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Sample records for dry matter production

  1. Dry matter losses during hay production and storage of sweet sorghum used for methane production

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.

    1987-01-01

    Losses from production and storage of large round hay bales from sweet sorghum were measured. Dry matter losses from hay production were 55.3%. Storage losses were 18.1% and 10.1% for outdoor and indoor storage, respectively. It was concluded hay storage of sweet sorghum used for anaerobic digestion is not a viable option.

  2. Dry matter production and nutrient content of longan grown on an acid Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the adaptability of longan (Dimocarpus longan) to acidic soils high in aluminum (Al). A 2-year field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient content in shoots of four cultivars of longan. S...

  3. Dry Matter Production and Leaf Elemental Concentrations of Rambutan Grown on an Acid Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the adaptability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) to highly acidic soils rich in aluminum (Al). A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient concentration in the leaves of four cult...

  4. Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia) in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Mohsin Ahmad; Sharma, R. K.; Rastogi, Ankur; Barman, Keshab

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Materials and Methods: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio. Proximate composition, fiber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of walnut cake were estimated. Result: The per cent IVDMD value of T1 and T2 diets was 68.42 ± 1.20 and 67.25 ± 1.37 respectively which was found highest (P<0.05) T3, T4, T5 and T6. Similar trend was also found for TDOM and MBP. Inclusion of walnut cake at 10% level in the concentrate mixture does not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, mg/200 mg DM), total gas production, microbial biomass production (MBP) and efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP). Conclusion: It is concluded that walnut cake incorporation up to 10% level in the iso -nitrogenous concentrate mixture has no any negative effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM), TDOM, MBP, EMP and total gas production in goat. PMID:27047013

  5. Effect of K-N-humates on dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency of maize in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Petrus, Auldry Chaddy; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Muhamad, Ab Majid Nik; Nasir, Hassan Mohammad; Jiwan, Make

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW), is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer), which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS), but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots) were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6) showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials) causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from fertilizer to

  6. Combining ability of sweetpotato germplasm for yield, dry matter content, and anthocyanin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the potential of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) for the production of industrial products is increasing. As part of an effort to evaluate the potential of sweetpotatoes for starch and anthocyanin production in the southeastern United States, a 5 x 5 North Carolina mating design II (NCII m...

  7. Influence of milk production potential on forage dry matter intake by multiparous and primiparous Brangus females.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Lalman, D L; Brown, M A; Appeddu, L A; Buchanan, D S; Wettemann, R P

    2003-07-01

    Brangus cows (n = 29) were used in three experiments to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs. primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs. low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based on their sire's EPD for milk production (MEPD). Cows had ad libitum access to (130% of previous 2-d average intake) low-quality hay (5.3% CP and 76% NDF), and cottonseed meal was supplemented to ensure adequate degradable intake protein. All females were adapted to diets for at least 7 d, and individual intake data were collected for 9 d. During the lactation trials, actual milk production was determined using a portable milking machine following a 12-h separation from calves. During late gestation, multiparous cows consumed 24% more (P = 0.01) forage DM (kg/d) than primiparous cows; however, parity class did not influence forage intake when intake was expressed relative to BW. Furthermore, MEPD did not influence forage intake during late gestation. During early lactation, multiparous cows produced 66% more (P < 0.001) milk than primiparous cows, and high MEPD tended (P = 0.10) to produce more milk than low MEPD. Multiparous cows consumed 19% more (P < 0.0001) forage DM than did primiparous cows when expressed on an absolute basis, but not when expressed on a BW basis. High-MEPD cows consumed 8% more (P < 0.05) forage DM than did low-MEPD cows. During late lactation, multiparous cows produced 84% more milk than primiparous cows, although MEPD did not influence (P = 0.40) milk yield. In addition, multiparous cows consumed 17% more (P < 0.01) forage DM per day than primiparous cows, but when intake was expressed relative to BW, neither parity nor MEPD influenced forage DMI during late lactation. Milk yield and BW explained significant proportions of the variation in forage DMI during early and late lactation. Each kilogram increase in milk yield was associated with a 0

  8. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    .86, 7.38, 0.64, and 0.23, ± 1.71 µg/d, for AFD, NSP-0.5%+AFD, NSP-1%+AFD, NSP-1%, and CON, respectively. More specifically, 1.07±0.08% of the daily AF intake was transferred to the milk of cows consuming the AFD, whereas the AF transfer rates in milk from cows that consumed the NSP-0.5%+AFD and NSP-1%+AFD were 0.52 and 0.32±0.08%. Results from this research demonstrate that feeding NSP to lactating cows is an effective method to reduce the transfer and excretion of AFM1 in milk with no negative effects on dry matter intake, milk production, and composition. PMID:26709170

  9. INVESTIGATION INTO GRAIN DRY MATTER LOSS DURING FIELD DRYING OF CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 1990s reports were circulating in the U.S. Midwest corn production community that there is significant loss in grain dry matter when corn is left to dry further in the field. While there was also evidence that this does not happen or that such loss is minimal, this became an issue of c...

  10. [Dry matter accumulation in rice aboveground part: quantitative simulation].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Da; Tang, Liang; Chen, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Cao, Wei-Xing; Zhu, Yan

    2010-06-01

    A field experiment with four rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars and different nitrogen application rates was conducted, with the dry matter accumulation (DMA) in the cultivars aboveground part measured at their main growth stages. The dynamic model of relative dry matter accumulation (RDMA) was established with the normalized DMA and TEP (product of thermal effectiveness and PAR) from emergence to maturity, and the temporal characteristics of DMA changes was quantitatively analyzed based on the RDMA model. The dynamic changes of the RDMA could be well described with Richards equation, i. e., RDMA = 1.0157/(1 +e(3.6329-7.5907xRTEP)) 1/0.5574 (r = 0.9938). The model was validated with independent field experiment datasets, involving different eco-sites, cultivars, and nitrogen application rates. The RMSE (root mean square error) between the simulated and observed values of DMA at varied RTEP was 0.86 t x hm(-2). According to the two inflexion points of dry matter accumulation rate equation, the whole process of dry matter accumulation could be divided into early, middle, and late phases. The maximum dry matter accumulation rate (AR(max)), relative TEP at AR(max), and relative dry matter accumulation at AR(max) were found to be 2.24, 0.56, and 0.46, respectively. PMID:20873627

  11. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin.

    PubMed

    Maliki, Raphiou; Sinsin, Brice; Floquet, Anne; Cornet, Denis; Malezieux, Eric; Vernier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders' traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0-10 and 10-20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. PMID:27446635

  12. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Sinsin, Brice; Floquet, Anne; Cornet, Denis; Malezieux, Eric; Vernier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders' traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. PMID:27446635

  13. [Effects of different tillage methods on photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter production and economic benefit of double cropping soybean].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiang-hua; Su, Li-li; Li, Ya-jie; Xu, Wen-xiu; Peng, Jiang-long

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore suitable mode of high yield cultivation of double cropping soybean after wheat under drip irrigation in northern Xinjiang, field trials were set in 2013-2014 to investigate physiological indices and agronomic traits of double cropping soybean under different tillage methods under drip irrigation. The results showed that leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) during the determination period under different tillage methods were in the order of tillage plus film covering (TP)> tillage (T)> rotary tillage (RT) > no-tillage (NT) , and the concentration of intercellular CO₂(Ci) was the opposite. LAI, SPAD, Pn, Tr, and g(s) of TP were higher than that with NT by 55.0%, 9.1%, 41.8%, 37.5% and 56.4%, respectively, and Ci was decreased by 22.1%. TP enhanced the photosynthetic efficiency of soybean and improved the ability of CO₂assimilation, consequently leading to the increase of soybean yield under TP compared to NT. The plant dry matter accumulation of TP treatment was improved greatly, with the pod number and seeds number per plant, 100-seed mass and yield of quadric sowing soybean being increased by 50.3%, 48.1%, 11.8% and 20.8% compared with that under NT, and the differences were significant. Therefore, the plastic film mulching combined with tillage under drip irrigation technology was suitable for double cropping soybean after wheat in northern Xinjiang under this experimental condition. PMID:27228608

  14. Effects of climate and lifeform on dry matter yield (epsilon) from simulations using BIOME BGC. [ecosystem process model for vegetation biomass production using daily absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Running, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    An ecosystem process simulation model, BIOME-BGC, is used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the factors that may cause the dry matter yield (epsilon) and annual net primary production to vary for different ecosystems. At continental scales, epsilon is strongly correlated with annual precipitation. At a single location, year-to-year variation in net primary production (NPP) and epsilon is correlated with either annual precipitation or minimum air temperatures. Simulations indicate that forests have lower epsilon than grasslands. The most sensitive parameter affecting forest epsilon is the total amount of living woody biomass, which affects NPP by increasing carbon loss by maintenance respiration. A global map of woody biomass should significantly improve estimates of global NPP using remote sensing.

  15. Water soluble carbohydrates affects dry matter digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low energy concentration of forages often limits animal performance. This limitation in performance can be mitigated by either increasing daily dry matter intake (DMI) or digestibility, or both, resulting in greater daily digestible DMI. The diurnal fluctuation in forage composition, especially ...

  16. Variety diversity effect on the chemical composition and dry matter degradation characteristics of residue and by-products of oil palm fruits.

    PubMed

    Bamikole, Musibau Adungbe; Ikhatua, Uamai Julius

    2009-06-01

    The materials palm press fibre (PPF), palm calyx (PCL) and palm oil sludge (POS) obtained from three varieties of oil palm: dura, oleifera and tenera were investigated for the effect of variety on their nutritive value. Analysis of proximate composition, cell wall fractions, some mineral concentration as well as in-situ dry matter degradation in the rumen of steers were carried out. Significant effects of materials (i.e. PPF, PCL and POS) as well as variety (i.e. dura, oleifera and tenera) were noticed in all the parameters studied except sodium (Na) and organic matter (OM) components. Crude protein (CP) values in all the varieties were lowest in PCL (3.15-5.48%) and highest in POS (9.02-10.02%), while crude fibre (CF) values were highest in PCL (33.00-46.19%) and lowest in POS (3.15-5.48%). The upper and lower values respectively for CP and CF in the materials were in most cases for the tenera variety. The cell wall fractions (NDF, ADF, Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) were all higher in PCL and lowest in POS. In the three varieties, POS had highest concentration of Mg (0.117-0.231 g/100 g), K (1.21-2.33 g/100 g) and Cu (75.07-87.34 mg/kg) but lowest content of Ca (0.016-0.089 g/100 g) while PPF had lowest concentration of Mg (0.031-0.039 g/100 g) and Cu (20.96-22.28 mg/kg). Iron (Fe, mg/kg) values were generally high, but highest in PCL (2015.41-4042.16). Dry matter degradability and effective degradability values were best in POS irrespective of the variety and least in PCL. Among the three varieties, dry matter degradation characteristics of tenera were the best and oleifera the least. Generally the residue and by-products irrespective of the variety of oil palm they are obtained from can be ranked for their nutritive value as POS > PPF > PCL, while nutritive ranking based on variety is tenera > dura > oleifera. Conclusively, POS and PPF from any variety of oil palm could be adopted directly as feed resources for ruminant livestock, while PCL will require

  17. Determining leaf dry matter content using the normalized dry matter index and its possible application for estimating fuel moisture content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Normalized Dry Matter Index (NDMI) was developed for the remote sensing of dry matter content using high-spectral resolution data. This narrow-band index is based on absorption at a C-H bond stretch overtone (1722 nm wavelength) and is correlated with dry matter content in fresh green leaves. ...

  18. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production. PMID:17369213

  19. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution. PMID:20163602

  20. Effect of sward dry matter digestibility on methane production, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations of zero-grazed beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Martin, P G; Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Boland, T M

    2009-10-01

    Increasing the digestibility of pasture for grazing ruminants has been proposed as a low-cost practical means of reducing ruminant CH(4) emissions. At high feed intake levels, the proportion of energy lost as CH(4) decreases as the digestibility of the diet increases. Therefore, improving forage digestibility may improve productivity as DM and energy intake are increased. A zero-grazing experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sward DM digestibility (DMD) on DMI, CH(4) emissions, and indices of rumen fermentation of beef animals. Twelve Charolais-cross heifers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, with 6 heifers per dietary treatment. Additionally, 4 cannulated Aberdeen Angus-cross steers were randomly allocated to each of these 2 treatments in a crossover design. Dietary treatments consisted of swards managed to produce (i) high digestibility pasture (high DMD) or (ii) pasture with less digestibility (low DMD), both offered for ad libitum intake. All animals were zero-grazed and offered freshly cut herbage twice daily. In vitro DMD values for the high and low DMD swards were 816 and 706 g/kg of DM. Heifers offered the high DMD grass had greater (P < 0.001) daily DMI of 7.66 kg compared with 5.38 kg for those offered the low DMD grass. Heifers offered the high DMD grass had greater (P = 0.003) daily CH(4) production (193 g of CH(4)/d) than those offered the low DMD grass (138 g of CH(4)/d). However, when corrected for DMI, digestible DMI, or ingested gross energy, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in CH(4) production between dietary treatments. For cannulated steers, intake tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for the high DMD grass (5.56 vs. 4.27 kg of DM/d), but rumen protozoa (4.95 x 10(4)/mL; P = 0.62); rumen ammonia (34 mg of N/L; P = 0.24); rumen total VFA (103 mM; P = 0.58), and rumen pH (6.8; P = 0.43) did not differ between treatments. There was no difference in total bacteria numbers, relative expression of the mcrA gene, and numbers of cycles to

  1. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (± SD) of 6.2 ± 1.4 kg/d, 187 ± 38 L/d, and 30.4 ± 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (± SD) of 34 ± 4.6, 238 ± 37, 357 ± 45, and 471 ± 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (± SD) of 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, 5.4 ± 3.8 mm, and 61 ± 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (0.65 ± 0.02), MY (0.72 ± 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (-0.02 ± 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0

  2. Dry Matter Production, Photosynthesis of Flag Leaves and Water Use in Winter Wheat Are Affected by Supplemental Irrigation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Jianguo; Shi, Yu; Yu, Zhenwen; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is threatened by drought in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China, thus, effective water-saving irrigation practices are urgently required to maintain its high winter wheat production. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine how supplemental irrigation (SI) affected soil moisture, photosynthesis, and dry matter (DM) production of winter wheat by measuring the moisture in 0–20 cm (W2), 0–40 cm (W3), and 0–60 cm (W4) soil profiles. Rainfed (W0) and local SI practice (W1, irrigation with 60 mm each at jointing and anthesis) treatments were designed as controls. The irrigation amount for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. The soil relative water content (SRWC) in 0–40 cm soil profiles at jointing after SI for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. W3 exhibited lower SRWC in 100–140 and 60–140 cm soil profiles at anthesis after SI and at maturity, respectively, but higher root length density in 60–100 cm soil profiles than W1, W2 and W4. Compared with W1, W2 and W4, photosynthetic and transpiration rates and stomatal conductance of flag leaves for W3 were significantly greater during grain filling, particularly at the mid and later stages. The total DM at maturity, DM in grain and leaves, post-anthesis DM accumulation and its contribution to grain and grain filling duration were higher for W3. The 1000-grain weight, grain yield and water use efficiency for W3 were the highest. Therefore, treatment of increasing SRWC in the 0–40 cm soil profiles to 65% and 70% field capacities at jointing and anthesis (W3), respectively, created a suitable soil moisture environment for winter wheat production, which could be considered as a high yield and water-saving treatment in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China. PMID:26335019

  3. Dry matter and energy partitioning in plants under climatic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Bolhar-Nordenkampf, H.R.; Postl, W.F.; Meister, M.H.; Ledl, D.; Nemeth, K.; Ludlow, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    During ontogenesis plants distribute assimilates quite differently among their organs depending on the environmental conditions. In case of high sink capacity energetically cheap storing compounds such as carbohydrates and/or organic acids are formed, whereas during periods with low demand proteins and lipids may be accumulated. Besides ontogenesis, drought and increased CO{sub 2} are able to modify sink capacity and by this transients in the partitioning pattern of carbon are induced. Plants, well adapted to several dry seasons during the year are able to allocate carbon predominantly to below ground organs. During this period many leaves become senescent. In any case stems and remaining green leaves will loose dry matter and energy. With 80% of plants under investigation CO{sub 2} enrichment was shown to induce an enforced allocation of carbon to below ground organs. Roots and Rhizomes, beets and tubers act as a sink for the additionally fixed carbon. It was demonstrated that sink capacity is controlling photosynthetic activity. With respect to agricultural production, to ecosystems and to single plants, climatic change will modify productivity and plants distribution pattern as a consequence of quite different metabolic changes. These responses are depending on the effect of natural and anthropogenic stress factors on the use of enhanced CO{sub 2} and on the allocation of additionally formed assimilates.

  4. Impact of dry eye on work productivity

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masakazu; Mizuno, Yoshinobu; Shigeyasu, Chika

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism. Methods A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years) were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed. Results The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The annual cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person. Conclusion Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity. PMID:23091391

  5. Defoliation Management of Bahiagrass Germplasm Affects Dry Matter Yeild and Herbage Nutritive Value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) cultivars are daylength-sensitive and have minimal cool-season production. A new genotype is less daylength sensitive and more cold tolerant, but its dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value responses to defoliation treatments are unknown. A 3-yr field experimen...

  6. EFFICIENCY OF INDIRECT SELECTION FOR DRY MATTER YIELD BASED ON FRESH MATTER YIELD IN LOLIUM PERENNE L. SWARD PLOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage dry matter yield (DMY) is a high-priority trait in breeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). However, determining dry matter concentration is highly labor intensive. Indirect selection based on fresh matter yield (FMY) would be easier, quicker and less expensive and, for a similar leve...

  7. Remote sensing of total dry-matter accumulation in winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Red and photographic-infrared spectral data collected on 21 dates over the growing season with a hand-held radiometer were quantitatively correlated with total dry-matter accumulation in winter wheat. The spectral data were found to be highly related to vigor and condition of the plant canopy. Two periods of drought stress and subsequent recovery from it were readily apparent in the spectral data. Simple ratios of the spectral radiance data compensated for variations in solar intensities and, when integrated over the growing season, explained 79% of the variation in total above-ground accumulation of dry matter. A satellite system is proposed to provide large-area assessment of total dry accumulation or net primary production from terrestrial vegetation.

  8. Balance between salt stress and endogenous hormones influence dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke.

