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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Latent Growth Models of Drug Refusal Skills and Adolescent Alcohol Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Vulnerabilily to adolescent alcohol use is oJien predicated on low social competenc~ and poor social resistance skills. As a result, many prevention progm,focus on improving assertiveness and drug-specijic rema1 skills to build resilience. However, individual dzrerences in the rate at which youth acquire these skills may regulate-their degree of alcohol use. fie current study used longitudinal growth curve modeling

LAWRENCE M. SCHEIER; GILBERT J. BOTVIN; KENNETH W. GRIFFIN; TRACY DIAZ

2

Media resistance skills and drug skill refusal techniques: What is their relationship with alcohol use among inner-city adolescents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research related to alcohol advertising examined whether underage adolescents were targets of the alcohol industry and what impact such adverting had on adolescent drinking. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the impact of media resistance skills on subsequent drinking among adolescents residing in inner-city regions of New York City. The study also tested whether drug skill

Jennifer A. Epstein; Gilbert J. Botvin

2008-01-01

3

Teaching refusal skills to sexually active adolescents.  

PubMed

Refusal skills training was extended to sexually active handicapped female adolescents who lacked an effective refusal strategy. Role-plays for assessment and training were developed using the who, what, when and where of situations which resulted in unwanted intercourse. Refusal skills were trained following the format of rationale, modeling, rehearsal, feedback, and reinforcement. Baseline rates of most target behaviors were quite low. High frequencies of target behaviors were observed as each behavior became the focus of training. Generalization across staff and time was also observed. The skillfulness and effectiveness of the subjects' refusal skills were judged to be improved as a function of training. One-year follow-up showed decreased sexual activity for each girl. PMID:2148750

Warzak, W J; Page, T J

1990-06-01

4

Assessment of Adolescent Refusal Skills in an Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many substance abuse prevention programs seek to enhance the ability of adolescents to refuse offers of alcohol and other drugs, few report assessments of refusal skill ability or its relationship to substance use. This report describes a procedure to assess the ability of adolescents to refuse the offer of a beer, and presents the findings of those assessments as

Jean T. Shope; Laurel A. Copeland; Ruth Maharg; Ted E. Dielman; Amy T. Butchart

1993-01-01

5

Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2010-01-01

6

49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section...PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each...

2012-10-01

7

49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section...PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each...

2011-10-01

8

77 FR 48159 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for...

2012-08-13

9

78 FR 60292 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Application Submissions-Refuse-to-Receive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on Abbreviated New Drug Application Submissions--Refuse-to-Receive Standards...guidance for industry entitled ``ANDA Submissions--Refuse-to-Receive Standards...drug applications (ANDAs) and related submissions (i.e., prior approval...

2013-10-01

10

49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199.103 Section 199.103 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail...

2011-10-01

11

49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199.103 Section 199.103 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail...

2012-10-01

12

A model of the effects of protective parent and peer factors on young adolescent alcohol refusal skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specification and testing of a model of protective parent and peer factors in peer refusal skills.\\u000a Two modifiable protective factors suggested by relevant research on adolescent substance use—child attachment with parents\\u000a and association with peers having prosocial norms—were incorporated as independent variables in the model. The effects of\\u000a parent and child attendance at skills training interventions

Richard Spoth; Seongmo Yoo; Jeffrey H. Kahn; Cleve Redmond I

1996-01-01

13

The Impact of a Culturally Enhanced Drug Prevention Program on Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy among Urban African American Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the utility of the Specific Event Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy scale (SEDARE) as an outcome of a culturally enhanced drug abuse prevention program for urban African-American girls in early adolescence. The SEDARE captures the perceived likelihood that youth will use drugs and alcohol in specific situations. Ninety-two…

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Reed, Melba C.; Plybon, Laura E.; Corneille, Maya

2004-01-01

14

14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated...13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate...

2013-01-01

15

14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated...11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate...

2013-01-01

16

14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated...15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate...

2013-01-01

17

78 FR 100 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for...

2013-01-02

18

Ethnic Identity, Neighborhood Risk, and Adolescent Drug and Sex Attitudes and Refusal Efficacy: The Urban African American Girls' Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as…

Corneille, Maya A.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2007-01-01

19

49 CFR 40.191 - What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences? 40.191...Transportation Office of the Secretary...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL...refuse to take a drug test, you incur the consequences specified under...a violation of those DOT...

2009-10-01

20

49 CFR 40.191 - What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences? 40.191...Transportation Office of the Secretary...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL...refuse to take a drug test, you incur the consequences specified under...a violation of those DOT...

2010-10-01

21

Gender differences in drug resistance skills of youth in Guanajuato, Mexico.  

PubMed

Research is limited or absent on Mexican adolescents' exposure to substance offers, ways of dealing with these offers, and possible gender differences in responses to offers. Extending U.S.-based research, this study examines how youth living in the Mexican state of Guanajuato employ the four drug resistance strategies-refuse, explain, avoid, and leave-that are part of the Keepin' It REAL evidence-based drug prevention intervention. The analysis uses cross-sectional survey data from 702 students enrolled in eight alternative secondary education sites in 2007. Participants reported the drug resistance behaviors they used to deal with offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Using multivariate regression, findings indicate most youth had developed repertoires of drug resistance strategies that involved multiple REAL strategies and some other strategy as well. For those receiving offers, the most common strategy was to refuse the offer with a simple "no." However, males used all the strategies significantly more often than females for situations involving cigarettes and marijuana as well as when using refuse and non-REAL strategies for alcohol. Possible reasons for the gender difference in use of strategies are discussed. The findings can help inform effective prevention programs based on teaching culturally appropriate drug resistance and communication skills. PMID:21424398

Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie L; Calderón-Tena, Carlos O; Nuño-Gutiérrez, Bertha L

2011-04-01

22

Gender Differences in Drug Resistance Skills of Youth in Guanajuato, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Research is limited or absent on Mexican adolescents’ exposure to substance offers, ways of dealing with these offers, and possible gender differences in responses to offers. Extending U.S.-based research, this study examines how youth living in the Mexican state of Guanajuato employ the four drug resistance strategies—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave—that are part of the Keepin’ It REAL evidence-based drug prevention intervention. The analysis uses cross-sectional survey data from 702 students enrolled in eight alternative secondary education sites in 2007. Participants reported the drug resistance behaviors they used to deal with offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Using multivariate regression, findings indicate most youth had developed repertoires of drug resistance strategies that involved multiple REAL strategies and some other strategy as well. For those receiving offers, the most common strategy was to refuse the offer with a simple ‘‘no.’’ However, males used all the strategies significantly more often than females for situations involving cigarettes and marijuana as well as when using refuse and non-REAL strategies for alcohol. Possible reasons for the gender difference in use of strategies are discussed. The findings can help inform effective prevention programs based on teaching culturally appropriate drug resistance and communication skills.

Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Calderon-Tena, Carlos O.; Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha L.

2011-01-01

23

Food Safety and Imports: An Analysis of FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Food-Related Import Refusal Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data on refusals of food offered for importation into the United States from 1998 to 2004. Although the data do not necessarily reflect the distribution of risk in foods, the study found that im...

D. Roberts J. C. Buzby L. J. Unnevehr

2008-01-01

24

"I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

2011-01-01

25

An investigation on the effect of Health Belief Model-based education on refusal skills in high risk situations among female students  

PubMed Central

Background: Various studies show an association between lack of social skills in adolescents and the future incidence of behavioral disorders. If girls, as future mothers, lack adequate health, awareness, self confidence and social skills, they may act as a source of many social problems. Therefore, the present study has tried to educate this group on one of the most essential social skills, refusal skill in high risk situation. Materials and Methods: This is a field quasi experimental study conducted on 145 female students in middle schools in Arak, Iran in 2010-2011. The schools were randomly selected. The subjects were selected through systematic random sampling from the schools’ log book. The data were collected by questionnaires containing personal and familial characteristics, three health belief model structures, and behavioral intention in high risk situations. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests (frequency distribution, mean, SD) and inferential tests of repetitive variance analysis and T-test through SPSS. Findings: In the present study, repetitive variance analysis showed that education by use of a health belief model had a positive effect on refusal skills in high risk situations as well as perceived barriers (p = 0.007), self-efficacy (p = 0.015), behavioral intention (p = 0.048) after educational intervention in the study group, but not on perceived benefits (p = 0.180). Conclusions: The results showed that education significantly increased refusal skills in high risk situations in the study group through the health belief model. With regard to the results, it is essential to equip the students with preventive behaviors to guarantee their physical, emotional and social health.

Boroumandfar, Khadijeh; Shabani, Fatemeh; Ghaffari, Mohtasham

2012-01-01

26

The influence of the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among injection drug users: balancing competing risks.  

PubMed

Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens through receptive syringe sharing (RSS) and receptive paraphernalia sharing (RPS). Research into the influence of the perceived risk of HIV infection on injection risk behavior has yielded mixed findings. One explanation may be that consequences other than HIV infection are considered when IDUs are faced with decisions about whether or not to share equipment. We investigated the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among 187 IDUs recruited from a large syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, assessed their influence on RSS and RPS, and evaluated gender differences. Two sub-scales of perceived consequences were identified: structural/external consequences and social/internal consequences. In multiple linear regression, the perceived social/internal consequences of refusing to share were associated with both RSS and RPS, after controlling for other psychosocial constructs and demographic variables. Few statistically significant gender differences emerged. Assessing the consequences of refusing to share injection equipment may help explain persistent injection risk behavior, and may provide promising targets for comprehensive intervention efforts designed to address both individual and structural risk factors. PMID:21498004

Wagner, Karla D; Lankenau, Stephen E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Richardson, Jean L; Chou, Chih-Ping; Unger, Jennifer B

2011-03-25

27

Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

Hawkins, J. David; And Others

1986-01-01

28

[Life skills and drug use among Mexican adolescent students].  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was carried out with the purpose of validating seven life skills scales reported in the literature as related to drug-abuse prevention, and which identify differences between these skills among non-user adolescent students and users of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and inhalants. The sample was made up of 425 adolescents, 196 (46.1%) male and 229 (53.9%) female. These participants were randomly selected from a private high school in the state of Morelos, and their mean age was 15.8 years, with a standard deviation of 1.97. To measure skills we used the scales validated in this survey, while patterns of drug use were measured with a scale based on the National Addiction Survey (2008) indicators. Results showed that students who did not use alcohol, tobacco, cannabis or inhalants scored higher in skills of empathy, future orientation and peer pressure resistance, compared to those who had used these substances in the last month. On the basis of these findings it would seem necessary to develop drug-abuse prevention programs for high school students based on a life skills training approach. PMID:22648318

Pérez De La Barrera, Citlalli

2012-01-01

29

21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same concentration...from the listed drug in a preservative, buffer, or antioxidant, the application contains...ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, substances to adjust tonicity, or...

2013-04-01

30

Monitoring drug therapy in skilled nursing facility patients.  

PubMed

A discussion of one system designed for monitoring drug therapy in skilled nursing facility (SNF) patients is presented. This system will enable the pharmacist to fulfill the federal requirement for monitoring drug therapy and will provide the opportunity for gathering and analyzing drug usage data in fulfillment of the facility's utilization review requirement. The system described was developed and tested at five SNF's. Follow-up studies at each of the five facilities were then performed for comparison purposes. The data presented describe and analyze the results from both studies for two of the ten drugs studied: digoxin and hydrochlorothiazide. The high rates of nonconformance to the established criteria are discussed and specific insights as to why drug therapy in these patients often seems inappropriate are provided. PMID:10239707

Stewart, J E; Marttila, J K; Kabat, H F; Wertheimer, A I

1978-12-01

31

School Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

Wimmer, Mary

2008-01-01

32

Can effective teaching and learning strategies help student nurses to retain drug calculation skills?  

PubMed

Student nurses need to develop and retain drug calculation skills in order accurately to calculate drug dosages in clinical practice. If student nurses are to qualify and be fit to practise accurate drug calculation skills, then educational strategies need to not only show that the skills of student nurses have improved but that these skills have been retained over a period of time. A quasi-experimental approach was used to test the effectiveness of a range of strategies in improving retention of drug calculation skills. The results from an IV additive drug calculation test were used to compare the drug calculation skills of student nurses between two groups of students who had received different approaches to teaching drug calculation skills. The sample group received specific teaching and learning strategies in relation to drug calculation skills and the second group received only lectures on drug calculation skills. All test results for students were anonymous. The results from the test for both groups were statistically analysed using the Mann Whitney test to ascertain whether the range of strategies improved the results for the IV additive test. The results were further analysed and compared to ascertain the types and numbers of errors made in each of the sample groups. The results showed that there is a highly significant difference between the two samples using a two-tailed test (U=39.5, p<0.001). The strategies implemented therefore did make a difference to the retention of drug calculation skills in the students in the intervention group. Further research is required into the retention of drug calculation skills by students and nurses, but there does appears to be evidence to suggest that sound teaching and learning strategies do result in better retention of drug calculation skills. PMID:18304704

Wright, Kerri

2008-03-04

33

Gender Differences in Drug Resistance Skills of Youth in Guanajuato, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is limited or absent on Mexican adolescents’ exposure to substance offers, ways of dealing with these offers, and\\u000a possible gender differences in responses to offers. Extending U.S.-based research, this study examines how youth living in\\u000a the Mexican state of Guanajuato employ the four drug resistance strategies—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave—that are part\\u000a of the Keepin’ It REAL evidence-based drug

Stephen KulisFlavio; Flavio F. Marsiglia; Stephanie L. Ayers; Carlos O. Calderón-Tena; Bertha L. Nuño-Gutiérrez

2011-01-01

34

49 CFR 219.107 - Consequences of unlawful refusal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.107 Consequences of unlawful refusal. (a) An employee who refuses to provide breath...

2012-10-01

35

49 CFR 219.107 - Consequences of unlawful refusal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.107 Consequences of unlawful refusal. (a) An employee who refuses to provide breath...

2011-10-01

36

An exploration into the most effective way to teach drug calculation skills to nursing students.  

PubMed

Drug calculations are an essential skill for nurses. Nurses need to be able to perform them accurately to calculate correct dosages of drugs to administer to patients. Incorrect calculations can cause drug errors and potential harm to patients (; ). For student nurses therefore learning how to calculate drug dosages is an important skill that they need to be taught during their nurse training. This paper describes an action research project undertaken to explore the most effective way of teaching drug calculations to a group if 2nd year diploma and degree pre registration nurses. The evaluation of this project has demonstrated that a three stage approach to drug calculation appears to be an effective teaching strategy. These stages involve addressing mathematical concepts, teaching drug calculation formulae and then practising these skills in a clinical setting. PMID:15982788

Wright, Kerri

2005-08-01

37

Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Communication Skills--English IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Four integrated learning activities for communication skills/ English IV and healthful living are presented. Communication skills/literature goals include experiencing young adult literature, using effective techniques…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

38

Social Skills Training for Drug Prevention in High-Risk Female Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.The effectiveness of social skills training\\/social network restructuring in the primary and secondary prevention of drug use was examined in a multiethnic cohort of 296 female adolescents ages 14 to 19 years who were pregnant or parenting and\\/or at risk for drug use.Methods.Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) PALS Skills Training or (b) a control intervention

Lawrence A. Palinkas; Catherine J. Atkins; Christopher Miller; Diane Ferreira

1996-01-01

39

Minimum Knowledge and Skills Objectives for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…

American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.

40

Refusal to care.  

PubMed

There are many reasons why a nurse might refuse to care for a patient. The nurse manager needs to be aware of the nexus between moral dilemmas in healthcare and the right of providers to refuse to participate in certain controversial procedures, as well as other professional and ethical reasons such as lack of training or fatigue that may lead a staff nurse to refuse a patient care assignment. This article explores each of these situations and outlines federal and state laws that impact this situation. Suggestions are given for the nurse manager to help himself/herself and his/her staff avoid the potential negative consequences of refusals to care. PMID:18525403

Cady, Rebecca F

41

Treatment refusal/attrition among adults randomly assigned to programs at a drug treatment campus: The New Jersey Substance Abuse Treatment Campus, Seacaucus, NJ.  

PubMed

The New Jersey Substance Abuse Treatment Campus was funded to assess the feasibility of establishing a new model for delivering substance abuse treatment services and to serve as a research laboratory for conducting comparative evaluations of those services. The 350-bed campus was designed to improve treatment effectiveness by providing special services needed by underserved populations, and reduce treatment costs by serving large numbers of clients, centralizing services, and sharing facilities. First-time clients who met preliminary eligibility requirements during phone screening were randomly assigned to therapeutic community and chemical dependency programs. We used data collected on 1,573 adults who were ultimately accepted for admission to analyze treatment refusals and attrition during the 25 days after admission. Only 6.4% of the clients refused admission when informed of their treatment assignment. Planned duration of the residential phase of treatment, gender, and language spoken (English/Spanish) interacted with one another and differentially predicted treatment refusal/attrition. These findings may be useful for understanding treatment refusal and attrition in substance abuse treatment programs. PMID:10812314

Condelli, W S; Koch, M A; Fletcher, B

2000-06-01

42

49 CFR 219.213 - Unlawful refusals; consequences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological...refuses to cooperate in providing breath, blood or urine specimens following an accident...subpart; and (2) In a case where a blood test was refused on the ground it...

2011-10-01

43

A longitudinal evaluation of medical student knowledge, skills and attitudes to alcohol and drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To examine the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students to alcohol and drugs as training progresses. Design A longitudinal, prospective, cohort-based design. Setting The four schools of medicine in New Zealand. Participants All second-year medical students (first year of pre-clinical medical health sciences) in New Zealand were administered a questionnaire which was repeated in the fourth (first year

Gavin Cape; Annette Hannah; Doug Sellman

2006-01-01

44

Refuse burning process  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

Lientz, laC.

1983-08-23

45

Incongruity between occupational interests and academic skills in drug abusing women.  

PubMed

This study assessed the occupational interests and academic skills of 50 patients of a center for addiction and pregnancy. Patient ratings of 31 occupations showed that a subset of ten occupations (telephone operator, cosmetologist, mail clerk, data entry operator, child care worker, receptionist, office clerk, word processor, billing clerk, secretary) were of interest to significantly more subjects than other occupations (P < or = 0.05). Most of the desired occupations were office jobs requiring basic skills not possessed by most study participants. Although participants had completed a mean (range) of 11 (8-15) years of education, their mean (range) grade levels of reading, spelling and arithmetic were estimated at 6.9 (0.8-12), 6.8 (1-12), and 5.7 (2-11.8) years, respectively. These data suggest that the study participants will need basic skills training to achieve their occupational goals. Importantly, patient ratings also indicated that most participants were interested in receiving the needed training. Overall, the study suggests that provision of basic academic skills training may improve the long-term employment outcomes of these drug abusing women. PMID:8745133

Silverman, K; Chutuape, M A; Svikis, D S; Bigelow, G E; Stitzer, M L

1995-12-01

46

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater....

2012-10-01

47

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test...PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing...to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol...

2011-10-01

48

Helping Dysfunctional Recovering Drug-Addicted Mothers To Build Healthy Families by Enhancing Parenting Skills and Providing Opportunities for Bonding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This practicum was designed to enhance the parenting skills of drug-addicted recovering women (N=8) and to give opportunities for successful family experiences in a half-way house setting. A curriculum was developed, weekly group meetings were held, guest speakers were presented, mothers were assisted with individual problems, and the program was…

Wilson, Nan Kelly

49

Recent Perspectives Concerning School Refusal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of the literature regarding school refusal was conducted. It was found that the term School Refusal Behavior has gone through many changes. These changes encompass nomenclature, etiology, and treatment. The names used to describe the behavior of school refusal have ranged from truancy in the 1930s to School Refusal Behavior in the 1990s.…

Witts, Benjamin; Houlihan, Daniel

2007-01-01

50

Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested the effectiveness of 2 alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs among inner-city minority 7th-grade students (N = 639) from 6 New York City public schools. Schools were randomly assigned to receive (a) a generic skills training preven- tion approach, (b) a culturally focused prevention approach, or (c) an information-only control. Results indicate that students in both prevention

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz

1994-01-01

51

Food Safety and Imports: An Analysis of FDA Food-Related Import Refusal Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data on refusals of food offered for importation into the United States from 1998 to 2004. Although the data do not necessarily reflect the distribution of risk in foods, the study found that import refusals highlight food safety problems that appear to recur in trade and where the FDA has focused

Jean C. Buzby; Laurian J. Unnevehr; Donna Roberts

2008-01-01

52

Gender-Specific Effects of Social Influences and Competence on Lifetime Poly-Drug Use Among Inner-City Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of social influences to use drugs and competence variables with lifetime poly-drug use for adolescents residing in inner-city regions. The same model was tested separately for boys and girls. Sixth- and seventh-graders (N = 2400) in inner-city schools self-reported substance use, social influences to use drugs (e.g., friends' substance use), and competence skills (i.e., refusal assertiveness, decision-making).

Jennifer A. Epstein; Gilbert J. Botvin; Margaret Doyle

2009-01-01

53

Refuse burning process and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200* F., especially 700* F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere; a burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

Lientz, L.C.

1982-07-13

54

Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilization was identified using both electronic medical record and insurance claims. Within the immunization registries of two HMOs in the study, some providers use refusal and medical contraindication interchangeably, and some providers tend to always use "ever refusal." Therefore, we combined medical contraindication and refusal together and treated them all as "refusal" in this study. Results The immunization registry, compared to chart review, had negative predictive values of 85–92% and 90–97% for 2- and 6-year olds, and positive predictive values of only 52–74% and 59–62% to identify vaccine refusals. Refusers were more likely to reside in well-educated, higher income areas than non-refusers. Refusers had not opted out of health care system and continued, although less frequently for the age 2 and under group, to use services. Conclusion Without enhancements to immunization registries, identifying children with immunization refusal would be time consuming. Since communities where refusers live are well educated, interventions should target these communities to communicate vaccine adverse events and consequences of vaccine preventable diseases.

Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

2009-01-01

55

North Shore refuse energy system. [Saugus, Mass. , refuse combustion plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saugus, Mass., refuse plant is designed for the practically pollution-free combustion of municipal and industrial wastes for the generation of steam for a nearby industrial plant for power generation, heating, and plant processing. The initial design includes recovery of ferrous metals with provision for expansion of the materials recovery systems to include other items as the markets and technology

MacAdam

1976-01-01

56

49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

2012-10-01

57

49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

2011-10-01

58

Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could s...

S. Shea

2011-01-01

59

School refusal in pervasive developmental disorders.  

PubMed

Of 135 autistic and/or mentally retarded youngsters, 30 with pervasive developmental disorders and 2 with nonautistic mental retardation showed school refusal according to its modified definition. School refusal was significantly more frequent in other PDDs than in nonautistic mental retardation. The intellectual level was significantly higher in PDD children with school refusal than those without it. A certain level of mental development and obsessive tendency appear necessary for PDD children to develop school refusal. In order to treat school refusal in PDD, it is important to make school a pleasant place to go and to encourage the child to attend. PMID:2037546

Kurita, H

1991-03-01

60

Feeding therapy for children with food refusal.  

PubMed

Disabled children suffer not only from their primary disease, but also from other complications, including food refusal. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between these conditions and food refusal in disabled children. The effectiveness of feeding therapy in treating food refusal was also examined. The study subjects were 67 disabled children (35 boys and 32 girls; mean age at initial examination: 6.5 years, SD: 6.0 years) who attended the Nippon Dental University Hospital between April 2004 and August 2008. Of them, the 13 subjects who were diagnosed as those who refused food received feeding therapy combined with desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity. Approximately 20% of the subjects showed food refusal symptoms. Primary disease, respiratory impairment and gastroesophageal reflux were not causes of food refusal in this population. There was a significant relationship between food refusal and hypersensitivity (p = 0.021). After receiving feeding therapy, six of the seven subjects with hypersensitivity but without dysphagia at initial examination recovered from food refusal. Food refusal did not significantly correlate with tube feeding. Hypersensitivity and/or tube feeding may induce food refusal. For subjects with these conditions, feeding therapy combined with desensitization therapy is effective in achieving recovery from food refusal. PMID:22774703

Tamura, Fumiyo; Kikutani, Takeshi; Machida, Reiko; Takahashi, Noriaki; Nishiwaki, Keiko; Yaegaki, Ken

2011-11-01

61

Drink refusal training as part of a combined behavioral intervention: Effectiveness and mechanisms of change  

PubMed Central

Objective Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change in self-efficacy was a mechanism of change following drink refusal training for individuals with alcohol dependence. Method The current study is a secondary analysis of data from the COMBINE study, a randomized clinical trial that combined pharmacotherapy with behavioral intervention in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The goal of the current study was to examine whether a drink refusal skills training module, administered as part of a 16-week CBI (n=776; 31% female, 23% non-White, average age=44) predicted changes in drinking frequency and self-efficacy during and following the CBI, and whether changes in self-efficacy following drink refusal training predicted changes in drinking frequency up to one year following treatment. Results Participants (n=302) who received drink refusal skills training had significantly fewer drinking days during treatment (d=0.50) and up to one year following treatment (d=0.23). In addition the effect of the drink refusal skills training module on drinking outcomes following treatment was significantly mediated by changes in self-efficacy, even after controlling for changes in drinking outcomes during treatment (proportion mediated = 0.47). Conclusions Drink refusal training is an effective component of CBI and some of the effectiveness may be attributed to changes in client self-efficacy.

Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

2012-01-01

62

Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel  

DOEpatents

A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

Daugherty, Kenneth E. (Lewisville, TX); Venables, Barney J. (Denton, TX); Ohlsson, Oscar O. (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01

63

The Youngest Case of Pervasive Refusal Syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the youngest previously recorded case of pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) was eight years old. A four-year-old Australian-born Chinese boy presented to a tertiary paediatric referral centre with a four-week history of food refusal and selective mutism; he was severely dehydrated and marasmic. During admission several behavioural problems were noted including: persistent refusal to eat or drink, obsessions with

Sharon Taylor; David R. Dossetor; Henry Kilham; Elizabeth Bernard

2000-01-01

64

FAMILY CONNECTIONS: Teaching Your Children the Skills of Self-Esteem and Drug Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for parents, this workbook provides easy-to-read information about tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, along with step-by-step instructions for activities that promote family interaction. The first part of the book contains general information for parents about developing the kind of family bonding and harmony that lead to enhanced…

Schuster, Sandy; Palomares, Susanna

65

Proceedings of refuse-derived fuel (RDF)  

SciTech Connect

This book contains proceedings of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF)-Quality. Standards and Processing. Topics covered include: An Overview of RDF Processing Systems: Current Status, Design Features, and Future Trends. The Impact of Recycling and Pre-Combustion Processing of Municipal Solid Waste on Fuel Properties and Steam Combustion. The Changing Role of Standards in the Marketing of RDF. Refuse Derived Fuel Quality Requirements for Firing in Utility, Industrial or Dedicated Boilers. Refuse-Derived Fuel Moisture Effects on Boiler Performance and Operability. Refuse Derived Fuels: Technology, Processing, Quality and Combustion Experiences.

Saltiel, C. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States))

1991-01-01

66

A survey of drug-dose calculation skills of Australian tertiary hospital doctors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the ability of doctors to calculate drug doses and their workplace prescribing and calculation habits. Design and setting: Prospective, questionnaire-based observational study conducted at a 570-bed teaching hospital in February 2007. Participants: Convenience sample of 190 doctors, representing all acute medical and surgical disciplines and diverse levels of experience. Main outcome measures: Demographic data, self-reported prescribing habits,

Chanelle M Simpson; Gerben B Keijzers; James F Lind

2009-01-01

67

Fuzzy logic control of batch-feeding refuse incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The municipal solid waste (MSW) or refuse incineration plant is designated to reduce the volume of the refuse and recover energy from it. The steam generated from a boiler heated by burning refuse is sent to a turbine to generate the electricity. Batch-feeding style and the uncertainty of refuse composites result in periodical and uncertain fluctuation of refuse-combustion and then

Desong Chen

1995-01-01

68

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali

Yavorsky; Paul M

1991-01-01

69

Pennsylvania anthracite refuse: a literature survey on chemical elements in coal and coal refuse. [245 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following literature survey, based on available published materials, concerns the common and rare chemical elements found in, or associated with, coal and coal refuse. The main purpose was to obtain information concerning the composition of anthracite coal refuse to determine the possibility of extracting marketable products, and thereby facilitate the disposal of anthracite coal refuse. The majority of chemical

S. C. Sun; H. Vasquez-Rosas; D. Augenstein

1971-01-01

70

Identification and assessment of secondary refuse aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary refuse contains a wealth of information on the people who generated it. This article identifies some means by which archaeologists can identify and characterize secondary refuse aggregates — localized, high-density deposits of artifacts that have been discarded away from their place of use. A variety of studies of archaeological deposits — from prehistoric and historical archaeology, ethnoarchaeology, and modern

Douglas C. Wilson

1994-01-01

71

Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

Sawarynski, T.J.

