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1

Media Resistance Skills and Drug Skill Refusal Techniques: What is Their Relationship with Alcohol Use Among Inner-City Adolescents?  

PubMed Central

Past research related to alcohol advertising examined whether underage adolescents were targets of the alcohol industry and what impact such adverting had on adolescent drinking. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the impact of media resistance skills on subsequent drinking among adolescents residing in inner-city regions of New York City. The study also tested whether drug skill refusal techniques (knowing how to say no to alcohol and other drugs) mediated the relationship between media resistance skills and adolescent drinking. A panel sample of baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-ups (N = 1318) from the control group of a longitudinal drug abuse prevention trial participated. A series of structural equations models showed that media resistance skills directly negatively predicted alcohol use two years later and that drug skill refusal techniques mediated this effect. Baseline media resistance skills were associated with 1-year drug skill refusal techniques, which in turn negatively predicted 2-year alcohol use. These findings provided empirical support for including media resistance skills and drug skill refusal techniques in alcohol prevention programs. PMID:18164827

Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2008-01-01

2

Assessment of Adolescent Refusal Skills in an Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many substance abuse prevention programs seek to enhance the ability of adolescents to refuse offers of alcohol and other drugs, few report assessments of refusal skill ability or its relationship to substance use. This report describes a procedure to assess the ability of adolescents to refuse the offer of a beer, and presents the findings of those assessments as

Jean T. Shope; Laurel A. Copeland; Ruth Maharg; Ted E. Dielman; Amy T. Butchart

1993-01-01

3

Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2010-01-01

4

The Mediating Influence of Refusal Skills in Preventing Adolescent Alcohol Misuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between junior high school students' participation in an alcohol prevention program and level of refusal skills (as measured by role plays), noting the relationship between refusal skills and alcohol misuse over three years. Regression analysis indicated that refusal skills were significant mediators of the effect of the…

Wynn, Sheri R.; Schulenberg, John; Kloska, Deborah D.; Laetz, Virginia B.

1997-01-01

5

Preventing Alcohol Misuse: The Impact of Refusal Skills and Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which refusal skills and norm setting mediated the impact of a school-based prevention program from the Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study (AMPS) on adolescent alcohol overindulgence. The AMPS is a randomized, pre-post, experimental-control study. Respondents in the present study included 6th through 10th graders (ns ranged from 232 to 371).

Sheri R. Wynn; John Schulenberg; Jennifer L. Maggs; Robert A. Zucker

2000-01-01

6

Development and Evaluation of an Interactive CD-ROM Refusal Skills Program to Prevent Youth Substance Use: “Refuse to Use”  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive CD-ROM program designed to reduce adolescent substance use was developed and evaluated. The program uses video vignettes to teach refusal skills and socially acceptable responses to substance use situations, specifically offers of marijuana. In a randomized pretest-to-posttest experiment with 74 public school students from six classes in three high schools, significant changes were observed at posttest on (1)

Terry E. Duncan; Susan C. Duncan; Natasha Beauchamp; Jennifer Wells; Dennis V. Ary

2000-01-01

7

21 CFR 316.25 - Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...316.25 Section 316.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Designation of an Orphan Drug § 316.25 Refusal to grant...

2010-04-01

8

21 CFR 516.25 - Refusal to grant MUMS-drug designation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Refusal to grant MUMS-drug designation. 516.25 Section 516.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...

2010-04-01

9

49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655.49...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each employer shall...

2011-10-01

10

49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655.49...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each employer shall...

2012-10-01

11

49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655.49...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each employer shall...

2010-10-01

12

49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655.49 Section 655.49...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each employer shall...

2013-10-01

13

14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65...

2010-01-01

14

14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63...

2010-01-01

15

14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals...11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61...

2010-01-01

16

Refusal and Resistance Skills for Children and Adolescents: A Selected Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on refusal and resistance skill (RRS) training. Evaluates RRS training across different target behaviors and outcomes and its efficacy in preventing tobacco use. Identifies factors that influence RRS training and discusses process variables. These include age and gender, media formats, and teacher-led versus peer-led…

Herrmann, D. Scott; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

1997-01-01

17

The Impact of a Culturally Enhanced Drug Prevention Program on Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy among Urban African American Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the utility of the Specific Event Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy scale (SEDARE) as an outcome of a culturally enhanced drug abuse prevention program for urban African-American girls in early adolescence. The SEDARE captures the perceived likelihood that youth will use drugs and alcohol in specific situations. Ninety-two…

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Reed, Melba C.; Plybon, Laura E.; Corneille, Maya

2004-01-01

18

14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.  

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated...13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate...

2014-01-01

19

14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.  

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated...15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate...

2014-01-01

20

14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.  

...false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated...11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate...

2014-01-01

21

Substance Refusal: More Than "Just Say No."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two treatment strategies on children's drug refusal skills and drug-related information. Thirty-four third graders were randomly assigned to one of three groups: rehearsal-plus, general information, and control. Subjects in the rehearsal-plus groups showed significantly improved behavioral skills and elaborative rehearsal. Subjects in the…

Jones, Russell T.; And Others

1995-01-01

22

Perceived friend and peer smoking and direct and indirect refusal skills as predictors of cigarette smoking in u.s. And Japanese middle school students.  

PubMed

Adolescents (aged 12-14 years) from the United States (n = 539) and Japan (n = 644) completed surveys regarding tobacco use, perceptions of friend and peer smoking, and their own likelihood of using smoking refusal skills. U.S. youth were more likely to report lifetime or monthly tobacco use, whereas Japanese youth were more likely to smoke ?20 cigarettes per week. High perceived friend and peer smoking prevalence predicted lifetime smoking, whereas direct refusal skill use (e.g., "saying no") predicted less lifetime tobacco use. Results are discussed in terms of cultural influences that may mediate the effect of risk factors on U.S. and Japanese youth. PMID:25176116

Gibbon, Lindsay; Griffin, Kenneth W; Tanno, Sakurako; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Botvin, Gilbert J

2014-01-01

23

Gender Differences in Drug Resistance Skills of Youth in Guanajuato, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Research is limited or absent on Mexican adolescents’ exposure to substance offers, ways of dealing with these offers, and possible gender differences in responses to offers. Extending U.S.-based research, this study examines how youth living in the Mexican state of Guanajuato employ the four drug resistance strategies—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave—that are part of the Keepin’ It REAL evidence-based drug prevention intervention. The analysis uses cross-sectional survey data from 702 students enrolled in eight alternative secondary education sites in 2007. Participants reported the drug resistance behaviors they used to deal with offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Using multivariate regression, findings indicate most youth had developed repertoires of drug resistance strategies that involved multiple REAL strategies and some other strategy as well. For those receiving offers, the most common strategy was to refuse the offer with a simple ‘‘no.’’ However, males used all the strategies significantly more often than females for situations involving cigarettes and marijuana as well as when using refuse and non-REAL strategies for alcohol. Possible reasons for the gender difference in use of strategies are discussed. The findings can help inform effective prevention programs based on teaching culturally appropriate drug resistance and communication skills. PMID:21424398

Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Calderon-Tena, Carlos O.; Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha L.

2011-01-01

24

The Impact of Mother-Daughter and Father-Daughter Relationships on Drug Refusal Self-Efficacy among African American Adolescent Girls in Urban Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study yielded interesting findings on the effect of mother-daughter and father-daughter relationships on drug refusal self-efficacy for urban African American girls between the ages of 11 and 14. The questionnaire consisted of assessments on the quality of the girls mother and father relationships and their perceived ability to refuse drugs.…

Boyd, Kimberly; Ashcraft, Amie; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2006-01-01

25

"I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

2011-01-01

26

The influence of the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among injection drug users: Balancing competing risks  

PubMed Central

Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens through receptive syringe sharing (RSS) and receptive paraphernalia sharing (RPS). Research into the influence of the perceived risk of HIV infection on injection risk behavior has yielded mixed findings. One explanation may be that consequences other than HIV infection are considered when IDUs are faced with decisions about whether or not to share equipment. We investigated the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among 187 IDUs recruited from a large syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, assessed their influence on RSS and RPS, and evaluated gender differences. Two sub-scales of perceived consequences were identified: structural/external consequences and social/internal consequences. In multiple linear regression, the perceived social/internal consequences of refusing to share were associated with both RSS and RPS, after controlling for other psychosocial constructs and demographic variables. Few statistically significant gender differences emerged. Assessing the consequences of refusing to share injection equipment may help explain persistent injection risk behavior, and may provide promising targets for comprehensive intervention efforts designed to address both individual and structural risk factors. PMID:21498004

Wagner, Karla D.; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean L.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Unger, Jennifer B.

2011-01-01

27

The Effects of Psychotropic Drugs upon Driving-Related Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of psychotropic drugs by road users is considered to be on the increase although little accurate epidemiological data are available. To determine the effects of such drugs upon driving skills, reliance must be placed upon laboratory investigations. This paper reviews the results of studies of the effects of barbiturate and non-barbiturate hypnotics, tranquillizers, and antidepressants upon sensory functions

Andrew B. Clayton

1976-01-01

28

Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

Hawkins, J. David; And Others

1986-01-01

29

21 CFR 316.25 - Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.  

...intended for use in prevention or in diagnosis in fewer than 200,000 people annually...the drug is intended for prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease or condition...drug to be effective in the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of that disease or...

2014-04-01

30

76 FR 46820 - Proposal To Refuse To Approve a Supplemental New Drug Application for Bromday (Bromfenac...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...daily beginning 1 day before surgery and continuing on the day of surgery and for 14 days thereafter...often have cataract removal surgeries in both eyes, and that the...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act)...

2011-08-03

31

School Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

Wimmer, Mary

2008-01-01

32

Gender Differences in Drug Resistance Skills of Youth in Guanajuato, Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is limited or absent on Mexican adolescents' exposure to substance offers, ways of dealing with these offers, and possible gender differences in responses to offers. Extending U.S.-based research, this study examines how youth living in the Mexican state of Guanajuato employ the four drug resistance strategies--refuse, explain, avoid, and…

Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Calderon-Tena, Carlos O.; Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha L.

2011-01-01

33

Gender Differences in Drug Resistance Skills of Youth in Guanajuato, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is limited or absent on Mexican adolescents’ exposure to substance offers, ways of dealing with these offers, and\\u000a possible gender differences in responses to offers. Extending U.S.-based research, this study examines how youth living in\\u000a the Mexican state of Guanajuato employ the four drug resistance strategies—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave—that are part\\u000a of the Keepin’ It REAL evidence-based drug

Stephen KulisFlavio; Flavio F. Marsiglia; Stephanie L. Ayers; Carlos O. Calderón-Tena; Bertha L. Nuño-Gutiérrez

2011-01-01

34

21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from...

2010-04-01

35

Student nurses need more than maths to improve their drug calculating skills.  

PubMed

Nurses need to be able to calculate accurate drug calculations in order to safely administer drugs to their patients (NMC, 2002). Studies have shown however that nurses do not always have the necessary skills to calculate accurate drug dosages and are potentially administering incorrect dosages of drugs to their patients (Hutton, M. 1998. Nursing Mathematics: the importance of application. Nursing Standard 13(11), 35-38; Kapborg, I. 1994. Calculation and administration of drug dosage by Swedish nurses, Student Nurses and Physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 6(4), 389-395; O'Shea, E. 1999. Factors contributing to medication errors: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 8, 496-504; Wilson, A. 2003. Nurses maths: researching a practical approach. Nursing Standard 17(47), 33-36). The literature indicates that in order to improve drug calculations strategies need to focus on both the mathematical skills and conceptual skills of student nurses so they can interpret clinical data into drug calculations to be solved. A study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of implementing several strategies which focussed on developing the mathematical and conceptual skills of student nurses to improve their drug calculation skills. The study found that implementing a range of strategies which addressed these two developmental areas significantly improved the drug calculation skills of nurses. The study also indicates that a range of strategies has the potential ensuring that the skills taught are retained by the student nurses. Although the strategies significantly improved the drug calculation skills of student nurses, the fact that only 2 students were able to achieve 100% in their drug calculation test indicates a need for further research into this area. PMID:16876919

Wright, Kerri

2007-05-01

36

Life Skills Training as a Primary Approach for Adolescent Drug Abuse and Other Problem Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use are important problems that typically begin during adolescence. Fortunately, substantial progress has been made in developing effective drug abuse prevention programs for youth over the past two decades. Prevention approaches that focus on the risk and protective factors associated with drug use initiation and those that teach skills related to social resistance are most

Gilbert J. Botvin; Kenneth W. Griffin

37

Effectiveness of Stress Management Skill Training on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Levels in Drug Addicts after Drug Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background Stressful life events may cause initiation of drug use among people. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management skill training on depression, anxiety and stress levels in drug addicts after withdrawal. Objectives The population included all drug addicts after withdrawal in 2012 in Alborz province. Materials and Methods The study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with a control group. Levels of emotional reactions (depression, anxiety and stress) in all referrals to a counseling center for drug withdrawal in 2012 using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress (DASS-21) questionnaire was assessed. The study population included drug addicts after withdrawal. The sampling method was available sampling and random assignment. Thirty people who had higher emotional reactions were randomly selected and divided into two test (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. For the test group, a stress management skill training course was held in twelve 90-minute sessions, but the control group received no intervention. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-19 software with analysis of covariance. Results The results showed that stress management skill training has a significant effect on reducing emotional reactions (P < 0.01). It was noted that after 2 months test group follow-up, stress management training has retained its effect. Conclusion Apparently, training addicts about life skills, particularly stress management seems to be a good idea. PMID:24971280

Habibi, Zahra; Tourani, Somayeh; Sadeghi, Hasan; Abolghasemi, Abbass

2013-01-01

38

33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.040 Refusal to submit to testing...will be presumed to be under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. (b) If an individual refuses to submit to...

2010-07-01

39

Integrating Life Skills Into a Theory-Based Drug-Use Prevention Program: Effectiveness among Junior High Students in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Drug use has been noted among students in Taiwan during the past decade and schools have a role in preventing or delaying students' drug use. We developed and evaluated a school-based, drug-use prevention program integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and life skills for junior high school students. Methods: We recruited…

Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chien, Li-Yin; Cheng, Chin-Feng; Guo, Jong-Long

2012-01-01

40

49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal...

2011-10-01

41

49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal...

2010-10-01

42

49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal...

2013-10-01

43

49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal...

2012-10-01

44

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46 Section 655...submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of...

2010-10-01

45

33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section 401... Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not...

2010-07-01

46

Recent Perspectives Concerning School Refusal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature regarding school refusal was conducted. It was found that the term School Refusal Behavior has gone through many changes. These changes encompass nomenclature, etiology, and treatment. The names used to describe the behavior of school refusal have ranged from truancy in the 1930s to School Refusal Behavior in the 1990s.…

Witts, Benjamin; Houlihan, Daniel

2007-01-01

47

Gender-Specific Effects of Social Influences and Competence on Lifetime Poly-Drug Use Among Inner-City Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of social influences to use drugs and competence variables with lifetime poly-drug use for adolescents residing in inner-city regions. The same model was tested separately for boys and girls. Sixth- and seventh-graders (N = 2400) in inner-city schools self-reported substance use, social influences to use drugs (e.g., friends' substance use), and competence skills (i.e., refusal assertiveness, decision-making).

Jennifer A. Epstein; Gilbert J. Botvin; Margaret Doyle

2009-01-01

48

21 CFR 314.125 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...investigation involving human subjects described in...the rights or safety of human subjects were not adequately...Department of Health and Human Services or refuses to...505(b)(1) of the act. (c) For drugs intended...64 FR 402, Jan. 5, 1999; 73 FR 39610, July...

2010-04-01

49

Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity  

PubMed Central

Background Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. Methods This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST) drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Results Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers), ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence). Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage). Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery) were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness). Conclusion Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that organizations should consider to ensure fidelity, such as selecting programs with features that minimize complexity while maximizing flexibility. Time constraints in the classroom should be considered when choosing a program. Student behavior also influences program delivery, so schools should train teachers in the use of classroom management skills. This project involved comprehensive program monitoring and technical assistance that likely facilitated the identification and resolution of problems and contributed to the overall high quality of implementation. Schools should recognize the importance of training and technical assistance to ensure quality program delivery. PMID:18205919

Mihalic, Sharon F; Fagan, Abigail A; Argamaso, Susanne

2008-01-01

50

Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested the effectiveness of 2 alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs among inner-city minority 7th-grade students (N = 639) from 6 New York City public schools. Schools were randomly assigned to receive (a) a generic skills training preven- tion approach, (b) a culturally focused prevention approach, or (c) an information-only control. Results indicate that students in both prevention

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz

1994-01-01

51

49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

2011-10-01

52

49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

2010-10-01

53

49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

2012-10-01

54

49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199.223 Section 199.223 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223...

2013-10-01

55

Short-term impact of cognition-motivation-emotional intelligence-resistance skills program on drug use prevention for school students in Wuhan, China.  

PubMed

Drug abuse continues to be a serious public health threat worldwide. Most drug abuse prevention research has been conducted with predominantly American or European adolescent populations. Little is known about approaches that work best to prevent the initiation of Chinese adolescent drug use. For targeting risk factors of drug initiation in Chinese adolescents, a school-based health intervention program named "Cognition-Motivation-Emotional Intelligence-Resistance Skills" (CMER) was developed to enhance cognition upon drug use, to decrease motivation of drug use and to improve emotional adjusting and drug resistance skills in this study. A total of 798 students from 3 senior high schools in Wuhan, a city in central China, were assigned randomly to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received the CMER program in which knowledge, development of positive attitude and motivation towards drugs and training of peer resistance skills were basic elements. The immediate impact was compared by measuring the above mentioned elements prior to and three-month after the training session. Students from both groups were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic items, self-reported drug use behavior, cognition, attitude, and motivation associated with the initiation of drug use and resistance skills. Three months after the intervention, significant effects were found on "illegal substance use at least once" (P<0.05) between the intervention and control groups. Immediate effects of the intervention were also found on knowledge, motivation and peer resistance skills (P<0.05), but there was no clear evidence for any effects on attitude towards substance use (P>0.05). It was concluded that the CMER program, which significantly increased the knowledge of drugs and peer resistance skills, was effective in the drug abuse prevention in a sample of school students in Wuhan, China. PMID:21181361

Guo, Rui; He, Qian; Shi, Junxin; Gong, Jie; Wang, Hongxing; Wang, Zengzhen

2010-12-01

56

Drug Use, Self-Efficacy, and Coping Skills Among People with Concurrent Substance Abuse and Personality Disorders: Implications for Relapse Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated drug use antecedents, abstinence self-efficacy and coping skills among people with concurrent substance abuse and personality disorders. Fifty inpatients with recent polydrug abuse were divided into two groups based upon the presence (PD) or absence (NPD) of a personality disorder. The PD group reported more often using drugs when experiencing unpleasant emotions, physical discomfort, and conflict with

Nancy J. Smyth; Shelly A. Wiechelt

2005-01-01

57

Feeding therapy for children with food refusal.  

PubMed

Disabled children suffer not only from their primary disease, but also from other complications, including food refusal. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between these conditions and food refusal in disabled children. The effectiveness of feeding therapy in treating food refusal was also examined. The study subjects were 67 disabled children (35 boys and 32 girls; mean age at initial examination: 6.5 years, SD: 6.0 years) who attended the Nippon Dental University Hospital between April 2004 and August 2008. Of them, the 13 subjects who were diagnosed as those who refused food received feeding therapy combined with desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity. Approximately 20% of the subjects showed food refusal symptoms. Primary disease, respiratory impairment and gastroesophageal reflux were not causes of food refusal in this population. There was a significant relationship between food refusal and hypersensitivity (p = 0.021). After receiving feeding therapy, six of the seven subjects with hypersensitivity but without dysphagia at initial examination recovered from food refusal. Food refusal did not significantly correlate with tube feeding. Hypersensitivity and/or tube feeding may induce food refusal. For subjects with these conditions, feeding therapy combined with desensitization therapy is effective in achieving recovery from food refusal. PMID:22774703

Tamura, Fumiyo; Kikutani, Takeshi; Machida, Reiko; Takahashi, Noriaki; Nishiwaki, Keiko; Yaegaki, Ken

2011-11-01

58

Some observations suggesting preservation of skilled motor acts despite drug-induced stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of skilled motor performances, both of a task-oriented (tests of eye-hand coordination) and incidental (control of facial and ocular muscles) nature were recorded for a sample of 20 healthy young adults before and after single administrations of perphenazine, opipramol, imipramine and placebo at doselevels commonly supposed to produce mood or behavioral effects. It was anticipated that such performances would

Hans Heimann; Charles F. Reed; Peter N. Witt

1968-01-01

59

Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel  

DOEpatents

A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

Daugherty, Kenneth E. (Lewisville, TX); Venables, Barney J. (Denton, TX); Ohlsson, Oscar O. (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01

60

Resistance-Skills Training and Onset of Alcohol Use: Evidence for Beneficial and Potentially Harmful Effects in Public Schools and in Private Catholic Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research suggests that the success of social influence prevention programs is due to enhancing an adolescent's ability to resist passive social pressure (e.g., social modeling and overestimation of peer use), and is not due to teaching refusal skills for combating active social pressure (i.e., alcohol and drug offers). Using 4 waves of longitudinal data (collected in the 5th, 6th,

Stewart I. Donaldson; John W. Graham; Andrea M. Piccinin; William B. Hansen

1995-01-01

61

Prevention of adolescent drug abuse: Targeting high-risk children with a multifaceted intervention model— The Early Risers “Skills for Success” Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a comprehensive drug abuse preventive intervention called the Early Risers “Skills for Success” Program. Early Risers is an example of an indicated prevention strategy designed to alter the developmental trajectory leading to drug use and abuse in high-risk children as indexed by the presence of early-onset aggressive behavior. An “early-starter” developmental model to alcohol, tobacco, and other

Gerald J. August; George M. Realmuto; Ken C. Winters; Joel M. Hektner

2001-01-01

62

Teachers' Perceptions of School Refusers and Truants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-six teachers from 10 special teaching units in Southeast England completed a questionnaire indicating that (1) they clearly distinguished between school refusers and truants and (2) teacher ratings of students' self-esteem, stability, attitudes, and other characteristics differed from self-reported ratings of school refusers and truants.…

Cooper, Michael; Mellors, Martin

1990-01-01

63

School Refusal Behavior in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School refusal behavior is defined as any child-motivated refusal to attend classes and/or difficulty remaining in classes for an entire day. Although many researchers have focused on older children and adolescents in their samples, few have specifically focused on young children aged 5-9 years (i.e., kindergarten to third grade). In this article,…

Kearney, Christopher A.; Chapman, Gillian; Cook, L. Caitlin

2005-01-01

64

Comparison of the Effects of Cooperative Learning and Traditional Learning Methods on the Improvement of Drug-Dose Calculation Skills of Nursing Students Undergoing Internships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cooperative learning and traditional learning methods on the development of drug-calculation skills. Design: Final-year nursing students ("n" = 85) undergoing internships during the 2010-2011 academic year at a nursing school constituted the study group of this…

Basak, Tulay; Yildiz, Dilek

2014-01-01

65

Factors Associated with School Refusal in Adolescents: Some Preliminary Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School refusal, as differentiated from both school phobia and truancy, is a term used to denote emotionally-based avoidance of school. To identify factors associated with school refusal, 41 junior high and high school students (including special education school refusers, special education non-refusers, and a comparison group from a regular…

Ficula, Teresa V.; And Others

66

Beyond abortion: refusal of caesarean section.  

PubMed

Social pressures and legal restrictions are proliferating against pregnant women. A dramatic infringement on women's rights is the court ordered cesarean section, as illustrated by the case of Angela C., a terminally ill cancer patient, 26 weeks pregnant, whose refusal of a cesarean section was overridden by a District of Columbia court. The premature infant and the mother died within two days. This case epitomizes a developing judicial pattern whose ethical reasoning the author criticizes. Within the context of the right to privacy and the concept of viability, which could legally override that right, Mahowald analyzes different situations where cesarean delivery is refused. After arguing that court ordered cesarean sections are inconsistent with court refusals to force persons to undergo less invasive procedures (e.g., bone marrow donation for the benefit of family members), she proposes alternatives to the present inconsistent practice. PMID:11649241

Mahowald, Mary

1989-04-01

67

Refusal to donate after brain death.  

PubMed

Quality control of the donation process with the use of appropriate validated indicators is fundamental to detect criticalities and plan corrective measures. We report the results of a retrospective study on the quality of interviews with brain-dead donor (BDD) families to obtain consent for organ and tissue donation. Between January 2001 and December 2009, we performed 260 interviews to explore willingness of BDD family members for organ and/or tissue donation. Refusal of donation occurred in 26.5% (69/260) of cases with no significant difference according to the type of intensive care unit or the cause of death. However, the analysis revealed a reduction in refusal rates over the study period from 46.4% in 2001 to 19.5% in 2009. Based on our study, the presence of experienced, committed health care personnel is necessary to reduce refusal rates and increase the available organ donor pool. PMID:21335206

Saviozzi, A; Bozzi, G; De Simone, P; Filipponi, F

2011-01-01

68

Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

Brooks, J.