    PubMed

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Lingling; Wu, Yawen; Chen, Manxia; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-10-15

    Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized. Under mild salt stress (≤2.2gNaClkg(-1) soil), Nanyu-1 grew well with no significant alteration of dry matter distribution to stems and tubers. In contrast, under moderate salt stress (2.7gNaClkg(-1) soil), the distribution to stem decreased and to tubers decreased significantly. Mild salt stress induced sugar accumulation in tubers at the beginning of the tuber-expansion period, but significantly inhibited (i) transfer of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (ii) polymerization and accumulation of fructan during the tuber-expansion stage. Under different salinity stress, before the stolon growth, the ratio of IAA/ABA in leaves increased significantly and that of GA3/ABA increased slightly; during tuber development, these ratios continued to decrease and reached the minimum late in the tuber-expansion period. While, salt stress inhibited (i) underground dry matter accumulation, (ii) tuber dry matter accumulation efficiency, (iii) transport of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (iv) fructan accumulation efficiency during the tuber-expansion period; these effects were accompanied by significantly decreased tuber yield with an increase in salinity. With soil salinity increasing, the synthesis of IAA and GA3 was inhibited in leaves and tubers, while ABA synthesis was stimulated. In brief, tuber yield would significantly decreased with the increase of salinity. PMID

  9. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-07-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  10. Grain Sterility in relation to Dry Mass Production and Distribution in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Puteh, Adam B.; Mondal, M. Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd. Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation. PMID:24895563

  11. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  12. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  13. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  14. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  15. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  16. Changes in dissolved organic matter during stream drying and rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schiller, D.; Acuña, V.; Graeber, D.; Martí, E.; Ribot, M.; Sabater, S.; Timoner, X.; Tockner, K.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of organic compounds, which represents an essential source of carbon (C) and nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. In addition, DOM can play a key ecological role by modifying the optical properties of waters, mediating the availability of metals and influencing trophic food web structure. While the effects of drying and rewetting on DOM dynamics in terrestrial soils is a well studied subject, less is known about its effects in aquatic ecosystems, especially in streams. This is an important gap of knowledge since temporary streams that naturally cease to flow are found worldwide. Moreover, many streams with perennial flow are currently facing flow intermittency due to the effects of water extraction or changes in land-use and climate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stream flow intermittency on the spatial and temporal variability of DOM. The study was performed in a 300-m long reach of the Fuirosos stream (Catalonia, NE Spain) during the drying (June to July) and rewetting (October to November) phases. We sampled at several points along the study reach every 3 to 4 days. We assessed DOM amount by measuring the concentration of dissolved organic C and nitrogen (N). We characterized DOM composition using spectroscopic measurements, size-exclusion chromatography and C:N stoichiometry. Results showed two markedly distinct biogeochemical shifts between the drying and the rewetting phases. During the transition from continuous to fragmented flow we observed an increase in the magnitude and spatial variability of DOM concentrations and DOM was dominated by compounds from aquatic origin. After flow recovery, we also observed a pronounced increase in DOM concentration, but during this hydrologic phase DOM was dominated by compounds of terrestrial origin. Taken together, these results emphasize the relevance of flow intermittency in regulating stream DOM dynamics not only in terms of its availability but

  17. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  18. Genetic regulation of prepartum dry matter intake in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shonka, B N; Tao, S; Dahl, G E; Spurlock, D M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI) in prepartum nonlactating and in lactating Holstein cows. Measurements were recorded on cows from Iowa State University (ISU) and the University of Florida (UF) dairy herds. Individual feed intake data were recorded daily at ISU from approximately 30 d prepartum through 150 d in milk (DIM). Individual intakes from cows at UF were recorded for approximately 42 d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum DMI traits were defined as DMI on d -15 (multiparous) or d -8 (primiparous) relative to calving date (DRYDMI), DMI on d -1 before parturition (CALVEDMI), and the negative of the slope of a regression line fitted through the last 14 (multiparous) or 7 (primiparous) days before calving (DEC). Lactation DMI traits were defined as DMI at 30 DIM (DMI30) and 100 DIM (DMI100; ISU data only). The final data set included 245 primiparous and 221 multiparous cows from ISU, and 125 multiparous cows from UF. Heritability estimates were 0.43, 0.64, 0.32, and 0.62 for DRYDMI, CALVEDMI, DEC, and DMI30, respectively. The estimate of heritability for DMI100 (ISU only) was 0.52. The genetic correlation between DRYDMI and DMI30 was 0.97. Thus, DMI prepartum is a moderately heritable trait that is highly correlated with intake during early lactation. Genetic correlations between DEC and DMI during lactation were lower and similar to standard error estimates (-0.24 ± 0.22 for DEC and DMI30 for combined data, and -0.13 ± 0.27 for DEC and DMI100 in ISU data). Thus, selection for altered DMI during lactation may not dramatically affect the depression in intake that occurs before parturition. PMID:26319760

  19. Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Oven-dried Switchgrass Germplasms for Bioethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioethanol production potential of three oven-dried switchgrass germplasms (St6-1, St6- 3E and St6-3F) containing 26.65 to 29.28% glucan, 17.92 to 19.37% xylan, and 17.74 to 19.23% lignin (dry matter basis) was investigated. Evaluation of the effect of three acid concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% w/...

  20. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Jandačka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  1. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  2. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  3. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  4. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  5. 7 CFR 58.222 - Dry dairy product cooling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry dairy product cooling equipment. 58.222 Section 58... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.222 Dry dairy product cooling equipment. Cooling equipment shall...

  6. The effect of harvest time, dry matter content and mechanical pretreatments on anaerobic digestion and enzymatic hydrolysis of miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Frydendal-Nielsen, Susanne; Hjorth, Maibritt; Baby, Sanmohan; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Uffe; Gislum, René

    2016-10-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus was harvested as both green and mature biomass and the dry matter content of the driest harvest was artificially decreased by adding water in two subsamples, giving a total of five dry matter contents. All five biomass types were mechanically pretreated by roller-milling, extrusion or grinding and accumulated methane production and enzymatically-accessible sugars were measured. Accumulated methane production was studied using sigmoid curves that allowed comparison among the treatments of the rate of the methane production and ultimate methane yield. The green biomass gave the highest methane yield and highest levels of enzymatically-accessible cellulose. The driest biomass gave the best effect from extrusion but with the highest energy consumption, whereas roller-milling was most efficient on wet biomass. The addition of water to the last harvest improved the effect of roller-milling and equalled extrusion of the samples in efficiency. PMID:27455125

  7. Impingement drying for preparing dried apple pomace flour and its fortification in bakery and meat products.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate impingement drying (ID) as a rapid drying method to dry wet apple pomace (WAP) and to investigate the fortification of dried apple pomace flour (APF) or WAP in bakery and meat products. ID at ~110 °C reduced the moisture content of apple pomace from 80 % (wet basis) to 4.5 % within 3 h, compared with 24 h to 2.2 % using 40 °C forced-air drying and ~60 h to 2.3 % using freeze drying. Furthermore, ID enhanced the extractable phenolic compounds, allowing for a 58 % increase in total phenolic content (TPC) compared with wet pomace, a 110 % and 83 % higher than TPC in forced-air dried and freeze dried samples, respectively. The 15-20 % APF-fortified cookies were found to be ~44-59 % softer, ~30 % more chewy, and ~14 % moister than those of the control. WAP-fortified meat products had significantly higher dietary fiber content (0.7-1.8 % vs. 0.1-0.2 % in control) and radical scavenging activity than that of the control. These results suggest that impingement drying is a fast and effective method for preparing dried APF with highly retained bioactive compounds, and apple pomace fortified products maintained or even had improved quality. PMID:26344970

  8. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  9. On the drying of food products in a tunnel dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.K.; Hawlader, M.N.A.; Chua, K.J.

    1997-03-01

    The authors present a dryer model for simulating the drying of hygroscopic-porous food products in a tunnel dryer. The model employs an improved receding-front formulation by taking into consideration the material volumetric shrinkage and the variation of the heat and mass transfer coefficient during drying. Predicted results show close agreement when compared with experimental data. The authors report a parametric analysis using the dryer model to study the drying transient and the need to cascade the drying process so as to maximize the drying potential of the air stream.

  10. Controls over soil organic matter accumulation and turnover in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems of the Antarctic Dry Valleys are among the most inhospitable soil environments on Earth due to extreme climate and severe substrate limitation on soil food webs. These ecosystems are a challenge to understanding controls over carbon (C) cycling since some of the major events controlling organic matter accumulation likely occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum when paleo-lakes deposited sediments over much of the presently exposed surfaces. It remains unclear to what extent dry valley soil ecosystems are fueled by legacy organic matter derived from these ancient sediments vs. rapid cycling of contemporary organic matter inputs. We report a model to evaluate controls over the soil organic C in the dry valleys. The model is based upon determinations of standing pools of soil C and is driven by rate parameters estimated from 120 d incubations conducted over a range of soil temperature and moisture. Theoretical values for parameters describing internal C transformations are used to generate predictions about the distribution of C among slow and rapidly cycling pools. Potential levels of contemporary C inputs are derived from a previously published primary production model for Antarctic cryptobiotic communities. Simulations (100 y) run under average climate conditions indicated initially high rates of C turnover with mean residence times of 20-50 y followed by equilibration of soil organic C at 25% to 80% of initial standing stocks. The model is very sensitive to temperature resulting from the high Q10 values calculated from the 120 d incubations; hence steady state soil C levels are determined largely by regional differences in climate. Sensitivity analyses indicated that steady state C levels are also very responsive to variation in simulated primary production, microbial efficiency, the distribution of C into labile and recalcitrant pools, and soil moisture. Model simulations run under recently observed climate suggest that C dynamics are

  11. Sunflower production, harvesting, drying and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Berglund, D.; Hellevang, K.

    1982-01-01

    Sunflower, produced for its edible oil, has recently evolved as an important cash crop for the Dakotas and Minnesota. This oilseed crop has increased from 81,000 hectares in the mid-1960's to over 1,620,000 hectares in 1981. Over 90% of the sunflower crop planted in the United States is of oilseed varieties. Sunflower tends to fit well in small grain cropping rotation. Sunflower is planted after small grains in the spring and harvested in the fall, following small grain harvest. Planting of sunflower is recommended from May 20 to May 31. Soil temperature should be between 4/sup 0/C and 10/sup 0/C for germinaton. Diseases occurring in sunflower can greatly reduce yield and hinder harvest operations. A sunflower crop is normally ready for harvest about 120 days after planting. Combines suitable for treshing small gains can be adapted to harvest sunflower. Sunflower can be dried in conventional crop dryers; bin, batch and continuous flow dryers have been used successfully. Sunflower dries easily due to the relatively small amount of water removed. Drying temperatures up to 104/sup 0/C do not have an adverse affect on the oil percentage or fatty acid composition of oil type sunflower. A serious fire hazard exists when drying sunflower. The storage of sunflower is similar to any other crop. The recommended storage moisture content is 8% for oil seeds and 10% for confectionary. Cooling the sunflower seed greatly increases the storability and decreases insect damage. Sunflower should be cooled to about 0/sup 0/C which nearly stops microbial activity. The sunflower should be checked at least weekly. 9 figures, 1 table. (DP)

  12. Remote sensing of total dry-matter accumulation in winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Red and photographic-infrared spectral data collected on 21 dates over the growing season with a hand-held radiometer was quantitatively correlated with total dry-matter accumulation in winter wheat. The spectral data were found to be highly related to vigor and condition of the plant canopy. Two periods of drought stress and subsequent recovery from it were readily apparent in the spectral data. Simple ratios of the spectral data compensated for variations in solar intensities and, when integrated over the growing season, explained 79% of the variation in total above-ground accumulation of dry matter.

  13. Specific Leaf Area and Dry Matter Content Estimate Thickness in Laminar Leaves

    PubMed Central

    VILE, DENIS; GARNIER, ÉRIC; SHIPLEY, BILL; LAURENT, GÉRARD; NAVAS, MARIE-LAURE; ROUMET, CATHERINE; LAVOREL, SANDRA; DÍAZ, SANDRA; HODGSON, JOHN G.; LLORET, FRANCISCO; MIDGLEY, GUY F.; POORTER, HENDRIK; RUTHERFORD, MIKE C.; WILSON, PETER J.; WRIGHT, IAN J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Leaf thickness plays an important role in leaf and plant functioning, and relates to a species' strategy of resource acquisition and use. As such, it has been widely used for screening purposes in crop science and community ecology. However, since its measurement is not straightforward, a number of estimates have been proposed. Here, the validity of the (SLA × LDMC)−1 product is tested to estimate leaf thickness, where SLA is the specific leaf area (leaf area/dry mass) and LDMC is the leaf dry matter content (leaf dry mass/fresh mass). SLA and LDMC are two leaf traits that are both more easily measurable and often reported in the literature. • Methods The relationship between leaf thickness (LT) and (SLA × LDMC)−1 was tested in two analyses of covariance using 11 datasets (three original and eight published) for a total number of 1039 data points, corresponding to a wide range of growth forms growing in contrasted environments in four continents. • Key Results and Conclusions The overall slope and intercept of the relationship were not significantly different from one and zero, respectively, and the residual standard error was 0·11. Only two of the eight datasets displayed a significant difference in the intercepts, and the only significant difference among the most represented growth forms was for trees. LT can therefore be estimated by (SLA × LDMC)−1, allowing leaf thickness to be derived from easily and widely measured leaf traits. PMID:16159941

  14. 7 CFR 58.210 - Dry storage of product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry storage of product. 58.210 Section 58.210... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1...

  15. Remote sensing of fuel moisture content from canopy water indices and normalized dry matter index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond Hunt, E.; Wang, Lingli; Qu, John J.; Hao, Xianjun

    2012-01-01

    Fuel moisture content (FMC), an important variable for predicting the occurrence and spread of wildfire, is the ratio of foliar water content and foliar dry matter content. One approach for the remote sensing of FMC has been to estimate the change in canopy water content over time by using a liquid-water spectral index. Recently, the normalized dry matter index (NDMI) was developed for the remote sensing of dry matter content using high-spectral-resolution data. The ratio of a spectral water index and a dry matter index corresponds to the ratio of foliar water and dry matter contents; therefore, we hypothesized that FMC may be remotely sensed with a spectral water index divided by NDMI. For leaf-scale simulations using the PROSPECT (leaf optical properties spectra) model, all water index/NDMI ratios were significantly related to FMC with a second-order polynomial regression. For canopy-scale simulations using the SAIL (scattering by arbitrarily inclined leaves) model, two water index/NDMI ratios, with numerators of the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) and the normalized difference water index (NDWI), predicted FMC with R2 values of 0.900 and 0.864, respectively. Leaves from three species were dried or stacked to vary FMC; measured NDII/NDMI was best related to FMC. Whereas the planned NASA mission Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) will have high spectral resolution and very high signal-to-noise properties, the planned 19-day repeat frequency will not be sufficient for monitoring FMC with NDII/NDMI. Because increased fire frequency is expected with climatic change, operational assessment of FMC at large scales may require polar-orbiting environmental sensors with narrow bands to calculate NDMI.

  16. Infrared pre-drying and dry-dehulling of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and product quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The walnut industry is faced with an urgent need to improve post-harvest processing efficiency, particularly drying and dehulling operations. This research investigated the feasibility of dry-dehulling and infrared (IR) pre-drying of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and dried product quali...

  17. Relationship between chlorohphyll fluorescence and dry matter content of 'Hass' avocado fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mexico is the main ‘Hass’ avocado exporter in the world with more than 100,000 ton exported every year. Canada is an important importer country accounting for 12-15% of total exports from Mexico. Normally, from December to May exported fruit to Canada have very high dry matter content which is deter...

  18. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  19. The effect of soaking hay on dry matter loss and fructan removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of fructans has been shown to induce laminitis in horses. To manage laminitic horses, owners have resorted to hay soaking to reduce the amounts of these carbohydrates in harvested forage. The objective of this research was to determine the loss of dry matter and fructans from baled hay after ...

  20. Estimating dry matter content of fresh leaves from residuals between leaf and water reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At 1722 nm wavelength, there is an absorption feature of leaf dry matter based on a C—H stretch overtone, which is difficult to detect in fresh green leaves due to the absorption spectrum of liquid water. We applied a method originally proposed by B. -C. Gao and A. F. H. Goetz (1994, Remote Sensing ...

  1. The effect of soaking on carbohydrate removal and dry matter loss in orchardgrass and alfalfa hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To manage horses affected with laminitis and Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy, owners soak hay in water to remove nonstructural carbohydrates. However, the loss of dry matter (DM) and its effect on carbohydrate concentrations after soaking has not been evaluated. The objective was to determine the im...

  2. Reflectance spectroscopy to determine dry matter content in ‘Hass' avocado fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado fruit maturity is usually assessed by measuring its pulp dry matter (DM) content, a destructive and time-consuming process that could only be performed on harvested fruit. An alternate non-destructive method that could be used in situ to determine avocado DM content would therefore be benefi...

  3. Using an Active Sensor to Estimate Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) Dry Matter Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing in the form of active sensors could be used to estimate forage biomass on spatial and temporal scales. The objective of this study is to use canopy reflectance measurements from an active remote sensor to compare different vegetation indices as a means of estimating final dry matter y...

  4. Steam drying of industrial and agricultural products and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, G.B.; Galland, K.V.; Svensson, C.

    1983-03-01

    A new drying technique has been developed by MoDo-Chemetics and Chalmers of Technology in Sweden. Steam drying utilizes the drying capacity of superheated steam to remove moisture from porous material such as pulp or hog fuel. The first commercial dryer based on this technique was installed at Rockhammar Bruk in Sweden, where wood pulp is dried from 60% to 12% moisture content. Two commercial-size units are presently under construction, one for drying of hog fuel from 50% to 35% moisture content for on-the-grate firing in the power boiler and one for drying of sugar-beet pulp from 80% to 10% moisture content. This new technique can be applied in the drying of materials used in the production of waterboard, fiberboard, and hardboard, drying of peat, distillers grain residue, orange and pineapple pulp, grape and apple pomace, and cotton linters, for various end uses including cattlefeed and the use of residues as combustible material in small boilers. The energy-recovery aspects of the steam dryer are very important. Energy recovery in a useful form of more than 85% of the input to the dryer is feasible. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  5. Nutritional composition, microbiological and sensory properties of dried melon: a traditional Turkmen product.

    PubMed

    Berdiyev, Mirat; Arslan, Derya; Ozcan, M Musa

    2009-01-01

    Seven different cultivars (Taze vaharman, Gökjek, Arap hatli, Türkmen vaharmani, Torli payendeke, Yazki bişek, Gizil gülabi) of honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.) from Turkmenistan were processed to a dried traditional product known as 'kavun kaki' in order to evaluate the most suitable cultivar for drying process. The chemical composition (dry matter, crude oil, crude protein, crude fibre, energy, ash, water-soluble solids, total sugar, invert sugar, titratable acidity, pH and mineral contents) of the products was determined. The microbiological load (total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria and yeasts-moulds) of the samples were also evaluated. There were no significant differences between the odour, taste and texture scores of all the cultivars according to acceptance sensory analysis. The Türkmen Vaharmani and Torli payendeke samples had the highest colour scores. PMID:18608557

  6. Potential use of fresh weight yield as an indirect selection method for dry matter yield in Lolium perenne L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry matter yield (DMY) is a high-priority trait in breeding perennial forage grasses. Selection for increased DMY involves some form of family selection across replicated plots. Sampling plots for dry matter determination is highly labor intensive, particularly for multiple cuttings within a season....