1981-12-01

72

30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77...Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned, the District Manager...

2013-07-01

73

30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215...Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and...

2010-07-01

74

30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215...Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and...

2009-07-01

75

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 306. Informed refusal.  

PubMed

Informed refusal is a fundamental component of the informed consent process. Informed consent laws have evolved to the "materiality or patient viewpoint" standard. A physician must disclose to the patient the risks, benefits, and alternatives that a reasonable person in the patient's position would want to know to make an informed decision. Throughout this process, the patient's autonomy, level of health literacy, and cultural background should be respected. The subsequent election by the patient to forgo an intervention that has been recommended by the physician constitutes informed refusal. Documentation of the informed refusal process is essential. It should include a notation that the need for the intervention, as well as risks, benefits, and alternatives to the intervention, and possible consequences of refusal, have been explained. The patient's reason for refusal also should be documented. PMID:15572515

2004-12-01

76

Consent and refusal of treatment.  

PubMed

Clearly, a multitude of potential consent problems can exist for the emergency physician. It is difficult at times to balance the concepts of patient autonomy with the desire to provide optimal medical care. Experienced emergency physicians should be able to individualize the type of consent needed in a particular situation, based on a clinical evaluation of the case. Some general principles apply, but no strict rules can guide the physician in every case. Documentation of consent and refusal of treatment are critical for quality of patient care and legal liability reasons. Principles of what is good, "appropriate" legal consent usually follow from good medical care and strict concern for the patient's health and rights. PMID:8404570

Siegel, D M

1993-11-01

77

Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.  

PubMed

This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines, counseling 7. End-of-life measures: right to refuse 8. Comprehensive laws: right to refuse. PMID:20866024

Pope, Thaddeus Mason

2010-01-01

78

Food Refusal in Children: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Food refusal is a severe feeding problem in which children refuse to eat all or most foods presented and exhibit problems with growth. This review discusses the definition, etiology, and interventions pertaining to food refusal. The interventions utilized for food refusal typically consist of several treatment components. These treatment…

Williams, Keith E.; Field, Douglas G.; Seiverling, Laura

2010-01-01

79

Factors Associated with School Refusal in Adolescents: Some Preliminary Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School refusal, as differentiated from both school phobia and truancy, is a term used to denote emotionally-based avoidance of school. To identify factors associated with school refusal, 41 junior high and high school students (including special education school refusers, special education non-refusers, and a comparison group from a regular…

Ficula, Teresa V.; And Others

80

Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study,

Ren Fu-min; Yue Feng; Gao Ming; Yu Min

2010-01-01

81

[Conscience, principled refusal and ethics of refusal to provide treatment to a patient's request].  

PubMed

There are situations in which refusal to provide treatment according to a patient's request may be justified by ethical rules and principles of medical ethics. This article explores such situations, analyzing the various factors which a physician may consider when refusal to provide treatment is at stake. The article focuses on three major states of affairs under which the question of whether a physician has liberty to refuse to treat may occur: refusals deriving from conflicts between the physician's personal values and ones reflected in the proposed treatment; refusals stemming from general considerations to be classified as policy reasons; and refusals following a clinical assessment as to the proposed treatment, expected chances of recovery and expected benefit to the patient. The ethical analysis of the article leads to the conclusion that a physician may (although he/she does not have a right to) refuse to provide medical treatment following a patient's request when the physician's refusal originates in conscientious resistance. However, the physician may not refuse to treat when refusal is based on policy considerations or concerns third parties not immediately involved in the physician-patient relationship. In addition, a physician may refuse to provide treatment following a medical assessment when and if the proposed treatment is not urgently required, if the provision of treatment may create risks to the patient's health, if its conferral may inflict pain or suffering exceeding its expected benefits to the patient, or the proposed treatment is futile and its chances to combat the disease are significantly minimal. PMID:18770960

Sperling, Daniel

2008-05-01

82

A right to refuse: legal aspects of dealing with intoxicated patients who refuse treatment.  

PubMed

Doctors in hospital emergency departments are frequently confronted with intoxicated patients who may be uncooperative, aggressive and refuse to undergo diagnosis and treatment. In the chaotic environment of the emergency department, the doctor must decide whether to override the patient's refusal and detain the patient for treatment or respect the refusal and allow the patient to leave and potentially suffer further injury. A preliminary pilot survey of emergency doctors in a regional Queensland hospital indicated that those surveyed had limited understanding of the circumstances in which they could, or could not, legally detain and continue to treat an intoxicated patient who refuses treatment, and the concomitant legal consequences. This article considers the complex common law and statutory framework existing in Queensland to determine the legal position of doctors treating intoxicated patients who refuse treatment. PMID:23600188

Butson, Lisa; Shircore, Mandy; Butson, Ben

2013-03-01

83

Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison.  

PubMed

This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted. PMID:22057307

Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy

2012-04-01

84

Beyond abortion: refusal of caesarean section.  

PubMed

Social pressures and legal restrictions are proliferating against pregnant women. A dramatic infringement on women's rights is the court ordered cesarean section, as illustrated by the case of Angela C., a terminally ill cancer patient, 26 weeks pregnant, whose refusal of a cesarean section was overridden by a District of Columbia court. The premature infant and the mother died within two days. This case epitomizes a developing judicial pattern whose ethical reasoning the author criticizes. Within the context of the right to privacy and the concept of viability, which could legally override that right, Mahowald analyzes different situations where cesarean delivery is refused. After arguing that court ordered cesarean sections are inconsistent with court refusals to force persons to undergo less invasive procedures (e.g., bone marrow donation for the benefit of family members), she proposes alternatives to the present inconsistent practice. PMID:11649241

Mahowald, Mary

1989-04-01

85

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.806 Animals refused entry. Any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir refused entry into...

2013-01-01

86

20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good...under an approved state program. A disabled child's benefit under the O/M is not payable for any month in which the child refuses, without good...

2013-04-01

87

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.806 Animals refused entry. Any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir refused entry into...

2010-01-01

88

50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...period if specifically stated, that the Service will deem the wildlife to be seized and will issue no further notification of seizure. (b) Refusal of clearance. Any Service officer may refuse clearance of imported or exported wildlife and any...

2011-10-01

89

50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...period if specifically stated, that the Service will deem the wildlife to be seized and will issue no further notification of seizure. (b) Refusal of clearance. Any Service officer may refuse clearance of imported or exported wildlife and any...

2012-10-01

90

30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...refuse pile will be attained. (i) Foundations for new refuse piles and...

2013-07-01

91

Who refuses enrollment in cardiac clinical trials?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the factors associated with refusal to participate in acute cardiac clinical trials.Background Cardiac clinical trials in the acute setting pose a set of unique challenges to enrollment, such as the ability to obtain meaningful informed consent. In addition, it is unclear whether enrollment is associated with the sociodemographic characteristics (such as age, race and gender) of those

Mimi Sen Biswas; L Kristin Newby; Lori A Bastian; Eric D Peterson; Jeremy Sugarman

2007-01-01

92

Micropollutants emission from refuse derived fuel combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work, fly ash and solid residues produced by an incinerator of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) have been analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and heavy metals. Furthermore, the content of that species in the f...

C. Di Palo M. Coronidi M. Zagaroli P. Zamora

1993-01-01

93

Processing the Plastics from Urban Refuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In conjunction with its research program on separation, recovery, and recycling of metal, mineral, and energy-based materials in urban refuse, the U.S. Bureau of Mines is developing means to reuse and recycle plastics discarded in raw municipal waste. Exp...

J. B. Stephenson J. L. Holman J. W. Jensen

1972-01-01

94

Prevention of acid drainage from coal refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated by the US Bureau of Mines, academia, and others that the abundance of acid drainage that flows from pyritic coal refuse, pyrite-bearing coal, and pyritic overburden is associated with the surface activity of this pyritic material and an iron-oxidizing bacterium, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. More recently, it has been demonstrated that certain chemical compounds can affect this surface

Stancel

1982-01-01

95

Hydrolytic enzyme activity in landfilled refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity was assayed in 28 refuse samples excavated from 14 bore holes in Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island, N. Y. Esterases, proteases and amylases were present in all of the samples. Enzyme screening assays utilizing the API-ZYM test system showed the incidence of enzymes in the order: specific phosphatases > esterases > glycosyl hydrolases. Measurement of cellulase

A. C. Palmisano; B. S. Schwab; D. A. Maruscik

1993-01-01

96

TIME-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSED REFUSE. PART III: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MILLED REFUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this laboratory investigation were to gain an understanding of the decomposition of milled refuse under anaerobic conditions, the rates of decomposition, and the gas production and composition. The rates of decomposition of cellulose and cellulosic materials, ga...

97

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2013-07-01

98

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2013-07-01

99

30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section...Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification...least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by...

2013-07-01

100

30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214 Mineral...MINES Surface Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971,...

2013-07-01

101

30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section...Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180...notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person...

2013-07-01

102

30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2...Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and...

2009-07-01

103

30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY...AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall...statement of the construction history of the refuse...

2013-07-01

104

25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23...Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to any landowner in the event of...

2011-04-01

105

Cognitive skills underlying driving in patients discharged following self-poisoning with central nervous system depressant drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Central nervous system depressant drugs (CNS-Ds) can impair cognitive functions and driving. They are also the most common drugs taken in overdose in hospital-treated episodes of self-poisoning. In Australia most of these patients are discharged within 48 hours, while they still have possible subclinical drug-effects. We aimed to determine whether patients treated for self-poisoning with CNS-Ds are impaired in

Tharaka L. Dassanayake; Patricia T. Michie; Alison L. Jones; Trevor Mallard; Ian M. Whyte; Gregory L. Carter

2012-01-01

106

Models of feed refusal syndrome in poultry.  

PubMed

Research on feed refusal syndrome(s), an important problem in the poultry industry, has been hindered by a lack of sensitive and quantitative laboratory models. Suitable models were developed using five groups of 30-week-old male chickens per treatment. Feed or water, depending on which was to be measured, was withdrawn overnight. Then consumption of treated water or feed was measured over a 6-hr period of rehydration or refeeding. In aqueous solutions NaCl, H2SO4, and Na2CO3 reduced liquid consumption in a dose-related manner. Ammonia caused a similar refusal when added to feed. Consumption of feed and water was not influenced by pH over the ranges likely to occur as a result of fungal activity. Consumption of feed on a wet weight, but not dry weight, basis was influenced by the moisture content of feed. A culture filtrate of Fusarium roseum NRRL 1181 containing diacetoxyscirpenol, a trichothecene mycotoxin, reduced consumption of feed by about 77% when added to feed and reduced liquid consumption by about 92% when substituted for drinking water. Thus, the models for consumption of liquids and solids appear to have the attributes necessary for quantitative investigation into the relationships of mycotoxins to feed refusal syndromes. PMID:6318210

Burditt, S J; Hagler, W M; Hutchins, J E; Hamilton, P B

1983-11-01

107

[Confidentiality and the refusal to give evidence].  

PubMed

The physician's obligation to give evidence as a witness in a preliminary investigation is in an area of conflict between the duty to tell the truth and preservation of professional discretion. These have to be weighed in the individual case. In opposition to the Anglo-American law, where a possible right of the witness to refuse to give evidence is limited by the principle of "finding the truth", the German law of criminal procedure contains far-reaching rights of a physician and so-called professional assistants witness to refuse to give evidence in sections 53, 53a Code of Criminal Procedure in order to protect the professional secrecy. This privilege refers to all facts, that have become known to the doctor or his staff and therefore it goes beyond the area of the medical discretion in section 203 GCC, that only contains secrets, which were confined to the doctor or which have become known to him. The witness can decide whether he either uses his right to refuse to give evidence or gives evidence without being released from medical confidentiality. In the second case, he risks being punished under section 203 GCC. If a physician is considered as witness in a procedure, the medical files are protected from attachment in section 97 subsection 1 numbers 2 and 3 Code of Criminal Procedure. In cases, where the physician is defendant himself, he cannot refer to this protection. PMID:10683895

Lilie, H

1999-12-01

108

The use of skilled strategies in social interactions by groups high and low in self-reported social skill.  

PubMed

Individuals high or low in self-reported social skill were recruited opportunistically. When presented with everyday social scenarios ending with an awkward request or offer, the high social skill participants more often used sophisticated strategies that showed greater consideration for all parties. By contrast, the low skill participants were more reliant on simple strategies including acquiescence or refusal, and the emotional tone of their responses was less positive. Greater reliance on sophisticated rather than simple strategies may be linked to more successful social interactions. The potential implications are considered for understanding everyday performance in skilled individuals and populations with limited social skills, such as those with autistic spectrum disorders. PMID:22009524

Channon, Shelley; Collins, Ruth; Swain, Eleanor; Young, Mary-Beth; Fitzpatrick, Sian

2012-07-01

109

Memory Skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired memory skills best account for differences in memory performance. According to Chase and Ericsson's theory of skilled memory, improved memory or memory skills are due to the acquisition of more efficient storage and retrieval processes using long-term memory (LTM). Their theory specifies three principles which characterize the structure of memory skills. First, information rapidly stored in LTM is encoded

K. Anders Ericsson

1985-01-01

110

D.A.R.E.-ing To Be Different? A Drug Prevention and Life Skills Education Programme for Primary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines the development of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE), particularly in the United Kingdom, and explores the added value of DARE for children, schools, teachers, and the community. Considers the development of DARE in terms of curriculum review to optimize DARE in accordance with current best practice guidance. (Author/KB)|

Griffith, John S.

1999-01-01

111

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSES OF PEDIATRIC FOOD REFUSAL AND ACCEPTANCE  

PubMed Central

Functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior typically include conditions to determine if the contingent delivery of attention, tangible items, or escape reinforce food refusal. In the current investigation, descriptive analyses were conducted for 25 children who had been admitted to a program for the assessment and treatment of food refusal to determine if the consequences commonly delivered during functional analyses were observed during parent-conducted meals. The conditional probabilities for the delivery of attention, tangible items, and escape following food refusal and acceptance were compared to the unconditional probabilities of each event. Results showed that attention and escape most frequently followed refusal and differed depending on the topography of refusal. Implications for further evaluations of food refusal using similar methods are discussed.

Borrero, Carrie S.W; Woods, Julia N; Borrero, John C; Masler, Elizabeth A; Lesser, Aaron D

2010-01-01

112

IOW refuse incinerator to warm prisoners  

SciTech Connect

Talks are underway for the possible construction of an incinerator on the Isle of Wight that would serve the prisons with heat. Construction would start in January 1985 and after a six-month trial period, the incinerator would be in full operation by 1987. Annual saving in energy terms would be as much as 1 million gallons of oil a year if a local hospital would also be linked to the heating scheme. The estimated cost of processing refuse by the incinerator is 7 pounds/tonne as opposed to the present 6 pounds/tonne by landfill disposal.

Mason, D.

1981-09-22

113

Tacoma refuse-fired combustor feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

A study of the densification of refuse derived fuel (RDF) is outlined. The study examined: densification methods and equipment, the purchase and adaptation of a densifier unit to operate with an existing resource recovery system, operating experience and modifications of the unit to adapt it to RDF, and actual manufacturing and burning of densified RDF in industrial waste fuel boilers and waste fuel gasifiers. Test burning was performed at a Washington pulp and paper plant. In addition, densified RDF was tested in three separate waste fuel gasifiers. (LEW)

Not Available

1983-01-01

114

PET Drugs: Submitting a New Drug Application (NDA)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... advisory committee • Conduct filing review, promptly convey refuse to file issues ... FDA “filing” review – Application filed or not, applicant informed ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

115

TIME-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSED REFUSE. PART II: SWELLING PRESSURE AND PERMEABILITY IN MILLED REFUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of permeability tests and swelling pressure tests on samples of a milled refuse at various compacted dry densities. Permeability tests were done with special attention being given to assure saturation of the sample; for this purpose, the sample wa...

116

Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains.  

PubMed

Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study, combustion properties of refuse from passenger train samples and the mixture of refuse with coal were studied in a tube furnace. Thermo analysis methods, such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analyses were employed to evaluate combustion performance. We found that the mixture of passenger train refuse and coal at a ratio of 1:1 has a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Moreover, refuse from railway passenger trains has more reactive combustion properties than the coal-only sample, and the addition of railway passenger train refuse to coal can promote the reactivity of coal. PMID:20093000

Fu-min, Ren; Feng, Yue; Ming, Gao; Min, Yu

2010-01-21

117

Operating experience with refuse burning boilers  

SciTech Connect

Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) with energy recovery is a relatively new technology in the United States. Although this technology has been in operation for several decades in Europe and Japan it was not given serious consideration in the United States until the early 1970s. Limited sites for landfill facilities inspired the investigation of alternate means of disposal of MSW. This investigation resulted in the emergence of two technologies: Refuse Derive Fuel (RDF) and Mass Burn. RDF is defined as a light burnable refuse resulting from processing of MSW by shredding and removal of non-combustible materials. Preparation and incineration of RDF was first demonstrated in 1972 at Union Electric in St. Louis, Missouri. Mass burn technology has been in operation in Europe and Japan for over three decades. MSW is fed into the incinerator without major processing except for the removal of bulky non-combustible material such as refrigerators, washing machines, engine blocks, etc. Basically there are two types of mass burn incinerators, the modular combustion units (MCU) and waterwall type. MCU has two combustion chambers, and the capacity is usually limited to 50 TPD or less. This paper addresses the operating experiences in the waterwall type of Waste to Energy mass burn incinerators.

La Bode, B.M.A.

1986-01-01

118

Skill Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

Holdsworth, Tom

2007-01-01

119

Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

1981-01-01

120

Empirical Examination of a Multicomponent Treatment for Pediatric Food Refusal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on assessment and treatment of food refusal for four inpatient boys (ages 2,3,3, and 9) receiving tube feedings. It used a contingency contacting procedure extended by a component analysis. Data suggest that food refusal appeared to be maintained primarily by negative reinforcement contingencies. Caregiver responses indicated a…

Hoch, Theodore A.; Babbitt, Roberta L.; Farrar-Schneider, Debra; Berkowitz, Merrill J.; Owens, J. Carl; Knight, Terry L.; Snyder, Angela M.; Rizol, Laura M.; Wise, David T.

2001-01-01

121

Multidisciplinary approach to reclamation of abandoned refuse sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project involves an evaluation of the reclamation process at an abandoned coal mine refuse site in southwestern Illinois. A multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers selected the site, collected baseline environmental data, determined the final land use, and developed and implemented detailed engineering plans. Refuse material at the 34-acre site was recontoured and covered to

S. Zellmer; M. Wilkey

1979-01-01

122

49 CFR 219.213 - Unlawful refusals; consequences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... An employee who refuses to cooperate in providing breath, blood or urine specimens following an accident or incident specified...requirements of this subpart; and (2) In a case where a blood test was refused on the ground it would be inconsistent...

2012-10-01

123

A Bioenvironmental Study of Emissions from Refuse Derived Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Refuse derived fuel (processed municipal solid waste) was used as a supplement to coal in a utility boiler (80,000 lbs. steam per hour). Furnance emissions were determined from coal, and from 1:1 and 2:1 mixes (by volume) of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and ...

J. W. Jackson

1976-01-01

124

Breath Test Refusals and Their Effect on DWI Prosecutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the design and results of a project aimed at estimating the rate that drivers refuse to submit to a legally-requested breath alcohol concentration test, and the effect of such refusals on the prosecution of DWI cases. The study found...

J. L. Nichols R. K. Jones

2012-01-01

125

Veterinary opinions on refusing euthanasia: justifications and philosophical frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain information on euthanasia decisions from practising veterinary surgeons, respondents were asked to estimate how often during their time in practice they had refused to euthanase a dog and how often they had wanted to refuse to euthanase a dog but not done so because of other pressures. For each, respondents were then asked to state their most common

J. W. Yeates; D. C. J. Main

2011-01-01

126

Why Do UK Military Personnel Refuse the Anthrax Vaccination?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to understand the reasons why some UK military personnel refused the anthrax vaccination. Data were collected from 5,302 members of the UK Armed Forces who had been deployed to Iraq since 2003 and had been offered the anthrax vaccination. As part of a larger questionnaire, information was collected on acceptance or refusal of the

Dominic Murphy; Theresa Marteau; Matthew Hotopf; Roberto J. Rona; Simon Wessely

2008-01-01

127

Social and personal factors in marijuana use and intentions to use drugs among inner city minority youth.  

PubMed

Limited information is available about the etiology of illicit drug use among minority youth. This study examined predictors of marijuana use and intentions to use marijuana, cocaine/crack, and other drugs for African-American and Hispanic seventh graders (N = 757). Self-reports of marijuana use and intentions to use drugs were collected along with data concerning background, social environmental, and individual characteristics hypothesized to be related to drug use. Results indicated that social influences, including adults, friends, and the most admired person's marijuana use, predicted marijuana use. Individual characteristics, such as a lack of knowledge about the prevalence and negative social consequences of marijuana use, positive attitudes toward marijuana use, and inadequate social, communication, and refusal skills increased suspectability to marijuana use. Lack of self-efficacy was related to intentions to use cocaine and other drugs. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the development of effective prevention programs. PMID:7730452

Epstein, J A; Botvin, G J; Diaz, T; Toth, V; Schinke, S P

1995-02-01

128

76 FR 29796 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Refuse...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Refuse Piles and Impounding Structures, Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...titled, ``Refuse Piles and Impounding Structures, Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...Collection: Refuse Piles and Impounding Structures, Recordkeeping and Reporting...

2011-05-23

129

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01

130

Management of Pregnant Patients Who Refuse Medically Indicated Cesarean Delivery  

PubMed Central

The doctrine of informed refusal may become difficult to adhere to in obstetric practice, especially in situations in which the fetus’s life is at risk. One rare yet potentially problematic situation of informed refusal is the case of a pregnant woman who refuses to undergo a medically indicated cesarean delivery that would ensure the well-being of her fetus. Although some would argue that patient autonomy takes precedence and the woman’s informed refusal should be respected, others would argue that beneficence, justice, and doing no harm to the viable fetus should ethically overrule the refusal of a surgery. This article explores the profound conflict between maternal autonomy and the rights of the fetus, provides a framework to address when the two diverge, and poses suggestions for how providers can better navigate this dilemma.

Deshpande, Neha A; Oxford, Corrina M

2012-01-01

131

Drugs  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Print; Share; E-mail. Home; Drugs. -. Increased risk of death from IV Tygacil. ... Information highlights risk of hepatitis B reactivation; hepatitis B reactivation ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs

132

Shop Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shop Skills is a lesson plan which provides instruction in the safety procedures and work processes for hand and machine tools used in a metal machine shop. Specific skills include sawing, drilling, boring, grinding, lathing, and milling. After completing this module, students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in these skills through a variety of shop projects and in a final exercise that uses a combination of these skills. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-07-22

133

Treatment of sewage using an aged-refuse-based bioreactor.  

PubMed

The refuse in landfills becomes stabilized or aged after years of placement, and the resultant partly or fully stabilized refuse thus obtained is referred to as "aged refuse" in this work. The aged refuse contains a wide spectrum and large quantity of microorganisms, which have been proved to have a strong decomposition capability for both biodegradable and refractory organic matter present in some wastewaters. In this study, the aged refuse excavated from a 10-year old closed landfill compartment at Shanghai Refuse Landfill was used as the substrate in a bioreactor for the biofiltration of sewage taken from the sewage pipeline systems in Shanghai downtown areas. Typically, 120kg of screened aged refuse with a diameter less than 15mm was used as biofiltration material in a round shaped bioreactor with an inner diameter of 80cm and a height of 150cm. Influent sewage with initial COD, BOD, and NH(3)-N concentrations of 400-500, 240-300, and 45-50mg/L, respectively, was introduced into the bioreactor. The corresponding concentrations in the effluent were reduced to below 80-100, 10-20, and 10-15mg/L, respectively, at a hydraulic load of 1000-1200L/m(3) refuse/day, and the treatment efficiencies decreased with increased hydraulic load. The treatment mechanism was also studied. It was found that the pollutant removal efficiencies dramatically decreased when the aged refuse in the bioreactor was preliminarily disinfected using NaClO solutions, indicating that the pollutants in the sewage were biologically removed. The treatment process developed in this work is cost-effective. PMID:16784804

Zhao, Youcai; Lou, Ziyang; Guo, Yali; Xu, Dimin

2006-06-19

134

Eurotium spp. and echinulin in feed refused by swine.  

PubMed Central

Feed refused by swine contained a high-propagule density of Eurotium chevalieri Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus chevalieri (Mangin) Thom and Church), Eurotium amstelodami Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus amstelodami (Mangin Thom and Church), and Aspergillus candidus Link. Echinulin (8 micrograms/g of feed) was detected in the feed. Isolates of E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami but not A. candidus produced echinulin on rice or cracked corn. Mice refused to drink water containing 90 micrograms of echinulin per ml. This is the first report of the alkaloid echinulin in feed refused by swine.

Vesonder, R F; Lambert, R; Wicklow, D T; Biehl, M L

1988-01-01

135

Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof [Institute of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, Agicolastrasse 4, 38 678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2009-04-15

136

Clinical Hold / Refusal to File Meetings  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Development & Approval Process (Biologics). Investigational New Drug (IND) or Device Exemption (IDE) Process (Biologics). -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/investigationalnewdrugindordeviceexemptionideprocess

137

40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the event that an applicant for an experimental use permit wishes to contest the refusal to issue an experimental use permit, or an experimental use permittee wishes to contest the revocation of any such permit, he shall, within twenty days...

2012-07-01

138

The functional profiles of school refusal behavior. Diagnostic aspects.  

PubMed

School refusal behavior is a common problem seen by mental health professionals and by educators but little consensus is available as to its classification, assessment, and treatment. This study assessed 143 youth with primary school refusal behavior and their parents to examine diagnoses that are most commonly associated with proposed functions of school refusal behavior. As expected, results indicated that great heterogeneity in diagnoses marks this population. In general, anxiety-related diagnoses were associated more with negatively reinforced school refusal behavior; separation anxiety disorder was associated more with attention-seeking behavior; and oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder were associated more with pursuit of tangible reinforcement outside of school. These results are discussed within the context of classification, assessment, and treatment of this population. PMID:14710711

Kearney, Christopher A; Albano, Anne Marie

2004-01-01

139

Microbiological Safety Evaluation of an Industrial Refuse Incinerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An industrial refuse incinerator was tested to determine minimum operating temperatures required to prevent release of viable microorganisms to the atmosphere. A liquid suspension of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores was disseminated into the firebox as...

M. S. Barbeito G. G. Gremillion

1967-01-01

140

Microbiological Safety Evaluation of an Industrial Refuse Incinerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An industrial refuse incinerator was tested to determine minimal operating temperatures required to prevent release of viable microorganisms into the atmosphere. A liquid suspension of Bacillus subtillis var. niger spores was disseminated into the firebox...

M. S. Barbeito G. G. Gremillion

1968-01-01

141

An Assessment of Wet Systems for Residential Refuse Collection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most promising wet system alternative uses individual household grinders in low density areas, vacuum collection and neighborhood grinders in high density areas, dilute slurry transport of ground refuse in the existing sanitary sewer system, and joint...

P. M. Meier J. Kuhner R. E. Bolton

1974-01-01

142

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile. It comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution; distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal reuse pile; leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids; and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids, wherein the method is conducted at ambient pressure. This patent also describes a method of further comprising adding calcium hydroxide to the resulting solution containing alkali salts of humic acids to produce precipitated calcium humates and an alkali solution.

Yavorsky, P.M.

1991-07-30

143

28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of inadequate intake or...

2013-07-01

144

Jehovah's Witnesses and autonomy: honouring the refusal of blood transfusions.  

