadeghi, Hasan; Abolghasemi, Abbass

2013-01-01

31

Refuse burning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with

Lientz

1983-01-01

32

Drug Abuse Prevention Among Minority Adolescents: Posttest and One-Year Follow-Up of a School-Based Preventive Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most drug abuse prevention research has been conducted with predominantly White middle- class adolescent populations. The present study tested a school-based drug abuse preventive intervention in a sample of predominantly minority students (ND 3,621) in 29 New York City schools. The prevention program taught drug refusal skills, antidrug norms, personal self-management skills, and general social skills in an effort to

Gilbert J. Botvin; Kenneth W. Griffin; Tracy Diaz; Michelle Ifill-Williams

2001-01-01

33

Drug Abuse Prevention Among Minority Adolescents: Posttest and One-Year Follow-Up of a School-Based Preventive Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most drug abuse prevention research has been conducted with predominantly White middle-class adolescent populations. The present study tested a school-based drug abuse preventive intervention in a sample of predominantly minority students (N = 3,621) in 29 New York City schools. The prevention program taught drug refusal skills, antidrug norms, personal self-management skills, and general social skills in an effort to

Gilbert J. Botvin; Kenneth W. Griffin; Tracy Diaz; Michelle Ifill-Williams

2001-01-01

34

Effect of Life Skills Training on Drug Abuse Preventive Behaviors among University Students  

PubMed Central

Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected through quota random sampling and assigned randomly into two Intervention and control groups. Data were collected through a questionnaire, including two sections of demographic information and drug abuse preventive behaviors. The questionnaire was first assessed as to its validity and reliability and then administered both before and after educational intervention and also as a follow-up 4 years after intervention – Data were then analyzed using t-tests and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of post-test mean scores of drug abuse preventive behaviors of both groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) which remained stable 4 years after intervention. There was a significant relationship between father's educational level and drug abuse preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Life skills’ training is effective in the promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors of university students.

Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh

2014-01-01

35

Oregon Driver Education. Alcohol/Drugs and Driving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit contains 10 modules, to be used in 10 driver education class sessions, on driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs (DUI). The unit aims to combat the Oregon DUI problem, especially among 15- to 24-year-olds, with values clarification, awareness of risk factors and personal boundaries, refusal skills, social…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Curriculum and School Improvement.

36

Refuse Management in Developing Nations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is directed toward planning and organizing the collection and disposal of refuse in developing nations. The report describes various methods of collection such as bulk bins and household refuse, types of equipment used and the costs for e...

J. Thompson

1981-01-01

37

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0...TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS...verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of...

2013-10-01

38

Refuse burning process and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200* F., especially 700* F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere; a burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and

Lientz

1982-01-01

39

Refusing to Provide Health Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Almost every state has a policy explicitly allowing some health care professionals or certain institutions to refuse to provide or participate in abortion, contraceptive services or sterilization services. Even in states without explicit refusal statutes, an individual health care professional's actions may be legally protected by statutes prohibiting discrimination against employees, based on their religious objections. While some of

2010-01-01

40

Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity  

PubMed Central

Background Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. Methods This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST) drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Results Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers), ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence). Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage). Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery) were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness). Conclusion Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that organizations should consider to ensure fidelity, such as selecting programs with features that minimize complexity while maximizing flexibility. Time constraints in the classroom should be considered when choosing a program. Student behavior also influences program delivery, so schools should train teachers in the use of classroom management skills. This project involved comprehensive program monitoring and technical assistance that likely facilitated the identification and resolution of problems and contributed to the overall high quality of implementation. Schools should recognize the importance of training and technical assistance to ensure quality program delivery.

Mihalic, Sharon F; Fagan, Abigail A; Argamaso, Susanne

2008-01-01

41

Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested the effectiveness of 2 alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs among inner-city minority 7th-grade students (N = 639) from 6 New York City public schools. Schools were randomly assigned to receive (a) a generic skills training preven- tion approach, (b) a culturally focused prevention approach, or (c) an information-only control. Results indicate that students in both prevention

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz

1994-01-01

42

Effectiveness of Culturally Focused and Generic Skills Training Approaches to Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Among Minority Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested the effectiveness of 2 alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs among inner-city minority 7th-grade students (N = 639) from 6 New York City public schools. Schools were randomly assigned to receive (a) a generic skills training prevention approach, (b) a culturally focused prevention approach, or (c) an information-only control. Results indicate that students in both prevention approaches

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz

1994-01-01

43

Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilization was identified using both electronic medical record and insurance claims. Within the immunization registries of two HMOs in the study, some providers use refusal and medical contraindication interchangeably, and some providers tend to always use "ever refusal." Therefore, we combined medical contraindication and refusal together and treated them all as "refusal" in this study. Results The immunization registry, compared to chart review, had negative predictive values of 85–92% and 90–97% for 2- and 6-year olds, and positive predictive values of only 52–74% and 59–62% to identify vaccine refusals. Refusers were more likely to reside in well-educated, higher income areas than non-refusers. Refusers had not opted out of health care system and continued, although less frequently for the age 2 and under group, to use services. Conclusion Without enhancements to immunization registries, identifying children with immunization refusal would be time consuming. Since communities where refusers live are well educated, interventions should target these communities to communicate vaccine adverse events and consequences of vaccine preventable diseases.

Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

2009-01-01

44

The effect of additional teaching on medical students' drug administration skills in a simulated emergency scenario.  

PubMed

Medical students have difficulty calculating drug doses correctly, but better teaching improves their performance in written tests. We conducted a blinded, randomised, controlled trial to assess the benefit of online teaching on students' ability to administer drugs in a simulated critical incident scenario, during which they were scored on their ability to administer drugs in solution presented as a ratio (adrenaline) or percentage (lidocaine). Forty-eight final year medical students were invited to participate; 44 (92%) attended but only nine of the 20 students (45%) directed to the extra teaching viewed it. Nevertheless, the teaching module significantly improved the students' ability to calculate the correct volume of lidocaine (p = 0.005) and adrenaline (p = 0.0002), and benefited each student's overall performance (p = 0.0007). Drug administration error is a very major problem and few interventions are known to be effective. We show that focusing on better teaching at medical school may benefit patient safety. PMID:17090235

Degnan, B A; Murray, L J; Dunling, C P; Whittlestone, K D; Standley, T D A; Gupta, A K; Wheeler, D W

2006-12-01

45

The skill and style to model the evolution of resistance to pesticides and drugs  

PubMed Central

Resistance to pesticides and drugs led to the development of theoretical models aimed at identifying the main factors of resistance evolution and predicting the efficiency of resistance management strategies. We investigated the various ways in which the evolution of resistance has been modelled over the last three decades, by reviewing 187 articles published on models of the evolution of resistance to all major classes of pesticides and drugs. We found that (i) the technical properties of the model were most strongly influenced by the class of pesticide or drug and the target organism, (ii) the resistance management strategies studied were quite similar for the different classes of pesticides or drugs, except that the refuge strategy was mostly used in models of the evolution of resistance to insecticidal proteins, (iii) economic criteria were rarely used to evaluate the evolution of resistance and (iv) the influence of mutation, migration and drift on the speed of resistance development has been poorly investigated. We propose guidelines for the future development of theoretical models of the evolution of resistance. For instance, we stress the potential need to give more emphasis to the three evolutionary forces migration, mutation and genetic drift rather than simply selection.

2010-01-01

46

When pregnant patients refuse interventions.  

PubMed

Good communication between clinician and pregnant patients should avert most decision-making conflicts. Pregnant women may legitimately refuse prenatal screening procedures in view of the limited follow-up options. They also may choose alternatives to most standard obstetric interventions; clinical studies raise questions about the necessity of these interventions. A well-informed woman may refuse cesarean delivery in most situations: predictions of harm are highly uncertain, and she would be asked to accept risk and harm for the sake of another. However, in exceptional situations in which harm to the fetus is nearly certain and vaginal delivery also endangers the woman, the harm-to-others principle limits autonomy, and coercion may be ethically justifiable. PMID:8220374

Tauer, C A

1993-01-01

47

Comparison of the Effects of Cooperative Learning and Traditional Learning Methods on the Improvement of Drug-Dose Calculation Skills of Nursing Students Undergoing Internships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cooperative learning and traditional learning methods on the development of drug-calculation skills. Design: Final-year nursing students ("n" = 85) undergoing internships during the 2010-2011 academic year at a nursing school constituted the study group of this…

Basak, Tulay; Yildiz, Dilek

2014-01-01

48

The Space Station integrated refuse management system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Central Florida's design of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station is addressed. Four integratable subsystems capable of handling an estimated Orbiter shortfall of nearly 40,000 lbs of refuse produced annually are discussed. The subsystems investigated were: (1) collection and transfer; (2) recycle and reuse; (3) advanced disposal; and (4) propulsion assist in disposal. Emphasis is placed on the recycling or reuse of those materials ultimately providing a source of Space Station refuse. Special consideration is given to various disposal methods capable of completely removing refuse from close proximity of the Space Station. There is evidence that pyrolysis is the optimal solution for disposal of refuse through employment of a Rocket Jettison Vehicle. Additionally, design considerations and specifications of the Refuse Management System are discussed. Optimal and alternate design solutions for each of the four subsystems are summarized. Finally, the system configuration is described and reviewed.

1988-01-01

49

Solid waste as refuse-derived fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe and the Far East have been using refuse-to-energy plants to power turbine generators in the production of electricity. If the U.S. would convert the total municipal refuse to energy at normal efficiency, 6% of the total U.S. electric production could be produced. Pelletized solid waste (refuse-derived fuel (RDF)) can be mixed with coal and burned in existing industrial spreader

R. F. Rolsten; L. Glaspell; J. P. Waltz

1977-01-01

50

Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel  

DOEpatents

A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

Daugherty, Kenneth E. (Lewisville, TX) [Lewisville, TX; Venables, Barney J. (Denton, TX) [Denton, TX; Ohlsson, Oscar O. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

1996-01-01

51

Evaluation of anthracite refuse as a highway construction material  

Microsoft Academic Search

If anthracite refuse could be used as a material for road construction, the building costs of roads in this area could be reduced while at the same time removing the unhealthy, unsightly refuse piles. A raw refuse and two beneficiated refuse samples, all from the same anthracite refuse source, were submitted to the Pennsylvania Department of Highways for testing. The

P. T. Luckie; J. W. Peters; T. S. Spicer

1966-01-01

52

21 CFR 515.25 - Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending or...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on...

2013-04-01

53

Pennsylvania anthracite refuse: a literature survey on chemical elements in coal and coal refuse. [245 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following literature survey, based on available published materials, concerns the common and rare chemical elements found in, or associated with, coal and coal refuse. The main purpose was to obtain information concerning the composition of anthracite coal refuse to determine the possibility of extracting marketable products, and thereby facilitate the disposal of anthracite coal refuse. The majority of chemical

S. C. Sun; H. Vasquez-Rosas; D. Augenstein

1971-01-01

54

Identification and assessment of secondary refuse aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary refuse contains a wealth of information on the people who generated it. This article identifies some means by which archaeologists can identify and characterize secondary refuse aggregates — localized, high-density deposits of artifacts that have been discarded away from their place of use. A variety of studies of archaeological deposits — from prehistoric and historical archaeology, ethnoarchaeology, and modern

Douglas C. Wilson

1994-01-01

55

Study of Sulfur Recovery from Coal Refuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During coal preparation, a coal refuse of no commercial value is produced and discarded in piles. As rainfall percolates through the piles, acid waters are formed. A feasibility study has been performed on a process producing sulfur from such coal refuse....

P. J. LaRosa H. J. Michaels

1971-01-01

56

The space station integrated refuse management system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

Anderson, Loren A.

1988-01-01

57

Caregivers Who Refuse Preventive Care for Their Children: The Relationship Between Immunization and Topical Fluoride Refusal  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine caregivers’ refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Methods. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Results. The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR?=?1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.32, 1.96; P?refuse both immunizations and topical fluoride (P?refusal of immunizations is associated with topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children.

2014-01-01

58

Caregivers who refuse preventive care for their children: the relationship between immunization and topical fluoride refusal.  

PubMed

Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine caregivers' refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Methods. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Results. The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR?=?1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.32, 1.96; P?refuse both immunizations and topical fluoride (P?refusal of immunizations is associated with topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children. PMID:24832428

Chi, Donald L

2014-07-01

59

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 306. Informed refusal.  

PubMed

Informed refusal is a fundamental component of the informed consent process. Informed consent laws have evolved to the "materiality or patient viewpoint" standard. A physician must disclose to the patient the risks, benefits, and alternatives that a reasonable person in the patient's position would want to know to make an informed decision. Throughout this process, the patient's autonomy, level of health literacy, and cultural background should be respected. The subsequent election by the patient to forgo an intervention that has been recommended by the physician constitutes informed refusal. Documentation of the informed refusal process is essential. It should include a notation that the need for the intervention, as well as risks, benefits, and alternatives to the intervention, and possible consequences of refusal, have been explained. The patient's reason for refusal also should be documented. PMID:15572515

2004-12-01

60

Patients' refusal to participate in clinical research.  

PubMed

The number of protocol-eligible patients, refusing to participate in a clinical trial is often not mentioned. The aim of this study is to report the number of refusers and to evaluate the reasons for not participating in a clinical study concerning post-operative pain relief and to assess the potential influence on the final study results. Patients refusing to participate in the study were recorded and evaluated for reasons of refusal. The post-operative pain relief techniques applied in this trial are commonly used, but nevertheless the refusal rate was higher than expected. When it was mentioned that an epidural technique was a part of the trial, 16.7% of the total protocol-eligible group refused. The responses of those offered an epidural could be divided into two groups: the adamant pros and cons to this technique. It can be concluded that in order to be able to judge the validity of results and thus for good clinical practice, the number of patients refusing to participate in a clinical trial and their reasons, should be mentioned in all publications. PMID:9202915

van den Berg, L; Lobatto, R M; Zuurmond, W W; de Lange, J J; Wagemans, M F; Bezemer, P D

1997-05-01

61

Leachate recirculation between alternating aged refuse bioreactors and its effect on refuse decomposition.  

PubMed

In a sequencing batch bioreactor landfill system which combined a fresh and an aged refuse bioreactor, blockage occurred frequently in the aged refuse bioreactor during the treatment of leachate from the fresh refuse bioreactor. To overcome this problem, another aged refuse bioreactor was added, when blockage occurred, the two aged refuse bioreactor operated alternatively. A fresh refuse bioreactor F combined with two alternating aged refuse bioreactors A1 and A2 was called alternate recirculation process (ARP) in this study. The bioreactor system was operated in three stages, and the three bioreactors were exposed to air to facilitate surface re-aeration. The effect of the ARP on the accelerated degradation of fresh refuse was compared before and after blockage occurs in A1. The results indicated that ARP can improve the leachate production rate. The average daily net production rates of leachate in Stages 2 and 3 were approximately 2.1 and 1.6 mL (kgrefuse d)(-1), respectively, which exceeded that of Stage 1 (1.3 mL (kg refuse d)(-1)). The chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N concentrations of the leachate from Stage 1 are 1000 and 25mgL(-1) after 2.1 and 2.7 y, respectively. For Stages 2 and 3, these concentrations reach approximately after 0.877 and 1.3 y. Faster refuse settlement was observed in Stages 2 and 3, with an average daily settlement of approximately 0.11%, as compared with Stage 1 (approximately 0.099%). ARP can accelerate the biodegradation of the fresh refuse and overcome the problem of the blockage in the aged refuse reactor. PMID:24645462

Sun, Xiaojie; Sun, Yingjie; Zhao, Youcai; Wang, Ya-Nan

2014-01-01

62

Composted Municipal Refuse as a Soil Amendment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Processed residential refuse from four municipal composting plants was evaluated as a source of plant nutrients and as a soil amendment. Indicator plants were turnip, pearl millet, cranberry beans, tomato, and sorghum. Three of the composts used were high...

C. C. Hortenstine D. F. Rothwell

1973-01-01

63

Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

Brooks, J.

2012-12-01

64

Control system design refuse to energy plants  

SciTech Connect

Present day Resource Recovery Facilities (RRF) are designed to generate electricity, much as a power plant does. The primary purpose of a Resource Recovery Facility is to dispose of refuse (usually municipal garbage); however, the primary purpose of a power plant is to generate electricity. For an RRF to be profitable, the refuse must be burned efficiently and the steam generated must be sold or used to generate electricity for sale to the local electrical utility. This paper discusses the control of Mass Burn RRFs designed by Ogden Martin, using the proprietary Martin GmbH technologic.

Ahluwalia, K. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)); Nicolau, T. (Ogden Martin Systems Inc., Fairfield, NJ (US))

1991-01-01

65

Tenement Refuse Disposal Systems and Artificial Illumination of Communal Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Tenement refuse disposal systems--Installation of refuse systems in existing buildings, Packer-type system, Large-capacity cart system; Incinerators--Air pollutants, Major components of air pollutants, Incineration in rehabilitated tenement buil...

1967-01-01

66

21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be disposed of in a safe and sanitary...

2013-04-01

67

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.806 Animals refused entry. Any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir refused entry into...

2010-01-01

68

Applied statistical approach to refuse composition sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross composition, ultimate analysis and HHV (higher heating value) determinations were made on 29 samples of refuse in San Diego County in preparation for the San Diego Energy Recovery (SANDER) Facility. In response to California Air Resources Board requirement for air permitting, elemental analyses were performed on all samples by atomic absorption. Results are examined for standard deviation, variance, percent

Trinklein

1982-01-01

69

Pyrolysis kinetics of refuse-derived fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was mechanically separated from municipal solid waste (MSW) in a 300 TPD (tons per day) waste pretreatment plant. Pyrolysis of the RDF produced approximately 28% of oils, and 30% of noncondensible hydrocarbon gases and 42% of solid residues at 773 K. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were used in quantitative prediction of the RDF pyrolysis rate. The

Kuen-Song Lin; H. Paul Wang; S.-H Liu; Ni-Bin Chang; Y.-J Huang; H.-C Wang

1999-01-01

70

Hydrolytic enzyme activity in landfilled refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity was assayed in 28 refuse samples excavated from 14 bore holes in Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island, N. Y. Esterases, proteases and amylases were present in all of the samples. Enzyme screening assays utilizing the API-ZYM test system showed the incidence of enzymes in the order: specific phosphatases > esterases > glycosyl hydrolases. Measurement of cellulase

A. C. Palmisano; B. S. Schwab; D. A. Maruscik

1993-01-01

71

Cost Savings of Contracting Out Refuse Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the possible cost savings of contractingout refuse collection in the Netherlands. Our findings indicate that similar to foreigneconometric studies cost savings ofapproximately 15–20% apply to the Netherlands.Moreover, compared with the existing literature we show thatdifferent production technologies apply to internal municipal waste collection units and externalrefuse collection firms. Different cost functions have to be estimated for the

E. Dijkgraaf; R. H. J. M. Gradus

2003-01-01

72

ROMA: Improving Refuse Collection Routes, Management Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ROMA computer package is a planning tool which aids sanitation managers and their staffs to plan daily refuse collection districts and routes which will result in more efficient use of manpower and equipment. It permits the simulated testing of contem...

1979-01-01

73

School Refusal Behavior: Prevalence, Characteristics, and the Schools' Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 288 elementary and secondary North Dakota schools found 75% had a school refusal behavior (SRB) identification system in place, 57% had a school psychologist available, principals were most frequently responsible for identifying school refusers, 2.3% of students were identified as school refusers of which 49% falsely claimed illness,…

Stickney, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

1998-01-01

74

Utilization of coal refuse for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to study the relationship between the washability fractions of coal refuse and the quality of lightweight aggregate products prepared from such refuse. Three samples of current refuse, each weighing three thousand pounds, were collected from preparation plant tipples. Products of sink-float separations were individually crushed to 100% minus 60 mesh and recombined into ten

R. W. Utley; H. L. Lovell; T. S. Spicer

1964-01-01

75

25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6...District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation...

2011-04-01

76

25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23...Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to any landowner in the event of...

2011-04-01

77

The Right to Refuse: A Pharmacist's Right or Abandonment? By  

Microsoft Academic Search

What rights do pharmacists have? In particular, do pharmacists have the right to refuse to dispense medications on the grounds of religious and moral objections? If pharmacists do refuse to fill certain medications, are they abandoning the patient? These are burning questions in the field of pharmacy. In the recent years an important debate has surfaced regarding pharmacists refusing to

Katri A. Abraham

78

28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal...refusal to assign must be documented by a memorandum to the unit team listing reasons for the refusal, with a copy to the...

2010-07-01

79

Refuse derived fuel and a process for the production thereof  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject invention pertains to a novel refuse derived fuel comprising a mixture of solid refuse, fly ash and a binder and to a process for its production. In a further embodiment of the invention, the novel refuse derived fuel includes coal fines as an additional component.

E. W. Blaustein; E. J. Patton

1983-01-01

80

Refuse derived fuel and a process for the production thereof  

SciTech Connect

The subject invention pertains to a novel refuse derived fuel comprising a mixture of solid refuse, fly ash and a binder and to a process for its production. In a further embodiment of the invention, the novel refuse derived fuel includes coal fines as an additional component.

Blaustein, E.W.; Patton, E.J.

1983-09-20

81

Estimates of Intragroup Dependence for Drug Use and Skill Measures in School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Trials: An Empirical Study of Three Independent Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group-randomized drug abuse prevention trials customarily designate schools as the unit of assignment to experimental condition; however, students within schools remain the unit of observation. Students nested within schools may show some resemblance based on common (peer) selection or school climate factors (i.e., disciplinary practices, group norms, or rules). Appropriate analyses of any treatment effects must be statistically correct for

Lawrence M. Scheier; Kenneth W. Griffin; Margaret M. Doyle; Gilbert J. Botvin

2002-01-01

82

Training in Evaluation Skills for Drug Treatment and Drug Prevention Professionals in the Commonwealth Caribbean: How Do Non-Governmental and Statutory Services Compare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean there has been a dramatic expansion in drug demand reduction (DDR) programmes over the past decade. Often drawing on models originating in the countries providing the funding in North America or Europe, these activities have often been inadequately monitored and rarely evaluated. The absence of…

Klein, Axel; Day, Marcus

2006-01-01

83

D.A.R.E.-ing To Be Different? A Drug Prevention and Life Skills Education Programme for Primary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the development of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE), particularly in the United Kingdom, and explores the added value of DARE for children, schools, teachers, and the community. Considers the development of DARE in terms of curriculum review to optimize DARE in accordance with current best practice guidance. (Author/KB)

Griffith, John S.

1999-01-01

84

Refuse-to-energy is not dead  

SciTech Connect

As noted in this paper, GAA (Government Advisory Associates) recently completed its fourth national survey of the refuse-to-energy business in the U.S. A total of 368 facilities were examined in all stages of project development. Contrary to the opinion of some doomsayers, refuse-to-energy in the U.S. is still a growing industry. Nevertheless, there has been some retrenchment in the past year due to political and environmental concerns, some legitimate and others unfounded. There are currently significant uncertainties in federal and state regulatory policies regarding air emissions and ash disposal which have led a number of private and public developers to hold off on planned new facilities. In any event, the long-term outlook for the industry is good, given the few disposal options available for solid waste planners faced with rising landfill costs and the prospect of few new landfills being sited.

Gould, R.N.

1988-11-01

85

Applied statistical approach to refuse composition sampling  

SciTech Connect

Gross composition, ultimate analysis and HHV (higher heating value) determinations were made on 29 samples of refuse in San Diego County in preparation for the San Diego Energy Recovery (SANDER) Facility. In response to California Air Resources Board requirement for air permitting, elemental analyses were performed on all samples by atomic absorption. Results are examined for standard deviation, variance, percent confidence, and precision. 3 refs.

Trinklein, B.J.

1982-01-01

86

Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains.  

PubMed

Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study, combustion properties of refuse from passenger train samples and the mixture of refuse with coal were studied in a tube furnace. Thermo analysis methods, such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analyses were employed to evaluate combustion performance. We found that the mixture of passenger train refuse and coal at a ratio of 1:1 has a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Moreover, refuse from railway passenger trains has more reactive combustion properties than the coal-only sample, and the addition of railway passenger train refuse to coal can promote the reactivity of coal. PMID:20093000

Fu-min, Ren; Feng, Yue; Ming, Gao; Min, Yu

2010-07-01

87

Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.  

PubMed

Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. PMID:23445457

Marsh, Jason

2014-07-01

88

Pennsylvania anthracite refuse, a literature survey on chemical elements in coal and coal refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and forty-five articles concerning common and rare chemical elements found in, or associated with, coal and coal refuse are discussed using a text type format in which the 46 elements known to occur in the ashes of coal are presented on an element by element basis. As each element is discussed, the techniques and conclusions of various authors

S. C. Sun; H. Vasquez-Rosas; D. Augenstein

1971-01-01

89

Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

1984-01-01

90

Skill Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

Holdsworth, Tom

2007-01-01

91

Systems Evaluation of Refuse as a Low Sulfur Fuel. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fuel properties of refuse and the mechanics and combustion technology associated with the utilization of refuse as a fuel in generating utility grade steam were systematically assessed. By estimating the inventories and compositions of refuse that wou...

R. M. Roberts R. E. Sommerlad A. P. Konopka S. T. Braunheim R. C. Hanson

1971-01-01

92

42 CFR 493.567 - Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. 493.567 Section 493...493.567 Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. (a) Laboratory with...accreditation that refuses to cooperate with a validation inspection by failing to comply with...

2013-10-01

93

Patients refused admission to psychiatric hospitals in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In The Netherlands unforeseen and unwanted effects of the “de jure” policy of the government are outpatient waiting lists and refusal of applications for admission to mental hospitals. A register of applications of six mental hospitals in the northern part of The Netherlands reveals that there are significant differences between admitted and refused patients with regard to juridical status,

O. H. Brook

1990-01-01

94

Maturing process of city refuse compost during piling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maturing process of city refuse compost produced in a composting factory was characterized. During the piling of city refuse compost, the temperature in a windrow rose rapidly to 70–80°C, and then dropped, but rose again within a few hours by turning. This pattern was repeated even after the organic composition of the compost had become almost constant. The total

Yasuo Harada; Akio Inoko; Masayuki Tadaki; Toshihiko Izawa

1981-01-01

95

Design of non-woven geotextiles for coal refuse filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents research findings on grain size distribution changes of coal refuse affecting the design of non-woven geotextiles used as filters in rock drains at coal waste impoundments. The research involved performing hydraulic conductivity tests on refuse – geotextile filters followed by grain size distribution tests. Data was evaluated for geotextile filter retention, permittivity, and clogging potential requirements as

John D. Quaranta; Rajesh Tolikonda

96

Metapragmatic Judgment on Refusals: Its Reliability and Consistency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated 42 native English-speakers' (NSs) perceptions of the pragmatic appropriateness of refusal statements. The NSs rated the appropriateness of 24 written statements in 4 different refusal scenarios, which were collected from both native speakers and non-native speakers. Four weeks later, as a reliability check, the subjects rated…

Chen, H. Julie

97

School Refusal: Assessment and Intervention within School Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety-based school refusal occurs in 2% of school-age children. The reasons why they refuse to go school range from mental illness and learning problems to general defiance and a desire for attention. Early identification and multi-faceted assessment and interventions are critical to addressing the problem. This book offers concise, practical…

Wimmer, Mary B.