  7. Biomarker and Stable Isotope Characterization of Coastal Pond-Derived Organic Matter, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Melissa M.; Uhle, Maria E.; Macko, Stephen

    2007-08-01

    Small coastal ponds that contain photosynthetic microbial mat communities represent an extreme environment where a potentially significant source of labile organic carbon can be found within the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. To distinguish coastal pond-derived organic matter from other sources of organic matter in the Dry Valleys, bulk organic carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope signatures and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of benthic microbial mats located at two sites-Hjorth Hill coast and Garwood Valley-were investigated. The average isotope values at Hjorth Hill coast and Garwood Valley are, respectively, -10.9‰ and -10.2‰ for δ13 C, 3.7‰ and -1.3‰ for δ15N, and 8.1‰ and 16.7‰ for δ34S. Microbial mats from all ponds are dominated by monounsaturated PLFAs (indicative of Gramnegative bacteria) and polyunsaturated PLFAs (indicative of microeukaryotes). Biomarkers specific to aerobic prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and photoautotrophic microeukaryotes, as well as sulfur-reducing bacteria, are present in all samples. Benthic mats at Garwood Valley are thicker and more laminated, have a higher biomass, and have a greater carbon and nitrogen content, which suggests greater productivity than mats at Hjorth Hill coast. Greater productivity is supported, as well, by higher dissolved oxygen contents likely derived from heightened photosynthetic productivity. More productivity at Garwood Valley likely results from a larger influx of terrestrial surface waters together with a concomitant nutrient loading.

  8. Effects of an enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter digestibility of feed ingredients for pigs.

    PubMed

    Kong, Changsu; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Feed ingredients of plant origin are commonly used in swine diets. However, the major components of plant cell walls, non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs), reduce nutrient digestibility. To improve the efficiency of feed utilization, exogenous enzyme products that degrade NSPs have been widely used in commercial animal feeds. Nonetheless, the effects of exogenous enzyme addition to swine diets on nutrient digestibility have not been determined. To this end, in vitro approaches may be used. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an enzyme complex (EC) containing xylanase, protease, and phytase on the in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility of nine feed ingredients including cereal grain energy sources (corn, wheat, and barley) and protein sources (soybean meal, rapeseed meal, palm kernel meal, cottonseed meal, copra meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles). Both in vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM were determined for the nine test ingredients, with or without EC addition. The EC addition increased the IVID of DM in copra meal (p = 0.047) and tended to increase the IVID of DM in corn, wheat, barley, palm kernel meal, cottonseed meal, and DDGS (p < 0.10). On the other hand, no significant effect was observed in soybean meal and rapeseed meal. The IVTTD of DM in the test ingredients was not affected by the addition of EC, except for cottonseed meal (52.1 vs. 50.6%, p = 0.053). In conclusion, the effects of EC addition on in vitro DM digestibility may vary, depending on the test ingredient and method used. PMID:26090308

  9. Production and nutrient dynamics of reproductive components of teak trees in the dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Karmacharya, S B; Singh, K P

    1992-12-01

    Dry matter production and nutrient dynamics were quantified in the reproductive components of 14- and 30-year-old teak (Tectona grandis L.) stands growing in a dry tropical region. Flower production per tree was positively related to tree size. Despite massive flower production (33 x 10(6) and 171 x 10(6) ha(-1) year(-1) in 14- and 30-year-old trees, respectively), only about 0.5-0.7% flowers developed into fruits. Immature fruit abscission totalled 34 and 58% of the total number of fruits initiated in the 14- and 30-year-old stands, respectively. The production of reproductive components (flowers, peduncles and fruits) was 245 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the 14-year-old stand and 1122 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the 30-year-old stand. In both stands, relatively greater amounts of dry matter and nutrients were allocated to reproductive parts in September than in other months. Toward the end of the fruit maturation period, considerable nutrient resorption occurred. More than 90% of the nutrients accumulated in the peduncle were resorbed. Smaller amounts, ranging from 21% for K to 58% for N, were resorbed from mature, winged indehiscent fruits. PMID:14969941

  10. Solute based Lagrangian scheme in modeling the drying process of soft matter solutions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanlong; Luo, Ling; Doi, Masao; Ouyang, Zhongcan

    2016-02-01

    We develop a new dynamical model to study the drying process of a droplet of soft matter solutions. The model includes the processes of solute diffusion, gel-layer formation and cavity creation. A new scheme is proposed to handle the diffusion dynamics taking place in such processes. In this scheme, the dynamics is described by the motion of material points taken on solute. It is convenient to apply this scheme to solve problems that involve moving boundaries and phase changes. As an example, we show results of a numerical calculation for a drying spherical droplet, and discuss how initial concentration and evaporation rate affect the structural evolution of the droplet. PMID:26920525

  11. Use of neural image analysis methods in the process to determine the dry matter content in the compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszak, D.; Przybył, J.; Lewicki, A.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Witaszek, K.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was investigate the possibility of using methods of computer image analysis and artificial neural networks for to assess the amount of dry matter in the tested compost samples. The research lead to the conclusion that the neural image analysis may be a useful tool in determining the quantity of dry matter in the compost. Generated neural model may be the beginning of research into the use of neural image analysis assess the content of dry matter and other constituents of compost. The presented model RBF 19:19-2-1:1 characterized by test error 0.092189 may be more efficient.

  12. Availability to chicks of biotin from dried egg products.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, F H; Knollman, K; Earl, L; Buenrostro, J L

    1988-05-01

    Two feeding experiments were conducted with duplicate groups of five chicks each to study the availability of biotin in spray-dried egg products. In the first experiment chicks that were fed diets containing 43% dried whole egg (DWE) grew poorly and developed perosis and dermatitis. The signs were prevented and growth improved progressively with supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0 mg biotin/kg diet. In the second experiment dried egg yolk (DEY) and dried egg white (DEW) were compared with DWE at equivalent levels of egg components. Signs of biotin deficiency and reduced growth were slightly more severe with DEW than with DWE, although liver biotin content was slightly lower at 0 and 0.5 mg biotin/kg with DWE than with DEW. Growth with DEY and no added biotin was not different from that with DEY and 500 or 1000 mg biotin/kg diet, although liver biotin was lower than when supplemental biotin was added. Liver fat was approximately five times greater in the groups receiving DWE and DEY than in the groups receiving DEW. The results show that the biotin contained in egg yolk is inadequate to counteract the deficiency of biotin caused by the avidin in egg white so that unheated dried whole egg is deficient in this vitamin. PMID:3367239

  13. ESTIMATION OF FORAGE NITROGEN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO DRY MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GRASS PASTURES USING PLANT CANOPY HYPERSPECTRAL REFLECTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timely assessment of forage nitrogen (N) concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) during the growing season can help livestock managers make decisions for adjusting stocking rate and managing pastures. Nondestructive measurements of pasture canopy hyperspectral reflectance may pro...

  14. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.

    PubMed

    Filya, I

    2003-11-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were applied at 1 x 10(6) cfu/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiled in 1.5-L anaerobic jars. Three jars per treatment were sampled on d 2, 4, 8, 15, and 90. After 90 d of storage, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 d, in which CO2 production, as well as chemical and microbiological parameters, was measured to determine the extent of aerobic deterioration. At the end of the ensiling period (d 90), the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of acetic acid than the control and L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Therefore, yeast activity was impaired in the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages. As a result, L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, improved aerobic stability of the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. The combination of L. buchneri and L. plantarum reduced ammonia N concentrations and fermentation losses in the silages compared with L. buchneri alone. However, L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and a combination of L. buchneri + L. plantarum did not effect in situ rumen dry matter, organic matters, or neutral detergent fiber degradability of the silages. The L. buchneri was very effective in protecting the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages exposed to air under laboratory conditions. The use of L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, as a silage inoculant can improve the aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages by inhibition of yeast activity. PMID:14672188

  15. [Effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer application on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Si, Dong-Xia; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Xin-Ping; Lü, Fu-Tang

    2014-06-01

    Effects of four controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers, including two kinds of polyester coated urea (Ncau, CRU) and phosphate (NhnP) and humic acid (NhnF) coated urea on assimilates accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize were investigated in a mode of one-time fertilization at the regional N recommended rate. The results showed that the N release curves of the two controlled release fertilizers CRU and Ncau matched well with the summer maize N uptake. Compared with the regional N recommendation rate, CRU could increase maize yield by 4.2% and Ncau could maintain the same yield level. CRU significantly increased the dry matter accumulation rate after anthesis of summer maize, but Ncau markedly increased the dry matter accumulated ratio before anthesis. Meanwhile, CRU could reduce the apparent N losses by 19 kg N x hm(-2) in the case of large precipitation. However, NhnF and NhnP caused the yield losses by 0.1%-8.9%, and enhanced the apparent N losses. Therefore, both CRU and Ncau with one-time fertilization could be a simplified alternative to the "total control, staging regulation" fertilization technique at the regional N recommended rate for summer maize production. PMID:25223033

  16. Effects of neutral detergent fiber and roughage source on dry matter intake and milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Briceno, J V; Van Horn, H H; Harris, B; Wilcox, C J

    1987-02-01

    Data were from 20 experiments that utilized early to midlactation Holstein cows fed complete mixed diets or fed at constant forage:concentrate ratios. Within-cow diet comparisons (1688 cow-periods) were analyzed by least squares analysis of variance; mathematical model included experiment, cow in experiment, period, body weight, and source of roughage. Objectives were to determine relationships between neutral detergent fiber content of diet and milk yield and dry matter intake. Roughages and number of cow-periods were: sugarcane bagasse/silage (507), cottonseed hulls (504), corn silage (268), ground corrugated boxes (170), alfalfa/peanut hay (132), and others (107). Dry matter intake and estimated net energy intake had linear effects on milk yield and explained 21.6 and 24.0% of its residual variation; milk yield had curvilinear (quadratic) effect and explained 22.4% of dry matter intake residual variation. Interaction between neutral detergent fiber and source of roughage on milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, and dry matter intake resulted in reductions of 5.6, 5.6, and 13% in residual variations. Results suggest neutral detergent (% of dry matter) has greater effect on dry matter intake than on milk yield and its use in formulating diets for dairy cows will be within roughage source. PMID:3033038

  17. Dry deposition of particulate matter at an urban forest, wetland and lake surface in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiakai; Zhu, Lijuan; Wang, Huihui; Yang, Yilian; Liu, Jiatong; Qiu, Dongdong; Ma, Wu; Zhang, Zhenming; Liu, Jinglan

    2016-01-01

    The dry deposition of particular matters from atmosphere to ecosystems is an undesirable consequence of this pollution while the deposition process is also influenced by different land use types. In current study, concentration of fine particles, coarse particles and meteorological data were collected during the daytime in an artificial forest, wetland and a water surface in the Beijing Olympic Park. Dry deposition velocity, fluxes and vegetation collection were calculated by different models and the results were compared. The results show: (1) the deposition velocity onto the forest canopy was higher than which onto the wetland and the water surface and the velocity varied in different seasons; (2) the fine particles deposited most in the winter while the coarse particles was in the spring; (3) the vegetation collection rates of fine particles were lower than coarse particles, and the forest collected more PMs than the wetland plants.

  18. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  19. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  20. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  1. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  2. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  3. Skin formation in drying a film of soft matter solutions: Application of solute based Lagrangian scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Luo; Fanlong, Meng; Junying, Zhang; Masao, Doi

    2016-07-01

    When a film of soft matter solutions is being dried, a skin layer often forms at its surface, which is a gel-like elastic phase made of concentrated soft matter solutions. We study the dynamics of this process by using the solute based Lagrangian scheme which was proposed by us recently. In this scheme, the process of the gelation (i.e., the change from sol to gel) can be naturally incorporated in the diffusion equation. Effects of the elasticity of the skin phase, the evaporation rate of the solvents, and the initial concentration of the solutions are discussed. Moreover, the condition for the skin formation is provided. Project supported by the National Natural Science of China (Grant Nos. 21434001, 51561145002, and 11421110001).

  4. Dry Matter Intake and Digestion of Perennial and Annual Cool-Season Grasses by Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess perennial cool-season grass production can be harvested as hay for feeding later. Thus a series of experiments were conducted to estimate DMI and digestibility of perennial cool-season grasses relative to an annual cool-season grass harvested as either high moisture (HM) hay or field dried (F...

  5. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  6. New co-products from grain-based fuel ethanol production and their drying performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel ethanol production in the U.S. and elsewhere is an important and growing industry. In the U.S, about 40% of annual corn production is now converted into fuel ethanol. During co-product recovery, condensed distillers solubles (CDS) has to be mixed with distillers wet grains before drying due to ...

  7. Digestive physiology of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): determinants of faecal dry matter content.

    PubMed

    Gull, J M; Stahl, M; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-06-01

    Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are specialized insectivores and consume mainly ants and termites in the wild. In captivity, giant anteaters are either fed a complete diet, or a combination of a domestic carnivore diet with leaf eater pellets, or a traditional gruel-type diet. Soft faeces are a frequently encountered problem with this type of feeding. In the present study, we analysed diet and faeces composition, calculated digestibility and measured mean retention time on various diets in eight giant anteaters (total of n = 64 experiments). The results suggest that the digestive physiology of giant anteaters is similar to that of domestic dogs and cats in terms of nutrient digestibility and digesta retention. When testing correlations between faecal dry matter content and other variables, no relationship with dietary crude fibre content or mean digesta retention time could be detected. However, acid insoluble ash intake was significantly and positively correlated with faecal dry matter content. The amount of acid insoluble ash excreted with the faeces was higher than that ingested with the diet offered, indicating that the giant anteaters ingested soil from their enclosure of up to 93 g per day. This finding is consistent with observation of faeces of wild giant anteaters that contain soil or sand most likely due to indiscriminate feeding. It also corresponds to reports that indigestible materials such as peat, soil, chitin or cellulose contribute to a firmer faecal consistency in various carnivore species. Therefore, offering giant anteaters the opportunity to voluntarily ingest soil from their enclosure might be beneficial. PMID:25041215

  8. Effect of seeding depth on seedling growth and dry matter partitioning in American ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, John T. A.; Sullivan, J. Alan

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) stratified seed sown at depths of 10 to 100 mm were carried out to determine effects of seeding depth on seedling emergence, growth and development and to calculate optimum seeding depth. The time to 50% seedling emergence (E50) in the field increased linearly from 17 d at 20 mm seeding depth to 42.5 d at 80 mm. Seedling emergence and root weight (economic yield) at the end of the first year each increased quadratically with the increase of seeding depth. Maximum emergence and root yields were produced at sowing depths of 26.9 and 30.6 mm respectively. In a greenhouse pot experiment, increasing seeding depth from 10 to 100 mm increased partitioning of dry matter to leaves from 23.6% to 26.1%, to stems from 6.9% to 14.2%, and decreased dry matter to roots from 69.5% to 59.7%. Optimum seeding depth was 31.1 mm for a corresponding maximum root weight of 119.9 mg. A predictor equation [X (seeding depth, mm)=Y (seed weight, mg)/9.1+20.96] for seeding depth for ginseng, based on data for ten vegetable crops, their seed weights and suggested seeding depths, predicted a seeding depth of 28.3 mm for ginseng similar to that reported above for most pot and field experiments. PMID:23717178

  9. Influence of cadmium on dry matter yield, micronutrient content and its uptake in some crops.

    PubMed

    Khurana, M P S; Jhanji, Shalini

    2014-09-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the accumulation pattern of cadmium (Cd) and its tolerance in different crops grown on sewage irrigated soils with differentCd levels. Growth, yield, uptake and tolerance of maize, raya, berseem and spinach were assessed to different levels of Cd ranging from 0-40 mg kg(-1) soil. Significant reduction in dry matter yield in raya was observed at 20 mg Cd kg(-1) soil where as for other crops it was 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. The quadratic models seem to give the best description of variation in dry matter yield with Cd levels as revealed by significant coefficient of determination (R2 > or = 90). Cadmium content and uptake varied in the following order: raya > spinach > maize > berseem. Raya could tolerate high levels of Cd as compared to other crops. Conversely, berseem and maize which showed reduced ability to absorb or translocate Cd for genetic reasons compared to raya and spinach be preferred for growing on sewage irrigated soils or area having increased Cd-levels. The relationship of Cd with other micronutrients was variable. PMID:25204060

  10. Effect of soy on faecal dry matter content and excretion of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Grahofer, Alexander; Overesch, Gudrun; Nathues, Heiko; Zeeh, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a soy diet on the excretion of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in five farms with subclinically infected pigs. The effects on general health, faecal consistency and dry matter were analysed. In total, 200 pigs of different ages (group 1 <100 days of age (n=120) and group 2 ≥100 days (n=80)) were randomly assigned to the control (C) and the treatment (T) groups. Group C received the farm's standard diet. In group T half of the daily feed ration was replaced by pure soy on two consecutive days. Faecal scores were used to determine faecal consistency and a microwave method to assess faecal dry matter content (FDMC). In age group 1, soy feeding resulted in a statistically significant decrease of the FDMC of 2.5 per cent compared with group C and in age group 2 in a significant increase of 2.2 per cent compared with group C at day 2. Overall seven (T: 5, C: 2) out of 597 faecal samples tested positive for B hyodysenteriae by PCR. In conclusion, a high soy diet applied over two days influenced the faecal consistency and the FDMC in growers, finishers and sows under field conditions. Further investigations with more sensitive diagnostic methods are needed to prove a potential influence of a high soy diet on the detection rate of B hyodysenteriae in subclinically infected herds. PMID:27239320

  11. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  12. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  13. Effects of transient changes in silage dry matter concentration on lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McBeth, L R; St-Pierre, N R; Shoemaker, D E; Weiss, W P

    2013-06-01

    Transient changes in the dry matter (DM) concentration of silages often occur, which will cause transient changes in the ration. To determine the effects of a transient change in silage DM, 24 Holstein cows (116 d in milk) were used in an 8 replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were (1) control, (2) unbalanced (UNBAL), and (3) balanced (BAL). The control diet was designed to have a consistent day-to-day forage:concentrate ratio of 55:45 on a DM basis. The UNBAL and BAL diets were the same as the control diet for most of the period except during two 3-d bouts when water was added to the silage (simulating a rain event) to cause a 10-percentage unit decrease in silage DM concentration. During the bouts, the UNBAL diet was the same as that of the control on an as-fed basis, but on a DM basis, the forage:concentrate ratio decreased to 49:51, which reduced dietary concentrations of DM (63.9 vs. 66.2%) and forage NDF (21.0 vs. 23.6%), and increased starch (30.4 vs. 28.4%). The BAL treatment corrected for the change in silage DM by an increase in the inclusion of wet silage and had the same composition as the control diet on a DM basis, except for ration DM (66.2 vs. 63.9%). Over the 21-d period, treatment did not affect DM intake (DMI; 24.0 kg/d); however, DMI of cows on the UNBAL and BAL treatments tended to decrease during the wet bouts, especially during the second bout. The day following both bouts, DMI of cows fed BAL and UNBAL diets were greater than that of cows fed the control diet, which contributed to the lack of a treatment effect on DMI over the entire period. Milk production was greater for the UNBAL than control cows (39.8 vs. 39.3 kg/d) over the 21-d period. That difference was largely caused by increased milk yield during the first bout by cows on the UNBAL diet. Over the 21-d period, milk yield did not differ between control and BAL cows. Some small differences in milk fat and protein concentrations (≤ 0.1 percentage units

  14. [Effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation characteristics and yield of soybean in maize-soybean intercropping systems].