PubMed

This paper explores the scriptural and theological reasons given by Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) to refuse blood transfusions. Julian Savulescu and Richard W Momeyer argue that informed consent should be based on rational beliefs and that the refusal of blood transfusions by JWs is irrational, but after examining the reasons given by JWs, I challenge the claim that JW beliefs are irrational. I also question whether we should give up the traditional notion of informed consent. PMID:22790086

Bock, Gregory L

2012-07-12

145

The use of refusal postcards in recruiting older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether a refusal postcard makes recruitment more efficient or instead reduces response rates to a telephone\\u000a survey of older adults. Medicare health maintenance organization (HMO) members were randomly sampled in sequential phases.\\u000a All samples received an initial contact letter from a HMO geriatrician. A refusal postcard was included in the first sample\\u000a (N=178); however, the remaining six

Carol J. Verboncoeur; Anita L. Stewart; Abby C. King; Stephanie Rush; Barbara Y. McLellan; Kris Mills

2000-01-01

146

Anxious School Refusers and Symptoms of PTSD in Abused Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

School refusal was assessed in 221 abused children based on parent responses to the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents—Revised (DICA-R). Twenty Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) items were selected based on correspondence with school refusal specifically and with symptoms identified in the literature. These items were subjected to principal components analysis, yielding a two-factor solution accounting for 40.1% of the

Jeffrey N. Wherry; Ariel S. Marrs

2008-01-01

147

Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

Shea, S.

2011-09-01

148

Pervasive refusal syndrome. Three German cases provide further illustration.  

PubMed

Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) has been proposed as a new diagnostic entity among child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. It is characterized by a cluster of life-threatening symptoms including refusal of hood intake, decreased or complete lack of mobilization, and lack of communication as well as retreat from normal life activities. Active refusal to accept help as well as neglect of personal care have been core features of PRS in the limited number of cases reported in the last decade. There have, however; been cases with predominantly passive resistance, indicating the possibility that there may be a continuum from active refusal to passive resistance within PRS. Postulating this continuum allows for the integration of "depressive devitalization" -- a refusal syndrome mainly characterized by passive resistance -- into the concept of PRS. Here, three case vignettes of adolescent patients with PRS are presented. The patients' symptomatology can be allocated on this continuum of PRS. PRS and dissociative disorders are compared in greater detail and contrasted within this discussion of differential diagnoses at the poles of such a continuum. PRS is a useful diagnosis for cases involving symptoms of predominating refusal and retreat which cannot satisfactorily be classified by existing diagnostic categories, and which can mostly clearly be separated from dissociative disorder. PMID:21882157

Jans, Thomas; Ball, Juliane; Preiss, Maike; Haberhausen, Michael; Warnke, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J

2011-09-01

149

ANDA Submissions -- Refuse-to-Receive Standards  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... other related submissions by the end of 46 ... Upon satisfaction of all applicable user fee obligations ... date on which all outstanding user fee obligations ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

150

Drugs  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Quick Links: Skip to main page content Skip to Search Skip to Topics Menu Skip to Section Content Menu Skip to Common Links. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/drugs

151

Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: Two-year follow-up results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-year follow-up data (from inner-city, minority adolescents) were collected to test the effectiveness of 2 skills-based substance abuse prevention programs and were compared both with a control condition and with each other. Students were originally recruited from 6 New York City public schools while in 7th grade. Schools were matched and assigned to receive a generic skills training prevention approach,

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz; Elizabeth M. Botvin

1995-01-01

152

False belief and the refusal of medical treatment.  

PubMed Central

May a doctor treat a patient, despite that patient's refusal, when in his professional opinion treatment is necessary? This is the dilemma which must from time to time confront most physicians. An examination of the validity of such a refusal is provided by the present authors who use the case history of a patient refusing treatment, for cancer as well as for a fractured hip, to evaluate the grounds for intervention in such circumstances. In such a situation the patient is said to have a 'false belief' and it is the doctor's duty to try to change that belief in the patient's interest. The false belief is considered here in terms of the liberty principle, the patient's mental competence and on what is called the 'harm principle' (harm to other individuals or to society). Finally the concept of paternalism is examined. The authors conclude that the doctor must attempt to change a false belief, and if this fails he must examine the patient's mental competence to make the decision to refuse treatment. But in the last analysis the doctor may be under an obligation to respect the patient's refusal. Readers might like to look at (or read again) the papers on 'Liberty' and 'Conscience' published in this Journal under the heading Analysis.

Faden, R; Faden, A

1977-01-01

153

Veterinary opinions on refusing euthanasia: justifications and philosophical frameworks.  

PubMed

To obtain information on euthanasia decisions from practising veterinary surgeons, respondents were asked to estimate how often during their time in practice they had refused to euthanase a dog and how often they had wanted to refuse to euthanase a dog but not done so because of other pressures. For each, respondents were then asked to state their most common reasons for refusing/not refusing in free text. The responses of clinicians were considered in the light of established ethical concepts to produce an evidence-based ethical framework for decision making. In total, 58 practitioners responded. Common reasons given for decisions on whether to refuse euthanasia referred to the patient's interests, such as the possibility of treatment or rehoming, and the fear of other unacceptable outcomes for the dog. Other reasons were based on concern for owners' interests. Some respondents reported being pressured into euthanasia by clients and other veterinary surgeons. This gives insight into the ethical principles that explicitly underlie veterinary surgeons' euthanasia decisions and the resultant framework may be useful for discussing and teaching euthanasia. PMID:21498175

Yeates, J W; Main, D C J

2011-02-28

154

Coal and the environment abstract series. Bibliography on disposal of refuse from coal mines and coal cleaning plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subjects covered in this bibliography include the analysis and characterization of coal refuse; various methods of handling, storing, and disposing of coal refuse; the environmental problems such as refuse drainage quality and combustion of refuse piles; the control of environmental problems; and the uses for refuse which have been investigated. The coal cleaning process itself is very closely related

V. E. Gleason; R. D. Hill

1978-01-01

155

Short-term impact of cognition-motivation-emotional intelligence-resistance skills program on drug use prevention for school students in Wuhan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Drug abuse continues to be a serious public health threat worldwide. Most drug abuse prevention research has been conducted\\u000a with predominantly American or European adolescent populations. Little is known about approaches that work best to prevent\\u000a the initiation of Chinese adolescent drug use. For targeting risk factors of drug initiation in Chinese adolescents, a school-based\\u000a health intervention program named “Cognition-Motivation-Emotional

Rui Guo; Qian He; Junxin Shi; Jie Gong; Hongxing Wang; Zengzhen Wang

2010-01-01

156

Sharing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

Mealy, Virginia; And Others

1987-01-01

157

Sharing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)|

Mealy, Virginia; And Others

1987-01-01

158

Skills Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

Canter, Patricia; And Others

159

Coping Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high school program is described that uses an informal survey to help teachers identify potential academic, social, and career oriented problems facing mainstreamed handicapped students. These problems and suggested intervention procedures are listed for study/coping skills of time management, memory systems, listening ability, compensatory…

D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth; And Others

160

Coping Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography lists approximately 150 braille books and 300 audiocassettes of books which address coping skills for people in a variety of situations. All items listed are available in the network library collections provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress.…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

161

37 CFR 211.7 - Reconsideration procedure for refusals to register.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedure for refusals to register. 211.7 Section 211.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.7 Reconsideration procedure for refusals...

2013-07-01

162

49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. 382...REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.211 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test....

2012-10-01

163

49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. 382...REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.211 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test....

2011-10-01

164

Characterization of Stack Emissions from Municipal Refuse-to-Energy Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stack emissions from three municipal refuse-to-energy systems were characterized: refuse-derived fuel (RDF), mass burning (MASS) and modular (MOD). A comprehensive set of measurements was performed at each site to determine the physical and chemical prope...

J. E. Howes D. F. Kohler F. L. DeRoos R. M. Riggin R. L. Barbour

1986-01-01

165

49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test...REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.211 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances...

2009-10-01

166

49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test...REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.211 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances...

2010-10-01

167

9 CFR 500.8 - Procedures for rescinding or refusing approval of marks, labels, and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...refusing approval of marks, labels, and containers. 500.8...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...refusing approval of marks, labels, and containers. (a...false or misleading marks, labels, or sizes or forms of...

2013-01-01

168

19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.114 Release or refusal of delivery...Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment of pesticides or devices, the shipment shall be released to the...

2013-04-01

169

Documenting Parental Refusal to Have Their Children Vaccinated  

Microsoft Academic Search

All parents and patients should be informed about the risks and benefits of preventive and therapeutic procedures, including vaccination. In the case of vaccination, federal law mandates this discussion. Despite doctors' and nurses' best efforts to explain the importance of vaccines and to address parental concerns about vaccine safety, some families will refuse vaccination for their children. Others will ultimately

Judith S. Palfrey; Renée R. Jenkins; Edward N. Bailey

170

FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PREPARING DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of pilot-scale tests were conducted to determine the effects of various parameters on the densification of refuse derived fuel (RDF). The experiments included a series of bench-scale experiments involving a single die arrangement, as well as larger-scale studies in which...

171

Bioethics and religious bodies: Refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.  

PubMed

The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204

Rajtar, Ma?gorzata

2013-03-14

172

Combustion of refuse-derived fuel in a fluidised bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a medium to maximise the resources recovery from municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution in industrialised countries. RDF is a value added material with a higher calorific value and a homogeneous particle size. The main objective of this study was to investigate the RDF combustion characteristics and the associated pollutant emissions in a

Francisco D. Hernandez-Atonal; Changkook Ryu; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

2007-01-01

173

Decreasing Work Refusals in an Adult With Intellectual Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe an intervention for work refusals in a 49-year-old man with mild mental retardation, more commonly referred to as mild intellectual disability, and other comorbid Axis I diagnoses. Following a behavioral functional assessment, Intervention A, contingent reinforcement of work attendance with cigarettes and edibles was implemented to increase work attendance. A modified reversal to baseline (Intervention B) retained

Alison M. Kozlowski; Sara Mahan; Johnny L. Matson

2010-01-01

174

Recovering Glass from Urban Refuse by Froth Flotation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Froth flotation, using cationic reagents, has been extensively investigated by the Department of Interior's Bureau of Mines as a step in the multistage processing of urban refuse to recover glass in a form suitable for use in making new containers. Batch ...

J. H. Heginbotham

1978-01-01

175

47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005...Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertisingârefusal to sell. See 412 U.S. 94...

2012-10-01

176

47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005...Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertisingârefusal to sell. See 412 U.S. 94...

2011-10-01

177

The impact of compulsory competitive tendering on refuse collection services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) of blue-collar services such as refuse collection and street cleaning was introduced in the UK by the Local Government Act 1988. This law, imposed by central government, obliged elected local authorities to expose specific services to competitive tendering at fixed intervals and subject to national guidelines. Whilst the issue of competitive tendering of public services has

Stefan Szymanski

1996-01-01

178

Characterization of coal-mine refuse as backfilling material  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased production and more stringent regulations for air, water and ground pollution control, the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of coal-mine refuse is becoming ever more demanding. Backfilling may provide an environmentally acceptable method for the disposal of waste materials. Increased resource recovery, enhanced ventilation control, and minimizing surface subsidence, underground coal-mine fires and spontaneous combustion of coal are

M. G. Karfakis; C. H. Bowman; E. Topuz

1996-01-01

179

A Thermophilic, Acidophilic Mycoplasma Isolated from a Coal Refuse Pile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermophilic, acidophilic procaryote lacking a cell wall has been isolated from a coal refuse pile which had undergone self-heating. Electron micrographs, chemical assays for hexosamine, and the inability of vancomycin to inhibit growth confirm the lack of a cell wall. The apparent ability of the organism to reproduce by budding and the low guanine plus cytosine content of its

Gary Darland; Thomas D. Brock; William Samsonoff; S. F. Conti

1970-01-01

180

Early food refusal: The role of maternal mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective, longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the relationship between maternal mood and feeding problems, in particular food refusal. A total of 116 mothers and infants were visited at 1 month, 5 months and 11 months postpartum. Mothers filled in the EPDS and the STAI at each of the three visits, and reported whether the infant had undergone

H. Coulthard; G. Harris

2003-01-01

181

Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

2009-01-01

182

Skill puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are short exercises that allow students practice with concepts in Structural Geology, Tectonics, or Geophysics. (Many of them were designed with Eric Horsman.) The basic idea is to give students opportunities for frequent practice with difficult concepts, many of which require spatial visualization skills. These activities nearly always fit on a half-sheet of paper, and include a visual and verbal component. Instructors may use them for formative assessment or as group activities in class.

Titus, Sarah

183

INITIAL INTERNAL RELIABILITY AND DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR A BRIEF ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR THE LIFE SKILLS TRAINING DRUG-ABUSE PREVENTION PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.-Adolescent drug use in the United States remains the highest in the industrialized world. Fortunately there have been significant advances in developing effective prevention programs for adolescent drug use. An important issue in evaluat- ing such programs is that the self-report surveys have adequate psychometric proper- ties and assess constructs targeted by an intervention. A questionnaire focusing on knowledge and

ARAXI P. MACAULAY; KENNETH W. GRIFFIN; GILBERT J. BOTVIN

2002-01-01

184

A Preliminary Analysis of a Functional Model of Assessment and Treatment for School Refusal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed whether treatment of children and adolescents with school refusal behavior is effective when based upon an individualized, functional analysis. Seven children and adoles-cents, who were currently experiencing difficulties attending school, were evaluated with the School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS), an instrument designed to identify maintaining variables surrounding school refusal behavior. These included specific fearfulness\\/general overanxiousness, escape from aversive

Christopher A. Kearney; Wendy K. Silverman

1990-01-01

185

Pennsylvania anthracite refuse: a summary of a literature survey on utilization and disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 484 square mile anthracite field in northeastern Pennsylvania is blighted with many unsightly refuse banks. A study has been made on the utilization and disposal potential of these nearly one billion tons of anthracite refuse. Chemical analysis of ashed anthracite refuse revealed small quantities of rare and trace elements. Larger quantities of silica, alumina and other elements were found

Spicer

1971-01-01

186

Case Study of the Assessment and Treatment of a Youth With Multifunction School Refusal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

School refusal behavior is a common problem among children and adolescents and can lead to serious short- and long-term consequences if not addressed. Although recent treatment outcome studies have targeted youth who refuse to go to school for one specific reason (e.g., anxiety, attention), very little information is available on youth who refuse school for two reasons, and no information

Christopher A. Kearney

2002-01-01

187

Methane production from municipal refuse: A review of enhancement techniques and microbial dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane is recovered from about 100 municipal solid waste landfills in the U.S. in saleable volumes, although yields are 1 to 50% of the methane potential of refuse based on biodegradability data. Studies on the microbiology of refuse decomposition and efforts to enhance refuse methanogenesis are reviewed here. Results of studies on the effects of leachate recycle and neutralization, a

Morton A. Barlaz; Robert K. Ham; Daniel M. Schaefer; Ron Isaacson

1990-01-01

188

Study of erosion-sedimentation processes on abandoned coal refuse piles in southeastern Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research by the authors identified abandoned coal refuse piles as the principle source of mine-related sediment in streams of southeastern Kansas. The present study estimates erosion rates and sedimentation yields on these piles, and examines relationships between physical properties of the refuse piles and erosion-sedimentation potentials. Two large abandoned coal refuse piles in southeastern Kansas were selected for study.

R. D. Mandel; C. J. Sorenson; D. Jackson

1982-01-01

189

Do competence skills moderate the impact of social influences to drink and perceived social benefits of drinking on alcohol use among inner-city adolescents?  

PubMed

Only a few studies have found competence skills to be a protective factor against adolescent alcohol use; others did not find a direct effect on alcohol. A possible reason for this is that competence skills may moderate the effects of risk factors for alcohol use and that aspect has not been examined often or in a longitudinal design. This study tested whether several competence skills served either as direct protective factors against alcohol use or moderators of the impact of social risk factors on alcohol use. Participants (N = 1318) completed questionnaires that included measures of decision-making skills, refusal skill techniques, resisting media influences, friends' drinking and perceived social benefits of drinking, as well as current drinking amount and future drinking at baseline, one-year follow-up and two-year follow-up. Data analyses were conducted using multi-level mixed effects generalized linear models with random intercept. All the competence skills and the risk factors predicted current and future drinking. Several significant interactions were found between (1) perceived social benefits of drinking and decision-making skills, (2) perceived social benefits of drinking and refusal skill techniques and (3) friends' drinking and refusal skill techniques. Competence skills served as protective factors, as well as moderators. One possible reason that competence enhancement approaches to alcohol prevention are effective may be due to the inclusion of the competence skills component. PMID:17106653

Epstein, Jennifer A; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Bang, Heejung; Botvin, Gilbert J

2006-11-15

190

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

191

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

192

Skill Building for Reviewers in CDER  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Focus on improving science-based ... Thinking: Uses problem solving and decision making skills to analyze data and form sound regulatory decisions ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

193

Immunofluorescence approach to the study of the ecology of Thermoplasma acidophilum in coal refuse material.  

PubMed

Specific immunofluorescence staining was applied to the study of the localization, distribution, and growth of Thermoplasma acidophilum in its natural habitat, the coal refuse pile. Different antigenic groups of T. acidophilum could be isolated from the same refuse pile, and the same antigenic groups were isolated from piles from different geographical areas. No correlation could be established between the antigenic groups and the pH or temperature of the habitats. Brightly fluorescing cells of T. acidophilum were detected on microscope slides buried in contact with the coal refuse material or immersed in the water in the stream draining a refuse pile. T. acidophilum grew when inoculated into either coal refuse material and/or an aqueous extract of coal refuse when incubated at its optimal temperature of 55 C, but not when incubated at room temperature or 37 C. The coal refuse pile appears to be a primary habitat for T. acidophilum. PMID:4602306

Bohlool, B B; Brock, T D

1974-07-01

194

Brief report: Risk factors for pneumococcal vaccine refusal in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Despite availability\\u000a of an effective vaccine, many patients refuse vaccination.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient characteristics and features of the patient-provider relationship associated with pneumococcal vaccine\\u000a refusal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Case-control study using chart review.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PATIENTS: Five hundred adults from the medical clinics of a 1,000-bed inner-city

Lesley S. Miller; Ekaterina V. Kourbatova; Sandy Goodman; Susan M. Ray

2005-01-01

195

Worker's refusal to conceal HIV tattoo amounts to misconduct.  

PubMed

John Baldetta was fired in 1994 from his job as a nurse's aide at the Seattle, WA Harborview Medical Center after refusing to cover a tattoo on his left inside forearm that reads HIV POSITIVE. The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rejected Baldetta's arguments that he was terminated because of his HIV status and not the tattoo. He contended that the hospital violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Rehabilitation Act, and his First Amendment right to free speech. The judge agreed with the hospital that Baldetta's refusal to conceal the tattoo amounted to insubordination. The appeals panel affirmed the granting of summary judgment on Baldetta's ADA and Rehabilitation Act claims. Baldetta said he had himself tattooed to help dispel the stigma attached to his infection. The hospital said the tattoo alarmed some patients. PMID:11364513

1997-07-25

196

Refusal of treatment and decision-making capacity.  

PubMed

This article explores refusal of medical treatment by adult patients from ethical and legal perspectives. Initially, consequentialist and deontological ethical theory are outlined. The concepts of autonomy, paternalism and competence are described and an overview of Beauchamp and Childress's principle-based approach to moral reasoning is given. Relevant common law is discussed and the provisions of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 in assessing competence is evaluated. In order to demonstrate the consideration of moral issues in clinical practice, ethical theory is applied to two well-known incidents: the case of Re MB, where doubt over decision-making capacity led to a paternalistic act to override a patient's choice; and the death of Emma Gough, a situation where respect for autonomy prevailed when healthcare staff acted lawfully in following a patient's refusal of life-saving treatment. Finally, guidance from regulatory bodies on the roles and responsibilities of health professionals in relation to this topic are considered. PMID:22298647

Bingham, Sarah-Louise

2012-01-01

197

Patterns of Skill Premia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I develop a model to analyze how skill premia differ over time and across countries, and use this model to study the impact of international trade on wage inequality. Skill premia are determined by technology and the relative supply of skills. An increase in the relative supply of skills, holding technology constant, reduces the skill premium. Among

Daron Acemoglu

1999-01-01

198

Teaching Condom Use Skills: Practice Is Superior to Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men exposed to a condom skills practice exercise were hypothesized to perform better on condom skills measures than those exposed only to a demonstration or to no intervention. As part of a larger National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network HIV Prevention protocol, men in substance abuse treatment were administered male and female condom use skills measures (MCUS,

Donald A. Calsyn; Mary A. Hatch-Maillette; Suzanne R. Doyle; Sarah Cousins; TeChieh Chen; Melinda Godinez

2010-01-01

199

DSM skills are marketing skills  

SciTech Connect

Skeptics may view DSM as a convenient cover for using ratepayer funds (in the form of rebates and other financial inducements) to keep customers on the grid, thus providing electric utilities with an unfair competitive advantage. Actually, the most powerful advantages may result from the marketing skills DSM fosters. Put simply, DSM teaches utilities to understand and meet customer needs more effectively. Managing customers use of electricity has taught utilities unprecedented amounts about specific end-use technologies, about customers fuel and equipment selection practices and preferences, and about what it costs to serve their customers. As DSM programs have become more market-driven, utilities have become better communicators and salesmen in order to win customer participation. The result: DSM departments play an increasingly central role in managing customer relationships overall and in developing and implementing competitive strategies.

Stone, C. (Easton Consultants, Inc., Stamford, CT (United States))

1993-10-01

200

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS ...to a new animal drug, that: (1) The reports of investigations...whether or not such drug is safe for use...submitted to the Food and Drug Administration...substances; (iii) Safety factors...

2013-04-01

201

Biotechnology Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

2009-09-16

202

Who and Why? HIV-Testing Refusal During Pregnancy: Implication for Pediatric HIV Epidemic Disparity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify characteristics of pregnant women who refuse HIV testing and determine predictive factors and the reasons for refusal, we conducted face-to-face interviews of pregnant women at prenatal clinics of public and private hospitals. We found 8% (n=65) of 826 pregnant women interviewed refused HIV testing. In bivariate analysis, foreign-born pregnant women residing in Los Angeles County were twice more

Getahun Aynalem; Pamela Mendoza; Toni Frederick; Laurene Mascola

2004-01-01

203

Pediatric cardiac transplantation using hearts previously refused for quality: a single center experience.  

PubMed

Pediatric donor hearts are regularly refused for donor quality with limited evidence as to which donor parameters are predictive of poor outcomes. We compare outcomes of recipients receiving hearts previously refused by other institutions for quality with the outcomes of recipients of primarily offered hearts. Data for recipients aged ?18 and their donors were obtained. Specific UNOS refusal codes were used to place recipients into refusal and nonrefusal groups; demographics, morbidity and mortality were compared. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to determine differences in graft survival. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to determine independent risk factors for postoperative mortality. From July 1, 2000 to April 30, 2011, 182 recipients were transplanted and included for analysis. One hundred thirty received a primarily offered heart; 52 received a refused heart. No difference in postoperative complications or graft survival between the two groups (p = 0.190) was found. Prior refusal was not an independent risk factor for recipient mortality. Analysis of this large pediatric cohort examining outcomes with quality-refused hearts shows that in-hospital morbidity and long-term mortality for recipients of quality-refused hearts are no different than recipients of primarily offered hearts, suggesting that donor hearts previously refused for quality are not necessarily unsuitable for transplant and often show excellent outcomes. PMID:23648205

Easterwood, R; Singh, R K; McFeely, E D; Zuckerman, W A; Addonizio, L J; Gilmore, L; Beddows, K; Chen, J M; Richmond, M E

2013-05-06

204

75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...135-117A] RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction AGENCY...Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing regulations published on May 14...describing refusals to submit to drug or alcohol tests; directed readers to an...

2010-01-20

205

Cognition-Enhancing Drugs: Can We Say No?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Normative analysis of cognition-enhancing drugs frequently weighs the liberty interests of drug users against egalitarian values. Yet those who would refuse to engage in neuroenhancement may well find their liberty to do so limited in a society where such drugs are widespread. To the extent that unvarnished emotional responses are…

Pasquale, Frank

2010-01-01

206

Cognition-Enhancing Drugs: Can We Say No?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative analysis of cognition-enhancing drugs frequently weighs the liberty interests of drug users against egalitarian values. Yet those who would refuse to engage in neuroenhancement may well find their liberty to do so limited in a society where such drugs are widespread. To the extent that unvarnished emotional responses are world-disclosive, neurocosmetics also threaten to foist faulty data upon all

Frank Pasquale

2010-01-01

207

Acquisition of cognitive skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowl- edge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system

John R. Anderson

1982-01-01

208

Ohio tattoo artist refuses to serve HIV-positive customer.  

PubMed

Adam Gray, a tattoo shop owner, violated State law by refusing to tattoo H. Edward Dobbins Jr., an HIV-positive customer. The ensuing case received national attention. Dobbins filed a complaint with the Civil Rights Commission in April 1994 after 8-Ball Tattoo refused to tattoo him because he is HIV-positive. The hearing examiner, Franklin A. Martens, found that the shop violated a State disability-rights statute that says it is illegal to deny a public accommodation to someone based on HIV infection. The shop has a policy not to tattoo anyone who is HIV-positive because of the risk of being stuck by a tattoo needle. The hearing examiner rejected the owner's assertion that tattooing an HIV-positive customer posed too great a risk of infection. In testimony, Dr. Robert Crane, who specializes in HIV treatment at Riverside Methodist Hospital, said tattoo artists are no more likely than health care workers to become infected through an accidental needlestick. The Commission is scheduled to decide whether to accept the hearing examiner's recommendation that a cease-and-desist order be issued against 8-Ball Tattoo. PMID:11363738

1996-08-23

209

Rationality, religion and refusal of treatment in an ambulance revisited.  

PubMed

In their recent article, Erbay et al considered whether a seriously injured patient should be able to refuse treatment if the refusal was based on a (mis)interpretation of religious doctrine. They argued that in such a case 'what is important…is whether the teaching or philosophy used as a reference point has been in fact correctly perceived' (p 653). If it has not been, they asserted that this eroded the patient's capacity to make an autonomous decision and that therefore, in such cases, it is the role of the healthcare professional (HCP) to 'assist patients to think more clearly and rationally' (p 653). There are, however, a number of problems with the reasons why Erbay et al suggest we should help patients to rationalise their decisions and how HCPs should go about this. In this article, the author explores some of their main arguments regarding consent and rationality (particularly in relation to religious beliefs), as well as Erbay et al's normative claim that HCPs have an obligation to promote autonomy by helping patients to come to a 'rational' decision. Ultimately, the author agrees that the (temporary) solution to the dilemma presented in this scenario (which was to insert an intravenous cannula into the patient in order to allow an infusion of fluids in the event that he changed his mind) seemed both pragmatic and ethically permissible. However, it is suggested that the arguments which underpin this conclusion in Erbay et al's article are largely unsound. PMID:22593178

McMahon-Parkes, Kate

2012-05-16

210

Development of analytical reference materials for refuse-derived fuels  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste (MSW), presently a major disposal problem, represents a significant source of metals and glass together with a combustible fraction that could be used to supplement coal and oil and in generating heat and electricity. This combustible fraction represents 70 wt % MSW; therefore, effective utility of this fraction is an essential part of the Bureau of Mines program to conserve and increase the Nation's mineral and fuel supply through recycling of urban waste. Because of the increasing national interest in this important fuel supplement, the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines prepared a refuse-derived fuel material as a proposed reference material for use by other laboratories to evaluate their analytical procedures. This reference material was prepared by combining MSW light combustibles from Tampa, FL, Montgomery County, MD, and Tulsa, OK, then shredding, milling, and blending the composite material. Homogeneity of the refuse-derived fuel reference material (RDFRM) appears to be acceptable based on analytical values for replicate analyses. Concentration data for major, minor, and trace elements together with proximate analyses are provided in this report. Aliquots of the RDFRM are available to interested laboratories upon request.

Law, S.L.; Haynes, B.W.; Campbell, W.J.

1980-01-01

211

Refuse derived fuels: New technologies for successful operations  

SciTech Connect

The rising cost of refuse disposal, coupled with the decreasing availability of land suitable for the siting of new landfills have greatly accelerated the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing systems as a viable technology of the disposal of our municipal solid waste. The energy products produces by an RDF processing facility-electricity and/or steam, as well as the recovery of other valuable materials from the waste stream, coupled with the inherent flexibility of the RDF technology to be used in varying forms, over a wide range of combustion technologies, makes it an extremely desirable waste-to-energy system. Use of an RDF prepared fuel product can also provide a potentially beneficial reduction of air emissions, and trace metals in the ash when compared to the burning of unprocessed solid waste. This paper discusses the problems which have been encountered in the past with RDF systems; the current status of these facilities including institutional considerations and system economics; and the future potential of RDF processing systems. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Ohlsson, O.O.