98

Method of treating coal refuse. [Product of saleable elemental S  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for treating coal refuse containing pyrites and ash to produce usable products therefrom. The coal refuse is mixed with lime or limestone, formed into pellets and heated to form pellets containing calcium sulfide. The pellets are then reacted with carbon dioxide and water to form hydrogen sulfide and a calcium carbonate bonded coherent product which may

E. A. Pelczarski; J. A. Karnavas; P. J. La Rosa

1975-01-01

99

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01

100

Coal and the Environment Abstract Series. Bibliography on Disposal of Refuse from Coal Mines and Coal Cleaning Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subjects covered in this bibliography include the analysis and characterization of coal refuse; various methods of handling, storing, and disposing of coal refuse; the environmental problems such as refuse drainage quality and combustion of refuse pil...

V. E. Gleason R. D. Hill

1978-01-01

101

Organ donation: a portrait of family refusal in Québec.  

PubMed

Many studies from around the world have reported different reasons why families refuse organ donation. In Quebec, however, there are no known data on the subject. To enable us to better communicate with families, a research project was conducted from January to December 2007 in hospital centers with personnel who specialize in supporting families. Our objective was to identify the reasons why Quebecers refuse a request for organ donation. The findings demonstrate that knowing the express wishes of the deceased person about organ donation and end-of-life treatment influences the family. When these wishes are not known, the partners of older donors refuse in greater numbers, primarily for familial or circumstantial reasons. Refusal based on religion or ethnicity is rare. Some families approached before neurologic death is diagnosed do not wish to wait until all the criteria for neurologic death are met. PMID:19857730

Baran, D; Langevin, S; Lebeau, C

2009-10-01

102

25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

2013-04-01

103

25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

2013-04-01

104

9 CFR 381.21 - Refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Refusal of inspection. 381.21 Section 381.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

105

Understanding Partnerships: A Rural College's Role in Recycling Refuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the partnership that was formed by a county government, three city governments, Weyerhaeuser Company, and Cossatot Technical College in Arkansas to solve the refuse problem when the local landfill closed. (JOW)

Adams, Frank G.

2000-01-01

106

Environmental Health Planning Guide. Air Pollution. Sewerage, Water, Housing. Refuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today the explosive population growth and the continued concentration of people, production and services in metropolitan areas are making the environmental health problems still more complex and difficult. Polluted water and air, open refuse dumps, substa...

1973-01-01

107

9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section 98.20...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or...

2009-01-01

108

9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98.9...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and...

2010-01-01

109

9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section 98.20...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or...

2010-01-01

110

9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98.9...ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and...

2009-01-01

111

7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions...refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than honeybees imported into the...

2010-01-01

112

Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof [Institute of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, Agicolastrasse 4, 38 678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2009-04-15

113

Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: Two-year follow-up results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-year follow-up data (from inner-city, minority adolescents) were collected to test the effectiveness of 2 skills-based substance abuse prevention programs and were compared both with a control condition and with each other. Students were originally recruited from 6 New York City public schools while in 7th grade. Schools were matched and assigned to receive a generic skills training prevention approach,

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz; Elizabeth M. Botvin

1995-01-01

114

Effectiveness of Culturally Focused and Generic Skills Training Approaches to Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Among Minority Adolescents: Two-Year Follow-Up Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-year follow-up data (from inner-city, minority adolescents) were collected to test the effectiveness of 2 skills-based substance abuse prevention programs and were compared both with a control condition and with each other. Students were originally recruited from 6 New York City public schools while in 7th grade. Schools were matched and assigned to receive a generic skills training prevention approach,

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz; Elizabeth M. Botvin

1995-01-01

115

Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

Shea, S.

2011-09-01

116

Apparent availability of nitrogen in composted municipal refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of composted municipal refuse on agricultural land requires prior knowledge of the interactions among compost, soil, and plants. Research into the availability of N in highly matured municipal refuse compost is particularly important considering the current concern about groundwater contamination by NOinf3sup--N. A greenhouse pot bioassay was conducted to determine the percentage of short-term apparent bioavailable N of

E. Iglesias-Jimenez; C. E. Alvarez

1993-01-01

117

Patients' Refusal of Surgery Strongly Impairs Breast Cancer Survival  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare patient and tumor characteristics and survival between women who refused and women who accepted surgery for breast cancer. Summary Background Data: Surgery represents the central component of curative breast cancer treatment, but some women decide not to undergo surgery. Recent studies on the prognosis of non operated breast cancer are nonexistent. Patients and Methods: This study included all 5339 patients aged < 80 years with nonmetastatic breast cancer recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1975 and 2000. We consulted the clinical files of all nonoperated women to identify those who refused surgery. Patients who refused surgery were compared with those accepting surgery using logistic regression. The effect of refusal of surgery on breast cancer mortality was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: Seventy patients (1.3%) refused surgery. These women were older, more frequently single, and had larger tumors. Overall, 37 (53%) women had no treatment, 25 (36%) hormone-therapy alone, and 8 (11%) other adjuvant treatments alone or in combination. Five-year specific breast cancer survival of women who refused surgery was lower than that of those who accepted (72%, 95% confidence interval, 60%–84% versus 87%, 95% confidence interval, 86%–88%, respectively). After accounting for other prognostic factors including tumor characteristics and stage, women who refused surgery had a 2.1-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.5–3.1) increased risk to die of breast cancer compared with operated women. Conclusions: Women who refuse surgery for breast cancer have a strongly impaired survival. This information might help patients who are hesitant toward surgery make a better informed decision.

Verkooijen, Helena M.; Fioretta, Gerald M.; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Bonnefoi, Herve; Vlastos, Georges; Kurtz, John; Schaefer, Peter; Sappino, Andre-Pascal; Schubert, Hyma; Bouchardy, Christine

2005-01-01

118

Processed municipal refuse: a fuel for small power plant boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the US Environmental Potection Agency (EPA)'s brief but successful tests of co-firing mixtures of refuse and crushed-coal fuel in a small, 150,000 lb steam\\/hr, 12.5 megawatt municipal light plant boiler of the spreader stoker-traveling grate type at Columbus. This project has performed a series of 8-hour instrumented research burns wherein the refuse provided from 15 to 35

Oberacker

1976-01-01

119

Bio-hydrogen production from food waste and sewage sludge in the presence of aged refuse excavated from refuse landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the aged refuse (AR) excavated from a typical refuse landfill with over 10 years of placement was used for the enhancement of bio-hydrogen production from food wastes. Firstly, the food wastes taken from a university dining hall were inoculated with sewage sludge (SL) pre-treated by 15min heating at 80°C. It was found that below 0.4% of hydrogen

Ming Li; Youcai Zhao; Qiang Guo; Xiaoqing Qian; Dongjie Niu

2008-01-01

120

Behavioral assessment and treatment of chronic food refusal in handicapped children.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the eating behavior of four handicapped children, none of whom exhibited self-feeding skills. All children had a history of food refusal and were nutritionally at risk; one child received all nourishment by way of gastrostomy tube. Baseline data taken during mealtimes indicated that all children accepted very little food, expelled food frequently, and engaged in a number of disruptive behaviors. Treatments consisted of one or more of the following contingent events: social praise, access to preferred foods, brief periods of toy play, and forced feeding. Results of multiple-baseline and reversal designs showed marked behavioral improvement for each child and increases in the amount of food consumed. Further improvements were noted at follow-up, which ranged from 7 to 30 months posttreatment.

Riordan, M M; Iwata, B A; Finney, J W; Wohl, M K; Stanley, A E

1984-01-01

121

Drug Use and Spending for Medicare Beneficiaries During Part A Qualifying Skilled Nursing Facility Stays and Non-Qualifying Long-Term Care Facility Stays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This policy brief has three aims. The first is to characterize Medicare-qualified skilled nursing facility (SNF) stays in relation to other episodes of long-term institutional care that beneficiaries may experience. 'Routine' Long-term care (LTCF) is not ...

B. Stuart L. Simoni-Wastila T. Shaffer

2007-01-01

122

False belief and the refusal of medical treatment.  

PubMed Central

May a doctor treat a patient, despite that patient's refusal, when in his professional opinion treatment is necessary? This is the dilemma which must from time to time confront most physicians. An examination of the validity of such a refusal is provided by the present authors who use the case history of a patient refusing treatment, for cancer as well as for a fractured hip, to evaluate the grounds for intervention in such circumstances. In such a situation the patient is said to have a 'false belief' and it is the doctor's duty to try to change that belief in the patient's interest. The false belief is considered here in terms of the liberty principle, the patient's mental competence and on what is called the 'harm principle' (harm to other individuals or to society). Finally the concept of paternalism is examined. The authors conclude that the doctor must attempt to change a false belief, and if this fails he must examine the patient's mental competence to make the decision to refuse treatment. But in the last analysis the doctor may be under an obligation to respect the patient's refusal. Readers might like to look at (or read again) the papers on 'Liberty' and 'Conscience' published in this Journal under the heading Analysis.

Faden, R; Faden, A

1977-01-01

123

Vaccine refusal and the endgame: walking the last mile first.  

PubMed

As multiple papers within this special issue illustrate, the dynamics of disease eradication are different from disease control. When it comes to disease eradication, 'the last mile is longest'. For social and ecological reasons such as vaccine refusal, further ending incidence of a disease when it has reached low levels is frequently complex. Issues of non-compliance within a target population often influence the outcome of disease eradication efforts. Past eradication efforts confronted such obstacles towards the tail end of the campaign, when disease incidence was lowest. This article provides a comparison of non-compliance within polio, measles and smallpox campaigns, demonstrating the tendency of vaccine refusal to rise as disease incidence falls. In order to overcome one of the most intractable challenges to eradication, future disease eradication efforts must prioritize vaccine refusal from the start, i.e. 'walk the last mile first'. PMID:23798696

Saint-Victor, Diane S; Omer, Saad B

2013-08-01

124

Distributed control system application to industrial refuse-burning plants  

SciTech Connect

Use of a Distributed Control System (DCS) for controlling cogeneration, refuse-burning, and other industrial plants has become standard industry practice in recent years. DCS's, originally designed to accommodate large facilities such as refineries, petrochemical, and power plants, are now available in small enough sizes and with low enough costs to justify their use in most industrial plants. This paper addresses the application of DCS's to industrial refuse-burning (waste-to-energy) plants designed by Ogden Martin System, Inc. (Ogden Martin), using the proprietary martin GmbH technology.

Ahluwalia, K. (Control Systems Div., New York Office, Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (US)); Nicolau, T. (Ogden Martin System, Inc. (US))

1992-01-01

125

Energy generation and resources recovery from refuse incineration  

SciTech Connect

Refuse incineration plants with energy recovery have been successfully operated in a developing country. Waste heat recovered from the boilers can be used to generate electricity: 155 kwh of electricity could be generated for every tonne of refuse incinerated. The revenue collected from the electricity and scrap iron recovered from the incineration plant could offset the annual operating cost of the plant. After incineration, about 20% by weight of residues and ash are produced. Physical and chemical properties of the incinerator residue fractions passing 5-mm sieve are analyzed. The incinerator residues after washing could be used as fine aggregate in concrete mixing.

Tay, J.H.

1988-12-01

126

Psychosocial Interventions for School Refusal Behavior in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for school refusal behavior. Data corresponding to eight experimental single-case and seven group-design studies are presented. Across studies, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments emerged as promising lines of intervention. These interventions produced improvements in school attendance and youths’symptom levels (e.g., anxiety, fear, depression, anger) based on this study’s examination of effect sizes. The article concludes with suggestions for interventionists, researchers, and policymakers attempting to deal with the problem of school refusal.

Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Ortiz, Claudio D.

2009-01-01

127

Sharing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

Mealy, Virginia; And Others

1987-01-01

128

37 CFR 211.7 - Reconsideration procedure for refusals to register.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...refusals to register. 211.7 Section 211.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.7 Reconsideration procedure for refusals...

2013-07-01

129

29 CFR 1977.22 - Employee refusal to comply with safety rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Some Specific Subjects § 1977.22 Employee refusal to comply with safety rules. Employees who refuse to comply...

2013-07-01

130

The Coping Mechanisms of Children with School Refusal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 17 children (ages 12-15) who had established school refusal found the children's individual protective factors were weakened (particularly around peers), and parents' own difficulties not only reduced the family as a source of protection but exerted an actual drain upon already reduced coping resources. (Contains references.) (CR)

Place, Maurice; Hulsmeier, Jessica; Davis, Sue; Taylor, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

131

Combustion of refuse-derived fuel in a fluidised bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a medium to maximise the resources recovery from municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution in industrialised countries. RDF is a value added material with a higher calorific value and a homogeneous particle size. The main objective of this study was to investigate the RDF combustion characteristics and the associated pollutant emissions in a

Francisco D. Hernandez-Atonal; Changkook Ryu; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

2007-01-01

132

Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.  

PubMed Central

The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assigned it by strong anti-paternalists. This weight is sufficient, in their estimation, to justify honouring the patient's refusal. There is thus a tension between the strong anti-paternalist's commitment to the sufficiency of autonomy and our intuitions respecting such cases. Attempts can be made to relieve this tension, such as arguing that patients aren't really rational in the circumstances envisaged, or that other values, such as privacy or bodily integrity, if added to autonomy, are sufficient to justify an anti-paternalistic stance. All such attempts fail, however. But what does not fail is the addition of religious freedom, freedom respecting a patient's religious beliefs and values. Why religious freedom reduces the tension is then explained, and the specialness of religious beliefs and values examined.

Wreen, M J

1991-01-01

133

Suicide Prevention for High-Risk Persons Who Refuse Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients (N=3,006) admitted to a psychiatric in-patient service because of a suicidal state were contacted to determine if post-discharge plans were followed. Half of those who refused treatment were contacted by telephone or letter on a set schedule. Evidence is that a high-risk population for suicide can be identified. (Author)

Motto, Jerome A.

1976-01-01

134

Pervasive refusal syndrome among asylum-seeking children.  

PubMed

A number of asylum-seeking children in Sweden have developed a pervasive loss of function associated with profound social withdrawal. The syndrome is called Depressive Devitalization. The aim of this study was to identify possible aetiological factors, outline the similarities between Depressive Devitalization and Pervasive Refusal Syndrome and to explore possible differential diagnoses. The research was based on a literature study. Databases searched included PsychINFO, Medline, Pub med, COCHRANE and PILOTS. Possible aetiological factors identified included: Children having a perfectionist, ambitious and conscientious premorbid personality, psychiatric problems of children and parents, and traumatic events. Symptoms between the two syndromes differed only in pattern of refusal and neurological symptoms. None of the differential diagnoses explored could account for all features. The individual impact of aetiological factors requires further investigation. Children might previously have been diagnosed with a number of differential diagnoses, though none of these accounts for all symptoms seen in the syndromes. Depressive Devitalization and Pervasive Refusal Syndrome are suggested to be subgroups of the same refusal syndrome. PMID:17080781

Von Folsach, Liv Lyngå; Montgomery, Edith

2006-07-01

135

An integrated approach for operational knowledge acquisition of refuse incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refuse incinerator operation poses a tremendous challenge for efficient supervision due to the highly complexity of physical and chemical mechanisms inside the systems. It is difficult to comprehend operational knowledge without thorough study and long-term on site experiments. Fortunately, many sensors are installed in incineration plants and tremendous amounts of raw data about daily practices and system states are recorded

Yang-chi Chang; Po-chuan Lai; Meng-tsung Lee

2007-01-01

136

Rawls and the Refusal of Medical Treatment to Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

That Jehovah's Witnesses cannot refuse life-saving blood transfusions on behalf of their children has acquired the status of virtual “consensus” among bioethicists. However strong the consensus may be on this matter, this article explores whether this view can be plausibly defended on liberal principles by examining it in light of one particularly well worked-out liberal political theory, that of Rawls.

D. Robert MacDougall

2010-01-01

137

Characterization of coal-mine refuse as backfilling material  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased production and more stringent regulations for air, water and ground pollution control, the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of coal-mine refuse is becoming ever more demanding. Backfilling may provide an environmentally acceptable method for the disposal of waste materials. Increased resource recovery, enhanced ventilation control, and minimizing surface subsidence, underground coal-mine fires and spontaneous combustion of coal are

M. G. Karfakis; C. H. Bowman; E. Topuz

1996-01-01

138

Treatment of Severe Feeding Refusal in Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of an inpatient multidisciplinary program for treatment of severe feeding refusal. Nineteen infants and toddlers recovering from medical and surgical disorders which had required non-oral feeding were studied. A modified method of rapid introduction of oral feedings resulted in conversion to…

Foy, Thomas; And Others

1997-01-01

139

Analysis of municipal refuse incinerator ashes for asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills can reduce nearby property values and result in groundwater pollution. Incineration of such refuse is therefore underway or being planned by many communities. A wide variety of material types comprise the combustible portion of MSW including paper, cardboard, wood, plastics, leather, rubber and textiles as well as food and yard wastes. Other classes of noncombustible

Kusum J. Patel-Mandlik; Charles G. Manos; Donald J. Lisk

1988-01-01

140

Leachate of fly ash derived from refuse incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

For highly urbanized cities where there is a scarcity of land available for landfilling, incineration of refuse is a feasible solution for solid waste disposal. After incineration, about 20% by weight of fly ash and other residues are produced and disposed of by landfill. Leachate tests carried out on samples of fly ash show that the heavy metal concentrations of

Tay Joo Hwa

1991-01-01

141

Recovery of useful materials from refuse fuel ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for treating the bottom ash residue resulting from burning a processed refuse fuel to recover metallic and other useful constituent materials from the ash residue. The method comprises: feeding a stream of the ash residue from a stock source thereof to a magnetic separation operation to remove at least the major part of any ferrous materials

R. J. Galgana; G. L. Sutin; M. Mc Nerney; P. F. Mahoney

1987-01-01

142

43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

2013-10-01

143

Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is

S. D. Zellmer; R. P. Carter

1977-01-01

144

A flotation study of refuse pond coal slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flotation behavior of a refuse pond fine coal slurry sample was studied using mechanical and column flotation techniques. Flotation parameters investigated included type and dosage of frother and collector, agitation speed, scrubbing time, slurry pH, etc. for the mechanical flotation cell, and air flow rate, feed flow rate, and wash water flow rate for the column flotation. Flotation kinetics

D. Tao; B. Li; S. Johnson; B. K. Parekh

2002-01-01

145

Reclamation of anthracite coal refuse using treated municipal wastewater and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the feasibility of using municipal sewage effluent and liquid digested sludge to facilitate the revegetation of anthracite mining refuse. Four boxes, 4 x 32 x 4 feet deep, were filled with anthracite coal refuse from a mining operation. The refuse was planted with eight species of trees, and seeded with eight species of both grasses and legumes.

W. E. Sopper; L. T. Kardos; L. E. DiLissio

1976-01-01

146

Removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from domestic wastewater using a mineralized refuse-based bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste used for landfill becomes stabilized, or aged, some years after placement, and can be safely excavated; the term ‘mineralized refuse’ is used in this study. The adsorptions of phosphorus, and the nitrification of the mineralized refuse and clay, were investigated by batch incubation. The variation of phosphorus adsorption in the mineralized refuse was fitted to the Freundlich

H. H. Zhang; J. S. Tian; Y. M. Zhang; Z. L. Wu; X. J. Kong; J. Y. Chao; Y. Hu; D. L. Li

2012-01-01

147

On some organic constituents of city refuse composts produced in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the research project “Improvement of composting process of municipal refuse and agricultural use of the product,” city refuse composts produced at various cities in Japan were collected and analysed to characterize their organic constituents. Besides these samples, city refuse composts, produced from the same raw materials in the pilot plant, were also analysed to clarify the changes

Akio Inoko; Kazuo Miyamatsu; Kazuo Sugahara; Yasuo Harada

1979-01-01

148

Reclamation of anthracite coal refuse using treated municipal wastewater and sludge. Research project technical completion report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the feasibility of using municipal sewage effluent and liquid digested sludge to facilitate the revegetation of antracite mining refuse. Four boxes, 4 x 32 x 4 feet deep, were filled with anthracite coal refuse from a mining operation. The refuse was planted with eight species of trees, and seeded with eight species of both grasses and legumes.

W. E. Sopper; L. T. Kardos; L. E. DiLissio

1975-01-01

149

When death is the outcome of informed refusal: Dilemma of rejecting ventricular assist device therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refusal of treatment can have fatal consequences for heart failure patients who could otherwise benefit from ventricular assist device therapy. Ethical dilemmas arise when treatment refusals seem based on unsound reasoning by patients. Using a clinical case from our medical center, we explored the complex ethical issues associated with patient refusal of ventricular assist device therapy due to the patient’s

Katrina A. Bramstedt; Patrick J. Nash

2005-01-01

150

Pennsylvania anthracite refuse: a summary of a literature survey on utilization and disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 484 square mile anthracite field in northeastern Pennsylvania is blighted with many unsightly refuse banks. A study has been made on the utilization and disposal potential of these nearly one billion tons of anthracite refuse. Chemical analysis of ashed anthracite refuse revealed small quantities of rare and trace elements. Larger quantities of silica, alumina and other elements were found

Spicer

1971-01-01

151

Model of leaching behavior from fly ash landfills with different age refuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model that accounts for simultaneous moisture movement and contaminant transport is developed to predict the leaching behavior from fly ash landfills with different age refuses. The approach is based on dividing the refuse layer into separate regions for each age refuse and solving model equations for each region. With the exception of boron in leachate of coal fly

Chiajim Huang; Chungsying Lu; Jauhwan Tzeng

1998-01-01

152

Growth of tree seedlings and use of amendments on bituminous refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of greenhouse experiments evaluated the response of tree seedlings planted on refuse from two abandoned banks and with amendments ranging from a soil covering to treatments for acidity and nutrient deficiencies. The treatments were based upon the results of analyses of the chemical and physical properties of the refuse. Although the refuse materials were predominantly coarse textured, the

G. W. Welsh; R. J. Hutnik

1972-01-01

153

Dispreferred Responses in Interlanguage Pragmatics Refusal Sequences in Learner-NS Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the pragmatic strategies that learners utilize to negotiate a resolution when refusing a native speaker of higher status in three asymmetric situations (+Power, +Distance). Following Pomerantz's (1984) analysis of dispreferred responses, this study focuses on refusals to an invitation, a request, and a suggestion. Refusal…

Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar

2009-01-01

154

Methane production from municipal refuse: A review of enhancement techniques and microbial dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane is recovered from about 100 municipal solid waste landfills in the U.S. in saleable volumes, although yields are 1 to 50% of the methane potential of refuse based on biodegradability data. Studies on the microbiology of refuse decomposition and efforts to enhance refuse methanogenesis are reviewed here. Results of studies on the effects of leachate recycle and neutralization, a

Morton A. Barlaz; Robert K. Ham; Daniel M. Schaefer; Ron Isaacson

1990-01-01

155

TIME-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSED REFUSE. PART IV: CONSOLIDATION OF MILLED REFUSE, VOLUME 1, VOLUME 2-APPENDIX  

EPA Science Inventory

A previously developed mathematical model for the prediction of the time-settlement behavior of a sanitary landfill of milled refuse, taking into account the effects of finite deformations, large creep strains, and biological and chemical decomposition of the material with accomp...

156

Library Technician Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

157

Best Practices in Prevention: A Curriculum on Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs, and Violence. Grades 6 and 7. Life Skills Component. Project Oz.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Oz is a not-for-profit special services agency providing drug education and crisis intervention services. Project Oz curricula provide compact and well-researched information for teachers, supplemented by student learning activities that reinforce the lecture portions of the topic. These activities are grade-appropriate and incorporate…

Bilyk-Glancy, Joanne; Caison, Shelia; Campbell, Melissa; Carlton, Chris; Dobbins, Mike; Menkhaus, Lisa; Nappi, Beth; Payne, Sue; Rankaitis, Peter; Sutton, Arthur; Wisted, Nancy

158

Culturally Specific Youth Substance Abuse Resistance Skills: Applicability across the U.S.-Mexico Border  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the prevalence and frequency of use of a set of drug-resistance strategies among a sample of Mexican adolescents. The keepin' it REAL (refuse, explain, avoid, and leave) strategies are part of a model drug-prevention intervention program originally developed by and for youth in the United States. The present study tests the…

Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Rodriguez, Gregorio Martinez; Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason

2009-01-01

159

Comparison of Bacteria and Archaea communities in municipal solid waste, individual refuse components, and leachate.  

PubMed

Refuse decomposition in landfills is a microbially mediated process that occurs primarily under anaerobic conditions. Because of limited moisture conditions, hydraulic transport as a means of cellular translocation within the landfill appears limited, especially during the initial stages of decomposition. Thus, microbial communities within the incoming refuse serve as a primary source of facultative and obligate anaerobic microorganisms that initiate refuse decomposition. Fresh residential refuse was collected five times over 26 months, and microbial communities in these samples were compared with those in individual refuse components and decomposed refuse. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were determined using T-RFLP. The Bacterial microbial community richness was correlated (r(2) = 0.91) with seasonal differences in ambient air temperature. Analysis of the results shows that fresh refuse is most likely not the source of methanogens in landfills. Microbial communities in the solid and leachate phases were different, indicating that both matrices must be considered when characterizing microbial diversity within a landfill. PMID:22092358

Staley, Bryan F; de los Reyes, Francis L; Barlaz, Morton A

2012-02-01

160

Teaching Condom Use Skills: Practice Is Superior to Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men exposed to a condom skills practice exercise were hypothesized to perform better on condom skills measures than those exposed only to a demonstration or to no intervention. As part of a larger National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network HIV Prevention protocol, men in substance abuse treatment were administered male and female condom use skills measures (MCUS,

Donald A. Calsyn; Mary A. Hatch-Maillette; Suzanne R. Doyle; Sarah Cousins; TeChieh Chen; Melinda Godinez

2010-01-01

161

Improvement of refuse collection in Kitwe: A participatory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project set out to define the refuse collection problem in Kitwe and to propose ways of\\u000aimproving the same.\\u000aThrough a household survey, interviews with relevant institutions and a physical survey of\\u000athe town, it was established that the Kitwe City Council is not able to provide an adequate\\u000arefuse collection service to its residents. Less than 10% of

Kazimbaya-Senkwe B; Sankwe K. M; Frijns J

1999-01-01

162

Respecting a patient's wish to refuse life-sustaining treatment.  