2012-12-01

69

9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the United States for noncompliance with the...

2013-01-01

70

9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.  

...PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused...

2014-01-01

71

9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused...

2011-01-01

72

9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused...

2012-01-01

73

9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the United States for noncompliance...

2010-01-01

74

Refuse incinerator electrostatic precipitator installation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the specifications, notice to bidders, instruction to bidders, proposal, contract, bonding information and general conditions for the construction and installation of a refuse incinerator pollution control device (electrostatic precipitator). The installation will be used in Dearborn Heights, Michigan during the combustion of municipal solid wastes. (DMC)

Not Available

1984-09-01

75

TIME-SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSED REFUSE. PART III: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MILLED REFUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this laboratory investigation were to gain an understanding of the decomposition of milled refuse under anaerobic conditions, the rates of decomposition, and the gas production and composition. The rates of decomposition of cellulose and cellulosic materials, ga...

76

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2013-07-01

77

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2014-07-01

78

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2012-07-01

79

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2012-07-01

80

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2014-07-01

81

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2010-07-01

82

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2010-07-01

83

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2011-07-01

84

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2011-07-01

85

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse...the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2013-07-01

86

48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right of first refusal. 807.304-77 Section 807...Government Performance 807.304-77 Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause...

2011-10-01

87

48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal. 807.304-77 Section 807...Government Performance 807.304-77 Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause...

2010-10-01

88

The Functional Profiles of School Refusal BehaviorDiagnostic Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

School refusal behavior is a common problem seen by mental health professionals and by educators but little consensus is available as to its classification, assessment, and treatment. This study assessed 143 youth with primary school refusal behavior and their parents to examine diagnoses that are most commonly associated with proposed functions of school refusal behavior. As expected, results indicated that

Christopher A. Kearney; Anne Marie Albano

2004-01-01

89

48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Right of first refusal. 807.304-77 Section 807...Government Performance 807.304-77 Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause...

2012-10-01

90

48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Right of first refusal. 807.304-77 Section 807...Government Performance 807.304-77 Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause...

2013-10-01

91

Training in Evaluation Skills for Drug Treatment and Drug Prevention Professionals in the Commonwealth Caribbean: How Do Non-Governmental and Statutory Services Compare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean there has been a dramatic expansion in drug demand reduction (DDR) programmes over the past decade. Often drawing on models originating in the countries providing the funding in North America or Europe, these activities have often been inadequately monitored and rarely evaluated. The absence of…

Klein, Axel; Day, Marcus

2006-01-01

92

Practical Nursing Education. A Guide for Teaching Basic Concepts and Skills in the Use of Drugs. Pamphlet Number 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to assist teachers in either basic or continuing education programs to convey knowledge, techniques, and attitudes pertaining to drugs, the pamphlet outlines instruction which is estimated to require 70 to 100 hours of which 50 to 80 should be scheduled for classroom work and 20 hours for clinical work. Three units containing concepts…

Smith, Elizabeth M.

93

The cost of refusing treatment and equality of outcome.  

PubMed Central

Patients have a right to refuse medical treatment. But what should happen after a patient has refused recommended treatment? In many cases, patients receive alternative forms of treatment. These forms of care may be less cost-effective. Does respect for autonomy extend to providing these alternatives? How for does justice constrain autonomy? I begin by providing three arguments that such alternatives should not be offered to those who refuse treatment. I argue that the best argument which refusers can appeal to is based on the egalitarian principle of equality of outcome. However, this principle does not ultimately support a right to less cost-effective alternatives. I focus on Jehovah's Witnesses refusing blood and requesting alternative treatments. However, the point applies to many patients who refuse cost-effective medical care. PMID:9752624

Savulescu, J

1998-01-01

94

Map Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Map Skill Activities Map Skills Follow the directions below and write your answers on the worksheet provided. 1. Continents Quiz: Continents Quiz 2. Latitude/Longitude Reviews latitude and longitude quiz latitude/longitude map game lat/long multiple choice quiz 3. Map Scale Map Scale Activity 4.Map Skills map skills game map skills quiz ...

Ali, Mrs.

2010-02-23

95

How To Help Kids Be Sensible, Safe, and Secure. Six Parenting Skills Help Prevent Alcohol/Drug Use and Violence. Good News for Parents Who Worry about Their Kids. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help parents learn the six skills that help children avoid drug abuse and voilence, the Johnson Institute has also developed a video-based package titled "Parenting for Prevention: How To Help Kids Be Sensible, Safe, and Secure." This report draws on the Institute's research on violence by and against children and adolescents to present the six…

Johnson Inst., Minneapolis, MN.

96

Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

1984-01-01

97

The Functional Profiles of School Refusal Behavior: Diagnostic Aspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School refusal behavior is a common problem seen by mental health professionals and by educators but little consensus is available as to its classification, assessment, and treatment. This study assessed 143 youth with primary school refusal behavior and their parents to examine diagnoses that are most commonly associated with proposed functions…

Kearney, Christopher A.; Albano, Anne Marie

2004-01-01

98

36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests...RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited:...

2010-07-01

99

36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests...RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited:...

2013-07-01

100

36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests...RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited:...

2011-07-01

101

36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests...RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited:...

2010-07-01

102

36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests...RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited:...

2012-07-01

103

36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests...RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited:...

2011-07-01

104

36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests...RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited:...

2013-07-01

105

36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests...RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited:...

2012-07-01

106

A Dynamic Inventory Model with the Right of Refusal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a dynamic inventory (production) model with general convex order (production) costs and excess demand that can be accepted or refused by the firm. Excess demand that is accepted is backlogged and results in a backlog cost whereas demand that is refused results in a lost sales charge. Endogenizing the sales decision is appropriate in the presence of general

Sreekumar Bhaskaran; Karthik Ramachandran; John Semple

2010-01-01

107

Functional School Refusal Subtypes: Anxiety, Avoidance, and Malingering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purposes to extend recent efforts concerning school refusal by showing that the three basic subset, anxiety, avoidance, and malingering, are not only functional, but consistent with refusal characteristics, empirical evidence from factor analysis and clinical diagnosis over the past decade, and treatment approaches. Such extension is intended to…

Evans, Larry D.

2000-01-01

108

24 CFR 906.13 - Right of first refusal.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Right of first refusal. 906.13 Section 906.13...Purchaser Requirements § 906.13 Right of first refusal. (a) In selling a public...housing unit, to offer the unit for sale first to the current resident of the...

2014-04-01

109

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01

110

Control/promotion of the refuse methanogenic fermentation.  

PubMed

Although practiced for more than 7 millennia, the landfill disposal of refuse has, as yet, with few exceptions, been merely regarded as a low-cost disposal option and its exploitation potential has been largely ignored. Today, however, a number of possibilities are under consideration including the production of energy, chemical feedstock, value-added chemicals, carbon dioxide and protein; the use of refuse as an anaerobic filter for the co-disposal of industrial wastewater and sludge; and the restoration of impoverished soils by fresh or composted refuse addition. Development of these technologies, however, necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental microbiology and biochemistry of refuse catabolism. Existing fundamental knowledge underpinning these technologies will be considered in a series of review articles. In the first, control/exploitation of the solid-state refuse methanogenic fermentation is examined with specific reference to the effects of first-tier variable manipulations. PMID:2117998

Senior, E; Watson-Craik, I A; Kasali, G B

1990-01-01

111

Patient refusal of thrombolytic therapy for suspected acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with patients refusing IV t-PA for suspected acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and to compare the outcomes of patients who refused t-PA (RT) with those treated with t-PA. METHODS: Patients who were treated with and refused t-PA at our stroke center were identified retrospectively. Demographics, clinical presentation, and outcome measures were collected and compared. Clinical outcome was defined as excellent (mRS: 0-1), good (mRS: 0-2), and poor (mRS: 3-6). RESULTS: Over 7·5 years, 30 (4·2%) patients refused t-PA. There were no demographic differences between the treated and RT groups. The rate of RT decreased over time (OR 0·63, 95% CI 0·50-0·79). Factors associated with refusal included a later symptom onset to emergency department presentation time (OR 1·02, 95% CI 1·01-1·03), lower NIHSS (OR 1·11, 95% CI 1·03-1·18), a higher proportion of stroke mimics (OR 17·61, 95% CI 6·20-50·02) and shorter hospital stay (OR 1·32, 95% CI 1·09-1·61). Among patients who were subsequently diagnosed with ischemic stroke, only length of stay was significantly shorter for refusal patients (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·06-1·78). After controlling for mild strokes and stroke mimics, clinical outcome was not different between the groups (OR 1·61, 95% CI 0·69-3·73). CONCLUSION: The incidence of patients refusing t-PA has decreased over time, yet it may be a cause for t-PA under-utilization. Patients with milder symptoms were more likely to refuse t-PA. Refusal patients presented later to the hospital and had shorter hospital stays. One out of six refusal patients (16·6%) had a stroke mimic. PMID:23227830

Vahidy, F S; Rahbar, M H; Lal, A P; Grotta, J C; Savitz, S I

2012-12-11

112

20 CFR 401.70 - Appeals of refusals to correct records or refusals to allow access to records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...70 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ...receipt. However, for a good reason and with the approval of the...notify you about the delay, the reason for it and the date when the...request has been refused and the reason for refusing; (ii)...

2010-04-01

113

Recycling of aged refuse from a closed landfill.  

PubMed

In this study, refuse excavated from a typical refuse landfill in Shanghai after 8-10 years of placement was characterized in terms of particle size, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and biodegradable matter. The refuse contained a large and diverse population of micro-organisms with a high capacity for decomposing refractory organic matter present in some wastewaters, including leachate. It was found that the aged refuse was quite stable after about a decade of decomposition in the warm, humid climate of southern China. The fine fractions resembled and had the properties of black soil, a medium that is suitable for green construction, organic fertilizer, or as bioreactor media for biological treatment of organic wastewaters. Excavation of the aged refuse would make about 50% of the space available for fresh refuse. The plastics, glass, textiles, and cans can be readily mechanically separated and recycled after cleaning. It is estimated that at least 200 millions tonnes of such aged refuse are available in China alone, and at least 10 times that much is buried worldwide. Hence, the evaluation of mined landfill waste and consideration of its potential uses is of great significance. PMID:17439048

Zhao, Youcai; Song, Liyan; Huang, Renhua; Song, Lijie; Li, Xiong

2007-04-01

114

Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 11 studies, published from the year 1917 to 1910, by Miles, Fiske, Graham, Rowe, Anderson, Marks, Stanley, Johnson, Macht, Isaacs, Greenberg and Lashley on the effects of alcohol, tobacco smoking, drug addiction, addiction to medicines like aspirin, and strychnine and caffeine.

A. T. Poffenberger

1919-01-01

115

Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof [Institute of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, Agicolastrasse 4, 38 678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2009-04-15

116

25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

2010-04-01

117

25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

2011-04-01

118

25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.  

...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

2014-04-01

119

25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

2012-04-01

120

25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.  

... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

2014-04-01

121

25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

2010-04-01

122

25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

2011-04-01

123

25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of...the delivery of water to each of the said Irrigation Districts in the event of default in...

2013-04-01

124

25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

2013-04-01

125

25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is...

2012-04-01

126

Large Steam Generating Units for the Combustion of Refuse  

E-print Network

into heat for process and the generation of power. Interest in the combustion of the most widely distributed waste products, household and industrial municipal refuse, is rapidly escalating. The assembly of a large complex for power and steam production...

Adams, P. J.; Robinson, C. C.

1981-01-01

127

9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be ineligible for...

2013-01-01

128

9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.  

...PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be ineligible for...

2014-01-01

129

28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of inadequate intake or...

2012-07-01

130

28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of inadequate intake or...

2013-07-01

131

28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of inadequate intake or...

2011-07-01

132

28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of inadequate intake or...

2010-07-01

133

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

134

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2011-01-01

135

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

136

9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.  

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

137

Population dynamics of houseflies, Musca domestica , on experimentally accumulated refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The population dynamics of the housefly,Musca domestica, on patchy and unstable habitats consisting of refuse was investigated at a waste disposal site by using sticky flypaper\\u000a and mark-release-recapture technique (Jolly-Seber's method). The newly disposed garbage was favorable for breeding of the flies for about one month after being disposed, while\\u000a a mixture of garbage and ash from incinerated refuse was

Chobei Imai

1984-01-01

138

Jehovah's Witnesses and autonomy: honouring the refusal of blood transfusions.  

PubMed

This paper explores the scriptural and theological reasons given by Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) to refuse blood transfusions. Julian Savulescu and Richard W Momeyer argue that informed consent should be based on rational beliefs and that the refusal of blood transfusions by JWs is irrational, but after examining the reasons given by JWs, I challenge the claim that JW beliefs are irrational. I also question whether we should give up the traditional notion of informed consent. PMID:22790086

Bock, Gregory L

2012-11-01

139

State refusal of federal funding for abstinence-only programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, individual states have refused federal Title V funding for abstinence-only programming. This study explored\\u000a the political, social, and economic forces influencing selected states’ decisions to accept or reject funding. Data were collected\\u000a as structured case studies. Snowball sampling of key informants identified archival materials such as evaluations, governmental\\u000a communications, and public surveys. Refusal states often had progressive governments and

Marissa Raymond; Lylyana Bogdanovich; Dalia Brahmi; Laura Jane Cardinal; Gulielma Leonard Fager; LeighAnn C. Frattarelli; Gabrielle Hecker; Elizabeth Ann Jarpe; Adam Viera; Leslie M. Kantor; John S. Santelli

2008-01-01

140

Conceptual design report of a refuse-fired steam plant  

SciTech Connect

This is a conceptual design report for the installation of a refuse-fired boiler to produce steam. The refuse, mostly paper waste, would come from two adjacent facilities, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The new steam plant, to be located at SNLL, would produce close to 100% of the steam requirements at SNLL. Unfortunately it does not have an attractive payback.

Bedinger, L. B.

1982-08-01

141

Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

Shea, S.

2011-09-01

142

Skill Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

Holdsworth, Tom

2007-01-01

143

CMVO Drug Testing Program Request for Information  

E-print Network

CMVO Drug Testing Program Request for Information TO: RE: Name (First, M.I., Last) Social Security substances testing records. Please complete this form and return it to: University of Florida CMVO Drug or she has tested positive, or refused to test, on any pre-employment drug or alcohol test administered

Mazzotti, Frank

144

Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

1999-07-01

145

Shop Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shop Skills is a lesson plan which provides instruction in the safety procedures and work processes for hand and machine tools used in a metal machine shop. Specific skills include sawing, drilling, boring, grinding, lathing, and milling. After completing this module, students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in these skills through a variety of shop projects and in a final exercise that uses a combination of these skills. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-07-22

146

Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: Two-year follow-up results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-year follow-up data (from inner-city, minority adolescents) were collected to test the effectiveness of 2 skills-based substance abuse prevention programs and were compared both with a control condition and with each other. Students were originally recruited from 6 New York City public schools while in 7th grade. Schools were matched and assigned to receive a generic skills training prevention approach,

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz; Elizabeth M. Botvin

1995-01-01

147

Responding to the refusal of care in the emergency department.  

PubMed

The emergency department (ED) serves as the primary gateway for acute care and the source of health care of last resort. Emergency physicians are commonly expected to rapidly assess and treat patients with a variety of life-threatening conditions. However, patients do refuse recommended therapy, even when the consequences are significant morbidity and even mortality. This raises the ethical dilemma of how emergency physicians and ED staff can rapidly determine whether patient refusal of treatment recommendations is based on intact decision-making capacity and how to respond in an appropriate manner when the declining of necessary care by the patient is lacking a basis in informed judgment. This article presents a case that illustrates the ethical tensions raised by the refusal of life-sustaining care in the ED and how such situations can be approached in an ethically appropriate manner. PMID:24748262

Nelson, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind; Davenport, Moira

2014-01-01

148

Vaccine refusal and the endgame: walking the last mile first  

PubMed Central

As multiple papers within this special issue illustrate, the dynamics of disease eradication are different from disease control. When it comes to disease eradication, ‘the last mile is longest’. For social and ecological reasons such as vaccine refusal, further ending incidence of a disease when it has reached low levels is frequently complex. Issues of non-compliance within a target population often influence the outcome of disease eradication efforts. Past eradication efforts confronted such obstacles towards the tail end of the campaign, when disease incidence was lowest. This article provides a comparison of non-compliance within polio, measles and smallpox campaigns, demonstrating the tendency of vaccine refusal to rise as disease incidence falls. In order to overcome one of the most intractable challenges to eradication, future disease eradication efforts must prioritize vaccine refusal from the start, i.e. ‘walk the last mile first’. PMID:23798696

Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Omer, Saad B.

2013-01-01

149

Psychosocial Interventions for School Refusal Behavior in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for school refusal behavior. Data corresponding to eight experimental single-case and seven group-design studies are presented. Across studies, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments emerged as promising lines of intervention. These interventions produced improvements in school attendance and youths’symptom levels (e.g., anxiety, fear, depression, anger) based on this study’s examination of effect sizes. The article concludes with suggestions for interventionists, researchers, and policymakers attempting to deal with the problem of school refusal. PMID:20161056

Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Ortiz, Claudio D.

2009-01-01

150

In jail for refusing to testify: is forced feeding justified?  

PubMed

On 16 November 1983, a U.S. District Court judge granted the federal government's request that prison officials be allowed to force feed Ramon Sanchez, a hunger striking prisoner. Levine briefly describes the events leading to the court's involvement and summarizes the reasoning behind its decision. Declining to draw an analogy between the prisoner's refusing food and a patient's refusing life-prolonging treatment, the judge ruled that force feeding was permissible because Sanchez's hunger strike was motivated by his desire to escape prison and frustrate the authority of the courts, and not by religious or political convictions. PMID:11644129

Levine, Carol

1984-02-01

151

Making decisions for incapable adults. 2: Advanced decisions refusing care.  

PubMed

In the second article focussing on the provisions of the new Mental Capacity Act 2005, Richard Griffith considers the impact on district nurse practice of advanced decisions refusing health care, that will allow a person to refuse even life-sustaining treatment in incapacity, and lasting powers of attorney, that will allow a person to appoint one or more people to make decisions concerning their personal welfare and property and affairs. For the first time in England and Wales a person will be able to appoint another to make consent-to-treatment decisions on their behalf that will be binding on district nurses and other health professionals. PMID:16723907

Griffith, Richard

2006-04-01

152

7 CFR 800.50 - Refusal of official services and civil penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indefinitely, by the Service for causes prescribed in section 10...proceeding whenever the Service has reason to believe there is cause, as prescribed in section...service will be refused, and the reasons for the refusal; and...

2010-01-01

153

14 CFR 382.19 - May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability? 382.19 Section 382...REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination...refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability? (a) As a...

2010-01-01

154

NIOSH Alert: Preventing Worker Injuries and Deaths from Moving Refuse Collection Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Alert described six fatal incidents involving moving refuse collection vehicles and offered recommendations for preventing such incidents. Between 1980 and 1992, 450 workers aged 16 or older died in incidents related to refuse collection. Of these, 3...

1997-01-01

155

Descriptive Analyses of Pediatric Food Refusal and Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior typically include conditions to determine if the contingent delivery of attention, tangible items, or escape reinforce food refusal. In the current investigation, descriptive analyses were conducted for 25 children who had been admitted to a program for the assessment and treatment of food…

Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Woods, Julia N.; Borrero, John C.; Masler, Elizabeth A.; Lesser, Aaron D.

2010-01-01

156

Documenting Parental Refusal to Have Their Children Vaccinated  

Microsoft Academic Search

All parents and patients should be informed about the risks and benefits of preventive and therapeutic procedures, including vaccination. In the case of vaccination, federal law mandates this discussion. Despite doctors' and nurses' best efforts to explain the importance of vaccines and to address parental concerns about vaccine safety, some families will refuse vaccination for their children. Others will ultimately

Judith S. Palfrey; Renée R. Jenkins; Edward N. Bailey

157

Beyond Misguided Paternalism: Resuscitating the Right to Refuse Medical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author focuses on the failure of the courts to provide a remedy for the right to refuse medical treatment. Health care providers, for a number of reasons, often ignore patient requests to forgo certain life-extending medical procedures. The courts have generally allowed medical professionals complete discretion in deciding whether to honor patients' requests. When patientsor their estates sue health

S. Elizabeth Malloy

1998-01-01

158

43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

2011-10-01

159

43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

2010-10-01

160

43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of this...

2012-10-01

161

43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

2013-10-01

162

Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.  

PubMed

The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204

Rajtar, Ma?gorzata

2013-12-01

163

Taking a Line for a Walk: Including School Refusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the experience of a group of young people who experienced difficulty attending school. Young people's reasons for not attending school and the support provided for them by their teachers are examined. Finally, an analysis based on a shift in identity from school refuser to effective learner is offered as an explanation for the students' success in coping

George Head; Sandy Jamieson

2006-01-01

164

Design and Thermal Balance of Boilers for Processing Municipal Refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for thermal processing of the municipal refuse (MR) has evolved through a long history — from smallsize ovens without heat recovery, equipped with rudimentary facilities for combustion product treatment, to powerful, modern, environment-friendly plants for generating thermal and electric energy. During the course of boiler evolution, the technical requirements placed on boilers’ operation likewise underwent change. At present, a

A. I. Tugov; M. A. Izyumov; V. M. Supranov

2002-01-01

165

Treating Total Liquid Refusal with Backward Chaining and Fading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study of a 12-year-old boy with autism, mental retardation, and a history of severe gastrointestinal problems, who refused liquids and food, backward chaining was used to shape drinking from a cup and a fading procedure was used to increase the water he was required to drink. (Author/CR)

Hagopian, Louis P.; And Others

1996-01-01

166

Combustion of refuse-derived fuel in a fluidised bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a medium to maximise the resources recovery from municipal solid waste, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution in industrialised countries. RDF is a value added material with a higher calorific value and a homogeneous particle size. The main objective of this study was to investigate the RDF combustion characteristics and the associated pollutant emissions in a

Francisco D. Hernandez-Atonal; Changkook Ryu; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

2007-01-01

167

30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...topographic map of equivalent scale if a USGS map is not available...topographic map showing at a scale not to exceed 1 inch=400...the refuse pile. (7) At a scale not to exceed 1 inch=100...approximate original ground surface, the present...

2010-07-01

168

37 CFR 2.184 - Refusal of renewal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...response to the refusal of renewal within six months of...registrant may file a complete new renewal application. (2) The...corporate officer or general partner of a partnership), or a practitioner...e)(2). (c) If the renewal application is not filed...

2010-07-01

169

Combining Stimulus Fading, Reinforcement, and Extinction To Treat Food Refusal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food refusal of a 6-year-old girl with autism and destructive behavior was treated using stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. Intake increased, and compliance with prompting procedures remained relatively stable despite the increased consumption requirement. (Author/CR)

Freeman, Kurt A.; Piazza, Cathleen C.

1998-01-01

170

Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

2009-01-01

171

48 CFR 52.207-3 - Right of First Refusal of Employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of First Refusal of Employment. 52.207-3...Provisions and Clauses 52.207-3 Right of First Refusal of Employment. As prescribed...insert the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment (MAY...

2010-10-01

172

48 CFR 52.207-3 - Right of First Refusal of Employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right of First Refusal of Employment. 52.207-3...Provisions and Clauses 52.207-3 Right of First Refusal of Employment. As prescribed...insert the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment (MAY...

2011-10-01

173

Methane production from municipal refuse: A review of enhancement techniques and microbial dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane is recovered from about 100 municipal solid waste landfills in the U.S. in saleable volumes, although yields are 1 to 50% of the methane potential of refuse based on biodegradability data. Studies on the microbiology of refuse decomposition and efforts to enhance refuse methanogenesis are reviewed here. Results of studies on the effects of leachate recycle and neutralization, a

Morton A. Barlaz; Robert K. Ham; Daniel M. Schaefer; Ron Isaacson

1990-01-01

174

Biogeography-Based Optimization Combined with Evolutionary Strategy and Immigration Refusal  

E-print Network

Biogeography-Based Optimization Combined with Evolutionary Strategy and Immigration Refusal Dawei for BBO mod- ification. Also, a new immigration refusal approach is added to BBO. After the modification, immigration refusal. I. INTRODUCTION The research area of heuristic optimization algorithms has been

Simon, Dan

175

48 CFR 52.207-3 - Right of First Refusal of Employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Right of First Refusal of Employment. 52.207-3...Provisions and Clauses 52.207-3 Right of First Refusal of Employment. As prescribed...insert the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment (MAY...