1988-01-01

212

Life Skills Training: Empirical Findings and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use are important problems that typically begin during adolescence. Fortunately, substantial progress has been made in developing effective drug abuse prevention programs for youth over the past two decades. The Life Skills Training (LST) program is an effective primary prevention program for adolescent drug abuse that addresses the risk and protective factors associated with drug

Gilbert J. Botvin; Kenneth W. Griffin

2004-01-01

213

Standardizing and Evaluating the "Presenter" Variable in the Peer vs. Adult Debate in Youth Drug Prevention Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "train-the-trainer" workshop was developed to evaluate and enhance presentational skills and offered to 14 youth in grades 6-12 and 9 administrators from youth-focused community agencies in Indiana. Upon workshop completion, 7 youth and 6 adults functioned as presenters of a 1 1/2-hour module on refusal and resistance skills to 95 youth enrolled…

Hobson, Charles J.; McCarthy, Heather; Murff, Sherice; Thomas, Adrienne; Rosetti, Desila; Murillo, Natalie G.

2009-01-01

214

Refusals Realizations in Three Different Cultures: A Speech Act Theoretically-based Cross-cultural Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the researcher assumes differences in the ways people from different cultural backgrounds perform refusals even while using the same linguistic code (i.e. English). Three groups of subjects, Americans, Arabs and Japanese are compared in the ways they perform refusals with respect to three dimensions of semantic formulas: order, frequency and content of semantic formulas. In addition, the

Saad Ali; W. Al-Kahtani

2005-01-01

215

Family Influences on Treatment Refusal in School-Linked Mental Health Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed family influences on treatment refusal in school-linked mental health services (SLMHS). Specifically, it assessed whether levels of family cohesion, conflict, and organization were related to whether a family refused to initiate recommended treatment. Children (N = 133) referred for emotional and behavioral problems and their…

Keeley, Mary L.; Wiens, Brenda A.

2008-01-01

216

Prevalence rate and reasons for refusals of influenza vaccine in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

More knowledge on the reasons for refusal of the influenza vaccine in elderly patients is essential to target groups for additional information, and hence improve coverage rate. The objective of the present study was to describe precisely the true motives for refusal. All patients aged over 64 who attended the Medical Outpatient Clinic, Univer- sity of Lausanne, or their private

Laurence Canova; Myriam Birchmeier; Valérie D'Acremont; Gilbert Abetel; Maxime Mancini; François Verdon; Alain Pécouda; Blaise Genton

217

Urban residential refuse composition and generation rates for the 20th century.  

PubMed

Examination of historical data shows that 3.5 x 10(8) tonnes (t) of residential refuse was discarded in New York City (NYC) during the 20th century. Maximum and minimum rates of per capita mass discard of residential refuse during this time are reported in 1940 (940 kg per capita yr(-1)) and 1961, 1963 (320 kg per capita yr(-1)), respectively. Since 1980, per capita residential refuse discard rates have been steady and comparatively low (430 kg per capita yr(-1) +/- 2.5%). Fuel ash accounted for approximately 34% of residential refuse in NYC during the century. A decline of refuse bulk density (as collected) from approximately 500 to 200 kg m(-3) and an increase in refuse organic matter content from 20% to 80% (by mass) is reported between 1920 and 1990 and is due largely to mass fraction reductions forfuel ash and increases for paper and plastic. Approximately 4.9 x 10(8) t of refuse was disposed in NYC during the 20th century (including commercial and residential refuse), representing a total pool of about 8.0 x 10(7) t of organic carbon (as C) that has entered city landfills and incinerators. PMID:12487320

Walsh, Daniel C

2002-11-15

218

A data base of dioxin and furan emissions from municipal refuse incinerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on dioxin and furan emissions from municipal refuse incinerators were collected from the published reports of the testing of flue gases from sixteen municipal incinerators in Europe, Canada, Japan and the United States. This paper describes why and how the collected data were adjusted to a common basis to obtain a normalized data base for dioxin and furan emissions from refuse incinerators.

Beychok, Milton R.

219

Obstetric Patients Who Select and Those Who Refuse Medical Students' Participation in Their Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 222 obstetrics patients assisted by medical clerkship students from the University of Vermont and 78 who refused student participation found privacy the primary motivation for refusal and a desire to contribute to students' education a primary reason for accepting student participation. Patients frequently erroneously anticipated the…

Magrane, Diane; And Others

1994-01-01

220

International Research Group on Refuse Disposal (IRGRD). Information Bulletin. Number 33, August 1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Significance of throw-away packaging for water protection and air hygiene, determination of the oxygen requirement of maturing composts, composition and composting of domestic refuse in Cairo, and recent research on refuse disposal in the U.S.A.

1969-01-01

221

Outcome of patients who refused out-of-hospital medical assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of the emergency medical services (EMS) system does not always result in transport of a patient to the hospital. This study assessed the outcomes of patients who refused medical assistance in the field, to determine if refusal of medical assistance (RMA) is associated with poor outcomes. Four high-volume suburban volunteer ambulance corps participated in the study. Consecutive patients who

Jonathan L Burstein; Mark C Henry; Jeanne Alicandro; Henry C Thode; Judd E Hollander

1996-01-01

222

Occupational Exposure to Airborne Dust, Respirable Quartz and Metals Arising from Refuse Handling, Burning and Landfilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial hygiene investigations were conducted in 1983 at a refuse derived fuel (RDF) burning plant, a refuse transfer station and three municipal landfill sites. The field surveys were conducted during the warmer and drier seasons of the year. The investigations included air sampling for total dust, respirable quartz and airborne metals. Bulk samples of soil cover, precipitator\\/boiler ash and transfer

D. MOZZON; D. A. BROWN; J. W. SMITH

1987-01-01

223

29 CFR 102.19 - Appeal to the general counsel from refusal to issue or reissue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Appeal to the general counsel from refusal to issue or reissue. 102.19 Section 102...Appeal to the general counsel from refusal to issue or reissue. (a) If, after the...filed, the Regional Director declines to issue a complaint or, having withdrawn...

2013-07-01

224

Prospective evaluation of patients refused admission to an intensive care unit: triage, futility and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate factors associated with decisions to refuse ICU admission and to assess the outcome of refused patients. Design and setting: Prospective, descriptive evaluation in a multi-disciplinary intensive care unit, university referral hospital. Patients and participants: All adult emergency referrals over a 7-month period. Interventions: The number of beds available at the time of referral, the patient's age, gender,

Gavin Joynt; Charles Gomersall; Peggy Tan; Anna Lee; Claudia Cheng; Elisa Wong

2001-01-01

225

Chemical and thermal variations in seeps discharged from a burning coal refuse pile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage generated by coal refuse piles is affecting the Moxahala watershed in Southeastern Ohio. The major contributor of acidity to this watershed is the Misco refuse pile. This pile was formed during the exploitation of the Misco Mine in Perry County, Ohio, in the early 1950's. In addition to the generation of acid mine drainage, the Misco Pile

D. L. Lopez; C. F. Doe; B. J. Stuart; M. W. Stoertz

2002-01-01

226

A combined power cycle using refuse incineration and LNG cold energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to develop a combined power generation cycle using refuse incineration and LNG cold energy, and to conduct parametric analysis to investigate the effects of key parameters on the thermal and exergy efficiencies. The combined cycle consists of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle with refuse incinerator and a LNG cold energy cycle. The combined cycle is

T Miyazaki; Y. T Kang; A Akisawa; T Kashiwagi

2000-01-01

227

Disposal of municipal refuse and RDF in Japan by a two-bed pyrolysis system  

SciTech Connect

This system efficiently and effectively produces high-quality, high-heating-value fuel gas from municipal refuse and RDF. In 1978, the commercial demonstration plant was constructed in Yokohama and since 1979 it has operated with municipal solid waste, RDF, and industrial refuse. The technology is now ready for commercialization.

Ishii, N.; Ishi, Y.; Ito, K. Hirayama, Y.

1985-01-01

228

Densification of Refuse-Derived Fuels: Preparation, Properties and Systems for Small Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) is produced by compacting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) into agglomerated pieces sufficiently cohesive to sustain storage and handling. The use of this d-RDF product as a substitute for coal in spreader-stoker boilers is ...

J. Campbell M. L. Renard

1981-01-01

229

Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change in self-efficacy was a mechanism of change following drink refusal training for individuals

Katie Witkiewitz; Dennis M. Donovan; Bryan Hartzler

2012-01-01

230

Survey of molds and mycotoxins for their ability to cause feed refusal in chickens.  

PubMed

The cause of feed refusal by poultry is an important problem that has not been established. T-2 toxin, a culture filtrate of Fusarium roseum NRRL 1181 containing a high concentration of diacetoxyscirpenol, and a filtrate of Penicillium citrinum containing an unknown factor produced refusal activity in week-old chickens. Citrinin stimulated water consumption while aflatoxin did not affect feed consumption. Detection of refusal activity was more sensitive when the refusal factor was presented in the drinking water than in the feed. The experimental model used here was sensitive, and, with appropriate controls, would appear suitable for the isolation and study of new factors capable of causing feed refusal in poultry. PMID:6657561

Burditt, S J; Hagler, W M; Hamilton, P B

1983-11-01

231

Using descriptive assessment in the treatment of bite acceptance and food refusal.  

PubMed

The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access to social interaction and preferred activities for bite acceptance and escape for food refusal. These schedule arrangements result in hypotheses that modifications to the schedule of praise and access to social interaction and preferred activities for bite acceptance would result in little to no effect and that modifications to the schedule of escape for food refusal would be necessary for treatment success. Successful interventions are subsequently implemented by manipulating the existing schedules of escape for food refusal by each child's care providers. Implications for the use of descriptive assessments for feeding problems are discussed. PMID:19675310

Casey, Sean D; Perrin, Christopher J; Lesser, Aaron D; Perrin, Stefanie H; Casey, Cheryl L; Reed, Gregory K

2009-08-12

232

Coal/D-RDF (densified refuse-derived fuel) co-firing project, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse-derived fuel with coal at the fuel-receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a base line condition. For the second series, a mixture of coal and densified refuse-derived fuel was fired. The report describes the equipment used to densify refuse derived fuel, procedures used to prepare and handle the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture and the test results. The results include the effect of the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture on plant operations, boiler efficiency, stack emissions and EP toxicity.

Hecklinger, R.S.; Rehm, F.R.

1985-11-01

233

Refusal-to-promote claim allowed to proceed toward trial.  

PubMed

A Federal judge has allowed a lawsuit brought by Robert A. Dollinger, a senior auditor at the New York State Insurance Fund, to proceed forward. The suit alleged that Dollinger had been denied promotions due to his HIV status. Despite being qualified, Dollinger had been passed over for promotion 13 times over the past several years. The suit also alleges that refusal to promote was retaliation for Dollinger's having filed complaints that he was the target of HIV-related discrimination. U.S. District Chief Judge Thomas McAvoy indicated that Dollinger made a prima facie case of discrimination under the American with Disabilities Act, but did not show that Dollinger was injured under Title VII of the Federal Civil Rights Act. The causal relationship between Dollinger's filing of complaints and being passed over for promotion was easily made. Dollinger's challenge in the continued litigation is whether the employer had valid, nondiscriminatory reasons for not granting promotions. PMID:11367142

1999-05-28

234

Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka [Toyota Motor Corp. (Japan). Plant Engineering Dept.

1998-12-31

235

Preparation and properties of densified refuse-derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) generally refers to the product of the mechanical (or chemical plus mechanical) processing of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce a specification output. Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) is the product of the mechanical compaction of some form of RDF to agglomerated pieces which are sufficiently cohesive to sustain storage and handling. The term densified is used in the generic sense to include all forms of compaction, such as extrusion or rolling to produce briquettes, pellets, cubettes, etc. Generally, d-RDF is a fuel for stoker boilers analogous to lump coal. The concept of RDF and d-RDF can be extended to other waste-derived or biomass fuels. The pilot-scale preparation of d-RDF has been described. This paper is to update and expand the information and to describe the objectives and operation of some of the unit processes used and the properties of the d-RDF. It should be an objective of processing to maximize the quality of the fuel, even at the expense of quantity, so as to maintain the fuel specification. Thus, a mass of waste, m, is converted to a mass of fuel, m', so that m > m', but the heats of combustion are ..delta..H/sub m/ < ..delta..H/sub m'/, which is the objective of processing. The yield is limited by the composition of m and the limits of the law of conservation of mass-energy; also, allowance must be made for the energy input for processing. The concept of processing to maximize yield is opposite to the traditional objective of waste management of maximizing disposal.

Alter, H.; Campbell, J.A.

1980-01-01

236

Removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from domestic wastewater using a mineralized refuse-based bioreactor.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste used for landfill becomes stabilized, or aged, some years after placement, and can be safely excavated; the term 'mineralized refuse' is used in this study. The adsorptions of phosphorus, and the nitrification of the mineralized refuse and clay, were investigated by batch incubation. The variation of phosphorus adsorption in the mineralized refuse was fitted to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm equation, giving a maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity of 2310 mg kg(-1). Based on the Langmuir isotherm equation, maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity was calculated to be 1976 mg kg(-1), almost twice that of the clay. The equations for both the mineralized refuse and clay were fitted to zero-order kinetics (R2 > 0.98, P < 0.01, n = 11), giving concentrations of phosphorus as phosphates less than 250 mg L(-1). The K value for the mineralized refuse was about 3.5 times higher than for the clay. The production of nitrogen as nitrates in both the mineralized refuse and the clay after 120 h incubation yielded a first-order reaction kinetics value of 100 mg kg(-1) NH4(+)-N from the initial concentration. The calculated net nitrification as nitrates for the mineralized refuse was 6.3 times higher than for the clay. Domestic wastewater was then treated in a mineralized refuse-based bioreactor for 30 days. The removal rates of COD(cr), total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 73.77 +/- 8.10%, 61.01 +/- 6.75%, and 69.14 +/- 9.25%, respectively. Large accumulations of nitrates occurred in the mineralized refuse-based bioreactor. For the full-scale design, a high column of mineralized refuse is recommended for the denitrification. PMID:22519101

Zhang, H H; Tian, J S; Zhang, Y M; Wu, Z L; Kong, X J; Chao, J Y; Hu, Y; Li, D L

237

Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

Mahoney, Don

238

Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

Mahoney, Don

239

7 CFR 1956.67 - Debts which the debtor is able to pay in full but refuses to do so.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Debts which the debtor is able to pay in full but refuses to do so. 1956.67 Section...Debts which the debtor is able to pay in full but refuses to do so. Debts which the debtor may have the ability to pay in full but has refused to do so may be...

2013-01-01

240

Utilization of incinerated anthracite mine refuse as an aggregate in bituminous mixes for surfacing highways. Special research report SR96  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work was performed to determine uses for incinerated anthracite refuse (refuse which had caught fire and was extinguished, after burning for years, through a massive program to eliminate the associated air pollution problem). One phase of the project wth the incinerated refuse was to investigate the use of this material as a substitute for aggregate in bituminous mixes for blacktopping

H. B. Charmbury; W. R. Chubb; F. C. Witkoski

1973-01-01

241

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

242

Life Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

Bates, Jan P.

2005-01-01

243

Evaluating Physical Assessment Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes methods used in the nursing curriculum at the University of Iowa College of Nursing to evaluate inclusion of physical assessment skills and to test students' use of cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor assessment skills in nursing diagnosis. Includes an example of motor and perceptual skill objectives for examining thorax and lungs.…

And Others; Reese, Jean L.

1979-01-01

244

Enhancing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

1999

245

Understanding Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Issues pertaining to thinking skills are discussed in an attempt to clarify what thinking skills are and their components, how they function and how they can be developed in the teaching-learning environment. Chapter 1 reviews the definitions of thinking skills. These definitions are selected from the current literature on education and…

Shrestha, Bijaya K.

1989-01-01

246

Enhancing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

1999

247

Assessing Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators are familiar with instances of authentic assessment of "content" within the disciplines or of authentic assessment of "discipline-specific skills." In such authentic assessments, students apply the knowledge and skills of the discipline to situations or tasks that replicate real world challenges. The measurement of skills is…

Mueller, Jon

2008-01-01

248

Acquisition of Cognitive Skill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A framework for skill acquisition is proposed in which there are two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill--a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowledge is em...

J. R. Anderson

1981-01-01

249

Reclamation of a burning refuse pile at Kenvir, Kentucky (case history)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and construction techniques used in the reclamation of a burning refuse pile at Kenvir in Harlan County, Kentucky. Prior to reclamation, the refuse pile, which resulted from a deep mining operation in the 1940's and had been burning for many years, extended to a total height of about 220 feet on very steep slopes. The total volume of refuse was about 265,000 cubic yards. Because of the marginal stability of the slopes, it was necessary not only to extinguish the burning refuse, but also to establish a more stable configuration. Design features of the new facility include an underdrain along the original valley bottom, 2.5H:1V slopes on the front face with 30 foot wide benches at 50 foot vertical intervals and a system of ditches to control surface drainage. Because no natural soil was available nearby, an organic compost material was incorporated into the refuse in order to support vegetation. Water for quenching was obtained both from an abandoned mine opening above the pile and from Yocum Creek at the toe. Dozers were used to move the refuse, with surface temperatures constantly monitored to determine when more quenching was required. Temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/F were measured. Trucks moved the quenched refuse to the new facility where it was compacted to increase strength and discourage future combustion.

Byers, D.R.; Warder, D.L.; Booth, D.H.

1984-12-01

250

Youth In Action: Youth Preventing Drug Abuse. Bulletin No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drug prevention projects have proven successful in curtailing drug activity and the violence associated with it. An effective drug prevention project can educate children, youth, and adults about the dangers of illegal drugs. It can provide skills to help...

S. Bilchik

1998-01-01

251

Parental refusal to immunize a 2-month-old infant.  

PubMed

At a 2-month health supervision visit, Monica's pediatrician was surprised by her mother's wish to withhold immunizations. At prior encounters with her parents, including a prenatal visit, the meeting after Monica's birth, and the 2-week health supervision visit, there was no indication that standard immunizations would be refused. Monica's parents informed her pediatrician that the potential side effects from the immunization led them to think that their healthy child should not be immunized. After talking with other parents in the neighborhood, watching a television program on "children who were brain damaged after getting their shots," and looking at several web sites for parents on the Internet, they concluded that it was safer to withhold the immunizations. "Monica is so healthy.....why give her shots that may make her very sick?" Monica was the first child born to these college-educated parents who had been married for 5 years. The pregnancy was full term and notable for two transient episodes of spotting in the first trimester. Both parents looked forward to Monica's birth. There were no perinatal problems, breast feeding was successful with an appropriate weight gain, and the physical examination was normal. The pediatrician explained to the parents that she understood their concerns. "Most of the things we give children for prevention or treatment of disease may be associated with possible side effects. In the case of immunizations, the chance of a serious side effect is much less than the risk that Monica might acquire one of the diseases we can prevent with an immunization. I have seen a few unimmunized infants who were hospitalized with a very serious case of whooping cough, one of the diseases we can prevent by immunizing Monica." The parents thanked the pediatrician for the information and agreed to read several pamphlets about immunizations. The pediatrician observed that her interchange with the parents was cordial but stressful, for both herself and Monica's parents. As the parents left the office, she wondered if there was a more effective way to talk about immunizations with parents who refuse to immunize their children. PMID:11132795

Stein, M T; Pickering, B; Tanner, J L; Mazzella, C B

2000-12-01

252

Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2011-01-01

253

Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2011-01-01

254

A thermophilic, acidophilic mycoplasma isolated from a coal refuse pile.  

PubMed

A thermophilic, acidophilic procaryote lacking a cell wall has been isolated from a coal refuse pile which had undergone self-heating. Electron micrographs, chemical assays for hexosamine, and the inability of vancomycin to inhibit growth confirm the lack of a cell wall. The apparent ability of the organism to reproduce by budding and the low guanine plus cytosine content of its DNA indicate a relation to the mycoplasmas. The temperature optimum of the organism is 59 degrees C, and growth occurs over a range of 45 degrees to 62 degrees C. No growth occurs at 37 degrees C or at 65 degrees C. The optimum pH for growth is between 1 and 2, and growth occurs between pH 0.96 and 3.5 but does not occur at pH 0.35 and only poorly at pH 4.0. We propose to call this organism Thermoplasma acidophila. The existence of this organism extends considerably the range of habitats in which mycoplasma may occur. PMID:5481857

Darland, G; Brock, T D; Samsonoff, W; Conti, S F

1970-12-25

255

Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).  

PubMed

This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. PMID:23746983

Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

2013-06-05

256

Creating Opportunities: Tennessee's Southeast Regional Skills Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rural Marion County (Tennessee), the town of Kimball, the Appalachian Regional Commission, and a local community college founded a regional skills center. The center offers a 2-year associate of science degree and classes in GED preparation, parenting, drug abuse prevention, cosmetology, and air conditioning and refrigeration. It has expanded…

Baldwin, Fred D.

2002-01-01

257

Examining the ethico-legal aspects of the right to refuse treatment in Turkey.  

PubMed

This paper examines the ethico-legal problems regarding the right to refuse treatment in Turkey's healthcare system. We discuss these problems in the light of a recent case that was directly reported to us. We first summarise the experience of a chronically dependent patient (as recounted by her daughter) and her family during their efforts to refuse treatment and receive palliative care only. This is followed by a summary of the legal framework governing the limits of the right to refuse treatment in Turkey. With the help of this background information on the legal framework, we re-examine the ethico-legal aspects of the case and explain the underlying reasons for the problems the family and the patient experienced. Finally, we conclude that Turkey's legal framework relating to the right to refuse treatment needs to be clarified and amended in accordance with international conventions and fundamental human rights. PMID:23596316

Sert, Gurkan; Guven, Tolga

2013-04-17

258

International Research Group on Refuse Disposal (IRGRD). Information Bulletin. Number 32, April 1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Controlled tipping, energy expenditure in the pasteurization of sludge, cost-saving in the use of garbage trucks, and oxidation-reduction potential and hygienic state of compost from urban refuse.

1969-01-01

259

29 CFR 1977.22 - Employee refusal to comply with safety rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Some...who refuse to comply with occupational safety and health standards or...

2013-07-01

260

37 CFR 202.5 - Reconsideration Procedure for Refusals to Register.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedures for administrative review of the Copyright Office's refusal to register a claim to copyright, a mask work, or a vessel hull design upon a finding by the Office that the application for registration does not satisfy the legal...

2013-07-01

261

Preliminary Assessment of the Prospects for Use of Refuse-Derived Fuel in Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The deployment problems of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production in Maryland are examined. Problems experienced by the pyrolysis plant in Baltimore City and the resource recovery plant in Baltimore County are cited. Maryland's municipal solid waste problem...

W. C. Metz J. Shyer K. Edgecomb

1979-01-01

262

Gasification of bean curd refuse with carbon supported noble metal catalysts in supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of bean curd refuse was examined in the presence of carbon supported noble metal catalysts in sub- and supercritical water from 473 K to 673 K. The activity of catalyst was in the order of Ru\\/C >> Rh\\/C > Pt\\/C > Pd\\/C. The effect of reaction condition with Ru\\/C catalyst was examined in detail. In the presence of catalyst and water, bean curd refuse decomposed to intermediates

Takafumi Sato; Kentaro Inda; Naotsugu Itoh

2011-01-01

263

Bacteria and acid drainage from coal refuse: inhibition by sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate  

SciTech Connect

Studies have shown that the application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulphur coal refuse inhibits the activity of iron- and sulphur-oxidising chemo-autotrophic bacteria and reduces the amount of acid drainage from the refuse. Further studies are recommended to assess the usefulness of this method for controlling formation of acid mine drainage in the field.

Dugan, P.R.; Apel, W.A.

1983-01-01

264

Characterization of stack emissions from municipal refuse-to-energy systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stack emissions from three municipal refuse-to-energy systems were characterized: refuse-derived fuel (RDF), mass burning (MASS), and modular (MOD). A comprehensive set of measurements was performed at each site to determine the physical and chemical properties of the particulate and gaseous stack emissions. The physical characterization included measurement of the mass concentration and size distribution of the stack particulate matter. Inorganic

J. E. Howes; D. F. Kohler; F. L. DeRoos; R. M. Riggin; R. L. Barbour

1986-01-01

265

A bioenvironmental study of emissions from refuse derived fuel. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refuse derived fuel (processed municipal solid waste) was used as a supplement to coal in a utility boiler (80,000 lbs. steam per hour). Furnance emissions were determined from coal, and from 1:1 and 2:1 mixes (by volume) of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal respectively. In comparison with coal, the 1:1 mix had significantly lower sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen

1976-01-01

266

Highly elevated emission of mercury vapor due to the spontaneous combustion of refuse in a landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refuse disposal (e.g., landfilling and incineration) have been recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emission globally. However, in-situ measurements of Hg emission from landfill or refuse dumping sites where fugitive spontaneous combustion occurs have not been reported. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentration and emission flux were observed near spontaneous combustions of refuse at a landfill site in southwestern China. Ambient Hg0 concentrations above the refuse surface ranged from 42.7 ± 20.0 to 396.4 ± 114.2 ng m-3, up to 10 times enhancement due to the spontaneous burning. Using a box model with Hg0 data obtained from 2004 to 2013, we estimated that the Hg0 emission from refuse was amplified by 8-40 times due to spontaneous combustion. A micrometeorological flux measurement system based on relaxed eddy accumulation was configured downwind of the combustion sites to quantify the Hg0 emission. Extremely large turbulent deposition fluxes (up to -128.6 ?g m-2 h-1, 20 min average) were detected during periods of high Hg0 concentration events over the measurement footprint. The effect of temperature, moisture and light on the air-surface exchange of Hg0 exchange was found to be masked by the overwhelming deposition of Hg0 from the enriched air from the refuse combustion plumes. This research reveals that mercury emission from the landfill refuse can be boosted by fugitive spontaneous combustion of refuse. The emission represents an anthropogenic source that has been overlooked in Hg inventory estimates.

Zhu, Wei; Sommar, Jonas; Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Guanghui

2013-11-01

267

Effect of lime-stabilized sludge as landfill cover on refuse decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased quantities of wastewater-treatment sludge coupled with more stringent regulations make it important to develop alternatives for residuals management. The use of a mixture of anaerobically digested, lime-stabilized wastewater sludge (LSS) and soil as a cover material was evaluated for its effect on refuse decomposition and leachate quality. Tests were conducted in 4-L reactors filled with shredded refuse an operated

Rodney D. Rhew; Morton A. Barlaz

1995-01-01

268

Normative Influences and Alcohol Consumption: The Role of Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends the theory of normative social behavior by conceptualizing drinking refusal self-efficacy as an important moderator in the relationship between descriptive norms and drinking intentions and behavior. A study was conducted among Korean high school students (N?=?538) to assess their normative perceptions, drinking refusal self-efficacy, and drinking intentions. We found a significant association between self-efficacy and drinking intentions

Su Ahn Jang; Rajiv N. Rimal; NamAuk Cho

2012-01-01

269

Why skill matters.  

PubMed

Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object-value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579

Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F

2013-08-01

270

Prevalence rate and reasons for refusals of influenza vaccine in elderly.  

PubMed

More knowledge on the reasons for refusal of the influenza vaccine in elderly patients is essential to target groups for additional information, and hence improve coverage rate. The objective of the present study was to describe precisely the true motives for refusal. All patients aged over 64 who attended the Medical Outpatient Clinic, University of Lausanne, or their private practitioner's office during the 1999 and 2000 vaccination periods were included. Each patient was informed on influenza and its complications, as well as on the need for vaccination, its efficacy and adverse events. The vaccination was then proposed. In case of refusal, the reasons were investigated with an open question. Out of 1398 patients, 148 (12%) refused the vaccination. The main reasons for refusal were the perception of being in good health (16%), of not being susceptible to influenza (15%), of not having had the influenza vaccine in the past (15%), of having had a bad experience either personally or a relative (15%), and the uselessness of the vaccine (10%). Seventeen percent gave miscellaneous reasons and 12% no reason at all for refusal. Little epidemiological knowledge and resistance to change appear to be the major obstacles for wide acceptance of the vaccine by the elderly. PMID:14745655

Canova, Laurence; Birchmeier, Myriam; D'Acremont, Valérie; Abetel, Gilbert; Favrat, Bernard; Landry, Pierre; Mancini, Maxime; Verdon, François; Pécoud, Alain; Genton, Blaise

2003-11-22

271

Supreme Court refuses South Dakota appeal in parental notice case.  