PubMed

The Court of Protection has recently set out its reasons in the case of a gravely ill 63-year-old lady who wished to refuse a blood transfusion on faith grounds. The case reinforces the Court of Protection's promotion of the right of older, vulnerable patients to make decisions that health professionals might consider unwise and the need for nurses to guard against creeping paternalism when discharging their duties under the Mental Capacity Act 2005. PMID:24690930

Griffith, Richard

163

Short term outcome in babies refused perinatal intensive care  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To compare the mortality in babies refused admission to a regional perinatal centre with that in babies accepted for intensive care in the centre. DESIGN--Retrospective study with group comparison. SETTING--Based at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast, with follow up of patients in all obstetric units in Northern Ireland. PATIENTS--Requests for transfer of 675 babies to the regional perinatal centre (prenatally

H. Sidhu; R. N. Heasley; C. C. Patterson; H. L. Halliday; W. Thompson

1989-01-01

164

Prep plants adopt paste thickener for refuse disposal  

SciTech Connect

Coal is the latest industry to apply paste thickener technology - it can improve the economics of coal refuse (tailings) handling. Pinn Oak's Pinnacle coal preparation plant was one of the first, using paste thickener to reclaim fine coal values from existing retention ponds and to process them to extract previously wasted coal values. Another paste thickener is to be used at Arch Coal's Lone Mountain plant in Virginia. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Cook, B.; Johnson, J.; Slottee, S. [Paste Thick Associates (United States)

2007-05-15

165

Teaching Skill in Theorizing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses whether theoretical skills, meaning skills in evaluating and improving existing theories and in creating new theories, should be taught in psychology programs. Three questions are posed: (1) Should theoretical skills be taught at all?; (2) How are theoretical skills best taught?; and (3) Which theoretical skills should be…

Parrott, W. Gerrod

166

Biotechnology Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

2009-09-16

167

21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...handwashing as part of patient care. 2. For topical...thoroughly after use. Patients should be closely monitored...thoroughly after use. Monitor patients closely for toxicity symptoms...for Drug Evaluation and Research to refuse to...

2012-04-01

168

21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...handwashing as part of patient care. 2. For topical...thoroughly after use. Patients should be closely monitored...thoroughly after use. Monitor patients closely for toxicity symptoms...for Drug Evaluation and Research to refuse to...

2011-04-01

169

21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.  

...handwashing as part of patient care. 2. For topical...thoroughly after use. Patients should be closely monitored...thoroughly after use. Monitor patients closely for toxicity symptoms...for Drug Evaluation and Research to refuse to...

2014-04-01

170

Evaluating municipal policy: an analysis of a refuse packaging program1  

PubMed Central

The effect of a municipal enforcement program to improve residents' packaging of refuse was analyzed in a multiple-baseline design across two areas of a city. The enforcement program involved instruction concerning refuse-packaging regulations, collection only of appropriately packaged refuse, and feedback notices to residents concerning the reasons for noncollection of their inadequately packaged refuse. Both the number of violations and the percentage of residences violating each day were markedly reduced during the enforcement program. Furthermore, sanitation workers considered that the packaging of refuse and the safety and efficiency of refuse collection had improved. This study served as a pilot evaluation of a policy change in the city sanitation department, and was functional in determining the direction of that policy.

Stokes, Trevor F.; Fawcett, Stephen B.

1977-01-01

171

Factors associated with refusal of rapid HIV testing in an emergency department.  

PubMed

HIV screening studies in the emergency department (ED) have demonstrated rates of HIV test refusal ranging from 40-67%. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with refusal to undergo routine rapid HIV testing in an academic ED in Boston. HIV counselors offered routine testing to 1,959 patients; almost one-third of patients (29%) refused. Data from a self-administered survey were used to determine independent correlates of HIV testing refusal. In multivariate analysis, women and patients with annual household incomes of $50,000 or more were more likely to refuse testing, as were those who reported not engaging in HIV risk behaviors, those previously HIV tested and those who did not perceive a need for testing. Enrollment during morning hours was also associated with an increased risk of refusal. Increased educational efforts to convey the rationale and benefits of universal screening may improve testing uptake among these groups. PMID:20978834

Pisculli, Mary L; Reichmann, William M; Losina, Elena; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A; Arbelaez, Christian; Katz, Jeffrey N; Walensky, Rochelle P

2011-05-01

172

Who and Why? HIV-Testing Refusal During Pregnancy: Implication for Pediatric HIV Epidemic Disparity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify characteristics of pregnant women who refuse HIV testing and determine predictive factors and the reasons for refusal, we conducted face-to-face interviews of pregnant women at prenatal clinics of public and private hospitals. We found 8% (n=65) of 826 pregnant women interviewed refused HIV testing. In bivariate analysis, foreign-born pregnant women residing in Los Angeles County were twice more

Getahun Aynalem; Pamela Mendoza; Toni Frederick; Laurene Mascola

2004-01-01

173

Factors Associated with Refusal of Rapid HIV Testing in an Emergency Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV screening studies in the emergency department (ED) have demonstrated rates of HIV test refusal ranging from 40–67%. This\\u000a study aimed to determine the factors associated with refusal to undergo routine rapid HIV testing in an academic ED in Boston.\\u000a HIV counselors offered routine testing to 1,959 patients; almost one-third of patients (29%) refused. Data from a self-administered\\u000a survey were

Mary L. Pisculli; William M. Reichmann; Elena Losina; Laurel A. Donnell-Fink; Christian Arbelaez; Jeffrey N. Katz; Rochelle P. Walensky

2011-01-01

174

Investigation of the use of coal refuse-fly ash compositions as highway base course material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of coal refuse-fly ash compositions as highway base course material is surveyed. The results of a laboratory testing program into the physical and engineering properties of mixtures of these waste products are presented. A comparison of serviceability index and physical damage parameters based on the VESYS Predictive Design Procedure between crushed stone and coal refuse-fly ash compositions are presented. These findings indicate that substituting stabilized coal refuse-fly ash blends in place of conventional base course material is technically and economically feasible. Procedures for developing design mixes and conducting field tests of coal refuse-fly ash base course material are described.

McQuade, P. V.; Head, W. J.; Anderson, R. B.

1981-06-01

175

Environmental characteristics of refuse: Derived fuel incineration technology  

SciTech Connect

The Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have undertaken a program to evaluate means to control emissions from modern combustion system burning Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). A RDF combustion facility has been selected which represents modern practice. A comprehensive environmental characterization of this facility has been planned which will evaluate the impact of operating variables on emissions of trace organics, metals in fly ash and the quality of the bottom ash and fly ash. This paper covers the results of the first phase of the program covering site selection and the test program; and the plans for conducting the test program and evaluating the results.

Sommerlad, R.E.; Seeker, W.R. (Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (US)); (Finkelstein, A. (Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (CA)); Kilgroe, J.D. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US)))

1988-01-01

176

Youth In Action: Youth Preventing Drug Abuse. Bulletin No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drug prevention projects have proven successful in curtailing drug activity and the violence associated with it. An effective drug prevention project can educate children, youth, and adults about the dangers of illegal drugs. It can provide skills to help...

S. Bilchik

1998-01-01

177

Social Skills Intervention Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social skills training procedures that can be used in a group format are described. These procedures are contained in the Social Skills Intervention Guide (Elliott & Gresham, 1991) which is a systematic approach to teaching social skills to children between the ages of 6 and 16 years. A system for classifying social skills deficits based on acquisition performance deficits and

Frank M. Gresham; Stephen N. Elliott

1993-01-01

178

Health facilities' obligations when a patient refuses treatment.  

PubMed

Recent cases involving the decisions of Elizabeth Bouvia and G. Ross Henninger to starve themselves to death highlight the ethical obligations of patients, health care facilities, and the courts. When a patient seeks the hospital's cooperation in his or her attempt to commit suicide, society's responsibility is not merely to restrain the patient from suicide but to offer physical care, financial aid, and personal support. The hospital's duty is to intervene, and the court's responsibility is to allow such intervention. The most compassionate way in which the hospital can help is to force-feed the patient. If a patient is mentally competent, the refusal to eat is morally wrong. The patient is morally not permitted to commit suicide, though the avoidance of treatment may be justified in cases when force-feeding would be considered an extraordinary means, because of the patient's age or physical condition, for example. If a patient is incompetent, the refusal to eat is not a fully rational act; for the hospital to refrain from force-feeding would not be considered cooperation in suicide, since the incompetent patient cannot commit suicide. To avoid court rulings that order compliance with a patient's wishes, health care facilities in the future may have to require patients or their families to agree in writing to treatment by ordinary means. PMID:10268324

Gallagher, J

1984-09-01

179

Refusal Bias in the Estimation of HIV Prevalence.  

PubMed

In 2007, UNAIDS corrected estimates of global HIV prevalence downward from 40 million to 33 million based on a methodological shift from sentinel surveillance to population-based surveys. Since then, population-based surveys are considered the gold standard for estimating HIV prevalence. However, prevalence rates based on representative surveys may be biased because of nonresponse. This article investigates one potential source of nonresponse bias: refusal to participate in the HIV test. We use the identity of randomly assigned interviewers to identify the participation effect and estimate HIV prevalence rates corrected for unobservable characteristics with a Heckman selection model. The analysis is based on a survey of 1,992 individuals in urban Namibia, which included an HIV test. We find that the bias resulting from refusal is not significant for the overall sample. However, a detailed analysis using kernel density estimates shows that the bias is substantial for the younger and the poorer population. Nonparticipants in these subsamples are estimated to be three times more likely to be HIV-positive than participants. The difference is particularly pronounced for women. Prevalence rates that ignore this selection effect may be seriously biased for specific target groups, leading to misallocation of resources for prevention and treatment. PMID:24788481

Janssens, Wendy; van der Gaag, Jacques; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Tanovi?, Zlata

2014-06-01

180

Refuse derived fuels: New technologies for successful operations  

SciTech Connect

The rising cost of refuse disposal, coupled with the decreasing availability of land suitable for the siting of new landfills have greatly accelerated the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing systems as a viable technology of the disposal of our municipal solid waste. The energy products produces by an RDF processing facility-electricity and/or steam, as well as the recovery of other valuable materials from the waste stream, coupled with the inherent flexibility of the RDF technology to be used in varying forms, over a wide range of combustion technologies, makes it an extremely desirable waste-to-energy system. Use of an RDF prepared fuel product can also provide a potentially beneficial reduction of air emissions, and trace metals in the ash when compared to the burning of unprocessed solid waste. This paper discusses the problems which have been encountered in the past with RDF systems; the current status of these facilities including institutional considerations and system economics; and the future potential of RDF processing systems. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Ohlsson, O.O.

1988-01-01

181

Social Skills, Social Research Skills, Sociological Skills: Teaching Reflexivity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that training in social research methods is a central part of sociology education. Maintains that, while social and communication skills are managerially and epistemologically important to successful research, they often are ignored. Argues for the inclusion of these skills in research methods courses. (CFR)

Jenkins, Richard

1995-01-01

182

Reclamation of Anthracite Coal Refuse Using Treated Municipal Wastewater and Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study determined the feasibility of using municipal sewage effluent and liquid digested sludge to facilitate the revegetation of anthracite mining refuse. Four boxes, 4 x 32 x 4 feet deep, were filled with anthracite coal refuse from a mining operatio...

W. E. Sopper L. T. Kardos L. E. DiLissio

1976-01-01

183

Fluidized-bed combustion test of low-quality fuels. I. Anthracite refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of five types of anthracite refuse material with widely different characteristics have been successfully burned in the 18-inch diameter atmospheric pressure fluidized-bed combustor at the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Combustion characteristics of these anthracite refuse materials as well as engineering data were investigated for a wide range of operation conditions. Values

J. S. Mei; R. L. Gall; J. S. Wilson

1977-01-01

184

Analytical determination of the microbial utilization and transformation of humic acids extracted from municipal refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic substances are usually the refractory part of natural organic matter, and in a landfill they can retain inorganic and organic micropollutants. This study has investigated analytically whether humic acids (HA) extracted by use of alkali from either fresh municipal refuse or from refuse disposed of in a landfill for up to 12 months can resist microbial degradation under aerobic

Z. Filip; J. Berthelin

2001-01-01

185

Auctions with and without the Right of First Refusal and National Park Service Concession Contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Park Service has struggled to improve the quality of service provided by concessioners for decades. To address these concerns, the Park Service eliminated the right of first refusal from the largest revenue-generating concession contract auctions beginning in 2000. This article provides models of concession contract auctions with and without the right of first refusal. The optimal bidding strategies

Hayley H. Chouinard

2005-01-01

186

Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of

S. J. Onysko; P. M. Erickson; R. L. P. Kleinmann; M. Hood

1984-01-01

187

A Case-Control Study of Emotion Regulation and School Refusal in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study aimed to investigate emotion regulation (ER) strategy use in a sample of 21 clinic-referred children and adolescents (10-14 years old) presenting with school refusal, all of whom were diagnosed with at least one anxiety disorder. Being the first known study to examine ER and school refusal, hypotheses were guided by previous…

Hughes, Elizabeth K.; Gullone, Eleonora; Dudley, Amanda; Tonge, Bruce

2010-01-01

188

Refusal bias in HIV prevalence estimates from nationally representative seroprevalence surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the relationship between prior knowledge of one's HIV status and the likelihood to refuse HIV testing in populations-based surveys and explore its potential for producing bias in HIV prevalence estimates. Methods: Using longitudinal survey data from Malawi, we estimate the relationship between prior knowledge of HIV-positive status and subsequent refusal of an HIV test. We use that

Georges Reniersa; Jeffrey Eatond

2009-01-01

189

Investigation of the use of coal refuse-fly ash compositions as highway base course material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of coal refuse-fly ash compositions as highway base course material is surveyed. The results of a laboratory testing program into the physical and engineering properties of mixtures of these waste products are presented. A comparison of serviceability index and physical damage parameters based on the VESYS Predictive Design Procedure between crushed stone and coal refuse-fly ash compositions are

P. V. McQuade; W. J. Head; R. B. Anderson

1981-01-01

190

Characterization of Acid Leaching Reactions in Coal Refuse\\/Coal Fly Ash Bulk Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exclusion of coal fly ash from regulation as a hazardous waste has led to increased interest in returning ash to the coalfields for co-disposal with coal refuse. A column study used coal refuse with high potential acidity (4% total-S), and two ashes with varying levels of alkalinity. The ashes were bulk blended at varying ratios (0, 5, 10, 20

W. Lee Daniels; Barry R. Stewart; Lucian Zelazny

191

Strategie di rifuto in Italiano: uno studio etnografico (Refusal Strategies in Italian: An Ethnographic Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing previous research on speech acts, this article describes a study that analyzed the behavior of speakers of standard Italian in refusing an offer of food. The importance of "face" is explained, and the refusal strategies are classified into four categories: explicit, tactical, decisive, and conclusive. (CFM)

Frescura, Marina

1997-01-01

192

30 CFR 553.50 - How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? ...Revocation and Penalties § 553.50 How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? (a) If BOEM determines that any OSFR evidence...

2013-07-01

193

Obstetric Patients Who Select and Those Who Refuse Medical Students' Participation in Their Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 222 obstetrics patients assisted by medical clerkship students from the University of Vermont and 78 who refused student participation found privacy the primary motivation for refusal and a desire to contribute to students' education a primary reason for accepting student participation. Patients frequently erroneously anticipated the…

Magrane, Diane; And Others

1994-01-01

194

Refusals in Chinese: How Do L1 and L2 Differ?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an empirical study of refusal strategies in Chinese by native speakers (NS) and nonnative Chinese learners (NNS). Sixty subjects (perceived as "students") were to refuse an invitation by "the professor" to a Chinese New Year's party. The study found that the NS group produced 10 strategies, whereas the NNS group produced…

Hong, Wei

2011-01-01

195

Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

2009-01-01

196

Coal/D-RDF (densified refuse-derived fuel) co-firing project, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse-derived fuel with coal at the fuel-receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a base line condition. For the second series, a mixture of coal and densified refuse-derived fuel was fired. The report describes the equipment used to densify refuse derived fuel, procedures used to prepare and handle the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture and the test results. The results include the effect of the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture on plant operations, boiler efficiency, stack emissions and EP toxicity.

Hecklinger, R.S.; Rehm, F.R.

1985-11-01

197

47 CFR 3.53 - FCC notification of refusal to provide telecommunications service to U.S. registered vessel(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES...source that a foreign administration or facility is refusing...to refuse legitimate public correspondence to...

2013-10-01

198

Rawls and the refusal of medical treatment to children.  

PubMed

That Jehovah's Witnesses cannot refuse life-saving blood transfusions on behalf of their children has acquired the status of virtual "consensus" among bioethicists. However strong the consensus may be on this matter, this article explores whether this view can be plausibly defended on liberal principles by examining it in light of one particularly well worked-out liberal political theory, that of Rawls. It concludes that because of the extremely high priority Rawls attributes to "freedom of conscience," and the implication from the original position that parents must act paternalistically toward their children as their protectors, Jehovah's Witnesses cannot legitimately be barred from making decisions on behalf of their children, even when the consequences of such decisions are serious and irremediable. PMID:20176709

Macdougall, D Robert

2010-04-01

199

Recovery of useful materials from refuse fuel ash  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for treating the bottom ash residue resulting from burning a processed refuse fuel to recover metallic and other useful constituent materials from the ash residue. The method comprises: feeding a stream of the ash residue from a stock source thereof to a magnetic separation operation to remove at least the major part of any ferrous materials therein, the separated ferrous materials being delivered to a ferrous metals collection point; the remaining ash residue being passed through a particle size separation operation to separate same into oversize, midsize and undersize fractions; and delivering the oversize fraction to a tramp collection operation, the undersize fraction to an aggregate collection and the midsize fraction to a milling operation of a type wherein brittle non-ductile material is fragmented to provide further size reduction thereof and any ductile material is deformed without any consequential size reduction thereto beyond a certain measure.

Galgana, R.J.; Sutin, G.L.; Mc Nerney, M.; Mahoney, P.F.

1987-06-02

200

Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse.  

PubMed

The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. PMID:16574320

Xiaoli, Chai; Youcai, Zhao

2006-09-01

201

Preparation and properties of densified refuse-derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) generally refers to the product of the mechanical (or chemical plus mechanical) processing of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce a specification output. Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) is the product of the mechanical compaction of some form of RDF to agglomerated pieces which are sufficiently cohesive to sustain storage and handling. The term densified is used in the generic sense to include all forms of compaction, such as extrusion or rolling to produce briquettes, pellets, cubettes, etc. Generally, d-RDF is a fuel for stoker boilers analogous to lump coal. The concept of RDF and d-RDF can be extended to other waste-derived or biomass fuels. The pilot-scale preparation of d-RDF has been described. This paper is to update and expand the information and to describe the objectives and operation of some of the unit processes used and the properties of the d-RDF. It should be an objective of processing to maximize the quality of the fuel, even at the expense of quantity, so as to maintain the fuel specification. Thus, a mass of waste, m, is converted to a mass of fuel, m', so that m > m', but the heats of combustion are ..delta..H/sub m/ < ..delta..H/sub m'/, which is the objective of processing. The yield is limited by the composition of m and the limits of the law of conservation of mass-energy; also, allowance must be made for the energy input for processing. The concept of processing to maximize yield is opposite to the traditional objective of waste management of maximizing disposal.

Alter, H.; Campbell, J.A.

1980-01-01

202

[Patients refusal to be treated, the problem of Jehovah's witnesses].  

PubMed

The principle of respecting the patient's wishes is an international medical principle, found in several texts. In France, it was recalled in the 1994 Civil Code concerning bioethical laws and has recently been included in the Public health Code (law concerning patient's rights dated March 4, 2002). According to these various texts, the patient's wishes must always be respected, even in life threatening cases, so long as the patient has been informed of the risk. The refusal by Jehovah's witnesses to receive blood transfusion is always a problem. When, in full consciousness, a patient refuses a blood transfusion that his life depends on, what should the physician do? In June 1998, the Paris Court of Appeal ruled on this case. The judges found that "the obligation of the physician to always respect the wishes of the patient.is limited by the other obligation of the physician (the basis of a physician's activity) which is to protect the health and life of that same patient". In October 2001, the State Council ruling on this particular case found that, given the critical conditions of this case and the absence of a therapeutic alternative, the physicians had not committed an error. But it was also clearly underlined that a physician must respect the wishes of the patient and that this obligation must not be superseded by the duty of saving a life, thus disputing the judges of the Court of Appeal. Two questions. Two emergency interim rulings confirmed the position of the judges: the non-respect of the patient's wishes is an infringement of individual freedom. It is only in extreme and clearly defined circumstances that the physician will not be punished for this offence. This raises two questions: can a physician treat a patient against his/her wishes? And what risks does the physician take when respecting the patient's wishes when his/her life is at stake? PMID:15029007

Rougé-Maillart, C; Gaches, T; Jousset, N; Penneau, M

2004-02-28

203

Use of the high-probability instructional sequence and escape extinction in a child with food refusal.  

PubMed Central

We used the high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence with and without escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal. Acceptance increased and refusal decreased only with the introduction of escape extinction. These results raise important questions about the high-p sequence in the treatment of food refusal.

Dawson, Jennifer E; Piazza, Cathleen C; Sevin, Bart M; Gulotta, Charles S; Lerman, Dorothea; Kelley, Mary Lou

2003-01-01

204

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project...171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are considered...

2010-04-01

205

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project...171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are considered...

2009-04-01

206

29 CFR 102.81 - Review by the general counsel of refusal to proceed on charge; resumption of proceedings upon...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Review by the general counsel of refusal to proceed on charge; resumption of proceedings...review by the general counsel of refusal to proceed on related charge. 102.81 Section...Review by the general counsel of refusal to proceed on charge; resumption of...

2010-07-01

207

Early Reading Skills  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Skills HealthDay March 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Infant and Newborn Development Transcript Armed with an arsenal ... Educational Psychology tracked reading skills among 117 healthy infants between 10 and 18 months old. For 7 ...

208

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

209

Manufacturing Engineering Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.

Loughrey, Joe

2009-08-03

210

Enhancing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

1999

211

Winning the Skills Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on how key stakeholders in work force preparedness nationwide are responding to pressures of the skills race. Part 1 presents an overview of the skills challenge and the economic and social consequences of failing to meet the challenge. Part 2 examines the impact of the skills shortage on major stakeholders and explains how…

Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

212

Global Skill Shortages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19 developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage…

Cohen, Malcolm S.; Zaidi, Mahmood A.

213

Coal refuse site inventories. [reclamation survey using color-IR photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-scale color-infrared aerial photography at 1:120,000 scale is used to carry out an operational survey of coal refuse sites. Site analyses and reclamation cost estimates are completed in less than 90 days by using remote sensing techniques. Analysis of photographs provided dependable and accurate data for the location and environmental assessment of nearly 200 coal refuse banks and slurry ponds. The inventory constitutes a comprehensive reference for establishing priorities for coal refuse site reclamation and for complementing future field surveys.

Wobber, F. J.; Wier, C. E.; Leshendok, T.; Beeman, W.

1975-01-01

214

Creating Opportunities: Tennessee's Southeast Regional Skills Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural Marion County (Tennessee), the town of Kimball, the Appalachian Regional Commission, and a local community college founded a regional skills center. The center offers a 2-year associate of science degree and classes in GED preparation, parenting, drug abuse prevention, cosmetology, and air conditioning and refrigeration. It has expanded…

Baldwin, Fred D.

2002-01-01

215

Fluidized-Bed Combustion Test of Low-Quality Fuels. I. Anthracite Refuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of five types of anthracite refuse material with widely different characteristics have been successfully burned in the 18-inch diameter atmospheric pressure fluidized-bed combustor at the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the Energy Research an...

J. S. Mei R. L. Gall J. S. Wilson

1977-01-01

216

Results of emissions testing while burning densified refuse derived fuel, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. provided engineering and source testing services to the Council of Great Lake Governors to support their efforts in promoting the development and utilization of densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF) and pelletized was...

1989-01-01

217

Imipramine Plus Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of School Refusal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate the efficacy of 8 weeks of imipramine versus placebo in combination with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of school-refusing adolescents with comorbid anxiety and major depressive disorders.

GAIL A. BERNSTEIN; CARRIE M. BORCHARDT; AMY R. PERWIEN; ROSS D. CROSBY; MATT G. KUSHNER; PAUL D. THURAS; CYNTHIA G. LAST

2000-01-01

218

7 CFR 4280.148 - Refusal to execute Loan Note Guarantee.  

...SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.148 Refusal to execute Loan...

2014-01-01

219

Understanding selective refusal of eye donation. Identity, beauty, and interpersonal relationships.  

PubMed

Corneal transplantation is the most common form of organ transplantation performed globally. However, of all organs, eyes have the highest rate of refusal of donation. This study explored the reasons why individuals decide whether or not to donate corneas. Twenty-one individuals were interviewed who had made a donation decision (13 refused corneal donation and eight consented). Analysis was performed using Grounded Theory. Refusal of corneal donation was related to concerns about disfigurement and the role of eyes in memory and communication. The request for donation therefore raised concerns about a potential adverse change in the ongoing relationship with the deceased, even in death. For those who refused donation, these concerns overshadowed awareness of need or benefit of transplantation. Adjusting the donation message to be more congruent with the real, lived experience of corneal donation may to some extent "prepare" individuals when the donation question is raised. PMID:24363177

Lawlor, Mitchell; Kerridge, Ian

2014-03-01

220

Preliminary Assessment of the Prospects for Use of Refuse-Derived Fuel in Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The deployment problems of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production in Maryland are examined. Problems experienced by the pyrolysis plant in Baltimore City and the resource recovery plant in Baltimore County are cited. Maryland's municipal solid waste problem...

W. C. Metz J. Shyer K. Edgecomb

1979-01-01

221

Experimental studies of the production of lightweight aggregate from fly ash/coal cleaning refuse mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work, a granulation/sintering process have been developed for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate from coal cleaning refuse and fly ash. The resulting granules have the properties required of a lightweight aggregate. It is important to note, ...

G. Burnet A. J. Gokhale

1987-01-01

222

7 CFR 57.330 - When an application for an appeal inspection may be refused.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... When an application for an appeal inspection may be refused. 57.330 Section...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF...

2010-01-01

223

9 CFR 327.10 - Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal of entry; marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal of entry...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

224

9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...furnished; grant or refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304.2...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

225

7 CFR 58.25 - When an application for appeal inspection or grading may be refused.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false When an application for appeal inspection or grading may be refused. 58.25...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND...

2010-01-01

226

Feasibility Study of Utilization of Coal Mine Refuse, Estill County, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported is a feasibility study of commercial utilization for Eastern KY coal mine refuse at the South-East Coal Co. Cleaning plant in Estill County, KY. Included are descriptions of the physical facilities, sampling and testing methodology, geotechnical ...

1976-01-01

227

Appendices to a Handbook for Initiating or Improving Commercial Refuse Collection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report consists of the 'Appendices' to 'A Handbook for Initiating or Improving Commercial Refuse Collection'. Contents are as follows: Appendix I. Equipment lease-purchase decisions; Appendix II. Experimental side-loader vehicle; Appendix III. Equipm...

1974-01-01

228

37 CFR 212.7 - Reconsideration procedure for refusals to register.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PROTECTION OF VESSEL HULL DESIGNS § 212.7 Reconsideration...refusals to register vessel hull designs under 17 U.S.C. chapter...

2013-07-01

229

Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).  