2013-10-01

176

Refusal of treatment and decision-making capacity.  

PubMed

This article explores refusal of medical treatment by adult patients from ethical and legal perspectives. Initially, consequentialist and deontological ethical theory are outlined. The concepts of autonomy, paternalism and competence are described and an overview of Beauchamp and Childress's principle-based approach to moral reasoning is given. Relevant common law is discussed and the provisions of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 in assessing competence is evaluated. In order to demonstrate the consideration of moral issues in clinical practice, ethical theory is applied to two well-known incidents: the case of Re MB, where doubt over decision-making capacity led to a paternalistic act to override a patient's choice; and the death of Emma Gough, a situation where respect for autonomy prevailed when healthcare staff acted lawfully in following a patient's refusal of life-saving treatment. Finally, guidance from regulatory bodies on the roles and responsibilities of health professionals in relation to this topic are considered. PMID:22298647

Bingham, Sarah-Louise

2012-01-01

177

Short term outcome in babies refused perinatal intensive care  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To compare the mortality in babies refused admission to a regional perinatal centre with that in babies accepted for intensive care in the centre. DESIGN--Retrospective study with group comparison. SETTING--Based at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast, with follow up of patients in all obstetric units in Northern Ireland. PATIENTS--Requests for transfer of 675 babies to the regional perinatal centre (prenatally

H. Sidhu; R. N. Heasley; C. C. Patterson; H. L. Halliday; W. Thompson

1989-01-01

178

Large Steam Generating Units for the Combustion of Refuse  

E-print Network

LARGE STEAM GENERATING UNITS FOR THE COMBUSTION OF REFUSE P. J. Adams and C. C. Robinson Foster Wheeler Limited, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada INTRODUCTION Many by-products of our economy are considered "waste" and are disposed... of as landfill or by incineration. A shortage of landfill sites and increasingly higher fuel prices have stimulated interests in the conversion of burnable waste products into heat for process and the generation of power. Interest in the combustion...

Adams, P. J.; Robinson, C. C.

179

Prospects for the Gasification of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF)  

E-print Network

PROSPECTS FOR THE GASIFICATION OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL (RDF) Kenneth L. Woodruff Banyan Technology Corporation Dallas, Texas Robin F.W. Guard Omnifuel Gasification Systems, Ltd. Toronto, Ontario ABSTRACT Fluidized-bed gasification... from the primary disc screen under size fraction. The remaining shredded, non-magnetic fraction, consisting primarily of combustible mate rials is presently landfilled, but will be further processed to produce RDF acceptable for use in the Omnifuel...

Woodruff, K. L.; Guard, R. F. W.

1983-01-01

180

Cognition-Enhancing Drugs: Can We Say No?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative analysis of cognition-enhancing drugs frequently weighs the liberty interests of drug users against egalitarian values. Yet those who would refuse to engage in neuroenhancement may well find their liberty to do so limited in a society where such drugs are widespread. To the extent that unvarnished emotional responses are world-disclosive, neurocosmetics also threaten to foist faulty data upon all

Frank Pasquale

2010-01-01

181

75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...135-117A] RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction AGENCY...Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing regulations published on May 14...describing refusals to submit to drug or alcohol tests; directed readers to an...

2010-01-20

182

Cognition-Enhancing Drugs: Can We Say No?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normative analysis of cognition-enhancing drugs frequently weighs the liberty interests of drug users against egalitarian values. Yet those who would refuse to engage in neuroenhancement may well find their liberty to do so limited in a society where such drugs are widespread. To the extent that unvarnished emotional responses are…

Pasquale, Frank

2010-01-01

183

Enhanced cover methods for surface coal refuse reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Controlling acid rock drainage (ARD) can be a major component of surface mining reclamation. An enhanced reclamation cover system is being constructed to control infiltration of rain water and generation of ARD from coal-refuse disposal areas at a closed mine in southern Illinois. Development of the mine reclamation plan required consideration of ARD generation in coal refuse disposal areas located adjacent to an alluvial aquifer used for public water supply. An integrated site characterization was performed at the mine to provide information to develop and support the enhanced reclamation plan. The enhanced cover system is similar to covers required for municipal solid waste landfills by the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subtitle D regulations. The system comprises a graded and compacted gob layer, overlain by a compacted clay liner, and a protective soil cover. The results of infiltration modeling and analyses showed that the standard reclamation cover is effective in reducing infiltration by about 18 percent compared to an unreclaimed coal-refuse surface. The modeling results showed that the inhanced cover system should reduce infiltration by about 84 percent. The geochemical modeling results showed that the reduction in infiltration would help minimize ARD generation and contribute to an earlier reclamation of the mine site.

Gentile, L.F.; Cargill, K.W. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States); McGarvie, S.D. [Peabody Coal Company, Graham, KY (United States)

1997-12-31

184

Skills Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

Canter, Patricia; And Others

185

Employability Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center will help students understand and develop their own set of personal employability skills, such as communication and teamwork. The activity aims to help students understand the importance of communication and teamwork in a business setting. The lesson should require one class period to complete.

2011-03-03

186

Do competence skills moderate the impact of social influences to drink and perceived social benefits of drinking on alcohol use among inner-city adolescents?  

PubMed

Only a few studies have found competence skills to be a protective factor against adolescent alcohol use; others did not find a direct effect on alcohol. A possible reason for this is that competence skills may moderate the effects of risk factors for alcohol use and that aspect has not been examined often or in a longitudinal design. This study tested whether several competence skills served either as direct protective factors against alcohol use or moderators of the impact of social risk factors on alcohol use. Participants (N = 1318) completed questionnaires that included measures of decision-making skills, refusal skill techniques, resisting media influences, friends' drinking and perceived social benefits of drinking, as well as current drinking amount and future drinking at baseline, one-year follow-up and two-year follow-up. Data analyses were conducted using multi-level mixed effects generalized linear models with random intercept. All the competence skills and the risk factors predicted current and future drinking. Several significant interactions were found between (1) perceived social benefits of drinking and decision-making skills, (2) perceived social benefits of drinking and refusal skill techniques and (3) friends' drinking and refusal skill techniques. Competence skills served as protective factors, as well as moderators. One possible reason that competence enhancement approaches to alcohol prevention are effective may be due to the inclusion of the competence skills component. PMID:17106653

Epstein, Jennifer A; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Bang, Heejung; Botvin, Gilbert J

2007-03-01

187

Skill puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are short exercises that allow students practice with concepts in Structural Geology, Tectonics, or Geophysics. (Many of them were designed with Eric Horsman.) The basic idea is to give students opportunities for frequent practice with difficult concepts, many of which require spatial visualization skills. These activities nearly always fit on a half-sheet of paper, and include a visual and verbal component. Instructors may use them for formative assessment or as group activities in class.

Titus, Sarah

188

Evaluating municipal policy: an analysis of a refuse packaging program1  

PubMed Central

The effect of a municipal enforcement program to improve residents' packaging of refuse was analyzed in a multiple-baseline design across two areas of a city. The enforcement program involved instruction concerning refuse-packaging regulations, collection only of appropriately packaged refuse, and feedback notices to residents concerning the reasons for noncollection of their inadequately packaged refuse. Both the number of violations and the percentage of residences violating each day were markedly reduced during the enforcement program. Furthermore, sanitation workers considered that the packaging of refuse and the safety and efficiency of refuse collection had improved. This study served as a pilot evaluation of a policy change in the city sanitation department, and was functional in determining the direction of that policy. PMID:16795562

Stokes, Trevor F.; Fawcett, Stephen B.

1977-01-01

189

Composting of food refuse from a student restaurant in Hokkaido University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of 21 months, we composted food refuse from a student restaurant in Hokkaido University using a commercially\\u000a available composting machine. The machine had two reactors, each with a working volume of 250?l. The refuse was mixed with\\u000a sawdust in a ratio of 5?l sawdust to 10?kg refuse, and this mixture was fed into the machine daily. We

Takeki Maeda; Juzo Matsuda; Hiroshi Nakashima; Koichi Yoshida; Joji Suzuki

2000-01-01

190

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

191

Making drugs accessible.  

PubMed

Making drugs accessible for common HIV-associated illnesses in West Africa is discussed. HIV-positive people in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, could not afford drugs for treating their illnesses; thus, volunteers from La Bergerie-FUC, a Christian organization, have established a day care center for HIV-positive people. A French church supplies the drugs; oral rehydration salts are provided through the Ministry of Health. Since the organization did not have enough drugs to meet the needs of all its patients, two strategies were developed to improve its drug supply. The first strategy was to raise money to buy drugs through the support of a local NGO, the Initiative Privee et Communautaire de lutte contre le SIDA (IPC). IPC initially refused to support them, but, eventually agreed to fund drug purchasing as a pilot project. The second strategy was to look at ways of reducing the cost of drugs, which resulted in a list of essential drugs for HIV-associated infections. The list was approved by Care and Support Committee of the national AIDS program for use by other organizations. The organizations have created a national network to improve the delivery of community-based care and support services in Burkina Faso. Recently, the national AIDS program has asked this network to help them change the national essential drugs list to include essential drugs for treating common HIV-associated infections. PMID:12349193

1999-01-01

192

Health facilities' obligations when a patient refuses treatment.  

PubMed

Recent cases involving the decisions of Elizabeth Bouvia and G. Ross Henninger to starve themselves to death highlight the ethical obligations of patients, health care facilities, and the courts. When a patient seeks the hospital's cooperation in his or her attempt to commit suicide, society's responsibility is not merely to restrain the patient from suicide but to offer physical care, financial aid, and personal support. The hospital's duty is to intervene, and the court's responsibility is to allow such intervention. The most compassionate way in which the hospital can help is to force-feed the patient. If a patient is mentally competent, the refusal to eat is morally wrong. The patient is morally not permitted to commit suicide, though the avoidance of treatment may be justified in cases when force-feeding would be considered an extraordinary means, because of the patient's age or physical condition, for example. If a patient is incompetent, the refusal to eat is not a fully rational act; for the hospital to refrain from force-feeding would not be considered cooperation in suicide, since the incompetent patient cannot commit suicide. To avoid court rulings that order compliance with a patient's wishes, health care facilities in the future may have to require patients or their families to agree in writing to treatment by ordinary means. PMID:10268324

Gallagher, J

1984-09-01

193

[Vaccine refusal and implications for public health in 2012].  

PubMed

Public opposition to vaccination is growing in all western countries, resulting in poor vaccine coverage and failure, as exemplified by measles in Europe. Opposition to vaccination ranges from radical refusal to hesitation, negligence or omission. The fear of adverse effects is now stronger than the fear of infectious diseases. The benefits of vaccination for vanishing infectious diseases can be hard to perceive. Safety alerts, false messages spread by the media and internet, and mistrust of experts also play a part. Studies consistently show that parents of children who are inadequately vaccinated or not vaccinated at all suffer from a lack of reliable information. More information on vaccines is needed, especially on the risk-benefit ratio. Doctors and other healthcare professionals need better training in vaccines, infectious diseases and epidemiology; and college students must receive better scientific education if they are to understand public health messages. Free, compulsory or recommended vaccination, and changes in vaccine schedules, cannot alone overcome vaccine refusal. In France, better coordination is needed among the institutions responsible for vaccination. The growing influence of the media and internet calls for international reflection on how to limit the spread of false information on vaccines. PMID:23472350

Bégué, Pierre

2012-03-01

194

Rationality, religion and refusal of treatment in an ambulance revisited.  

PubMed

In their recent article, Erbay et al considered whether a seriously injured patient should be able to refuse treatment if the refusal was based on a (mis)interpretation of religious doctrine. They argued that in such a case 'what is important…is whether the teaching or philosophy used as a reference point has been in fact correctly perceived' (p 653). If it has not been, they asserted that this eroded the patient's capacity to make an autonomous decision and that therefore, in such cases, it is the role of the healthcare professional (HCP) to 'assist patients to think more clearly and rationally' (p 653). There are, however, a number of problems with the reasons why Erbay et al suggest we should help patients to rationalise their decisions and how HCPs should go about this. In this article, the author explores some of their main arguments regarding consent and rationality (particularly in relation to religious beliefs), as well as Erbay et al's normative claim that HCPs have an obligation to promote autonomy by helping patients to come to a 'rational' decision. Ultimately, the author agrees that the (temporary) solution to the dilemma presented in this scenario (which was to insert an intravenous cannula into the patient in order to allow an infusion of fluids in the event that he changed his mind) seemed both pragmatic and ethically permissible. However, it is suggested that the arguments which underpin this conclusion in Erbay et al's article are largely unsound. PMID:22593178

McMahon-Parkes, Kate

2013-09-01

195

21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.  

21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...recommendations. 316.14 Section 316.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... (iv) The regulatory and marketing history of the drug to determine the scope...

2014-04-01

196

21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...recommendations. 316.14 Section 316.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... (iv) The regulatory and marketing history of the drug to determine the scope...

2012-04-01

197

21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...recommendations. 316.14 Section 316.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... (iv) The regulatory and marketing history of the drug to determine the scope...

2010-04-01

198

21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...recommendations. 316.14 Section 316.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... (iv) The regulatory and marketing history of the drug to determine the scope...

2013-04-01

199

21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...recommendations. 316.14 Section 316.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... (iv) The regulatory and marketing history of the drug to determine the scope...

2011-04-01

200

Skills for Adolescence. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lions Quest "Skills for Adolescence" is a schoolwide program designed for middle school students (grades 6-8). The program was designed to promote good citizenship skills, core character values, and social-emotional skills and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol, and violence. The program includes a classroom curriculum, schoolwide practices to…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

201

Pervasive refusal syndrome as part of the refusal–withdrawal–regression spectrum: critical review of the literature illustrated by a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) is a rare child psychiatric disorder characterized by pervasive refusal, active\\/angry resistance\\u000a to help and social withdrawal leading to an endangered state. Little has been written about PRS. A literature search yielded\\u000a only 15 relevant articles, all published between 1991 and 2006. This article presents a critical review of the published literature,\\u000a illustrated by a case

Tine Jaspers; G. M. J. Hanssen; Judith A. van der Valk; Johann H. Hanekom; Gijs Th. J. van Well; Jan N. M. Schieveld

2009-01-01

202

Youth In Action: Youth Preventing Drug Abuse. Bulletin No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drug prevention projects have proven successful in curtailing drug activity and the violence associated with it. An effective drug prevention project can educate children, youth, and adults about the dangers of illegal drugs. It can provide skills to help...

S. Bilchik

1998-01-01

203

Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

2009-01-01

204

Logistical and ergonomic transportation capacity for refuse collection workers: a work physiology field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a work physiology field study, the work flow and the electrocardiogram were recorded throughout whole shifts for six male refuse (garbage) collection workers who transported and emptied 1·1 m refuse containers. The work rate (WR), indicated by the number of 1·1 m containers emptied per unit of time, and the work pulse rate (WPR) were determined in the data

ALWIN LUTTMANN; WOLFGANG LAURIG; MATTHIAS JÄGER

1992-01-01

205

Pollution generation, migration and in situ control measures on coal refuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal refuse, from coal mining and coal processing, is the most important source of coal mine. Based on the analysis of the contamination and its migration, some countermeasures on the control of contamination in situ were put forward. The research showed that: the contamination of coal refuse was mainly due to the existence of a large number of pollutants, open-air

Zhen-qi Hu; Ming-liang Zhang; Sheng-hua Chen; Bao-guo Ma; Yan-ling Zhao; Jing Li

2009-01-01

206

Fate of municipal refuse deposited in sanitary landfills and leachate treatability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfilling has been used for many years as the most common and economical means of domestic refuse disposal generated by society. Municipal refuse being deposited in a sanitary landfill will be subjected to an array of complex interactive physical, chemical, and biological processes involving partitioning of waste constituents among the vapor, solid or the aqueous phases.Initially, decomposition of a load

1992-01-01

207

Anaerobic biodegradability of cellulose and hemicellulose in excavated refuse samples using a biochemical methane potential assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Improved techniques are needed to predict potential methane generation from refuse buried in landfills. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test was used to measure the methane potential of ten refuse samples excavated from a Berkeley, CA, landfill. The test was conducted in 125-ml serum bottles containing phosphate-buffered medium and inoculated with anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Comparison of the measured

Yu-Sheng Wang; Caroline S. Byrd; Morton A. Barlaz

1994-01-01

208

A Case-Control Study of Emotion Regulation and School Refusal in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study aimed to investigate emotion regulation (ER) strategy use in a sample of 21 clinic-referred children and adolescents (10-14 years old) presenting with school refusal, all of whom were diagnosed with at least one anxiety disorder. Being the first known study to examine ER and school refusal, hypotheses were guided by previous…

Hughes, Elizabeth K.; Gullone, Eleonora; Dudley, Amanda; Tonge, Bruce

2010-01-01

209

Forms and functions of school refusal behavior in youth: an empirical analysis of absenteeism severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: School refusal behavior is a particularly nettlesome problem for mental health and education professionals because of its symptom severity and heterogeneity as well as lack of consensus regarding inclusive classification strategies. Alternatively, a functional model of school refusal behavior may provide a particularly useful way of organizing, assessing, and treating this popula- tion. Method: The present study included 222

Christopher A. Kearney

2007-01-01

210

30 CFR 253.50 - How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? 253...Revocation and Penalties § 253.50 How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? (a) If MMS determines that any OSFR evidence you...

2010-07-01

211

Domiciliary and day care services: Why do people with dementia refuse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the reasons given for refusal of day services, and to examine the relationship between willingness to accept day services and clinical variables.Method: Fifty people with dementia who lived alone and had refused day services were interviewed.Results: The most common reasons for reluctance to attend day services were the belief that they did not need day services, that

Marianne Durand; Aroushka James; Aruna Ravishankar; J. S. Bamrah; Nitin B. Purandare

2009-01-01

212

Microbial ecology studies at two coal mine refuse sites in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the microflora associated with coal refuse at two abandoned mines in the midwestern United States. Information was gathered for both the edaphic and the biotic composition of the refuse material. Emphasis was placed on heterotrophic and autotrophic components as to numbers, kinds, and physiological groups. The presence of chemolithotrophs was also investigated. The relationship between

R. M. Miller; R. E. Cameron

1978-01-01

213

Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2011-01-01

214

DSM skills are marketing skills  

SciTech Connect

Skeptics may view DSM as a convenient cover for using ratepayer funds (in the form of rebates and other financial inducements) to keep customers on the grid, thus providing electric utilities with an unfair competitive advantage. Actually, the most powerful advantages may result from the marketing skills DSM fosters. Put simply, DSM teaches utilities to understand and meet customer needs more effectively. Managing customers use of electricity has taught utilities unprecedented amounts about specific end-use technologies, about customers fuel and equipment selection practices and preferences, and about what it costs to serve their customers. As DSM programs have become more market-driven, utilities have become better communicators and salesmen in order to win customer participation. The result: DSM departments play an increasingly central role in managing customer relationships overall and in developing and implementing competitive strategies.

Stone, C. (Easton Consultants, Inc., Stamford, CT (United States))

1993-10-01

215

Standardizing and Evaluating the "Presenter" Variable in the Peer vs. Adult Debate in Youth Drug Prevention Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "train-the-trainer" workshop was developed to evaluate and enhance presentational skills and offered to 14 youth in grades 6-12 and 9 administrators from youth-focused community agencies in Indiana. Upon workshop completion, 7 youth and 6 adults functioned as presenters of a 1 1/2-hour module on refusal and resistance skills to 95 youth enrolled…

Hobson, Charles J.; McCarthy, Heather; Murff, Sherice; Thomas, Adrienne; Rosetti, Desila; Murillo, Natalie G.

2009-01-01

216

20 CFR 10.517 - What are the penalties for refusing to accept a suitable job offer?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employee who refuses to seek suitable work, or refuses to or neglects to work after suitable work is offered to or arranged for...is not entitled to compensation. An employee who refuses or neglects to work after suitable work has been offered or secured...

2010-04-01

217

48 CFR 252.222-7001 - Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military...And Clauses 252.222-7001 Right of first refusal of employment—Closure of military...use the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment—Closure of...

2011-10-01

218

48 CFR 252.222-7001 - Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military...And Clauses 252.222-7001 Right of first refusal of employment—Closure of military...use the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment—Closure of...

2010-10-01

219

48 CFR 252.222-7001 - Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military...And Clauses 252.222-7001 Right of first refusal of employment—Closure of military...use the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment—Closure of...

2012-10-01

220

48 CFR 252.222-7001 - Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military...And Clauses 252.222-7001 Right of first refusal of employment—Closure of military...use the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment—Closure of...

2013-10-01

221

Identification and mapping of coal refuse banks and other targets in the anthracite region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 MSS data covering parts of Pennsylvania's southern and eastern middle anthracite coal fields were studied to determine how well accumulations of coal refuse could be identified and mapped by computer analysis and processing. Spectral signatures of coal refuse targets were similar to water, but had higher reflectances in all channels. Relative reflectances were in the order 4 5 or = 6 7. Although no underflight photography was at hand to judge mapping success, correlation was made, with 1:24,000 scale U.S.G.S. maps dated 1947 and 1948. Coal refuse targets correlated well with existing maps.

Borden, F. Y.; Thompson, D. N.; Lachowski, H. M.

1973-01-01

222

Coal refuse site inventories. [reclamation survey using color-IR photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-scale color-infrared aerial photography at 1:120,000 scale is used to carry out an operational survey of coal refuse sites. Site analyses and reclamation cost estimates are completed in less than 90 days by using remote sensing techniques. Analysis of photographs provided dependable and accurate data for the location and environmental assessment of nearly 200 coal refuse banks and slurry ponds. The inventory constitutes a comprehensive reference for establishing priorities for coal refuse site reclamation and for complementing future field surveys.

Wobber, F. J.; Wier, C. E.; Leshendok, T.; Beeman, W.

1975-01-01

223

drug discovery drug discovery  

E-print Network

drug discovery at Purdue #12;drug discovery 2 #12;drug discovery 3 Introduction The drug discovery and innovative drug candidates to treat chronic and acute illnesses. Our researchers also continue to be invested in various approaches to drug discovery, which include understanding of drug targets for future drug

224

Core competence (knowledge) (skill)  

E-print Network

Core competence 8 5~8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PPS003 Ver. 1.1 2011/03/07 #12; 2 (knowledge) (skill) (attitude) Set of skill, knowledge or attitude which should be learned or acquired by each, 2000) (knowledge) (skill) (attitude) Set of skill, knowledge or attitude which should be learned

Wu, Yih-Min

225

Drug excipients.  

PubMed

The therapeutical use of drugs involves the application of dosage forms, serving as carrier systems together with several excipients to deliver the active ingredient to the site of action. Drug delivery technology combines an understanding of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology with the skill of formulation, aiming the preparation of improved pharmaceuticals. The recently introduced Biopharmaceutical Classification System provides guidance for dosage form design, taking the molecular and physico-chemical properties of drugs into consideration through their solubility and permeability characteristics. Pharmaceutical excipients used for oral dosage form have been traditionally assumed as being inert. However, recent experience and new results have shown that they can interact with the active drug ingredient, affecting its dissolution, absorption and bioavailability. Classification of the excipients is based on their role in the pharmaceutical formulation and on their interactions influencing drug delivery, based on their chemical and physico-chemical properties. The main classes are the antioxidants, coating materials, emulgents, taste- and smell-improvers, ointment bases, conserving agents, consistency-improvers and disintegrating materials. Some of the excipients may serve multiple purposes; for example, methylcellulose is a coating material, is applied in the preparation of suspensions, to increase viscosity, as a disintegrating agent or binder in tablets. The aim of this paper is to review the drug-excipients with respect to their chemistry, importance and interactions altering the pharmacokinetics of the drug substances. Emphasis will be given to two major classes of excipients: the antioxidants and disintegrants (substances facilitating disintegration of the drug tablets in the gastro-intestinal tract). Details will be given on the mechanisms through which they can alter drug effectiveness and tolerance, and control their application. Examples and references will be given for their analysis. PMID:17017910

Kalász, Huba; Antal, István

2006-01-01

226

Rages and refusals. Managing the many faces of adolescent anxiety.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with a practical approach to recognition, assessment, and treatment of adolescent anxiety disorders complicated by avoidance or oppositional behaviour. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current literature was searched via MEDLINE using the MeSH headings Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders, focusing on epidemiology, clinical presentations in adolescence, and both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment. In addition, internationally accepted diagnostic criteria, current practice guidelines, and recent textbooks by recognized experts were reviewed. Research evidence and consensus recommendations were integrated with a practical approach developed in a provincial mood and anxiety disorders clinic. MAIN FINDINGS: Anxiety disorders are common in adolescents, with estimated prevalence of at least 10%. Substance abuse and avoiding school are common complications, and irritability with behavioural and rage problems can interfere with effective management. Current controlled research is examining the effectiveness of serotonergic medications known to benefit panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety in adults. While cognitive and behavioural treatments are effective for some child and adolescent anxiety disorders, they can be difficult to administer, and a supportive and psychoeducational approach could be as effective for those who refuse to go to school. CONCLUSION: Family physicians' awareness of the role of anxiety in adolescent school avoidance and in intense, oppositional emotional reactions at home can lead to more specific assessment and therapeutic intervention. Practical management strategies are recommended. PMID:11398717

Garland, E. J.