PubMed

This overview of Federal cases points out that the refusal of the US Supreme Court on April 29, 1996, to hear the South Dakota case of Janklow v. Planned Parenthood leaves confusion about which standard (Salerno or Casey) is appropriate to apply to abortion cases. The South Dakota case involved an attempt to reverse an appellate ruling that changed the 1993 law requiring parental notification within 48 hours of the abortion procedure for an adolescent. The 1987 decision in United States v. Salerno established that plaintiffs who challenge an abortion law must meet the strict standard of proving that there was no set of circumstances under which the statute could be applied in a constitutional manner. The 1992 ruling in Planned Parenthood v. Casey required federal courts to eliminate abortions laws that placed an undue burden on a large number of women. Justices Scalia, Rehnquist, and Thomas considered it the duty of the high court to resolve the conflict between appellate courts over the legal standard for reviewing suits against abortion restrictions that was presented in a 1995 appellate decision. Justice Stevens issued a rare statement of agreement with the decision to reject the South Dakota case. The appeals court for South Dakota had invalidated the one-parent notification provision, because it did not permit a young adolescent to seek a judicial by-pass to avoid the mandate. This appellate ruling was based on a Supreme Court ruling involving two-parent consent and two-parent notification requirements that required states to provide a confidential and expeditious alternative to women who could not tell their parents. The lower appellate courts assumed that the two-parent notification alternatives would apply to one-parent notification alternatives. PMID:12291324

1996-05-01

272

SOPP 8404: Refusal to File Procedures for Biologic License ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... 351 of the Public Health Service Act; the Federal Food, Drug, and ... of critical data, information or analyses needed to evaluate safety, purity and ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/proceduressopps

273

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of such drugs, are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether the conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the proposed...

2004-04-01

274

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of such drugs, are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether the conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the proposed...

2011-04-01

275

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The cumulative effect on man or animal of such drug, taking into account...are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether...edible products derived from animals or a withdrawal period or...

2009-04-01

276

LabSkills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes LabSkills, a revolutionary teaching tool to improve practical science in schools. LabSkills offers the chance to help improve the exposure that the average Key Stage 5 (age 16-19) student has to practical work. This is a huge area for development being highlighted by universities who are seeing a worryingly growing trend in…

O'Brien, Nick

2010-01-01

277

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

278

Thinking Skills & Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

279

Improving anaesthetists' communication skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The attitude, behaviour and communication skills of specialised doctors are increasingly recognised as important and they have been identified as training requirements. We designed a programme to teach communication skills to doctors in a University Department of Anaesthesia and evaluated its effect on patient outcomes such as satisfaction and anxiety. The 20 h programme was based on videotaped reviews

C. Harms; J. R. Young; F. Amsler; C. Zettler; D. Scheidegger; C. H. Kindler

2004-01-01

280

Elementary TIG Welding Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The text was prepared to help deaf students develop the skills needed by an employed welder. It uses simplified language and illustrations to present concepts which should be reinforced by practical experience with welding skills. Each of the 12 lessons contains: (1) an information section with many illustrations which presents a concept or…

Pierson, John E., III

281

Critical Thinking beyond Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this article is to investigate possibilities for conceptions of critical thinking beyond the established educational framework that emphasizes skills. Distancing ourselves from the older rationalist framework, we explain that what we think wrong with the skills perspective is, amongst other things, its absolutization of performativity…

Papastephanou, Marianna; Angeli, Charoula

2007-01-01

282

Electromechanical Technician Skills Questionnaire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains test items to measure the job skills of electromechanical technicians. Questions are organized in four sections that cover the following topics: (1) shop math; (2) electricity and electronics; (3) mechanics and machining; and (4) plumbing, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and welding skills. Questions call for…

Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

283

Assessing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on assessing employee skills. "Bridging the Training Gap: Identifying Work Place Transferable Skills Needs in Manufacturing Organizations in East Central Minnesota" (K. Peter Kuchinke, James M. Brown, Howie Anderson, Joe Hobson) reports a study of a workplace education program in rural Minnesota…

1997

284

Measuring Internet Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed, applied in two large-scale performance tests, and tested for reliability and validity. The framework consists of four Internet

Alexander van Deursen; J. A. G. M. van Dijk

2010-01-01

285

COGNITIVE SKILL ACQUISITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive skill acquisition is acquiring the ability to solve problems in intellec- tual tasks, where success is determined more by subjects' knowledge than by their physical prowess. This review considers research conducted in the past ten years on cognitive skill acquisition. It covers the initial stages of acquiring a single principle or rule, the initial stages of acquiring a collection

Kurt VanLehn

1996-01-01

286

Building Web Literacy Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes web literacy instruction developed and implemented in response to students' needs as part of an English-as-a-Foreign-Language academic skills preparation curriculum. The goals of the instruction are to introduce critical reading strategies and develop computer literacy skills. (Author/VWL)

Reinhardt, Jonathon; Isbell, Katherine

2002-01-01

287

Editor's Note: Investigation Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To borrow an idea from John Dewey, problem solving is both the method and purpose of education. Teaching investigation skills can help students move into understanding and applying content to solve real problems. Investigation skills must move from being seen as "supplemental" to core. The articles in this month's issue of Science and Children can help you to achieve this goal.

Ohana, Chris

2006-10-01

288

Not-so-Soft Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

Curran, Mary

2010-01-01

289

The clinical skills unit.  

PubMed Central

Clinical skills units offer exciting and innovative ways of learning about clinical skills. Links between theoretical knowledge and clinical practice are appropriate for both undergraduate and postgraduate training. Students and doctors can practice and acquire technical and examination skills in a standardised and protected environment without being concerned about the distress such learning may cause real patients. Models and simulators used in skills units are being developed to keep pace with demand, with a corresponding increase in standards of quality and durability. As undergraduate medical courses respond to the demands of modern clinical practice the use of such facilities will increase. This paper describes the functions of skills units and provides practical examples of educational strategies in use. Images p731-a p731-b p731-c p731-d

Bligh, J.

1995-01-01

290

Study of erosion-sedimentation processes on abandoned coal refuse piles in southeastern Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Previous research by the authors identified abandoned coal refuse piles as the principle source of mine-related sediment in streams of southeastern Kansas. The present study estimates erosion rates and sedimentation yields on these piles, and examines relationships between physical properties of the refuse piles and erosion-sedimentation potentials. Two large abandoned coal refuse piles in southeastern Kansas were selected for study. Both study sites lack vegetative cover and, like most coal refuse piles in the region, have severely gullied slopes. The universal soil loss equation, which is designed to estimate sediment yield from sheet and rill erosion on undisturbed land, was inappropriate for this study. Instead, erosion pin techniques were used to record increments of surface erosion in gully networks. Erosion pins were placed at 15 ft. intervals in gully floors. Pins were also set in the walls of gullies to measure changes in channel geometry. Approximately seven hundred and fifty pins were installed in 1980 and erosion measurements were periodically made over a period of one year. Annual rates of erosion and sediment yield were approximated from these measurements. The physical characteristics of the refuse piles, including slope angle, slope length, and texture and bulk density of the refuse materials, were also measured. These data were compared among and between gullies at the two study sites to determine erosion-sedimentation potentials. The results of this study are providing useful information about the long-term impacts of abandoned coal refuse piles on sediment loads in mine-affected streams. This information will be used to prioritize the reclamation of nearly 11,500 acres of abandoned mined land in Kansas.

Mandel, R.D.; Sorenson, C.J.; Jackson, D.

1982-12-01

291

Canada refuses to issue a visa to an HIV-positive worker on antiretroviral drugs.  

PubMed

Citizenship and Immigration Canada has denied an application for a visa from an HIV-positive man even though he is in good health. The man was seeking to fill a two-year work term in Canada. The case raises concerns about Canada's immigration policies for people with HIV and about the ability of organizations working in AIDS to hire HIV-positive foreign workers. PMID:14719488

Garmaise, David

2002-12-01

292

Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

2013-01-01

293

Confirmatory Analyses of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised: Replication and Extension to a Truancy Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

School absenteeism and school refusal behavior are prevalent and serious issues for youth, but few measures have been developed\\u000a specifically for this population. The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (child and parent versions) provides clinicians\\u000a with a profile of the relative strength of four functions or maintaining variables regarding school refusal behavior. The\\u000a scales have been previously tested largely on clinical

Courtney Haight; Christopher A. Kearney; Marisa Hendron; Rachel Schafer

2011-01-01

294

Conceptual Model of Metacognitive Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Little is known about the cognitive skills used by high-level commanders and executives in problem solving. 'Metacognitive' skills are abilities to monitor and direct the operation of cognitive skills. The author offers a summary of theories of metacognit...

J. Geiwitz

1996-01-01

295

The Use of Patient Instructors to Teach Interviewing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A program using patient instructors programmed with a history of hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, or congestive heart failure to teach and evaluate pharmacy students' interviewing skills is described. Content areas included drug therapy, adverse reactions, drug interactions, etc. (Author/MSE)|

Gardner, Marie E.; And Others

1983-01-01

296

Performance and bacterial compositions of aged refuse reactors treating mature landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Aged landfill leachates become more refractory over time and difficulty to treat. Recently, aged refuse bioreactors show great promise in treating leachates. In this study, aged refuse bioreactors were constructed to simulate landfill leachate degradation process. The characteristics of leachate were: CODcr, ?2200 mg/L; BOD5, ?280 mg/L; total nitrogen, ?2030 mg/L; and ammonia, ?1900 mg/L. Results showed that bioreactor could remove leachate pollutants effectively at hydraulic loading of 20 L/m3 d. The removal rate reduced when hydraulic loading doubled or temperature lowered. Effluent recirculation could alleviate the temperature effect. Combining aged refuse and slag biofilters could treat leachate more efficiently. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that bacteria from Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, Bacillus and ?-proteobacter, Flexibacteraceae were more abundant in the samples. The Shannon index decreased at lower temperature, while evenness and equitability increased with recirculation. We suggest that filter medium and temperature may be the main factors for shaping bacterial community structure. PMID:22023964

Xie, Bing; Xiong, Shunzi; Liang, Shaobo; Hu, Chong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lu, Jun

2011-10-08

297

Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents  

SciTech Connect

Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of two alternative acid control chemicals, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, was compared with the performance of SLS in pilot-scale experiments with extensively leached, fresh coal refuse. Chemical cost information is presented that indicates low benzoate and sorbate doses were more economical than comparable SLS doses under the experimental conditions of the study. The unique environmental compatibility of benzoate and sorbate, which are used in food and beverages in concentrations greater than those reported in this study for acid drainage suppression, is also discussed.

Onysko, S.J.; Erickson, P.M.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hood, M.

1984-12-01

298

Migration, Skills and Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on international migration has repeatedly emphasized that the extent and structure of migration has an important impact on the competitiveness of regions and countries. This report provides an overview of the extent and the potential effects of high-skill migration to the EU27. It shows how many high-skilled migrants live in the EU, where these migrants come from, and

Robert Hierländer; Peter Huber; Anna Iara; Michael Landesmann; Klaus Nowotny; Mary OMahony; Fei Peng; Catherine Robinson; Robert Stehrer

2010-01-01

299

Multitasking as skill acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Multitasking,allows,people,to cope,with,the ever changing and complex world that we live in. However, as much,as cognitive scientists have learned about the details of human cognition, multitasking remains a mystery. In this paper, we argue that multitasking can be best understood as skill acquisition. In particular, we describe production composition, a computational theory of procedural skill acquisition, which can account for

F. J. Lee; N. A. Taatgen

2002-01-01

300

Patient Refusal of Glaucoma Surgery and Associated Factors in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of patient refusal of glaucoma surgery (GSR) and the associated factors in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted in Lagos state, Nigeria. Twelve centres were invited to participate, but data collection was completed in 10. Newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and interviewed from these sites over a four week period on prior awareness of glaucoma, surgery refusal, and reason(s) for the refusal. Presenting visual acuity was recorded from the patient files. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: A total of 208 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited. Sixty–five (31.2%) patients refused surgery. Fear of surgery (31 (47.7%) patients), and fear of going blind (19 (29.2%) patients) were the most common reasons. The odds ratio of surgery refusal were marital status – not married versus married (2.0; 95% CI, 1.02–3.94), use of traditional medication – users versus non users (2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–5.2), perception of glaucoma causing blindness – no versus yes (3.7; 95% CI, 1.3–10.5), type of institution - government versus private (5.7; 95% CI, 1.3–25.1), and visual acuity in the better eye - normal vision versus visual impairment (2.3; 95% CI, 1.1–4.9). Age, gender, level of education, family history of glaucoma, and prior awareness of the diagnosis of glaucoma, were not significantly associated with surgery refusal. Perception of patients concerning glaucoma blindness was the strongest factor on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: GSR was relatively low in this study. Unmarried status, use of traditional medications, perception that glaucoma cannot cause blindness, government hospital patients, and good vision in the better eye were associated with GSR. These factors might help in the clinical setting in identifying appropriate individuals for targeted counseling, as well as the need for increased public awareness about glaucoma.

Adekoya, Bola Josephine; Akinsola, Feyisayo B.; Balogun, Bola Grace; Balogun, Modupe Medinat; Ibidapo, Olajumoke O.

2013-01-01

301

Family Support Netowrk for Adolescent Cannabis Users. CYT-Cannabis Youth Treatment Series. Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of drug abuse is multidetermined. Henggler (1997) points out that with rare exception, treatment programs address only a limited portion of factors contributing to adolescent drug abuse (p. 265). Teaching life skills, refusal skills, and c...

B. McDougall F. M. Tims L. B. Brantley N. Angelovich N. L. Hamilton

2001-01-01

302

The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

2012-01-01

303

The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

2012-01-01

304

Test procedures for the determination of the gross calorific value of refuse and refuse-derived-fuels by oxygen bomb calorimetry. Summary of the 1977 fiscal year results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross calorific values have been determined for refuse-derived-fuels (RDF) from two manufacturers, Teledyne National and Combustion Equipment Associates. Test procedures used are modifications of those used for coal and coke. The calorific values (moisture- and ash-free basis) obtained for Teledyne National RDF ranged from 24.51 to 25.20 MJ kg⁻¹ (10,539 to 10,835 Btu 1b⁻¹) with a standard deviation of 0.8

D. R. Kirklin; D. J. Mitchell; J. Cohen; E. S. Domalski; S. Abramowitz

1978-01-01

305

Refuse and coal fired boilers team up at Duesseldorf to cogenerate electricity and district heat  

SciTech Connect

The integration of the Duesseldorf refuse power plant (RPP) with the Flingern Cogeneration Station (FCS) for the purpose of forming the Flingern energy complex is discussed. Up to six refuse fired boiler systems deliver high pressure, superheated steam from the RPP to a variety of turbines at the nearby FCS via a system of cross country steam lines. Both condensate and electricity are returned from the the FCS to the RPP. Additional steaming capacity is provided at the FCS in the form of several coal fired boiler systems. Most of the district heating output is delivered to the inner city district heating network (DHN) by means of a recirculating, pressurised hot water system.

Feindler, K.S.

1984-01-01

306

Factors associated with refusal to enter a clinical trial: epidural anesthesia is a deterrent to participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To compare patients who participate in a clinical trial for pain management involving epidural anesthesiato those who refuse\\u000a and document their reasons for refusing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Demographic and health history information was collected from 621 female patients who were screened for inclusion in a pain\\u000a management trial involving epidural anesthesia. Patients who completed the clinical trial (n = 149) were compared to

Timothy V. Salomons; Adarose Ardiel Wowk; Ann Fanning; Vincent W. S. Chan; Joel Katz

2002-01-01

307

Densification of refuse-derived fuels: preparation, properties and systems for small communities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Densified refuse-derived fuel (d-RDF) is produced by compacting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) into agglomerated pieces sufficiently cohesive to sustain storage and handling. The use of this d-RDF product as a substitute for coal in spreader-stoker boilers is a developing resource recovery alternative. This report covers an investigation of the operation, performance and product characteristics of a waste shredding and densification subsystem for production of d-RDF from air-classified light fraction and provides a technical and economic evaluation of d-RDF facilities for small communities.

Campbell, J.; Renard, M.L.

1981-09-01

308

Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview of drug abuse prevention research; Personal and social skills training: Cognitive-behavioral approaches to substance abuse prevention; Social and personal skills training programs for smoking prevention: Critique and directions for futu...

C. S. Bell R. Battjes

1985-01-01

309

Building Skills to Build Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communities are at the heart of the government's vision for the Big Society. And it's the author's strongly held view that skills should be at the heart of each and every one of those communities. If one grows the skills of an individual then the community will flourish. There is a job to be done in building skills to build communities--skilled…

Russell, Geoff

2011-01-01

310

Skills Verdict: Must Do Better  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Ambition 2020: World Class Skills and Jobs" is the UK Commission for Employment and Skills' annual assessment, to the four UK nations, of their progress towards becoming "world class" in productivity, employment and skills by 2020. "Ambition 2020" provides a robust independent account of economic and skills developments. This report is the…

Spilsbury, Mark

2010-01-01

311

A CAI Study Skills Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a computer assisted instruction (CAI) study skills program and reports the results of a study conducted to determine its effectiveness. The program consists of ten CAI study skills modules, a CAI study skills notebook, and a CAI study skills test. The modules address (1) managing time, (2) improving memory, (3) taking lecture…

Gadzella, Bernadette M.

312

14 CFR 61.16 - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results...16 Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results...indicate the percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood, when requested by a law...

2013-01-01

313

14 CFR 63.12a - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results...12a Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results...indicate the percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood, when requested by a law...

2013-01-01

314

The First Man in Her Life: Father Emotional Responsiveness During Adolescence and College Women's Sexual Refusal Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few empirical studies have examined how fathers influence daughters’ sexual interactions with male peers. We hypothesized that paternal emotional responsiveness would empower daughters to refuse unwanted sex. Female undergraduates (N = 144) and their fathers completed measures of paternal responsiveness during adolescence; daughters also reported their global self-worth, acceptance of male partner dominance, and sexual refusal behaviors. As expected, paternal

Jennifer Katz; Erika van der Kloet

2010-01-01

315

20 CFR 10.517 - What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer? 10.517 Section 10.517 Employees' Benefits...What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer? (a) 5 U.S.C. 8106(c) provides...

2010-04-01

316

20 CFR 10.517 - What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer? 10.517 Section 10.517 Employees' Benefits...What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer? (a) 5 U.S.C. 8106(c) provides...

2009-04-01

317

The Use of Terrain Conductivity and VLF Methods to Locate Acid Seep Source Areas in a Coal Refuse Pile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The purpose,of this study was to compare the results of geophysical surveys using electromagnetic induction. The surveys were conducted,at Falls Run Coal Refuse Pile operated by the Preston County Coke and Coal Association located in Preston County, West Virginia. Acidic waters seeping out of the base of the refuse pile are creating minor environmental problems in the surrounding areas,

Jennifer Shogren

318

47 CFR 3.53 - FCC notification of refusal to provide telecommunications service to U.S. registered vessel(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false FCC notification of refusal... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION...Operations § 3.53 FCC notification of refusal...authority must inform the FCC immediately should...

2012-10-01

319

CONTROL OF PCDD/PCDF EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents preliminary results of performance tests conducted at the Mid-Connecticut Refuse-Derived Fuel Facility in February 1989. The objectives of these performance tests were to evaluate the effects of combustion and flue gas cleaning process conditions on air pollut...

320

Predictors of Tobacco and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy for Urban and Rural African-American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive value of risk and promotive factors with respect to tobacco and alcohol

Aashir Nasim; Faye Z. Belgrave; Rosalie Corona; Tiffany G. Townsend

2009-01-01

321

Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.

2010-01-01

322

Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

2012-01-01

323

Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.

2010-01-01

324

Detection of Hydrogen Gas-Producing Anaerobes in Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we reported that refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets contain a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells and that these bacteria generate heat and hydrogen gas during fermentation under wet conditions. In this study we analyzed bacterial cell numbers of RDF samples manufactured with different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, which is usually added to waste materials for the prevention of

Makiko SAKKA; Tetsuya KIMURA; Kunio OHMIYA; Kazuo SAKKA

2005-01-01

325

Predictors of Tobacco and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy for Urban and Rural African-American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive…

Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corona, Rosalie; Townsend, Tiffany G.

2009-01-01

326

Resisting Colonial Education: Zitkala-Sa and Native Feminist Archival Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines resistance through a Native Feminist lens, employing the boarding school memoirs of Zitkala-Sa. Within a "story" of appropriation in methodology, it considers protest and parody, and presents archival refusal as modes of resistance to colonial education. (Contains 1 figure.)

Terrance, Laura L.

2011-01-01

327

Applying Fabric Filtration to Refuse-Fired Boilers: A Pilot-Scale Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was size...

J. D. McKenna J. C. Mycock R. L. Miller K. D. Brandt

1978-01-01

328

What Went Wrong: Multiple Perspectives on an Adolescent's Decision to Refuse Blood Transfusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with religious beliefs that conflict with mainstream medical practice create a tension for clinicians between honoring the different religious perspectives of the individual or carrying out what they believe to be their professional obligation. This is a patient presentation of an adolescent Jehovah's Witness who refuses blood transfusions. The major issue in this patient is the conflict among three

Kathleen Lawry; Jacquelyn Slomka; Johanna Goldfarb

1996-01-01

329

Insulin refusal in Iranian patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

- To achieve tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, it may be necessary to introduce insulin therapy much earlier in the disease course. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. Many patients require insulin therapy after several years of disease in order to maintain good glycemic control and prevent complications. But many patients do not receive insulin therapy in a timely manner because of a negative appraisal of this treatment. Understanding the cause of this negative attitudes is necessary for better evaluation to overcome for this problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasons for insulin refusal among patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study from Yazd Diabetes Research Center. 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who had an HbA1c ?8.0% despite optimal oral therapy were identified that participated in this study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated questionnaires. This study showed that Insulin refusal was common. 77% of participant reported being unwilling to take insulin if prescribed. Fear of injection is an important cause for insulin refusal among patients. Insulin refusal is an important problem among our patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings of this study suggest that interventions aimed at increasing insulin use should focus on injection-related concerns, education and correction of misconceptions. PMID:24026995

Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Fazaelipoor, Zahra; Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad

2013-09-09

330

Monitoring the effects of coal refuse disposal and reclamation on water quality in southwestern Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low pH and high concentrations of acidity, dissolved metals, and sulfate in water draining from an abandoned coal refuse disposal site near Staunton, Illinois, had a profound impact on water quality in the unnamed receiving stream and Cahokia Creek during periods of high surface water runoff rates during and after rainstorms. At other times, there was no surface water

J. P. Schubert; R. D. Olsen; S. D. Zellmer

1978-01-01

331

School Refusal:Characteristics, Assessment, and Effective Treatment: A Child and Parent Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study, using shelf data, described a quantitative research project which attempted to propound and answer questions about the nature of school refusal in a Pennsylvania school district. The study analyzed shelf data that surveyed 40 students and parents in grades 2 through 11th who missed more than ten percent of 2007-2008 school year. Using shelf data collected by

Lydia D. Brill

2009-01-01

332

An Analysis of the Current Impact of Plastic Refuse Disposal Upon the Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In view of the 7-fold growth in the amount of plastic waste over the past 20 years the impact of plastic refuse disposal upon the environment has been evaluated on the basis of the major current methods of disposal, municipal incineration, landfill and li...

D. A. Vaughan M. Y. Anastas H. H. Krause

1974-01-01

333

GASEOUS HC1 AND CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE FIRED WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The emissions from a water wall mass fired municipal waste incinerator and a refuse derived fuel (RDF) fired incinerator were sampled for chlorinated organic compounds and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The sampling was performed to evaluate the extractive sampling methods used to meas...

334

Consuming un-captured methane from landfill using aged refuse bio-cover.  

PubMed

A novel simulated bio-cover was developed to facilitate the biological methane oxidation process using aged refuse and aged sludge from landfill. It was found that 78.7% and 66.9% of CH(4) could be removed, with the aged refuse: aged sludge (w/w%) ratio of 7:3 and 6:4 in bio-cover system, respectively. The maximum CH(4) removal rate could reach 100%, when the aged refuse with the disposal time more than 14 years were applied in bio-cover. Some controlled factors for the methanotrophic activity, i.e. moisture, Eh and organic matter content, were also investigated. It was found that CH(4) oxidation rate increased greatly, when the moisture content and organic matter were increased from 6.0%, 4.8% to 8.0%, 9.5%, respectively. The optimum conditions for this bio-cover system was found to be as follows: aged refuse: aged sludge ratio of 7:3, the moisture content of 8-9%, Eh of 104-108 mV and organic matter of 9.5%. PMID:21078552

Lou, Ziyang; Wang, Li; Zhao, Youcai

2010-10-23

335

Anaerobic burial of refuse in landfills: Increased atmospheric methane and implications for increased carbon storage. Draft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic decomposition of landfilled refuse produces biogenic methane, most of which is vented to the atmosphere. Estimates for landfill methane emissions, based on worldwide solid waste quantities, range from less than 10 to more than 50 Tg/yr. Major co...

J. E. Bogner

1990-01-01

336

Perceptions of Refusals to Invitations: Exploring the Minds of Foreign Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Descriptions of speech act realisations of native and non-native speakers abound in the cross-cultural and interlanguage pragmatics literature. Yet, what is lacking is an analysis of the cognitive processes involved in the production of speech acts. This study examines the cognitive processes and perceptions of learners of Spanish when refusing…

Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar

2008-01-01

337

Why Kids Refuse to Go to School . . . and What Schools Can Do about It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle-level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are aware of effective intervention strategies can help provide supportive school…

Wimmer, Mary

2008-01-01

338

Predictors of Tobacco and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy for Urban and Rural African-American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive…

Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corona, Rosalie; Townsend, Tiffany G.

2009-01-01

339

TIME-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSED REFUSE. PART I: MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SOLID WASTE SETTLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The material investigated in this study is municipal refuse which has been processed in a hammer mill to produce a relatively fine-textured material in which the constituents are uniformly mixed. Such a material offers several advantages from an operational point of view, so that...

340

Class 8 Mack Straight Emulating a Refuse Hauler: Braking Improvement Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of higher output foundation brakes were determined for a Class 8, Mack 6x4 MR-688-S straight truck which emulated a McNeilus refuse hauler. Four brake types studied included: original hybrid S-cam drums, big S-cam drums, hybrid disc, and all-di...

R. L. Hoover T. R. Van Buskirk W. R. Garrott

2013-01-01

341

Cognitive Mediation of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Outcomes for Anxiety-Based School Refusal  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective for anxiety-based school refusal, but it is still unknown how CBT for school refusal works, or through which mechanisms. Aims Innovative statistical approaches for analyzing small uncontrolled samples were used to investigate the role of self-efficacy in mediating CBT outcomes for anxiety-based school refusal. Method Participants were 19 adolescents (12 to 17 years) who completed a manual-based cognitive-behavioural treatment. Primary outcomes (school attendance; school-related fear; anxiety) and secondary outcomes (depression; internalizing problems) were assessed at post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. Results Post-treatment increases in school attendance and decreases in fear about attending school the next day were found to be mediated by self-efficacy. Mediating effects were not observed at 2-month follow-up. Conclusions These findings provide partial support for the role of self-efficacy in mediating the outcome of CBT for school refusal. They contribute to a small body of literature suggesting that cognitive change enhances CBT outcomes for young people with internalizing problems. Regarding methodology, the product of coefficient test appears to be a valuable way to study mediation in outcome studies involving small samples.

Maric, Marija; Heyne, David A.; MacKinnon, David P.; van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

2013-01-01

342

Enzyme activity and microbial biomass in a field soil amended with municipal refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in enzyme activity levels, in biomass-C content, and in the rate of fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis were measured in a loamy soil to which solid municipal refuse had been applied as compost over a 3-year period at two different rates. Addition of the compost caused significant increases in the activity of all enzymes tested. The increases were much higher at

P. Perucci

1992-01-01

343

ETHICAL ASPECTS OF GERIATRIC PATIENTs' RIGHTS TO REFUSE TREATMENT AND TO RECEIVE LIMITED MEDICAL RESOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the most formidable bioethical challenges over the next decades relate to disabilities and aging: elders' exercise of autonomy and the just allocation of resources to older patients. Prolonging life is being questioned increasingly if it is accompanied by loss of dignity. When should older patients be permitted to refuse treatment and what is the physician's role in this

Edmund G. Howe

1988-01-01

344

THE CODISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND REFUSE IN THE PUROX SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This program was conducted to establish the technical feasibility of codisposal of filtered sludge cake from primary and secondary wastewater treatment with municipal refuse in the PUROX System; to determine the environmental effect of this process; and to estimate the economics ...