PubMed

This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. PMID:23746983

Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

2013-09-01

230

Microwave plasma assisted pyrolysis of refuse derived fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work combined plasma reactivity and pyrolysis for conversion of solid wastes. Decomposition of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and its combustible components (paper, biomass, and plastic) in an 800 W microwave plasma reactor was investigated at varying argon flow rates of 0.50 to 1.25 lpm for 3 minutes. The characteristic bright light emission of plasma was observed with calculated maximum power density of about 35 W/cm3. The RDF and its components were successfully converted into char and combustible gas. The average char yield was found to be 12-21% of the original mass, with a gross calorific value of around 39 MJ/kg. The yield of the product gas was in the range 1.0-1.7 m3/kg. The combustible gas generated from the pyrolysis of the RDF contained about 14% H2, 66% CO, and 4% CH4 of the detected gas mass, with a heating value of 11 MJ/m3. These products are potentially marketable forms of clean energy.

Khongkrapan, Parin; Thanompongchart, Patipat; Tippayawong, Nakorn; Kiatsiriroat, Tanongkiat

2014-03-01

231

Rages and refusals. Managing the many faces of adolescent anxiety.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with a practical approach to recognition, assessment, and treatment of adolescent anxiety disorders complicated by avoidance or oppositional behaviour. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current literature was searched via MEDLINE using the MeSH headings Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders, focusing on epidemiology, clinical presentations in adolescence, and both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment. In addition, internationally accepted diagnostic criteria, current practice guidelines, and recent textbooks by recognized experts were reviewed. Research evidence and consensus recommendations were integrated with a practical approach developed in a provincial mood and anxiety disorders clinic. MAIN FINDINGS: Anxiety disorders are common in adolescents, with estimated prevalence of at least 10%. Substance abuse and avoiding school are common complications, and irritability with behavioural and rage problems can interfere with effective management. Current controlled research is examining the effectiveness of serotonergic medications known to benefit panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety in adults. While cognitive and behavioural treatments are effective for some child and adolescent anxiety disorders, they can be difficult to administer, and a supportive and psychoeducational approach could be as effective for those who refuse to go to school. CONCLUSION: Family physicians' awareness of the role of anxiety in adolescent school avoidance and in intense, oppositional emotional reactions at home can lead to more specific assessment and therapeutic intervention. Practical management strategies are recommended.

Garland, E. J.

2001-01-01

232

The impact of municipal refuse utilization on energy and our environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incinerator/boiler configuration is stressed as the most reliable method of waste utilization. It is also pointed out that the high cost of refuse disposal and the ever increasing cost of energy, have made this method attractive. A plan is outlined for operating a waste utilization plant. Community participation is encouraged in investigating the feasibility of refuse to energy facilities in their area.

1978-01-01

233

Densification of refuse-derived fuels: preparation, properties and systems for small communities. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) is produced by compacting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) into agglomerated pieces sufficiently cohesive to sustain storage and handling. The use of this d-RDF product as a substitute for coal in spreader-stoker boilers is a developing resource recovery alternative. This report covers an investigation of the operation, performance and product characteristics of a waste shredding and densification subsystem

J. Campbell; M. L. Renard

1981-01-01

234

Implications of the HIV testing protocol for refusal bias in seroprevalence surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: HIV serosurveys have become important sources of HIV prevalence estimates, but these estimates may be biased because of refusals and other forms of non-response. We investigate the effect of the post-test counseling study protocol on bias due to the refusal to be tested. METHODS: Data come from a nine-month prospective study of hospital admissions in Addis Ababa during which

Georges Reniers; Tekebash Araya; Yemane Berhane; Gail Davey; Eduard J Sanders

2009-01-01

235

[Microbiological studies of the contamination of hospital waste and household refuse].  

PubMed

A bacteriological analysis of hospital waste and household refuse (garbage dump) showed a wider range of bacteria in hospital waste. However, quantitatively, household refuse was more contaminated, especially with fecal bacteria. Almost one third of all hospital waste showed no bacterial growth under the conditions chosen for the study. In blood-drenched waste and serum samples 2% of all samples examined were anti-HBc and anti-HBe positive. PMID:4050185

Möse, J R; Reinthaler, F

1985-06-01

236

Highly elevated emission of mercury vapor due to the spontaneous combustion of refuse in a landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refuse disposal (e.g., landfilling and incineration) have been recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emission globally. However, in-situ measurements of Hg emission from landfill or refuse dumping sites where fugitive spontaneous combustion occurs have not been reported. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentration and emission flux were observed near spontaneous combustions of refuse at a landfill site in southwestern China. Ambient Hg0 concentrations above the refuse surface ranged from 42.7 ± 20.0 to 396.4 ± 114.2 ng m-3, up to 10 times enhancement due to the spontaneous burning. Using a box model with Hg0 data obtained from 2004 to 2013, we estimated that the Hg0 emission from refuse was amplified by 8-40 times due to spontaneous combustion. A micrometeorological flux measurement system based on relaxed eddy accumulation was configured downwind of the combustion sites to quantify the Hg0 emission. Extremely large turbulent deposition fluxes (up to -128.6 ?g m-2 h-1, 20 min average) were detected during periods of high Hg0 concentration events over the measurement footprint. The effect of temperature, moisture and light on the air-surface exchange of Hg0 exchange was found to be masked by the overwhelming deposition of Hg0 from the enriched air from the refuse combustion plumes. This research reveals that mercury emission from the landfill refuse can be boosted by fugitive spontaneous combustion of refuse. The emission represents an anthropogenic source that has been overlooked in Hg inventory estimates.

Zhu, Wei; Sommar, Jonas; Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Guanghui

2013-11-01

237

Methanotrophic community structure of aged refuse and its capability for methane bio-oxidation.  

PubMed

Aged refuse from waste landfills closed for eight years was examined and found to contain rich methanotrophs capable of biooxidation for methane. Specially, community structure and methane oxidation capability of methanotrophs in the aged refuse were studied. The amount of methanotrophs ranged 61.97 x 10(3)-632.91 x 10(3) cells/g (in dry basis) in aged refuse from Shanghai Laogang Landfill. Type I and II methanotrophs were found in the aged refuse in the presence of sterilized sewage sludge and only Type I methanotrophs were detected in the presence of nitrate minimal salt medium (NMS). The clone sequences of the pmoA gene obtained from the aged refuse were similar to the pmoA gene of Methylobacter Methylocaldum, and Methylocystis, and two clones were distinct with known genera of Type I methanotrophs according to phylogenetic analysis. Aged refuse enriched with NMS was used for methane biological oxidation and over 93% conversions were obtained. PMID:21790062

Mei, Juan; Wang, Li; Han, Dan; Zhao, Youcai

2011-01-01

238

A Statics Skills Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineering faculty recognize the value of assessment instruments to measure student learningand to evaluate changes in teaching. As a result, a number of engineering subject assessmentinstruments formulated as âÂÂconceptâ inventories have been developed. Taking a different tack,the authors of this paper decided to focus on assessment of student skills in statics and this paperprovides details of the development of a statics skills assessment tool. The use of only conceptinventories to provide proof of student learning is an incomplete assessment as effectiveapplication of engineering knowledge consists of both a sound understanding of conceptualknowledge and skill intertwined. For instance, while demonstrating understanding of theconcept of equilibrium is valuable, it is also important students are able to generate correctequations of equilibrium. A multi-step Delphi process involving statics educators was used toreach consensus on the important skills of statics. The Delphi rankings, including the importanceof the skill as judged by the Delphi participants as well as an estimate of the proportion ofstudents whom can perform the skill, were used to develop the final list of top ranked skills.Initial skill-based questions were developed to probe these areas and tested with students. Thecurrent status of the skill assessment instrument is discussed.

Danielson, Scott

2011-05-19

239

76 FR 46820 - Proposal To Refuse To Approve a Supplemental New Drug Application for Bromday (Bromfenac...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...could become contaminated with harmful bacteria if the patient accidentally causes the...topical solutions become contaminated with bacteria during the course of treatment.\\3...product were to become contaminated with bacteria present on or around the surface of...

2011-08-03

240

Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview of drug abuse prevention research; Personal and social skills training: Cognitive-behavioral approaches to substance abuse prevention; Social and personal skills training programs for smoking prevention: Critique and directions for futu...

C. S. Bell R. Battjes

1985-01-01

241

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The cumulative effect on man or animal of such drug, taking into account...are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether...edible products derived from animals or a withdrawal period or...

2009-04-01

242

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The cumulative effect on man or animal of such drug, taking into account...are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether...edible products derived from animals or a withdrawal period or...

2010-04-01

243

Thinking Skills & Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

244

The low skill trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has become popular to argue that certain workers have fallen into a trap in which they have poor skills, few job opportunities and a low return on training, while others have not. This paper demonstrates how such a trap can occur within a simple matching model with rent sharing. Rent sharing diminishes the worker's incentive to acquire skills;

Ken Burdett; Eric Smith

2002-01-01

245

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

246

Social Skills Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue for people working in the field of adult literacy focuses on the impact of learning disabilities (LD) on an adult's social skills. It explores various social, emotional, and daily living concerns which adults with learning disabilities may face. The following articles are included: (1) "Social Skills and Adults with Learning…

Washington, Charles W., Ed.

1995-01-01

247

Assessing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on assessing employee skills. "Bridging the Training Gap: Identifying Work Place Transferable Skills Needs in Manufacturing Organizations in East Central Minnesota" (K. Peter Kuchinke, James M. Brown, Howie Anderson, Joe Hobson) reports a study of a workplace education program in rural Minnesota…

1997

248

Critical Skills Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the U.S. economy begins to show signs of improvement, executives say they need a workforce fully equipped with skills beyond just the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic (the three Rs). Skills such as critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation (the four Cs) will become even more…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

2010-01-01

249

Elementary TIG Welding Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text was prepared to help deaf students develop the skills needed by an employed welder. It uses simplified language and illustrations to present concepts which should be reinforced by practical experience with welding skills. Each of the 12 lessons contains: (1) an information section with many illustrations which presents a concept or…

Pierson, John E., III

250

Building Science Process Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. This article describes an onsite trip to the Bronx Zoo that allowed collaborating students to develop acquisitive and organizational skills while exploring rain forest habitat characteristics and species diversity.

Defina, Anthony V.

2006-01-01

251

Skills for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains two miniunits to help students in grades 7-12 build skills for the future. The exercises can also be adapted for use in grades 4-6. Each of the miniunits contains several exercises to build specific skills. Miniunit One, "The Arithmetic of Growth," deals with two concepts--exponential growth and doubling time. These two…

Smith, Gary R.

252

Art and Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue reviews and confirms the connection between thinking skills and art education. Articles offer possible teaching approaches and specific lesson plans dealing with thinking skills. The issue includes: (1) "Editor's View" (Sharon McCoubrey); (2) "Critical and Creative Thinking and Making Art" (Carol Fineberg); (3) "Investigations and…

McCoubrey, Sharon

1994-01-01

253

Teaching Organizational Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates teaching students organizational skills that lead to school success. Outlines seven such skills and how to teach them, including such things as bringing necessary supplies to class, organizing handouts and loose-leaf papers, taking and organizing notes, developing and following study plans, and planning and carrying out large projects.…

Bakunas, Boris; Holley, William

2001-01-01

254

Schools, Skills and Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skill development involves important choices for individuals and school designers: should individuals and schools specialize, or should they aim for an optimal combination of skills? We analyze this question by employing mean-standard deviation analysis and show how cost structure, benefit structure and risk attitudes jointly determine the optimal…

Hartog, Joop; Vijverberg, Wim

2007-01-01

255

Skills-Intervention Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The GO Project was created at Sacramento City College (SCC) to help underprepared students achieve success in a transfer-level sociology course, while improving their reading, writing, and study skills. Throughout the fall semester, students in the GO Project engaged in reading, essay writing, and study skills practice which focused on the…

Briggs, Linda

256

The Use of Patient Instructors to Teach Interviewing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program using patient instructors programmed with a history of hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, or congestive heart failure to teach and evaluate pharmacy students' interviewing skills is described. Content areas included drug therapy, adverse reactions, drug interactions, etc. (Author/MSE)

Gardner, Marie E.; And Others

1983-01-01

257

Characteristics, survival, and related factors of newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients refusing cancer treatments under a universal health insurance program  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Few studies have addressed the causes and risks of treatment refusal in a universal health insurance setting. Methods We examined the characteristics and survival associated with treatment refusal in patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer in Taiwan during 2004–2008. Treatment refusal was defined as not undergoing any cancer treatment within 4 months of confirmed cancer diagnosis. Patient data were extracted from four national databases. Factors associated with treatment refusal were identified through logistic regression using the generalized estimating equation method, and survival analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of the 41,340 new colorectal cancer cases diagnosed, 3,612 patients (8.74%) refused treatment. Treatment refusal rate was higher in patients with less urbanized areas of residence, lower incomes, preexisting catastrophic illnesses, cancer stages of 0 and IV, and diagnoses at regional and district hospitals. Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients aged >75 years were the most likely to refuse treatment (OR, 1.87); patients with catastrophic illnesses (OR, 1.66) and stage IV cancer (OR, 1.43) had significantly higher refusal rates. The treatment refusers had 2.66 times the risk of death of those who received treatment. Factors associated with an increased risk of death in refusers included age ?75 years, insured monthly salary ?22,801 NTD, low-income household or aboriginal status, and advanced cancer stage (especially stage IV; HR, 11.33). Conclusion Our results show a lower 5-year survival for colorectal patients who refused treatment than for those who underwent treatment within 4 months. An age of 75 years or older, low-income household status, advanced stages of cancer, especially stage IV, were associated with higher risks of death for those who refused treatment.

2014-01-01

258

A comparative evaluation of minerals and trace elements in the ashes from lignite, coal refuse, and biomass fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal being a limited source of energy, extraction of energy from other sources like lignite, coal-refuse, and biomass is being attempted worldwide. The minerals and inorganic elements present in fuel feeds pose different technological and environmental concerns. Lignite ash, refuse ash, and biomass ash collected from Indian power plants burning lignite, coal-refuse, and mustard stalk, respectively, were analyzed for physico-chemical

Smriti Singh; Lal C. Ram; Reginald E. Masto; Santosh K. Verma

2011-01-01

259

Utilization of fly ash and coal mine refuse as a road base material. Final report 1973-77  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a four-year study to determine the feasibility of using fly ash and coal mine refuse as a road base in a parking lot. The lot was divided into three areas each receiving the same surface treatment but wit different ratios of fly ash to refuse. Area 1 was composed of 75-percent coal mine refuse

R. C. Wilmoth; R. B. Scott

1979-01-01

260

Conceptual Model of Metacognitive Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Little is known about the cognitive skills used by high-level commanders and executives in problem solving. 'Metacognitive' skills are abilities to monitor and direct the operation of cognitive skills. The author offers a summary of theories of metacognit...

J. Geiwitz

1996-01-01

261

Strength and consolidation characteristics of coal refuse for design and construction of disposal facilities: Applications of research findings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The use of coal refuse properties for the short-term stability analysis of disposal facilities is illustrated in the report. Three types of disposal facilities are considered: waste embankments constructed of combined or fine refuse, refuse dams constructed by upstream method, and sandwich construction by placing coarse and fine refuse in alternate layers. Detailed procedures are presented to determine the factor of safety at the end of construction using the REAME computer program developed at the University of Kentucky. The results of analysis show that limiting the maximum moisture content of combined or fine refuse in waste embankments and keeping the construction of refuse dams at a slower pace are very important for short-term stability. Due to the granular nature of coarse and fine refuse, the use of sandwich construction appears to be an efficient and economical disposal method. To compare the properties of coal refuse from the Western Coal Field with those from the Eastern Coal Field reported previously, test results on combined and fine refuse taken from two sites in Colorado are presented.

Huang, Y.H.

1987-08-01

262

Analyzing nutrient distribution in different particle-size municipal aged refuse.  

PubMed

To investigate the feasibility of using aged municipal solid waste as farmland soil, it is essential to study its nutritive compositions for plant growth. Previous studies have demonstrated that the properties of different particle-size aged refuse are very different, therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the adequacy of three elements (N, P, K) and the fractionation of inorganic P in the aged refuse with a particle-size distribution of 900 to 300, 300 to 150, 150 to 105, 105 to 90 and 90 to 0 ?m. The results indicate that (1) total quantities of N, P, K were much larger than that in the general soil and the quantities of available N, P and K were also adequate; (2) total content of P was sufficient, but the ratio of available-P to total P was not high enough; (3) with the decrease of particle size, the contents of these elements presented different trends. The results implicate that total contents of N, P and K were enough for the aged refuse being exploited as cultivated soil, and different gradation of aged refuse could be added to improve poor soils. It provides scientific evidence for utilizing different particle-size aged refuse comprehensively. PMID:21767940

Li, Guangke; Hou, Fen; Guo, Zhen; Yao, Gaoyi; Sang, Nan

2011-11-01

263

Cadmium and lead accumulation by goldfish exposed to aqueous refuse incinerator fly ash leachate  

SciTech Connect

The increased use of incineration with modern emission control devices for reducing the mass of municipal solid waste is resulting in ever greater quantities of ash to be disposed. Heavy metals present in the original refuse are concentrated in the ash and landfill disposal of it has prompted public concern of possible contamination of groundwater through leaching. Several investigators have reported the presence of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium in aqueous leachates of refuse incinerator ashes in laboratory studies. It was of interest to determine the effect of such leachates on fish. In the work reporter here, goldfish were exposed to aqueous leachates of municipal refuse incinerator ash. Visual observations of fish behavior, heavy metal analysis and histologic examination of tissues were then carried out.

Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1989-12-01

264

Model of leaching behavior from fly ash landfills with different age refuses  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model that accounts for simultaneous moisture movement and contaminant transport is developed to predict the leaching behavior from fly ash landfills with different age refuses. The approach is based on dividing the refuse layer into separate regions for each age refuse and solving model equations for each region. With the exception of boron in leachate of coal fly ash, good agreement between model simulation and experimental data of laboratory column-leaching tests was obtained. However, the simulated boron concentration profile can be improved by the addition of a retardation factor in the model equation. The important parameters were evaluated in a sensitivity analysis to see their respective effects. Four parameters were identified to influence strongly the model performance: dissolution rate constant (k{sub n}), exponential constant (n), ultimate mass of leachable contaminant (M{sub o}), and maximum contaminant concentration (C{sub max}).

Huang, C.; Lu, C.; Tzeng, J. [National Chung-Hsing Univ., Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

1998-08-01

265

A systematic review of interventions for reducing parental vaccine refusal and vaccine hesitancy.  

PubMed

Unvaccinated individuals pose a public health threat to communities. Research has identified many factors associated with parental vaccine refusal and hesitancy toward childhood and adolescent immunizations. However, data on the effectiveness of interventions to address parental refusal are limited. We conducted a systematic review of four online databases to identify interventional studies. We used criteria recommended by the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) for the quality assessment of studies. Intervention categories and outcomes were evaluated for each body of evidence and confidence in overall estimates of effect was determined. There is limited evidence to guide implementation of effective strategies to deal with the emerging threat of parental vaccine refusal. There is a need for appropriately designed, executed and evaluated intervention studies to address this gap in knowledge. PMID:23859839

Sadaf, Alina; Richards, Jennifer L; Glanz, Jason; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B

2013-09-13

266

Drug offers as a context for violence perpetration and victimization.  

PubMed

Drug use has been linked empirically with and aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai'i samples. However, the nature of this link and its implications for prevention are unclear. Therefore, this article explores the intersection of drugs with aggression and violence by using the drug offer context as the unit of analysis. Native Hawaiian youth are sampled because substance use rates tend to be higher and onset tends to be earlier for them than for their non-Hawaiian peers. Fourteen sex-specific focus group discussions were held with rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N = 64). Students discussed what they think they would do in terms of drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Although aggression and violence were perceived to be socially inappropriate, students nonetheless felt drug use would be less socially competent. Narrative analyses indicated that aggression and violence were thought to function as potential drug refusal strategies. As proximal drug resistance, aggression and violence perpetration served as an immediate deterrent to the drug offerer and thus drug use. As distal drug resistance, victimization served as a rationale for avoiding drug using contexts. Implications are discussed in terms of prevention policy and practice, specifically in terms of a school-based prevention curriculum. Future research in Hawaiian epistemology and gendered approaches are warranted. PMID:24564559

Helm, Susana; Okamoto, Scott; Kaliades, Alexis; Giroux, Danielle

2014-01-01

267

Strategic Organization of Skill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eye-movement software was developed in addition to several studies that focused on expert-novice differences in the acquisition and organization of skill. These studies focused on how increasingly complex strategies utilize and incorporate visual look-ahe...

R. Roberts

1996-01-01

268

Interpersonal Skills Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was developed as part of a larger research project designed to identify evidence-based guidelines for the relative effectiveness of different training methods for acquiring and transferring skills involved in complex task domains. Broadly, the...

A. Fisher M. Gronowski P. McDermott S. Hutchins T. Carolan

2013-01-01

269

Contribution of Oral Language Skills, Linguistic Skills, and Transcription Skills to Chinese Written Composition among Fourth-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…

Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

2013-01-01

270

A novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash.  

PubMed

In this paper, a systematic study was conducted to investigate a novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash. The coal refuse and fly ash had different properties under various thermal activation temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 350 °C, 550 °C, 750 °C and 950 °C). It is known that a thermal activation temperature ranging from 20 °C to 950 °C significantly increases the flowability and pozzolanic properties of the coal refuse; however, the flowability of fly ash decreases when the activation temperature is higher than 550 °C because of a severe agglomeration phenomenon on its surface. An optimal design for this backfill material was determined to include an activated portion composed of 5% coal refuse at 750 °C and 15% fly ash at 20 °C. This combination yields the best performance with excellent flowability, a high compressive strength and a low bleeding rate. The microanalysis results corresponded well with the performance tests at different activation conditions. In the coal refuse, kaolinite peaks began to decrease because of their transformation into metakaolin at 550 °C. Chlorite peaks disappeared at 750 °C. Muscovite peaks decreased at 750 °C and disappeared at 950 °C. During this process, muscovite 2M(1) gradually dehydroxylated to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this paper examined the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash not only meets EPA requirements but also has several advantages in industry feasibility when compared with hydraulic backfill, rock backfill and paste backfill. PMID:22336582

Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu

2012-04-30

271

Experimental studies of the production of lightweight aggregate from fly ash/coal cleaning refuse mixtures  

SciTech Connect

In this work, a granulation/sintering process have been developed for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate from coal cleaning refuse and fly ash. The resulting granules have the properties required of a lightweight aggregate. It is important to note, however, that while these properties can be measured and evaluated, it is difficult to identify a good aggregate other than by showing that it can be used to make good concrete. Tests on the aggregate alone are helpful in assessing its suitability, but the final criterion must be performance in concrete. This evaluation remains to be done for the refuse/fly ash aggregate. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

1987-01-01

272

Test procedures for the determination of the gross calorific value of refuse and refuse-derived-fuels by oxygen bomb calorimetry. Summary of the 1977 fiscal year results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross calorific values have been determined for refuse-derived-fuels (RDF) from two manufacturers, Teledyne National and Combustion Equipment Associates. Test procedures used are modifications of those used for coal and coke. The calorific values (moisture- and ash-free basis) obtained for Teledyne National RDF ranged from 24.51 to 25.20 MJ kg⁻¹ (10,539 to 10,835 Btu 1b⁻¹) with a standard deviation of 0.8

D. R. Kirklin; D. J. Mitchell; J. Cohen; E. S. Domalski; S. Abramowitz

1978-01-01

273

Generating basic skills reports for low-skilled readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe SkillSum, a Natural Language Generation (NLG) system that generates a personalised feedback report for someone who has just completed a screening assessment of their basic literacy and numeracy skills. Because many SkillSum users have limited lit- eracy, the generated reports must be easily comprehended by people with limited reading skills; this is the most novel aspect of SkillSum,

Sandra Williams; Ehud Reiter

2008-01-01

274

Skills Verdict: Must Do Better  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Ambition 2020: World Class Skills and Jobs" is the UK Commission for Employment and Skills' annual assessment, to the four UK nations, of their progress towards becoming "world class" in productivity, employment and skills by 2020. "Ambition 2020" provides a robust independent account of economic and skills developments. This report is the…

Spilsbury, Mark

2010-01-01

275

Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

2014-01-01

276

The Role of Woman's Explanations for Refusal on Men's Ability to Discriminate Unwanted Sexual Behavior in a Date Rape Scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of types of women's verbal refusals, and the timing of her refusal, on men's discrimination of when a female wants her partner to stop making sexual advances. Male students were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 conditions (Explanations × Intimacy Levels). Before listening to an audiotape of a date rape, participants were told they would

Victoria E. Van Wie; Alan M. Gross

2001-01-01

277

Size-fractionation and characterization of refuse landfill leachate by sequential filtration using membranes with varied porosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh leachate and effluents samples were collected from the holding tank, anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic lagoons at Shanghai Laogang Refuse Landfill, the largest landfill in China with a placement scale of 9000t refuse per day. To characterize the difference in leachate along the treatment processes, especially the information about size distribution of colloids in those leachate, the organic matters were

Lou Ziyang; Zhao Youcai

2007-01-01

278

25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? 30...What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? ...directly with State officials to assist schools in obtaining access to the...

2011-04-01

279

Recovery of Alumina from Fly Ash: Use of Coal Cleaning Refuse as a Mineralizer in the Lime-Sinter Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficiency of alumina recovery from coal fly ash by the lime-sinter process is improved by the addition of a small amount of coal cleaning refuse. Approximately 5.0 wt % refuse increases alumina recovery from 55% to 90% for subbituminous coal ashes an...

N. R. Fronczak G. Burnet

1983-01-01

280

45 CFR 1159.11 - How can I appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record? 1159.11 Section 1159...THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE...appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record? (a) You may...

2013-10-01

281

20 CFR 10.517 - What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer? 10.517 Section 10.517 Employees' Benefits...517 What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer? (a) 5 U.S.C. 8106(c) provides...

2013-04-01

282

Drug Resistance and Substance Use Among Male and Female Adolescents in Alternative Secondary Schools in Guanajuato, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objective: Research is limited on the strategies that Mexican adolescents use to resist use of alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs. Cultural norms and gender socialization patterns concerning the acceptability of use of various substances by women and men influence Mexican youths in their responses to offers of substances. This study explored the drug-resistance strategies used by youth in the central Mexican state of Guanajuato, how their use predicted patterns of substance use, and how these associations differed by gender. Method: The analysis used cross-sectional survey data from 702 (60% male) students enrolled in eight alternative secondary education school sites in 2007. Participants reported the drug-resistance behaviors they used to deal with offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Past-12-month use of the four drug-resistance strategies employed most often by U.S. youth—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (R.E.A.L.)—and any other strategies were measured. Composite measures of lifetime and recent use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were predicted in multivariate ordinary least squares regression analyses. Models were tested with and without controls for the frequency that respondents were offered substances and introduced gender interaction effects. Results: Controlling for substance use offers, more frequent use of a wide repertoire of R.E.A.L. strategies predicted less consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, and using non-R.E.A.L. strategies predicted less marijuana consumption. All of these relationships were either stronger for males than for females or significant for males only. Conclusions: Gender differences exist in the impact of R.E.A.L. strategies on substance use among youth in Mexico. Despite a narrowing gender gap in substance use in Mexico, large exposure to and susceptibility of substance use remains. Developing effective prevention programs in Mexico based on teaching appropriate drug-resistance strategies and enhancing communication skills could aid in reducing substance use among Mexican adolescents.

Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime; Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha L.

2012-01-01

283

Learning surgical technical skills.  

PubMed

Training issues raised by the recent introduction of laparoscopic surgical techniques led to this analysis of motor-skill learning principles as they apply specifically to the learning of technical surgical skills. The most accepted theories of motor-skill learning are presented, not as opposing views, but as complementary constructs. The behaviourist school of thought's main contribution is the executive routine or knowledge of the steps of a procedure. Schmidt's schema theory and MacKay's node theory suggest that perceptual information may play an important role in the quality of the performance. The conclusions reached from neuropsychologic testing experiments on surgeons are that visuospatial perceptual skills (the ability to represent mentally the physical environment and the movement to be performed) are the major determinants of surgical technical performance. Learners should make use of learning strategies that improve mental representation of a skill and the corresponding anatomy. Specific strategies discussed include imagery, mental practice and a systematic review of performance that focuses on the perceptual feedback received by the learner. PMID:7882206

DesCôteaux, J G; Leclère, H

1995-02-01

284

GASEOUS HC1 AND CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE FIRED WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The emissions from a water wall mass fired municipal waste incinerator and a refuse derived fuel (RDF) fired incinerator were sampled for chlorinated organic compounds and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The sampling was performed to evaluate the extractive sampling methods used to meas...

285

TIME-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSED REFUSE. PART I: MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SOLID WASTE SETTLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The material investigated in this study is municipal refuse which has been processed in a hammer mill to produce a relatively fine-textured material in which the constituents are uniformly mixed. Such a material offers several advantages from an operational point of view, so that...

286

Dewatering of fine coal and refuse slurries-problems and possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dewatering of fine clean coal and refuse slurry is one of the most important aspects of coal cleaning scenario. It is also adds significant cost to the price of clean coal. This article summarizes the current state-of-the art of dewatering being practiced around the world and discuses some of the upcoming novel dewatering technologies. Hyperbaric filter provides a low moisture

B. K. Parekh

2009-01-01

287

Production of fuel briquettes from olive refuse and paper mill waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some processes have been widely applied to biomass in order to take advantage of its energy potential. In particular, these processes are based on pyrolysis or gasification. In this study, briquetting was applied to olive refuse and paper mill waste to form fuel briquettes. For this purpose, the particle sizes of both biomass samples were decreased to ?250 ?m and

S Yaman; M ?ahan; H Haykiri-açma; K ?e?en; S Küçükbayrak

2000-01-01

288

Treatment Refusal in Adolescents with Severe Chronic Illness and Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The aim of this study is to address the complex psychopathologic factors involved in treatment refusal observed in adolescents suffering from a severe chronic illness. Method: We report on five chronically ill adolescents (2 diabetes mellitus, 1 maple syrup urine disease, 1 bird fancier's lung, 1 HIV infection) who were consecutively admitted to an inpatient psychiatric service as a

Emmanuel Jaunay; Angèle Consoli; Brian Greenfield; Jean-Marc Guilé; Philippe Mazet; David Cohen

289

Methane generation and microbial activity in a domestic refuse landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carboxylic acid and sulphate concentrations, microbial activity as estimated by extracellular enzyme activities, and biogas production, at Aveley Landfill Site (Essex) were markedly influenced by refuse moisture content, which depended on the level of the water table. Cellulose: lignin ratios were indicative of cellulose disappearance and enzyme activity determinations may be a measure of the potential of landfill sites to

K. L. Jones; J. F. Rees; J. M. Grainger

1983-01-01

290

Why Do Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Refuse to Apply Topical Corticosteroids?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The number of patients with atopic dermatitis who refuse to use topical corticosteroids because of personal fears seems to be increasing. However, studies on this subject are scarce. Consequently, we have investigated this issue further. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire. Between September 1998 and January 1999, a questionnaire was distributed to patients who responded to an

Mototsugu Fukaya

2000-01-01

291

Gasification of refuse derived fuel in a fixed bed reactor for syngas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam gasification of two different refuse derived fuels (RDFs), differing slightly in composition as well as thermal stability, was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The proximate and ultimate analyses reveal that carbon and hydrogen are the major components in RDFs. The thermal analysis indicates the presence of cellulose and plastic based materials in RDFs. H2 and

Ajay K. Dalai; Nishant Batta; I. Eswaramoorthi; Greg J. Schoenau

2009-01-01

292

A fundamental study on conventional pyrolysis of a refuse-derived fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis behavior of a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) under heating conditions typical of conventional pyrolysis processes was investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed on RDF and on some materials which have been considered key components of the thermal degradation of RDF. The product fractions obtained by RDF pyrolysis runs in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor, at temperatures

Valerio Cozzani; Cristiano Nicolella; Luigi Petarca; Mauro Rovatti; Leonardo Tognotti

1995-01-01

293

ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic contaminants in emissions from refuse-derived fuel combustion were investigated in a 20-inch-diameter atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor. Combinations of coal/EcoFuel/MSW/toluene were burned inthe combustor with temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1550 degrees F. A Source ...

294

Tacoma Refuse Fired Combustor Study for the City of Tacoma, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using refuse-derived fuel and other waste fuels to fire a central energy plant to meet the heating and cooling needs of the Central Business District of Tacoma, with the possibility of marketing ...

R. R. Bell

1978-01-01

295

Tacoma Refuse Fired Combustor Study for the City of Tacoma, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the feasibility of using refuse-derived fuels and other municipal wastes to fire a central energy plant to meet the heating and cooling needs of Tacoma, Washington, with the possibility of marketing steam and/or electricity as a by-prod...

1978-01-01

296

Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

P. Norton; K. Kelly

1996-01-01

297

Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

2012-01-01

298

A Program for Engaging Treatment-Refusing Substance Abusers into Treatment: CRAFT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a scientifically-supported program for family members who are desperate to get a treatment-refusing substance abuser to enter treatment (Meyers & Wolfe, 2004; Sisson & Azrin, 1986; Smith & Meyers, 2004). CRAFT teaches these family members how to apply behavioral principles at home so that…

Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Lash, Denise N.

2005-01-01

299

DEMONSTRATION TEST OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL AS A SUPPLEMENTAL FUEL IN CEMENT KILNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from Baltimore County, Maryland, residential solid waste was successfully tested as a supplementary fuel with pulverized coal in a large rotary cement kiln. RDF was produced at the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility, a joint project of Bal...

300

Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

2012-10-15

301

Learner and Native Speaker Perspectives on a Culturally-Specific Japanese Refusal Gesture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate how learners of Japanese as a second language (n=16) and Japanese native speakers (n=17) interpret a Japanese refusal gesture, the so-called Hand Fan, to observe how these interpretations are accompanied by similar manual gestures, and to see how participants perceive its comprehensibility. Results…

Jungheim, Nicholas O.

2006-01-01

302

Using Food Redistribution to Reduce Packing in Children with Severe Food Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive- and negative-reinforcement-based procedures typically have targeted acceptance for children with severe food refusal; however, these procedures do not always result in successful swallowing. Once acceptance is achieved, some children expel the food repeatedly or pack (hold or pocket) it in their mouths for extended periods of time. This…

Gulotta, Charles S.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Layer, Stacy A.

2005-01-01

303

The Stability of Family Decisions to Consent or Refuse Organ Donation: Would You Do It Again?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Past organ donation research has studied attitudes toward donation, predictors of signing donor cards, and distinguishing characteristics of donors vs. nondonors. The current study is the first to examine predictors of family members's satisfaction with the decision to consent or refuse donation of a dying loved one's organs or tissue. Method: This study surveyed 225 family members who had

THOMAS E. BURROUGHS; BARRY A. HONG; DEAN F. KAPPEL; BARRY K. FREEDMAN

304

Perceptions of Refusals to Invitations: Exploring the Minds of Foreign Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptions of speech act realisations of native and non-native speakers abound in the cross-cultural and interlanguage pragmatics literature. Yet, what is lacking is an analysis of the cognitive processes involved in the production of speech acts. This study examines the cognitive processes and perceptions of learners of Spanish when refusing…

Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar

2008-01-01

305

COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

306

THE CODISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND REFUSE IN THE PUROX SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This program was conducted to establish the technical feasibility of codisposal of filtered sludge cake from primary and secondary wastewater treatment with municipal refuse in the PUROX System; to determine the environmental effect of this process; and to estimate the economics ...

307

Reasons Given by High School Students for Refusing Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine reasons given by high school students for refusing to participate in a school-based noninvasive chlamydia and gonorrhea screening that was offered at no cost to students, using the health belief model as theoretical framework. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Public high schools in a southern urban United States…

Sanders, Ladatra S.; Nsuami, Malanda; Cropley, Lorelei D.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

2007-01-01

308

Resisting Colonial Education: Zitkala-Sa and Native Feminist Archival Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines resistance through a Native Feminist lens, employing the boarding school memoirs of Zitkala-Sa. Within a "story" of appropriation in methodology, it considers protest and parody, and presents archival refusal as modes of resistance to colonial education. (Contains 1 figure.)

Terrance, Laura L.

2011-01-01

309

CONTROL OF PCDD/PCDF EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents preliminary results of performance tests conducted at the Mid-Connecticut Refuse-Derived Fuel Facility in February 1989. The objectives of these performance tests were to evaluate the effects of combustion and flue gas cleaning process conditions on air pollut...

310

Why Kids Refuse to Go to School . . . and What Schools Can Do about It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle-level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are aware of effective intervention strategies can help provide supportive school…

Wimmer, Mary

2008-01-01

311

Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups  

PubMed Central

Background In high income countries, vaccine-preventable diseases have been greatly reduced through routine vaccination programs. Despite this success, many parents question, and a small proportion even refuse vaccination for their children. As no qualitative studies have explored the factors behind these decisions among Dutch parents, we performed a study using online focus groups. Methods In total, eight online focus groups (n?=?60) which included Dutch parents with at least one child, aged 0–4 years, for whom they refused all or part of the vaccinations within the National Immunization Program (NIP). A thematic analysis was performed to explore factors that influenced the parents’ decisions to refuse vaccination. Results Refusal of vaccination was found to reflect multiple factors including family lifestyle; perceptions about the child’s body and immune system; perceived risks of disease, vaccine efficacy, and side effects; perceived advantages of experiencing the disease; prior negative experience with vaccination; and social environment. The use of online focus groups proved to be an effective qualitative research method providing meaningful data. Conclusion Information provided by the NIP turned out to be insufficient for this group of parents. More trust in the NIP and deliberate decisions might result from increased parental understanding of lifestyle and disease susceptibility, the impact of vaccinations on the immune system, and the relative risks of diseases and their vaccines. The public health institute should also inform parents that the NIP is recommended but non-mandatory.

2013-01-01

312

Refuse-derived fuel evaluation in an industrial spreader-stoker boiler  

SciTech Connect

Municipal refuse-derived fuel and coal were cofired in a retrofitted 125,000 lb steam/hr (55,000 kg/hr) spreader-stoker boiler. Results from 19 tests, which include fuel characteristics, boiler performance, particulate and gaseous emissions, and trace element emissions, are reported. System design and economic considerations are also discussed.

Ragland, K.W.; Ham, R.K.; Madding, R.P.; Smith, M.L.; Vetter, R.J.

1984-10-01

313

Refuse-derived fuel evaluation in an industrial spreader-stoker boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal refuse-derived fuel and coal were cofired in a retrofitted 125,000 lb steam\\/hr (55,000 kg\\/hr) spreader-stoker boiler. Results from 19 tests, which include fuel characteristics, boiler performance, particulate and gaseous emissions, and trace element emissions, are reported. System design and economic considerations are also discussed.

K. W. Ragland; R. K. Ham; R. P. Madding; M. L. Smith; R. J. Vetter

1984-01-01

314

Characteristics of Women Refusing Follow-up for Tests or Symptoms Suggestive of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Delay in diagnosis of breast cancer can occur at several points on the diagnostic pathway. We examined characteristics of women with breast cancer who before diagnosis actively refused recommended follow-up of tests or symptoms suggestive of breast cancer. Methods: We iden- tifi ed women aged 50 years or older diagnosed with late- stage (metastatic disease or tumors ? 3cm

Sheila Weinmann; Stephen H. Taplin; Joyce Gilbert; Robert K. Beverly; Ann M. Geiger; Marianne Ulcickas Yood; Judy Mouchawar; M. Michele Manos; Jane G. Zapka; Emily Westbrook; William E. Barlow

2005-01-01

315

Active refusal increases human immunodeficiency virus screening in an urban prenatal clinic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether universal routine antenatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing with patient notification and active refusal (IOM, 1999) would increase HIV screening in our pregnant population.Methods: Since 1995, we have followed ACOG guidelines of universal pretest counseling and voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women. A prospective interventional study was begun August 1, 1999, and results are presented through

Elizabeth Stringer; Jeffrey Stringer; Sue Cliver; Robert Goldenberg; Alice Goepfert

2001-01-01

316

Cadmium and lead accumulation by goldfish exposed to aqueous refuse incinerator fly ash leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of incineration with modern emission control devices for reducing the mass of municipal solid waste is resulting in ever greater quantities of ash to be disposed. Heavy metals present in the original refuse are concentrated in the ash and landfill disposal of it has prompted public concern of possible contamination of groundwater through leaching. Several investigators have

Carl A. Bache; Donald J. Lisk

1989-01-01

317

Emissions Resulting from the Full-Scale Cofiring of Pelletized Refuse-Derived Fuel and Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Full-scale cofiring tests of binder-enhanced pellets of densified, refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur coal were conducted during June and July of 1987 in Boiler No. 5 at Argonne National Laboratory. These tests were conducted with industry, state,...

O. O. Ohlsson K. Daugherty B. Venables

1988-01-01

318

Fly ash grout snuffs stubborn coal refuse fire. [Ohio Edison power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A slurry made of fly ash and water can be used to extinguish a particularly difficult kind of fire--a burning pile of coal refuse. Not an uncommon problem in coal mining areas, such a fire had smoldered for several decades at a coal slag pile behind an Ohio Edison generating plant. The basic procedure involved driving pipes into and through

Ryan

1976-01-01

319

Utilization of Fly Ash and Coal Mine Refuse as a Road Base Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a four-year study to determine the feasibility of using fly ash and coal mine refuse as a road base in a parking lot. The lot was divided into three areas each receiving the same surface treatment but wit...

R. B. Scott R. C. Wilmoth

1979-01-01

320

Experimental studies of the production of lightweight aggregate from fly ash\\/coal cleaning refuse mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a granulation\\/sintering process have been developed for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate from coal cleaning refuse and fly ash. The resulting granules have the properties required of a lightweight aggregate. It is important to note, however, that while these properties can be measured and evaluated, it is difficult to identify a good aggregate other than by showing

G. Burnet; A. J. Gokhale

1987-01-01

321

Analysis of fly ash produced from combustion of refuse-derived fuel and coal mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF\\/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Ca, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br, Hf, Ni, Sc, V, and the rare earths. Smaller particles in the

David R. Taylor; Michael A. Tompkins; Sarah E. Kirton; Thad Mauney; David F. S. Natusch; Philip K. Hopke

1982-01-01

322

The use of town refuse ash in urban agriculture around Jos, Nigeria: health and environmental risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study that examines the health and environmental risks of using town refuse ash in urban vegetable production in Jos, Nigeria, in terms of heavy metal accumulation in the food chain. Soil and crop samples, collected from five study farms, and samples of the river water used for irrigation, were analysed for seven heavy metals Fe,

M. W. Pasquini

2006-01-01

323

Investigation of the Use of Coal Refuse-Fly Ash Compositions as Highway Base Course Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to recycle waste products is becoming more crucial as the cost of their disposal escalates and the availability of conventional materials becomes scarce. Two such by-products of the coal industry, coal refuse and fly ash, have shown promise as co...

P. V. McQuade W. J. Head R. B. Anderson

1981-01-01

324

Effects of inhaled municipal refuse incinerator fly ash in the guinea pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash was collected from two municipal refuse incinerators. It was analyzed for heavy metals, elements, and a wide range of toxic organics. It was resuspended in air for inhalation exposure of guinea pigs. These animals were exposed at high concentrations of each ash 6 h\\/d for 5 d, and tissues were taken 45 d after the exposure. Following the

Yves Alarie; M. Iwasaki; M. F. Stock; Renee C. Pearson; Barbara S. Shane; Donald J. Lisk

1989-01-01

325

Fluidized bed combustion of refuse-derived fuel in presence of protective coal ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) alone or together with other biomass leads to superheater fouling and corrosion in efficient power plants (with high steam values) due to vaporization and condensation of alkali chlorides. In this study, means were found to raise the portion of RDF to 40% enb without risk to boilers. This was done by co-firing RDF with coal

Eduardo Ferrer; Martti Aho; Jaani Silvennoinen; Riku-Ville Nurminen

2005-01-01

326

Analysis of removal of ash components from refuse derived fuel during pneumatic transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted of the feasibility of removing a portion of the inorganic fines (particles less than a few millimeters in diameter) from refuse-derived fuel (air classifier light fraction) during the pneumatic conveying of the fuel from the production point to the storage silo or user's site. The relevant parameters, geometric and dynamic, of the pneumatic circuit and mixture

Renard

1982-01-01

327

UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH AND COAL MINE REFUSE AS A ROAD BASE MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a four-year study to determine the feasibility of using fly ash and coal mine refuse as a road base in a parking lot. The lot was divided into three areas each receiving the same surface treatment but wit different ratios of fly ...

328

Coal mine spoil and refuse bank reclamation with powerplant fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous coal mine refuse piles and strip spoil banks mar the countryside, contributing to stream and air pollution and land degradation. Experimental reclamation of several such sites with fly ash from bituminous coal-fired powerplants was conducted in West Virginia and Pennsylvania. Conventional farm equipment was used at some of the sites; large earthmovers were required at others. The fly ash

L. M. Adams; J. P. Capp; D. W. Gillmore

1972-01-01

329

APPLYING FABRIC FILTRATION TO REFUSE-FIRED BOILERS: A PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was sized to handle 9000 acfm at ...

330

Evaluation of the Zig-Zag Dryer at the Doncaster Refuse Processing Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Details are given of full-scale tests undertaken on the novel zig-zag drying system installed at the Doncaster Refuse Processing plant. The tests were designed to evaluate the efficiency and performance of the dryer and thereby establish its potential for...

P. Tomkinson

1984-01-01

331

Jehovah's Witnesses' refusal of blood: obedience to scripture and religious conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jehovah's Witnesses are students of the Bible. They refuse transfusions out of obedience to the scriptural directive to abstain and keep from blood. Dr Muramoto disagrees with the Witnesses' religious beliefs in this regard. Despite this basic disagreement over the meaning of Biblical texts, Muramoto flouts the religious basis for the Witnesses' position. His proposed policy change about accepting transfusions

D T Ridley

1999-01-01

332

Medical confidentiality and the protection of Jehovah's Witnesses' autonomous refusal of blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr Ridley of the Watch Tower Society (WTS), the controlling religious organisation of Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs), mischaracterises the issue of freedom and confidentiality in JWs' refusal of blood by confusing inconsistent organisational policies with actual Biblical proscriptions. Besides exaggeration and distortion of my writings, Ridley failed to present substantive evidence to support his assertion that no pressure exists to conform

Osamu Muramoto

2000-01-01

333

Predictors of Tobacco and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy for Urban and Rural African-American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive…

Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corona, Rosalie; Townsend, Tiffany G.

2009-01-01

334

A comparison of patients requiring orthognathic treatment who subsequently refused or accepted surgery.  

PubMed

Forty-four patients who required combined orthodontic-surgical procedures were psychologically assessed in relation to stress, self-esteem, introspectiveness, and body satisfaction. Thirty patients accepted the surgical procedures, and 14 refused surgery. These two groups of patients were compared with respect to their psychologic profiles; statistical analysis detected no significant differences. PMID:9743644

Kindelan, J D; Sheard, C E; Nashed, R R

1998-01-01

335

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR RECOVERY OF FINE COAL REFUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the economics of an oil-agglomeration process (with and without an oil recovery system) for recovering coal fines from a fine refuse stream of 105 ton/hr from a coal preparation plant. The two base case processes studied are oil-agglom...

336

Applying Fabric Filtration to Refuse-Fired Boilers: A Pilot-Scale Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was size...

J. D. McKenna J. C. Mycock R. L. Miller K. D. Brandt

1978-01-01

337

Consuming un-captured methane from landfill using aged refuse bio-cover.  

PubMed

A novel simulated bio-cover was developed to facilitate the biological methane oxidation process using aged refuse and aged sludge from landfill. It was found that 78.7% and 66.9% of CH(4) could be removed, with the aged refuse: aged sludge (w/w%) ratio of 7:3 and 6:4 in bio-cover system, respectively. The maximum CH(4) removal rate could reach 100%, when the aged refuse with the disposal time more than 14 years were applied in bio-cover. Some controlled factors for the methanotrophic activity, i.e. moisture, Eh and organic matter content, were also investigated. It was found that CH(4) oxidation rate increased greatly, when the moisture content and organic matter were increased from 6.0%, 4.8% to 8.0%, 9.5%, respectively. The optimum conditions for this bio-cover system was found to be as follows: aged refuse: aged sludge ratio of 7:3, the moisture content of 8-9%, Eh of 104-108 mV and organic matter of 9.5%. PMID:21078552

Lou, Ziyang; Wang, Li; Zhao, Youcai

2011-02-01

338

Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing) were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger) were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.

2012-01-01

339

Missed Opportunities: Refusal to Confirm Reactive Rapid HIV Tests in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Background HIV infection remains a major US public health concern. While HIV-infected individuals now benefit from earlier diagnosis and improved treatment options, progress is tempered by large numbers of newly diagnosed patients who are lost to follow-up prior to disease confirmation and linkage to care. Methodology In the randomized, controlled USHER trial, we offered rapid HIV tests to patients presenting to a Boston, MA emergency department. Separate written informed consent was required for confirmatory testing. In a secondary analysis, we compared participants with reactive results who did and did not complete confirmatory testing to identify factors associated with refusal to complete the confirmation protocol. Principal Findings Thirteen of 62 (21.0%, 95% CI (11.7%, 33.2%)) participants with reactive rapid HIV tests refused confirmation; women, younger participants, African Americans, and those with fewer HIV risks, with lower income, and without primary care doctors were more likely to refuse. We projected that up to four true HIV cases were lost at the confirmation stage. Conclusions These findings underscore the need to better understand the factors associated with refusal to confirm reactive HIV testing and to identify interventions that will facilitate confirmatory testing and linkage to care among these populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00502944; NCT01258582.

Ganguli, Ishani; Collins, Jamie E.; Reichmann, William M.; Losina, Elena; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Arbelaez, Christian; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

2013-01-01

340

Class 8 Mack Straight Emulating a Refuse Hauler: Braking Improvement Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of higher output foundation brakes were determined for a Class 8, Mack 6x4 MR-688-S straight truck which emulated a McNeilus refuse hauler. Four brake types studied included: original hybrid S-cam drums, big S-cam drums, hybrid disc, and all-di...

R. L. Hoover T. R. Van Buskirk W. R. Garrott

2013-01-01

341

Case history of a 240 ton\\/day refuse to energy project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a refuse to energy project in a small city cooperating with local industry is discussed. Highlights are presented of the background, feasibility studies, the consultants role, the energy markets, the negotiated procurement process, financing, disposal and steam sales contracts, permits, design, construction, start-up, shake down, daily operations, and project economics.

1982-01-01

342

Noncontingent Reinforcement as Treatment for Food Refusal and Associated Self-Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the use of noncontingent reinforcement to decrease self-injury and increase bite acceptance in a child who exhibited food refusal. First, a brief functional analysis suggested that self-injury was maintained by escape from food presentation. Next, we evaluated an intervention that involved noncontingent access to a video during feeding…

Wilder, David A.; Normand, Matthew; Atwell, Julie

2005-01-01

343

Bacterial Population Development and Chemical Characteristics of Refuse Decomposition in a Simulated Sanitary Landfill  

PubMed Central

Population development of key groups of bacteria involved in municipal refuse conversion to methane was measured from the time of initial incubation through the onset of methane production. Hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens, and acetate- and H2-plus-CO2-utilizing methanogens were enumerated by the most-probable-number technique with media containing oat spelt xylan, ball-milled cellulose, butyrate, acetate, and H2 plus CO2, respectively. Refuse decomposition was monitored in multiple replicate laboratory-scale sanitary landfills. A laboratory-scale landfill was dismantled weekly for microbial and chemical analysis. Leachate was neutralized and recycled to ensure methanogenesis. The methane concentration of the sampled containers increased to 64% by day 69, at which time the maximum methane production rate, 929 liters of CH4 per dry kg-year, was measured. Population increases of 2, 4, 5, 5, and 6 orders of magnitude were measured between fresh refuse and the methane production phase for the hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, butyrate-catabolizing acetogens, and acetate- and H2-CO2-utilizing methanogens, respectively. The cellulolytic bacteria and acetogens increased more slowly than the methanogens and only after the onset of methane production. The initial decrease in the pH of the refuse ecosystem from 7.5 to 5.7 was attributed to the accumulation of acidic end products of sugar fermentation, to the low acid-consuming activity of the acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria, and to levels of oxygen and nitrate in the fresh refuse sufficient for oxidation of only 8% of the sugars to carbon dioxide and water. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition was most rapid after establishment of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations and a reduction in the initial accumulation of carboxylic acids. A total of 72% of these carbohydrates were degraded in the container sampled after 111 days. Initially acetate utilization, but ultimately polymer hydrolysis, limited the rate of refuse conversion to methane. Microbial and chemical composition data were combined to formulate an updated description of refuse decomposition in four phases: an aerobic phase, an anaerobic acid phase, an accelerated methane production phase, and a decelerated methane production phase.

Barlaz, M. A.; Schaefer, D. M.; Ham, R. K.

1989-01-01

344

45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...because a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? 286.150 Section...because a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? (a) If the...parent's refusal to engage in required work if he or she demonstrates an inability to...

2009-10-01

345

Predictors of refusal during a multi-step recruitment process for a randomized controlled trial of arthritis education  

PubMed Central

Objective Randomized controlled trials in patient education often have difficulty enrolling vulnerable populations – specifically, older, poorer and less educated individuals. We undertook a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an educational intervention for arthritis management, which included strategies to remove literacy-related barriers to participation. This paper reports on the multi-stage recruitment process and assesses whether refusal to participate was related to education, age, gender, working status or insurance status. Methods The recruitment protocol was designed to eliminate literacy-related barriers to participation. Patients were never asked to read or fill out forms. Interactions were oral, using everyday terms and short, clear sentences. Patients who declined during a screening call were considered Stage 1 Refusers. Patients who initially expressed interest but neither completed a baseline questionnaire nor provided consent were considered Stage 2 Refusers. Patients who consented were considered Enrollees. Age, gender, and insurance status were compared between Stage 1 Refusers and Enrollees. A second analysis compared these variables, plus educational attainment and working status, between Stage 2 Refusers and Enrollees. Results Of 408 eligible patients, there were 193 (47.3%) Stage 1 Refusers, 81 (19.9%) Stage 2 Refusers and 134 (32.8%) Enrollees. A higher proportion of Stage 1 Refusers than Enrollees were ?65 years old (58% vs. 37%, p=.0003). Multivariate analysis, adjusting for gender and insurance status, confirmed the effect of older age on refusal (OR=2.3 (1.4, 3.6)). There were no significant differences between Stage 2 Refusers and Enrollees. Conclusion We found no evidence of refusal to participate due to educational attainment, working status, insurance status, or gender. Older patients were more likely to refuse participation at the first stage of recruitment. Practice Implications Researchers should continue efforts to increase participation among older patients, particularly when studies are designed to be generalized to an elderly population as is the case with arthritis research. Strategies used in this recruitment protocol designed to remove literacy-related barriers to recruitment may be responsible for the observation that subjects with lower education did not have lower refusal rates. Such strategies deserve further study.