    PubMed

    Cui, Liang; Yang, Wen-yu; Huang, Ni; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Yan-ling; Wang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yang; Yan, Shou

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation and yield of soybean, a field experiment was conducted in 2013, including three maize-soybean relay strip intercropping systems. The relay strip intercropping systems were designed as soybean (Gongxuan 1) intercropped with Denghai 605 (RI1), Chuandan 418 (RI2) or Yayu 13 ( RI3), and the monocultured soybean was used as control. The results demonstrated that the dry matter accumulation rates of intercropped soybean in RI2 and RI3 treatments were lower than in RI1 treatment, and the leaf, stem and pod dry matter accumulation of intercropped soybean in RI1 treatment was 17.6%, 16.5% and 13.7% higher than that in RI2 treatment, and 34.6%, 33.1% and 28.4% higher than that in RI3 treatment, respectively. The distribution proportion of leaf and stem of intercropped soybean was in the order of RI1 > RI2 > RI3. However, the trend of the distribution proportion of pod was opposite. Compared with RI2 and RI3, the dry matter translocation amount, translocation proportion, contribution proportion of soybean vegetative organs to pod of soybean were improved in RI, treatment, and the pod per plant, seeds per plant, seeds per pod, yield per plant and yield of soybean in RI, were higher than RI2 and RI3 by 6.8%, 11.5%, 4.4%, 15.9%, 15.6% and 14.3%, 22.2%, 6.7%, 33.4%, 36.8%, respectively. The results showed that the yield was positively related with the accumulation rate of dry matter, dry matter translocation, dry matter translocation ratio and the contribution of dry matter accumulation, and these indices were highest in RI treatment. The results indicated that the compact maize relay intercropped with soybean could effectively regulate the dry matter accumulation, translocation and distribution, and improve the yield of soybean. PMID:26685605

  15. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  16. Short communication: The effect of feeding high protein distillers dried grains on milk production of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, K J; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Kelzer, J M; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG) on rumen degradability, dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous) averaging 80 +/- 14 d in milk were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 crossover design. A portion of forage and all soy-based protein in the control diet were replaced by HPDDG (20% dry matter). Milk production and dry matter intake were recorded daily and averaged for d 19 to 21 of each 21-d period. Milk samples were collected on d 20 to 21 of each period. Milk yield increased with the inclusion of HPDDG (33.4 vs. 31.6 +/- 2.13 kg/d), and 3.5% FCM was higher for the ration containing HPDDG (36.3 vs. 33.1 +/- 2.24 kg/d). Percentage protein was not affected by treatment (average 3.04 +/- 0.08%), but protein yield increased with inclusion of HPDDG (0.95 to 1.00 +/- 0.05 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was not different between treatments (average 3.95 +/- 0.20%), but fat yield increased for the ration containing HPDDG (1.35 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.09 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected and averaged 21.9 +/- 0.80 kg across treatments. Because of greater milk production, feed conversion was improved by the inclusion of HPDDG (1.47 to 1.73 +/- 0.09). Milk urea N was greater for the HPDDG ration than the control (14.5 vs. 12.8 +/- 0.67 mg/dL). This research suggests that HPDDG may effectively replace soy-based protein in lactating dairy cow diets. PMID:19448023

  17. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of dry diluted acid pretreated corn stover at high dry matter loading: Overcoming the inhibitors by non-tolerant yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Qing; Qin, Lei; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie; Huang, Yao-Dong; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Dry dilute acid pretreatment (DDAP) is a promising method for lignocellulose bioconversion, although inhibitors generated during the pretreatment impede the fermentation severely. We developed the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SScF) of DDAP pretreated biomass at high solid loading using xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SyBE005. Effect of temperature on SScF showed that ethanol yield at 34°C was 10.2% higher than that at 38°C. Ethanol concentration reached 29.5 g/L at 15% (w/w) dry matter loading, while SScF almost ceased at the beginning at 25% (w/w) dry matter loading of DDAP pretreated corn stover. According to the effect of the diluted hydrolysate on the fermentation of strain SyBE005, a fed-batch mode was developed for the SScF of DDAP pretreated corn stover with 25% dry matter loading without detoxification, and 40.0 g/L ethanol was achieved. In addition, high yeast inoculation improved xylose utilization and the final ethanol concentration reached 47.2 g/L. PMID:26363500

  18. The repeated drying-wetting and freezing-thawing cycles affect only the active pool of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Vyacheslav; Zinyakova, Natalya; Tulina, Anastasiya

    2016-04-01

    The decrease in the content of soil organic carbon, particularly in active form, is one of the major problems of the 21st century, which is closely related to the disturbance of the biogeochemical carbon cycle and to the increase in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The main reasons for the SOM losses are the surplus of the SOM active pool losses due to mineralization, erosion, and infiltration over the input of fresh organic matter to the soil, as well as the changes in the soil conditions and processes due to natural and anthropogenic disturbing impacts. Experiments were carried out with mixed samples from the upper layers of soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and typical chernozems. Soil samples as controls were incubated after wetting for 150 days. The dynamics and cumulative production of C-CO2 under stable temperature (22°C) and moisture conditions were determined; the initial content of potentially mineralizable organic matter (C0) in the soil at the beginning of the incubation was then calculated to use these data as the control. Other soil samples were exposed in flasks to the following successive treatments: wetting →incubation → freezing → thawing → incubation →drying. Six repeated cycles of disturbing impacts were performed for 140 days of the experiment. After six cycles, the soil samples were incubated under stable temperature and moisture conditions for 150 days. The wetting of dried soils and the thawing of frozen soils are accompanied by the pulsed dynamics of the C-CO2 production with an abrupt increase in the rate of the C-CO2 emission within several days by 2.7-12.4 and 1.6-2.7 times, respectively, compared to the stable incubation conditions. The rate of the C-CO2 production pulses under each subsequent impact decreased compared to the preceding one similarly for all studied soils, which could be due to the depletion in potentially mineralizable soil organic matter (C0). The cumulative extra C-CO2 production by

  19. Characterization of Cronobacter recovered from dried milk and related products

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cronobacter is a recently proposed genus consisting of six genomospecies that encompass the organisms previously identified as Enterobacter sakazakii. Cronobacter are opportunistic pathogens and are known to cause serious infections in infants, particularly neonates. High case fatality rates have been associated with infections and acute sequelae can occur in survivors with severe ramifications on neurological development. Infant formula has been identified as one route of transmission for infection in infants. However, the primary reservoirs for subsequent contamination of foods with Cronobacter remain undefined due to the ubiquitous nature of these organisms. More recently, infections in adults have been reported, especially amongst the elderly and patients who are immunocompromised. To help prevent the transmission of infection, it is important to identify the main food sources for Cronobacter. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Cronobacter isolated from dried-milk and related products available in an Egyptian food market. Results In total sixteen Cronobacter strains were isolated from 152 dairy-based products. These were identified and characterized using pheno- and genotyping experiments. Real-time PCR confirmed the detection of Cronobacter. Following antibiotic susceptibility tests, 3 strains showed resistance to trimethoprim and/or neomycin. Phenotype profiles were generated based on key biochemical distinguishing tests. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 8 PFGE types amongst the collection of strains. Repetitive sequence based PCR (rep-PCR) analysis identified 3 rep-PCR types amongst the collection of strains. Sequencing of the recN gene was used to differentiate among the recently described species of Cronobacter. Conclusion This study identified the presence of Cronobacter in dried milk and related products sourced from the Nile-Delta region of Egypt. Although the majority of the strains were susceptible to

  20. Aerobic methane production from organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigano, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methane, together with H2O, CO2 and N2O, is an important greenhouse gas in th e Earth’s atmosphere playing a key role in the radiative budget. It has be en known for decades that the production of the reduced compound CH4 is possible almost exclusively in anoxic environments per opera of one of the most importan t class of microorganisms which form the Archaea reign. Methane can be produced also from incomplete combustion of organic material. The generation of CH4 in an oxygenated environment under near-ambient conditions is a new discovery made in 2006 by Keppler et. al where surprisingly they measured emissions of this green house gas from plants incubated in chambers with air containing 20% of oxygen. A lthough the estimates on a global scale are still object of an intensive debate, the results presented in this thesis clearly show the existence of methane prod uction under oxic conditions for non living plant material. Temperature and UV l ight are key factors that drive the generation of CH4 from plant matter in a wel l oxygenated environment.

  1. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

    PubMed Central

    Taher-Maddah, M.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Salamatdoustnobar, R.; Ahmadzadeh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds. PMID:26623290

  2. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p < 0.05) differed in their chemical composition: celery products contained higher amounts of nitrates, total phenolic compounds and lower amounts of sucrose, parsnip had higher concentration of proteins, leek was rich in fat. The analysis of pH, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p < 0.05) more stable during these processes. At the end of the ripening process the sausages made with lyophilised celery juice were characterised by higher lightness and lower hardness than those made with the addition of other vegetable products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. PMID:27526658

  3. Production of particulate matter from the combustion of wood pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papučík, Štefan; Jandačka, Jozef; Chabadová, Jana; Pialát, Peter

    2015-05-01

    For production of particulate matters affect more aspects. One of the biggest affect is combustion air volume and iťs deviding on primary and secondary part. In this article is described experimental device, on which was investigated affect of combustion air volume on production particulate matters, measuring method, measured and analysed achieved results.

  4. Transpiration affects soil CO2 production in a dry grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, János; Fóti, Szilvia; Pintér, Krisztina; Burri, Susanne; Eugster, Werner; Papp, Marianna; Nagy, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Although soil CO2 efflux can be highly variable on the diel time scale, it is often measured during daytime only. However, to get a full understanding of soil CO2 efflux and its impact on carbon cycle processes, looking at diurnal processes is crucial. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how diel variation in soil CO2 efflux from a dry, sandy grassland in Hungary depends on variations in potential drivers, such as gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In order to reach this goal, we combined measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes by eddy covariance, soil chambers and soil CO2 gradient system. Surface CO2 fluxes were partitioned into the three CO2 production components originating from the three soil layers to clarify the timing and the source of the CO2 within the top 50 cm of the soil. CO2 production rates during the growing season were higher during nighttime than during daytime. This diel course was not only driven by soil temperature and soil moisture, but also by ET. This was shown by changes of ET causing a hysteresis loop in the diel response of CO2 production to soil temperature. CO2 production was coupled to soil temperature at night and during midday (12-14 h), when ET remained relatively constant. However, when ET was changing over time, CO2 production was decoupled from soil temperature. In order to disentangle these effects, we carried out time-lag analyses between CO2 production and efflux residuals after having subtracted the main effects of soil temperature and soil water content from measured CO2 fluxes. The results showed a strong negative correlation between ET rates and residuals of soil CO2 production, and a less strong, but still significantly time-lagged positive correlation between GPP and residuals of soil CO2 production. Thus, we could show that there is a rapid negative response of soil CO2 production rates to transpiration (suggesting CO2 transport in the xylem stream) and a delayed positive response to GPP

  5. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  6. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R2 = 0.85 & T2: R2 = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter wheat

  7. Development of drying-induced stresses in pharmaceutical granules prepared in continuous production line.

    PubMed

    Mezhericher, Maksim

    2014-11-01

    The phenomenon of development of drying-induced stresses has been given a through consideration in the literature on drying of many products. At the same time, to the best of our knowledge, the open published sources contain no information on drying stresses in pharmaceutical granules prepared by continuous manufacturing methods. To study the appearance and evolution of drying-induced stresses in pharmaceutical granules during their production, in this work a theoretical model of drying of single wet pharmaceutical granule has been developed and successively validated by published experimental data obtained on ConsiGma™ continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line (GEA Pharma Systems). The results demonstrate that elevated temperatures of drying air result in faster drying process (which reduces the specific cost of the final product), but, on the other hand, quick drying leads to substantial drying-induced stresses which may damage the granule microstructure, resulting in cracking or even breakage of granules. The drying-induced stresses increase with drying temperature, porosity and size of dense non-hollow granules. The negative effects promoted by the drying-induced stresses should be taken into consideration when choosing operating conditions of continuous production lines including drying of pharmaceutical granules. PMID:25152956

  8. Technical aspects of the production of dried extract of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves by jet spouted bed drying.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Daniel S; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2005-08-11

    This work presents an evaluation of the performance of jet spouted bed with inert particles for production of dried extracts of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves. The development of the extraction procedure was carried-out with the aid of three factors and three levels Box-Behnken design. The effects of the extraction variables, temperature (Text); stirring time (theta); and the ratio of the plant to solvent mass (m(p)/m(s)) on the extraction yield were investigated. The drying performance and product properties were evaluated through the measurement of the product size distribution, loss on drying (Up), flavonoid degradation (D) and, process thermal efficiency (eta). These parameters were measured as a function of the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (Tgi), the feed mass flow rate of the concentrated extract relative to mass flow rate of the spouting gas (Ws/Wg), the ratio between the feed flow rate of spouting gas relative to feed flow rate at a minimum spouting condition (Q/Qms) and the static bed height (H0). A powder product with a low degradation of active substances and good physical properties were obtained for selected operating conditions. These results indicate the feasibility of this drying equipment for the production of dried extracts of M. ilicifolia Martius ex Reiss leaves. PMID:15978755

  9. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Huang, Jijun; Zeng, Hongliang; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-04-15

    Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) increase in the content of total free amino acids and the relative content of sulfur compounds of dried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms. PMID:26617008

  10. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effects of one-, two-, and three-day changes in forage dry matter (DM) on lactating cow performance and yield regardless of stage of lactation or parity. Data was compiled from two independent studies to predict overall cow performance. Study A (fall 2009) early la...

  11. Towards on-line prediction of dry matter content in whole unpeeled potatoes using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Helgerud, Trygve; Wold, Jens P; Pedersen, Morten B; Liland, Kristian H; Ballance, Simon; Knutsen, Svein H; Rukke, Elling O; Afseth, Nils K

    2015-10-01

    Prediction of dry matter content in whole potatoes is a desired capability in the processing industry. Accurate prediction of dry matter content may greatly reduce waste quantities and improve utilization of the raw material through sorting, hence also reducing the processing cost. The following study demonstrates the use of a low resolution, high speed NIR interactance instrument combined with partial least square regression for prediction of dry matter content in whole unpeeled potatoes. Three different measuring configurations were investigated: (1) off-line measurements with contact between the potato and the light collection tube; (2) off-line measurements without contact between the potato and the light collection tube; and (3) on-line measurements of the potatoes. The offline contact measurements gave a prediction performance of R(2)=0.89 and RMSECV=1.19. Similar prediction performance were obtained from the off-line non-contact measurements (R(2)=0.89, RMSECV=1.23). Significantly better (p=0.038) prediction performance (R(2)=0.92, RMSECV=1.06) was obtained with the on-line measuring configuration, thus showing the possibilities of using the instrument for on-line measurements. In addition it was shown that the dry matter distribution across the individual tuber could be predicted by the model obtained. PMID:26078141

  12. Estimating Losses of Dry Matter from Wetted Alfalfa-Orchardgrass Mixtures Using Cell Wall Components as Internal Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods previously used to measure recoveries of dry matter (DM) from forages following natural or simulated rainfall often have relied upon simple gravimetric techniques, which yielded inconclusive estimates of DM recovery. Our objective was to evaluate insoluble cell-wall constituents as internal ...

  13. The impact of drying on structure of sedimentary organic matter in wetlands: Probing with native and amended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Min; Xu, Kehui; Mayer, Lawrence M

    2016-10-15

    Wetland sediments undergo dry-wet cycles that may change their structural properties and affect geochemical behavior of associated organic compounds. In this study, we examined the effect of drying on particle size distributions and the rapid (24h) sorption reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with salt marsh sediments in Nueces Delta, South Texas. Drying reduced the fraction of fine particles in organically richer sediments, indicating structural rearrangement of organic matter and mineral aggregates. Among the 16 EPA priority PAHs examined, dried sediment preferentially released 1.0-7.5% of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene to added seawater (solid: water mass ratio of 1/100) - significantly greater than release from sediments maintained in the wet state. On the other hand, drying also increased the affinity of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) for experimentally amended (deuterated) phenanthrene relative to continually wet sediments. Further, deuterated phenanthrene was even more effectively retained when it was added to wet sediment that was subsequently dried and rewetted. These apparently contradictory results can be reconciled and explained by SOM having a heterogeneous distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones - e.g., a zonal model. We propose that drying changed the orientation of amphiphilic SOM, exposing hydrophobic zones and promoting the release of some of their native PAHs to water. Freshly amended PAHs were only able to penetrate into the surface hydrophobic zone and/or deeper but rapidly accessible ("kinetic") zone in wet sediments due to the brief adsorption contact time. Subsequent drying presumably then induced structural changes in SOM that isolated these amended PAHs in sites inaccessible to water exchange in the next rewetting. These results provide insights into structural changes of SOM upon drying, and help predict the fate of compounds such as organic contaminants during drought/flood oscillations. PMID:27285795

  14. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p < 0.05) by 5.0 and 2.6 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn increased (p < 0.05) by 3.1 percentage unit with enzyme complex addition. As the effect of enzyme complex was the greatest in corn digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p < 0.05) by 16.0, 2.8 and 1.2 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn starch and hull also increased (p < 0.05) by 8.6 and 0.9 percentage unit, respectively, with enzyme complex addition. In conclusion, the enzyme complex increases in vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch. PMID:27247894

  15. Optimization of solar thermal dryer designs for the production of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is a ubiquitous method that has had widespread use for fruit and vegetable crop preservation in developing countries. Conversely, in the United States solar thermal drying has found limited commercialization due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality. ...

  16. Optimization of solar thermal dryer designs for the production of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is a ubiquitous method that has had widespread use for fruit and vegetable crop preservation in developing countries. Conversely, in the United States solar thermal drying has found limited commercialization due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality....