345

Medical confidentiality and the protection of Jehovah's Witnesses' autonomous refusal of blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr Ridley of the Watch Tower Society (WTS), the controlling religious organisation of Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs), mischaracterises the issue of freedom and confidentiality in JWs' refusal of blood by confusing inconsistent organisational policies with actual Biblical proscriptions. Besides exaggeration and distortion of my writings, Ridley failed to present substantive evidence to support his assertion that no pressure exists to conform

Osamu Muramoto

2000-01-01

346

Jehovah's Witnesses' refusal of blood: obedience to scripture and religious conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jehovah's Witnesses are students of the Bible. They refuse transfusions out of obedience to the scriptural directive to abstain and keep from blood. Dr Muramoto disagrees with the Witnesses' religious beliefs in this regard. Despite this basic disagreement over the meaning of Biblical texts, Muramoto flouts the religious basis for the Witnesses' position. His proposed policy change about accepting transfusions

D T Ridley

1999-01-01

347

Revegetation of Anthracite Refuse Banks with Municipal Sewage Effluent and Sludge: Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heat-dried municipal sludge was applied to a barren burned anthracite refuse bank in 1974. Sludge was applied at rates of 0, 40, 75, and 150 dry metric tons per hectare. Ten species of trees were planted and five species of grasses and legumes were seeded...

W. E. Sopper L. T. Kardos S. N. Kerr

1978-01-01

348

Why Do Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Refuse to Apply Topical Corticosteroids?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The number of patients with atopic dermatitis who refuse to use topical corticosteroids because of personal fears seems to be increasing. However, studies on this subject are scarce. Consequently, we have investigated this issue further. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire. Between September 1998 and January 1999, a questionnaire was distributed to patients who responded to an

Mototsugu Fukaya

2000-01-01

349

The Stability of Family Decisions to Consent or Refuse Organ Donation: Would You Do It Again?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Past organ donation research has studied attitudes toward donation, predictors of signing donor cards, and distinguishing characteristics of donors vs. nondonors. The current study is the first to examine predictors of family members's satisfaction with the decision to consent or refuse donation of a dying loved one's organs or tissue. Method: This study surveyed 225 family members who had

THOMAS E. BURROUGHS; BARRY A. HONG; DEAN F. KAPPEL; BARRY K. FREEDMAN

350

Reasons Given by High School Students for Refusing Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To determine reasons given by high school students for refusing to participate in a school-based noninvasive chlamydia and gonorrhea screening that was offered at no cost to students, using the health belief model as theoretical framework. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Public high schools in a southern urban United States…

Sanders, Ladatra S.; Nsuami, Malanda; Cropley, Lorelei D.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

2007-01-01

351

USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES IN SPATIAL INFORMATION MONITORING OF COAL REFUSE DISPOSAL PILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this paper is to monitor spatial information of coal refuse disposal piles due to long-term mining operation in Wangping Gully, Mentougou District of Beijing. The monitoring techniques in this paper refer to remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS), where remote sensing and GIS are highly integrated with a natural and mutually support to each other. Topography

Tang Shilu

352

Computerized slope-stability analysis of refuse piles and impoundments by the simplified Bishop method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 77.214-216 concerning coal refuse piles and impoundments call for the engineered design and construction of these structures. An integral part of most of these designs is a slope stability analysis that often involves long, tedious and complicated calculations. With the use of a computer, these slope stability analyses can be performed relatively easily

S. G. Sawyer; D. S. Mazzei; K. K. Wu

1978-01-01

353

Computerized Slope-Stability Analysis of Refuse Piles and Impoundments by the Simplified Bishop Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 77.214-216 concerning coal refuse piles and impoundments call for the engineered design and construction of these structures. An integral part of most of these designs is a slope stability analysis that often inv...

S. G. Sawyer D. S. Mazzei K. K. Wu

1978-01-01

354

Alcohol expectancies, drinking refusal self-efficacy and drinking behaviour in Asian and Australian students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alcohol expectancies (AE) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) in predicting alcohol consumption in Caucasians has been well studied. However, the role of AE and DRSE in Asian students is still not well understood. This study reported on this using Caucasian (n=98) and Asian (n=92) student samples. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to measure

Tian P. S. Oei; Claudia Lee Jardim

2007-01-01

355

ST. LOUIS DEMONSTRATION: REFUSE PROCESSING PLANT EQUIPMENT, FACILITIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of processing plant evaluations of the St. Louis-Union Electric Refuse Fuel Project, including equipment and facilities as well as assessment of environmental emissions at both the processing and power plants. Data on plant material flows and oper...

356

COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

357

TEST FIRING REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL IN AN INDUSTRIAL COAL-FIRED BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Research Program entitled, 'Test Firing Refuse Derived Fuel in an Industrial Coal-Fired Boiler' evaluates the performance of an industrial boiler when co-firing coal and RDF. An optimum boiler operating load and RDF feed rate was determined for the boiler tested. Boiler effic...

358

Technology evaluation for densified refuse-derived fuel specifications and acquisition. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report determines existing and feasible specifications for densified Refuse Derived Fuel (d-RDF) to be used on military installations. The d-RDF specifications are compared to specifications for coal and wood. Site visits to two RDF facilities were conducted. Recommendations on improvements to existing d-RDF specifications are made.

Tuck, J.; Savage, G.

1983-12-01

359

Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls?  

PubMed Central

Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

Ramos, Raul; Cerda-Cuellar, Marta; Ramirez, Francisco; Jover, Lluis; Ruiz, Xavier

2010-01-01

360

Influence of refuse sites on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella serovars in seagulls.  

PubMed

Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship. PMID:20208027

Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

2010-03-05

361

Refusing Care: Forced Treatment and the Use of Psychiatric Advance Directives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses recommendations regarding forced treatment proposed in Refusing Care: Forced Treatment and the Rights of the Mentally Ill (2002). Two of these recommendations are discussed. First, the work proposes that on a first, serious psychotic break individuals should be committable under lesser standards than ordinary civil commitment standards (likewise for involuntary medication). Each element of this recommendation is

Elyn R. Saks

2004-01-01

362

Analytical determination of the microbial utilization and transformation of humic acids extracted from municipal refuse.  

PubMed

Humic substances are usually the refractory part of natural organic matter, and in a landfill they can retain inorganic and organic micropollutants. This study has investigated analytically whether humic acids (HA) extracted by use of alkali from either fresh municipal refuse or from refuse disposed of in a landfill for up to 12 months can resist microbial degradation under aerobic conditions. When added as a supplementary nutrient source, up to 63.6% of HA was utilized and this percentage was enhanced to a mean value of 88.5% when different HA preparations were used as the sole source of carbon. In cultures of a soil microbial community containing the same preparations as sole sources of nitrogen, HA was usually completely utilized. The remaining HA re-isolated from some microbial cultures were highly depleted in carbon and, simultaneously, the nitrogen content was enhanced. The FTIR spectra were indicative of strong participation of aliphatic structural units in the refuse-related HA preparations. Because of the microbial activity, different carbonaceous substances were primarily removed from the HA structure, and an increase in nitrogenous molecular groups became apparent. The structural transformations brought about by soil microorganisms "in vitro" corresponded to those occurring naturally in HA obtained from refuse aged for 12 months in a landfill. PMID:11767895

Filip, Z; Berthelin, J

2001-11-01

363

Shoplifting, Impaired Driving, and Refusing the BreathalyzerOn Seeing One's Name in a Public Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a newspaper policy af printing the names of individuals who shoplift, drink and drive, and\\/ or refuse the breathalyzer was examined. Interrupted Time Series Analysis was used to analyze the number of offenders arrested pre- and postadoption of the policy. Analyses indicated that following the publication policy shoplifting incidents decreased; however, the policy had no effect on

Abraham S. Ross; Susan White

1987-01-01

364

Contingency ContactingCombining Positive Reinforcement and Escape Extinction Procedures to Treat Persistent Food Refusal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic food refusal has traditionally been treated with forced feeding and other physical prompting-based procedures when positive reinforcement procedures prove inadequate. Potential problems with such procedures, however, include exacerbation of feeding difficulties and health risks, as well as low parental approval and probability of implementation. Contingency contacting maximizes contact between oral acceptance and positive reinforcement, prevents escape functions of inappropriate

Theodore A. Hoch; Roberta L. Babbitt; David A. Ccoe; Daniel M. Krell; Lucianne Hackbert

1994-01-01

365

Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

1996-07-01

366

Perceptions of Refusals to Invitations: Exploring the Minds of Foreign Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptions of speech act realisations of native and non-native speakers abound in the cross-cultural and interlanguage pragmatics literature. Yet, what is lacking is an analysis of the cognitive processes involved in the production of speech acts. This study examines the cognitive processes and perceptions of learners of Spanish when refusing invitations from a person of equal and higher status. Twenty

J. César Félix-Brasdefer

2008-01-01

367

Metal contamination and infiltration into the soil at refuse dump sites in Awka, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Awka has been the site of increased human activities since it became a state capital in 1991. Because refuse dumps have hitherto been a disregarded environmental menace in Nigeria, the authors sought to find out how much of the current environmental metal pollutant load comes from refuse dumps. They investigated the metal contamination of the refuse dumps in Awka. The authors collected four soil samples (from the surface and from depths of 0.45 m, 0.90 m, and 1.35 m) from 5 dumpsites digested with nitric acid and perchloric acid, and they analyzed iron, sodium, arsenic, lead, magnesium, potassium, cobalt, zinc, nickel, copper, chromium, and cadmium by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Sites A and C showed the highest levels of arsenic (2300 mg/kg) and lead (2467 mg/kg), respectively. Site D had highest level of both iron (72,200 mg/kg) and sodium (3561 mg/kg), whereas Site E had the lowest level of lead (572 mg/kg). The metal levels exceed the limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This study suggests that the refuse dumps in Awka may increase the level of environmental heavy metals in Nigeria. PMID:17891887

Nduka, John Kanayochukwu Chiemezugo; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ezenweke, Linus Obi; Abiakam, Chioma Alex; Nwanguma, Constance Kelechi; Maduabuchi, Ugwuona John-Moses

368

The Right of Psychiatric Patients to Refuse Medication: Where Should Social Workers Stand?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses differences among competence, commitment, and mental illness; the right to privacy; and the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. Reviews professional motivations in relation to both sides of controversy over rights of psychiatric patients to refuse medication. Presents position for social work profession that stands for…

Bentley, Kia J.

1993-01-01

369

A REVIEW OF CATASTROPHIC FLOW FAILURES OF DEPOSITS OF MINE WASTE AND MUNICIPAL REFUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catastrophic flow failures occur in mine tailings dams and dumps of discards and other mine waste with alarming frequency. In recent years catastrophic flow failures have also occurred in dumps of municipal refuse and even in what were considered to be carefully controlled and well engineered landfills. Apart from the environmental devastation caused by these flows, they are also dangerous

G. E. BLIGHT; A. B. FOURIE

370

Media coverage of anthrax vaccination refusal by Australian Defence Force personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:During February 2003 a number of Australian sailors were returned home from their deployment to the Persian Gulf after refusing anthrax vaccination. This paper examines the media coverage of this episode as a case study in how controversies about vaccine safety escalate.

Deonna Ackermann; Simon Chapman; Julie Leask

2004-01-01

371

The costs of eating: a behavioral economic analysis of food refusal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral economic concepts were applied to the analysis and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders in a clinical setting. In Experiment 1, children who chronically refused food were presented with varying amounts of food on a spoon (empty, dipped, quarter, half, and level). Each child exhibited a different but orderly demand function of response (acceptance, expulsion, and mouth clean) by cost

MARYLOUISE E. KERWIN; WILLIAM H. AHEARN; PEGGY S. EICHER; DEANA M. BURD

1995-01-01

372

Bacterial Population Development and Chemical Characteristics of Refuse Decomposition in a Simulated Sanitary Landfill  

PubMed Central

Population development of key groups of bacteria involved in municipal refuse conversion to methane was measured from the time of initial incubation through the onset of methane production. Hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens, and acetate- and H2-plus-CO2-utilizing methanogens were enumerated by the most-probable-number technique with media containing oat spelt xylan, ball-milled cellulose, butyrate, acetate, and H2 plus CO2, respectively. Refuse decomposition was monitored in multiple replicate laboratory-scale sanitary landfills. A laboratory-scale landfill was dismantled weekly for microbial and chemical analysis. Leachate was neutralized and recycled to ensure methanogenesis. The methane concentration of the sampled containers increased to 64% by day 69, at which time the maximum methane production rate, 929 liters of CH4 per dry kg-year, was measured. Population increases of 2, 4, 5, 5, and 6 orders of magnitude were measured between fresh refuse and the methane production phase for the hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, butyrate-catabolizing acetogens, and acetate- and H2-CO2-utilizing methanogens, respectively. The cellulolytic bacteria and acetogens increased more slowly than the methanogens and only after the onset of methane production. The initial decrease in the pH of the refuse ecosystem from 7.5 to 5.7 was attributed to the accumulation of acidic end products of sugar fermentation, to the low acid-consuming activity of the acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria, and to levels of oxygen and nitrate in the fresh refuse sufficient for oxidation of only 8% of the sugars to carbon dioxide and water. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition was most rapid after establishment of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations and a reduction in the initial accumulation of carboxylic acids. A total of 72% of these carbohydrates were degraded in the container sampled after 111 days. Initially acetate utilization, but ultimately polymer hydrolysis, limited the rate of refuse conversion to methane. Microbial and chemical composition data were combined to formulate an updated description of refuse decomposition in four phases: an aerobic phase, an anaerobic acid phase, an accelerated methane production phase, and a decelerated methane production phase.

Barlaz, M. A.; Schaefer, D. M.; Ham, R. K.

1989-01-01

373

Bacterial population development and chemical characteristics of refuse decomposition in a simulated sanitary landfill.  

PubMed

Population development of key groups of bacteria involved in municipal refuse conversion to methane was measured from the time of initial incubation through the onset of methane production. Hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens, and acetate- and H(2)-plus-CO(2)-utilizing methanogens were enumerated by the most-probable-number technique with media containing oat spelt xylan, ball-milled cellulose, butyrate, acetate, and H(2) plus CO(2), respectively. Refuse decomposition was monitored in multiple replicate laboratory-scale sanitary landfills. A laboratory-scale landfill was dismantled weekly for microbial and chemical analysis. Leachate was neutralized and recycled to ensure methanogenesis. The methane concentration of the sampled containers increased to 64% by day 69, at which time the maximum methane production rate, 929 liters of CH(4) per dry kg-year, was measured. Population increases of 2, 4, 5, 5, and 6 orders of magnitude were measured between fresh refuse and the methane production phase for the hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, butyrate-catabolizing acetogens, and acetate- and H(2)-CO(2)-utilizing methanogens, respectively. The cellulolytic bacteria and acetogens increased more slowly than the methanogens and only after the onset of methane production. The initial decrease in the pH of the refuse ecosystem from 7.5 to 5.7 was attributed to the accumulation of acidic end products of sugar fermentation, to the low acid-consuming activity of the acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria, and to levels of oxygen and nitrate in the fresh refuse sufficient for oxidation of only 8% of the sugars to carbon dioxide and water. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition was most rapid after establishment of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations and a reduction in the initial accumulation of carboxylic acids. A total of 72% of these carbohydrates were degraded in the container sampled after 111 days. Initially acetate utilization, but ultimately polymer hydrolysis, limited the rate of refuse conversion to methane. Microbial and chemical composition data were combined to formulate an updated description of refuse decomposition in four phases: an aerobic phase, an anaerobic acid phase, an accelerated methane production phase, and a decelerated methane production phase. PMID:16347835

Barlaz, M A; Schaefer, D M; Ham, R K

1989-01-01

374

Editor's Note: Literacy Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our science and literacy issue is always one of the most popular issues of the year, and we're betting this jam-packed issue will be no exception. Why? There are many probable reasons. Many elementary teachers are more comfortable with teaching science literacy so they look for ways to use their strengths. No Child Left Behind legislation has put the spotlight on literacy in the elementary grades, sometimes pushing science (and social studies and PE and art) out of the busy day. Teaching science with literacy skills may be one way to convey important science skills while still teaching and reinforcing literacy.

Ohana, Chris

2008-11-01

375

Drug calculations part 2: alternative strategies to the formula.  

PubMed

Drug calculations are an essential skill for nurses. The clinical skill of performing a drug calculation has come under recent scrutiny, resulting in the development of essential skills clusters in which pre-registration nurses must be competent before qualifying (Nursing and Midwifery Council 2007). The focus on drug calculation skills places renewed emphasis on how these skills are taught in higher education institutions and how they are learned by students theoretically and in clinical practice. Part 1 of this article (Wright 2008) examined the frequently cited drug formula as a method for calculating drug dosages, demonstrated the complex mathematical knowledge and skills required to use this method and the potential problems that reliance on this method could pose. Part 2 outlines other methods and strategies that can be used to calculate drug dosages, while keeping the calculation close to the clinical context. PMID:18763658

Wright, Kerri

376

Energy efficacy used to score organic refuse pretreatment processes for hydrogen anaerobic production.  

PubMed

The production of hydrogen through Anaerobic Digestion (AD) has been investigated to verify the efficacy of several pretreatment processes. Three types of waste with different carbon structures have been tested to obtain an extensive representation of the behavior of the materials present in Organic Waste (OW). The following types of waste were selected: Sweet Product Residue (SPR), i.e., confectionary residue removed from the market after the expiration date, Organic Waste Market (OWM) refuse from a local fruit and vegetable market, and Coffee Seed Skin (CSS) waste from a coffee production plant. Several pretreatment processes have been applied, including physical, chemical, thermal, and ultrasonic processes and a combination of these processes. Two methods have been used for the SPR to remove the packaging, manual (SPR) and mechanical (SPRex). A pilot plant that is able to extrude the refuse to 200atm was utilized. Two parameters have been used to score the different pretreatment processes: efficiency (?), which takes into account the amount of energy produced in the form of hydrogen compared with the available energy embedded in the refuse, and efficacy (?), which compares the efficiency obtained using the pretreated refuse with that obtained using the untreated refuse. The best result obtained for the SPR was the basic pretreatment, with ?=6.4, whereas the thermal basic pretreatment gave the highest value, ?=17.0 for SPRex. The best result for the OWM was obtained through a combination of basic/thermal pretreatments with ?=9.9; lastly, the CSS residue with ultrasonic pretreatment produced the highest quantity of hydrogen, ?=5.2. PMID:23891078

Ruggeri, Bernardo; Luongo Malave, Andrea C; Bernardi, Milena; Fino, Debora

2013-07-23

377

Study Skills. Test Taking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module contains materials designed to help students develop study and test-taking skills. Presented first are 10 strategies for preparing for tests. Discussed next are test-taking strategies and the importance of self-talk in successful test…

Atkinson, Rhonda; And Others

378

Math Skills Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A math review exam, written and administered in conjunction with the Quantitative Assessment Program at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, is used at the beginning of the 1st food engineering course to evaluate math skills needed for successful completion of the course. Students who do not score well on the math exam are targeted for individual…

Hartel, R. W.; Adem, M.

2004-01-01

379

Game Skill Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before discussing the development of skills for playing elementary school physical education games, this document lists basic assumptions about children, movement education, games, and elementary school physical education. Four basic concepts, which are common to all team games, are identified: (1) use of personal and moving space and finding…

Kisabeth, Kathryn L.

380

Adult Survival Skills Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

Walsko, Gregory M.

381

Building Science Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. The National Science Education Standards call for science teachers "to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources…

DeFina, Anthony V.

2006-01-01

382

Skill in Expert Dogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be…

Helton, William S.

2007-01-01

383

Assessing Teacher Technology Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Advocates the assessment of teachers' technology skills by school media and technology specialists who are involved in staff training. Discusses what should be assessed, including level of curricular integration and attitudes; assessment objectives; informal assessments; formal assessments; assessment tools; and administrators as role models for…

Anderson, Mary Alice

2000-01-01

384

Teaching Social Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Strategies typically used for teaching academic skills can also be used to teach disabled children to become more socially competent. They include modeling, strategic placement, correspondence training, rehearsal and practice, positive reinforcement/shaping, prompting and coaching, positive practice, and multimethod training packages. (VW)|

Carter, Jane; Sugai, George

1988-01-01

385

Skill in Expert Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between

William S. Helton

2007-01-01

386

Taxonomy of Learning Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Questions concerning individual differences in learning ability may be more precisely addressed in light of an agreed-upon taxonomy of learning skills. In this paper we review a variety of attempts to propose learning taxonomies and point out some of thei...

P. C. Kyllonen

1988-01-01

387

The Skills Paradox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite a vocal commitment to fairness, the British Government has, according to these authors, wholeheartedly failed to live up to this pledge when it comes to skills and adult training. A report on adult learning released in December by Demos found a system rife with inequality and contradictions. As the jobs market becomes increasingly…

Burks, Beatrice Karol; Reeves, Richard

2009-01-01

388

Survival Skills for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is addressed to providing high school students with daily living skills they will need in modern urban settings. Individual lesson plans for teachers are accompanied by simply worded instructional materials. Students are presented with problem solving exercises in such areas as: (1) self awareness; (2) communication; (3) money,…

Blumengarten, Jerry

389

The Skills Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The government, through several White and Green Papers, has promoted the 'Skills Revolution'. This requires central direction and coordination of a wide range of policies, practices and partnerships. But there are several difficulties: the impossibility of micromanaging the complex social and economic system; the dominance of the rather limited…

Pring, Richard

2004-01-01

390

Teaching Thinking Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

A course was developed to teach cognitive skills that apply to learning and intellectual performance independently of subject matter, stressing observation and classification, reasoning, critical use of language, problem solving, inventiveness, and decision making. With pretests and posttests, it was taught experimentally to over 400 Venezuelan seventh graders, whose classes were matched to those of a control group. Although evaluation

Richard J. Herrnstein; Raymond S. Nickerson; Margarita de Sanchez; John A. Swets

1986-01-01

391

Volunteer Skills Data System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist persons with developmental disabilities in South Dakota to become more independent, productive, and integrated into the community, the South Dakota Advocacy Project, Inc. implemented the Volunteer Skills Data System (VSDS). As South Dakota is primarily rural, accessibility to services and programs is a particular concern. Community…

Frame, Ron

392

Math Skills Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math skills review was written for first year college chemistry students who have weak math backgrounds, but is useful for all science students in high school and college. Topics covered include algebraic manipulation, dimensional analysis, significant figures, manipulation of exponents, scientific notation, logarithms, the quadratic equation and standard deviation.

Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy

1997-11-03

393

Practicing skills video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pair of videos (8 min and 10 min) and accompanying text illustrate various strategies for providing mental skills practice that is brief, interesting, useful, and effective. They include examples of teachers working with their students in group settings as well as narrative elaboration by Paul Goldenburg. Two related articles (Practice and Fact of the day) are cataloged separately.

Goldenberg, Paul

2009-02-23

394

The Skills Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The government, through several White and Green Papers, has promoted the 'Skills Revolution'. This requires central direction and coordination of a wide range of policies, practices and partnerships. But there are several difficulties: the impossibility of micromanaging the complex social and economic system; the dominance of the rather limited…

Pring, Richard

2004-01-01

395

Developing Observation Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We typically know children are learning when they are able to make sense of an object's materials or a situation that was previously a bit mysterious and communicate what they have figured out. But what about observing? One of the process skills listed in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), observation is something students have…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-01-01

396

Evidence for learned skill during cocaine self-administration in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  It has been proposed that cocaine abuse results in skilled or “automatic” drug-taking behaviors. Brain regions important for\\u000a skill learning are implicated in cocaine self-administration. However, the development of skill during self-administration\\u000a has not been investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The present experiment investigated the development of skilled self-administration over extended drug use by employing a novel\\u000a operant vertical head movement under discriminative stimulus

David H. Root; David J. Barker; Sisi Ma; Kevin R. Coffey; Anthony T. Fabbricatore; Mark O. West

397

The leadership skills strataplex: Leadership skill requirements across organizational levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leadership scholars have called for additional research on leadership skill requirements and how those requirements vary by organizational level. In this study, leadership skill requirements are conceptualized as being layered (strata) and segmented (plex), and are thus described using a strataplex. Based on previous conceptualizations, this study proposes a model made up of four categories of leadership skill requirements: Cognitive

Troy V. Mumford; Michael A. Campion; Frederick P. Morgeson

2007-01-01

398

Peace Corps: Life Skills Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Life Skills program is a comprehensive behavior change approach that concentrates on the development of the skills needed for life such as com- munication, decision-making, thinking, managing emotions, assertiveness, self-esteem building, resisting pe...

2001-01-01

399

Skill Maintenance: Specific Sample Methodologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a number of specific sample methodologies that are proposed for the investigation of the long term retention of skills. The methodologies include studies of (a) target detection; (b) mental calculation skills; (c) calculational word ...

A. F. Healy D. W. Fendrich L. Meiskey R. J. Crutcher W. Little

1988-01-01

400

A Long Term Field Emissions Study of Natural Gas Fueled Refuse Haulers in New York City  

SciTech Connect

New York City Department of Sanitation has operated natural gas fueled refuse haulers in a pilot study: a major goal of this study was to compare the emissions from these natural gas vehicles with their diesel counterparts. The vehicles were tandem axle trucks with GVW (gross vehicle weight) rating of 69,897 pounds. The primary use of these was for street collection and transporting the refuse to a landfill. West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories have been engaged in monitoring the tailpipe emissions from these trucks for seven-years. In the later years of testing the hydrocarbons were speciated for non-methane and methane components. Six of these vehicles employed the older technology (mechanical mixer) Cummins L-10 lean burn natural gas engines. Five trucks were equipped with electronically controlled Detroit Diesel Series 50 lean burn engines, while another five were powered by Caterpillar stoichiometric burn 3306 natural gas engines, The Ca terpillar engines employed an exhaust oxygen sensor feedback and three way catalysts. Since the refuse haulers had automatic Allison transmissions, and since they were employed in stop-and-go city service, initial emissions measurements were made using the Central Business Cycle (SAE Jl376) for buses at 42,000 pound test weight. Some additional measurements were made using an ad hoc cycle that has been designed to be more representative of the real refuse hauler use that included several compaction cycles. The Cummins powered natural gas vehicles showed oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide emission variations typically associated with variable fuel mixer performance. In the first Year of testing, the stoichiometric Caterpillar engines yielded low emission levels, but in later years two of these refuse haulers had high carbon monoxide attributed to failure of the feedback system. For example, carbon monoxide on these two vehicles rose from 1.4 g/mile and 10 g/mile in 1995 to 144.9 g/mile and 57.8 g/mile in 1996. These stoichiometric engines were also less fuel efficient than their lean burn counterparts. The Detroit Diesel Series 50 powered refuse haulers produced high levels of oxides of nitrogen. However, it was found that changing the shifting patterns of the transmission lowered the oxides of nitrogen. All three engine types showed the potential for low emissions operation and the particulate matter reduction advantage offered by natural gas was evident from the results.

Nigel N. Clark; Byron l. Rapp; Mridul Gautam; Wenguang Wang; Donald W. Lyons

1998-10-19

401

Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same  

DOEpatents

A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

1990-07-10

402

Skill-Biased Technology Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ,This paper investigates the skill-bias of technologicalchange in developing countries using a global sample of manufacturingindustries. We report a striking increase in demand for skilled workers in the 1980s in middle income countries (GDP\\/capita between $2000 and $10,000). This increase is mostly due to skill-upgrading within industries rather than a reallocation of employment from low to high-skill industries and

Eli Berman; Stephen Machin

403

Learning Oral Presentation Skills  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oral presentation skills are central to physician-physician communication; however, little is known about how these skills are learned. Rhetoric is a social science which studies communication in terms of context and explores the action of language on knowledge, attitudes, and values. It has not previously been applied to medical discourse. We used rhetorical principles to qualitatively study how students learn oral presentation skills and what professional values are communicated in this process. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Inpatient general medicine service in a university-affiliated public hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twelve third-year medical students during their internal medicine clerkship and 14 teachers. MEASUREMENTS One-hundred sixty hours of ethnographic observation. including 73 oral presentations on rounds. Discoursed-based interviews of 8 students and 10 teachers. Data were qualitatively analyzed to uncover recurrent patterns of communication. MAIN RESULTS Students and teachers had different perceptions of the purpose of oral presentation, and this was reflected in performance. Students described and conducted the presentation as a rule-based, data-storage activity governed by “order” and “structure.” Teachers approached the presentation as a flexible means of “communication” and a method for “constructing” the details of a case into a diagnostic or therapeutic plan. Although most teachers viewed oral presentations rhetorically (sensitive to context), most feedback that students received was implicit and acontextual, with little guidance provided for determining relevant content. This led to dysfunctional generalizations by students, sometimes resulting in worse communication skills (e.g., comment “be brief” resulted in reading faster rather than editing) and unintended value acquisition (e.g., request for less social history interpreted as social history never relevant). CONCLUSIONS Students learn oral presentation by trial and error rather than through teaching of an explicit rhetorical model. This may delay development of effective communication skills and result in acquisition of unintended professional values. Teaching and learning of oral presentation skills may be improved by emphasizing that context determines content and by making explicit the tacit rules of presentation.