2001-01-01

227

Turning refuse plastic into multi-walled carbon nanotube forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and effective method was devised for synthesizing a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on a substrate using waste plastic obtained from commercially available water bottles. The advantages of the proposed method are the speed of processing and the use of waste as a raw material. A mechanism for the CNT growth was also proposed. The growth rate of the CNT forest was ~2.5??m?min-1. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the outer diameters of the CNTs were 20-30?nm on average. The intensity ratio of the G and D Raman bands was 1.27 for the vertically aligned CNT forest. The Raman spectrum showed that the wall graphitization of the CNTs, synthesized via the proposed method was slightly higher than that of commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We expect that the proposed method can be easily adapted to the disposal of other refuse materials and applied to MWCNT production industries.

Oh, Eugene; Lee, Jaegeun; Jung, Seung-Ho; Cho, Seungho; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Kun-Hong; Song, Kyong-Hwa; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Han, Do Suck

2012-04-01

228

[Pollutants produced in municipal refuse container during transfer process].  

PubMed

The generation and variation of the secondary pollutants in containers during seasons of a year were investigated in a municipal refuse transfer station of Shanghai. The results showed that the primary odors, the concentration of H2S was in a range of 0.3-10.3 mg.m-3, CH4 was in a range of 0.02% -2.97% and NH3 was in a range of 0.7-4.5 mg m-3, and their concentrations all reached the peak in the summer. The pH of the leachate was in a range of 5.4-6. 3, COD was 41 633-84 060 mgL- 1, and BOD, was 18 116-34 130 mg.L , the concentration of pollutants were all higher in winter than that in summer. The ammonia concentration of leachate was in a range of 537-1222 mg.L'', while the TP fluctuated acutely in a range of 17.98-296 mg L-1, exhibiting the relationship with seasonal variation. Extreme temperatures especially the high temperature in summer significantly affected air pollution producing, which indicated that containers should be kept against high temperature exposure and long residence time in order to prevent flammable gases and other pollutants generated largely. PMID:25055698

Wang, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Yin-Hua; Wang, Fei; Huang, Chang-Ying; Lu, Feng; Xie, Bing

2014-05-01

229

LEADERSHIP, ACTION, SKILLS, PREVENTION, LEADERSHIP,  

E-print Network

TRAINING GUIDE LEADERSHIP, ACTION, SKILLS, PREVENTION, LEADERSHIP, ACTION, SKILLS, PREVENTION, LEADERSHIP, ACTION, SKILLS, PREVENTION, LEADERSHIP, ACTION, SKILLS, PREVENTION, LEADERSHIP, ACTION, SKILLS, PREVENTION, LEADERSHIP, DAIRY SAFETY WORKER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH TRAINING AND EDUCATION PROGRAM

Leistikow, Bruce N.

230

30 CFR 553.50 - How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?  

...50 Section 553.50 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Revocation and Penalties § 553.50 How can BOEM refuse or...

2014-07-01

231

7 CFR 319.8-3 - Refusal and cancellation of permits.  

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-3...covers that have been used for cotton, may be refused...

2014-01-01

232

7 CFR 319.8-3 - Refusal and cancellation of permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-3...covers that have been used for cotton, may be refused...

2013-01-01

233

7 CFR 319.8-3 - Refusal and cancellation of permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-3...covers that have been used for cotton, may be refused...

2012-01-01

234

7 CFR 319.8-3 - Refusal and cancellation of permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-3...covers that have been used for cotton, may be refused...

2011-01-01

235

7 CFR 319.8-3 - Refusal and cancellation of permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-3...covers that have been used for cotton, may be refused...

2010-01-01

236

30 CFR 553.50 - How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...50 Section 553.50 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Revocation and Penalties § 553.50 How can BOEM refuse or...

2013-07-01

237

30 CFR 253.50 - How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Revocation and Penalties § 253.50 How can MMS refuse or...

2011-07-01

238

Feasibility Study of Utilization of Coal Mine Refuse, Estill County, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported is a feasibility study of commercial utilization for Eastern KY coal mine refuse at the South-East Coal Co. Cleaning plant in Estill County, KY. Included are descriptions of the physical facilities, sampling and testing methodology, geotechnical ...

1976-01-01

239

50 CFR 260.39 - When appeal inspection may be refused.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 ...refused. 260.39 Section 260.39 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES...Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Appeal Inspection §...

2013-10-01

240

50 CFR 260.39 - When appeal inspection may be refused.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 ...refused. 260.39 Section 260.39 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES...Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Appeal Inspection §...

2012-10-01

241

Skills, Management of Skills, and IT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technology (IT) skill shortages appear at the market level occasionally—usually for emerging technologies, unanticipated challenges, and\\/or unresolved issues such as systems security. Even when a market- level skill shortage does not exist, a firm can still suffer from skill shortages for its critical information system (IS) project and\\/or IT operations unless the firm plans and manages its needs for

Makoto Nakayama; Norma Sutcliffe

242

A function-based treatment for school refusal behavior using shaping and fading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A function-based behavioral treatment package was developed for an 18-year-old male with mild mental retardation admitted to a specialized inpatient unit for treatment of severe destructive behaviors associated with school refusal behavior. Teacher and school attendance reports, parent interview, and unstructured observations led to the hypothesis that the subject’s school refusal behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement. The treatment goals

Eugene A Meyer; Louis P Hagopian; Theodosia R Paclawskyj

1999-01-01

243

[Refusal of breeding bulls to eat hay contaminated with horsetail (Equisetum palustre)].  

PubMed

Bulls refused hay from a new batch (coming from a nonintensively fertilized area in Southern Germany). The intake of other components of the ration (silage, concentrates) was not influenced. The visual inspection of the hay revealed a massive contamination (about 12% by mass) by horsetail. According to the reported observations it seems that cattle recognize the plant by its odour, and refuse it if alternative roughage is available, thereby escaping an intoxication. PMID:2219104

Kamphues, J

1990-08-01

244

Normative Influences and Alcohol Consumption: The Role of Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends the theory of normative social behavior by conceptualizing drinking refusal self-efficacy as an important moderator in the relationship between descriptive norms and drinking intentions and behavior. A study was conducted among Korean high school students (N?=?538) to assess their normative perceptions, drinking refusal self-efficacy, and drinking intentions. We found a significant association between self-efficacy and drinking intentions

Su Ahn Jang; Rajiv N. Rimal; NamAuk Cho

2012-01-01

245

The impact of municipal refuse utilization on energy and our environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incinerator/boiler configuration is stressed as the most reliable method of waste utilization. It is also pointed out that the high cost of refuse disposal and the ever increasing cost of energy, have made this method attractive. A plan is outlined for operating a waste utilization plant. Community participation is encouraged in investigating the feasibility of refuse to energy facilities in their area.

1978-01-01

246

Inhibition of methane formation from municipal refuse in laboratory scale lysimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in chemical composition and population development of key groups of bacteria (hydrolytic, acetogenic, and methanogenic)\\u000a were measured in a laboratory scale simulation of refuse decomposition from the time of initial incubation through the methane\\u000a production phase. Inhibition of methane production appeared to be characteristic of refuse decomposition. It was observed\\u000a in 20 of 32 leachate recycle containers and all

M. A. Barlaz; D. M. Schaefer; R. K. Ham

1989-01-01

247

Bacteria and acid drainage from coal refuse: inhibition by sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that the application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulphur coal refuse inhibits the activity of iron- and sulphur-oxidising chemo-autotrophic bacteria and reduces the amount of acid drainage from the refuse. Further studies are recommended to assess the usefulness of this method for controlling formation of acid mine

P. R. Dugan; W. A. Apel

1983-01-01

248

Performance and bacterial compositions of aged refuse reactors treating mature landfill leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aged landfill leachates become more refractory over time and difficulty to treat. Recently, aged refuse bioreactors show great promise in treating leachates. In this study, aged refuse bioreactors were constructed to simulate landfill leachate degradation process. The characteristics of leachate were: CODcr, ?2200mg\\/L; BOD5, ?280mg\\/L; total nitrogen, ?2030mg\\/L; and ammonia, ?1900mg\\/L. Results showed that bioreactor could remove leachate pollutants effectively

Bing Xie; Shunzi Xiong; Shaobo Liang; Chong Hu; Xiaojun Zhang; Jun Lu

249

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The cumulative effect on man or animal of such drug, taking into account...are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether...edible products derived from animals or a withdrawal period or...

2011-04-01

250

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The cumulative effect on man or animal of such drug, taking into account...are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether...edible products derived from animals or a withdrawal period or...

2013-04-01

251

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The cumulative effect on man or animal of such drug, taking into account...are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether...edible products derived from animals or a withdrawal period or...

2010-04-01

252

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

...The cumulative effect on man or animal of such drug, taking into account...are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether...edible products derived from animals or a withdrawal period or...

2014-04-01

253

21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The cumulative effect on man or animal of such drug, taking into account...are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv) Whether...edible products derived from animals or a withdrawal period or...

2012-04-01

254

The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

2012-01-01

255

Manufacturing Engineering Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.

Loughrey, Joe

2009-08-03

256

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

257

Evaluating Physical Assessment Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes methods used in the nursing curriculum at the University of Iowa College of Nursing to evaluate inclusion of physical assessment skills and to test students' use of cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor assessment skills in nursing diagnosis. Includes an example of motor and perceptual skill objectives for examining thorax and lungs.…

And Others; Reese, Jean L.

1979-01-01

258

Enhancing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

1999

259

Life Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

Bates, Jan P.

2005-01-01

260

Knowledge & Skills Foundations  

E-print Network

#12;Knowledge & Skills Foundations In the social sciences, incoming students succeed when they are armed with specific knowledge and skills--but above all, when they are ready to embrace the learning process. Basic Knowledge & Skills Students who are ready for entry-level courses are familiar

Hood, Craig

261

Creating Opportunities: Tennessee's Southeast Regional Skills Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural Marion County (Tennessee), the town of Kimball, the Appalachian Regional Commission, and a local community college founded a regional skills center. The center offers a 2-year associate of science degree and classes in GED preparation, parenting, drug abuse prevention, cosmetology, and air conditioning and refrigeration. It has expanded…

Baldwin, Fred D.

2002-01-01

262

Cubicle Refusal and Rearing Accommodation as Possible Mastitis Risk Factors in Cubicle-Housed Dairy Heifers  

PubMed Central

Fifty-nine of the 65 dairy farms with cubicle sheds in the Norwegian county of Oppland in 1990 were included in a study of rearing accommodation, cubicle refusal and mastitis incidence. The farmers recorded the favoured resting location of the individual cows and heifers throughout the final week of pregnancy as well as during calving. The observations were matched with individual records of mastitis cases during the first 30 days after calving. Mastitis incidence in the heifers was analysed by logistic regression using rearing accommodation and cubicle refusal as independent variables, controlling for herd as a clustering factor. Cubicle refusal was found in 29% of the heifers, but in only 3% of older cows. The results of the analysis indicated a tendency for cubicle refusal to be associated with an increased mastitis incidence among the heifers (OR = 2.2, c.i.95%OR = 0.9–5.4, P = 0.08). Cubicle refusal accounted for 21% (0–32%) of the mastitis cases in the study population (PAF = 0.21). PMID:11455892

Kjaestad, HP; Simensen, E

2001-01-01

263

Novel engineering controls to increase leachate contaminant degradation by refuse: From lab test to in situ engineering application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we provide direct evidence through a series laboratory and field-scale experiments using different age refuse to treat landfill leachate that aged refuse exhibits increased leachate contaminants removal ability with refuse stabilization time addition. Ten-years aged refuse showed best contaminant removal in a laboratory-scale test, removing 70.0% (8340.0–2540.0mg\\/L) chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 75.0% (910.0–215.0mg\\/L) ammonium–N, as well as removing

Liyan Song; Lei Shi; Youcai Zhao; Hongjiang Li

2011-01-01

264

What number 10 doesn't want you to know about drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the Prime Minister's leaked report on drug policy, the UK government has repeatedly refused to reveal its most damning figures on drug trafficking and failed efforts to stop it. More figures are out now in a new report. Despite the spin, it makes for equally bleak reading and because of the spin, it smacks of a cover up.

Steve Rolles

2006-01-01

265

A function-based treatment for school refusal behavior using shaping and fading.  

PubMed

A function-based behavioral treatment package was developed for an 18-year-old male with mild mental retardation admitted to a specialized inpatient unit for treatment of severe destructive behaviors associated with school refusal behavior. Teacher and school attendance reports, parent interview, and unstructured observations led to the hypothesis that the subject's school refusal behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement. The treatment goals included increasing the subject's compliance with a morning hygiene routine and attending school (shaping), increasing the involvement of the subject's parents in managing the subject's problem behaviors (fading), and generalizing treatment from the hospital to the home. All three treatment goals were achieved in a relatively brief period of time and follow-up data indicated that the treatment effects were durable. The authors concluded that function-based assessment and treatment can be successfully utilized to treat school refusal behavior in children with developmental disabilities. PMID:10641250

Meyer, E A; Hagopian, L P; Paclawskyj, T R

1999-01-01

266

[Small mammals at community refuse dumps as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites].  

PubMed

Five-year studies (1981-1986) were performed to investigate a total number of 2589 small mammals of 18 species. Refuse dumps are marked for highly specific conditions. The difference between refuse dumps and natural habitats consists in more sufficient quantity of food, better sheltering possibilities and in highly specific microclimate particularly. As a result of aerobic and anaerobic decompositions of organic materials, temperature in dumps is approximately 50 degrees C. From ecological point of view mammalian populations in refuse dumps could be classified in three groups according to the degree of their adaptation to this specific habitat: 1. permanent, abundant species, well-adapted to and closely connected with the habitat of dumps (Crocidura suaveolens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus arvalis), 2. permanent, common species which are, however, loosely connected with this habitat (Sorex araneus, Mustela nivalis), 3. rare species whose occurrence in this habitat is largely accidental.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1807042

Vlcek, M

1991-09-01

267

Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents  

SciTech Connect

Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of two alternative acid control chemicals, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, was compared with the performance of SLS in pilot-scale experiments with extensively leached, fresh coal refuse. Chemical cost information is presented that indicates low benzoate and sorbate doses were more economical than comparable SLS doses under the experimental conditions of the study. The unique environmental compatibility of benzoate and sorbate, which are used in food and beverages in concentrations greater than those reported in this study for acid drainage suppression, is also discussed.

Onysko, S.J.; Erickson, P.M.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hood, M.

1984-12-01

268

[Death after refusing treatment--causality assessment using the example of a Jehovah's Witness].  

PubMed

A 39-year-old man and Jehova's Witness suffered a complex pelvic fracture in an accident at work. He died 17 days later from fulminant pulmonary embolism. For religious reasons he had refused blood transfusions which would have been necessary for an early surgical stabilization of the pelvic fracture. Alternatively, the clinicians initiated a therapy with recombinant human erythropoetin (EPO) to increase haemoglobin and postponed the surgical stabilization of the pelvic fracture to a later date. Shortly before the planned operation, the patient suddenly died. The forensic autopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis of pulmonary embolism as the cause of death; the manner of death was classified as an accident. Because of the preceding refusal of treatment the causality between the refused blood transfusion with the subsequent alternative therapy and the patient's death had to be assessed. PMID:20069777

Gebhardt, Kristina; Bartsch, Christine

2009-01-01

269

Why skill matters.  

PubMed

Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object-value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579

Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F

2013-09-01

270

Pourquoi accepter des refus d'IMG en cas de pronostic vital nonatal trs pjoratif ? Caroline GUIBET LAFAYE  

E-print Network

preferences of the parents who reject termination pregnancy. Key words : termination pregnancy, disability induisant un handicap très sévère. Ces refus d'IMG sont à la source de tensions entre les parents et les morales des parents qui refusent ces interruptions de grossesse. Mots clés : IMG, handicap, « vie

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

Evaluation test on a hospital refuse incinerator at Saint Agnes Medical Center, Fresno, California. Air pollution test report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation test program was conducted to evaluate the emissions from a hospital-refuse incinerator. The test was conducted as a part of the Air Resources Board's program to assess emissions from stationary sources. The incinerator was operated at an average burn rate of 780 pounds of hospital refuse per hour during the entire test period. Daily average oxygen and carbon

A. C. Jenkins; P. Ouchida

1987-01-01

272

45 CFR 1159.11 - How can I appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record? 1159.11 Section 1159...THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE...appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record? (a) You may...

2012-10-01

273

45 CFR 1159.11 - How can I appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record? 1159.11 Section 1159...THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE...appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record? (a) You may...

2010-10-01

274

45 CFR 1159.11 - How can I appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record? 1159.11 Section 1159...THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE...appeal a refusal to amend or correct an Endowment record? (a) You may...

2013-10-01

275

The First Man in Her Life: Father Emotional Responsiveness During Adolescence and College Women's Sexual Refusal Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few empirical studies have examined how fathers influence daughters’ sexual interactions with male peers. We hypothesized that paternal emotional responsiveness would empower daughters to refuse unwanted sex. Female undergraduates (N = 144) and their fathers completed measures of paternal responsiveness during adolescence; daughters also reported their global self-worth, acceptance of male partner dominance, and sexual refusal behaviors. As expected, paternal

Jennifer Katz; Erika van der Kloet

2010-01-01

276

The Use of Patient Instructors to Teach Interviewing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program using patient instructors programmed with a history of hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, or congestive heart failure to teach and evaluate pharmacy students' interviewing skills is described. Content areas included drug therapy, adverse reactions, drug interactions, etc. (Author/MSE)

Gardner, Marie E.; And Others

1983-01-01

277

How To Do a Skills Analysis and Skills Audit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides practical suggestions on conducting a skills analysis that identifies the skills required for each job or a skills audit that identifies the skills held by the individual. Chapter 1 describes the contribution of these two types of skills projects to the implementation of major industrial changes in Australia. Chapter 2 defines…

Hayton, Geoff; Loveder, Philip

278

Differentiating Information Skills and Computer Skills: A Factor Analytic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A basic tenet of information literacy programs is that the skills needed to use computers and the skills needed to find and evaluate information are two separate sets of skills. Outside the library this is not always the view. The claim is sometimes made that information skills are acquired by learning computer skills. All that is needed is a…

Pask, Judith M.; Saunders, E. Stewart

2004-01-01

279

Emissions Resulting from the Full-Scale Cofiring of Pelletized Refuse-Derived Fuel and Coal  

E-print Network

Full-scale cofiring tests of binder-enhanced pellets of densified, refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur coal were conducted during June and July of 1987 in Boiler #5 at Argonne National Laboratory. These tests were conducted with industry...

Ohlsson, O. O.; Daugherty, K.; Venables, B.

280

Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P < 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P < 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. PMID:25349727

Markosyan, Karine; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2014-01-01

281

Psychological Factors behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal,…

Ek, Hans; Eriksson, Rikard

2013-01-01

282

Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

2012-10-15

283

Bankruptcy--Student Loans--Private College's Refusal to Release Transcripts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Girardier vs Webster College the court held that a private college may refuse to release college transcripts if students have not repaid their National Defense Education Act loans even though they've declared bankruptcy, and that no private remedy could be inferred under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974. Implications are…

Rapp, Larry G.

1978-01-01

284

Medical confidentiality and the protection of Jehovah's Witnesses' autonomous refusal of blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr Ridley of the Watch Tower Society (WTS), the controlling religious organisation of Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs), mischaracterises the issue of freedom and confidentiality in JWs' refusal of blood by confusing inconsistent organisational policies with actual Biblical proscriptions. Besides exaggeration and distortion of my writings, Ridley failed to present substantive evidence to support his assertion that no pressure exists to conform

Osamu Muramoto

2000-01-01

285

Jehovah's Witnesses' refusal of blood: obedience to scripture and religious conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jehovah's Witnesses are students of the Bible. They refuse transfusions out of obedience to the scriptural directive to abstain and keep from blood. Dr Muramoto disagrees with the Witnesses' religious beliefs in this regard. Despite this basic disagreement over the meaning of Biblical texts, Muramoto flouts the religious basis for the Witnesses' position. His proposed policy change about accepting transfusions

D T Ridley

1999-01-01

286

Enzyme activity and microbial biomass in a field soil amended with municipal refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in enzyme activity levels, in biomass-C content, and in the rate of fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis were measured in a loamy soil to which solid municipal refuse had been applied as compost over a 3-year period at two different rates. Addition of the compost caused significant increases in the activity of all enzymes tested. The increases were much higher at

P. Perucci

1992-01-01

287

GASEOUS HC1 AND CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE FIRED WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The emissions from a water wall mass fired municipal waste incinerator and a refuse derived fuel (RDF) fired incinerator were sampled for chlorinated organic compounds and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The sampling was performed to evaluate the extractive sampling methods used to meas...

288

21 CFR 514.110 - Reasons for refusing to file applications.  

...Applications § 514.110 Reasons for refusing to file...any of the following reasons: (1) It does not...or maintain a place of business within the United...for action. (8) It fails to include, with...brief statement of the reasons for the...

2014-04-01

289

21 CFR 514.110 - Reasons for refusing to file applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applications § 514.110 Reasons for refusing to file...any of the following reasons: (1) It does not...or maintain a place of business within the United...for action. (8) It fails to include, with...brief statement of the reasons for the...

2013-04-01

290

21 CFR 514.110 - Reasons for refusing to file applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applications § 514.110 Reasons for refusing to file...any of the following reasons: (1) It does not...or maintain a place of business within the United...for action. (8) It fails to include, with...brief statement of the reasons for the...

2012-04-01

291

21 CFR 514.110 - Reasons for refusing to file applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applications § 514.110 Reasons for refusing to file...any of the following reasons: (1) It does not...or maintain a place of business within the United...for action. (8) It fails to include, with...brief statement of the reasons for the...

2011-04-01

292

Insulin refusal in Iranian patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

To achieve tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, it may be necessary to introduce insulin therapy much earlier in the disease course. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. Many patients require insulin therapy after several years of disease in order to maintain good glycemic control and prevent complications. But many patients do not receive insulin therapy in a timely manner because of a negative appraisal of this treatment. Understanding the cause of this negative attitudes is necessary for better evaluation to overcome for this problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasons for insulin refusal among patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study from Yazd Diabetes Research Center. 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who had an HbA1c ?8.0% despite optimal oral therapy were identified that participated in this study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated questionnaires. This study showed that Insulin refusal was common. 77% of participant reported being unwilling to take insulin if prescribed. Fear of injection is an important cause for insulin refusal among patients. Insulin refusal is an important problem among our patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings of this study suggest that interventions aimed at increasing insulin use should focus on injection-related concerns, education and correction of misconceptions. PMID:24026995

Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Fazaelipoor, Zahra; Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad

2013-01-01

293

Stateless By Any Other Name: Refused Asylum-Seekers in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article maintains that there are certain aspects of the UK asylum system which may lead to statelessness-like situations. In order to understand how this can happen, we reconsider Hannah Arendt's concept of statelessness, which entails three losses of home (exile), state protection (basic rights) and having a place in the world (political rights). Through interviews with refused and long-term

Brad K. Blitz; Miguel Otero-Iglesias

2011-01-01

294

Ways to Waste: The Garbology of Post-consumer Refuse in the UBC Okanagan Cafeteria  

E-print Network

Ways to Waste: The Garbology of Post-consumer Refuse in the UBC Okanagan Cafeteria Students Waste to Feed for Farm Animals ------------------------------------ 18 7.2 Recycling and Composting is to identify sustainable means for reducing post-consumer waste in the cafeteria at the University of British

295

COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

296

A Program for Engaging Treatment-Refusing Substance Abusers into Treatment: CRAFT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a scientifically-supported program for family members who are desperate to get a treatment-refusing substance abuser to enter treatment (Meyers & Wolfe, 2004; Sisson & Azrin, 1986; Smith & Meyers, 2004). CRAFT teaches these family members how to apply behavioral principles at home so that…

Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Lash, Denise N.