  17. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in dairy cow diets containing dried distillers grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Linke, P L; Rennich, D R; Abdelqader, M M; Yoon, I

    2010-06-01

    Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (127+/-52 d in milk) were used in 4 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods to evaluate interactions of dietary inclusion of a fermentation product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; XPC, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) on production of milk and milk components when fed diets containing approximately 30% dietary neutral detergent fiber with calculated forage neutral detergent fiber of 19.3% of diet dry matter (DM). Treatments were a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with SC included at 0 or 14 g/d and DDGS at 0 or 20% of diet DM. Diets consisted of 27% corn silage, 18% alfalfa hay, and 55% concentrate mix on a DM basis. Diets not containing DDGS included additional corn, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, soyhulls, and rumen inert fat to remain isocaloric and isonitrogenous with DDGS diets. Dry matter intake (26.0 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk production increased with the addition of SC to diets (43.6 vs. 42.0 kg/d for diets without SC) and decreased for cows fed diets containing DDGS (42.0 kg/d vs. 43.6 kg/d for diets not containing DDGS). Milk fat percentage (3.05 vs. 3.22% for DDGS and non-DDGS diets, respectively) and yield (1.27 vs. 1.41 kg/d) were decreased by the addition of DDGS but were not affected by the addition of SC. Concentrations of long-chain, polyunsaturated, trans-, and conjugated fatty acids in milk of cows fed DDGS were increased, but milk fatty acid profiles were not affected by SC. Milk true protein concentrations were similar for all diets; however, the addition of SC increased yield of true protein (1.32 vs. 1.27 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen increased when SC was included in the diet with DDGS. The DDGS decreased yields of energy-corrected milk (39.4 vs. 42.1 kg/d) and tended to decrease feed efficiency (1.53 vs. 1.61 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake). Body weights and condition scores were not affected by

  19. Factors affecting pasture intake and total dry matter intake in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, O P; Smith, T R

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the most relevant variables for estimating pasture intake and total dry matter (DM) intake in grazing dairy cows using 27 previously published studies. Variables compared were pasture allowance, days in milk, amount of forage, amount of concentrate and total supplementation, pasture allowance and supplementation interaction, fat-corrected milk, body weight (BW), metabolic BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes in pasture, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of pasture, and NDF in pasture selected. The variables were selected using stepwise regression analysis for total DM intake and pasture DM intake. Variables selected in the total DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.95) were pasture allowance, total supplementation, interaction of pasture allowance and supplementation, fat-corrected milk, BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes and pasture NDF content. Pasture DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.90) was similar to total DM intake equation, but supplementation coefficient was negative, showing substitution effect in supplementing grazing cows. The intake of NDF as a percentage of BW was higher than 1.3% when considering NDF content of the pasture allowance. Low pasture allowance groups had values higher than 1.3%. PMID:11049073

  20. A k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model of an isothermal dry granular dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chung

    2016-07-01

    The turbulent flow characteristics of an isothermal dry granular dense matter with incompressible grains are investigated by the proposed first-order k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model. Reynolds-filter process is applied to obtain the balance equations of the mean fields with two kinematic equations describing the time evolutions of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to derive the equilibrium closure relations satisfying turbulence realizability conditions, with the dynamic responses postulated by a quasi-linear theory. The established closure model is applied to analyses of a gravity-driven stationary flow down an inclined moving plane. While the mean velocity decreases monotonically from its value on the moving plane toward the free surface, the mean porosity increases exponentially; the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation evolve, respectively, from their minimum and maximum values on the plane toward their maximum and minimum values on the free surface. The evaluated mean velocity and porosity correspond to the experimental outcomes, while the turbulent dissipation distribution demonstrates a similarity to that of Newtonian fluids in turbulent shear flows. When compared to the zero-order model, the turbulent eddy evolution tends to enhance the transfer of the turbulent kinetic energy and plane shearing across the flow layer, resulting in more intensive turbulent fluctuation in the upper part of the flow. Solid boundary as energy source and sink of the turbulent kinetic energy becomes more apparent in the established first-order model.

  1. Spectroscopic Analysis of Temporal Changes in Leaf Moisture and Dry Matter Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Y.; Dennison, P. E.; Brewer, S.; Jolly, W. M.; Kropp, R.

    2013-12-01

    Live fuel moisture (LFM), the ratio of water content to dry matter content (DMC) in live fuel, is critical for determining fire danger and behavior. Remote sensing estimation of LFM often relies on an assumption of changing water content and stable DMC over time. In order to advance understanding of temporal variation in LFM and DMC, we collected field samples and spectroscopic data for two species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), to explore seasonal trends and spectral expression of these trends. New and old needles were measured separately for lodgepole pine. All samples were measured using a visible/NIR/SWIR spectrometer, and coincident samples were processed to provide LFM, DMC, water content and chemical components including structural and non-structural carbohydrates. New needles initially exhibited higher LFM and a smaller proportion of DMC, but differences between new and old needles converged as the new needles hardened. DMC explained more variation in LFM than water content for new pine needles and sagebrush leaves. Old pine needles transported non-structural carbohydrates to new needles to accumulate DMC during the growth season, resulting decreasing LFM in new needles. DMC and water content co-varied with vegetation chemical components and physical structure. Spectral variation in response to changing DMC is difficulty to isolate from the spectral signatures of multiple chemical components. Partial least square regression combined with hyperspectral data may increase modeling performance in LFM estimation.

  2. A k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model of an isothermal dry granular dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chung

    2015-07-01

    The turbulent flow characteristics of an isothermal dry granular dense matter with incompressible grains are investigated by the proposed first-order k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model. Reynolds-filter process is applied to obtain the balance equations of the mean fields with two kinematic equations describing the time evolutions of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to derive the equilibrium closure relations satisfying turbulence realizability conditions, with the dynamic responses postulated by a quasi-linear theory. The established closure model is applied to analyses of a gravity-driven stationary flow down an inclined moving plane. While the mean velocity decreases monotonically from its value on the moving plane toward the free surface, the mean porosity increases exponentially; the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation evolve, respectively, from their minimum and maximum values on the plane toward their maximum and minimum values on the free surface. The evaluated mean velocity and porosity correspond to the experimental outcomes, while the turbulent dissipation distribution demonstrates a similarity to that of Newtonian fluids in turbulent shear flows. When compared to the zero-order model, the turbulent eddy evolution tends to enhance the transfer of the turbulent kinetic energy and plane shearing across the flow layer, resulting in more intensive turbulent fluctuation in the upper part of the flow. Solid boundary as energy source and sink of the turbulent kinetic energy becomes more apparent in the established first-order model.

  3. Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation of High Dry Matter Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw at Low Enzyme Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O2 as oxidizing agent was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%.

  4. Research of Woody Biomass Drying Process in Pellet Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selivanovs, Jevgenijs; Blumberga, Dagnija; Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Andra; Barisa, Aiga

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents results of experimental research on wood chips and sawdust drying in a rotary dryer. Empirical models for the assessment of two dependent parameters of the drying process were created based on the results of experimental data. The mathematical description of the relationship between the independent variable - reduced sawdust moisture content - and dependent variable - specific fuel consumption - is represented by a linear equation.

  5. A dynamic model to predict fat and protein fluxes and dry matter intake associated with body reserve changes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Luis O; Fox, Danny G; Kononoff, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop the structure and concepts of a dynamic model to simulate dry matter intake (DMI) pattern and the fluxes of fat and protein in the body reserves of cattle associated with changes in body condition score (BCS) for application within the structure of applied nutrition models. This model was developed to add the capability of evaluating the effects of factors affecting pre- and postcalving DMI, daily energy and protein balances, and changes in BCS over a reproductive cycle. Input variables are average DMI, diet metabolizable energy, and animal information (body weight, BCS, milk production, and calf birth body weight) from each diet fed over the reproductive cycle. Because the depletion and repletion of body reserves in cattle is a complex system of coordinated metabolic processes that reflect hormonal and physiological changes caused by negative or positive energy balances, the system dynamics modeling methodology was used to develop this model. The model was used to evaluate the effect of the dynamic interactions between dietary supply and animal requirements for energy and protein on the fluxes of body fat and body protein of dairy cows over the reproductive cycle and Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the sensitivity of the parameters. The main long-term factor affecting DMI pattern was the growth of the gravid uterus causing an increase in the volume of abdominal organs and a compression of the rumen, consequentially reducing feed intake. Changes in body reserves (fat and protein) were computed based on metabolizable energy balance, assuming different efficiency of utilization coefficients for fat and protein during repletion and mobilization. The model was evaluated with data from 37 dairy cows individually fed 3 different diets over the lactation and dry periods. The model was successful in simulating the observed pattern of DMI (mean square error was 3.59, 3.97, and 3.66 for diets A, B, and C, respectively

  6. Effect of hay steaming on forage nutritive values and dry matter intake by horses.

    PubMed

    Earing, J E; Hathaway, M R; Sheaffer, C C; Hetchler, B P; Jacobson, L D; Paulson, J C; Martinson, K L

    2013-12-01

    .445). Dry matter intake of NM was increased by steaming; horses ingested 0.64 kg of unsteamed and 2.02 kg of steamed hay (P < 0.001). Dry matter intake of MM was not affected by steaming (P > 0.05). For NM hay, steaming decreased P and mold concentrations and increased DMI of the hay but had no effect on TSP. In MM hay, steaming reduced P, WSC, ESC, mold concentrations, and TSP but did not affect DMI. Steaming represents a strategy for reducing TSP and mold concentrations and increasing DMI in some hays but can result in leaching of essential nutrients. PMID:24146155

  7. Remote sensing of fuel moisture content from the ratios of canopy water indices with a foliar dry matter index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, E. R.; Wang, Lingli; Qu, John J.; Hao, Xianjun

    2012-10-01

    Fuel moisture content (FMC) is an important variable for predicting the occurrence and spread of wildfire. Foliar FMC was calculated as the ratio of leaf foliar water content (Cw) and dry matter content (Cm). Recently, the normalized dry matter index (NDMI) was developed for the remote sensing of Cm using high-spectral resolution data. This study explored the potential for remote sensing of FMC using the ratio of various vegetation water indices with NDMI. For leaf-scale simulations, all index ratios were significantly related to FMC. For canopy-scale simulations, ratio indices of the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) with NDMI predicted FMC with R2 values of 0.900 and 0.864, respectively. NDII/NDMI determined from leaf reflectance data had the highest correlation with FMC. Further investigation needs to be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach at canopy scales with airborne remote sensing data.

  8. Neural network implementation for a reversal procedure for water and dry matter estimation on plant leaves using selected LED wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; de Rosny, Gilles

    2015-06-10

    An inversion method based on a neural network was used to estimate water and dry matter contents on plant leaves, from transmittance and reflectance measurements, using light emitting diodes (LEDs) at specific wavelengths in NIR and FIR. The preliminary results for the predicted water content by the neural network method showed a RMSE value of 0.0027 g/cm(2) and |σ| value of approximately 3.53%, computed on 127 plant leaf samples over 51 species. Dry matter estimation also was performed, which showed potential implementation after future improvements. We believe this inversion method could be implemented in a portable system based on any silicon platform with the capability to perform in situ measurements on plant tissue. PMID:26192847

  9. Organic Matter Balance: Managing for Soil Protection and Bioenergy Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils are an important natural resource allowing the production of food, feed, fiber and fuel. The growing demand for these services or products requires we protect the soil resource. Many characteristics of high quality soils can be related to the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (organi...

  10. Forestry/Forest Products. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the forestry/forest products industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the forestry/forest products curriculum. There are six sections…

  11. A Role for Shoot Protein in Shoot–Root Dry Matter Allocation in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    ANDREWS, M.; RAVEN, J. A.; LEA, P. J.; SPRENT, J. I.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims It is stated in many recent publications that nitrate (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) acts as a signal to regulate dry matter partitioning between the shoot and root of higher plants. Here we challenge this hypothesis and present evidence for the viewpoint that \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and other environmental effects on the shoot : root dry weight ratio (S:R) of higher plants are often related mechanistically to changes in shoot protein concentration. • Methods The literature on environmental effects on S:R is reviewed, focusing on relationships between S:R, growth and leaf \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and protein concentrations. A series of experiments carried out to test the proposal that S:R is dependent on shoot protein concentration is highlighted and new data are presented for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). • Key Results/Evidence Results from the literature and new data for tobacco show that S:R and leaf \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage

  12. [Effects of field border length for irrigation on photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter accumulation and water use efficiency of wheat].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shang-Yu; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Shi, Yu; Zhao, Jun-Ye; Zhang, Yong-Li

    2014-04-01

    With the high-yielding winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 as test material, a three-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of border length for irrigation on flag leaf water potential, photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter accumulation and distribution of wheat. In the 2010-2011 growing season, six treatments were installed, i. e., the field border length was designed as 10 m (L10), 20 m (L20), 40 m (L40), 60 m (L60), 80 m (L80) and 100 m (L100). In the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons, the field border length was designed as 40 m (L40), 60 m (L60), 80 m (L80) and 100 m (L100). The results showed that the average relative soil water content of the 0-200 cm soil layer was presented as L80, L60>L100>L40>L20>L10 at anthesis in the 2010-2011 growing season and as L80, L60>L100>L40 in the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons. At 11 d and 21 d after anthesis, the water potential, net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of flag leaf were presented as L80, L100>L60>L40>L20, L10, and as L80>L60, L100>L40, L20, L10 at 31 d after anthesis. The coefficients of variability both of the dry matter accumulation at anthesis and maturity and of grain yield in different regions of L80 field were lower than those of L100. The average dry matter accumulation, dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the contribution to grain of L80 were dramatically higher than those of L100, L40, L20 and L10. L80 had the highest average grain yield and water use efficiency, being the best treatment for irrigation in our study. PMID:25011291

  13. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel. PMID:26521567

  14. Does size matter in platelet production?

    PubMed Central

    Thon, Jonathan N.

    2012-01-01

    Platelet (PLT) production represents the final stage of megakaryocyte (MK) development. During differentiation, bone marrow MKs extend and release long, branched proPLTs into sinusoidal blood vessels, which undergo repeated abscissions to yield circulating PLTs. Circular-prePLTs are dynamic intermediate structures in this sequence that have the capacity to reversibly convert into barbell-proPLTs and may be related to “young PLTs” and “large PLTs” of both inherited and acquired macrothrombocytopenias. Conversion is regulated by the diameter and thickness of the peripheral microtubule coil, and PLTs are capable of enlarging in culture to generate barbell-proPLTs that divide to yield 2 smaller PLT products. Because PLT number and size are inversely proportional, this raises the question: do macrothrombocytopenias represent a failure in the intermediate stages of PLT production? This review aims to bring together and contextualize our current understanding of terminal PLT production against the backdrop of human macrothrombocytopenias to establish how “large PLTs” observed in both conditions are similar, how they are different, and what they can teach us about PLT formation. A better understanding of the cytoskeletal mechanisms that regulate PLT formation and determine PLT size offers the promise of improved therapies for clinical disorders of PLT production and an important source of PLTs for infusion. PMID:22665937

  15. Short communication: The effects of dry matter and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2016-07-01

    During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling. PMID:27179862

  16. Olive mill wastewater membrane filtration fraction: Drying techniques and quality assessment of the dried product (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products. Recovery of phenolics from OMWW could help olive oil processors add value to their co-product, increasing the sustainability of olive oil production. The ...

  17. Aim for 55-Day Dry Period for Top Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research cited in this article determined the optimal dry period length (the number of days between lactations when a cow is not being milked) for US Jersey cows using traits such as milk, fat, and protein yield, fat and protein percentages, somatic cell score, and days open. This was accomplis...

  18. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Keller, Fred A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  19. Prepartum behavior and dry matter intake identify dairy cows at risk for metritis.

    PubMed

    Huzzey, J M; Veira, D M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2007-07-01

    Metritis is a disease of particular concern after calving because of its profound negative effects on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Cows at risk for metritis have shorter feeding times in the days before calving but prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and water intake may also be useful in identifying cows at risk for this disease. Feeding, drinking, and intake measures may also be affected by social interactions among group-housed cows. The objective of this study, therefore, was to measure intake, feeding, drinking, and social behavior to determine which measures could identify cows at risk for metritis after calving. Feeding and drinking behavior and intake measures were collected from 101 Holstein dairy cows from 2 wk before until 3 wk after calving using an electronic monitoring system. Social behavior at the feed bunk was assessed from video recordings. Metritis severity was diagnosed based on daily rectal body temperature as well as condition of vaginal discharge that was assessed every 3 d after calving until d +21. In this study, 12% of cows were classified as severely metritic and 27% as mildly metritic. Prepartum feeding time and DMI were best able to identify cows at risk for metritis. Cows that developed severe metritis spent less time feeding and consumed less feed compared with healthy cows beginning 2 wk before the observation of clinical signs of infection. For every 10-min decrease in average daily feeding time during the week before calving, the odds of severe metritis increased by 1.72, and for every 1-kg decrease in DMI during this period, cows were nearly 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with this disorder. During the week before calving, cows that were later diagnosed with severe metritis had lower DMI and feeding times during the hours following fresh feed delivery. During this period these cows also engaged in fewer aggressive interactions at the feed bins compared with cows that remained healthy. This research is the first

  20. Dry matter accumulation in citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Luis, A; Oliveira, M E M; Bordon, Y; Siqueira, D L; Tominaga, S; Guardiola, J L

    2002-12-01

    The vascularization of the pedicel in Marisol clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tanaka) has been characterized in relation to fruit growth. Phloem and xylem formation occurred during the first half of the period of fruit growth. Phloem cross-sectional area reached its maximum value by the end of fruitlet abscission, 78 d after anthesis (DAA), shortly after the rate of accumulation of dry matter in fruitlets reached its maximum value. Secondary xylem formation occurred until day 93, well after the end of fruitlet abscission. At fruit maturity, xylem accounted for 42-46 % of the cross-section of the pedicel. Vessels differentiated in this late-formed xylem. Formation of phloem and early xylem was directly related to fruitlet size (and growth rate). Differences in the rate of formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel of the developing fruitlets followed rather than preceded the differences in growth rate. Specific mass transfer (SMT) in the phloem was highest in the fastest growing fruitlets, and peaked during the late stages of fruitlet abscission (72-78 DAA) and during the main period of fruit growth (107-121 DAA). Application of a synthetic auxin to developing fruits, either at the end of flowering (2,4-D) or by day 64 after flowering (2,4-DP), increased the growth rate of the fruit and fruit size at maturity (8-13 % increase in fruit diameter at maturity). These auxin applications also enhanced the formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel, with a specific effect on phloem formation. Applying auxin at flowering resulted in a reduction in the phloem SMT by days 72-78, whereas auxin application on day 64 increased this parameter. Despite this difference in behaviour, which resulted from the different time-course of the growth response of the fruit to auxin applications, these applications increased fruit size to a similar extent. Severing 37 % of the phloem of the pedicel during the main period of fruit growth resulted in an increase in the specific

  1. Determination of Critical Nitrogen Dilution Curve Based on Stem Dry Matter in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Yao, Xia; Liu, Xiaojun; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Plant analysis is a very promising diagnostic tool for assessment of crop nitrogen (N) requirements in perspectives of cost effective and environment friendly agriculture. Diagnosing N nutritional status of rice crop through plant analysis will give insights into optimizing N requirements of future crops. The present study was aimed to develop a new methodology for determining the critical nitrogen (Nc) dilution curve based on stem dry matter (SDM) and to assess its suitability to estimate the level of N nutrition for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in east China. Three field experiments with varied N rates (0–360 kg N ha−1) using three Japonica rice hybrids, Lingxiangyou-18, Wuxiangjing-14 and Wuyunjing were conducted in Jiangsu province of east China. SDM and stem N concentration (SNC) were determined during vegetative stage for growth analysis. A Nc dilution curve based on SDM was described by the equation (Nc = 2.17W−0.27with W being SDM in t ha−1), when SDM ranged from 0.88 to 7.94 t ha−1. However, for SDM < 0.88 t ha−1, the constant critical value Nc = 1.76% SDM was applied. The curve was dually validated for N-limiting and non-N-limiting growth conditions. The N nutrition index (NNI) and accumulated N deficit (Nand) of stem ranged from 0.57 to 1.06 and 51.1 to −7.07 kg N ha−1, respectively, during key growth stages under varied N rates in 2010 and 2011. The values of ΔN derived from either NNI or Nand could be used as references for N dressing management during rice growth. Our results demonstrated that the present curve well differentiated the conditions of limiting and non-limiting N nutrition in rice crop. The SDM based Nc dilution curve can be adopted as an alternate and novel approach for evaluating plant N status to support N fertilization decision during the vegetative growth of Japonica rice in east China. PMID:25127042

  2. Determination of critical nitrogen dilution curve based on stem dry matter in rice.

    PubMed

    Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Yao, Xia; Liu, Xiaojun; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Plant analysis is a very promising diagnostic tool for assessment of crop nitrogen (N) requirements in perspectives of cost effective and environment friendly agriculture. Diagnosing N nutritional status of rice crop through plant analysis will give insights into optimizing N requirements of future crops. The present study was aimed to develop a new methodology for determining the critical nitrogen (Nc) dilution curve based on stem dry matter (SDM) and to assess its suitability to estimate the level of N nutrition for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in east China. Three field experiments with varied N rates (0-360 kg N ha(-1)) using three Japonica rice hybrids, Lingxiangyou-18, Wuxiangjing-14 and Wuyunjing were conducted in Jiangsu province of east China. SDM and stem N concentration (SNC) were determined during vegetative stage for growth analysis. A Nc dilution curve based on SDM was described by the equation (Nc = 2.17W(-0.27) with W being SDM in t ha(-1)), when SDM ranged from 0.88 to 7.94 t ha(-1). However, for SDM < 0.88 t ha(-1), the constant critical value Nc = 1.76% SDM was applied. The curve was dually validated for N-limiting and non-N-limiting growth conditions. The N nutrition index (NNI) and accumulated N deficit (Nand) of stem ranged from 0.57 to 1.06 and 51.1 to -7.07 kg N ha(-1), respectively, during key growth stages under varied N rates in 2010 and 2011. The values of ΔN derived from either NNI or Nand could be used as references for N dressing management during rice growth. Our results demonstrated that the present curve well differentiated the conditions of limiting and non-limiting N nutrition in rice crop. The SDM based Nc dilution curve can be adopted as an alternate and novel approach for evaluating plant N status to support N fertilization decision during the vegetative growth of Japonica rice in east China. PMID:25127042

  3. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  4. Bilirubin and its oxidation products damage brain white matter.