Haber, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei A

2001-01-01

404

Skill Importance in Women's Volleyball  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate two methods to quantify skill importance for teams in general, and women's volleyball in particular. A division I women's volleyball team rated each skill (serve, pass, set, etc.) and recorded rally outcomes during all home games in a competitive season. The skills were only rated when the ball was on the home

Michelle A. Miskin; Gilbert W. Fellingham; Lindsay W. Florence

2010-01-01

405

Skill Complementarities and Migration Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers an explanation of the high mobility of skilled workers based on human capital complementarities. If the skill premium is increasing in the average level of human capital of a location, and there exist fixed migration costs, in equilibrium the more skilled the workers are, the stronger the economic incentives to migrate towards the richest regions will be.

Mariassunta Giannetti

2001-01-01

406

National Assessment's Consumer Skills Assessments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) encountered problems when developing a comprehensive assessment of consumer skills of 17-year-olds in 1978. When NAEP conducted a nationwide assessment of basic life skills of 17-year-olds in 1977, there was considerable interest in the consumer skills portion. Therefore, it was decided to…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

407

Puzzle Play Improves Math Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief press release from the National Science Foundation summarizes the results of a University of Chicago study linking puzzle play with math skills. The study found that puzzle play proved to be a significant predictor of spatial skills. The study also found gender differences in child/parent interactions and in acquired skills.

2012-02-16

408

Brain Mechanisms of Cognitive Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the anatomy and circuitry of skills that, like reading, calculating, recognizing, or remembering, are common abilities of humans. While the anatomical areas active are unique to each skill there are features common to all tasks. For example, all skills produce activation of a small number of widely separated neural areas that appear necessary to perform the task.

Michael I. Posner; Gregory J. DiGirolamo; Diego Fernandez-Duque

1997-01-01

409

Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

1982-01-01

410

Developing Managerial Skills in Palestine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper assesses the contribution of management training and development programmes (MTPs) to the development of managerial skills in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Different sets of variables were used to explore the managers' skills development by dividing the managerial skills into three main categories: self, people, and task-related…

Al-Madhoun, Mohammed; Analoui, Farhad

2002-01-01

411

Drug Resistance and Substance Use Among Male and Female Adolescents in Alternative Secondary Schools in Guanajuato, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objective: Research is limited on the strategies that Mexican adolescents use to resist use of alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs. Cultural norms and gender socialization patterns concerning the acceptability of use of various substances by women and men influence Mexican youths in their responses to offers of substances. This study explored the drug-resistance strategies used by youth in the central Mexican state of Guanajuato, how their use predicted patterns of substance use, and how these associations differed by gender. Method: The analysis used cross-sectional survey data from 702 (60% male) students enrolled in eight alternative secondary education school sites in 2007. Participants reported the drug-resistance behaviors they used to deal with offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Past-12-month use of the four drug-resistance strategies employed most often by U.S. youth—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (R.E.A.L.)—and any other strategies were measured. Composite measures of lifetime and recent use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were predicted in multivariate ordinary least squares regression analyses. Models were tested with and without controls for the frequency that respondents were offered substances and introduced gender interaction effects. Results: Controlling for substance use offers, more frequent use of a wide repertoire of R.E.A.L. strategies predicted less consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, and using non-R.E.A.L. strategies predicted less marijuana consumption. All of these relationships were either stronger for males than for females or significant for males only. Conclusions: Gender differences exist in the impact of R.E.A.L. strategies on substance use among youth in Mexico. Despite a narrowing gender gap in substance use in Mexico, large exposure to and susceptibility of substance use remains. Developing effective prevention programs in Mexico based on teaching appropriate drug-resistance strategies and enhancing communication skills could aid in reducing substance use among Mexican adolescents.

Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime; Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha L.

2012-01-01

412

Decadal predictability and forecast skill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "potential predictability" of the climate system is the upper limit of available forecast skill and can be characterized by the ratio p of the predictable variance to the total variance. While the potential predictability of the actual climate system is unknown its analog q may be obtained for a model of the climate system. The usual correlation skill score r and the mean square skill score M are functions of p in the case of actual forecasts and potential correlation ? and potential mean square skill score {M} are the same functions of q in the idealized model context. In the large ensemble limit the connection between model-based potential predictability and skill scores is particularly straightforward with q=?2={M}. Decadal predictions of annual mean temperature produced with the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis coupled climate model are analyzed for information on decadal climate predictability and actual forecast skill. Initialized forecast results are compared with the results of uninitialized climate simulations. Model-based values of potential predictability q and potential correlation skill ? are obtained and ? is compared with the actual forecast correlation skill r. The skill of externally forced and internally generated components of the variability are separately estimated. As expected, ? > r and both decline with forecast range ?, at least for the first five years. The decline of skill is associated mainly with the decline of the skill of the internally generated component. The potential and actual skill of a forecast of time-averaged temperature depends on the averaging period. The skill of uninitialized simulations is low for short averaging times and increases as averaging time increases. By contrast, skill is high at short averaging times for forecasts initialized from observations and declines as averaging times increase to about three years, then increases somewhat at longer averaging times. The skills of the initialized forecasts and uninitialized simulations begin to converge for longer averaging times. The potential correlation skill ? of the externally forced component of temperature is largest at tropical latitudes and the skill of the internally generated component is largest over the North Atlantic, parts of the Southern Ocean and to some extent the North Pacific. Potential skill over extratropical land is somewhat weaker than over oceans. The distribution of actual correlation skill r is broadly similar to that of potential skill for the externally forced component but less so for the internally generated component. Differences in potential and actual skill suggest where improvements in the forecast system might be found.

Boer, G. J.; Kharin, V. V.; Merryfield, W. J.

2013-03-01

413

Decadal predictability and forecast skill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "potential predictability" of the climate system is the upper limit of available forecast skill and can be characterized by the ratio p of the predictable variance to the total variance. While the potential predictability of the actual climate system is unknown its analog q may be obtained for a model of the climate system. The usual correlation skill score r and the mean square skill score M are functions of p in the case of actual forecasts and potential correlation ? and potential mean square skill score are the same functions of q in the idealized model context. In the large ensemble limit the connection between model-based potential predictability and skill scores is particularly straightforward with Decadal predictions of annual mean temperature produced with the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis coupled climate model are analyzed for information on decadal climate predictability and actual forecast skill. Initialized forecast results are compared with the results of uninitialized climate simulations. Model-based values of potential predictability q and potential correlation skill ? are obtained and ? is compared with the actual forecast correlation skill r. The skill of externally forced and internally generated components of the variability are separately estimated. As expected, ? > r and both decline with forecast range ?, at least for the first five years. The decline of skill is associated mainly with the decline of the skill of the internally generated component. The potential and actual skill of a forecast of time-averaged temperature depends on the averaging period. The skill of uninitialized simulations is low for short averaging times and increases as averaging time increases. By contrast, skill is high at short averaging times for forecasts initialized from observations and declines as averaging times increase to about three years, then increases somewhat at longer averaging times. The skills of the initialized forecasts and uninitialized simulations begin to converge for longer averaging times. The potential correlation skill ? of the externally forced component of temperature is largest at tropical latitudes and the skill of the internally generated component is largest over the North Atlantic, parts of the Southern Ocean and to some extent the North Pacific. Potential skill over extratropical land is somewhat weaker than over oceans. The distribution of actual correlation skill r is broadly similar to that of potential skill for the externally forced component but less so for the internally generated component. Differences in potential and actual skill suggest where improvements in the forecast system might be found.

Boer, G. J.; Kharin, V. V.; Merryfield, W. J.

2013-10-01

414

[Refusal of food and fluids of a psychiatric patient in order to hasten death: obstacles for patient, family and care-team].  

PubMed

In this case-report we present a patient with a psychiatric history of a chronic depressive disorder. After a period of several years of ambivalence, he decided to refuse nutrition and hydration because he--in the words of the Royal Dutch Medical Association--was "suffering from life". There was no request for euthanasia or physician assisted suicide. His first attempt, that lasted six weeks, did not result in his death. A second attempt, four months later, ended successfully. We describe the pitfalls that the patient, his family and the professional caregivers faced in both trajectories. The premorbid psychiatric disorder with polypharmacy and several psychotropic drugs as a result, the enormous complaints of thirst, the role of his wife and the dilemmas faced by the professionals made this case very complex. These issues make such cases very challenging for professional teams that have to provide good palliative care. PMID:22642050

Koopmans, R T C M; Dekkers, W J M

2012-04-01

415

National Photonics Skill Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document marks an important milestone in the development and maintenance of high-quality associate degree programs in photonics in U.S. community and technical colleges. The need for photonics education is critical. The problem cannot be remedied through on-the-job training. Our public educational institutions, particularly two-year colleges, must get involved. But most cannot do so without guidelines for determining what knowledge and skills photonics graduates will need in the coming years.

2008-11-17

416

To treat or not to treat: the legal, ethical and therapeutic implications of treatment refusal.  

PubMed Central

Health professionals faced with refusal of life-saving treatment may wish to override a person's wishes, especially if that person suffers from a mental disorder. Mental illness does not automatically mean a patient is incapable of making decisions of this nature. It is not always clear whether an individual is legally competent to decide whether to undergo treatment or not. This article discusses a clinical example and analyses some of the moral implications.

Wear, A N; Brahams, D

1991-01-01

417

Review of the treatment literature for encopresis, functional constipation, and stool-toileting refusal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the literature on randomized, controlled, published studies involving medical, behavioral, psychological,\\u000a and biofeedback treatments for encopresis\\/functional constipation and stool-toileting refusal in preschool-age and school-age\\u000a children. Nine such studies were located in the literature involving school-age children. No randomized, controlled treatment\\u000a studies involving preschool-age children have been published. This review revealed no evidence to support the routine use

Risa C. Brooks; Rachel M. Copen; Daniel J. Cox; James Morris; Stephen Borowitz; James Sutphen

2000-01-01

418

Model Studies of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin Formation during Municipal Refuse Incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins are known to be formed in incinerators that burn municipal refuse. These compounds were synthesized by surface-catalyzed reactions on fly ash particulates taken from incinerators. Dioxins were produced catalytically from chlorinated phenol precursors, from non-chlorinated compounds that were chemically dissimilar to dioxins, and from reaction of phenol with inorganic chlorides. The relative amounts of dioxins formed from

F. W. Karasek; L. C. Dickson

1987-01-01

419

Model studies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin formation during municipal refuse incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins are known to be formed in incinerators that burn municipal refuse. These compounds were synthesized by surface-catalyzed reactions on fly ash particulates taken from incinerators. Dioxins were produced catalytically from chlorinated phenol precursors, from non-chlorinated compounds that were chemically dissimilar to dioxins, and from reaction of phenol with inorganic chlorides. The relative amounts of dioxins formed from

F. W. Karasek; L. C. Dickson

1987-01-01

420

Wildlife investigations at a coal refuse reclamation site in Southern Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife studies of a reclaimed coal refuse pile were conducted during the summer months of 1977 and 1978. During the period of May--September 1977 and May--July 1978 live-trap censuses were made. Small mammal species observed in 1977 included the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), house mouse (Mus musculas) and meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus). In 1978 the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) was

E. D. Pentecost; R. C. Stupka

1978-01-01

421

Preparation and sorption properties of porous materials from refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous materials consisting of activated carbon and amorphous CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 (CAS) compound were prepared from refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF), (a mixture of old paper and plastic) by carbonizing and\\/or activating treatments. Samples formed by chemical activation using K2CO3 showed a high specific surface area (SBET) of 1330m2\\/g but a lower ash content due to being washed after activation. By

Z. Kadirova; Y. Kameshima; A. Nakajima; K. Okada

2006-01-01

422

Treatment and refusal rights in mental health: therapeutic justice and clinical accommodation.  

PubMed

The impact of recognition by courts and legislatures in the 1970s and early 1980s of patients' rights to receive or to refuse mental health treatment is evaluated. The implementation of these rights in practice does not appear to have exerted an unduly disruptive or destructive effect on mental health services or their clienteles. At the same time, their recognition has not led to the salutary therapeutic jurisprudence envisioned by their proponents. PMID:8037231

Kapp, M B

1994-04-01

423

Solid food refusal as the presenting sign of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a breastfed infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary vitamin B12 (vitB12) deficiency, although common in the elderly, is rare in childhood. We report on an exclusively breastfed 8-month-old infant,\\u000a presenting with persistent refusal of solid foods. Three months later, developmental regression and failure to thrive led\\u000a to the diagnosis of vitB12 deficiency, as a consequence of a subclinical pernicious anaemia with vitB12 deficiency in the mother. Treating

Els Ide; Stephanie Van Biervliet; Joke Thijs; Saskia Vande Velde; Ruth De Bruyne; Myriam Van Winckel

424

Predicting Verbal Coercion Following Sexual Refusal During a Hookup: Diverging Gender Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This online study explored gender differences in affective reactions to sexual refusal during hookups and whether state or\\u000a trait measures were the best predictors of verbal coercion. The Midwestern U.S. undergraduate sample included 220 men and\\u000a 50 women previously in situations where they wanted more sexual contact than their heterosexual partner desired. Women reported\\u000a stronger negative responses on several affect

Margaret O’Dougherty Wright; Dana L. Norton; Jill Anne Matusek

2010-01-01

425

Reasons given by high school students for refusing sexually transmitted disease screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine reasons given by high school students for refusing to participate in a school-based noninvasive chlamydia and gonorrhea screening that was offered at no cost to students, using the health belief model as theoretical framework.Design Cross-sectional survey.Setting Public high schools in a southern urban United States school district.Methods Every year since the school year 1995–1996, students in the

Ladatra S Sanders; Malanda Nsuami; Lorelei D Cropley; Stephanie N Taylor

2007-01-01

426

Bacterial population development and chemical characteristics of refuse decomposition in a simulated sanitary landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population development of key groups of bacteria involved in municipal refuse conversion to methane was measured from the time of initial incubation through the onset of methane production. Hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens, and acetate-and Hâ-plus-COâ-utilizing methanogens were enumerated by the most-probable-number technique with media containing oat spelt xylan, ball-milled cellulose, butyrate, acetate, and Hâ plus COâ, respectively. The

M. A. Barlaz; D. M. Schaefer; R. K. Ham

1989-01-01

427

A Behavior-Based Approach to Food Refusal in Children with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four children (ages 4-5 years) with autism or pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) participated in a four week, single-case design intervention study. Each child had a behavior-based feeding problem that included food refusal and selectivity. Individual interventions were carried out in the classroom during lunchtime over four weeks. Small positive changes were observed in each child's feeding behavior without any negative

B Ogata; C Trahms; B Lucas; I Schwartz

1999-01-01

428

Personal Skills. Facilitator's Skill Packets 1-7. Social Skills Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the following seven facilitators' skill packets on personal skills: (1) personal hygiene; (2) personal appearance; (3) locker hygiene; (4) dorm cleanliness; (5) punctuality and attendance; (6) responding to supervision; and (7) teamwork. Each packet contains the following sections: definition of personal skills; objective;…

Model Classrooms, Bellevue, WA.

429

46 CFR 502.210 - Refusal to comply with orders to answer or produce documents; sanctions; enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Depositions, Written Interrogatories, and Discovery § 502.210 Refusal to comply with...written interrogatories, or other discovery matters shall be taken within twenty...seek enforcement of such supoenas and discovery orders. (c) Persons and...

2011-10-01

430

45 CFR 1182.11 - Procedures for appealing a refusal to amend or correct an Institute record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1182.11 Procedures for appealing a refusal to...

2012-10-01

431

42 CFR 61.16 - Termination of or refusal to continue award on grounds relating to moral character or loyalty...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...16 Section 61.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.16 Termination of or refusal to continue award on grounds...

2009-10-01

432

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?...

2013-04-01

433

Nitrogen removal through different pathways in an aged refuse bioreactor treating mature landfill leachate.  

PubMed

In this study, an aged refuse bioreactor was constructed to remove nitrogen in a mature landfill leachate. The nitrogen removal efficiency and the microbial community composition in the bioreactor were investigated. The results showed that the aged refuse bioreactor removed more than 90 % of total nitrogen in the leachate under the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.74 g/kg (vs) day, and the total nitrogen removal rate decreased to 62.2 % when NLR increased up to 2.03 g/kg (vs) day. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the average cell number of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor was 1.58?×?10(8) cells/g, which accounted for 0.41 % of total bacteria. The number of anammox bacteria in the reactor was 1.09?×?10(8) cells/g, which accounted for 0.27 % of total bacteria. Isotopic (15)N tracing experiments showed that nearly 10 % of nitrogen was removed by anammox. High-throughout 454 pyrosequencing revealed that the predominant bacteria in the bioreactor were Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes, including various nitrifiers and denitrifiers with diverse heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolic pathways, supporting that nitrogen was removed through different pathways in this aged refuse bioreactor. PMID:23229572

Xie, Bing; Lv, Zhuo; Hu, Chong; Yang, Xuezhi; Li, Xiangzhen

2012-12-11

434

Occupational exposure to airborne dust, respirable quartz and metals arising from refuse handling, burning and landfilling  

SciTech Connect

Industrial hygiene investigations were conducted in 1983 at a refuse derived fuel (RDF) burning plant, a refuse transfer station and three municipal landfill sites. The field surveys were conducted during the warmer and drier seasons of the year. The investigations included air sampling for total dust, respirable quartz and airborne metals. Bulk samples of soil cover, precipitator/boiler ash and transfer station baghouse fines were analyzed for quartz, elements, asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content. Asbestos and PCBs were not detected in any of the bulk samples taken. Quartz content of the bulk samples varied from 8% to 31%. Except for the boiler grate inspector and the precipitator cleaner at the RDF burning plant, exposure to airborne metals was not excessive at the sites tested. One personal sample for total dust exceeded 10 mg/m/sup 3/ out of a total of eighteen personal and area samples. Significant exposure to respirable quartz was found at all the sites (up to 0.20 mg/m/sup 3/). Respirable quartz exposures in excess of the NIOSH criteria concentration of 0.05 mg/m/sup 3/ were found in three out of seven personal samples at the RDF burning plant, two out of three personal samples at the refuse transfer station and six out of nine personal samples taken at the three landfill sites.

Mozzon, D.; Brown, D.A.; Smith, J.W.

1987-02-01

435

Antidepressant drugs: side effects and compliance.  

PubMed

Despite controversy about the significance of compliance, the difficulty of studying the issue, and the poor quality of research in this area, there is a consensus from the literature and patient self-reports that side effects reduce compliance. About a fifth of depressed patients refuse drugs, and half of those in treatment drop out because of specific side effects and/or general attitudes toward treatment. Strategies to decrease side effects and improve compliance include plasma monitoring, once-a-day regimens, educational techniques, and basing the choice of tricyclic compounds or second generation drugs on individual patient needs. PMID:7174629

Blackwell, B

1982-11-01

436

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technician Skill Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skill standards are quality standards applied to people. They are specific statements of desired skill and knowledge presented in observable and measurable form. The statement contains a condition that defines under what circumstances it will be observed and measured. The desired behavior is defined and the standard criteria are stated in terms of "how good is good enough?" Skill standards specify the expected behavior, the condition and the standard for performance for technicians working in highly automated environments such as 300mm semiconductor fabs.The manufacturing environment has evolved from one that was populated with self-contained tools utilizing robotics technology to one that is composed of large numbers of these tools interconnected by automated material handling systems (AMHS) and driven by a centralized manufacturing execution system (MES) in such a way as to maximize factory throughput and output.The skills required to work in such an environment consist of most of the skills required by the previous environment (i.e., 200mm fabs) plus some emerging skills. These emerging skills are primarily skills and knowledge related to the new, enterprise automation systems, their maintenance, and the ability to utilize the vast amount of information they provide.Importantly, these skills are transferable to a great extent to a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing and automotive manufacturing. In the course of this project, research into transportation industries (railroads) and chemical processing (refineries) showed a high degree of commonality of the skills required.

2011-01-13

437

Relations of Social Skills, Personal Competence, and Adolescent Alcohol UseA Developmental Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from school-based drug prevention interventions indicate that social skills and personal competence are an effective barrier against adolescent alcohol use. Efficacious and competent youth are hypothesized to possess skills to reduce offers for alcohol and invoke alternative strategies that offset peer pressure. To understand these developmental relations, a longitudinal model that specified effects of early alcohol use on later

Lawrence M. Scheier; Gilbert J. Botvin

1998-01-01

438

Transcultural knowledge and skills transfer: issues arising from evaluation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in St Petersburg, Russia that ran between 1995 and 2004.

Anita J. Green; David G. Holloway

2007-01-01

439

Drug Resistance Strategies and Substance Use among Adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined drug resistance strategies and substance use among adolescents from Monterrey, Mexico. The focus was strategies\\u000a that U.S. adolescents use most often to resist using substances, including refuse (saying no), explain (declining with an\\u000a explanation), avoid (staying away from situations where drugs are offered), and leave (exiting situations where drugs are\\u000a offered). Using self-administered questionnaire data from a

Stephen Kulis; Flavio Francisco Marsiglia; Jason Castillo; David Becerra; Tanya Nieri

2008-01-01

440

Skilled migration and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The economic,e¤ects of the migration,of skilled workers,from,developing,countries,are highly con- troversial in the theoretical,literature. Traditional models,on the brain drain phenomenon,stress the negative impact on growth, while new models introduce the possibility of a brain gain for labor ex- porting,economies,through,indirect channels,(i.e. increased,incentives for those individuals,left behind to accumulate human capital), or direct channels (such as remittances, return migration or FDI and

Jose L. Groizard; Joan Llull

441

The skill transferability of high-skilled US immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the 2000 US Census data, we explored the effect of international transferability of skills on the earnings of high-skilled US immigrants. We confirmed that education and labour market experience received by immigrants from Japan and English-speaking developed countries before migrating have the greatest transferability; immigrants from non-English-speaking and Less Developed Countries (LDCs) make a greater investment in US-specific skills

M. Ryan Haley; Sarinda Taengnoi

2011-01-01

442

Parental Delay or Refusal of Vaccine Doses, Childhood Vaccination Coverage at 24 Months of Age, and the Health Belief Model  

PubMed Central

Objective We evaluated the association between parents' beliefs about vaccines, their decision to delay or refuse vaccines for their children, and vaccination coverage of children at aged 24 months. Methods We used data from 11,206 parents of children aged 24–35 months at the time of the 2009 National Immunization Survey interview and determined their vaccination status at aged 24 months. Data included parents' reports of delay and/or refusal of vaccine doses, psychosocial factors suggested by the Health Belief Model, and provider-reported up-to-date vaccination status. Results In 2009, approximately 60.2% of parents with children aged 24–35 months neither delayed nor refused vaccines, 25.8% only delayed, 8.2% only refused, and 5.8% both delayed and refused vaccines. Compared with parents who neither delayed nor refused vaccines, parents who delayed and refused vaccines were significantly less likely to believe that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children (70.1% vs. 96.2%), that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated (71.0% vs. 90.0%), and that vaccines are safe (50.4% vs. 84.9%). Children of parents who delayed and refused also had significantly lower vaccination coverage for nine of the 10 recommended childhood vaccines including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (65.3% vs. 85.2%), polio (76.9% vs. 93.8%), and measles-mumps-rubella (68.4% vs. 92.5%). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, we found that parents who were less likely to agree that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children, to believe that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated, or to believe that vaccines are safe had significantly lower coverage for all 10 childhood vaccines. Conclusions Parents who delayed and refused vaccine doses were more likely to have vaccine safety concerns and perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics may assist providers in responding to parents who may delay or refuse vaccines.

Smith, Philip J.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Zhao, Zhen; Dorell, Christina G.; Howes, Cynthia; Hibbs, Beth

2011-01-01

443

Skill in expert dogs.  

PubMed

The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between expert, advanced, intermediate, and novice dogs competing in the sport of agility were investigated. There were statistically significant differences between dogs of varying competitive levels in speed, motor control, and signal detections suggestive of increasing motor control automaticity in highly skilled, or expert, dogs. The largest sequential motor control difference was between novice and intermediate dogs, d = .96, whereas the largest sequential signal detection difference was between advanced and expert dogs, d = .90. These findings have two significant implications for expertise researchers: first, the observed similarities between dogs and humans may enable dogs to be used as expert models; and second, expertise science and methods may be profitably employed in the future to create more proficient canine workers. PMID:17924802

Helton, William S

2007-09-01

444

Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.

445

Intraregional migration of skilled manpower.  

PubMed

This is an analysis of the migration of skilled manpower among the countries of Latin America. "The author reviews its causes, possible implications, the characteristics of these flows of skilled migrants, and the relationship between what is to be observed in some countries and the official attitude adopted by their Governments. This examination suggests that the emigration of skilled human resources, regardless of their destination, is invariably a loss for developing countries owing to [migrants] high social value and economic cost." PMID:12318470

Martinez Pizarro, J

1993-08-01

446

Characteristics and kinetics of ammonia and N2O emissions of aged refuse irrigated from landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This is the first attempt to report the gaseous nitrogen emissions from landfill leachate filtration methods by irrigating the aged refuse. A first-order reaction model was a good fit for the increase in ammonia emissions from aged refuse, clay and sandy soil incubated for 120 h after adding the leachate-N solution. The emissions of ammonia and N2O by the three experimental materials fit well to first-order and zero-order models, respectively. The maximum ammonia emission from aged refuse was approximately 1.17 mg NH4(+)-Nkg(-1) d.w. and the calculated emission factor was 1.95‰, which was 3.76 and 2.67 times lower than that of sandy and clay soils, respectively. The tendencies of NH4(+)-N nitrification and NO3(-)-N generations fit well to the zero-order reaction model and the net nitrification rate by the aged refuse was 1.30 (p<0.05) and 1.71 (p<0.05) times that of clay soil and sandy soil, respectively. At the same time, the net NO4(-)-N generation rate by the aged refuse was 1.56 (p<0.05) and 2.33 (p<0.05) times that of clay soil and sandy soil, respectively. The quantity of nitrogen emitted by aged refuse as N2O was 2.46 times greater than that emitted as ammonia. The emission factor for N2O from aged refuse was 8.28 (p<0.05) and 16.11 (p<0.05) times greater than that of clay and sandy soils, respectively. For the leachate irrigation, N2O emissions should be of greater concern than ammonia emissions. PMID:23474206

Gao, Jixi; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Xuezhang; Ding, Jian; Yu, Guanghui; Xu, Huacheng

2013-03-07

447

Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training,…

Zhang, Aimao

2012-01-01

448

Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

Zhang, Aimao

2012-01-01

449

Voluntary Skill Standards and Certification. Skill Standards: A Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides basic information about the establishment, mission, and principal tasks of the National Skill Standards Board (NSSB), which was established as a key part of Goals 2000 and charged with the responsibility of creating a national system of voluntary skill standards to be available for use by employers, workers, unions,…

Wills, Joan L.

450

Microbial Community Structure of Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens and Refuse Dumps  

PubMed Central

Background Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. Methodology/Principal Findings Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps) rather than colony source (lab/field). At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. Conclusions/Significance Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities. These results thus suggest that resident communities are shaped by the plant degradation gradient created by ant behavior, specifically their fungiculture and waste management.

Scott, Jarrod J.; Budsberg, Kevin J.; Suen, Garret; Wixon, Devin L.; Balser, Teri C.; Currie, Cameron R.