2005-01-01

297

OPTIMAL LEGAL STANDARDS FOR REFUSALS TO LICENSE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: A WELFARE-BASED ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article adopts a welfare-based, in contrast to a decision-theoretic (DT), approach to the choice of legal standards for refusals to license intellectual property. It is shown that if the presumption of legality is not strong, as was the European Commission's point of view in the Microsoft interoperability information case, DT considerations are not helpful for deciding which type of

Yannis S. Katsoulacos

2009-01-01

298

Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.

2010-01-01

299

Rights of and duties to non-consenting patients--informed refusal in the developing world.  

PubMed

The principle of informed refusal poses a specific problem when it is invoked by a pregnant woman who, in spite of having accepted her pregnancy, refuses the diagnostic and/or therapeutic measures that would ensure the well-being of her endangered fetus. Guidelines issued by professional bodies in the developed world are conflicting: either they allow autonomy and informed consent to be overruled to the benefit of the fetus, or they recommend the full respect of these principles. A number of medical ethicists advocate the overruling of alleged irrational or unreasonable refusal for the benefit of the fetus. The present essay supports the view of fetal rights to health and to life based on the principle that an 'accepted' fetus is a 'third person'. In developing countries, however, the implementation of the latter principle is likely to be in conflict with a 'communitarian' perception of the individual -- in this case, the pregnant woman. Within the scope of the limitations to the right to autonomy of J.S. Mill's 'harm principle', the South African Patients' Charter makes provision for informed refusal. The fact that, in practice, it is not implemented illustrates the well-known difficulty of applying Western bioethical principles in real life in the developing world. PMID:16436170

van Bogaert, Louis-Jacques

2006-03-01

300

UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH AND COAL MINE REFUSE AS A ROAD BASE MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a four-year study to determine the feasibility of using fly ash and coal mine refuse as a road base in a parking lot. The lot was divided into three areas each receiving the same surface treatment but wit different ratios of fly ...

301

L'article est refus. Il peut tre soumis un autre journal  

E-print Network

L'article est refusé. Il peut être soumis à un autre journal (souvent moins prestigieux) LE PARCOURS D'UN ARTICLE Chaque article est lu et relu par d'autres scientifiques (les «pairs») avant d'être publié. Les auteurs envoient leur article, correctement formaté, à un journal scientifique Un éditeur

Halazonetis, Thanos

302

Parental Perspectives of the Role of School Factors in School Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore parents' perspectives on the role of school factors in school refusal (SR). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents who had experienced SR with their own child. They identified several school factors related to SR. Some of these findings suggest that students who are prone to SR need more…

Havik, Trude; Bru, Edvin; Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

2014-01-01

303

Shoplifting, Impaired Driving, and Refusing the BreathalyzerOn Seeing One's Name in a Public Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a newspaper policy af printing the names of individuals who shoplift, drink and drive, and\\/ or refuse the breathalyzer was examined. Interrupted Time Series Analysis was used to analyze the number of offenders arrested pre- and postadoption of the policy. Analyses indicated that following the publication policy shoplifting incidents decreased; however, the policy had no effect on

Abraham S. Ross; Susan White

1987-01-01

304

ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic contaminants in emissions from refuse-derived fuel combustion were investigated in a 20-inch-diameter atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor. Combinations of coal/EcoFuel/MSW/toluene were burned inthe combustor with temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1550 degrees F. A Source ...

305

Using Food Redistribution to Reduce Packing in Children with Severe Food Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive- and negative-reinforcement-based procedures typically have targeted acceptance for children with severe food refusal; however, these procedures do not always result in successful swallowing. Once acceptance is achieved, some children expel the food repeatedly or pack (hold or pocket) it in their mouths for extended periods of time. This…

Gulotta, Charles S.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Layer, Stacy A.

2005-01-01

306

49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. 382.211 Section 382.211...CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions...submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. No driver shall refuse...

2010-10-01

307

49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. 382.211 Section 382.211...CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions...submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. No driver shall refuse...

2011-10-01

308

49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. 382.211 Section 382.211...CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions...submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. No driver shall refuse...

2013-10-01

309

49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. 382.211 Section 382.211...CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions...submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. No driver shall refuse...

2012-10-01

310

APPLYING FABRIC FILTRATION TO REFUSE-FIRED BOILERS: A PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was sized to handle 9000 acfm at ...

311

Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

2012-01-01

312

Resisting Colonial Education: Zitkala-Sa and Native Feminist Archival Refusal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines resistance through a Native Feminist lens, employing the boarding school memoirs of Zitkala-Sa. Within a "story" of appropriation in methodology, it considers protest and parody, and presents archival refusal as modes of resistance to colonial education. (Contains 1 figure.)

Terrance, Laura L.

2011-01-01

313

Bacterial Population Development and Chemical Characteristics of Refuse Decomposition in a Simulated Sanitary Landfill  

PubMed Central

Population development of key groups of bacteria involved in municipal refuse conversion to methane was measured from the time of initial incubation through the onset of methane production. Hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens, and acetate- and H2-plus-CO2-utilizing methanogens were enumerated by the most-probable-number technique with media containing oat spelt xylan, ball-milled cellulose, butyrate, acetate, and H2 plus CO2, respectively. Refuse decomposition was monitored in multiple replicate laboratory-scale sanitary landfills. A laboratory-scale landfill was dismantled weekly for microbial and chemical analysis. Leachate was neutralized and recycled to ensure methanogenesis. The methane concentration of the sampled containers increased to 64% by day 69, at which time the maximum methane production rate, 929 liters of CH4 per dry kg-year, was measured. Population increases of 2, 4, 5, 5, and 6 orders of magnitude were measured between fresh refuse and the methane production phase for the hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, butyrate-catabolizing acetogens, and acetate- and H2-CO2-utilizing methanogens, respectively. The cellulolytic bacteria and acetogens increased more slowly than the methanogens and only after the onset of methane production. The initial decrease in the pH of the refuse ecosystem from 7.5 to 5.7 was attributed to the accumulation of acidic end products of sugar fermentation, to the low acid-consuming activity of the acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria, and to levels of oxygen and nitrate in the fresh refuse sufficient for oxidation of only 8% of the sugars to carbon dioxide and water. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition was most rapid after establishment of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations and a reduction in the initial accumulation of carboxylic acids. A total of 72% of these carbohydrates were degraded in the container sampled after 111 days. Initially acetate utilization, but ultimately polymer hydrolysis, limited the rate of refuse conversion to methane. Microbial and chemical composition data were combined to formulate an updated description of refuse decomposition in four phases: an aerobic phase, an anaerobic acid phase, an accelerated methane production phase, and a decelerated methane production phase. PMID:16347835

Barlaz, M. A.; Schaefer, D. M.; Ham, R. K.

1989-01-01

314

Critical Thinking beyond Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to investigate possibilities for conceptions of critical thinking beyond the established educational framework that emphasizes skills. Distancing ourselves from the older rationalist framework, we explain that what we think wrong with the skills perspective is, amongst other things, its absolutization of performativity…

Papastephanou, Marianna; Angeli, Charoula

2007-01-01

315

More Life Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to supplement already existing life skills instructional materials, this manual consists of 30 lessons to help students develop general, transferrrable skills in four areas--attending behaviors, cognition, self-management, and critical thinking. The following topics are among those covered in the lessons: eye contact, body posture,…

Hearn, Joan

316

A national skills standard  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Education has awarded a contract to an organization named the Vocational-technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) for the development of a skills standard for the HVAC/R industry. This report describes the development of the skills standard.

Goff, G.

1996-06-01

317

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

318

Teaching Organizational Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates teaching students organizational skills that lead to school success. Outlines seven such skills and how to teach them, including such things as bringing necessary supplies to class, organizing handouts and loose-leaf papers, taking and organizing notes, developing and following study plans, and planning and carrying out large projects.…

Bakunas, Boris; Holley, William

2001-01-01

319

Improving Clerical Office Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is intended as preparation for taking a civil service examination in office clerical skills; it is also intended to provide employment skills for clerical office workers. The course typically is given in two-hour sessions, once a week for 10 to 12 weeks. It covers the following topics: grammar and language usage, spelling, vocabulary…

Colpitts, Phyllis A.; Cerri, Lawrence J.

320

LabSkills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes LabSkills, a revolutionary teaching tool to improve practical science in schools. LabSkills offers the chance to help improve the exposure that the average Key Stage 5 (age 16-19) student has to practical work. This is a huge area for development being highlighted by universities who are seeing a worryingly growing trend in…

O'Brien, Nick

2010-01-01

321

Critical Skills Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the U.S. economy begins to show signs of improvement, executives say they need a workforce fully equipped with skills beyond just the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic (the three Rs). Skills such as critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation (the four Cs) will become even more…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

2010-01-01

322

Characteristics of persons refusing oral polio vaccine during the immunization plus days - Sokoto, Nigeria 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nigeria, the only African country endemic for wild poliovirus, adopted Immunization Plus Days (IPD) to eradicate polio. Refusal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) by heads of households is a significant challenge. In Sokoto state, we determined characteristics of heads of households refusing OPV during IPD in 2011. Methods To evaluate reasons for refusals, we conducted a case control study among heads ofhouseholds accepting or refusing OPV vaccine. Noncompliant households were defined as households refusing OPV vaccination in last three rounds of IPDs while compliant households were those accepting vaccination. Interviewers administered a questionnaire to the heads of households to obtain information on socio-demographics, media habits, and knowledge of IPD. Results Of the 121 (60 cases and 61 controls) interviews, 88 (73%) were from Sokoto north. Noncompliant heads of households were more likely to lack tertiary education (OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.6 - 9.2), believe that OPV is not safe (OR = 22, 95% CI, 7.1 - 76), lack access to functional radio (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.4 - 15) and television (OR = 9.4, 95% CI, (1.9 - 63) andget information about IPD from town announcers (OR = 3.9, 95% CI, 1.3 - 12). Conclusion We conclude that noncompliant heads of households compared to compliant heads of households had low level of education, lacked knowledge of immunization, and had negative attitude towards OPV. They get information about OPV from town announcers and lacked access to functional radio and television. We recommended training of town announcers in polio communication and use of key communication messages preceding every round of IPD. PMID:25328629

Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Sabitu, Kabir; Nguku, Patrick; Abanida, Emmanuel; Sheidu, Sadik; Dalhat, Mahmood; Dankoli, Raymond; Gidado, Saheed; Suleiman, Idris

2014-01-01

323

Energy efficacy used to score organic refuse pretreatment processes for hydrogen anaerobic production.  

PubMed

The production of hydrogen through Anaerobic Digestion (AD) has been investigated to verify the efficacy of several pretreatment processes. Three types of waste with different carbon structures have been tested to obtain an extensive representation of the behavior of the materials present in Organic Waste (OW). The following types of waste were selected: Sweet Product Residue (SPR), i.e., confectionary residue removed from the market after the expiration date, Organic Waste Market (OWM) refuse from a local fruit and vegetable market, and Coffee Seed Skin (CSS) waste from a coffee production plant. Several pretreatment processes have been applied, including physical, chemical, thermal, and ultrasonic processes and a combination of these processes. Two methods have been used for the SPR to remove the packaging, manual (SPR) and mechanical (SPRex). A pilot plant that is able to extrude the refuse to 200atm was utilized. Two parameters have been used to score the different pretreatment processes: efficiency (?), which takes into account the amount of energy produced in the form of hydrogen compared with the available energy embedded in the refuse, and efficacy (?), which compares the efficiency obtained using the pretreated refuse with that obtained using the untreated refuse. The best result obtained for the SPR was the basic pretreatment, with ?=6.4, whereas the thermal basic pretreatment gave the highest value, ?=17.0 for SPRex. The best result for the OWM was obtained through a combination of basic/thermal pretreatments with ?=9.9; lastly, the CSS residue with ultrasonic pretreatment produced the highest quantity of hydrogen, ?=5.2. PMID:23891078

Ruggeri, Bernardo; Luongo Malave, Andrea C; Bernardi, Milena; Fino, Debora

2013-11-01

324

Not-so-Soft Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

Curran, Mary

2010-01-01

325

Drug Resistance and Substance Use Among Male and Female Adolescents in Alternative Secondary Schools in Guanajuato, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objective: Research is limited on the strategies that Mexican adolescents use to resist use of alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs. Cultural norms and gender socialization patterns concerning the acceptability of use of various substances by women and men influence Mexican youths in their responses to offers of substances. This study explored the drug-resistance strategies used by youth in the central Mexican state of Guanajuato, how their use predicted patterns of substance use, and how these associations differed by gender. Method: The analysis used cross-sectional survey data from 702 (60% male) students enrolled in eight alternative secondary education school sites in 2007. Participants reported the drug-resistance behaviors they used to deal with offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Past-12-month use of the four drug-resistance strategies employed most often by U.S. youth—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (R.E.A.L.)—and any other strategies were measured. Composite measures of lifetime and recent use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were predicted in multivariate ordinary least squares regression analyses. Models were tested with and without controls for the frequency that respondents were offered substances and introduced gender interaction effects. Results: Controlling for substance use offers, more frequent use of a wide repertoire of R.E.A.L. strategies predicted less consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, and using non-R.E.A.L. strategies predicted less marijuana consumption. All of these relationships were either stronger for males than for females or significant for males only. Conclusions: Gender differences exist in the impact of R.E.A.L. strategies on substance use among youth in Mexico. Despite a narrowing gender gap in substance use in Mexico, large exposure to and susceptibility of substance use remains. Developing effective prevention programs in Mexico based on teaching appropriate drug-resistance strategies and enhancing communication skills could aid in reducing substance use among Mexican adolescents. PMID:22152668

Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime; Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha L.

2012-01-01

326

Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

2013-01-01

327

A study of de-gassed oil in water dispersions as potential drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural hydrophobicity of many drugs makes it very difficult to use them for water-based intravenous injection. This lack of water solubility also hinders the development and testing of new drugs. Clinical tests are often refused if the drug can only be dissolved in water-insoluble oils and therefore cannot be administered safely or easily. However, we have discovered that de-gassing

M. J. Francis; R. M. Pashley

2005-01-01

328

Library Skills Unit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library Skills Unit teaches library resources and information to 9th grade classes, this is a list of resources that maybe helpful to the students. Take the survey after you have completed all 4 units of library skills. I would love your feedback on the unit so that I can change some things to make it more beneficial for you, the students! Library Skills Unit Survey Use these links to get to databases quickly: eLibrary Facts on File/Issues Controversies CQ Researcher ...

Bolle, Ms.

2008-10-20

329

A Long Term Field Emissions Study of Natural Gas Fueled Refuse Haulers in New York City  

SciTech Connect

New York City Department of Sanitation has operated natural gas fueled refuse haulers in a pilot study: a major goal of this study was to compare the emissions from these natural gas vehicles with their diesel counterparts. The vehicles were tandem axle trucks with GVW (gross vehicle weight) rating of 69,897 pounds. The primary use of these was for street collection and transporting the refuse to a landfill. West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories have been engaged in monitoring the tailpipe emissions from these trucks for seven-years. In the later years of testing the hydrocarbons were speciated for non-methane and methane components. Six of these vehicles employed the older technology (mechanical mixer) Cummins L-10 lean burn natural gas engines. Five trucks were equipped with electronically controlled Detroit Diesel Series 50 lean burn engines, while another five were powered by Caterpillar stoichiometric burn 3306 natural gas engines, The Ca terpillar engines employed an exhaust oxygen sensor feedback and three way catalysts. Since the refuse haulers had automatic Allison transmissions, and since they were employed in stop-and-go city service, initial emissions measurements were made using the Central Business Cycle (SAE Jl376) for buses at 42,000 pound test weight. Some additional measurements were made using an ad hoc cycle that has been designed to be more representative of the real refuse hauler use that included several compaction cycles. The Cummins powered natural gas vehicles showed oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide emission variations typically associated with variable fuel mixer performance. In the first Year of testing, the stoichiometric Caterpillar engines yielded low emission levels, but in later years two of these refuse haulers had high carbon monoxide attributed to failure of the feedback system. For example, carbon monoxide on these two vehicles rose from 1.4 g/mile and 10 g/mile in 1995 to 144.9 g/mile and 57.8 g/mile in 1996. These stoichiometric engines were also less fuel efficient than their lean burn counterparts. The Detroit Diesel Series 50 powered refuse haulers produced high levels of oxides of nitrogen. However, it was found that changing the shifting patterns of the transmission lowered the oxides of nitrogen. All three engine types showed the potential for low emissions operation and the particulate matter reduction advantage offered by natural gas was evident from the results.

Nigel N. Clark; Byron l. Rapp; Mridul Gautam; Wenguang Wang; Donald W. Lyons

1998-10-19

330

Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same  

DOEpatents

A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

1990-07-10

331

Selecting tolerant grass seedlings and analyzing the possibility for using aged refuse as sward soil.  

PubMed

In order to test the possibility for recycling use of aged refuse as sward soil, the study determined the responses of Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass), Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue), and Poa annua (annual bluegrass) to its leaching. The growth of three seedlings was significantly inhibited after treatment, especially for longer treatment duration and higher concentration leaching; however, with the better growth and chlorophyll content for shorter time and lower concentration, tall fescue was more tolerant to the stress. Afterwards, several physiological responses of tall fescue were determined. For shorter treatment duration, antioxidant enzyme activities remained unchanged, and no obvious oxidative damage was observed. Prolonging exposure time, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation occurred after treatment of higher concentration leaching, accompanying by changes of antioxidant status. It implicates that it is possible for using aged refuse as sward soil, and the critical point focused on selecting tolerant grass and controlling exposure condition. PMID:20036424

Li, Guangke; Liu, Xiaofang; Han, Ming; Hou, Li; Sang, Nan

2010-05-01

332

Refusal of treatment for acute leukemia in pregnancy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute leukemia is rare in pregnancy. The importance of promptly diagnosing and treating this disease in pregnancy stems from its life-threatening potential, both to the mother and fetus. Case presentation We report a case of relapse of acute myeloid leukemia at 23 weeks of pregnancy in a 24-year-old Albanian woman. Our patient categorically refused chemotherapy treatment, and in her 35th week of gestation, severe hemorrhagic diathesis rapidly developed. The manifestation and course of this life-threatening complication posed therapeutic challenges for the attending medical team. Conclusion Based both on our experience and the results of other gynecological studies, there exists a strong indication that the earlier a patient’s chemotherapy treatment begins, the better the maternal outcome. We support chemotherapy for patients who are pregnant presenting with such illness. The present case report testifies that refusal of chemotherapy by such patients is a high-risk decision. PMID:23725005

2013-01-01

333

Study of the feasibility of the commercial production of refuse derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

In Nebraska, approximately 3.5 pounds of domestic waste is generated per person per day. Most of this waste is not recycled but is being disposed of in either a landfill or an open dump. In the state of Nebraska there are 359 dumps being used by municipalities of less than 5000 people which have been exempt from state control since 1972 as the result of implementation of the Whitney Amendment. A survey at 68 of the 359 sites showed that most of the sites were not supervised and were engaging in activities which are either strictly regulated or prohibited in the state's 63 licensed landfills. The need does exist to develop a different method of disposing of municipal waste. Converting the refuse into biomass pellets would be one way to address this need. It is proposed to establish a business to be incorporated under the name of Progressive Fuels, Inc. and to manufacture refuse derived fuel (RDF) in northeast Nebraska.

Not Available

1986-01-01

334

Réactance psychologique et confiance : le refus de l'engagement et les limites du marketing relationnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le marketing relationnel suppose l'engagement de la part des consommateurs. Cet engagement repose sur la confiance entre les consommateurs et leur prestataire. Or il peut exister un refus d'engagement du fait de la réactance psychologique sans que cela ne se traduise nécessairement par une perte de confiance. Cet article évalue les interactions éventuelles entre confiance et réactance psychologique sur l'engagement

Denis Darpy; Isabelle Prim-Allaz

2006-01-01

335

Court says French government's refusal to authorize adoption violates woman's human rights.  

PubMed

On 22 January 2008, the European Court of Human Rights held that there had been a violation of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention) in the case of E.B. v. France, concerning a refusal by the French authorities to grant E.B.'s request to adopt a child, allegedly on account of her sexual orientation. PMID:18727204

Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

2008-07-01

336

Municipal incineration studies: Sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of incineration processes for the destruction of municipal wastes, including sewage sludge, refuse, and solid wastes. Topics include systems design and management, combustion and emissions studies, pollution and toxicity studies, heat recovery operations, pollution control devices, and economic aspects. Analytical methods for pollution identification, marine vessel incinerators, catalytic incineration, and risk assessment studies are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

337

Review of the treatment literature for encopresis, functional constipation, and stool-toileting refusal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the literature on randomized, controlled, published studies involving medical, behavioral, psychological,\\u000a and biofeedback treatments for encopresis\\/functional constipation and stool-toileting refusal in preschool-age and school-age\\u000a children. Nine such studies were located in the literature involving school-age children. No randomized, controlled treatment\\u000a studies involving preschool-age children have been published. This review revealed no evidence to support the routine use

Risa C. Brooks; Rachel M. Copen; Daniel J. Cox; James Morris; Stephen Borowitz; James Sutphen

2000-01-01

338

A Law of Large Numbers: Bidding and Compulsory Competitive Tendering for Refuse Collection Contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the relationship betweencosts and number of bidders for U.K. local authorities'refuse collection contracts. We find that a highernumber of bids is associated with a lower cost ofservice. This finding, as well as being an importantempirical verification of standard proposition inauction theory, has important policy implications. TheU.K. Labour government elected in 1997 has abolishedCompulsory Competitive Tendering

AndréS GóMez-Lobo; Stefan Szymanski

2001-01-01

339

Vacuum and pressure expression dewatering of fine coal and refuse using a belt filter press  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum dewatering was found to be sufficient for coarse size fractions of fine coal (top size 400 mesh) and vacuum plus pressure expression dewatering was effective only for the ultra-fine coal (average size 10 {mu}m). For fine coal refuse however, both vacuum and pressure expression were observed to be necessary to obtain better cake filterability and lower cake moisture content. Several flocculants having different ionic activities, molecular weights and chemical compositions were tested. For fine coal refuse, nonionic flocculants in the medium molecular weight range of 4-5 million were found to be most effective in terms of lower cake formation time (filterability) and final moisture content. The performance of an anionic flocculant in the same molecular weight range was not as good as the nonionic flocculant. In the higher molecular weight range (10-15 million) the effect of ionic properties was negligible and all three types (anionic, cationic, nonionic) were equally effective. The effect of mixing conditions on flocculation of coal refuse slurry was investigated for selected flocculants. The effect of surfactants on the final moisture content of coal refuse cake was significant. The effect of belt speed on final moisture content was negligible indicating that expression was complete even at higher speeds. The effects of solid addition and solids concentration, on final moisture content and cake formation time were investigated. The compressive force present in the belt filter press was measured by various techniques including a miniature pressure transducer, pressure sensitive film and force sensing resistors. An empirical correlation for estimation of actual pressure as a function of applied hydraulic pressure was developed.

Badgujar, M.N.

1988-01-01

340

To treat or not to treat: the legal, ethical and therapeutic implications of treatment refusal.  

PubMed Central

Health professionals faced with refusal of life-saving treatment may wish to override a person's wishes, especially if that person suffers from a mental disorder. Mental illness does not automatically mean a patient is incapable of making decisions of this nature. It is not always clear whether an individual is legally competent to decide whether to undergo treatment or not. This article discusses a clinical example and analyses some of the moral implications. PMID:1941953

Wear, A N; Brahams, D

1991-01-01

341

Bacterial population development and chemical characteristics of refuse decomposition in a simulated sanitary landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population development of key groups of bacteria involved in municipal refuse conversion to methane was measured from the time of initial incubation through the onset of methane production. Hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens, and acetate-and Hâ-plus-COâ-utilizing methanogens were enumerated by the most-probable-number technique with media containing oat spelt xylan, ball-milled cellulose, butyrate, acetate, and Hâ plus COâ, respectively. The

M. A. Barlaz; D. M. Schaefer; R. K. Ham

1989-01-01

342

Prevalence of depression in granted and refused requests for euthanasia and assisted suicide: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is an established link between depression and interest in hastened death in patients who are seriously ill. Concern exists over the extent of depression in patients who actively request euthanasia\\/physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and those who have their requests granted.ObjectivesTo estimate the prevalence of depression in refused and granted requests for euthanasia\\/PAS and discuss these findings.MethodsA systematic review was performed

Ilana Levene; Michael Parker

2011-01-01

343

Let your communication skills equal your clinical skills.  