    PubMed

    Lakovic, Katarina; Ai, Jinglu; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Tariq, Asma; Sabri, Mohammed; Alarfaj, Abdullah K; Vasdev, Punarjot; Macdonald, Robert Loch

    2014-11-01

    Brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs in cortex and white matter and may be mediated by blood breakdown products, including hemoglobin and heme. Effects of blood breakdown products, bilirubin and bilirubin oxidation products, have not been widely investigated in adult brain. Here, we first determined the effect of bilirubin and its oxidation products on the structure and function of white matter in vitro using brain slices. Subsequently, we determined whether these compounds have an effect on the structure and function of white matter in vivo. In all, 0.5 mmol/L bilirubin treatment significantly damaged both the function and the structure of myelinated axons but not the unmyelinated axons in brain slices. Toxicity of bilirubin in vitro was prevented by dimethyl sulfoxide. Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) may be responsible for the toxicity of bilirubin. In in vivo experiments, unmyelinated axons were found more susceptible to damage from bilirubin injection. These results suggest that unmyelinated axons may have a major role in white-matter damage in vivo. Since bilirubin and BOXes appear in a delayed manner after ICH, preventing their toxic effects may be worth investigating therapeutically. Dimethyl sulfoxide or its structurally related derivatives may have a potential therapeutic value at antagonizing axonal damage after hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:25160671

  5. Bilirubin and its oxidation products damage brain white matter

    PubMed Central

    Lakovic, Katarina; Ai, Jinglu; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Tariq, Asma; Sabri, Mohammed; Alarfaj, Abdullah K; Vasdev, Punarjot; Macdonald, Robert Loch

    2014-01-01

    Brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs in cortex and white matter and may be mediated by blood breakdown products, including hemoglobin and heme. Effects of blood breakdown products, bilirubin and bilirubin oxidation products, have not been widely investigated in adult brain. Here, we first determined the effect of bilirubin and its oxidation products on the structure and function of white matter in vitro using brain slices. Subsequently, we determined whether these compounds have an effect on the structure and function of white matter in vivo. In all, 0.5 mmol/L bilirubin treatment significantly damaged both the function and the structure of myelinated axons but not the unmyelinated axons in brain slices. Toxicity of bilirubin in vitro was prevented by dimethyl sulfoxide. Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) may be responsible for the toxicity of bilirubin. In in vivo experiments, unmyelinated axons were found more susceptible to damage from bilirubin injection. These results suggest that unmyelinated axons may have a major role in white-matter damage in vivo. Since bilirubin and BOXes appear in a delayed manner after ICH, preventing their toxic effects may be worth investigating therapeutically. Dimethyl sulfoxide or its structurally related derivatives may have a potential therapeutic value at antagonizing axonal damage after hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:25160671

  6. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-06-17

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic. PMID:24938297

  7. Composition of corn dry-grind ethanol by-products: DDGS, wet cake, and thin stillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and wet distillers’ grains are the major co-products of the dry grind ethanol facilities. As they are mainly used as animal feed, a typical compositional analysis of the DDGS and wet distillers’ grains mainly focuses on defining the feedstock’s nutritio...

  8. Dry Season Production of Filariasis and Dengue Vectors in American Samoa and Comparison with Wet Season Production

    PubMed Central

    Lambdin, Barrot H.; Schmaedick, Mark A.; McClintock, Shannon; Roberts, Jacqueline; Gurr, Neil E.; Marcos, Kenneth; Waller, Lance; Burkot, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes polynesiensis and Ae. aegypti breeding site productivity in two American Samoa villages were analyzed during a dry season survey and compared with a wet season survey. Both surveys identified similar container types producing greater numbers of pupae, with buckets, drums, and tires responsible for > 50% of Aedes pupae during the dry season. The prevalence of containers with Ae. polynesiensis and the density of Ae. polynesiensis in discarded appliances, drums, and discarded plastic ice cream containers were significantly greater during the dry season. Aedes aegypti pupal densities were significantly greater in the dry season in ice cream containers and tires. Significant clustering of the most productive container types by household was only found for appliances. The high productivity for Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. aegypti pupae during the wet and dry seasons suggests that dengue and lymphatic filariasis transmission can occur throughout the year, consistent with the reporting of dengue cases. PMID:19996430

  9. Production regimes for Self-Interacting Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Chu, Xiaoyong; Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Hambye, Thomas; Zaldivar, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    In the context of Self-Interacting Dark Matter as a solution for the small-scale structure problems, we consider the possibility that Dark Matter could have been produced without being in thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model bath. We discuss one by one the following various dark matter production regimes of this kind: freeze-in, reannihilation and dark freeze-out. We exemplify how these mechanisms work in the context of the particularly simple Hidden Vector Dark Matter model. In contrast to scenarios where there is thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model bath, we find two regimes which can easily satisfy all the laboratory and cosmological constraints. These are dark freeze-out with 3-to-2 annihilations and freeze-in via a light mediator. In the first regime, different temperatures in the visible and the Dark Matter sectors allow us to avoid the constraints coming from cosmic structure formation as well as the use of non-perturbative couplings to reproduce the observed relic density. For the second regime, different couplings are responsible for Dark Matter relic density and self-interactions, permitting to surpass BBN, X-ray, CMB and direct detection constraints.

  10. Dark Matter Production in Non-Standard Early Universe Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehagen, Thomas Joseph

    Many dark matter candidates, including asymmetric Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and sterile neutrinos, are produced in the very early Universe, prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). We show that the relic abundance of asymmetric WIMPs and sterile neutrinos can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe prior to BBN. In particular, we find that if the production of asymmetric WIMPs occurs during a non-standard cosmological phase, a larger WIMP annihilation cross section is required to produce the present dark matter density than if the WIMPs were produced during a standard, radiation dominated phase. Because of this, the present dark matter annihilation rate could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter produced in the standard cosmology. We also show that if the production of sterile neutrinos occurs during a non-standard cosmological phase, the relic number density of sterile neutrinos could be reduced with respect to the number expected in the standard cosmology, consequently relaxing current bounds on active-sterile neutrino mixing. Finally, we examine whether low reheating temperature cosmologies are allowed by current Cosmic Microwave Background measurements. We find the allowed range of reheating temperatures using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials, and a variety of reheating models. We show that an inflationary model with a φ1 potential and canonical reheating allows the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating epoch, instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated.

  11. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  12. Demonstrating Functional Equivalence of Pilot and Production Scale Freeze-Drying of BCG

    PubMed Central

    ten Have, R.; Reubsaet, K.; van Herpen, P.; Kersten, G.; Amorij, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT)-tools were used to monitor freeze-drying of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at pilot and production scale. Among the evaluated PAT-tools, there is the novel use of the vacuum valve open/close frequency for determining the endpoint of primary drying at production scale. The duration of primary drying, the BCG survival rate, and the residual moisture content (RMC) were evaluated using two different freeze-drying protocols and were found to be independent of the freeze-dryer scale evidencing functional equivalence. The absence of an effect of the freeze-dryer scale on the process underlines the feasibility of the pilot scale freeze-dryer for further BCG freeze-drying process optimization which may be carried out using a medium without BCG. PMID:26981867

  13. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive ... or twice a week Add conditioners Avoid blow drying and harsh styling products

  14. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    PubMed

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air. PMID:26875878

  15. Genetic and environmental control of fruit maturation, dry matter and firmness in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Chagné, David; Dayatilake, Daya; Diack, Robert; Oliver, Murray; Ireland, Hilary; Watson, Amy; Gardiner, Susan E; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Tustin, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    For any given genotype, the environment in which an apple is grown can influence the properties of the fruit considerably. While there has been extensive research on the mechanism of the genetic control of fruit quality traits, less effort has been made to investigate the way that these genetic mechanisms interact with the environment. To address this issue, we employed a large 'Royal Gala' × 'Braeburn' population of 572 seedlings replicated over sites in three climatically diverse apple-growing regions in New Zealand. Phenotyping for traits including fruit maturation timing, firmness and dry matter content was performed at each of these three sites for a single growing season (2011), and at two sites (Motueka and Hawke's Bay) for two seasons (2009 and 2010). The phenotype data collected over 2 years at two sites enabled the detection of 190 quantitative trait loci (QTL) that controlled these traits regardless of year or growing location, as well as some chromosomal loci that influenced the traits in a single given environment or year. For those loci that were environmentally stable over three sites, there was an interdependency of fruit maturation date, dry matter content and storage potential within this population, with two regions on Linkage Groups (LGs) 10 and 16 strongly contributing. If these loci were used in a marker-assisted selection programme to select for progeny bearing firmer fruit, this would have the unintentional consequence of selecting, high dry matter content, later maturing apples. In addition, a further 113 new QTLs with a smaller effect were identified, some of which were exhibited only in a single growing environment, demonstrating the underlying complexity of control of traits determining fruit quality, in addition to the need for being aware of environmental effects when developing new apple varieties. PMID:26504549

  16. Dry Matter Accumulation in Citrus Fruit is Not Limited by Transport Capacity of the Pedicel

    PubMed Central

    GARCÍA‐LUIS, A.; OLIVEIRA, M. E. M.; BORDÓN, Y.; SIQUEIRA, D. L.; TOMINAGA, S.; GUARDIOLA, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    The vascularization of the pedicel in Marisol clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tanaka) has been characterized in relation to fruit growth. Phloem and xylem formation occurred during the first half of the period of fruit growth. Phloem cross‐sectional area reached its maximum value by the end of fruitlet abscission, 78 d after anthesis (DAA), shortly after the rate of accumulation of dry matter in fruitlets reached its maximum value. Secondary xylem formation occurred until day 93, well after the end of fruitlet abscission. At fruit maturity, xylem accounted for 42–46 % of the cross‐section of the pedicel. Vessels differentiated in this late‐formed xylem. Formation of phloem and early xylem was directly related to fruitlet size (and growth rate). Differences in the rate of formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel of the developing fruitlets followed rather than preceded the differences in growth rate. Specific mass transfer (SMT) in the phloem was highest in the fastest growing fruitlets, and peaked during the late stages of fruitlet abscission (72–78 DAA) and during the main period of fruit growth (107–121 DAA). Application of a synthetic auxin to developing fruits, either at the end of flowering (2,4‐D) or by day 64 after flowering (2,4‐DP), increased the growth rate of the fruit and fruit size at maturity (8–13 % increase in fruit diameter at maturity). These auxin applications also enhanced the formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel, with a specific effect on phloem formation. Applying auxin at flowering resulted in a reduction in the phloem SMT by days 72–78, whereas auxin application on day 64 increased this parameter. Despite this difference in behaviour, which resulted from the different time‐course of the growth response of the fruit to auxin applications, these applications increased fruit size to a similar extent. Severing 37 % of the phloem of the pedicel during the main period of fruit growth resulted in an

  17. Evaluation of Two Positional Candidate Genes on BTA14 for Association with Dry Matter Intake in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to genetically select animals that require lower amounts of feed while achieving acceptable levels of production will result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that may be responsible for differences among cattle in dry matte...

  18. Dried plums and their products: composition and health effects--an updated review.

    PubMed

    Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes composition of dried plums and their products (prune juice and dried plum powder) with special attention to possibly bioactive compounds. Dried plums contain significant amounts of sorbitol, quinic acid, chlorogenic acids, vitamin K1, boron, copper, and potassium. Synergistic action of these and other compounds, which are also present in dried plums in less conspicuous amounts, may have beneficial health effects when dried plums are regularly consumed. Snacking on dried plums may increase satiety and reduce the subsequent intake of food, helping to control obesity, diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Despite their sweet taste, dried plums do not cause large postprandial rise in blood glucose and insulin. Direct effects in the gastrointestinal tract include prevention of constipation and possibly colon cancer. The characteristic phenolic compounds and their metabolites may also act as antibacterial agents in both gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. The indirect salutary effects on bone turnover are supported by numerous laboratory studies with animals and cell cultures. Further investigation of phenolic compounds in dried plums, particularly of high molecular weight polymers, their metabolism and biological actions, alone and in synergy with other dried plum constituents, is necessary to elucidate the observed health effects and to indicate other benefits. PMID:24090144

  19. Microbial community dynamics induced by rewetting dry soil: summer precipitation matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Romain; Osborne, Catherine; Firestone, Mary

    2015-04-01

    The massive soil CO2 efflux associated with rewetting dry soils after the dry summer period significantly contributes to the annual carbon budget of Mediterranean grasslands. Rapid reactivation of soil heterotrophic activity and available carbon are both required to fuel the CO2 pulse. Better understanding of the effects of altered summer precipitation on the metabolic state of indigenous microorganisms may be important in predicting future changes in carbon cycling. We investigated the effects of a controlled rewetting event on the soil CO2 efflux pulse and on the present (DNA-based) and potentially active (rRNA-based) soil bacterial and fungal communities in intact soil cores previously subjected to three different precipitation patterns over four months (full summer dry season, extended wet season, and absent dry season). Phylogenetic marker genes for bacteria (16S) and fungi (28S) were sequenced before and after rewetting, and the abundance of these genes and transcripts was measured. Even after having experienced markedly different antecedent water conditions, the potentially active bacterial communities showed a consistent wet-up response, reflecting contrasting life-strategies for different groups. Moreover, we found a significant positive relation between the extent of change in the structure of the potentially active bacterial community and the magnitude of the CO2 pulse upon rewetting dry soils. We suggest that the duration of severe dry conditions (predicted to change under future climate) is important in conditioning the response potential of the soil bacterial community to wet-up as well as in framing the magnitude of the associated CO2 pulse.

  20. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  1. Dry-ADU process for UO 2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching-Tsven, Huang

    1992-12-01

    Scattered granular ammonium diuranate (ADU) products were prepared directly by reacting atomized liquid droplets of uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate with ammonia gas. After calcination in nitrogen and reduction with the steam-hydrogen gas, the ADU products were converted to UO 2 powders which were pelletized and then sintered for characterization. No waste liquid filtrate was generated in the process. The ADU product and UO 2 powder were easy-handling. Uranium dioxide powders with low fluorine content and good pelletizing and sintering properties were prepared.

  2. The influence of extraction and precipitation pH on the dry matter yield of broiler dark meat.

    PubMed

    Betti, M; Fletcher, D L

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, demand for white meat products has resulted in excess supplies and depressed prices of leg meat in the United States. One approach to increasing the utilization of dark meat is to extract the pigments and fat to make the resulting product more acceptable for the production of further-processed meat products. To date, such technologies have been inefficient (low yields) or have resulted in products of limited use. Three replicate trials were conducted to determine the effects of extraction pH and precipitation pH on the wet and dry extract yields of boneless, skinless broiler leg meat. Broiler leg meat was chopped with added water and extracted by adjusting the pH to 8.0, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0 while mixing. After determination of extraction yields, each extraction was adjusted to pH 3.8, 4.0, 4.2, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, 5.0, and 5.2 to determine the effect of precipitate pH on total wet and dry yields. Dry yield increased with extraction pH and precipitation pH. However, the greatest yields, over 70%, were at extraction pH values above 10.5, which have been associated with the production of potentially harmful by-products. Combinations of extraction pH values between 9 and 10.5 and precipitation pH values above 4.4 resulted in dry yields of approximately 65%. These results indicate that pH extraction and precipitation may result in economically viable yields. Further research is needed to determine the optimal conditions of yield, composition, and functionality. PMID:16156215

  3. Methylmercury production in estuarine sediments: role of organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Schartup, Amina T.; Mason, Robert P.; Balcom, Prentiss H.; Hollweg, Terill A.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) affects wildlife and human health mainly through marine fish consumption. In marine systems, MeHg is formed from inorganic mercury (HgII) species primarily in sediments then accumulates and biomagnifies in the food web. Most of the fish consumed in the US are from estuarine and marine systems highlighting the importance of understanding MeHg formation in these productive regions. Sediment organic matter has been shown to limit mercury methylation in estuarine ecosystems, as a result it is often described as the primary control over MeHg production. In this paper, we explore the role of organic matter by looking at the effects of its changing sediment concentrations on the methylation rates across multiple estuaries. We measured sedimentary MeHg production at eleven estuarine sites that were selected for their contrasting biogeochemical characteristics, mercury (Hg) content, and location in the Northeastern US (ME, NH, CT, NY, and NJ). Sedimentary total Hg concentrations ranged across five orders of magnitude, increasing in concentration from the pristine, sandy sediments of Wells (ME), to industrially contaminated areas like Portsmouth (NH) and Hackensack (NJ). We find that methylation rates are the highest at locations with high Hg content (relative to carbon), and that organic matter does not hinder mercury methylation in estuaries. PMID:23194318

  4. A cross-section analysis of sedimentary organic matter in a mangrove ecosystem under dry climate conditions: The Somone estuary, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakho, Issa; Mesnage, Valérie; Copard, Yoann; Deloffre, Julien; Faye, Guilgane; Lafite, Robert; Niang, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove sediments are an important organic matter (OM) reservoir and play a major role in the carbon cycle. Since the 1990s, these ecosystems were subjected to numerous studies, in order to quantify the sedimentary sink for organic carbon (OC) and to characterize the organic matter sources, but remain poorly studied in Western Africa. The aim of our study is to quantify the organic carbon content and to identify the OM origin stored in the Somone mangrove sediments. Studied area is characterized by a (i) dry climate conditions with a higher rate of evaporation, (ii) lack of freshwater input by river, and (iii) tide dominated system. Here, we focus on physico-chemical properties of sediments (temperature, pH and redox), sediment grain size, water content, particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon from a series of 40 cm-deep cores in four tidal contexts: mudflat, Rhizophora, and Avicennia mangroves and barren area. Results show that total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between 0.34 and 3.92 wt.% and are higher in sediments from mudflat and Rhizophora mangrove than in sediments from Avicennia mangrove and barren area. Indeed, sediments stored under Avicennia is subjected to suboxic conditions initiated by roots system and crabs bioturbation; while under Rhizophora and mudflat, local anoxic conditions are prevalent as suggest the negative Eh values and the occurrence of framboidal pyrites. Mangrove sediments of the Somone estuary contain an autochthonous lignocellulosic-derived organic matter. The youngest and stunted form of the Somone mangrove explains the low organic carbon content of sediments; where dry climate conditions limit the organic matter production by the mangrove forest. The shallow depth at which the organic matter of the former mudflat was found confirms that the Somone mangrove is subjected to a low sedimentation rate. This suggests that organic carbon burial depends on others processes than sedimentation. Then, in the Somone

  5. Hydrogen and dry ice production through phase equilibrium separation and methane reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posada, Alberto; Manousiouthakis, Vasilios

    A clean hydrogen (99.9999%) and dry ice production process is proposed, which is based on phase equilibrium (PE) separation and methane reforming. Heat and power integration studies are carried out for the proposed process, by formulating and solving the minimum hot/cold/electric utility cost problem for the associated heat exchange network. The optimum operating cost of the proposed process is shown to be lower than the corresponding cost of the conventional PSA (pressure swing adsorption) based process, if the produced dry ice is sold for as low as 2 cents kg-dry-ice -1 or if an equivalent CO 2 sequestration credit is conceded.