Blanch, Danielle; Rudd, Rima; Wright, Elizabeth; Gall, Victoria; Katz, Jeffrey N.

2008-01-01

346

Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option. PMID:18512437

Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

2008-05-01

347

Math Skills Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math skills review was written for first year college chemistry students who have weak math backgrounds, but is useful for all science students in high school and college. Topics covered include algebraic manipulation, dimensional analysis, significant figures, manipulation of exponents, scientific notation, logarithms, the quadratic equation and standard deviation.

Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy

1997-11-03

348

Mediation: Skills and techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediation-Skills and Techniques is an essential and comprehensive addition to the professional library of all mediators. It provides a thorough course of study of the mediation process, from convening the mediation to formalizing the settlement agreement. The book adopts an interdisciplinary approach to mediation, integrating knowledge and expertise from law, psychology, and sociology. Practical examples and case studies are used

Laurence Boulle; Colatrella Jr. Michael T; Anthony P. Picchioni

2008-01-01

349

State Skill Standards: Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

2007-01-01

350

Construction Cluster Skills Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve construction cluster skill standards and associated benchmarks were developed as part of a federally funded school-to-work initiative that included the following parties: the Chicago Public Schools; City Colleges of Chicago; and business, labor, and community organizations. The standards, which include core academic, generic workplace…

DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL. Built Environment Partnership.

351

Academic Skills Module.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A module consisting of eight academic skills is presented to help students achieve success and graduate from Northwestern State University (Louisiana) and other institutions. The elective course is open to all students, and especially for entering freshmen who have a grade point average of 2.0 or who are enrolled in developmental education…

Demery, Marie

352

Skills for Tomorrow's Workforce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last decade, concern over the nation's global economic status and the role of public education in preparing workers has led to a push for standards reform. Two converging reform strategies have emerged: (1) to create a voluntary system of academic standards for K-12 students, and (2) to create a voluntary system of industry-skill…

Ananda, Srijati M.; And Others

1995-01-01

353

Testing Historical Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines methods for including skill testing in teacher-made history tests. Focuses on distinguishing fact and fiction, evaluating the reliability of a source, distinguishing between primary and secondary sources, recognizing statements which support generalizations, testing with media, mapping geo-politics, and applying knowledge to new…

Baillie, Ray

1980-01-01

354

Strengthening Organizational Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project implemented and evaluated a program for establishing organizational skills, utilizing routines and tools that maximize school success. The targeted population consisted of students in four kindergarten classes in a primary school and three third-grade classes in an intermediate school. Analysis of probable cause data…

Brito, Gail; Dorsey, Sharon; Dorey, Sheila; House, Pamela; Nouke, Margaret

355

State Skill Standards: Metalworking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any…

Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

2005-01-01

356

State Skill Standards: Welding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

2005-01-01

357

Building Science Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. The National Science Education Standards call for science teachers "to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources…

DeFina, Anthony V.

2006-01-01

358

Life Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

Schwartz, Sunny

2005-01-01

359

Training in Coaching Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the implementation effects of a program for the training in coaching skills with Dutch school counselors are described. These school counselors are expected to provide help and support to primary school teachers. Coaching is a form of in-class support intended to provide teachers with feedback on their own functioning, thereby…

Veenman, Simon

360

Rapid Response Skills Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College's (MGCCC) long-term commitment to providing workforce training in a post-Katrina environment became a catalyst for designing short-term flexible educational opportunities. Providing nationally recognized skills training for the recovery/rebuilding of communities challenged the college to develop innovative,…

Kelley-Winders, Anna Faye

2008-01-01

361

Volunteer Skills Data System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist persons with developmental disabilities in South Dakota to become more independent, productive, and integrated into the community, the South Dakota Advocacy Project, Inc. implemented the Volunteer Skills Data System (VSDS). As South Dakota is primarily rural, accessibility to services and programs is a particular concern. Community…

Frame, Ron

362

Degradation of Artillery Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thesis: Continuous non-standard/non-artillery deployments in support of the Global War on Terror (GWOT) conducted by artillery units over the past five years has caused severe degradation of artillery skills and the ability to fire accurate and predicted ...

T. M. Slinger

2009-01-01

363

Skills for Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written for students who wish to enhance their leadership potential and skills. Chapter 1, The Challenge of Leadership, defines leadership and looks at the myths, challenges, costs, and rewards of leadership. Chapter 2, Understanding Communication, examines communication as a process, exposes myths about communication, discusses ways…

Gray, John W.; Pfeiffer, Angela Laird

364

Measuring Skills and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Customized skills assessments can perform a number of functions: help training departments demonstrate their effectiveness; provide a foundation for career development programs; reinforce company values; add feedback from the bottom up for performance evaluation; provide a concentrated focus for customer service improvement; and serve as a…

Ludeman, Kate

1991-01-01

365

Adult Survival Skills Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

Walsko, Gregory M.

366

Prevention of surgical skill decay.  

PubMed

The U.S. military medical community spends a great deal of time and resources training its personnel to provide them with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform life-saving tasks, both on the battlefield and at home. However, personnel may fail to retain specialized knowledge and skills if they are not applied during the typical periods of nonuse within the military deployment cycle, and retention of critical knowledge and skills is crucial to the successful care of warfighters. For example, we researched the skill and knowledge loss associated with specialized surgical skills such as those required to perform laparoscopic surgery (LS) procedures. These skills are subject to decay when military surgeons perform combat casualty care during their deployment instead of LS. This article describes our preliminary research identifying critical LS skills, as well as their acquisition and decay rates. It introduces models that identify critical skills related to laparoscopy, and proposes objective metrics for measuring these critical skills. This research will provide insight into best practices for (1) training skills that are durable and resistant to skill decay, (2) assessing these skills over time, and (3) introducing effective refresher training at appropriate intervals to maintain skill proficiency. PMID:24084308

Perez, Ray S; Skinner, Anna; Weyhrauch, Peter; Niehaus, James; Lathan, Corinna; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Cao, Caroline G L

2013-10-01

367

Pervasive refusal syndrome as part of the refusal-withdrawal-regression spectrum: critical review of the literature illustrated by a case report.  

PubMed

Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) is a rare child psychiatric disorder characterized by pervasive refusal, active/angry resistance to help and social withdrawal leading to an endangered state. Little has been written about PRS. A literature search yielded only 15 relevant articles, all published between 1991 and 2006. This article presents a critical review of the published literature, illustrated by a case report of an 11-year-old girl. PRS most often affects girls (75%). The mean age of the known population is 10.5 years. A premorbid high-achieving, perfectionist, conscientious personality seems to play an important role in the aetiology of PRS, as can a psychiatric history of parents or child and environmental stressors. PRS shows a symptom overlap with many other psychiatric disorders. However, none of the current DSM diagnoses can account for the full range of symptoms seen in PRS, and the active/angry resistance can be considered as the main distinguishing feature. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and characterized by patience, gentle encouragement and tender loving care. Hospitalization, ideally in a child and adolescent psychiatric unit, is almost always required. Although the recovery process is painfully slow (average duration of therapy 12.8 months), most children recover fully (complete recovery in 67% of known cases). In our opinion, it is important to increase knowledge of PRS, not only because of its disabling, potential life-threatening character, but also because there is hope for recovery through suitable treatment. We therefore propose an incorporation of PRS into the DSM and ICD classifications. However, an adaptation of the current diagnostic criteria is needed. We also consider PRS closely related to regression, which is why we introduce a new concept: "the refusal-withdrawal-regression spectrum". PMID:19458987

Jaspers, Tine; Hanssen, G M J; van der Valk, Judith A; Hanekom, Johann H; van Well, Gijs Th J; Schieveld, Jan N M

2009-11-01

368

[Refusal of prenatal HIV-testing: a case study in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)].  

PubMed

One of the main obstacles to HIV prevention in Africa remains the insufficient number of HIV tests performed. The low percentage of individuals aware of their serostatus is due in part to the insufficient availability of HIV testing, but also to individuals' refusal to have the HIV test. Because affordable treatment is now available, it is possible to implement on a much greater scale programs of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, accompanied by the expansion of prenatal HIV testing. It is therefore important to understand the reasons women refuse these tests. Here we analyse the women who refused the offer of prenatal HIV testing in the DITRAME Plus research program, intended to prevent mother-to-child transmission in Abidjan from 2001 through 2005. Three groups of women were followed for two years after they were offered HIV counselling and testing during an antenatal consultation: 347 HIV-infected women, 393 seronegative women, and 62 women who refused HIV testing. Nine months after delivery, HIV testing was again offered to the latter group. We collected quantitative data on social and demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and communication with their male partners about STIs, HIV, and HIV testing, before and after the pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women who refused HIV-testing. We sought to determine if their sociodemographic and behavioural profile was closer to that of HIV-positive or seronegative women, to assess the effects of prenatal counselling and the offer of testing on their attitudes about HIV risk, and to measure the percentage of women who accepted testing when the offer was repeated 9 months postpartum. Women who refused HIV-testing had a sociodemographic profile similar to that of the women who accepted testing and were seronegative. They did not have more at-risk behaviours. These women offered several reasons for their refusal, including avoidance of the anguish of a positive test result and the desire to ask their husbands first. Among the women who initially refused prenatal testing, only 23% had discussed STI/HIV issues with their male partner; after the testing offer, more than 90% suggested that their partner have an HIV test. Finally, 20% accepted the postpartum test offer, and those whose male partner had an HIV test were four times more likely than the others to accept (RR = 4.05 [1.55-10.58]). This study shows that prenatal counselling and the offer of HIV testing have beneficial effects on HIV prevention within the couple, even for women who refuse testing. It also points out that the decision to accept testing may take time and that repeating the offer is worthwhile. Finally, our results confirm the importance of the role of the regular partner in the acceptance of HIV testing, and reinforce the relevance of a couple-centred approach to voluntary counselling and testing. PMID:18180214

Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Tijou-Traoré, Annick

2007-01-01

369

Drug Effects Upon Cognitive Performance under Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three experiments were conducted to test an hypothesis concerning drug enhancement of performance under task-induced stress. Cognitive abilities subjected to examination were highly paced short-term memory and simple arithmetic skill. Changes in mood stat...

P. M. Hurst M. F. Weidner

1966-01-01

370

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Metal Stamping Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

371

[Refusal of food and fluids of a psychiatric patient in order to hasten death: obstacles for patient, family and care-team].  

PubMed

In this case-report we present a patient with a psychiatric history of a chronic depressive disorder. After a period of several years of ambivalence, he decided to refuse nutrition and hydration because he--in the words of the Royal Dutch Medical Association--was "suffering from life". There was no request for euthanasia or physician assisted suicide. His first attempt, that lasted six weeks, did not result in his death. A second attempt, four months later, ended successfully. We describe the pitfalls that the patient, his family and the professional caregivers faced in both trajectories. The premorbid psychiatric disorder with polypharmacy and several psychotropic drugs as a result, the enormous complaints of thirst, the role of his wife and the dilemmas faced by the professionals made this case very complex. These issues make such cases very challenging for professional teams that have to provide good palliative care. PMID:22642050

Koopmans, R T C M; Dekkers, W J M

2012-04-01

372

Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same  

DOEpatents

A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

1990-07-10

373

Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same  

DOEpatents

A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

1990-07-10

374

Adult Literacy and Drug Addiction: What's the Connection?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A core concept in dealing with drug addiction is the relationship between fear and drug use. In order to deal with fear, one response is a job skills class as a positive, ego-building experience in which literacy skills are emphasized in the context of self-discovery. (SK)

Neri, Charles

1990-01-01

375

Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities  

MedlinePLUS

... may need to be transferred to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility. ... Common medical problems that often lead to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility care include: Joint replacement surgery, ...

376

Baccalaureate Students Learn Assessment Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model for incorporating selected nursing practitioner skills at the University of Rochester School of Nursing (New York) begins the teaching of physical assessment skills with the neurological examination in the first year of the undergraduate nursing major. (EA)

Hagopian, Gloria; Kilpack, Virginia

1974-01-01

377

Drugged Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... the Military Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction NIDA Publications By Audience By Drug of Abuse By Drug ... Milestone: One Week of Transdermal Drug Delivery Featured Publication Drugs, Brains, and Behavior - The Science of Addiction ...

378

Computational Skills for Biology Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused interview explains how computational skills are essential for modern biology. Enhancements include teaching concepts listed in the Math & Bio 2010 report, illustrating to students that jobs today require quantitative skills, and the importance of using resources and materials that focus on computational skills.

Louis J. Gross (University of Tennessee, Knoxville;)

2006-06-01

379

Developing Managerial Skills in Palestine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the contribution of management training and development programmes (MTPs) to the development of managerial skills in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Different sets of variables were used to explore the managers' skills development by dividing the managerial skills into three main categories: self, people, and task-related…

Al-Madhoun, Mohammed; Analoui, Farhad

2002-01-01

380

Puzzle Play Improves Math Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief press release from the National Science Foundation summarizes the results of a University of Chicago study linking puzzle play with math skills. The study found that puzzle play proved to be a significant predictor of spatial skills. The study also found gender differences in child/parent interactions and in acquired skills.

2012-02-16

381

Employability Skills. At a Glance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

Wibrow, Bridget

2011-01-01

382

National Assessment's Consumer Skills Assessments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) encountered problems when developing a comprehensive assessment of consumer skills of 17-year-olds in 1978. When NAEP conducted a nationwide assessment of basic life skills of 17-year-olds in 1977, there was considerable interest in the consumer skills portion. Therefore, it was decided to…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

383

Improving Motor Skills in Kindergartners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project evaluated a program for improving motor skills in kindergartners by incorporating into the core curriculum motor activities, new materials focused on motor skills, and authentic assessments of motor skills. Teacher observations, scores from the DIAL-R (Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Revised)…

Bosma, Anne; Domka, Amy; Peterson, Jill

384

National Photonics Skill Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document marks an important milestone in the development and maintenance of high-quality associate degree programs in photonics in U.S. community and technical colleges. The need for photonics education is critical. The problem cannot be remedied through on-the-job training. Our public educational institutions, particularly two-year colleges, must get involved. But most cannot do so without guidelines for determining what knowledge and skills photonics graduates will need in the coming years.

2008-11-17

385

[When death is an act of care: refusing life support for children].  

PubMed

This paper analyzes a court case involving parents' refusal of life support measures for an 8-month-old infant with spinal muscular atrophy type I, a fatal degenerative genetic disease. The parents filed for a court injunction to ensure that the infant would not be submitted to mechanical ventilation in case of respiratory distress. The Brazilian courts recognized the parents' right to refuse life support measures, and the infant died a week after the ruling. The parents' request was to guarantee their right to avoid medical procedures that would not alter the infant's clinical prognosis. The author of this paper was called on to provide expert ethical counsel in this case, and the article is a modified and condensed version of the author's report to the presiding judge. PMID:16832546

Diniz, Debora

2006-08-01

386

Alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy: a test of specificity theory.  

PubMed

Although alcohol expectancy (expectations about the effects of drinking alcohol on one's behavior and mood) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to resist drinking in high-risk situations) have consistently been demonstrated to be useful to our understanding of alcohol use and abuse, the specificity of these constructs to alcohol consumption has not been previously demonstrated. Using 161 first-year psychology students and multiple regression analyses this study indicated that alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy were specifically related to quantity of alcohol consumption, but not to caffeine or nicotine intake. These results provide empirical evidence to confirm the theoretical and practical utility of these two cognitive constructs to alcohol research and serve to strengthen the theoretical foundations of alcohol expectancy theory. PMID:10972442

Oei, T P; Burrow, T

2000-01-01

387

Operational conditions: legal capacity of a patient soldier refusing medical treatment.  

PubMed

Using a three-dimensional ethical role-specific model, this article considers the dual loyalty conflict between following military orders and professional codes of practice in an operational military environment when a patient soldier refuses life-saving medical treatment and where their legal capacity is questionable. The article suggests that although every competent patient has the right to refuse medical treatment even though they may die as a consequence. Ordinarily, it is unethical to exert any undue influence on a patient to accept medical treatment, in a military operational environment where attack from the enemy is likely, it may be reasonable and understandable to exert undue influence over a patient when they lack legal capacity. PMID:21974941

Kelly, Janet C

2011-11-01

388

Karl Kleist and his refusal of an appointment at Leipzig in 1923.  

PubMed

Further to the study of Newmärker and Bartsch (2003) of Karl Kleist (1879-1960), this short contribution based on archive material, cited for the first time, looks into Kleist's motives for refusing an appointment as Professor of Psychiatry and Neurology at Leipzig University. This study comes to the conclusion that Kleist thought seriously of moving to Leipzig. However, the Saxony Ministry of People's Education refused to make a definite financial commitment to the reconstruction and building work that Kleist considered essential. On the other hand, the authorities in Frankfurt am Main, where Kleist had been appointed 3 years earlier, evidently agreed to the funding he required if he was to remain there. This finally prompted him to turn down the Leipzig offer. PMID:16193628

Steinberg, Holger

2005-09-01

389

Characterization of stack emissions from municipal refuse-to-energy systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Stack emissions from three municipal refuse-to-energy systems were characterized: refuse-derived fuel (RDF), mass burning (MASS), and modular (MOD). A comprehensive set of measurements was performed at each site to determine the physical and chemical properties of the particulate and gaseous stack emissions. The physical characterization included measurement of the mass concentration and size distribution of the stack particulate matter. Inorganic chemical characterization of the stack emissions included determination of the elements, anions, and compounds present in the fly ash, measurement of gaseous HCl and HF emissions, and determination of volatile trace-element levels. The characterization of organic materials in the stack emissions included specific measurements for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDD) and dibenzofurans (TCDF), and aldehydes. Screening analyses were performed to provide tentative identification of organic compounds in the stack emissions.

Howes, J.E.; Kohler, D.F.; DeRoos, F.L.; Riggin, R.M.; Barbour, R.L.

1986-10-01

390

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2013-04-01

391

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2011-04-01

392

45 CFR 1182.11 - Procedures for appealing a refusal to amend or correct an Institute record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1182.11 Procedures for appealing a refusal to...

2013-10-01

393

Fundamental Study for Improvement of Dewatering of Fine Coal/Refuse. Semi-Annual Report, November 1981-April 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this research program are to formulate models for predicting the efficiency of mechanical dewatering, the rate of dewatering and the residual moisture content of dewatered coal/refuse and to suggest improved mechanical dewatering methods...

S. H. Chiang G. E. Klinzing J. W. Tierney G. Bayles H. Gala

1982-01-01

394

Effects of oxygen concentration and moisture content of refuse on nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to evaluate the potential production of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is known as a greenhouse gas, to identify the reaction responsible for it and to examine the effects of oxygen and moisture content on nitrification, denitrification and N2O production. Applying a tracer method using a 15N-isotope into an oxygen controllable reactor with artificial refuse

Sunjin Hwang; Keisuke Hanaki

2000-01-01

395

Nanoparticle recovery using a fume collector comprised of carbonized refuse-derived fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breakthrough use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), i.e., as a dust\\/fume collector, is proposed in this article. In the experiments, RDF was first carbonized under different thermal conditions and then its\\u000a ability to recover nanoparticles was studied using thermogravimetry with a gas analyzer, and compared with other carbonaceous\\u000a materials for cleaning combustion waste gas. The recovery property of various samples

Tomohiro Akiyama; Nobuo Akae; Masaki Hayasaka; Nobuyuki Ishikawa

2004-01-01

396

Treatment of landfill leachate by combined aged-refuse bioreactor and electro-oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-stage aged-refuse bioreactor (ARB) was applied to treat landfill leachate in Shanghai Waste Laogang Disposal Plant. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N) of landfill leachate treated by the two-stage bioreactor system were 98.5%, 99.9%, 98.0%, 64.2% and 99.9%, respectively. The COD and BOD

Yangming Lei; Zhemin Shen; Renhua Huang; Wenhua Wang

2007-01-01

397

Coal\\/D-RDF (densified refuse-derived fuel) co-firing project, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse-derived fuel with coal at the fuel-receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a base line condition. For the second series, a mixture of coal and

R. S. Hecklinger; F. R. Rehm

1985-01-01

398

Co-firing densified refuse derived fuel in a spreader stoker fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a resource recovery alternative, the use of refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) is being investigated as a substitute for coal in industrial spreader stoker boilers. Experiences are summarized from the combustion testing of 1\\/2-inch-diameter pellets using a modified animal pellet mill. Storage and handling experiences are also discussed. Approximately 1800 MG of dRDF have been burned in a spreader stoker equipped

G. H. Degler; C. C. Wiles

1979-01-01

399

An Evaluation of a Two-Stage Spiral Processing Fine Anthracite Refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of a two-stage Multotec SX7 spiral concentrator treating fine anthracite refuse. Two sets of samples were collected from an anthracite cleaning plant located in eastern Pennsylvania. One sample consisted of the thickener feed slurry (nominal ? 1.2 mm) and the other consisted of the thickener underflow slurry. A third sample was prepared by desliming the thickener

Matthew D. Benusa; Mark S. Klima

2009-01-01

400

Organic toxicants and mutagens in ashes from eighteen municipal refuse incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashes, obtained from about one-fourth of the operating municipal refuse incinerators in the United States, were analyzed for a range of organic toxicants and mutagens. Thirty percent of the ash samples, which consisted of bottom ash or bottom ash-fly ash mixtures, contained 20–74% organic matter. Thirty percent of the ashes contained direct-acting and\\/or promutagens which revertedSalmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100.

Barbara S. Shane; Charles B. Henry; Joseph H. Hotchkiss; Kevin A. Klausner; Walter H. Gutenmannt; Donald J. Liskt

1990-01-01

401

Working in Partnership: Skills Transfer in Developing a Cross-Cultural Research Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a broader study on Indigenous illegal drug use, the authors undertook skills training to increase cross-cultural mutual understanding of the often different approaches and methodologies between research and practice, as well as Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal understandings of these approaches. The study and the skills transfer training…

Guthrie, Jill; Dance, Phyll; Cubillo, Carmen; McDonald, David; Tongs, Julie; Brideson, Tom; Bammer, Gabriele

2006-01-01

402

Consumer-Family Life Skills for Correctional Institution Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Atlanta Area Vocational Technical School's course in consumer education and family life skills is taught in various community rehabilitation centers to such groups as alcoholics, prison probationer parolees, and drug offenders. Focus is on such topics as money management, value clarification, buying foods and services, insurance, housing, and…

Hensley, Mary; And Others

1977-01-01

403

Bioaerosol exposure during refuse collection: results of field studies in the real-life situation.  

PubMed

To determine the bioaerosol exposure of refuse collectors, field measurements were performed under real working conditions within the framework of a research project. Influencing variables such as different types of refuse, community structure, collection interval and season were taken into account. Overall, 1612 samples were taken in towns of Westfalia, Germany. With workplace levels on a scale of 10(3) to less than 10(4) CFU/m3 for the loader, the results show a surprisingly low total fungi concentration in comparison with earlier studies. Total bacteria concentrations, in contrast, were largely on a scale of 10(4) CFU/m3, with 10(5) CFU/m3 being registered sporadically, especially in apartment-block districts. Endotoxin levels were high especially in the summer months, occasionally reaching values of more than 50 EU/m3, whereas they were normally below 10 EU/m3 in autumn and winter. Inside the cab, the exposure level for the entire spectrum was at least one power of ten lower. The factors believed to account primarily for the low total fungi concentration were workplace hygiene, the prevailing 1-week collection interval, and the low in-process exposure time resulting from the effective deployment of automatic lifting devices. In contrast, the type of refuse was not found to have a significant influence. PMID:12109475

Neumann, H D; Balfanz, J; Becker, G; Lohmeyer, M; Mathys, W; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

2002-07-01

404

Occupational exposure to airborne dust, respirable quartz and metals arising from refuse handling, burning and landfilling.  

PubMed

Industrial hygiene investigations were conducted in 1983 at a refuse derived fuel (RDF) burning plant, a refuse transfer station and three municipal landfill sites. The field surveys were conducted during the warmer and drier seasons of the year. The investigations included air sampling for total dust, respirable quartz and airborne metals. Bulk samples of soil cover, precipitator/boiler ash and transfer station baghouse fines were analyzed for quartz, elements, asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content. Asbestos and PCBs were not detected in any of the bulk samples taken. Quartz content of the bulk samples varied from 8% to 31%. Except for the boiler grate inspector and the precipitator cleaner at the RDF burning plant, exposure to airborne metals was not excessive at the sites tested. One personal sample (at landfill site A) for total dust exceeded 10 mg/m3 out of a total of eighteen personal and area samples. Significant exposure to respirable quartz was found at all the sites (up to 0.20 mg/m3). Respirable quartz exposures in excess of the NIOSH criteria concentration of 0.05 mg/m3 were found in three out of seven personal samples at the RDF burning plant, two out of three personal samples at the refuse transfer station and six out of nine personal samples taken at the three landfill sites. PMID:3031974

Mozzon, D; Brown, D A; Smith, J W

1987-02-01

405

[Possibilities for purification of refuse seepage water by sand containing humic substances].  

PubMed

Sands containing humic substances are proposed for protection of ground water from refuse tip seepage waters which containing heavy metals and organic polluting agents. Such sands are produced and spoiled southern of Leipzig during uncovering of brown coal. Humic acids have qualities such as ion-exchange materials, form hydrogen bondes and are able to form salts and complexes. Besides they can adsorb and include other substances. This properties qualify the humic acids in contact with the grained structure of the sand to interactions with heavy metal ions and organic pollution agents in water such as oils, phenols, surface-active agents and organic phosphorus compounds. The installation of sands containing humic substances on the base of the refuse tip gives chances to prevent the migration of heavy metal ions and organic pollution agents in seepage waters on principle. On the other hand it is possible to use sands containing humic substances for cleaning of seepage waters and recovering of anorganic and organic useful materials. First practical tests with an refuse tip seepage water from the district Erfurt confirm the cleaning effect and the recovering of heavy metals. PMID:2525848

Weise, G; Sohr, J; Lungwitz, J; Zier, H W

1989-04-01

406

Occupational exposure to airborne dust, respirable quartz and metals arising from refuse handling, burning and landfilling  

SciTech Connect

Industrial hygiene investigations were conducted in 1983 at a refuse derived fuel (RDF) burning plant, a refuse transfer station and three municipal landfill sites. The field surveys were conducted during the warmer and drier seasons of the year. The investigations included air sampling for total dust, respirable quartz and airborne metals. Bulk samples of soil cover, precipitator/boiler ash and transfer station baghouse fines were analyzed for quartz, elements, asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content. Asbestos and PCBs were not detected in any of the bulk samples taken. Quartz content of the bulk samples varied from 8% to 31%. Except for the boiler grate inspector and the precipitator cleaner at the RDF burning plant, exposure to airborne metals was not excessive at the sites tested. One personal sample for total dust exceeded 10 mg/m/sup 3/ out of a total of eighteen personal and area samples. Significant exposure to respirable quartz was found at all the sites (up to 0.20 mg/m/sup 3/). Respirable quartz exposures in excess of the NIOSH criteria concentration of 0.05 mg/m/sup 3/ were found in three out of seven personal samples at the RDF burning plant, two out of three personal samples at the refuse transfer station and six out of nine personal samples taken at the three landfill sites.