PubMed

Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills. PMID:23167026

Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil

2012-01-01

344

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2011-04-01

345

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2012-04-01

346

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2013-04-01

347

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2010-04-01

348

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2014-04-01

349

UCSC EMPLOYEE HOUSING APARTMENTS APPLICATION Rental rates include: rent, refuse collection, common area utilities, groundskeeping services, and repairs and  

E-print Network

UCSC EMPLOYEE HOUSING APARTMENTS APPLICATION Rental rates include: rent, refuse collection, common. Tenants pay for their own utilities (i.e., electricity, gas, water, telephone and cable services). A $750

California at Santa Cruz, University of

350

Fundamental Study for Improvement of Dewatering of Fine Coal/Refuse. Semi-Annual Report, November 1981-April 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this research program are to formulate models for predicting the efficiency of mechanical dewatering, the rate of dewatering and the residual moisture content of dewatered coal/refuse and to suggest improved mechanical dewatering methods...

S. H. Chiang, G. E. Klinzing, J. W. Tierney, G. Bayles, H. Gala

1982-01-01

351

Occupational exposure to airborne dust, respirable quartz and metals arising from refuse handling, burning and landfilling.  

PubMed

Industrial hygiene investigations were conducted in 1983 at a refuse derived fuel (RDF) burning plant, a refuse transfer station and three municipal landfill sites. The field surveys were conducted during the warmer and drier seasons of the year. The investigations included air sampling for total dust, respirable quartz and airborne metals. Bulk samples of soil cover, precipitator/boiler ash and transfer station baghouse fines were analyzed for quartz, elements, asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content. Asbestos and PCBs were not detected in any of the bulk samples taken. Quartz content of the bulk samples varied from 8% to 31%. Except for the boiler grate inspector and the precipitator cleaner at the RDF burning plant, exposure to airborne metals was not excessive at the sites tested. One personal sample (at landfill site A) for total dust exceeded 10 mg/m3 out of a total of eighteen personal and area samples. Significant exposure to respirable quartz was found at all the sites (up to 0.20 mg/m3). Respirable quartz exposures in excess of the NIOSH criteria concentration of 0.05 mg/m3 were found in three out of seven personal samples at the RDF burning plant, two out of three personal samples at the refuse transfer station and six out of nine personal samples taken at the three landfill sites. PMID:3031974

Mozzon, D; Brown, D A; Smith, J W

1987-02-01

352

Nitrogen removal through different pathways in an aged refuse bioreactor treating mature landfill leachate.  

PubMed

In this study, an aged refuse bioreactor was constructed to remove nitrogen in a mature landfill leachate. The nitrogen removal efficiency and the microbial community composition in the bioreactor were investigated. The results showed that the aged refuse bioreactor removed more than 90 % of total nitrogen in the leachate under the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.74 g/kg (vs) day, and the total nitrogen removal rate decreased to 62.2 % when NLR increased up to 2.03 g/kg (vs) day. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the average cell number of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor was 1.58?×?10(8) cells/g, which accounted for 0.41 % of total bacteria. The number of anammox bacteria in the reactor was 1.09?×?10(8) cells/g, which accounted for 0.27 % of total bacteria. Isotopic (15)N tracing experiments showed that nearly 10 % of nitrogen was removed by anammox. High-throughout 454 pyrosequencing revealed that the predominant bacteria in the bioreactor were Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes, including various nitrifiers and denitrifiers with diverse heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolic pathways, supporting that nitrogen was removed through different pathways in this aged refuse bioreactor. PMID:23229572

Xie, Bing; Lv, Zhuo; Hu, Chong; Yang, Xuezhi; Li, Xiangzhen

2013-10-01

353

Heavy metal contamination of foods by refuse dump sites in Awka, southeastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The impact of heavy metals from refuse dumps on soil, food, and water qualities in Awka, Nigeria was studied. Soil samples (top and 1.35 m deep) were collected from five refuse dumps digested with conc. HNO3 and HClO4. The heavy metals (lead, manganese, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel) in vegetables (spinach, fluted pumpkin), root crop (cocoyam), and surface and ground water were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Chemical properties of the soil and bacteria were determined. Heavy metals were found to be more concentrated at a depth of 1.35 m. Manganese was high in shallow wells and borehole water samples with the highest levels as 0.538 and 0.325 mg/l, respectively. Nickel levels in the borehole sample ranged from 0.001 to 0.227 mg/l, whereas the highest level of lead was 0.01 mg/l. The Obibia stream had the highest levels of manganese and lead. Linear regression analyses showed that the relationship between soil heavy metals and farm produce heavy metals was strong. Taken together, we may conclude that the consumption of leafy vegetables and crops produced on contaminated soils may pose a health risk to those that reside around the refuse dumps. PMID:18836662

Nduka, John K C; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ezenweke, L O; Chendo, M N; Ezenwa, T E

2008-01-01

354

Conscientious refusal by physicians and pharmacists: who is obligated to do what, and why?  

PubMed

Some medical services have long generated deep moral controversy within the medical profession as well as in broader society and have led to conscientious refusals by some physicians to provide those services to their patients. More recently, pharmacists in a number of states have refused on grounds of conscience to fill legal prescriptions for their customers. This paper assesses these controversies. First, I offer a brief account of the basis and limits of the claim to be free to act on one's conscience. Second, I sketch an account of the basis of the medical and pharmacy professions' responsibilities and the process by which they are specified and change over time. Third, I then set out and defend what I call the "conventional compromise" as a reasonable accommodation to conflicts between these professions' responsibilities and the moral integrity of their individual members. Finally, I take up and reject the complicity objection to the conventional compromise. Put together, this provides my answer to the question posed in the title of my paper: "Conscientious refusal by physicians and pharmacists: who is obligated to do what, and why?". PMID:18756375

Brock, Dan W

2008-01-01

355

Skills Verdict: Must Do Better  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Ambition 2020: World Class Skills and Jobs" is the UK Commission for Employment and Skills' annual assessment, to the four UK nations, of their progress towards becoming "world class" in productivity, employment and skills by 2020. "Ambition 2020" provides a robust independent account of economic and skills developments. This report is the…

Spilsbury, Mark

2010-01-01

356

Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

2014-01-01

357

Skills Gaps in Australian Firms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

Lindorff, Margaret

2011-01-01

358

Conceptual Skills in Beginning Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A task analysis of the conceptual skills prerequisite to learning to read by a phonics-based method is made in an attempt to distinguish these skills from reading's component skills. The model for task analysis presented by Gagne, in which a cumulative learning of prerequisite conceptual skills is assumed, is used. The analysis deals primarily…

Marsh, George

359

Military Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselor's Training Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 110 military alcohol and drug abuse counselors and 16 clinical supervisors to compare their views of training needs. Results indicated both groups felt improvement was needed in assessment skills and family issues. Supervisors felt counselors needed improvement in affective qualities, basic helping skills and individual helping skills.…

Powell, David J.; Thompson, Audrey

1985-01-01

360

Evidence for learned skill during cocaine self-administration in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  It has been proposed that cocaine abuse results in skilled or “automatic” drug-taking behaviors. Brain regions important for\\u000a skill learning are implicated in cocaine self-administration. However, the development of skill during self-administration\\u000a has not been investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The present experiment investigated the development of skilled self-administration over extended drug use by employing a novel\\u000a operant vertical head movement under discriminative stimulus

David H. Root; David J. Barker; Sisi Ma; Kevin R. Coffey; Anthony T. Fabbricatore; Mark O. West

361

AIDS health education for intravenous drug users.  

PubMed

Intravenous (IV) drug users are the second largest risk group for AIDS and the main source of infection for heterosexual partner and pediatric AIDS cases. IV drug users have an addiction and a subculture that make risk reduction difficult; for example, to refuse to share needles can endanger personal relationships, and carrying clean works (rather than renting them in a shooting gallery) risks arrest. In New York City, at least, knowledge about AIDS transmission is widespread among IV drug users, and most drug injectors report having changed their drug use practices to reduce their risks. The main functions of health education in areas where IV drug users have this level of knowledge are to disseminate news of new discoveries; reach those drug users who have not yet learned AIDS basics; reinforce what is already known; and provide information about new programs to help drug users deal with AIDS-related problems. To encourage behavior change requires going beyond simple education, however; it entails trying to change IV drug user subculture. Drug user groups in the Netherlands and in New York City are attempting to do this from within the subculture. Outside intervention requires repeated messages from multiple sources; face-to-face, interactive communication; and perhaps the use of ex-addicts as health educators. PMID:3781862

Friedman, S R; Des Jarlais, D C; Sotheran, J L

1986-01-01

362

Drug allergies  

MedlinePLUS

Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... vomiting to life-threatening anaphylaxis . A true drug allergy is caused by a series of chemical steps ...

363

Editor's Note: Literacy Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our science and literacy issue is always one of the most popular issues of the year, and we're betting this jam-packed issue will be no exception. Why? There are many probable reasons. Many elementary teachers are more comfortable with teaching science literacy so they look for ways to use their strengths. No Child Left Behind legislation has put the spotlight on literacy in the elementary grades, sometimes pushing science (and social studies and PE and art) out of the busy day. Teaching science with literacy skills may be one way to convey important science skills while still teaching and reinforcing literacy.

Ohana, Chris

2008-11-01

364

A Drug Interactions Elective Course  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the impact of a drug interactions elective course on student knowledge and skills. Design A drug interactions elective which focused on assessment and application of drug interaction information and identification and management of commonly encountered drug interactions by therapeutic category was offered to third-year PharmD students. Students were expected to (1) determine whether a given interaction was clinically significant or required pharmacist intervention, and (2) make rational, scientifically sound, practical recommendations for management of drug interactions. Evaluation and Assessment Assessment included course evaluations, student self-assessments, and knowledge and skills assessments. Students who completed the course were more confident in their abilities relating to drug interactions than students who did not complete the course. Students who completed the course scored significantly better in all areas of the assessment compared to students who did not complete the course. Course evaluation results were also positive. Conclusion A course devoted to the identification and management of drug interactions improved PharmD students' knowledge and skills and could potentially improve the patient care they provide in the future. PMID:19657505

2009-01-01

365

Parental Delay or Refusal of Vaccine Doses, Childhood Vaccination Coverage at 24 Months of Age, and the Health Belief Model  

PubMed Central

Objective We evaluated the association between parents' beliefs about vaccines, their decision to delay or refuse vaccines for their children, and vaccination coverage of children at aged 24 months. Methods We used data from 11,206 parents of children aged 24–35 months at the time of the 2009 National Immunization Survey interview and determined their vaccination status at aged 24 months. Data included parents' reports of delay and/or refusal of vaccine doses, psychosocial factors suggested by the Health Belief Model, and provider-reported up-to-date vaccination status. Results In 2009, approximately 60.2% of parents with children aged 24–35 months neither delayed nor refused vaccines, 25.8% only delayed, 8.2% only refused, and 5.8% both delayed and refused vaccines. Compared with parents who neither delayed nor refused vaccines, parents who delayed and refused vaccines were significantly less likely to believe that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children (70.1% vs. 96.2%), that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated (71.0% vs. 90.0%), and that vaccines are safe (50.4% vs. 84.9%). Children of parents who delayed and refused also had significantly lower vaccination coverage for nine of the 10 recommended childhood vaccines including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (65.3% vs. 85.2%), polio (76.9% vs. 93.8%), and measles-mumps-rubella (68.4% vs. 92.5%). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, we found that parents who were less likely to agree that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children, to believe that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated, or to believe that vaccines are safe had significantly lower coverage for all 10 childhood vaccines. Conclusions Parents who delayed and refused vaccine doses were more likely to have vaccine safety concerns and perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics may assist providers in responding to parents who may delay or refuse vaccines. PMID:21812176

Smith, Philip J.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Zhao, Zhen; Dorell, Christina G.; Howes, Cynthia; Hibbs, Beth

2011-01-01

366

Essential Skills for Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

Terry, Paul M.

1999-01-01

367

Basic Policy Studies Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication will help high school and college students develop policy analysis skills and techniques and apply these to important public issues. A public policy issue is defined as a disagreement between two or more elements of a society over the way that the society's government deals with a given situation. There are six chapters. Chapter…

Coplin, William D., Ed.; O'Leary, Michael K., Ed.

368

Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

Gordon, Wendy

2014-02-01

369

Participative Training Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

Rodwell, John

370

Developing Technical Skill Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…

Hyslop, Alisha

2009-01-01

371

Adult Survival Skills Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

Walsko, Gregory M.

372

Shiningalighton... Develop valuable skills  

E-print Network

Pre-Law Shiningalighton... Develop valuable skills for law school "Injustice anywhere is a threat, not what to think. Though you might, of course, seek a pre-professional program in law at a large Administration 321: Public Policy 322: American Constitutional Law Psychology 160: Proseminar: Social Psychology

Bogaerts, Steven

373

The Skills Paradox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a vocal commitment to fairness, the British Government has, according to these authors, wholeheartedly failed to live up to this pledge when it comes to skills and adult training. A report on adult learning released in December by Demos found a system rife with inequality and contradictions. As the jobs market becomes increasingly…

Burks, Beatrice Karol; Reeves, Richard

2009-01-01

374

Skilled Veterans Corps  

E-print Network

once and for all. A group of elders has volunteered to clean up the reactors damaged by the tsunami and earthquake. Calling itself the Skilled Veteran Corps, the group consists of engineers and other specialists over 60 who are able?and willing--to do a...

Hacker, Randi

2011-08-31

375

Basic Skills: Visual Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A curriculum guide for the visual arts is presented. The goal of elementary and middle school education in the four arts disciplines is the development of basic understanding and skills by every student. In secondary education the aim is to continue a sequential curriculum for those students who study the arts. This document is intended as a guide…

Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

376

Soft Skills, Hard Science  

E-print Network

, 13 #12;focus on soft skills NSF grant to do 3-part intervention with STEM seniors with disabilities 3 with anxiety issues 2 with autism spectrum disorder 1 with speech disability 13 Wednesday, May 22 intervention mentoring work-based learning 15 Wednesday, May 22, 13 #12;Four f2f meetings Meeting 1

Wu, Mingshen

377

Counseling Skills for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By necessity, today's teachers do much more than deliver instruction. In the classroom, on the playground, or even in the parking lot, teachers are often called upon to respond quickly and appropriately to students' social and emotional needs, drawing from instinct more than anything else. In this second edition of "Counseling Skills for…

Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Kottler, Ellen

2006-01-01

378

Skill acquisition Motor learning  

E-print Network

control #12;·6 3 stages of motor learning, continued ­ autonomous stage -- this stage involves motor at this stage · Role of feedback in the autonomous stage of learning ­ feedback necessary during learning·1 Skill acquisition · Motor learning theories ­ closed loop theory ­ schema theory ­ hierarchical

Sergio, Lauren E.

379

Rapid Response Skills Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College's (MGCCC) long-term commitment to providing workforce training in a post-Katrina environment became a catalyst for designing short-term flexible educational opportunities. Providing nationally recognized skills training for the recovery/rebuilding of communities challenged the college to develop innovative,…

Kelley-Winders, Anna Faye

2008-01-01

380

KATHERINE HUMBER SKILLS SUMMARY  

E-print Network

and conflict resolution skills with documented history of leadership and collaboration in professional and community organizations. Effective management of multiple projects in a fast paced, large scale worldwide student and faculty members worldwide - Manage finances, budget and annual reporting to honor society

Weber, David J.

381

Developmentally sensitive cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent school refusal: rationale and case illustration.  

PubMed

School refusal can be difficult to treat and the poorest treatment response is observed among older school refusers. This poor response may be explained, in part, by the impact of developmental transitions and tasks upon the young person, their family, and the treatment process. This paper describes and illustrates the @school program, a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to promote developmental sensitivity when planning and delivering treatment for adolescent school refusal. Treatment is modularized and it incorporates progress reviews, fostering a planned yet flexible approach to CBT. The treatment is illustrated in the case of Allison, a 16-year-old female presenting with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A case formulation guided the selection, sequencing, and pacing of modules targeting predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and protective factors. Treatment comprised 16 sessions with Allison (interventions addressing depression, anxiety, and school attendance) and 15 concurrent sessions with her mother (strategies to facilitate an adolescent's school attendance), including two sessions with Allison and mother together (family communication and problem solving to reduce parent-adolescent conflict). Two treatment-related consultations were also conducted with Allison's homeroom teacher. Allison's school attendance improved during the course of treatment. By post-treatment, there was a decrease in internalizing behavior, an increase in self-efficacy, and remission of depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. Clinically significant treatment gains were maintained at 2-month follow-up. Factors influencing outcome may include those inherent to the @school program together with less specific factors. Special consideration is given to parents' use of both authoritative and autonomy-granting approaches when helping an adolescent to attend school. PMID:24338067

Heyne, David; Sauter, Floor M; Ollendick, Thomas H; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Westenberg, P Michiel

2014-06-01

382

Microbial Community Structure of Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens and Refuse Dumps  

PubMed Central

Background Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. Methodology/Principal Findings Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps) rather than colony source (lab/field). At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. Conclusions/Significance Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities. These results thus suggest that resident communities are shaped by the plant degradation gradient created by ant behavior, specifically their fungiculture and waste management. PMID:20360970

Scott, Jarrod J.; Budsberg, Kevin J.; Suen, Garret; Wixon, Devin L.; Balser, Teri C.; Currie, Cameron R.

2010-01-01

383

Chemical and thermal variations in seeps discharged from a burning coal refuse pile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid mine drainage generated by coal refuse piles is affecting the Moxahala watershed in Southeastern Ohio. The major contributor of acidity to this watershed is the Misco refuse pile. This pile was formed during the exploitation of the Misco Mine in Perry County, Ohio, in the early 1950's. In addition to the generation of acid mine drainage, the Misco Pile is burning. There is an impounded pond on the southwest end of the west gob pile, which was created when the valley was filled with refuse. The water from this pond flows into and throughout the gob pile and discharges on the northeast end into Bennet Run. At an elevation close to the elevation of the pond, two seeps are discharged. Temperature, specific conductivity, and pH was monitored in these seeps and correlated to rainfall. A lack of response of water temperature to small rainfall events was observed. This behavior suggest channeling of water inside the pile from the source pond to the main seep, and probably evaporation effects. In comparison, during high rainfall events, transfer of heat from the burning spots to the infiltrating water occurred and an increase in seep temperature was observed. A decrease in conductivity and an increase in pH was observed during the studied period as a dilution effect produced by an increased water storage within the pond and pile. Diurnal effects were stronger in the smaller seep, probably due to lower water velocities and greater residence time at the air-pile interface. From the location of the burning spots and seeps, a water velocity of 1 to 5 feet/s (0.3 to 1.7 m/s) was estimated. The pile can be viewed as a dual-porosity system of continuous conduits and matrix porosity. Only flow with sufficient head can penetrate and transfer heat from the hot areas in the matrix.

Lopez, D. L.; Doe, C. F.; Stuart, B. J.; Stoertz, M. W.

2002-12-01

384

A Dialogical Approach to Skill and Skilled Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is on the nature of the linguistically based skills that are generally thought to be significant at an intra-personal, interpersonal and organizational level of analysis (e.g. communication, teamwork, decision making, critical thinking). The aim is to develop a dialogical account of skill and skilled activity by drawing on ethnomethodology, activity theory and social constructionism. The

David Holman

2000-01-01

385

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Metal Stamping Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

386

Contact refusal by children following acrimonious separation: therapeutic approaches with children and parents.  

PubMed

This paper aims to build on the existing literature, by presenting some thoughts based on clinical experience with nine families of children referred for intractable contact refusal with one parent following marital separation. This particular group of high-conflict divorce cases engenders an inordinate amount of frustration both within the courts and therapeutic agencies. We outline here our assessment process and therapeutic strategies, as well as consideration of the role of the wider professional system and the courts. We conclude that whether or not direct contact with the rejected parent is achieved, useful therapeutic work can be carried out to assist children in moving on with their lives. PMID:22641839

Dejong, Margaret; Davies, Hilary

2013-04-01

387

Drug Design: Designer Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This article interrogates the contemporary comprehension of rational drug design in the development of pharmaceutical products\\u000a with therapeutic and enhancing properties and its extensions to designer drugs on the grey and black market. The latter not\\u000a only evidently leads to ethical and hence societal questions of standardizing the state of well-being of body and mind, but\\u000a also virtually sets the

Gerd Folkers; Elvan Kut; Martin Boyer

388

Learning Oral Presentation Skills  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oral presentation skills are central to physician-physician communication; however, little is known about how these skills are learned. Rhetoric is a social science which studies communication in terms of context and explores the action of language on knowledge, attitudes, and values. It has not previously been applied to medical discourse. We used rhetorical principles to qualitatively study how students learn oral presentation skills and what professional values are communicated in this process. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Inpatient general medicine service in a university-affiliated public hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twelve third-year medical students during their internal medicine clerkship and 14 teachers. MEASUREMENTS One-hundred sixty hours of ethnographic observation. including 73 oral presentations on rounds. Discoursed-based interviews of 8 students and 10 teachers. Data were qualitatively analyzed to uncover recurrent patterns of communication. MAIN RESULTS Students and teachers had different perceptions of the purpose of oral presentation, and this was reflected in performance. Students described and conducted the presentation as a rule-based, data-storage activity governed by “order” and “structure.” Teachers approached the presentation as a flexible means of “communication” and a method for “constructing” the details of a case into a diagnostic or therapeutic plan. Although most teachers viewed oral presentations rhetorically (sensitive to context), most feedback that students received was implicit and acontextual, with little guidance provided for determining relevant content. This led to dysfunctional generalizations by students, sometimes resulting in worse communication skills (e.g., comment “be brief” resulted in reading faster rather than editing) and unintended value acquisition (e.g., request for less social history interpreted as social history never relevant). CONCLUSIONS Students learn oral presentation by trial and error rather than through teaching of an explicit rhetorical model. This may delay development of effective communication skills and result in acquisition of unintended professional values. Teaching and learning of oral presentation skills may be improved by emphasizing that context determines content and by making explicit the tacit rules of presentation. PMID:11359549

Haber, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei A

2001-01-01

389

Brain Mechanisms of Cognitive Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the anatomy and circuitry of skills that, like reading, calculating, recognizing, or remembering, are common abilities of humans. While the anatomical areas active are unique to each skill there are features common to all tasks. For example, all skills produce activation of a small number of widely separated neural areas that appear necessary to perform the task.

Michael I. Posner; Gregory J. DiGirolamo; Diego Fernandez-Duque

1997-01-01

390

Skill Upgrading, Incorporated. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As in two other projects in Cleveland and Newark, New Jersey, this project was set up in Baltimore to provide technical assistance in designing ways to meet in-plant skills needs by upgrading job skills on entry workers through High Intensity Training (HIT). Skill Upgrading, Inc. was established in Maryland to provide training and manpower…

Skill Upgrading, Inc., Baltimore, MD.

391

Employability Skills. At a Glance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

Wibrow, Bridget

2011-01-01

392

Quality Standards for Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit (ALBSU) is committed to improving the quality of basic skills provision in England and Wales. It has encouraged the development of quality assurance in basic skills so that potential and existing students know what they should be entitled to expect. ALBSU's Good Practice documents published since 1984 have…

Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit, London (England).

393

Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

2014-01-01

394

Puzzle Play Improves Math Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief press release from the National Science Foundation summarizes the results of a University of Chicago study linking puzzle play with math skills. The study found that puzzle play proved to be a significant predictor of spatial skills. The study also found gender differences in child/parent interactions and in acquired skills.

2012-02-16

395

Student Math Skills Reference Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mathematics support guide is intended for use by vocational students and instructors as a review of essential mathematics concepts and for problem-solving exercises in the vocations. It is designed to accompany the "Mathematical Skills Inventory," which tests mathematics skills, attitudes, and background. A section entitled Arithmetic Skills

Wilson, Odell; And Others

396

Developing Geoscience Students' Quantitative Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophisticated quantitative skills are an essential tool for the professional geoscientist. While students learn many of these sophisticated skills in graduate school, it is increasingly important that they have a strong grounding in quantitative geoscience as undergraduates. Faculty have developed many strong approaches to teaching these skills in a wide variety of geoscience courses. A workshop in June 2005 brought

C. A. Manduca; G. S. Hancock

2005-01-01

397

Practical Skills and Personality Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Declarers of above average, average, and below average Practical Skills on the ACT Student Profile Report were compared on the basis of OPI personality scale scores by means of multivariate analysis of covariance. Results indicated significant differences by level of Practical Skill and no significant interaction between sex and practical skill

Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

1973-01-01

398

Consumer-Family Life Skills for Correctional Institution Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Atlanta Area Vocational Technical School's course in consumer education and family life skills is taught in various community rehabilitation centers to such groups as alcoholics, prison probationer parolees, and drug offenders. Focus is on such topics as money management, value clarification, buying foods and services, insurance, housing, and…

Hensley, Mary; And Others

1977-01-01

399

Transcultural knowledge and skills transfer: issues arising from evaluation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in St Petersburg, Russia that ran between 1995 and 2004.