  6. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  7. INFLUENCE OF COAL MINERAL MATTER ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DRY SORBENT INJECTION FOR SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the use of laboratory-, bench-, and pilot-scale facilities to examine the impact of mineral matter on calcium-based sorbent reactivity toward SO2. Two areas of concern were investigated: (1) deleterious effects of coal ash; and, (2) beneficial (promoter) effe...

  8. The Dry Deposition of Particulate Matter Above a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, R.

    2001-05-29

    The concentration and type of particulate matter found in the atmosphere varies among localities. Like the transport of water vapor, heat, and momentum, the movement of small particles through the boundary layer above a plant canopy is controlled by eddy diffusion. This paper describes data collection design, transport theory, and an analysis of the data collected.

  9. Pasting and rheological properties of oat products dry-blended with ground chia seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat products containing ß-glucan are documented for lowering blood cholesterol that could be beneficial for preventing coronary heart disease. Oat products (oat flour, oat bran concentrate, and Nutrim) were dry-blended with ground chia (Salvia hispanica L.) that contains omega-3 polyunsaturated fatt...

  10. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune, to our knowledge never before examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan, were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1.0% (w/v) distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by...

  11. Forage Production on Dry Rangelands of Binary Grass-Legume Mixtures at Four Plant Densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage production on Western US rangelands can be increased with the right combination of plants. Our objective was to demonstrate the relative forage production advantage of including a legume on dry rangelands. A falcata and rhizomatous alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), alti wildrye [Leymus andustus...

  12. Redox agents and N-ethylmaleimide affect protein polymerization during laboratory scale dry pasta production and cooking.

    PubMed

    Bruneel, Charlotte; Buggenhout, Joke; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-04-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) semolina gluten proteins consist of monomeric gliadin and polymeric glutenin and determine the quality of pasta products made therefrom. During pasta drying, glutenin starts polymerizing already below 60 °C (65% relative humidity (RH)), whereas gliadin only is incorporated in the protein network at temperatures exceeding 68 °C (68% RH) through thiol (SH)/disulfide (SS) exchange reactions. Removal of free SH groups in glutenin by adding 2.3 μmol KBrO3 or KIO3 per g dry matter semolina protein (g protein) or 13.8 μmol N-ethylmaleimide/g protein reduces gliadin-glutenin cross-linking during pasta drying and/or cooking and yields cooked pasta of high quality. Introducing free SH groups by adding 13.8 μmol glutathione/g protein increases gliadin-glutenin cross-linking during pasta processing, resulting in cooked pasta of lower quality. We hypothesize that too much gliadin incorporation in the glutenin network during pasta processing tightens the protein network and results in lower cooking quality. PMID:26593538

  13. Use of gas-turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This report describes an investigation of the use of gas-turbine exhaust as a substitute for conventional burners in the direct drying of food products. Four different equipment configurations were examined, including: diluting exhaust gases with air to achieve suitable temperatures; directing exhaust through a heat exchanger; moving the exhaust through a heat recovery boiler and then a drying system; and utilizing a conventional gas turbine cogeneration system. The study determined that diluting exhaust with air and the heat recovery boiler/drying system were economically attractive. The concern with direct drying using gas turbine exhaust is that the presence of elevated nitrogen oxides in the gas may be found in the food products or cause the formation of nitrosamines (a potent carcinogen) in these products. The study concluded that for direct drying using turbine exhaust to be commercialized for food products, either methods for reducing nitrogren oxides levels must be developed for the turbines of pilot tests combined with food-product analysis have to be performed.

  14. Photochemical production of singlet oxygen from particulate organic matter.

    PubMed

    Appiani, Elena; McNeill, Kristopher

    2015-03-17

    Dissolved organic matter is established as one of the most relevant photosensitizers in aquatic environments, producing singlet oxygen (1O2) alongside other photochemically produced reactive intermediates. While the production of 1O2 from DOM has been well studied, the relative importance of particulate organic matter (POM) to the overall 1O2 production is less well understood. POM is known to play an important role in pollutant fate through the sorption and transport of hydrophobic pollutants. If POM is directly involved in 1O2 production, sorbed molecules would be expected to undergo enhanced photodegradation. In this work, synthetic POM was prepared by coating silica particles with commercial humic acid. The photochemical behavior of these POM samples was compared to dissolved commercial humic acids (DOM). Suspended natural sediment was also studied to test the environmental relevance of the synthetic POM model. Synthetic POM particles appear to simulate well the 1O2-production of suspended sediment. The 1O2 concentrations experienced by POM-sorbed probe molecules was up to 30% higher than experienced by DOM-sorbed ones, even though the aqueous concentration of 1O2 in irradiated POM suspensions was much lower than the analogous DOM solutions. These results were interpreted with a reaction-diffusion model, which suggested that the production rate of 1O2 by POM is lower than DOM, but the loss of 1O2 from the POM-phase is also lower than DOM. Based on the experimental results of this study, calculations were conducted to estimate the impact of removing POM on 1O2-mediated processes. These calculations indicate that compounds with a log Koc value near 4 will be most affected by removal of POM and that the magnitude of the effect is proportional to the fraction of the total organic matter represented by POM. This study demonstrates that particles can play an important role in the degradation of organic compounds via aquatic photochemistry. PMID:25674663

  15. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Particulate Matter and Dry Deposition Flux in the Cuihu Wetland of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lijuan; Liu, Jiakai; Cong, Ling; Ma, Wenmei; Ma, Wu; Zhang, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization has caused serious environmental pollution, especially particulate pollution. As the "Earth's kidneys," wetland plays a significant role in improving the environmental quality and adjusting the climate. To study how wetlands work in this aspect, from the early autumn of 2014 to 2015, we implemented a study to measure the PM concentration and chemical composition at three heights (1.5, 6, and 10 m) during different periods (dry, normal water, and wet periods) in the Cuihu wetland park in Beijing for analyzing the dry deposition flux and the effect of meteorological factors on the concentration. Results indicated that (1) the diurnal variations of the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the three heights were similar in that the highest concentration occurred at night and the lowest occurred at noon, and the daytime concentration was lower than that at night; (2) the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations also varied between different periods that wet period > normal water period > wet period, and the concentration at different heights during different periods varied. In general, the lowest concentration occurred at 10 m during the dry and normal water periods, and the highest concentration occurred at 1.5 m during the wet period. (3) SO42-, NO3-, and Cl- are the dominant constituents of PM2.5, accounting for 42.22, 12.6, and 21.56%, respectively; (4) the dry depositions of PM2.5 and PM10 at 10 m were higher than those at 6 m, and the deposition during the dry period was higher than those during the wet and normal water periods. In addition, the deposition during the night-time was higher than that during the daytime. Moreover, meteorological factors affected the deposition, the temperature and wind speed being negatively correlated with the deposition flux and the humidity being positively correlated. (5) The PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were influenced by meteorological factors. The PM2.5 and PM10

  16. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Particulate Matter and Dry Deposition Flux in the Cuihu Wetland of Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Ling; Ma, Wenmei; Ma, Wu; Zhang, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization has caused serious environmental pollution, especially particulate pollution. As the “Earth’s kidneys,” wetland plays a significant role in improving the environmental quality and adjusting the climate. To study how wetlands work in this aspect, from the early autumn of 2014 to 2015, we implemented a study to measure the PM concentration and chemical composition at three heights (1.5, 6, and 10 m) during different periods (dry, normal water, and wet periods) in the Cuihu wetland park in Beijing for analyzing the dry deposition flux and the effect of meteorological factors on the concentration. Results indicated that (1) the diurnal variations of the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the three heights were similar in that the highest concentration occurred at night and the lowest occurred at noon, and the daytime concentration was lower than that at night; (2) the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations also varied between different periods that wet period > normal water period > wet period, and the concentration at different heights during different periods varied. In general, the lowest concentration occurred at 10 m during the dry and normal water periods, and the highest concentration occurred at 1.5 m during the wet period. (3) SO42−, NO3−, and Cl− are the dominant constituents of PM2.5, accounting for 42.22, 12.6, and 21.56%, respectively; (4) the dry depositions of PM2.5 and PM10 at 10 m were higher than those at 6 m, and the deposition during the dry period was higher than those during the wet and normal water periods. In addition, the deposition during the night-time was higher than that during the daytime. Moreover, meteorological factors affected the deposition, the temperature and wind speed being negatively correlated with the deposition flux and the humidity being positively correlated. (5) The PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were influenced by meteorological factors. The PM2

  17. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  18. Drying kinetics of syrup of Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa.

    PubMed

    Benhura, Chakare; Kugara, Jameson; Muchuweti, Maud; Nyagura, Stella F; Matarise, Florence; Gombiro, Power E; Nyandoro, George

    2015-08-01

    Drying properties of syrup prepared from Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa prepared from the syrup and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) meal were studied using a convective tray drier at temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C and air velocity of 0.72 m/s. Nine mathematical models namely Henderson and Pabis, Lewis, Midilli et al., Modified Page, Page, Two Term, Weibull, Modified Page Equation (II) and Wang and Singh were fitted to data for thin layer drying of the products using non-linear regression analysis. Thin layer drying processes for the syrup and zvambwa were best described by the Modified Page model. Effective moisture diffusivities for drying of syrup were higher than those for drying of zvambwa. The activation energies for drying of syrup and zvambwa were 21.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol and19.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol respectively. PMID:26243916

  19. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation are not affected by superoptimal concentration of ammonium in flowing solution culture with pH control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While it is known that superoptimal concentrations of the nitrate (NO3-) ion in solution culture do not increase NO3- uptake or dry matter accumulation, the same is not known for the ammonium (NH4+) ion. An experiment was conducted utilizing flowing solution culture with pH control to investigate the influence of superoptimal NH4+ concentrations on dry matter, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) accumulation by nonnodulated soybean plants. Increasing the NH4+ concentration in solution from 1 to 10 mM did not affect dry matter or N accumulation. Accumulations of K, Ca, and Mg were slightly decreased with increased NH4+ concentration. The NH4+ uptake system, which is saturated at less than 1mM NH4+, is able to regulate uptake of NH4+ at concentrations as high as 10 mM.

  20. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Results Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. Conclusions In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could

  1. Ruminal degradability of dry matter, crude protein, and amino acids in soybean meal, canola meal, corn, and wheat dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-08-01

    Different protein sources, such as canola meal (CM) or dried distillers grains (DDG), are currently used in dairy rations to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, little data exists comparing their rumen degradation in a single study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and AA of SBM, CM, high-protein corn DDG (HPDDG), and wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS). In situ studies were conducted with 4 rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows fed a diet containing 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate. Each protein source was incubated in the rumen of each cow in nylon bags for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h to determine DM and CP rumen degradation kinetics, whereas additional bags were also incubated for 16 h to evaluate AA ruminal disappearance. Rumen DM and CP degradability was calculated from rumen-undegraded residues corrected or not for small particle loss. Data were fitted to an exponential model to estimate degradation parameters and effective degradability (ED) was calculated with a passage rate of 0.074 h(-1). The WDDGS and SBM had higher uncorrected ED (DM=75.0 and 72.6%; CP=84.8 and 66.0%, respectively) than CM and HPDDG (DM=57.2 and 55.5%; CP=59.3 and 48.2%, respectively), due to higher soluble fraction in WDDGS and a combination of higher potentially degradable fraction and rate of degradation in SBM. Correction for small particle loss from bags, higher for WDDGS than for the other protein sources, decreased estimated ED but did not alter feed ranking. The ruminal disappearance of AA after 16 h of incubation reflected the overall pattern of CP degradation between protein supplements, but the ruminal disappearance of individual AA differed between protein supplements. Overall, these results indicate that, in the current study, (1) SBM and WDDGS were more degradable in the rumen than CM and HPDDG, and (2) that small particle loss correction is relevant but does not alter this

  2. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  3. A User-Friendly Model for Spray Drying to Aid Pharmaceutical Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  4. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance. PMID:25656208

  5. Influence of management regime and harvest date on the forage quality of rangelands plants: the importance of dry matter content.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Iris; Garnier, Eric; Bastianelli, Denis; Richarte, Jean; Bonnal, Laurent; Kazakou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In spite of their recognized ecological value, relatively little is known about the nutritional value of species-rich rangelands for herbivores. We investigated the sources of variation in dry matter digestibility (DMD), neutral detergent fibre content (NDF) and nitrogen concentration (NC) in plants from species-rich Mediterranean rangelands in southern France, and tested whether the dry matter content (DMC) was a good predictor of the forage quality of different plant parts. Sixteen plant species with contrasting growth forms (rosette, tussock, extensive and stemmed-herb) were studied, representative of two management regimes imposed in these rangelands: (i) fertilization and intensive grazing and (ii) non-fertilization and moderate grazing. Among the 16 plant species, four species were found in both treatments, allowing us to assess the intraspecific variability in forage quality and DMC across the treatments. The components of nutritional value (DMD, NDF and NC) as well as the DMC of leaves, stems and reproductive plant parts, were assessed at the beginning of the growing season and at peak standing biomass. All components of nutritional value and DMC were affected by species growth form: rosettes had higher DMD and NC than tussocks; the reverse being found for NDF and DMC. As the season progressed, DMD and NC of the different plant parts decreased while NDF and DMC increased for all species. DMC was negatively related to DMD and NC and positively to NDF, regardless of the source of variation (species, harvest date, management regime or plant part). Path analysis indicated that NDF was the main determinant of DMD. Better assessment of forage quality in species-rich systems requires consideration of their growth form composition. DMC of all plant parts, which is closely related to NDF, emerged as a good predictor and easily measured trait to estimate DMD in these species-rich systems. PMID:27339049

  6. Influence of management regime and harvest date on the forage quality of rangelands plants: the importance of dry matter content

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Iris; Garnier, Eric; Bastianelli, Denis; Richarte, Jean; Bonnal, Laurent; Kazakou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In spite of their recognized ecological value, relatively little is known about the nutritional value of species-rich rangelands for herbivores. We investigated the sources of variation in dry matter digestibility (DMD), neutral detergent fibre content (NDF) and nitrogen concentration (NC) in plants from species-rich Mediterranean rangelands in southern France, and tested whether the dry matter content (DMC) was a good predictor of the forage quality of different plant parts. Sixteen plant species with contrasting growth forms (rosette, tussock, extensive and stemmed-herb) were studied, representative of two management regimes imposed in these rangelands: (i) fertilization and intensive grazing and (ii) non-fertilization and moderate grazing. Among the 16 plant species, four species were found in both treatments, allowing us to assess the intraspecific variability in forage quality and DMC across the treatments. The components of nutritional value (DMD, NDF and NC) as well as the DMC of leaves, stems and reproductive plant parts, were assessed at the beginning of the growing season and at peak standing biomass. All components of nutritional value and DMC were affected by species growth form: rosettes had higher DMD and NC than tussocks; the reverse being found for NDF and DMC. As the season progressed, DMD and NC of the different plant parts decreased while NDF and DMC increased for all species. DMC was negatively related to DMD and NC and positively to NDF, regardless of the source of variation (species, harvest date, management regime or plant part). Path analysis indicated that NDF was the main determinant of DMD. Better assessment of forage quality in species-rich systems requires consideration of their growth form composition. DMC of all plant parts, which is closely related to NDF, emerged as a good predictor and easily measured trait to estimate DMD in these species-rich systems. PMID:27339049

  7. Cold matter effects and quarkonium production at RHIC and LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Dos Santos, G. S.; Mariotto, C. B.; Goncalves, V. P.

    2013-03-25

    In this work we investigate two cold matter effects in J/{Psi} and {Upsilon} production in nuclear collisions at RHIC and LHC, namely the shadowing effect and nuclear absorption. We characterize these effects by estimating the rapidity dependence of some nuclear ratios in pA and AA collisions at RHIC and LHC, R{sub pA} = d{sigma}{sub pA}(J/{Psi},{Upsilon})/Ad{sigma}{sub pp}(J/{Psi},{Upsilon}) and R{sub AA} = d{sigma}{sub AA}(J/{Psi},{Upsilon})/A{sup 2}d{sigma}{sub pp}(J/{Psi},{Upsilon}).

  8. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  9. Stabilization of Stormwater Biofilters: Impacts of Wetting and Drying Phases and the Addition of Organic Matter to Filter Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, D. N.; Egodawatta, P.; Mather, P.; Rajapakse, J. P.