Mozzon, D.; Brown, D.A.; Smith, J.W.

1987-02-01

407

Anorexia nervosa and refusal of naso-gastric treatment: a response to Heather Draper.  

PubMed

Imposing artificial feeding on people with anorexia nervosa may be unethical. This seems to be Heather Draper's suggestion in her article, 'Anorexia Nervosa and Respecting a Refusal of Life-Prolonging Therapy: A Limited Justification.' Although this is an important point, I shall show that the arguments supporting this point are flawed. Draper should have made a brave claim: she should have claimed that people with anorexia nervosa, who competently decide not to be artificially fed, should be respected because everybody is entitled to exercise their autonomy, not only 'in the middle' of their life, but also at the end of it, or when their own life is at stake, because autonomy also extends to the most difficult moments of our life, and, ultimately, 'stretches [...] far out into the distance' at the end of it. I explain why Draper should have made the brave claim, and why she has not made it. I conclude that a defence of people's entitlement to competently refuse artificial feeding cannot rest upon the arguments developed by Draper. Whether or not we should respect competent refusal of artificial feeding depends on the normative strength that we are ready to ascribe to the principle of autonomy, to the moral relevance that we ascribe to the circumstances in which a person's autonomy is exercised, and, perhaps, eventually, on our sense of compassion. PMID:14533609

Giordano, Simona

2003-06-01

408

Recovery of alumina from fly ash: use of coal cleaning refuse as a mineralizer in the lime-sinter process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of alumina recovery from coal fly ash by the lime-sinter process is improved by the addition of a small amount of coal cleaning refuse. Approximately 5.0 wt % refuse increases alumina recovery from 55% to 90% for subbituminous coal ashes and reduces the required sintering temperature from 1380 to 1200°C. Mixtures of fly ash and various amounts of

N. R. Fronczak; G. Burnet

1983-01-01

409

Drug allergies  

MedlinePLUS

Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... vomiting to life-threatening anaphylaxis . A true drug allergy is caused by a series of chemical steps ...

410

Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program (CASSIP) is designed to help students develop effective study skills and academic attitudes, thus increasing their potential for scholastic success. The program contains four integrated items: Study Skills Surveys; Study Skills Modules, Study Skills Notebook; and Study Skills Test. The surveys…

Brown, William F.; Forristall, Dorothy Z.

411

The use of town refuse ash in urban agriculture around Jos, Nigeria: health and environmental risks.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a study that examines the health and environmental risks of using town refuse ash in urban vegetable production in Jos, Nigeria, in terms of heavy metal accumulation in the food chain. Soil and crop samples, collected from five study farms, and samples of the river water used for irrigation, were analysed for seven heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. On the basis of the field data the paper discusses: (1) the potential soil deficiencies and toxicities; (2) the probable links between soil heavy metal levels and fertilisation practices; (3) the heavy metal concentrations in crop tissue in relation to crop growth and human health. The findings suggest that soil concentrations of the seven metals fall within 'typical' soil levels, and that there should not be any problems of either toxicities or deficiencies for crop growth. There was evidence of slight accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd on some of the farms with a history of town refuse ash use. However, in all farms lettuce crops contained very large concentrations of Fe, and Pb concentrations that were 20 to 40 times higher than the WHO/FAO maximum recommended level in leafy vegetables for human consumption. The Cd content of carrot tissue was 10 times higher than the WHO/FAO recommended limit. The relatively small number of soil and crop samples precluded any formal attempt at correlating the concentrations of heavy metals found in the vegetable crops with the farm levels. Nevertheless, the data suggested that these were not linked. The paper goes on to consider various potential sources of the metals found in the crops, including irrigation water, town refuse ash and air-borne dust, and discusses additional health and environmental risks pertaining to the use of town refuse ash. Undoubtedly, the heavy Pb and Cd contamination of certain crops indicates the urgent need for future studies to ascertain the precise source of these metals, and although the practice of using town refuse ash does not appear to have resulted in large-scale contamination of soil in the farming area, there are a number of unsafe practices associated with it that call for the identification of strategies for the safe utilisation of urban waste in Jos. PMID:16376696

Pasquini, M W

2006-01-15

412

Drugs and Drug Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Drugs and drug abuse. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several sections, each of which is in outline or list form. It is xeroxed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The major portion of the guide contains a…

Anastas, Robert, Comp.; And Others.

413

Avoiding Drug-Drug Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drugs may be prescribed in combinations causing drug-drug interactions (DDI) and adverse drug reactions (ADR), resulting in hospital care. Methods: To provide prescribers of drug therapy with a better knowledge of individuals’ current drug therapy, governments have started to collect prescribing data. Results: The data on individuals’ dispensed drugs is available for prescribers, pharmacists, and the registered individuals in

Bengt Åstrand

2009-01-01

414

Microcomputer programming skills  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some differences in skill and techniques required for conversion from programmer to microprogrammer are discussed. The primary things with which the programmer should work are hardware architecture, hardware/software trade off, and interfacing. The biggest differences, however, will stem from the differences in applications than from differences in machine size. The change to real-time programming is the most important of these differences, particularly on dedicated microprocessors. Another primary change is programming with a more computer-naive user in mind, and dealing with his limitations and expectations.

Barth, C. W.

1979-01-01

415

Evidence for learned skill during cocaine self-administration in rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale It has been proposed that cocaine abuse results in skilled or “automatic” drug-taking behaviors. Brain regions important for skill learning are implicated in cocaine self-administration. However, the development of skill during self-administration has not been investigated. Objectives The present experiment investigated the development of skilled self-administration over extended drug use by employing a novel operant vertical head movement under discriminative stimulus (SD) control. In addition, the capacity of the head movement to serve as an operant was tested by manipulating drug levels above or below satiety drug levels via frequent microinfusions (0.2 sec) of cocaine delivered noncontingently. Results Animals acquired the vertical head movement operant, which increased in number over days. Task learning was demonstrated by reduced reaction time in response to the SD, increased propensity to self-administer upon SD presentation, and escalated drug consumption over days. Skill learning was demonstrated by 1) an increase over days in the velocity of operant vertical head movements, as a function of shorter duration but not altered distance, and 2) an increase over days in the probability of initiating the operant at the optimal starting position. Evidence that responding was specific to self-administration was revealed during periods of experimenter-manipulation of drug level: maintaining drug levels above satiety decreased responding while maintaining drug levels below satiety increased responding. Conclusions These results provide evidence that under the specific set of circumstances tested herein, cocaine self-administration becomes skilled over days of extended drug use. In addition, the vertical head movement can be used as an operant comparable to lever pressing with the additional benefit of quantifying skill learning.

Root, David H.; Barker, David J.; Ma, Sisi; Coffey, Kevin R.; West, Mark O.

2014-01-01

416

Linking Life Skills and Norms With Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency in South Africa  

PubMed Central

We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related, and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome using a sample of 714 South African adolescents ages 15 to 19 years (M = 15.8 years, 57% female). Perceived norms predicted gateway drug use. Conflict resolution skills (inversely) and perceived peer acceptability (directly) predicted harder drug use and delinquency. The “culture of violence” within some South African schools may make conflict resolution skills more salient for preventing harder drug use and delinquency.

Lai, Mary H.; Graham, John W.; Smith, Edward A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Bradley, Stephanie A.; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa

2012-01-01

417

Perceptions of participation in a Phase I, II, or III clinical trial among African American patients with cancer: what do refusers say? | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Evidence suggests that participation rates among African American patients in clinical trials is decreasing, however, there is limited research looking at the racial differences for refusal to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of African-American cancer patients who refused participation in a clinical trial to better understand the patient-provider barriers. Lack of trust in medical research, often identified as a reason for refusal, was not a significant factor.

418

From learning styles to learning skills: the executive skills profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contends that a typology of skills based on a framework of learning styles and experiential learning theory, rather than a framework of job performance or some other personality construct, provides a language and guidance for assessment methods to describe knowledge at the performance level of adaptation. It requires development of the concept of learning skills which are: domainspecific and knowledge-rich;

Richard E. Boyatzis; David A. Kolb

1995-01-01

419

Essential Communication and Documentation Skills. Module: Observation Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the second of 10 in the Essential Communication and Documentation Skills curriculum. It develops observation, a workplace literacy skill identified as being directly related to the job of the direct care worker. The curriculum is designed to improve the competence of New York State Division for Youth (DFY) direct care staff using…

Medina, Muriel; And Others

420

Generic ICT Skills Profiles: Future Skills for Tomorrow's World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…

International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.

421

Developmentally sensitive cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent school refusal: rationale and case illustration.  

PubMed

School refusal can be difficult to treat and the poorest treatment response is observed among older school refusers. This poor response may be explained, in part, by the impact of developmental transitions and tasks upon the young person, their family, and the treatment process. This paper describes and illustrates the @school program, a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to promote developmental sensitivity when planning and delivering treatment for adolescent school refusal. Treatment is modularized and it incorporates progress reviews, fostering a planned yet flexible approach to CBT. The treatment is illustrated in the case of Allison, a 16-year-old female presenting with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A case formulation guided the selection, sequencing, and pacing of modules targeting predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and protective factors. Treatment comprised 16 sessions with Allison (interventions addressing depression, anxiety, and school attendance) and 15 concurrent sessions with her mother (strategies to facilitate an adolescent's school attendance), including two sessions with Allison and mother together (family communication and problem solving to reduce parent-adolescent conflict). Two treatment-related consultations were also conducted with Allison's homeroom teacher. Allison's school attendance improved during the course of treatment. By post-treatment, there was a decrease in internalizing behavior, an increase in self-efficacy, and remission of depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. Clinically significant treatment gains were maintained at 2-month follow-up. Factors influencing outcome may include those inherent to the @school program together with less specific factors. Special consideration is given to parents' use of both authoritative and autonomy-granting approaches when helping an adolescent to attend school. PMID:24338067

Heyne, David; Sauter, Floor M; Ollendick, Thomas H; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Westenberg, P Michiel

2014-06-01

422

Clinical Skills Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New doctors and those studying to practice medicine may need a bit of assistance as they prepare to administer direct care to patients. The Clinical Skills Online website was created to offer some helpful videos for such persons, and was funded by the United Kingdom's Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine. The thirteen videos are all available at no cost. They cover topics like History Taking, Thyroid Examination, and Abdominal Examination. The videos contain precise language and are designed to complement existing formal medical training. Needless to say, there is a disclaimer on the website that highlights the terms under which these videos should be used. It's a nice resource for those entering a range of health care professions, and it's worth sharing with others in the field.

2010-01-01

423

On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.  

PubMed Central

We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. However, the addition of positive reinforcement to escape extinction was associated with beneficial effects (e.g., greater decreases in negative vocalizations and inappropriate behavior) for some participants.

Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A

2003-01-01

424

A review of trace element emissions from the combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal  

SciTech Connect

The effects of cocombusting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal on stack emissions of trace elements in the ash stream were reviewed. The large number of variables and uncertainties involved precluded drawing definitive conclusions regarding many of the trace elements. However, it is evident that cocombustion resulted in increased emissions of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. Emissions of As and Ni tended to decrease when RDF was fired with coal. Modeling studies indicated that ambient levels of trace elements during cocombustion should be within acceptable limits. However, periodic monitoring of Cd, Hg, and Pb may be warranted in some instances.

Norton, G.A. (Ames Lab., IA (United States))

1992-05-01

425

Characteristics of mechanically sorted municipal wastes and their suitability for production of refuse derived fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results of experimental work in the first waste mechanical Pre-treatment Centre in Latvia Daibe. The goal - to detect the main parameters for sorted waste parts and to compare them with parameters stated for refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a cement plant in Latvia (Cemex). Samples were taken in four fractions - coarse, medium, fine, metal. The parameters - upper, lower heating values, moisture, ash content, S, Cl, metals were determined. Results - coarse fraction has greater potential of the production of the RDF, but reduction of its content of Cl would be necessary.

Arina, Dace; Orupe, Ausma

2012-11-01

426

Logistical and ergonomic transportation capacity for refuse collection workers: a work physiology field study.  

PubMed

In a work physiology field study, the work flow and the electrocardiogram were recorded throughout whole shifts for six male refuse (garbage) collection workers who transported and emptied 1.1 m3 refuse containers. The work rate (WR), indicated by the number of 1.1 m3 containers emptied per unit of time, and the work pulse rate (WPR) were determined in the data evaluation. The work pulse rate increases with the work rate. The functional relationship can be approximated by a linear regression function (WPR = 20.9 + 35.8.WR). The work pulse rate reaches such high values that it must be assumed that the work cannot be performed continuously throughout the whole working day. Consequently, regular breaks should be provided. When determining the necessary duration of the breaks, it was assumed that an equilibrium between fatigue and recovery should be maintained during the working day. The recovery breaks should be at least long enough for the heart rate to return to the resting level. The necessary duration of the breaks was determined on the basis of the present field study and the laboratory investigations described in the literature. A minimum duration of 10 min per working hour results from the calculations. The breaks should be taken regularly at about hourly intervals. A transportation-capacity model is provided for the planning of the deployment of refuse workers. It permits calculation of the number of 1.1 m3 containers a three-man crew, comprising the refuse collection truck driver and two loaders, can empty during one shift. Both the logistical and ergonomic transportation capacities can be determined using the model. The logistical transportation capacity (TCL) indicates the number of containers which can be emptied per shift by a crew when only criteria such as the optimal utilization of the working time are considered. The ergonomic transportation capacity (TCE) is understood as the number of containers which can be emptied per shift taking into consideration the workers' strain and the recovery breaks they require. TCE amounts to between about 140 and 160 containers per shift depending on the type of city district. TCL is higher by between 20 and 30 containers per shift. In order to meet the demand of protecting workers' health, the number of containers to be emptied per shift by a three-man crew should not exceed the ergonomic transportation capacity. PMID:1505505

Luttmann, A; Laurig, W; Jäger, M

1992-09-01

427

Knowledge and Skill Guidelines for Aquaculture Technicians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) has provided this overview of knowledge and skill guidelines for aquaculture technicians. The report begins with detailing the background of the creation of these guidelines, which occurred at the third annual Rhode Island Aquaculture Conference in Warwick, Rhode Island. Competency areas for aquaculture technicians outlined in the report are laboratory skills, math skills, knowledge of basic chemistry, field experience, knowledge of basic biology, mechanical skills, communication skills, analytical skills, internship experience, time management skills, computer skills, basic business skills and staying up-to-date.

2011-09-20

428

Ground-Water Quality in the Vicinity of Coal-Refuse Areas Reclaimed with Biosolids in Fulton County, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has applied biosolids, followed by revegetation, to reclaim three coal-refuse areas. Most of the reclamation at the three sites was done from 1989 through 1992, and included the application of lime, clay, and various loads of biosolids up to 1,000 dry tons per acre. Water samples collected from 12 monitoring wells installed in the vicinity of the three reclaimed coal-refuse areas were analyzed to better understand the hydrogeology and water-quality effects. Ground water probably flows along preferential paths in the disturbed coal-refuse areas, and is impeded by undisturbed glacial till. Most of the samples contained elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese, constituents associated with ground water in coal-mined areas. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, nickel, or zinc were somewhat elevated in samples from four wells, and greatest in water samples with pH less than 5. The smaller nutrient concentrations indicate that the applied biosolids are not identifiably affecting nutrients or metal concentrations in shallow ground water near the refuse piles. The coal refuse likely is the primary influence on the chemical characterization of ground-water in the area.

Morrow, William S.

2007-01-01

429

Assessing Parenting Skills for Family Court  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on parenting skills training programs provides wide-ranging support for the relationship between core parenting skills and children's healthy development. This article integrates empirically-supported parenting skills in a model organized into three parenting skills constructs: nurturing, teaching, and coparenting. Methods are described for assessing parenting skills across seven domains of data typically used in assessments for family court evaluations.

John A. Moran; David K. Weinstock

2011-01-01

430

Meeting the Demand: Teaching "Soft" Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and behavioral skills; and public…

Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.

431

Social skills deficits associated with depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the empirical evidence of impaired social skills associated with depression. Conceptualizations of social skills are examined followed by evidence from self-report, observer-rating, and behavioral assessments of depressed people's social skills. Evidence of social skills deficits in children with depression and in people with bipolar disorder is also examined. The effectiveness of social skills training as a treatment

Chris Segrin

2000-01-01

432

Microcomputer Software Screens for Earliest Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted instruction can aid in the implementation of British National Curriculum requirements with children having profound and multiple learning difficulties. Suggestions are given for developing visual skills, auditory skills, cognitive skills, vocalization, communication, fine motor skills, and gross motor skills. (DB)

Watts, Trevor

1990-01-01

433

Classroom Activities in Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a resource for teachers of grades four and up who are eager to improve their students' thinking skills while teaching their regular curriculum, this booklet contains activities that can be used to teach a new concept or to review a previously taught skill. Following an introduction, the topics of the chapters of the resource guide and…

Kruse, Janice, Comp.

434

The California Basic Skills Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the evolution and implementation of the California Basic Skills Initiative (CA BSI), a statewide effort to address ongoing basic skills and ESL needs of community college students and of all campus faculty, administrators, and staff who support these students. CA BSI strategies include assisting every college in assessing…

Illowsky, Barbara

2008-01-01

435

Skills that Make a Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since early 2011, the National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) has been involved in supporting learning providers to prepare for and, more recently, to deliver provision through the Skills Funding Agency unit offer for the unemployed. The primary purpose of the provision is to equip learners with skills that will facilitate their…

Gray, Rob

2012-01-01

436

Intermediate skills and occupational mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

’Intermediate occupations’ describes broadly the range of occupations below the rank of professional and management jobs and above the partly skilled and unskilled occupations and includes craft, technical and supervisory occupations. These are largely differentiated by the levels of education and skill required for entry, the supervisory and technical functions performed within them and the income and standing associated with

Peter Elias; John Bynner

1997-01-01

437

Skills agreement. Recipe for success.  

PubMed

The aims of the national health Sector Skills Agreement need regional and local implementation by stakeholders to become reality. Work in the East of England will produce a first regional skills agreement later this year. The Harlow Project is producing award winning process on recuitment and retention. PMID:17847967

Nolan, Alexis

2007-06-21

438

National Health Care Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the National Health Care Skill Standards, which were developed by the National Consortium on Health Science and Technology and West Ed Regional Research Laboratory, in partnership with educators and health care employers. The document begins with an overview of the purpose and benefits of skill standards. Presented next are…

National Consortium on Health Science and Technology Education, Okemos, MI.

439

National Health Care Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains draft national health care skill standards that were proposed during the National Health Care Skill Standards Project on the basis of input from more than 1,000 representatives of key constituencies of the health care field. The project objectives and structure are summarized in the introduction. Part 1 examines the need for…

Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

440

The Spanish Employability Skills Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes efforts of the Florida Division of Vocational Education to translate the Employability Skills Series into Spanish. Reports the findings of the field-test evaluation conducted on the Spanish version of the Employability Skills Series which found the materials were just as effective in Spanish. (LRA)

Massey, Romeo; Kromhout, Ora

1979-01-01

441

21st Century Skills Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

2011-01-01

442

Foreign Language Skills and Jobs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students of foreign languages insist on seeing the evidence that foreign language skills have something to do with getting jobs in the "real world." Evidence is being ammassed which does show this to be true. Several studies have revealed that American firms are looking for qualified personnel who possess language skills. A survey was initiated at…

Eddy, Peter A.

443

Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

444

Technology, Industry, Skills and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses changes in technology and education, the nature of technology, the creation of technology, technology's assimilation by industry, the workers skilled in the technology, education in skills in technology, technology of the factory of the future, and the TIPE System (Technology, Industry, Professionals, Education). (CT)

Swyt, Dennis A.

1986-01-01

445

The Humanities and Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue present a rationale and methods for using elements of the humanities to teach remedial reading and writing. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "The Humanities and Basic Skills Project" (Nan Dougherty); (2) "The Humanities and Basic Skills" (Robert L. Horn); (3) "Beyond Fragmentation;…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

1984-01-01

446

Skill development in graduate education.  

PubMed

The process of training new PhDs is complex and has significant dropout rates associated with loss of financial and time investments by the student, mentor, and program. One approach to improve graduate education is to make explicit the skills students need to develop and to put in place mechanisms to develop those skills. PMID:22633484

Parker, Roy

2012-05-25

447

Evolution of surgical skills training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical training is changing: one hundred years of tradition is being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hours restrictions, the cost of operating room time, and complications. Surgical simulation and skills training offers an opportunity to teach and practice advanced skills outside of the operating room environment before attempting them on living patients. Simulation training can

Kurt E Roberts; Robert L Bell; Andrew J Duffy

2006-01-01

448

Learning Outcomes: Skills or Function?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants in a teacher workshop compared these two approaches to learning outcomes in adult numeracy: (1) teaching mathematical skills and (2) using and applying mathematics from real life. The first approach was illustrated by an Ontario, Canada, program based on traditional school math, whose outcomes are skill-based and are the following:…

Ciancone, Tom; Tout, Dave

449

Quality and Generic (Professional) Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the business school at Australia's Curtin University of Technology has identified a set of generic skills to be taught to all undergraduates and begun implementing a project to teach and assess the skills in the context of each discipline. Discusses the project's measures of effectiveness and lessons learned to date. (EV)

De La Harpe, Barbara; Radloff, Alex; Wyber, John

2000-01-01

450

The Rhetoric of Skill Requirements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "rhetoric of skill requirements" is a way of describing work by decomposing the human contribution into distinct components. Three important characteristics of this rhetoric are especially germane to an understanding of work. The first characteristic is that jobs and their incumbents can be fully analyzed by breaking them down into skills

Darrah, Charles N.

451

The Skills Enhancement Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The set of materials presented here are curriculum materials from a workplace literacy and basic skills program, funded largely through the U.S. Department of Education and operated by a food and beverage workers' local union. The program offered instruction from 1990-94 in basic skills, General Education Development (GED), workplace…

Burt, Miriam

452

Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

453

Gender Differences in Drug Offers of Rural Hawaiian Youths: A Mixed-Methods Analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined the gender differences in drug-offer situations of Native Hawaiian youths in rural communities. Youths from seven middle or intermediate schools (N 194) on the Big Island of Hawai'i completed a survey that focused on the drug offers they had received. Multivariate and bivariate analyses indicated that the girls received significantly more drug offers than did the boys in the sample and found it more difficult to refuse drugs in such situations. Qualitative data gathered from communities in the survey's sampling frame elucidated the quantitative findings. Limitations of the study and implications for prevention practice are discussed. PMID:20711491

Okamoto, Scott K; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Edwards, Christopher; Giroux, Danielle

2010-08-01

454

Gender Differences in Drug Offers of Rural Hawaiian Youths: A Mixed-Methods Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study examined the gender differences in drug-offer situations of Native Hawaiian youths in rural communities. Youths from seven middle or intermediate schools (N 194) on the Big Island of Hawai'i completed a survey that focused on the drug offers they had received. Multivariate and bivariate analyses indicated that the girls received significantly more drug offers than did the boys in the sample and found it more difficult to refuse drugs in such situations. Qualitative data gathered from communities in the survey's sampling frame elucidated the quantitative findings. Limitations of the study and implications for prevention practice are discussed.

Okamoto, Scott K.; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Edwards, Christopher; Giroux, Danielle

2010-01-01

455

HIV test avoidance among people who inject drugs in Thailand.  

PubMed

Case identification is a key component of HIV prevention efforts; yet rates of HIV testing remain low in some settings. We explored factors associated with HIV test avoidance among people who inject drugs (IDU) in Thailand. Between July and October 2011, 350 Thai IDU participated in the study. In bivariate analyses, male gender, high intensity drug use, syringe sharing, increased police presence, and being refused healthcare services were positively associated with HIV test avoidance, while ever receiving a hepatitis C test was negatively associated. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to reduce stigma in this setting. PMID:23117574

Ti, Lianping; Hayashi, Kanna; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

2013-09-01

456

Measurement of suspended-particle, heavy-metal, and selected organic emissions at Wolverhampton Municipal-Refuse incinerator  

SciTech Connect

An investigation to measure the emissions of suspended particles, heavy metals, and selected high-molecular-weight chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out during a three day period at the Wolverhampton municipal-refuse incinerator (West Midlands County Council). On average, the mean suspended-particle emission was 25 g/s compared with the recommended limit of 8.9 g/s for the twin incinerator units burning 12.5 te/h of refuse each. The emission indices of measured chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans were within the range found at other UK refuse incinerators, but were generally lower than average. Concentrations of these organic materials in the precipitator fly ash were low compared with published data.

Clayton, P.; Scott, D.W.

1985-01-01

457

RFID: The missing link to comprehensive automated refuse collection and recycling  

SciTech Connect

Variable-rate and pay-by-weight programs are gaining momentum across the country. Over 1,000 communities are expected to adopt a variable rate program in 1994. Hundreds have already implemented programs and have seen reported reductions of up to 40% in disposal tonnage. In any variable-rate or pay-by-weight system, the ability to track refuse and/or recyclables at the point of collection is imperative. The use of a radio frequency identification system (RFID) is one way of assuring such accountability. In an automated collection program using RFID technology, each resident or customer'' has one or more roll-out carts installed with a transponder or tag'' that contains a unique identification number. This number correlates with a customer profile'', which is usually found in the city data base. An RFID customer'' profile may contain such information as name, address, size and color of cart, rate, collection day, and a chronological history of collection and cart maintenance over a designated period of time. In most cases, the database and software can be customized to meed individual municipal needs as well as specific needs of refuse hauling companies.

McAdams, C.L.