Anita J. Green; David G. Holloway

2007-01-01

400

Using the World Wide Web to Improve Medication Calculation Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological therapeutics have advanced in recent years. As a consequence of this, the complexity of calculations required by health?care professionals has increased concomitantly. The continuing incidence of medication errors reported in the literature indicates that, in order to maintain competence in calculating medications from drug order sheets, undergraduate and registered nurses need opportunities to practise and review this skill. Identifying

Gloria Stillman; Justine Alison; Felicity Croker

1999-01-01

401

Putting It All Together: Quest's Skills for Growing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists several premises concerning drug education and prevention which form the basis for Skills for Growing, a Quest International program targeted at students in kindergarten through grade five. Program goals are listed, external and internal conditions envisioned by Quest are discussed, and positive social behaviors and commitments which are…

Resnik, Hank

1988-01-01

402

National Photonics Skill Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document marks an important milestone in the development and maintenance of high-quality associate degree programs in photonics in U.S. community and technical colleges. The need for photonics education is critical. The problem cannot be remedied through on-the-job training. Our public educational institutions, particularly two-year colleges, must get involved. But most cannot do so without guidelines for determining what knowledge and skills photonics graduates will need in the coming years.

2008-11-17

403

Minors' capacity to refuse treatment: a reply to Gilmore and Herring.  

PubMed

Re R and Re W allow a parent to consent to treatment a competent minor refuses, but the cases have not been tested post-Human Rights Act 1998. Gilmore and Herring offer a means by which they might be distinguished or sidelined. They interpret Gillick to say that in order to consent a minor need only have a full understanding of the particular treatment. They argue that the minors in Re R and Re W were refusing all treatment which requires a separate assessment of capacity-an assessment which was not made. We fear that this distinction would not be workable in clinical practice and argue that their interpretation of Gillick is flawed. From a clinician's point of view, competence cannot always be judged in relation to a specific treatment, but instead must relate to the decision. We show that a decision can incorporate more than one treatment, and more than one decision might be made about one treatment. A minor's understanding of a specific treatment is not always sufficient to demonstrate competence to make a decision. The result is that whilst there might be situations when a parent and a minor both have the power to consent to a particular treatment, they will not share concurrent powers in relation to the same decision. Consequently, a challenge to Re R and Re W, if forthcoming, would need to take a different form. We emphasise the necessity to minimise the dichotomy between legal consent and how consent works in medical practice. PMID:22474100

Cave, Emma; Wallbank, Julie

2012-01-01

404

Follow-up study of four cases of pervasive refusal syndrome.  

PubMed

The term pervasive refusal syndrome was first mentioned in a paper detailing a sample study of four children by Bryan Lask and colleagues in 1991. This article presents a sample of four children diagnosed with Pervasive Refusal Syndrome, three girls and a boy, seen within a specialist NHS inpatient unit in the North East of England, and describes the main features presented. The main focus of the article will be on long-term prognosis and outcome in relation to day to day functioning and activities. Each of the cases has been followed up once at an interval of between 3 and 16 years after discharge, and the outcomes are presented here. Results suggest that two of the young people with PRS made a complete recovery in the long term, that one was impaired by anorexia nervosa at follow-up, and the remaining young person was reluctant to be interviewed, so it is unclear how well she has maintained her initial discharge recovery. PMID:21461858

Guirguis, Suzy; Reid, Corrine; Rao, Sushma; Grahame, Victoria; Kaplan, Carole

2011-05-01

405

Performance and mechanism on a high durable silica alumina based cementitious material composed of coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal refuse and combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. Recycling is one practical solution to utilize this huge amount of solid waste through activation as substitute for ordinary Portland cement. The central goal of this dissertation is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to ordinary Portland cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economy benefit for construction and building materials. The results show that thermal activation temperature ranging from 20°C to 950°C significantly increases the workability and pozzolanic property of the coal refuse. The optimal activation condition is between 700°C to 800°C within a period of 30 to 60 minutes. Microanalysis illustrates that the improved pozzolanic reactivity contributes to the generated amorphous materials from parts of inert aluminosilicate minerals by destroying the crystallize structure during the thermal activation. In the coal refuse, kaolinite begins to transfer into metakaol in at 550°C, the chlorite minerals disappear at 750°C, and muscovite 2M1 gradually dehydroxylates to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this research examines the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based cementitious material not only meets EPA requirements but also shows several advantages in industrial application.

Yao, Yuan

406

Gender Differences in Drug Offers of Rural Hawaiian Youths: A Mixed-Methods Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study examined the gender differences in drug-offer situations of Native Hawaiian youths in rural communities. Youths from seven middle or intermediate schools (N 194) on the Big Island of Hawai'i completed a survey that focused on the drug offers they had received. Multivariate and bivariate analyses indicated that the girls received significantly more drug offers than did the boys in the sample and found it more difficult to refuse drugs in such situations. Qualitative data gathered from communities in the survey's sampling frame elucidated the quantitative findings. Limitations of the study and implications for prevention practice are discussed. PMID:20711491

Okamoto, Scott K.; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Edwards, Christopher; Giroux, Danielle

2010-01-01

407

Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program (CASSIP) is designed to help students develop effective study skills and academic attitudes, thus increasing their potential for scholastic success. The program contains four integrated items: Study Skills Surveys; Study Skills Modules, Study Skills Notebook; and Study Skills Test. The surveys…

Brown, William F.; Forristall, Dorothy Z.

408

Social skills training.  

PubMed

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have prominent social impairment, which is commonly manifested in unskilled behaviors in social situations and difficulties in being accepted and befriended by peers. This social impairment often remains after administration of medication and behavioral contingency management treatments that address the core symptoms of ADHD. This article reviews traditional social skills training (SST) approaches to remediating social impairment, and presents the evidence for their efficacy and significant limitations to their efficacy. The article introduces potential reasons why the efficacy of traditional SST may be limited, and concludes with some promising alternative SST approaches. PMID:25220086

Mikami, Amori Yee; Jia, Mary; Na, Jennifer Jiwon

2014-10-01

409

READING SKILL AND SUPPRESSION REVISITED  

PubMed Central

In a previous issue of Psychological Science, we (Gernsbacher, 1993) reported that less skilled readers are less able than more skilled readers to quickly suppress irrelevant information (e.g., the contextually inappropriate meaning of a homonym, such as the playing-card meaning of spade, in the sentence He dug with the spade, or the inappropriate form of a homophone, such as patience, in the sentence He had lots of patients). In the current research, we investigated a ramification of that finding: If less skilled readers are less able to suppress a contextually inappropriate meaning of a homonym, perhaps less skilled readers might be better than more skilled readers at comprehending puns. However, intuition and previous research suggest the contrary, as do the results of the research presented here. On a task that required accepting, rather than rejecting, a meaning of a homonym that was not implied by the sentence context, more skilled readers responded more rapidly than less skilled readers. In contrast, on a task that required accepting a meaning of a homonym that was implied by the sentence context, more and less skilled readers performed equally well. We conclude that more skilled readers are more able to rapidly accept inappropriate meanings of homonyms because they are more skilled at suppression (which in this case involves suppressing the appropriate meanings).

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Robertson, Rachel R.W.

2014-01-01

410

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technician Skill Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skill standards are quality standards applied to people. They are specific statements of desired skill and knowledge presented in observable and measurable form. The statement contains a condition that defines under what circumstances it will be observed and measured. The desired behavior is defined and the standard criteria are stated in terms of "how good is good enough?" Skill standards specify the expected behavior, the condition and the standard for performance for technicians working in highly automated environments such as 300mm semiconductor fabs.The manufacturing environment has evolved from one that was populated with self-contained tools utilizing robotics technology to one that is composed of large numbers of these tools interconnected by automated material handling systems (AMHS) and driven by a centralized manufacturing execution system (MES) in such a way as to maximize factory throughput and output.The skills required to work in such an environment consist of most of the skills required by the previous environment (i.e., 200mm fabs) plus some emerging skills. These emerging skills are primarily skills and knowledge related to the new, enterprise automation systems, their maintenance, and the ability to utilize the vast amount of information they provide.Importantly, these skills are transferable to a great extent to a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing and automotive manufacturing. In the course of this project, research into transportation industries (railroads) and chemical processing (refineries) showed a high degree of commonality of the skills required.

2011-01-13

411

45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she...required work if the individual is a single custodial parent caring for a child under age...

2011-10-01

412

45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she...required work if the individual is a single custodial parent caring for a child under age...

2010-10-01

413

45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she...required work if the individual is a single custodial parent caring for a child under age...

2013-10-01

414

45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or... Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she...required work if the individual is a single custodial parent caring for a child under age...

2012-10-01

415

Use of Stimulus Fading and Functional Assessment to Treat Pill Refusal With an 8YearOld Boy Diagnosed With ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological treatments improve functioning for many of the core problems characteristic of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pharmacological treatment is also useful when delivered in combination with behavior management procedures. However, many children find swallowing pills and capsules difficult, and many refuse treatment outright. There are limited resources available to parents confronted with their children's pill refusal behaviors, especially when these

David Reitman; Celine Passeri

2008-01-01

416

Disposable containers as larval habitats for Aedes aegypti in a city with regular refuse collection: a study in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Marília, Brazil, refuse is collected at least every other day, yet non-useful, non-returnable containers such as cans, plastic bottles and tires account for almost half of the container habitats found positive for the Aedes aegypti mosquito. A study was therefore conducted to investigate why these containers exist despite regular refuse collection and a high level of awareness of dengue

C. A. B. Mazine; M. L. G. Macoris; M. T. M. Andrighetti; S. Yasumaro; M. E. Silva; M. J. Nelson; P. J. Winch

1996-01-01

417

Graduated Exposure and Compliance Training Intervention for Blood Draw Avoidance and Refusal in a Woman with Intellectual Disability and Schizoaffective Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case report concerns a woman with intellectual disability, schizoaffective disorder, and avoidance and refusal of having her blood drawn. She required but refused blood draws to properly monitor the therapeutic dose of a necessary psychotropic medication. During intervention at a community-based habilitation setting and under simulated…

Cromartie, R. Samuel; Flood, William A.; Luiselli, James K.

2014-01-01

418

47 CFR 3.53 - FCC notification of refusal to provide telecommunications service to U.S. registered vessel(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FCC notification of refusal to provide telecommunications...SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.53 FCC notification of refusal to provide telecommunications... An accounting authority must inform the FCC immediately should it receive notice...

2010-10-01

419

37 CFR 1.377 - Review of decision refusing to accept and record payment of a maintenance fee filed prior to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...refusing to accept and record payment of a maintenance fee filed prior to expiration of patent...CASES National Processing Provisions Maintenance Fees § 1.377 Review of decision refusing to accept and record payment of a maintenance fee filed prior to expiration of...

2010-07-01

420

Drugs in development for influenza.  

PubMed

The emergence and global spread of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus reminds us that we are limited in the strategies available to control influenza infection. Vaccines are the best option for the prophylaxis and control of a pandemic; however, the lag time between virus identification and vaccine distribution exceeds 6 months and concerns regarding vaccine safety are a growing issue leading to vaccination refusal. In the short-term, antiviral therapy is vital to control the spread of influenza. However, we are currently limited to four licensed anti-influenza drugs: the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir, and the M2 ion-channel inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine. The value of neuraminidase inhibitors was clearly established during the initial phases of the 2009 pandemic when vaccines were not available, i.e. stockpiles of antivirals are valuable. Unfortunately, as drug-resistant variants continue to emerge naturally and through selective pressure applied by use of antiviral drugs, the efficacy of these drugs declines. Because we cannot predict the strain of influenza virus that will cause the next epidemic or pandemic, it is important that we develop novel anti-influenza drugs with broad reactivity against all strains and subtypes, and consider moving to multiple drug therapy in the future. In this article we review the experimental data on investigational antiviral agents undergoing clinical trials (parenteral zanamivir and peramivir, long-acting neuraminidase inhibitors and the polymerase inhibitor favipiravir [T-705]) and experimental antiviral agents that target either the virus (the haemagglutinin inhibitor cyanovirin-N and thiazolides) or the host (fusion protein inhibitors [DAS181], cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists). PMID:20614944

Boltz, David A; Aldridge, Jerry R; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A

2010-07-30

421

Parenting: The Underdeveloped Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This parent education curriculum contains a variety of materials designed to help local Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) hold meetings for parents on child rearing. The materials help organizers plan meetings on topics such as dating, drugs, and careers. The unit contains a leader's guide, which contains a description of how to plan meetings,…

National PTA, Chicago, IL.

422

Mediated addiction: The drug discourses of Hong Kong youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ways young people in Hong Kong at different stages of involvement with illegal drugs respond to government produced anti-drug television commercials through a methodology which provided them with the technical skills and equipment to make their own short videos about drugs. An analysis of the videos they produced and their interaction while producing them reveals that

Rodney H Jones

2005-01-01

423

Group Differences in Suppression Skill*  

PubMed Central

It is proposed that there are group differences in suppression skill, and one such grouping is the distinction between more versus less skilled university-aged comprehenders. Experiments supporting this proposal and demonstrating that university-aged adults differ in their ability to suppress irrelevant, inappropriate, potentially interfering information are reviewed. Many of these experiments have been replicated with other groups, which also hypothetically differ in their ability to suppress inappropriate information. Two new sets of experiments are reviewed. In one, the prediction that less skilled comprehenders- because they are less skilled at suppression- should be better at comprehending puns is evaluated. In the other, the prediction that less skilled comprehenders- because they are less skilled at suppression- are better able to shift to a different meaning of a homonym is evaluated. Both sets of data are evaluated with respect to a general slowing explanation and scaling artifacts.

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

2014-01-01

424

Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis  

SciTech Connect

In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

Galvagno, S. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Portici, via Vecchio Macello loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)], E-mail: sergio.galvagno@portici.enea.it; Casciaro, G. [Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, C.R. ENEA Brindisi, SS. 7 Appia-km 706, 72100 Brindisi (Italy); Casu, S. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Bologna, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS 106 Jonica km 419-500, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Mingazzini, C. [Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, C.R. ENEA Faenza, via Ravegnana 186, 48018 Faenza (Italy); Russo, A. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS 106 Jonica km 419-500, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Portofino, S. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Portici, via Vecchio Macello loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

2009-02-15

425

When a patient refuses life-saving care: issues raised when treating a Jehovah's Witness.  

PubMed

Patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses frequently cross the path of nephrologists when they are acutely ill in the intensive care unit and stable in the long-term setting. It is important that we as a group have a rudimentary understanding of their philosophy about blood transfusion so that we can be proactive in their management. We use a case as a launching point to discuss the origins of the faith and the decision to refuse blood, as well as potential therapeutic strategies that can be used to improve the care of these patients. Improvement in our understanding as physicians will facilitate a more productive conversation with our patients about a complex and emotional issue. PMID:21862193

Panico, Megan L; Jenq, Grace Y; Brewster, Ursula C

2011-10-01

426

Correctional officers' intention of accepting or refusing to make HIV preventive tools accessible to inmates.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the factors which explain correctional officers' intention of accepting or refusing to make HIV preventive tools (condoms, bleach, tattooing equipment, and syringes) accessible to inmates. A total of 957 officers completed a questionnaire that took into account determinants from several social-cognitive behavior theories. The results indicated that only 21.4% of officers were favorable toward making accessible all of the preventive tools. The theoretical model explained 87% of the intention variance, p < .0001. Self-efficacy (beta = .35), personal normative belief (beta = .29), social determinants (beta = .21) and the affective dimension of attitude (beta = .19) were significant determinants. Moreover, officers with a high level of intention differed from those with a low level of intention on several points of the theoretical model. In conclusion, the results clearly indicated that several difficulties must be overcome before HIV preventive tools as a whole can be made accessible to inmates. PMID:11718445

Godin, G; Gagnon, H; Alary, M; Noël, L; Morissette, M R

2001-10-01

427

Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: a comparative analysis.  

PubMed

In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from "end of life" products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products. PMID:18657408

Galvagno, S; Casciaro, G; Casu, S; Martino, M; Mingazzini, C; Russo, A; Portofino, S

2009-02-01

428

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOEpatents

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02

429

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOEpatents

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01

430

Spoon distance fading with and without escape extinction as treatment for food refusal.  

PubMed

Little is known about the characteristics of meals that serve as motivating operations (MOs) for escape behavior. In the current investigation, we showed that the distance at which a therapist held a spoon from a child's lips served as an MO for escape behavior. Based on these results, we implemented spoon distance fading, compared fading with and without escape extinction (EE), and compared fading plus EE to EE alone. Initially, inappropriate mealtime behavior decreased during fading, but this effect was not maintained as fading progressed. Inappropriate mealtime behavior was lower initially when we combined fading and EE relative to EE alone, but acceptance increased more rapidly with EE than with fading plus EE. These results suggest that a number of mealtime characteristics might function as MOs for escape behavior and that analyses of MOs may be useful for developing treatments for food refusal. PMID:21541151

Rivas, Kristi D; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Bachmeyer, Melanie H

2010-01-01

431

An obligation to provide abortion services: what happens when physicians refuse?  

PubMed

Access to abortion services in the United States continues to decline. It does so not because of significant changes in legislation or court rulings but because fewer and fewer physicians wish to perform abortions and because most states now have "conscientious objection" legislation that makes it easy for physicians to refuse to do so. We argue in this paper that physicians have an obligation to perform all socially sanctioned medical services, including abortions, and thus that the burden of justification lies upon those who wish to be excused from that obligation. That is, such persons should have to show how requiring them to perform abortions would represent a serious threat to their fundamental moral or religious beliefs. We use current California law as an example of legislation that does not take physicians' obligations into account and thus allows them too easily to declare conscientious objection. PMID:8731539

Meyers, C; Woods, R D

1996-04-01

432

Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

Kluska, Jacek; Klein, Marek; Kazimierski, Pawe?; Karda?, Dariusz

2014-03-01

433

Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.

434

"Pregnancy is not a disease": conscientious refusal and the argument from concepts.  

PubMed

In many American states, a health care worker has a legal right to immunity from employer sanction if she refuses to perform actions at odds with her conscience: she has a legal right to accommodation of her conscientious beliefs. A number of arguments have been advanced to defend or reject this right. These have tended to focus on the possibly conflicting interests of the health care worker and the patient. Recently, however, a new argument has been proposed to justify immunity from employer sanction. This argument rests on the premise that the scope of the very concepts of medicine and disease circumscribes the scope of proper medical practice. Procedures and activities that fall outside the scope of medicine and disease are not properly within the brief of health care personnel. This argument is important because, in principle, it stands outside the balancing of interests. Its central claim is nonsectarian-namely, that a person ought to do her job but need not do what is not her job. This claim avoids taking any stand in the culture wars. It is merely a claim about the logic of the concept "professional." The medical professional who refuses to perform a procedure is not asking for special treatment. On the contrary, she is asking to be treated normally-in accordance with the normal contours of her job. Of course, other arguments also seek to justify health care providers' immunity from employer sanction. Ultimately, these different arguments need to be prized apart and scrutinized one by one. This essay focuses on the argument from the concepts of medicine and disease, as a down payment on that larger project. PMID:25231661

Brudney, Daniel

2014-09-01

435

ANALYSIS OF FLY ASH PRODUCED FROM COMBUSTION OF REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL AND COAL MIXTURES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Mixtures of coal and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) were burned and the fly ash was collected and analyzed for concentration trends with respect to RDF/coal ratio and particle size. RDF contributes more Cs, Mn, Sb, and Pb to the fly ash while coal contributes greater amounts of As, Br...

436

MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION, MULTIPOLLUTANT STUDY, EMISSION TEST REPORT, MAINE ENERGY RECOVERY COMPANY REFUSE DERIVED FUEL FACILITY, BIDDEFORD, MAINE - VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an emission test of a new municipal solid waste combustor, in Biddeford, ME, that burns refuse-derived fuel and is equipped with a lime spray dryer fabric filter (SD/FF) emission control system. ontrol efficiency of the SD/FF emission control system wa...

437

Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

1982-01-01

438

A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection vehicles in a Canadian city  

E-print Network

A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection by the City of Surrey in British Columbia are utilized. c The life cycle energy use is similar for diesel and CNG RCVs. c A 24% reduction of GHG emissions (CO2-equivalent) may be realized by switching from diesel

Pedersen, Tom

439

Assessment of bacteria and virus emissions at a refuse-derived fuel plant and other waste-handling facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of work carried out by Midwest Research Institute for the Environmental Protection Agency to determine relative levels of bacteria are presented in order to compare these levels at the St. Louis Refuse Processing Plant with those at four other types of waste handling facilities (i.e., an incinerator, a waste transfer station, a wastewater treatment plant, and a landfill).

D. E. Fiscus; P. G. Gorman; M. P. Schrag; L. J. Shannon

1978-01-01

440

Refusal Strategies in L1 and L2: A Study of Persian-Speaking Learners of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore pragmalinguistic strategies employed by a group of Iranian English language learners when making refusals to invitations, requests, offers and suggestions in their first (Persian) and second (English) languages. Data were collected from 86 participants through a Discourse Completion Test (DCT). The social…

Babai Shishavan, Homa; Sharifian, Farzad

2013-01-01

441

Economic Feasibility of Converting Landfill Gas to Natural Gas for Use as a Transportation Fuel in Refuse Trucks  

E-print Network

to global climate change, diesel-fueled refuse trucks are one of the most concentrated sources of health-threatening air pollution in most cities. The landfills that they ultimately place their waste in are the second largest source of human-related methane...

Sprague, Stephen M.

2011-02-22

442

Drug Facts  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... who wants to talk to her daughter about drugs. Take a quiz : What do you know about drugs? Haga clic aquí para información sobre el abuso ... y tratamiento. VIDEO: Anyone Can Become Addicted to Drugs VIDEO: Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? ...

443

Young children's knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention: a pilot study in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

To examine the level of knowledge and skills related to prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a sample of Chinese preschoolers in Beijing and to explore the associations between children's scores on the knowledge and skills and their parents' reports on the knowledge and communication with children about CSA prevention. One hundred and thirty-six preschoolers were interviewed by researchers using the Chinese versions of Personal Safety Questionnaire and the "What If" Situation Test, and one parent of each child was invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding parental knowledge and parent-child communication about CSA prevention. Less than half children knew that strangers were not the only perpetrators and only 16% thought that children should report secret touching. In 3 inappropriate touching requests, less than 30% of the children were aware of using verbal response to definitely refuse the inappropriate touching and less than 20% of the children were aware of definitely removing themselves from the abusive situations. Parent-child communication about CSA and parental educational level were the significant factors for children's self-protection skills. Preschool children lack CSA prevention knowledge and related self-protection skills. Culturally relevant primary CSA prevention programs in China need to be developed and parental education should be a part of CSA prevention. Parents need to be informed about CSA knowledge concepts and need to be encouraged to communicate with their children about sexual abuse prevention. PMID:23768932

Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Luo, Xiaoling

2013-09-01

444

Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

Zhang, Aimao

2012-01-01

445

From learning styles to learning skills: the executive skills profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contends that a typology of skills based on a framework of learning styles and experiential learning theory, rather than a framework of job performance or some other personality construct, provides a language and guidance for assessment methods to describe knowledge at the performance level of adaptation. It requires development of the concept of learning skills which are: domainspecific and knowledge-rich;

Richard E. Boyatzis; David A. Kolb

1995-01-01

446

Linking Life Skills and Norms with Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome…

Lai, Mary H.; Graham, John W.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Bradley, Stephanie A.; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa

2013-01-01

447

Classroom Activities in Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a resource for teachers of grades four and up who are eager to improve their students' thinking skills while teaching their regular curriculum, this booklet contains activities that can be used to teach a new concept or to review a previously taught skill. Following an introduction, the topics of the chapters of the resource guide and…

Kruse, Janice, Comp.

448

Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

449

Basic Skills in Asian Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

Hantula, James

450

Doing Away with "Study Skills"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the widespread approach to enhancing student learning through separate study skills courses is ineffective, and that the term "study skills" itself has misleading implications, which are counterproductive to learning. The main argument is that learning how to study effectively at university cannot be separated from subject…

Wingate, Ursula

2006-01-01

451

Foreign Language Skills and Jobs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students of foreign languages insist on seeing the evidence that foreign language skills have something to do with getting jobs in the "real world." Evidence is being ammassed which does show this to be true. Several studies have revealed that American firms are looking for qualified personnel who possess language skills. A survey was initiated at…

Eddy, Peter A.

452

Developing Map Skills Using Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted instruction can be valuable in the teaching and learning of skills associated with the reading and interpretation of maps. The purpose of this manual is to provide teachers with a resource guide for the development of students' map skills and understanding of world geography through the use of a computer. Several suggested…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Computer Information Services.