2010-01-01

451

Chemical and thermal variations in seeps discharged from a burning coal refuse pile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid mine drainage generated by coal refuse piles is affecting the Moxahala watershed in Southeastern Ohio. The major contributor of acidity to this watershed is the Misco refuse pile. This pile was formed during the exploitation of the Misco Mine in Perry County, Ohio, in the early 1950's. In addition to the generation of acid mine drainage, the Misco Pile is burning. There is an impounded pond on the southwest end of the west gob pile, which was created when the valley was filled with refuse. The water from this pond flows into and throughout the gob pile and discharges on the northeast end into Bennet Run. At an elevation close to the elevation of the pond, two seeps are discharged. Temperature, specific conductivity, and pH was monitored in these seeps and correlated to rainfall. A lack of response of water temperature to small rainfall events was observed. This behavior suggest channeling of water inside the pile from the source pond to the main seep, and probably evaporation effects. In comparison, during high rainfall events, transfer of heat from the burning spots to the infiltrating water occurred and an increase in seep temperature was observed. A decrease in conductivity and an increase in pH was observed during the studied period as a dilution effect produced by an increased water storage within the pond and pile. Diurnal effects were stronger in the smaller seep, probably due to lower water velocities and greater residence time at the air-pile interface. From the location of the burning spots and seeps, a water velocity of 1 to 5 feet/s (0.3 to 1.7 m/s) was estimated. The pile can be viewed as a dual-porosity system of continuous conduits and matrix porosity. Only flow with sufficient head can penetrate and transfer heat from the hot areas in the matrix.

Lopez, D. L.; Doe, C. F.; Stuart, B. J.; Stoertz, M. W.

2002-12-01

452

Clinical Skills Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New doctors and those studying to practice medicine may need a bit of assistance as they prepare to administer direct care to patients. The Clinical Skills Online website was created to offer some helpful videos for such persons, and was funded by the United Kingdom's Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine. The thirteen videos are all available at no cost. They cover topics like History Taking, Thyroid Examination, and Abdominal Examination. The videos contain precise language and are designed to complement existing formal medical training. Needless to say, there is a disclaimer on the website that highlights the terms under which these videos should be used. It's a nice resource for those entering a range of health care professions, and it's worth sharing with others in the field.

2010-01-01

453

Logistical and ergonomic transportation capacity for refuse collection workers: a work physiology field study.  

PubMed

In a work physiology field study, the work flow and the electrocardiogram were recorded throughout whole shifts for six male refuse (garbage) collection workers who transported and emptied 1.1 m3 refuse containers. The work rate (WR), indicated by the number of 1.1 m3 containers emptied per unit of time, and the work pulse rate (WPR) were determined in the data evaluation. The work pulse rate increases with the work rate. The functional relationship can be approximated by a linear regression function (WPR = 20.9 + 35.8.WR). The work pulse rate reaches such high values that it must be assumed that the work cannot be performed continuously throughout the whole working day. Consequently, regular breaks should be provided. When determining the necessary duration of the breaks, it was assumed that an equilibrium between fatigue and recovery should be maintained during the working day. The recovery breaks should be at least long enough for the heart rate to return to the resting level. The necessary duration of the breaks was determined on the basis of the present field study and the laboratory investigations described in the literature. A minimum duration of 10 min per working hour results from the calculations. The breaks should be taken regularly at about hourly intervals. A transportation-capacity model is provided for the planning of the deployment of refuse workers. It permits calculation of the number of 1.1 m3 containers a three-man crew, comprising the refuse collection truck driver and two loaders, can empty during one shift. Both the logistical and ergonomic transportation capacities can be determined using the model. The logistical transportation capacity (TCL) indicates the number of containers which can be emptied per shift by a crew when only criteria such as the optimal utilization of the working time are considered. The ergonomic transportation capacity (TCE) is understood as the number of containers which can be emptied per shift taking into consideration the workers' strain and the recovery breaks they require. TCE amounts to between about 140 and 160 containers per shift depending on the type of city district. TCL is higher by between 20 and 30 containers per shift. In order to meet the demand of protecting workers' health, the number of containers to be emptied per shift by a three-man crew should not exceed the ergonomic transportation capacity. PMID:1505505

Luttmann, A; Laurig, W; Jäger, M

1992-09-01

454

Characteristics of mechanically sorted municipal wastes and their suitability for production of refuse derived fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results of experimental work in the first waste mechanical Pre-treatment Centre in Latvia Daibe. The goal - to detect the main parameters for sorted waste parts and to compare them with parameters stated for refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a cement plant in Latvia (Cemex). Samples were taken in four fractions - coarse, medium, fine, metal. The parameters - upper, lower heating values, moisture, ash content, S, Cl, metals were determined. Results - coarse fraction has greater potential of the production of the RDF, but reduction of its content of Cl would be necessary.

Arina, Dace; Orupe, Ausma

2012-11-01

455

Reasons for refusal of admission to intensive care and impact on mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To identify factors influencing triage decisions and investigate whether admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) could\\u000a reduce mortality compared with treatment on the ward.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A multicentre cohort study in 11 university hospitals from seven countries, evaluating triage decisions and outcomes of patients\\u000a referred for admission to ICU who were either accepted, or refused and treated on the ward. Confounding

Gaetano Iapichino; Davide Corbella; Cosetta Minelli; Gary H. Mills; Antonio Artigas; David L. Edbooke; Angelo Pezzi; Jozef Kesecioglu; Nicolò Patroniti; Mario Baras; Charles L. Sprung

2010-01-01

456

Test firing refuse-derived fuel in an industrial coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Research Program entitled, Test Firing Refuse Derived Fuel in an Industrial Coal-Fired Boiler evaluates the performance of an industrial boiler when co-firing coal and RDF. An optimum boiler operating load and RDF feed rate was determined for the boiler tested. Boiler efficiencies and stack emissions were also studied when co-firing RDF and coal. The economics of preparing and utilizing RDF in the boiler are evaluated. The operational characteristics of the RDF feed system and the reliability and practicability of receiving, storing, and firing RDF at an industrial operation are reported.

Vetter, R.J.; Smith, M.L.; Ragland, K.W.; Ham, R.K.; Madding, R.P.

1985-09-01

457

Tacoma refuse-fired combustor study. Phase II. (RDF densification study)  

SciTech Connect

The study of the densification of refuse derived fuel (RDF) examined several areas, including: investigation of densification methods and equipment, the purchase and adaptation of a densifier unit to operate with an existing resource recovery system, operating experience and modifications of the unit to adapt it to RDF, and actual manufacturing and burning of densified RDF in industrial waste fuel boilers and waste fuel gasifiers. The densified RDF was burned in tests at a pulp and paper company. Also, the RDF was densified for testing in three separate waste fuel gasifiers. Test reports for direct combustion and for gasification are included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-09-10

458

A review of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) facilities: Design considerations and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the history of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing facilities in the United States. The advantages and limitations of these systems are compared to mass burning technology. The current status of these facilities, including environmental, institutional, and economic considerations, are discussed. The unit operations used to produce a desired RDF product are described and the future potential of RDF processing systems is evaluated. Current research sponsored by the US Department of Energy on new RDF processing techniques is presented. 14 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

Ohlsson, O.O.

1989-01-01

459

Guidelines for cofiring refuse-derived fuel in electric utility boilers: Volume 3, Appendixes: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The guidelines presented in Volumes 1 and 2 address the procedures for evaluating proposed RDF (refuse derived fuel) cofiring projects, RDF specification and preparation, impact of RDF cofiring on power plant performance and operation, design criteria for RDF handling and other equipment, environmental control systems, capital and O and M cost estimates, economic analysis, and the breakeven RDF value to the utility. The appendices in Volume 3 contain supplemental design, performance and cost data for RDF preparation and cofiring facilities. 1 ref., 19 figs., 52 tabs.

Fiscus, D.E.

1988-06-01

460

A review of trace element emissions from the combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal  

SciTech Connect

The effects of cocombusting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal on stack emissions of trace elements in the ash stream were reviewed. The large number of variables and uncertainties involved precluded drawing definitive conclusions regarding many of the trace elements. However, it is evident that cocombustion resulted in increased emissions of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. Emissions of As and Ni tended to decrease when RDF was fired with coal. Modeling studies indicated that ambient levels of trace elements during cocombustion should be within acceptable limits. However, periodic monitoring of Cd, Hg, and Pb may be warranted in some instances.

Norton, G.A. (Ames Lab., IA (United States))

1992-05-01

461

Hydrogen gas generation from refuse-derived fuel (RDF) under wet conditions.  

PubMed

An explosion has recently occurred at a silo containing refuse-derived fuels (RDF) in Japan. There is a possibility that microorganisms are involved in generation of combustible gas from RDF and this study was aimed at showing the presence of bacteria that can ferment RDF pellets. All RDF samples tested contained a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells, 1.4x10(5) to 3.2x10(6) viable cells/g. These bacteria in the RDF samples fermented them to generate heat and hydrogen gas. PMID:14981319

Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakka, Kazuo; Ohmiya, Kunio

2004-02-01

462

Microbial utilization and transformation of humic acid-like substances extracted from a mixture of municipal refuse and sewage sludge disposed of in a landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to establish whether humic acid-like substances (HA) related to municipal refuse disposed of in a landfill can resist microbial degradation and if they contribute, in that way, to long-term stabilization of landfill refuse. Using a mixture of 0.1 M Na4P2O7 + 0.1 M NaOH, we extracted HA from municipal refuse mixed with sewage sludge

Z Filip; W Pecher; J Berthelin

2000-01-01

463

Understanding the antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy: parental influence, peer influence, and behavior.  

PubMed

The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents' drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy. PMID:22980099

Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, Namauk; Yoo, Jina

2011-12-29

464

Teaching and evaluating surgical skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine how surgical skills are taught and evaluated in obstetrics-gynecology residency programs in the United States.Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to the directors of all 266 residency programs in the United States and to second contact names at 51 sites. Directors were asked to evaluate how surgical skills are taught and evaluated and to rate the importance of

Lynn P Mandel; Gretchen M Lentz; Barbara A Goff

2000-01-01

465

Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

466

The California Basic Skills Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the evolution and implementation of the California Basic Skills Initiative (CA BSI), a statewide effort to address ongoing basic skills and ESL needs of community college students and of all campus faculty, administrators, and staff who support these students. CA BSI strategies include assisting every college in assessing…

Illowsky, Barbara

2008-01-01

467

Skilled up and Having Fun  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many teachers seem to have followed the "dunking theory." That is, they dunk their children in a variety of investigations and hope that through their practical work they will absorb a thorough understanding of enquiry skills. Children seem to have quite a good natural waterproof coating when it comes to absorbing scientific skills through…

Goldsworthy, Anne

2013-01-01

468

Distinctive Processing Underlies Skilled Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on skilled memory has focused on organizational processes to the exclusion of item-specific processes, although theories of skilled memory do ac- knowledge the importance of both kinds of processes. Using the isolation methodology, we presented lists of American football team names to participants who had either a high or a low level of knowledge about American football. An isolation

James P. Van Overschelde; Katherine A. Rawson; John Dunlosky; R. Reed Hunt

2005-01-01

469

Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

Olson, Valerie Dong

2008-01-01

470

Skills that Make a Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since early 2011, the National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) has been involved in supporting learning providers to prepare for and, more recently, to deliver provision through the Skills Funding Agency unit offer for the unemployed. The primary purpose of the provision is to equip learners with skills that will facilitate their…

Gray, Rob

2012-01-01

471

Writing Skills for College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews studies concerning writing skills at the college level. These skills are examined within discussions concerning cognitive abilities, features of the written product, the various aspects involved in the writing process, and the mastery of specific genres and forms. It is observed that some studies draw their information from…

Jones, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Stacy

472

High scores but low skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones

Liqun Liu; William S. Neilson

2011-01-01

473

Competitive Skills Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Almost 180 (22.5 percent) of BP Chemicals/HITCO, Inc. (BPCHI) employees have participated in the basic skills courses offered through the Competitive Skills Project (CSP) at El Camino College (Torrance, California). Workplace basics provide a solid foundation for Total Quality Management (TQM), enabling workers to be globally competitive. Two…

El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

474

Classroom Activities in Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended as a resource for teachers of grades four and up who are eager to improve their students' thinking skills while teaching their regular curriculum, this booklet contains activities that can be used to teach a new concept or to review a previously taught skill. Following an introduction, the topics of the chapters of the resource guide and…

Kruse, Janice, Comp.

475

Cognitive skills programmes for offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the impact of the meta-analyses and ‘What Works’ in offender treatment, cognitive skills programmes for offenders have become widely used in both the community and in custody. This overview is primarily concerned with the issue of effectiveness: do cognitive skills programmes have an effect on reoffending? The extant evidence suggests that there are lower rates of reoffending among offenders

Clive R. Hollin; Emma J. Palmer

2009-01-01

476

Quality and Generic (Professional) Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedback from employers of graduates indicates a need to include a focus on generic skills to complement disciplinary expertise. Educational research shows that such skills are most effectively taught in the disciplinary context. Therefore, in order to better meet the requirements of employers for graduates who are more 'fit for purpose', universities may need to change the curriculum and how

Barbara De La Harpe; Alex Radloff; John Wyber

2000-01-01

477

Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

2008-01-01

478

Classroom Activities in Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a resource for teachers of grades four and up who are eager to improve their students' thinking skills while teaching their regular curriculum, this booklet contains activities that can be used to teach a new concept or to review a previously taught skill. Following an introduction, the topics of the chapters of the resource guide and…

Kruse, Janice, Comp.

479

Enhancing skills to develop practice.  

PubMed

Nurses are skilful healthcare professionals, but the ability to develop skills depends on our readiness to evaluate what we do. This article describes a three-stage process, which helps nurses to analyse a particular skill and to decide what to do next. PMID:18376634

Price, B

480

Immigration quotas and skill upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reason why immigration policy is such a contended issue is that often immigrants end up obtaining the right to vote and, hence, may affect future policies. This paper offers a dynamic, general equilibrium model of immigration policy. In each period, a heterogeneously skilled population chooses an immigration policy by majority vote. Voters anticipate that immigration affects the skill premium

Francesc Ortega

2005-01-01

481

Young children's knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention: A pilot study in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

To examine the level of knowledge and skills related to prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a sample of Chinese preschoolers in Beijing and to explore the associations between children's scores on the knowledge and skills and their parents' reports on the knowledge and communication with children about CSA prevention. One hundred and thirty-six preschoolers were interviewed by researchers using the Chinese versions of Personal Safety Questionnaire and the "What If" Situation Test, and one parent of each child was invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding parental knowledge and parent-child communication about CSA prevention. Less than half children knew that strangers were not the only perpetrators and only 16% thought that children should report secret touching. In 3 inappropriate touching requests, less than 30% of the children were aware of using verbal response to definitely refuse the inappropriate touching and less than 20% of the children were aware of definitely removing themselves from the abusive situations. Parent-child communication about CSA and parental educational level were the significant factors for children's self-protection skills. Preschool children lack CSA prevention knowledge and related self-protection skills. Culturally relevant primary CSA prevention programs in China need to be developed and parental education should be a part of CSA prevention. Parents need to be informed about CSA knowledge concepts and need to be encouraged to communicate with their children about sexual abuse prevention. PMID:23768932

Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Luo, Xiaoling

2013-06-12

482

Linking Life Skills and Norms With Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency in South Africa.  

PubMed

We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related, and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome using a sample of 714 South African adolescents ages 15 to 19 years (M = 15.8 years, 57% female). Perceived norms predicted gateway drug use. Conflict resolution skills (inversely) and perceived peer acceptability (directly) predicted harder drug use and delinquency. The "culture of violence" within some South African schools may make conflict resolution skills more salient for preventing harder drug use and delinquency. PMID:23559844

Lai, Mary H; Graham, John W; Smith, Edward A; Caldwell, Linda L; Bradley, Stephanie A; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa

2013-02-14

483

Social skills deficits associated with depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the empirical evidence of impaired social skills associated with depression. Conceptualizations of social skills are examined followed by evidence from self-report, observer-rating, and behavioral assessments of depressed people's social skills. Evidence of social skills deficits in children with depression and in people with bipolar disorder is also examined. The effectiveness of social skills training as a treatment

Chris Segrin

2000-01-01

484

Meeting the Demand: Teaching "Soft" Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and behavioral skills; and…

Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.

485

Improving Learners' Research Process Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

2010-12-01

486

Drug Tolerance, Drug Addiction, and Drug Anticipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental cues associated with drugs often elicit withdrawal symptoms and relapse to drug use. Such cues also modulate drug tolerance. The contribution of drug-associated stimuli to withdrawal and tolerance is emphasized in a Pavlovian-conditioning analysis of drug administration. Conditional responses occur in the presence of cues that have been associated with the drug in the past, such as the setting

Shepard Siegel

2005-01-01

487

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wild primates: increased prevalence in baboons feeding on human refuse.  

PubMed Central

We examined three groups of wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, to determine the prevalence of aerobic antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria in nonhuman primates with and without contact with human refuse. Using standard isolation and replica plating techniques, we found only low numbers of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative enteric bacteria in two groups of baboons leading an undisturbed existence in their natural habitat and having limited or no contact with humans. However, resistance was significantly higher among enteric bacteria from the third group of baboons living in close proximity to a tourist lodge and having daily contact with unprocessed human refuse. Conjugation studies and analysis of the cell DNA by gel electrophoresis showed that in many cases resistance was plasmid-borne and transferable. These data suggest that wild nonhuman primates in frequent contact with human debris have a higher proportion of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria than do conspecifics without this contact. The findings further suggest that such groups of wild animals may constitute a heretofore overlooked source of antibiotic resistance in the natural environment.

Rolland, R M; Hausfater, G; Marshall, B; Levy, S B

1985-01-01

488

Minors' capacity to refuse treatment: a reply to Gilmore and Herring.  

PubMed

Re R and Re W allow a parent to consent to treatment a competent minor refuses, but the cases have not been tested post-Human Rights Act 1998. Gilmore and Herring offer a means by which they might be distinguished or sidelined. They interpret Gillick to say that in order to consent a minor need only have a full understanding of the particular treatment. They argue that the minors in Re R and Re W were refusing all treatment which requires a separate assessment of capacity-an assessment which was not made. We fear that this distinction would not be workable in clinical practice and argue that their interpretation of Gillick is flawed. From a clinician's point of view, competence cannot always be judged in relation to a specific treatment, but instead must relate to the decision. We show that a decision can incorporate more than one treatment, and more than one decision might be made about one treatment. A minor's understanding of a specific treatment is not always sufficient to demonstrate competence to make a decision. The result is that whilst there might be situations when a parent and a minor both have the power to consent to a particular treatment, they will not share concurrent powers in relation to the same decision. Consequently, a challenge to Re R and Re W, if forthcoming, would need to take a different form. We emphasise the necessity to minimise the dichotomy between legal consent and how consent works in medical practice. PMID:22474100

Cave, Emma; Wallbank, Julie

2012-04-03

489

Development of analytical reference materials for refuse-derived fuels. Report of investigations/1980  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste (MSW), presently a major disposal problem, represents a significant source of metals and glass together with a combustible fraction that could be used to supplement coal and oil and in generating heat and electricity. This combustible fraction represents approximately 70 weight-percent MSW; therefore, effective utility of this fraction is an essential part of the Bureau of Mines program to conserve and increase the Nation's mineral and fuel supply through recycling of urban waste. Because of the increasing national interest in this important fuel supplement, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines prepared a refuse-derived fuel material as a proposed reference material for use by other laboratories to evaluate their analytical procedures. This reference material was prepared by combining MSW light combustibles from Tampa, FL., Montgomery County, MD., and Tulsa, OK., then shredding, milling, and blending the composite material. Homogeneity of the refuse-derived fuel reference material (RDFRM) appears to be acceptable based on analytical values for replicate analyses. Concentration data for major, minor, and trace elements together with proximate analyses are provided in this report. Aliquots of the RDFRM are available to interested laboratories upon request.

Law, S.L.; Haynes, B.W.; Campbell, W.J.

1980-01-01

490

Modified biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to assess biodegradation potential of landfilled refuse  

SciTech Connect

Modified Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays were used to assess biogas production potential of solid landfill samples. In landfill samples with visible soil content, moisture addition alone was generally as effective at stimulating biogas production as the addition of a comprehensive nutrient media. In a variety of samples from humid and semiarid landfills, addition of an aqueous nutrient media was the most effective stimulant for biogas production; however, moisture addition was almost as effective for most samples, suggesting that water addition would be the most cost-effective field approach. Onset of methanogenesis was slower in fresh refuse samples (even when inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge) than in landfill samples, indicating that the soil into which materials are landfilled is a major source of microorganisms. High volatile solids loading in fresh refuse and landfill assays retarded methanogenesis. A comparison of anaerobic and aerobic sample handling techniques showed no significant differences with regard to onset of methanogenesis and total gas production. The technique shows initial promise with regard to replication and reproducibility of results and could be a meaningful addition to landfill site evaluations where commercial gas recovery is anticipated. The BMP technique could also be adapted to assess anaerobic biodegradability of other solid waste materials for conventional anaerobic digestion applications. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Bogner, J.E.; Rose, C.; Piorkowski, R.

1989-01-01

491

Plants Level of Chromium and Nickel at a Refuse Site, Any Positive Impact?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace metals, including heavy metals can be dangerous to the biota and human beings. Consequently, a study of the accumulation of two unpopular heavy metals, Chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni), in four species of plants were carried out. At Ojota refuse sites (Old and New) in Lagos State, Nigeria, from where samples were taken; knowledge about these metals were scarce. The results obtained from the analysis of leaves and roots of plants showed that the sites were heavily polluted by chromium and nickel containing substances, which were indiscriminately dumped at the sites. Values were far above the background level with higher concentrations being recorded at the New Refuse Site (NRS). The concentrations obtained were also found to correlate strongly with the results of some soil physico-chemical properties, which were determined during the study. The plants used in the present research were observed to display a higher level of tolerance to metal concentration, an important characteristic of hyper-accumulator plants in phytoremediation study. Consequently, they are recommended for cultivation in non-grazing heavy metal polluted sites. However, livestock feedings and vegetable consumption at the present sites should be discouraged to avoid metal poisoning.

Ololade, I. A.; Ashoghon, A. O.; Adeyemi, O.

492

Guidelines for cofiting refuse-derived fuel in electrical utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1970s, nine electric utilities in the United States have cofired refuse-derived fuel (RDF) prepared from municipal refuse with coal or oil in electric utility boilers. Of these, four are continuing to cofire RDF as of 1988, the others having discontinued operations for a variety of reasons, mostly economic. In order to document this experience and provide a basis for planning future RDF cofiring projects, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy cosponsored the development of guidelines for RDF cofiring. The guidelines, discussed in this paper, address the procedures for evaluating proposed RDF projects, RDF specifications and preparation, impact of RDF cofiring on power plant performance and operation, design criteria for RDF handling and other equipment, environmental control systems, capital and O and M cost estimates, economic analysis, and the breakeven RDF value to the utility. The economic analysis suggests that the value of RDF to the utility is only a fraction of the value of the fuel replaced, because the incremental fuel savings derived from RDF cofiring are at least partially offset by the incremental capital and O and M costs.

McGowin, C.R. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Joensen, A.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (USA)); Fiscus, D.E. (Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Wolfs, K.E.; Ege, H.D. (Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (USA)); Savage, G.M. (Cal Recovery Systems, Inc., Richmond, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

493

Airpollutant emissions during co-firing of coal and refuse derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation (RG and E) has been co-firing refuse derived fuel (RDF) with coal at the company's Russell station since September, 1981. In a joint program with the county of Monroe, NY, RG and E is using RDF as a supplemental fuel to reduce landfill requirements and to utilize this indigenous resource. The RDF is prepared at the county's resource recovery facility located in the City of Rochester, NY. RG and E is burning RDF at Russell station as a service to the citizens of Monroe county, most of whom are RG and E ratepayers. RG and E pays the thermal equivalent cost of coal for the RDF, but subtracts all costs associated with handling and burning the fuel. In this way, RG and E neither benefits from nor is penalized for accommodating RDF. In order to document the impacts of RDF on power plant operations, RG and E conducted a detailed testing program to evaluate corrosion potential, boiler efficiency, and environmental impacts. Air pollutant emission tests were performed to demonstrate compliance with air quality regulations and to determine the levels of hazardous emissions associated with a refuse burning facility. Stack emission testing was conducted in 1981 prior to co-firing operations and again in 1982 after coal/RDF co-firing had been successfully implemented.

Stine, G.; Burton, R.M. Jr.

1984-01-01

494

Results of emissions testing while burning densified refuse derived fuel, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. provided engineering and source testing services to the Council of Great Lake Governors to support their efforts in promoting the development and utilization of densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF) and pelletized wastepaper fuels in small steam generating facilities. The emissions monitoring program was designed to provide a complete air emissions profile while burning various refuse derived fuels. The specific goal of this test program was to conduct air emissions tests at Dordt College located in Sioux Center, Iowa and to identify a relationship between fuel types and emission characteristics. The sampling protocol was carried out June 12 through June 20, 1989 on boiler {number sign}4. This unit had been previously modified to burn d-RDF. The boiler was not equipped with any type of air pollution control device so the emissions samples were collected from the boiler exhaust stack on the roof of the boilerhouse. The emissions that were sampled included: particulates; PM{sub 10} particulates; hydrochloric acid; dioxins; furans; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); metals and continuous monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub x}NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons. Grab samples of the fuels were collected, composited and analyzed for heating value, moisture content, proximate and ultimate analysis, ash fusion temperature, bulk density and elemental ash analysis. Grab samples of the boiler ash were also collected and analyzed for total hydrocarbons total dioxins, total furans, total PCBs and heavy metals. 77 figs., 20 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01

495

Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

2012-01-01

496

Cognitive Skills: A Modest Way of Learning through Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills…

Sethy, Satya Sundar

2012-01-01

497

An Alumni Assessment of MIS Related Job Skill Importance and Skill Gaps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a job skill survey of Management Information Systems (MIS) alumni from a Northeastern U.S. university. The study assesses job skill importance and skill gaps associated with 104 technical and non-technical skill items. Survey items were grouped into 6 categories based on prior research. Skill importance and skill…

Wilkerson, Jerod W.

2012-01-01

498

Study Skills Package: Development and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Materials contained within this report are designed to diagnose and remedy student study skill deficiencies in the areas of (a) reading comprehension, (b) memorization, (c) test talking, and (d) concentration management skills. The study skills materials ...

J. L. Dobrovolny B. L. McCombs W. A. Judd

1980-01-01

499

Performance and mechanism on a high durable silica alumina based cementitious material composed of coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal refuse and combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. Recycling is one practical solution to utilize this huge amount of solid waste through activation as substitute for ordinary Portland cement. The central goal of this dissertation is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to ordinary Portland cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economy benefit for construction and building materials. The results show that thermal activation temperature ranging from 20°C to 950°C significantly increases the workability and pozzolanic property of the coal refuse. The optimal activation condition is between 700°C to 800°C within a period of 30 to 60 minutes. Microanalysis illustrates that the improved pozzolanic reactivity contributes to the generated amorphous materials from parts of inert aluminosilicate minerals by destroying the crystallize structure during the thermal activation. In the coal refuse, kaolinite begins to transfer into metakaol in at 550°C, the chlorite minerals disappear at 750°C, and muscovite 2M1 gradually dehydroxylates to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this research examines the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based cementitious material not only meets EPA requirements but also shows several advantages in industrial application.

Yao, Yuan

500

AIDS health education for intravenous drug users.  

PubMed

Intravenous (IV) drug users are the second largest risk group for AIDS and the main source of infection for heterosexual partner and pediatric AIDS cases. IV drug users have an addiction and a subculture that make risk reduction difficult; for example, to refuse to share needles can endanger personal relationships, and carrying clean works (rather than renting them in a shooting gallery) risks arrest. In New York City, at least, knowledge about AIDS transmission is widespread among IV drug users, and most drug injectors report having changed their drug use practices to reduce their risks. The main functions of health education in areas where IV drug users have this level of knowledge are to disseminate news of new discoveries; reach those drug users who have not yet learned AIDS basics; reinforce what is already known; and provide information about new programs to help drug users deal with AIDS-related problems. To encourage behavior change requires going beyond simple education, however; it entails trying to change IV drug user subculture. Drug user groups in the Netherlands and in New York City are attempting to do this from within the subculture. Outside intervention requires repeated messages from multiple sources; face-to-face, interactive communication; and perhaps the use of ex-addicts as health educators. PMID:3781862

Friedman, S R; Des Jarlais, D C; Sotheran, J L

1986-01-01