1994-04-01

458

Phosphorus removal from aqueous solutions using a synthesized adsorbent prepared from mineralized refuse and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Mineralized refuse and sewage sludge generated from solid waste from municipal landfills and sewage treatment plants were sintered as a cost-effective adsorbent for the removal of phosphorus. Compared with the Freundlich model, phosphorus adsorption on the synthesized adsorbent, zeolite and ironstone was best described by the Langmuir model. Based on the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of the synthesized adsorbent (9718 mg kg(-1)) was 13.7 and 25.4 times greater than those of zeolite and ironstone, respectively. The desorbability of phosphorus from the synthesized adsorbent was significantly lower than that of zeolite. Moreover, phosphorus removal using the synthesized adsorbent was more tolerant to pH fluctuations than zeolite and ironstone for the removal of phosphorus from aqueous solutions. The immobilization of phosphorus onto the synthesized adsorbent was attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium, aluminium and iron phosphorus. The heavy metal ion concentrations of the leachate of the synthesized adsorbent were negligible. The synthesized adsorbent prepared from mineralized refuse and sewage sludge was cost-effective and possessed a high adsorptive capacity for phosphorus removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:24191483

Chen, Kaining; Zhao, Keqiang; Zhang, Houhu; Sun, Qinfang; Wu, Zhilin; Zhou, Yongmin; Zhong, Yongchao; Ke, Fan

2013-01-01

459

Geophysical identification of leachate levels and refuse characterization in a landfill at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic and electrical geophysical techniques were used to survey the 800 Area landfill at Argonne National Laboratory as part of an environmental site assessment. This landfill was opened in 1966 and has accepted non-radioactive laboratory, office, food service and construction wastes. Magnetic profiles and electrical resistivity surveys using Wenner, Schlumberger and dipole-dipole arrays were made primarily over the northern portion of the landfill and long its margins. Mounding of leachate to within 5 ft. (1.5 m) of the surface was identified within the north-central and northeastern portions of the landfill using resistivity soundings and dipole-dipole surveys. Soundings also suggest refuse thickness varies from 10--30 ft (3--10 m) south to north across the landfill. Both dipole-dipole and magnetic profiles have identified conductive and insulating objects in the refuse. Areas of low resistivity flanking the northeastern and eastern margins of the landfill may represent migration of leachate to the north and east. High resistivity layers detected beneath the landfill suggest little or no downward percolation of mineralized leachate. Such high resistivity layers, however, may indicate the presence of sand and gravel layers/lenses embedded in the drift which are potential contaminant pathways. The geophysical results are presently being used in optimum placement of monitoring wells, soil gas probes and future remediation planning. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Carpenter, P.J.; Xi, Y.; El-Hussain, I.W. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology); Moos, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-01-01

460

Sorption behavior of dibutyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate by aged refuse.  

PubMed

Sorption is a fundamental process controlling the transformation, fate, degradation, and biological activity of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the environment. We investigated the kinetics, isotherms, and potential mechanisms for the sorption of two phthalic acid esters (PAEs), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), on aged refuse. A two-compartment first-order model performed better than a one-compartment first-order model in describing the kinetic sorption of PAEs, with a fast sorption process dominating. Both the Freundlich and Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) models fit the sorption isotherms of DBP and DOP, with the DA model being of a better fit over the range of apparent equilibrium concentrations. The values of the fitting parameters (n, b, E) of the PAEs suggest nonlinear sorption characteristics. Higher predicted partition coefficient values and saturated sorption capacity existed in refuse containing larger quantities of organic matter. The sorption capacity of DOP was significantly higher than that of DBP. PAE sorption was dependent on liquid phase pH. Desorption hysteresis occurred in PAE desorption experiments, especially for the long-chain DOP. PAEs may therefore be a potential environmental risk in landfill. PMID:24619659

Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

2014-06-01

461

Results of emissions testing while burning densified refuse derived fuel, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. provided engineering and source testing services to the Council of Great Lake Governors to support their efforts in promoting the development and utilization of densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF) and pelletized wastepaper fuels in small steam generating facilities. The emissions monitoring program was designed to provide a complete air emissions profile while burning various refuse derived fuels. The specific goal of this test program was to conduct air emissions tests at Dordt College located in Sioux Center, Iowa and to identify a relationship between fuel types and emission characteristics. The sampling protocol was carried out June 12 through June 20, 1989 on boiler {number sign}4. This unit had been previously modified to burn d-RDF. The boiler was not equipped with any type of air pollution control device so the emissions samples were collected from the boiler exhaust stack on the roof of the boilerhouse. The emissions that were sampled included: particulates; PM{sub 10} particulates; hydrochloric acid; dioxins; furans; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); metals and continuous monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub x}NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons. Grab samples of the fuels were collected, composited and analyzed for heating value, moisture content, proximate and ultimate analysis, ash fusion temperature, bulk density and elemental ash analysis. Grab samples of the boiler ash were also collected and analyzed for total hydrocarbons total dioxins, total furans, total PCBs and heavy metals. 77 figs., 20 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01

462

Evaluation of Idaho's DARE "Drug Abuse Resistance Education" Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program teaches students decision-making skills, shows them how to resist peer pressure to experiment with drugs and alcohol, and provides positive alternatives to drug use. This report looks at one state's DARE programs. Included are an overview of the implementation process, a program appraisal with…

Silva, Roberta K.

463

Evaluation of Idaho's DARE "Drug Abuse Resistance Education Projects."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) is not to completely eliminate the drug and alcohol problems of society. It is a proactive prevention program designed to equip youth (focusing on elementary school) with skills for resisting peer pressure to experiment with drugs, and to manage anger without resorting to violence or the use of…

Silva, Roberta K.

464

Prescription Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... Prescription Drug Abuse in Youth (August 2013) Featured Publications Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (DrugFacts) Revised May ... Treatment Locator or 1-800-662-HELP . Featured Publication Drugs, Brains, and Behavior - The Science of Addiction ...

465

Drug Abuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drugs are defined as chemical substances which either stimulate or depress the central nervous system. The categories of drugs described are stimulants, hallucinogenic drugs and amphetamines and depressants (tranquilizers, barbiturates, and opiates). The ...

1994-01-01

466

Workplace Basics: The Skills Employers Want.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report identifies the skills employers need, and training and development practices to promote these skills. The report states that in addition to reading, writing, and computation, there are six other skill groups that employers consider 'basic' to s...

A. P. Carnevale L. J. Gainer A. S. Meltzer

1988-01-01

467

Medicare and Skilled Nursing Facility Care Benefits  

MedlinePLUS

... 2008 www. medicare. gov/ nhcompare Medicare and Skilled Nursing Facility Care Benefi ts GETTING STARTED Skilled Care ... Program (SHIP). To fi nd and compare skilled nursing facilities in your area , visit www.medicare.gov ...

468

Potential Bias in the Bank: What Distinguishes Refusers, Non-responders and Participants in a Clinic-based Biobank?  

PubMed Central

Background Biobanks are an important resource for genetic and epidemiologic research, but bias may be introduced if those who accept the recruitment invitation differ systematically from those who do not in attributes important to health-related investigations. To understand potential bias in a clinic-based biobank of biological samples, including genetic data linked to Electronic Medical Record information, we compared patient characteristics and self-reported information among participants, non-responders, and refusers. We also compared reasons for non-participation between refusers and non-responders to elucidate potential pathways to reduce non-participation and any uncovered bias. Methods We mailed recruitment packets to 1600 adult patients with upcoming appointments at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) and recorded their participation status. Administrative data were used to compare characteristics across groups. We used phone interviews with 26 non-responders and 26 refusers to collect self-reported information, including reasons for non-participation. Participants were asked to complete a mailed questionnaire. Results We achieved 26.2% participation (n=419) with 12.1% refusing (n=193) and 61.8% non-response (n=988). In multivariate analyses, sex, age, region of residence, and race/ethnicity were significantly associated with participation. The groups differed in information-seeking behaviors and research experience. Refusers more often cited privacy concerns while non-responders more often identified time constraints as the reason for non-participation. Conclusion For genomic medicine to advance, large, representative biobanks are required. Significant associations between patient characteristics and nonresponse, as well as systematic differences between refusers and nonresponders, could introduce bias. Oversampling or recruitment changes, including heightened attention to privacy protection and participation burden, may be necessary to increase participation among less-represented groups.

Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Han, Leona C; Olson, Janet E; Lackore, Kandace A; Koenig, Barbara A; Beebe, Timothy J; Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y

2013-01-01

469

Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of open lactic acid fermentation of kitchen refuse using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.  

PubMed

Reproducible amounts of lactic acid accumulate in minced kitchen refuse under open conditions with intermittent pH neutralization [Sakai et al., Food Sci. Technol. Res., 6, 140 (2000)]. Here, we showed that such pH-controlled open fermentation of kitchen refuse reproducibly resulted a selective proliferation of a major lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species. In one experiment, the predominant microorganisms isolated during the early phase (6 h) were Gammaproteobacteria. In contrast, those that predominated during the late phase (48 h) were always Lactobacillus plantarum in three independent experiments. To further quantify the microbial community within open lactic acid fermentation, we performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis targeting 16S (23S) rRNA. We designed two new group-specific DNA probes: LAC722(L) was active for most LAB including the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Weisella, whereas Lplan477 was specific for L. plantarum and its related species. We then optimized sample preparation using lysozyme and hybridization conditions including temperature, as well as the formamide concentration and the salt concentration in the washing buffer. We succeeded in quantification of microorganisms in semi-solid, complex biological materials such as minced kitchen refuse by taking color microphotographs in modified RGB balance on pre-coated slides. FISH analysis of the fermentation of kitchen refuse indicated that control of the pH swing leads to domination by the LAB population in minced kitchen refuse under open conditions. We also confirmed that L. plantarum, which generates lactic acid in high quantities but with low optical activity, became the dominant microorganism in kitchen refuse during the late phase of open fermentation. PMID:16233665

Sakai, Kenji; Mori, Masatsugu; Fujii, Akira; Iwami, Yuko; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Shirai, Yoshihito

2004-01-01

470

Spatial dependency of V. cholera prevalence on open space refuse dumps in Kumasi, Ghana: a spatial statistical modelling  

PubMed Central

Background Cholera has persisted in Ghana since its introduction in the early 70's. From 1999 to 2005, the Ghana Ministry of Health officially reported a total of 26,924 cases and 620 deaths to the WHO. Etiological studies suggest that the natural habitat of V. cholera is the aquatic environment. Its ability to survive within and outside the aquatic environment makes cholera a complex health problem to manage. Once the disease is introduced in a population, several environmental factors may lead to prolonged transmission and secondary cases. An important environmental factor that predisposes individuals to cholera infection is sanitation. In this study, we exploit the importance of two main spatial measures of sanitation in cholera transmission in an urban city, Kumasi. These are proximity and density of refuse dumps within a community. Results A spatial statistical modelling carried out to determine the spatial dependency of cholera prevalence on refuse dumps show that, there is a direct spatial relationship between cholera prevalence and density of refuse dumps, and an inverse spatial relationship between cholera prevalence and distance to refuse dumps. A spatial scan statistics also identified four significant spatial clusters of cholera; a primary cluster with greater than expected cholera prevalence, and three secondary clusters with lower than expected cholera prevalence. A GIS based buffer analysis also showed that the minimum distance within which refuse dumps should not be sited within community centres is 500 m. Conclusion The results suggest that proximity and density of open space refuse dumps play a contributory role in cholera infection in Kumasi.

Osei, Frank B; Duker, Alfred A

2008-01-01

471

Neuronal mechanisms of reconsolidation of an associative aversive skill to food in the common snail.  

PubMed

We have previously established that reactivation of a long-term memory "trace" during exposure to a protein synthesis inhibitor in common snails trained to refuse a defined foodstuff impairs reproduction of this skill. In the present studies, the cellular mechanisms of memory reactivation were studied in defensive behavior command neurons LPl1 and RPl1 in snails. In the first series of experiments, the mechanisms of induction of amnesia were studied in semi-intact preparations 24 h after training of snails to refuse one foodstuff. These experiments showed that depression of the synaptic response to the conditioned stimulus developed 2.5 h after reminding (presentation of the conditioned food stimulus) on the background of exposure to cycloheximide. The second series of experiments addressed the neuronal mechanisms of development of amnesia. Animals were trained to refuse two foodstuffs. The snails were injected with cycloheximide 24 h after training and were subjected to the reminding procedure using one of the conditioned food stimuli. Semi-intact preparations were made 1, 3, 7, and 15 days after cycloheximide and the reminder. Responses to the conditioned food stimulus used as the reminder gradually decreased on days 1, 3, and 7. On days 7 and 15, measures of the responses to this conditioned stimulus were no different from those to the differential signal and were significantly smaller than responses to the second conditioned stimulus, which was not used as reminder. It is suggested that one of the cellular mechanisms of amnesia following impairment of long-term memory reconsolidation in snails consists of a specific, protein synthesis-dependent change in the efficiency of the synaptic connections of command neurons LPl1 and RPl1. PMID:20635219

Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

2010-09-01

472

Evaluating Medical Students' Skills in Obtaining Informed Consent for HIV Testing  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate fourth-year medical students' abilities to obtain informed consent or refusal for HIV testing through a performance-based evaluation method. DESIGN Student competence was assessed in a standardized patient interaction in which the student obtained informed consent or refusal for HIV testing. A previously validated 16-item checklist was completed by the standardized patient. A subset was independently reviewed and scored by a faculty member to calculate interrater reliability for this report. Student feedback on the assessment was elicited. SETTING School of Medicine at the University of New Mexico. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS All senior medical students in the class of 2000 were included. INTERVENTIONS A 10-minute standardized patient interaction was administered within the context of a formal comprehensive performance assessment. MEASUREMENTS and MAIN RESULTS Seventy-nine students participated, and most (96%) demonstrated competence on the station. For the 15 specific items, the mean score was 25.5 out of 30 possible points (range, 13 to 30; SD, 3.5) on the checklist. A strong positive correlation (rs = .79) was found between the total score on the 15 Likert-scaled items and the score in response to the global item, “I would return to this clinician” (mean, 3.5; SD, 1.0). Scores given by the standardized patients and the faculty rater were well correlated. The station was generally well received by students, many of whom were stimulated to pursue further learning. CONCLUSIONS This method of assessing medical students' abilities to obtain informed consent or refusal for HIV testing can be translated to a variety of clinical settings. Such efforts may help in demonstrating competence in performing key ethics skills and may help ensure ethically sound clinical care for people at risk for HIV infection.

Roberts, Laura Weiss; Geppert, Cynthia; McCarty, Teresita; Obenshain, S Scott

2003-01-01

473

EVA Skills Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

474

Skill Standards for Wireless Telecommunications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing and implementing strong educational programs are essential steps to take toward affirmatively responding to the shortage of qualified workers for the wireless industry. Community and technical colleges have an enviable opportunity to respond quickly and creatively to wireless manpower supply gaps and manpower shortages. Key to this effort, however, is the necessity to identify core skills and knowledge bases for technicians and engineers. Merely training individuals is not a sufficient response to the need for skilled workers. Achieving consistently high levels of quality both in product and in productivity is an imperative in all sectors of the wireless industry. This realization in turn underscores the need for industry-driven standards for the skill development of workers. For Seattle Central Community College, North Seattle Community College, Bellevue Community College and their industry and labor partners, identifying generic skills and requisite and unique wireless skills and abilities through the skill standards process is tantamount to the task of developing educational programs that prepare individuals for the wireless workplace. The wireless skill standards have been developed at a critical timesignificant changes in local and global wireless technology require clearly articulated standards for both product and employee performance. The outcome of this process is critical to the ability of companies to hire and retain excellent RF talent in a highly competitive market. Both industry and labor recognize the importance of clearly articulated universal skills as a basis for the preparation of qualified and competent workers for the industry, and they will be the ultimate beneficiaries of the results of the wireless skill standards project. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

2010-01-04

475

Youth, drugs and resilience education.  

PubMed

Billions of dollars are spent annually on school-based drug education programs, with youthful drug use remaining near peak levels since the 1980s. Institutional, policy, and program evidence presented here suggests that although primarily delivered in schools, the educational community rarely participates in the development of drug education; and despite the finding that "no-use" programs such as Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) or Life-Skills Training (LST) are likely ineffective, they continue to thrive in schools. This may be explained by insufficient educational participation and scientific discourse considering these issues; and the role of interest group politics, such as the symbiotic relationship between government, researchers, and the tobacco industry, in drug education. In addition to this evidence, resilience based program alternatives, evaluation, and implications are discussed. PMID:11338967

Brown, J H

2001-01-01

476

Mine-refuse impoundments in the United States. [Includes detailed analysis of Buffalo Creek failure and other failures or hazardous problems in USA, Chile, etc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing mining and processing techniques, utilization of lower grades of ore, and increased demand for fuels and minerals are resulting in the acceleration of increased size, rapidity of construction, and numbers of major mine, mill, and plant refuse embankments throughout the United States. These factors all contribute to the need for greater engineering consideration of the refuse structures, especially those

D. P. Schlick; W. A. Wahler

1976-01-01

477

"No Thank You, We'd Rather Not": The Rights and Policies of Daily Newspapers Relating to Refusals to Accept Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the types of advertisements newspapers refuse as well as the attitudes of advertising managers about guidelines and laws concerning advertising refusal. Newspapers were selected from the "1985 Editor and Publisher Yearbook" using a systematic probability sampling method, and questionnaires were mailed to advertising managers…

Utt, Sandra H.; Pasternack, Steve

478

21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations...Administrative Action on Petitions § 71.22 Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations...that such proposed use would promote deception of the consumer or would result...

2013-04-01

479

21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations...Administrative Action on Petitions § 71.22 Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations...that such proposed use would promote deception of the consumer or would result...

2009-04-01

480

21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations...Administrative Action on Petitions § 71.22 Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations...that such proposed use would promote deception of the consumer or would result...

2010-04-01

481

45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care? 261.15 Section 261.15... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care? (a) No, the State...

2013-10-01

482

Role-Play Assessment of Social Skills in Conduct Disordered and Substance Abusing Adolescents: An Empirical Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically examines and integrates studies that have evaluated social-skill functioning in delinquent and substance-abusing youth utilizing role-play assessment. Distinguishes the meaning of "social skills," describes "role play assessment," and discusses the relationship of illicit drug use and conduct disorder among adolescents. (Author/EMK)

Donohue, Brad; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Hersen, Michel; Perrin, Sean

1998-01-01

483

A streamlined software environment for situated skills  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents a powerful set of software tools used for developing situated skills. These situated skills form the reactive level of a three-tiered intelligent agent architecture. The architecture is designed to allow these skills to be manipulated by a task level engine which is monitoring the current situation and selecting skills necessary for the current task. The idea is to coordinate the dynamic activations and deactivations of these situated skills in order to configure the reactive layer for the task at hand. The heart of the skills environment is a data flow mechanism which pipelines the currently active skills for execution. A front end graphical interface serves as a debugging facility during skill development and testing. We are able to integrate skills developed in different languages into the skills environment. The power of the skills environment lies in the amount of time it saves for the programmer to develop code for the reactive layer of a robot.

Yu, Sophia T.; Slack, Marc G.; Miller, David P.

1994-01-01

484

Autism Affects Motor Skills Too  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Autism Affects Motor Skills Too As condition's severity rises, ... Preidt Monday, April 28, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Autism Child Development MONDAY, April 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

485

Skilled Finger Movements in Typing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six skilled typists were studied while they transcribed English text. The typists showed stable patterns of performance, but with significant individual differences among the typists. Inter-Keypress latencies for 2-finger digraphs (typed by two fingers on...

D. R. Gentner

1981-01-01

486

Scallops, Whelks, and Process Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines activities for each of eight science process skills (observing, using space/time relationships, classifying, using numbers, measuring, communicating, predicting, and inferring). Directions for the activities (all of which use sea shells) are included. (DH)

Cleare, Catherine C.

1985-01-01

487

Teaching children fire safety skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined the effectiveness of three training procedures (elaborative rehearsal, rehearsal-plus, and behavioral rehearsal) in producing children's acquisition and maintenance of fire safety skills, as well as knowledge of fire safety skills. In addition, reduction of fire-related fears was targeted. Fifty-two randomly assigned second- and third-grade children served as subjects. The children were assessed before, immediately following, and three

Jeff Randall; Russell T. Jones

1993-01-01

488

"Brown Bag" Simulations to Teach Drug Utilization Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. To teach drug utilization review (DUR) skills to pharmacy students and assess their abilities and confidence before and after training. Design. Profile reviews and online and live drug-utilization-review activities of increasing difficulty were incorporated into the first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) years of the Pharmacy Skills Training Laboratory sequence in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Assessment. An online survey instrument was administered to gauge how comfortable students were with specific DUR skills before and after the activities. Students’ confidence in performing specific DUR skills improved after completing the activities. Conclusion. Profile reviews, as well as online and live medication reviews, gave students numerous opportunities to practice drug utilization review skills throughout the first 3 years of the pharmacy curriculum. Students’ confidence in performing specific drug utilization review skills improved after the activities. Students’ ability to perform the skills also improved as measured with the developed checklist in section V and VI of the Pharmacy Skills Laboratory sequence.

Begley, Kimberley; Hoie, Eric; Elsasser, Gary; Augustine, Sam

2014-01-01

489

A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

PubMed Central

This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai‘i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior research. A total of 509 responses reflecting primary or secondary drug resistance strategies were identified by the youth, which were qualitatively collapsed into 16 different categories. Primary drug resistance strategies were those that participants listed as a single response, or the first part of a two-part response, while secondary drug resistance strategies were those that were used in tandem with primary drug resistance strategies. Over half of the responses reflecting primary drug resistance strategies fell into three different categories (“refuse,” “explain,” or “angry refusal”), whereas over half of the responses reflecting secondary drug resistance strategies represented one category (“explain”). Significant gender differences were found in the frequency of using different strategies as well as variations in the frequency of using different strategies based on the type of drug offerer (family versus friends/peers). Implications for prevention practice are discussed.

Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

2010-01-01

490

"Non-Servile Virtuosi" in Insubordinate Spaces: School Disaffection, Refusal and Resistance in a Former English Coalfield  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews excerpts from a body of ethnographic data examining some young people's disaffection from, and refusal of, the education project as a whole in a UK coalfield area. Key examples are used to illustrate intergenerational continuities and disjunctions in attitudes to formal education in these exceptional and sometimes…

Bright, N. Geoffrey

2011-01-01

491

The Realization of the Speech Act of Refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how the speech act of refusal is realized in Egyptian Arabic by intermediate and advanced American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. It also compared the performance of the learners to that of native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and native speakers of American English. The study aimed to investigate the relationship…

Morkus, Nader

2009-01-01

492

COMBINED CFD AND INFRARED THERMAL ANALISYS OF A WOOD REFUSE AND DI-METHYL-ETHER CO-FIRED FLAME  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some numerical and experimental tests concerning two systems of co-firing small pieces of wood refuse (maximum of 20 mm) together with di- methyl-ether inside the industrial wood platforms on some local areas in Romania rich both in oil reserves and woods (Prahova, Transilvania and Oltenia regions). The first system consists in a concentric injection of the two

Tudor Prisecaru; Lucian Mihaescu; Constantin Dumitrascu; Malina Prisecaru; Nicolae Panoiu; Elena Popa; Ion Oprea

493

Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species associated with annual legume pastures and 'sheep feed refusal disorders' in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Sheep grazing in Western Australia can partially or completely refuse to consume annual Medicago pods contaminated with a number of different Fusarium species. Many Fusarium species are known to produce trichothecenes as part of their array of toxigenic secondary metabolites, which are known to cause feed refusal in animals. This study reports the identity of Fusarium species using species-specific PCR primers and a characterization of the toxigenic secondary metabolites produced by 24 Fusarium isolates associated with annual legume-based pastures and particularly those associated with sheep feed refusal disorders in Western Australia. Purification of the fungal extracts was facilitated by a bioassay-guided fractionation using brine shrimp. A number of trichothecenes (3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, monoacetoxyscirpenols, diacetoxyscirpenol, scirpentriol, HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin), enniatins (A, A1, B, and B1), chlamydosporol and zearalenone were identified using GC/MS and/or NMR spectroscopy. Some of the crude extracts and fractions showed significant activity against brine shrimp at concentrations as low as 5 ?g ml(-1), and are likely to be involved in the sheep feed refusal disorders. This is the first report of chlamydosporol production by confirmed Fusarium spp.; of the incidence of F. brachygibbosum and F. venenatum in Australia and of F. tricinctum in Western Australia; and of mycotoxin production by Fusarium species from Western Australia. PMID:23605703

Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Barbetti, Martin John

2011-05-01

494

Surface-water hydrology at three coal-refuse disposal sites in southern Illinois: Staunton 1, New Kathleen, and Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologic data were collected and analyzed for three coal refuse disposal sites in southern Illinois. The disposal sites were associated with underground mines and consisted of piles of coarse waste (gob) and slurry areas where fine waste rejected from coal washing was deposited. Prereclamation data were available for the Superior washer site in Macoupin County and the New Kathleen site

L. M. Mele; P. F. Prodan

1983-01-01

495

Towards the right to be killed? Treatment refusal, assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States and Canada.  

PubMed

This chapter describes some dominant trends of American and Canadian law in relation to treatment refusal, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. Although common law in both countries recognizes the right of patients to refuse treatment, problems have arisen, especially in the US, over treatment refusal on behalf of incompetent patients. One response has been to enact advance-directive legislation, promoting the use of living wills and proxy appointments. Courts have also specified criteria for withholding and withdrawing treatment from incompetent patients. The notion of a "right to die', developed in court cases on treatment refusal, is now being invoked to support the legalization of assisted suicide. Courts are generally reluctant to recognize an extention of this right. Debates and court cases following the recent initiative to legalize assisted suicide in Oregon and the Sue Rodriguez case in Canada's Supreme Court, which resulted in a special report of a Canadian Senate Committee, are of major importance for the development of law in this area. PMID:8759232

Lemmens, T

1996-04-01

496

ANALYSIS OF FLY ASH PRODUCED FROM COMBUSTION OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL AND COAL MIXTURES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Cs, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br...

497

A Family-Centered Positive Behavior Support Approach to the Amelioration of Food Refusal Behavior: An Empirical Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-centered positive behavior support approach to the amelioration of food refusal behavior in a child with autism. The study was conducted with the child and his family in their home. It employed an empirical case study design with one meal routine: snack time. Following…

Binnendyk, Lauren; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

498

A Mandatory, High-Stakes National Teacher Evaluation System: Perceptions and Attributions of Teachers Who Actively Refuse to Participate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines why some public elementary school teachers openly refuse participation in a mandatory national, standards-based teacher evaluation program. We describe the perceptions these "rebel" teachers have of the evaluation system, studying their open resistance based on the meanings they construct, and elaborated an explanatory model…

Tornero, Bernardita; Taut, Sandy

2010-01-01

499

Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) burn at Marcy Psychiatric Center. Final report Mar 80-Nov 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

A densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) product was fired for approximately 50 hours as a supplemental fuel in a coal fired spreader stoker boiler at the Marcy Psychiatric Center in Marcy, New York. Observations were made and photographs were taken of plant operation during all phases of the test project. Opacity and particulate emission tests were performed while firing d-RDF

Galson

1980-01-01

500

Remediation and monitoring of a burning coal refuse bank affecting the Southsea Looproad at Brymbo, North Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southsea Looproad at Brymbo suffers large and varied settlements where the highway crosses a smouldering coal refuse bank. A sudden surge in combustion activity during 1991 resulted in considerable subsidence within the carriageway and posed recurring and persistent difficulties for road safety and highway maintenance. Initial investigations involved subsurface temperature measurements to delimit the hot spots and provide a basis

D Nichol; N. P Tovey

1998-01-01