453

High Scores but Low Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

2011-01-01

454

The Skills Enhancement Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The set of materials presented here are curriculum materials from a workplace literacy and basic skills program, funded largely through the U.S. Department of Education and operated by a food and beverage workers' local union. The program offered instruction from 1990-94 in basic skills, General Education Development (GED), workplace…

Burt, Miriam

455

21st Century Skills Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

2011-01-01

456

Quality and Generic (Professional) Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedback from employers of graduates indicates a need to include a focus on generic skills to complement disciplinary expertise. Educational research shows that such skills are most effectively taught in the disciplinary context. Therefore, in order to better meet the requirements of employers for graduates who are more 'fit for purpose', universities may need to change the curriculum and how

Barbara De La Harpe; Alex Radloff; John Wyber

2000-01-01

457

Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

458

Enhancing Literacy Skills through Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to use technology to enhance literacy skills. Highlights include defining literacy, including information literacy; research to support reading and writing instruction; literacy software; thinking skills; organizational strategies for writing and reading; how technology can individualize literacy instruction; and a new genre of…

Sistek-Chandler, Cynthia

2003-01-01

459

Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

Follettie, Joseph F.

460

Assessment of critical appraisal skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStudies have provided little evidence that critical appraisal skills improve with focused courses. However, outcome measures in these studies have been questionable. The goal of this study was to develop a feasible, reliable, and valid assessment of critical appraisal skills.

Helen M MacRae; Glenn Regehr; Fred Brenneman; Marg McKenzie; Robin S McLeod

2004-01-01

461

National Health Care Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains draft national health care skill standards that were proposed during the National Health Care Skill Standards Project on the basis of input from more than 1,000 representatives of key constituencies of the health care field. The project objectives and structure are summarized in the introduction. Part 1 examines the need for…

Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

462

Skill Development in Graduate Education  

PubMed Central

The process of training new PhDs is complex and has significant dropout rates associated with loss of financial and time investments by the student, mentor, and program. One approach to improve graduate education is to make explicit the skills students need to develop and to put in place mechanisms to develop those skills. PMID:22633484

2013-01-01

463

Professional Certificate in Management Skills  

E-print Network

· Manage change Module 2 Communications Skills: Tools for Managers A manager's ability to communicate is the vital skill for providing feedback, managing conflict and negotiating relationships. What you will learn: · Essentials to manage respectful interpersonal communication with employees, customers and colleagues · Apply

Carleton University

464

Skilled up and Having Fun  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers seem to have followed the "dunking theory." That is, they dunk their children in a variety of investigations and hope that through their practical work they will absorb a thorough understanding of enquiry skills. Children seem to have quite a good natural waterproof coating when it comes to absorbing scientific skills through…

Goldsworthy, Anne

2013-01-01

465

Knowledge and Skill Guidelines for Aquaculture Technicians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) has provided this overview of knowledge and skill guidelines for aquaculture technicians. The report begins with detailing the background of the creation of these guidelines, which occurred at the third annual Rhode Island Aquaculture Conference in Warwick, Rhode Island. Competency areas for aquaculture technicians outlined in the report are laboratory skills, math skills, knowledge of basic chemistry, field experience, knowledge of basic biology, mechanical skills, communication skills, analytical skills, internship experience, time management skills, computer skills, basic business skills and staying up-to-date.

2011-09-20

466

Hard evidence on soft skills?  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of “cognitive ability” like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills—personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies. PMID:23559694

Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim

2012-01-01

467

Meeting the Demand: Teaching "Soft" Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and behavioral skills; and public…

Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.

468

Social skills deficits associated with depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the empirical evidence of impaired social skills associated with depression. Conceptualizations of social skills are examined followed by evidence from self-report, observer-rating, and behavioral assessments of depressed people's social skills. Evidence of social skills deficits in children with depression and in people with bipolar disorder is also examined. The effectiveness of social skills training as a treatment

Chris Segrin

2000-01-01

469

Improving Learners' Research Process Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

2010-12-01

470

Identifying Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... List View Paraphernalia View All Narcotics Stimulant Hallucinogens Cannabis Depressants Opioid Drugs of Concern Inhalants Steroids Drug ... sticks Needle Pacifier Pipe Rag Roach clip Rolling papers Small spoon Straw or tube About this Site ...

471

Drug Resistance  

MedlinePLUS

... every day and exactly as prescribed. What is drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ... does poor medication adherence increase the risk of drug resistance? Medication adherence means taking HIV medicines every ...

472

Club Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

Club drugs are group of psychoactive drugs. They act on the central nervous system and can cause changes ... bars. They include Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), also known as Ecstasy XTC, X, E, Adam, Molly, Hug Beans, and ...

473

Drugs, AIDS, and Teens: Intervention and the School Counselor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for intervention for addressing drug use and sexual permissiveness that seems to be effective and practical for use with adolescents. Describes four components of social cognitive learning theory of detrimental lifestyle change (informational, development of social and self-regulatory skills, skill enhancement through guided…

Stevens-Smith, Patricia; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

1994-01-01

474

"Brown Bag" Simulations to Teach Drug Utilization Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. To teach drug utilization review (DUR) skills to pharmacy students and assess their abilities and confidence before and after training. Design. Profile reviews and online and live drug-utilization-review activities of increasing difficulty were incorporated into the first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) years of the Pharmacy Skills Training Laboratory sequence in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Assessment. An online survey instrument was administered to gauge how comfortable students were with specific DUR skills before and after the activities. Students’ confidence in performing specific DUR skills improved after completing the activities. Conclusion. Profile reviews, as well as online and live medication reviews, gave students numerous opportunities to practice drug utilization review skills throughout the first 3 years of the pharmacy curriculum. Students’ confidence in performing specific drug utilization review skills improved after the activities. Students’ ability to perform the skills also improved as measured with the developed checklist in section V and VI of the Pharmacy Skills Laboratory sequence. PMID:24672073

Begley, Kimberley; Hoie, Eric; Elsasser, Gary; Augustine, Sam

2014-01-01

475

EVA Skills Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

476

Separation of harmful impurities from refuse derived fuels (RDF) by a fluidized bed.  

PubMed

In firing systems of cement production plants and coal-fired power plants, regular fossil fuels are increasingly substituted by alternative fuels. Rising energy prices and ambitious CO2-reduction goals promote the use of alternative fuels as a significant contribution to efficient energy recovery. One possibility to protect energy resources are refuse-derived fuels (RDF), which are produced during the treatment of municipal solid, commercial and industrial waste. The waste fractions suitable for RDF have a high calorific value and are often not suitable for material recycling. With current treatment processes, RDF still contains components which impede the utilization in firing systems or limit the degree of substitution. The content of these undesired components may amount to 4 wt%. These, in most cases incombustible particles which consist of mineral, ceramic and metallic materials can cause damages in the conveying systems (e. g. rotary feeder) or result in contaminations of the products (e. g. cement, chalk). Up-to-date separation processes (sieve machine, magnet separator or air classifier) have individual weaknesses that could hamper a secure separation of these particles. This article describes a new technology for the separation of impurities from refuse derived fuels based on a rotating fluidized bed. In this concept a rotating motion of the particle bed is obtained by the tangential injection of the fluidization gas in a static geometry. The RDF-particles experience a centrifugal force which fluidized the bed radially. The technical principle allows tearing up of particle clusters to single particles. Radially inwards the vertical velocity is much lower thus particles of every description can fall down there. For the subsequent separation of the particles by form and density an additionally cone shaped plate was installed in the centre. Impurities have a higher density and a compact form compared to combustible particles and can be separated with a high efficiency. The new technology was experimentally investigated and proven using model-RDF, actual-RDF and impurities of different densities. In addition, numerical simulations were also done. The fluidization chamber was operated in batch mode. The article describes experiences and difficulties in using rotating fluidized bed systems. PMID:24252370

Krüger, B; Mrotzek, A; Wirtz, S

2014-02-01

477

10 Old Dominion University TransferableSkills  

E-print Network

develops strong motivation and consensus building skills) Transferable skills supplement your degree transferable skills. Campus and community activities, class projects and assignments, athletic activities acquired through the classroom, jobs, athletics and other activities. Use these examples to help you

478

49 CFR 383.113 - Required skills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.113 Required skills. (a) Basic vehicle control skills. All applicants for a CDL...

2010-10-01

479

Too Good for Drugs[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Too Good for Drugs"[TM] is designed to promote life skills, character values, resistance skills to negative peer influence, and resistance to the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. The program, which targets elementary and middle school students, is based on classroom discussions and structured activities that center on interactive…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

480

Drug Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a survey of student perceptions of drugs and drug use that was conducted at Bowie State College are presented. Studies that have been conducted on college students' use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine in the last five years are reviewed, along with additional studies relating to the general population and the following drugs:…

Gill, Wanda E.; And Others

481

An Alumni Assessment of MIS Related Job Skill Importance and Skill Gaps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a job skill survey of Management Information Systems (MIS) alumni from a Northeastern U.S. university. The study assesses job skill importance and skill gaps associated with 104 technical and non-technical skill items. Survey items were grouped into 6 categories based on prior research. Skill importance and skill

Wilkerson, Jerod W.

2012-01-01

482

Cognitive Skills: A Modest Way of Learning through Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills

Sethy, Satya Sundar

2012-01-01

483

Skill Standards for Wireless Telecommunications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing and implementing strong educational programs are essential steps to take toward affirmatively responding to the shortage of qualified workers for the wireless industry. Community and technical colleges have an enviable opportunity to respond quickly and creatively to wireless manpower supply gaps and manpower shortages. Key to this effort, however, is the necessity to identify core skills and knowledge bases for technicians and engineers. Merely training individuals is not a sufficient response to the need for skilled workers. Achieving consistently high levels of quality both in product and in productivity is an imperative in all sectors of the wireless industry. This realization in turn underscores the need for industry-driven standards for the skill development of workers. For Seattle Central Community College, North Seattle Community College, Bellevue Community College and their industry and labor partners, identifying generic skills and requisite and unique wireless skills and abilities through the skill standards process is tantamount to the task of developing educational programs that prepare individuals for the wireless workplace. The wireless skill standards have been developed at a critical timesignificant changes in local and global wireless technology require clearly articulated standards for both product and employee performance. The outcome of this process is critical to the ability of companies to hire and retain excellent RF talent in a highly competitive market. Both industry and labor recognize the importance of clearly articulated universal skills as a basis for the preparation of qualified and competent workers for the industry, and they will be the ultimate beneficiaries of the results of the wireless skill standards project. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

2010-01-04

484

Editor's Roundtable: Developing inquiry skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inquiry skills cannot be taught in only one grade or taught only at the start of the year; and they cannot be taught by having students memorize a set of procedures and definitions for a pencil-and-paper test on "the scientific method." To become proficient in inquiry, students must repeatedly practice these skills in challenging, content-embedded investigations until doing science and thinking like scientists become second nature. This issue of Science Scope offers an excellent selection of articles about developing inquiry skills in middle school students.

Liftig, Inez

2008-09-01

485

Drug allergy  

PubMed Central

Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR) not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:22165859

2011-01-01

486

Role-Play Assessment of Social Skills in Conduct Disordered and Substance Abusing Adolescents: An Empirical Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically examines and integrates studies that have evaluated social-skill functioning in delinquent and substance-abusing youth utilizing role-play assessment. Distinguishes the meaning of "social skills," describes "role play assessment," and discusses the relationship of illicit drug use and conduct disorder among adolescents. (Author/EMK)

Donohue, Brad; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Hersen, Michel; Perrin, Sean

1998-01-01

487

Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.  

PubMed

The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse. PMID:25189842

Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

2014-12-01

488

Sexual revictimization during women's first year of college: self-blame and sexual refusal assertiveness as possible mechanisms.  

PubMed

Although sexual victimization during adolescence increases risk for later revictimization, mechanisms for increased risk among new college students have not been identified. Female undergraduates (N = 87) were assessed at the start and end of their first academic year. Those who reported initial sexual victimization at Time 1 were more likely than other women to report later college victimization at Time 2. Path analyses showed that self-blame and decreased sexual refusal assertiveness (SRA) explained this effect. Specifically, initial victimization was associated with increased self-blame; in turn, self-blame indirectly predicted later college victimization via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness. Prevention efforts focused on self-blame and other barriers to SRA may reduce risk for revictimization during women's transition to college. PMID:20065312

Katz, Jennifer; May, Pamela; Sörensen, Silvia; DelTosta, Jill

2010-11-01

489

Bioethics of the refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses: Part 1. Should bioethical deliberation consider dissidents' views?  

PubMed Central

Jehovah's Witnesses' (JWs) refusal of blood transfusions has recently gained support in the medical community because of the growing popularity of "no-blood" treatment. Many physicians, particularly so-called "sympathetic doctors", are establishing a close relationship with this religious organization. On the other hand, it is little known that this blood doctrine is being strongly criticized by reform-minded current and former JWs who have expressed conscientious dissent from the organization. Their arguments reveal religious practices that conflict with many physicians' moral standards. They also suggest that a certain segment of "regular" or orthodox JWs may have different attitudes towards the blood doctrine. The author considers these viewpoints and argues that there are ethical flaws in the blood doctrine, and that the medical community should reconsider its supportive position. The usual physician assumption that JWs are acting autonomously and uniformly in refusing blood is seriously questioned. PMID:9752623

Muramoto, O

1998-01-01

490

Determinants of efficiency in the provision of municipal street-cleaning and refuse collection services.  

PubMed

Effective waste management systems can make critical contributions to public health, environmental sustainability and economic development. The challenge affects every person and institution in society, and measures cannot be undertaken without data collection and a quantitative analysis approach. In this paper, the two-stage double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007) is used to estimate the efficiency determinants of Spanish local entities in the provision of public street-cleaning and refuse collection services. The purpose is to identify factors that influence efficiency. The final sample comprised 1072 municipalities. In the first stage, robust efficiency estimates are obtained with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We apply the second stage, based on a truncated-regression, to estimate the effect of a group of environmental factors on DEA estimates. The results show the existence of a significant relation between efficiency and all the variables analysed (per capita income, urban population density, the comparative index of the importance of tourism and that of the whole economic activity). We have also considered the influence of a dummy categorical variable - the political sign of the governing party - on the efficient provision of the services under study. The results from the methodology proposed show that municipalities governed by progressive parties are more efficient. PMID:21339060

Benito-López, Bernardino; Moreno-Enguix, María del Rocio; Solana-Ibañez, José

2011-06-01

491

Nitrogen removal pathway of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in on-site aged refuse bioreactor.  

PubMed

The nitrogen removal pathways and nitrogen-related functional genes in on-site three-stage aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) treating landfill leachate were investigated. It was found that on average 90.0% of CODCr, 97.6% of BOD5, 99.3% of NH4(+)-N, and 81.0% of TN were removed with initial CODCr, BOD5, NH4(+)-N, and TN concentrations ranging from 2323 to 2754, 277 to 362, 1237 to 1506, and 1251 to 1580 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the functional genes amoA, nirS and anammox 16S rRNA gene were found to coexist in every bioreactor, and their relative proportions in each bioreactor were closely related to the pollutant removal performance of the corresponding bioreactor, which indicated the coexistence of multiple nitrogen removal pathways in the ARB. Detection of anammox expression proved the presence of the anammox nitrogen removal pathway during the process of recirculating mature leachate to the on-site ARB, which provides important information for nitrogen management in landfills. PMID:24657757

Wang, Chao; Zhao, Youcai; Xie, Bing; Peng, Qing; Hassan, Muhammad; Wang, Xiaoyuan

2014-05-01

492

Emissions of C&D refuse in landfills: a European case.  

PubMed

A field study was developed in a new landfill for refuse from construction and demolition (C&D) material recovery plants of small size (4 Ha.) in Europe, with the aim of evaluating the liquid and gas emissions in this type of facility at a large scale. It included characterization of the materials, monitoring leachate and gas quantity and composition. Besides thermometers, piezometers and sampling ports were placed in several points within the waste. This paper presents the data obtained for five years of the landfill life. The materials disposed were mainly made up of wood and concrete, similar to other C&D debris sites, but the amount of gypsum drywall (below 3% of the waste) was significantly smaller than other available studies, where percentages above 20% had been reported. Leachate contained typical C&D pollutants, such as different inorganic ions and metals, some of which exceeded other values reported in the literature (conductivity, ammonium, lead and arsenic). The small net precipitation in the area and the leachate recirculation into the landfill surface help explain these higher concentrations, thus highlighting the impact of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio on leachate characteristics. In contrast to previous studies, neither odor nuisances nor significant landfill gas over the surface were detected. However, gas samples taken from the landfill inside revealed sulfate reducing and methanogenic activity. PMID:24824964

López, Ana; Lobo, Amaya

2014-08-01

493

Environmental levels of cadmium and lead in the vicinity of a major refuse incinerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines whether the atmospheric release of Cd and Pb from a refuse incinerator in London has caused contamination of the local environment. Sampling networks were established for street dusts, surface soils, vegetation and total deposit gauges in areas up to 5 km downwind and upwind from the incinerator. Measurements of Cd and Pb indicate there is neither a marked nor an extensive contamination by these metals in the downwind area. However, dust Cd values decreased with distance from the incinerator in this area and Cd deposition rates were higher than in the upwind area. Nevertheless, most Cd values obtained in the downwind area were similar to those previously reported for other parts of London while Pb values were often lower. It is considered that the 100 m stack of the incinerator minimizes the deposition of particulate emissions in the vicinity of this source. Appreciable Cd contamination was found within the grounds of the incinerator, the values being about 4-50-fold higher than in either the upwind or downwind areas. The extent of Pb contamination in this small area was more limited, with values being about twice those found in the two study areas. The source of this contamination is ascribed to fugitive releases arising from the storage and transport of the ashes produced by the incinerator.

Hutton, M.; Wadge, A.; Mllligan, P. J.

494

[Voluntary Refusal of Food and Fluid in palliative care: a mapping literature review].  

PubMed

Voluntary Refusal of Food and Fluid (VRFF) is one possibility for patients in palliative situations to hasten death and avoid further suffering. By means of a mapping literature review this article describes the medical, nursing, ethical and legal perspective of care for people who wish to hasten death using VRFF. The results show that the wish to die is affected by psychological, social, spiritual and physical factors. VRFF is a little-known, legal and independently viable method to hasten death. Reducing fluid intake to 40 ml daily, the dying process takes one to three weeks. VRFF can be regarded as a natural death, foregoing treatment or as suicide. In contrast to physician assisted suicide or euthanasia, patients dying by VRFF experience a "natural" dying process and the decision is reversible in the first few days. As authority to act lies with the person wishing to die professionals and family caring for the dying are practicing palliative care, as opposed to assisted suicide or euthanasia. Professionals and family involved in the decision-making process are confronted with various ethical problems. Further research concerning VRFF and its implications for practice is necessary. PMID:24297830

Klein Remane, Ursula; Fringer, André

2013-12-01

495

Superheater corrosion in a boiler fired with refuse-derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

The environment in the superheater of a boiler firing refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is very aggressive. The high wastage rate for the standard T-22 material necessitated a materials testing program. Simples of Types 304H, HR3C, T-22 chromized, 825 and 625 were assembled into tubular test sections and welded into the superheater tubing. After 1,180 hours the test sections were evaluated and the wastage rates calculated for each material. The chlorides contained in the RDF are believed to be the primary corrodent. The chlorine may be interacting with the metal samples as HCl, a low-melting-point eutectic or a combination of these. Of the six materials tested, Alloy 625 exhibited the best resistance--substantially better than the next-best Type 304. Alloy 825 and HR3C corroded approximately 1.5 times the rate of Type 304. The chromized layer on T-22 showed no resistance to the environment and was consumed in large areas.

Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bakker, W.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Steinbeck, T. [United Power Association, Elk River, MN (United States)

1995-12-31

496

Anything but the eyes: culture, identity, and the selective refusal of corneal donation.  

PubMed

At the time that a patient is diagnosed as brain dead, a substantial proportion of families who give consent to heart and kidney donation specifically refuse eye donation. This in part may relate to the failure of those involved in transplantation medicine and public education to fully appreciate the different meanings attached to the body of a recently deceased person. Medicine and science have long understood the body as a "machine." This view has fitted with medical notions of transplantation, with donors being a source of biologic "goods." However, even a cursory glance at the rituals surrounding death makes it apparent that there is more to a dead body than simply its biologic parts; in death, bodies continue as the physical substrate of relationships. Of all the organs, it is the eyes that are identified as the site of sentience, and there is a long tradition of visual primacy and visual symbolism in virtually all aspects of culture. It therefore seems likely that of all the body parts, it is the eyes that are most central to social relationships. A request to donate the eyes therefore is unlikely to be heard simply in medical terms as a request to donate a "superfluous" body part for the benefit of another. That the eyes are not simply biologic provides one explanation for both the lower rates of corneal donation, compared with that of other organs, and the lack of adequate corneal donation to meet demand. PMID:22011764

Lawlor, Mitchell; Kerridge, Ian

2011-12-15

497

Design considerations and operating experience in firing refuse derived fuel in a circulating fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

The worldwide demand for cleaner, more efficient methods to dispose of municipal solid waste has stimulated interest in processing solid waste to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) for use in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The combination of waste processing and materials recovery systems and CFB boiler technology provides the greatest recovery of useful resources from trash and uses the cleanest combustion technology available today to generate power. Foster Wheeler Power Systems along with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and several other Foster Wheeler sister companies designed, built, and now operates a 1600 tons per day (TPD) (1450 metric tons) municipal waste-to-energy project located in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. This project incorporates waste processing systems to recover recyclable materials and produce RDF. It is the first project in the United States to use CFB boiler technology to combust RDF. This paper will provide an overview of the Robbins, Illinois waste-to-energy project and will examine the technical and environmental reasons for selecting RDF waste processing and CFB combustion technology. Additionally, this paper will present experience with handling and combusting RDF and review the special design features incorporated into the CFB boiler and waste processing system that make it work.

Piekos, S.J. [Foster Wheeler Energy Corp., Perryville, NJ (United States); Matuny, M. [Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Perryville, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31

498

System of handling refuse derived fuel utilizing same to fire power plants  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for supplying refuse derived fuel, that has been shredded to a predetermined nominal size to a furnace fuel supply chute that is open to the furnace fire chamber, in a continuous and uninterrupted flow, for heating the furnace boiler. The apparatus consists of: a large primary surge capacity bin. The bin includes an upper intake port and a lower discharge port, means for continuously storing the fuel in the bin at a rate that is substantially in excess of the flow rate of the flow, means for vibrating the primary bin for feeding from the stored fuel quantity the fuel at a predetermined lesser flow rate, a vibrating conveyor including means for receiving the fuel at the lesser flow rate and including a fuel flow conducting through for vibrationally feeding the fuel received from the primary bin to the locale of the furnace, a metering bin mounted at the locale of the furnace and including an upper intake port and a lower discharge port, means for supplying the fuel from the vibrating conveyor to the metering bin through the upper intake port of the metering bin.

Dumbaugh, G.D.

1988-10-04

499

Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in the commercial scale Tonghae CFB Power Plant. As the feeding ratio of the RDF to the anthracites increased to 5%, temperature and pressure were not changed in comparison with firing only anthracites. The amount of the required air was reduced due to high O2 content in RDF relative to the anthracites. The emissions of NOx, SOx, HCl and Dioxin were also measured. According to higher mixing ratio of the RDF to the anthracites, SOx, NOx emissions slightly decreased and HCl emissions increased, because RDF has relatively smaller S, N and higher CI than the anthracites. Heavy metals of the fly ash and bottom ash and the dioxin emissions were far below Korean maximum permissible concentration level at incinerator. The results showed that it is of great use and technically possible to co-combustion of RDF with the anthracites by 5% in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in commercial scale CFB boiler.

Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae-Sung

500

Food refusal and insanity: sitophobia and anorexia nervosa in Victorian asylums.  

PubMed

Although anorexia nervosa emerged as a new syndrome in the second half of the 19th century, this clinical picture seemed to be unknown in the psychiatric hospitals or asylums. In asylum medicine, the commonly used concept of sitophobia to designate food refusal in the insane covered a wide variety of mental disturbances and cannot be plainly equated with anorexia nervosa. A major difference is the occurrence of hallucinations and delusions specifically centered around religion and digestion. Most probably, anorectic patients were not treated in asylums, but at home, in the doctor's office, or in general hospitals. This pattern may be partly attributed to the fact that both patients and doctors were focusing on symptoms of self-starvation like emaciation, constipation, and amenorrhea, which were primarily interpreted as referring to somatic diseases. Additionally, wealthy families probably preferred private care in water-cure establishments, sanatoria, and rest homes to the stigmatizing referral of their anorectic daughter to an asylum. Hence, the fact that late 19th-century institutionalized psychiatry was only incidentally confronted with anorexia nervosa may explain its lack of interest in the emerging syndrome. PMID:10744845

van Deth, R; Vandereycken, W

2000-05-01