    2015-09-01

    Ripening period refers to a phase of stabilization in sand filters in water treatment systems that follow a new installation or cleaning of the filter. Intermittent wetting and drying, a unique property of stormwater biofilters, would similarly be subjected to a phase of stabilization. Suspended solids are an important parameter that is often used to monitor the stabilization of sand filters in water treatment systems. Stormwater biofilters, however, contain organic material that is added to the filter layer to enhance nitrate removal, the dynamics of which is seldom analyzed in stabilization of stormwater biofilters. Therefore, in this study of stormwater biofiltration in addition to suspended solids (turbidity), organic matter (TOC, DOC, TN, and TKN) was also monitored as a parameter for stabilization of the stormwater biofilter. One Perspex bioretention column (94 mm internal diameter) was fabricated with filter layer that contained 8 % organic material and fed with tapwater with different antecedent dry days (0-40 day) at 100 mL/min. Samples were collected from the outflow at different time intervals between 2 and 150 min and were tested for total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total Kjeldhal nitrogen, and turbidity. The column was observed to experience two phases of stabilization, one at the beginning of each event that lasted for 30 min, while the other phase was observed across subsequent events that are related to the age of filter.

  10. Stabilization of Stormwater Biofilters: Impacts of Wetting and Drying Phases and the Addition of Organic Matter to Filter Media.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, D N; Egodawatta, P; Mather, P; Rajapakse, J P

    2015-09-01

    Ripening period refers to a phase of stabilization in sand filters in water treatment systems that follow a new installation or cleaning of the filter. Intermittent wetting and drying, a unique property of stormwater biofilters, would similarly be subjected to a phase of stabilization. Suspended solids are an important parameter that is often used to monitor the stabilization of sand filters in water treatment systems. Stormwater biofilters, however, contain organic material that is added to the filter layer to enhance nitrate removal, the dynamics of which is seldom analyzed in stabilization of stormwater biofilters. Therefore, in this study of stormwater biofiltration in addition to suspended solids (turbidity), organic matter (TOC, DOC, TN, and TKN) was also monitored as a parameter for stabilization of the stormwater biofilter. One Perspex bioretention column (94 mm internal diameter) was fabricated with filter layer that contained 8 % organic material and fed with tapwater with different antecedent dry days (0-40 day) at 100 mL/min. Samples were collected from the outflow at different time intervals between 2 and 150 min and were tested for total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total Kjeldhal nitrogen, and turbidity. The column was observed to experience two phases of stabilization, one at the beginning of each event that lasted for 30 min, while the other phase was observed across subsequent events that are related to the age of filter. PMID:25971737

  11. Prospect inversion for indirect estimation of leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.-K.; Duren, I.-V.; Heiden, U.; Heurich, M.

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of vegetation properties plays an indispensable role in assessments of ecosystem function with leaf dry mater content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA) being two important vegetation properties. Methods for fast, reliable and accurate measurement of LDMC and SLA are still lacking. In this study, the inversion of the PROSPECT radiative transfer model was used to estimate these two leaf parameters. Inversion of PROSPECT traditionally aims at quantifying its direct input parameters rather than identifying the parameters which can be derived indirectly from the input parameters. The technique has been tested here to indirectly model these parameters for the first time. Biophysical parameters such as leaf area, as well as fresh and dry weights of 137 leaf samples were measured during a field campaign in July 2013 in the mixed mountain forests of the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Reflectance and transmittance of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD field spec III equipped with an integrating sphere. The PROSPECT model was inverted using a look-up table (LUT) approach for the NIR/SWIR region of the spectrum. The retrieved parameters were evaluated using their calculated R2 and normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) values with the field measurements. Among the retrieved variables the lowest nRMSE (0.0899) was observed for LDMC. For both traits higher R2 values (0.83 for LDMC and 0.89 for SLA) were discovered. The results indicate that the leaf traits studied can be quantified as accurately as the direct input parameters of PROSPECT. The strong correlation between the estimated traits and the NIR/SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum suggests that these leaf traits could be assessed at canopy and in the landscape by using hyperspectral remote sensing data.

  12. Factors in pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham: a review.

    PubMed

    Candek-Potokar, M; Skrlep, M

    2012-02-01

    This study reviews the factors of pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham. When processing is standardized, the quality of the final dry-cured product is primarily determined by the quality of the meat before curing (green ham). This has been defined as the aptitude for seasoning and is determined by the green ham weight, adipose tissue quantity and quality, meat physico-chemical properties and the absence of visual defects. Various ante-mortem factors including pig age and weight, genetic type, diet, feeding strategy and slaughter conditions determine green ham properties such as the dynamics of water loss, salt intake and, as a consequence, proteolysis and lipolysis. Muscle conditions (pH, salt concentration, water content and availability, temperature) influence enzymatic activity and development of characteristic texture and flavor. Generally, hams of older and heavier pigs present better seasoning aptitude because of higher adiposity. Adiposity is also positively correlated with fat saturation, which is desired to avoid rancidity and oiliness. The fatty acid profile of tissue lipids can be manipulated by diet composition. Feeding strategy affects tissue accretion and protein turnover, thus directly impacting proteolysis. With respect to the impact of pig genotype on dry-cured ham quality, local breeds are generally considered more suitable for producing quality dry hams; however, the majority of dry-cured hams on the market today are from modern pig breeds raised in conventional systems, providing lean hams. The importance of all these factors of pig production is discussed and synthesized, with an emphasis on the main difficulties encountered in dry-cured ham production. PMID:22436192

  13. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  14. Evaluation of biogas production by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass-animal manure mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application without adverse environmental effects. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion (> 15% TS; total solid) has an advantage ov...

  15. Finite Element Method (FEM) Modeling of Freeze-drying: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Product Robustness During Lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Sadineni, Vikram; Maity, Mita; Quan, Yong; Enterline, Matthew; Mantri, Rao V

    2015-12-01

    Lyophilization is an approach commonly undertaken to formulate drugs that are unstable to be commercialized as ready to use (RTU) solutions. One of the important aspects of commercializing a lyophilized product is to transfer the process parameters that are developed in lab scale lyophilizer to commercial scale without a loss in product quality. This process is often accomplished by costly engineering runs or through an iterative process at the commercial scale. Here, we are highlighting a combination of computational and experimental approach to predict commercial process parameters for the primary drying phase of lyophilization. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are determined experimentally either by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) or sublimation tests and used as inputs for the finite element model (FEM)-based software called PASSAGE, which computes various primary drying parameters such as primary drying time and product temperature. The heat and mass transfer coefficients will vary at different lyophilization scales; hence, we present an approach to use appropriate factors while scaling-up from lab scale to commercial scale. As a result, one can predict commercial scale primary drying time based on these parameters. Additionally, the model-based approach presented in this study provides a process to monitor pharmaceutical product robustness and accidental process deviations during Lyophilization to support commercial supply chain continuity. The approach presented here provides a robust lyophilization scale-up strategy; and because of the simple and minimalistic approach, it will also be less capital intensive path with minimal use of expensive drug substance/active material. PMID:25791415

  16. Enzymatic method for measuring starch gelatinization in dry products in situ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enzymatic method based on hydrolysis of starch by amyloglucosidase and measurement of D-glucose released by glucose oxidase-peroxidase was developed to measure both gelatinized starch and hydrolyzable starch in situ of dried starchy products. Efforts focused on the development of sample handling ...

  17. Production casing for hot dry rock wells EE-2 and EE-3

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, D.M.; Pettitt, R.; Sims, J.

    1982-10-01

    The production casing for a pair of hot dry rock (HDR) energy extraction wells had to be designed for unique conditions. Two hot dry rock wells (EE-2 and EE-3) were drilled and production casing installed at Fenton Hill, NM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory HDR program. The design of the production casing and subsequent completion operations in these wells revealed that thermal cycling, anticipated operating pressures, and wear during downhole operations are major considerations for both casing specifications and installation procedures. The first well (Energy Extraction No. 2; EE-2) is intended to be the injection well and EE-3 the production well. The top joint strain in EE-3 was monitored during installation, cementing and tensioning.

  18. Production casing for hot-dry-rock wells EE-2 and EE-3

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, R.W.; Pettitt, R.; Sims, J.

    1982-01-01

    The production casing for a pair of hot dry rock (HDR) energy extraction wells had to be designed for unique conditions. Two hot dry rock wells (EE-2 and EE-3) were drilled and production casing installed at Fenton Hill, NM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory HDR program. The design of the production casing and subsequent completion operations in these wells revealed that thermal cycling, anticipated operating pressures, and wear during downhole operations are major considerations for both casing specifications and installation procedures. The first well (Energy Extraction No. 2; EE-2) is intended to be the injection well and EE-3 the production well. The top joint strain in EE-3 was monitored during installation, cementing and tensioning.

  19. Universal Parametrization of Thermal Photon Production in Hadronic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffernan, Matthew; Hohler, Paul; Rapp, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    As the production of photons and dileptons from high-energy collisions is able to provide information on the high temperature and high density phases of nuclear matter, an improved and universal parametrization of the rather involved microscopic calculations is key to honing the theory behind this production. We focus on photon emission rates from hadronic many-body calculations of the in-medium rho spectral function, which includes the effects of baryons and antibaryons. Across a range of temperatures from 0.1 to 0.18 GeV and baryon chemical potentials from 0 to 0.4 GeV, a parametrization of thermal photon rates for energies from 0.2 to 5 GeV is numerically determined through the use of nested fitting methods. This provides a fully functional description of thermal photon production largely within an unprecedented 20% of the calculated values from the spectral function, a significant reduction in error from available parametrizations. The contribution of photons and dileptons from pion-pion bremsstrahlung is evaluated for the importance of its contribution. The functional form, coupled with the comparison to the bremsstrahlung production of thermal photons, will provide a baseline for guiding future studies. As the production of photons and dileptons from high-energy collisions is able to provide information on the high temperature and high density phases of nuclear matter, an improved and universal parametrization of the rather involved microscopic calculations is key to honing the theory behind this production. We focus on photon emission rates from hadronic many-body calculations of the in-medium rho spectral function, which includes the effects of baryons and antibaryons. Across a range of temperatures from 0.1 to 0.18 GeV and baryon chemical potentials from 0 to 0.4 GeV, a parametrization of thermal photon rates for energies from 0.2 to 5 GeV is numerically determined through the use of nested fitting methods. This provides a fully functional description of

  20. Combination of decentralized waste drying and SSF techniques for household biowaste minimization and ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, A; Vourka, I; Erotokritou, A; Novakovic, J; Panaretou, V; Vakalis, S; Thanos, T; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D

    2016-06-01

    The results of the demonstration of an innovative household biowaste management and treatment scheme established in two Greek Municipalities for the production of lignocellulosic ethanol using dehydrated household biowaste as a substrate, are presented within this research. This is the first time that biowaste drying was tested at a decentralized level for the production of ethanol using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process, at a pilot scale in Greece. The decentralized biowaste drying method proved that the household biowaste mass and volume reduction may reach 80% through the dehydration process used. The chemical characteristics related to lignocellulosic ethanol production have proved to differ substantially between seasons thus; special attention should be given to the process applied for ethanol production mainly regarding the enzyme quality and quantity used during the pretreatment stage. The maximum ethanol production achieved was 29.12g/L, approximately 60% of the maximum theoretical yield based on the substrate's sugar content. The use of the decentralized waste drying as an alternative approach for household biowaste minimization and the production of second generation ethanol is considered to be a promising approach for efficient biowaste management and treatment in the future. PMID:27084105

  1. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, P.; Yan, Hui; Banerjee, S.

    1997-10-01

    This progress report summarizes three accomplishments in a study of low volatile organic compound (VOC) drying of lumber and wood panel products. A mathematical model for predicting moisture emissions from particle was constructed and is being extended to VOCs. VOCs emissions from drying boards show that VOCs appear to be evenly released from all surfaces. Preliminary results from monthly analyses of loblolly pines indicate that resin acids appear to decrease between March to August, and that no consistent trends are apparent for terpenes. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Comparison of experimental data with results of some drying models for regularly shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydın, Orhan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying of moist slab, cylinder and spherical products to study dimensionless moisture content distributions and their comparisons. Experimental study includes the measurement of the moisture content distributions of slab and cylindrical carrot, slab and cylindrical pumpkin and spherical blueberry during drying at various temperatures (e.g., 30, 40, 50 and 60°C) at specific constant velocity ( U = 1 m/s) and the relative humidity φ = 30%. In theoretical analysis, two moisture transfer models are used to determine drying process parameters (e.g., drying coefficient and lag factor) and moisture transfer parameters (e.g., moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient), and to calculate the dimensionless moisture content distributions. The calculated results are then compared with the experimental moisture data. A considerably high agreement is obtained between the calculations and experimental measurements for the cases considered. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated between 0.741 × 10-5 and 5.981 × 10-5 m2/h for slab products, 0.818 × 10-5 and 6.287 × 10-5 m2/h for cylindrical products and 1.213 × 10-7 and 7.589 × 10-7 m2/h spherical products using the Model-I and 0.316 × 10-5-5.072 × 10-5 m2/h for slab products, 0.580 × 10-5-9.587 × 10-5 m2/h for cylindrical products and 1.408 × 10-7-13.913 × 10-7 m2/h spherical products using the Model-II.

  3. Use of modified cages attached to growing calves to measure the effect of stable flies on dry matter intake and digestibility, and defensive movements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of stable flies on growing calves was examined using modified fly cages attached to the animals. Dry matter intake and digestibility as well as behavioral responses of the animals were monitored. Nine Holstein calves, individually housed in 3 x 3 m pens, were exposed to three levels of st...

  4. In-situ Ruminal Protein, Fiber, and Dry Matter Degradability of Legume Silages and Hays as Influenced by Protein-binding Polyphenols and Conditioning Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditioning and conservation methods may alter polyphenol binding in forage legumes and the degradability of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and dry matter (DM) in the rumen. In this study, alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil with 6 or 15 g/kg condensed tannins (CT), and red clover with ~1...

  5. The effect of Dry matter content on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus processing waste (CPW) is an attractive feedstock for making fuel ethanol. In order to make ethanol production from citrus waste economically viable, it is desirable to obtain a high ethanol yield and concentration with a small amount of enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effects of ...

  6. Describing dry matter intake and growth patterns in beef steers during the finishing period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed intake is central to animal production systems, as it impacts efficiency and represents a substantial fraction of the total costs. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency in Angus crossbred steers during finishing on a total mixed diet; and...

  7. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, Ariëtte T M; van der Drift, Saskia G A; Cermáková, Jana; Kemp, Bas

    2013-12-01

    A dry period of 6-8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the weeks before calving. This shift in milk production could improve the energy balance (EB), health and fertility of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to systematically review the current knowledge on dry period length in relation to milk production, EB, fertility, and health of cows and calves. A meta-analysis was performed for variables where at least five studies were available. Overall, both shortening and omitting the dry period reduces milk production, increases milk protein percentage and tends to reduce the risk of ketosis in the next lactation. Individual studies reported an improvement of EB after a short or no dry period, compared with a conventional dry period. Shortening or omitting the dry period did not affect milk fat percentage and shortening the dry period did not alter the odds ratio for mastitis, metritis, or fertility measures in the next lactation. So, current evidence for an improvement of health and fertility of dairy cows is marginal and may be partly explained by the limited number of studies which have evaluated health and fertility in relation to dry period length, the limited number of animals in those studies and the variable responses reported. PMID:24238794

  8. Controls on the distribution of productivity and organic resources in Antarctic Dry Valley soils

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, D.W; Sparrow, A.D; Novis, P.M; Gregorich, E.G; Elberling, B; Greenfield, L.G

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are regarded as one of the harshest terrestrial habitats on Earth because of the extremely cold and dry conditions. Despite the extreme environment and scarcity of conspicuous primary producers, the soils contain organic carbon and heterotrophic micro-organisms and invertebrates. Potential sources of organic compounds to sustain soil organisms include in situ primary production by micro-organisms and mosses, spatial subsidies from lacustrine and marine-derived detritus, and temporal subsidies (‘legacies’) from ancient lake deposits. The contributions from these sources at different sites are likely to be influenced by local environmental conditions, especially soil moisture content, position in the landscape in relation to lake level oscillations and legacies from previous geomorphic processes. Here we review the abiotic factors that influence biological activity in Dry Valley soils and present a conceptual model that summarizes mechanisms leading to organic resources therein. PMID:17015369

  9. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Price, Neil Pj

    2013-01-01

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune were examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan from agricultural biomass. Strains were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1% (w/v) distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by the dry grind process. Ten of 11 strains tested produced more than 2 g schizophyllan/L. Two strains, ATCC 20165 and CBS 266.60, produced more than 10 g schizophyllan/L. Schizophyllan from these strains was similar to commercial product in terms of solution viscosity, molecular weight, and surface tension properties, suggesting that they would be equivalent in biomaterial applications. PMID:24102042

  10. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established. PMID:26686009

  11. [Effects of ozone pollution on the accumulation and distribution of dry matter and biomass carbon of different varieties of wheat].

    PubMed

    Kou, Tai-ji; Yu, Wei-wei; Zhu, Jian-guo; Zhu, Xin-kai

    2012-08-01

    Effects of surface ozone pollution on the terrestrial ecosystem and plant growth have drawn great attention. With the support of the free-air ozone concentration enrichment (O3-FACE) system located in Jiangdu City, Jiangsu Province, the effects of elevated atmospheric ozone (pO3) on the accumulation and distribution of dry matter and biomass carbon as well as the C/N ratio of crop residue of five wheat (Tritcium aestivum L.) varieties (Yangmai 15, Yangmai 16, Yannong 19, Yangfumai 2 and Jiaxing 002) were investigated in the Yangtze River delta, the target pO3 of which was 50% higher than the ambient pO3. The results showed that the accumulation and distribution of different wheat varieties responded differently to elevated pO3. Elevated pO3 decreased the biomass of Yangmai 15 and Jiaxing 002, increased the Yangfumai 2 biomass, and had no effects on the total biomass of Yangmai 16 and Yannog 19, among which a significant difference was found for Jiaxing 002. Elevated pO3 significantly increased the ratios of root to shoot for Yangmai 15 and Jiaxing 002 and significantly decreased the root/shoot ratios of Yannong 19 and Yangfumai 2, but had no effect on Yangmai 16, leading to an obvious difference in dry matter distributed among aboveground and belowground parts. O3 enrichment decreased the wheatear weight of Yangmai 15, Yangmai 16 and Jiaxing 002, and had no effect on that of Yannong 19 and Yangfumai 2. Elevated pO3 significantly decreased the proportion of grain weight to ear weight by 8.2%-15.5% for Jiaxing 002, Yannong 19 and Yangfumai 2, whereas the proportion was increased for Yangmai 15 and not affected for Yangmai 16, suggesting that O3 enrichment lead to different decreases in the yield of Jiaxing 002, Yannong 19, Yangfumai 2 and Yangmai 16. Elevated pO3 significantly increased the straw carbon of Yannong 19 and Yanfumai 2 by 14.1%-22.9% and significantly decreased the straw C/N ratio by 10.9%-29.1%. The rising pO3 significantly decreased the straw carbon of

  12. Studies on mycorrhizal inoculation on dry matter yield and root colonization of some medicinal plants grown in stress and forest soils.

    PubMed

    Chandra, K K; Kumar, Neeraj; Chand, Gireesh

    2010-11-01

    Five medicinal plants viz. Abelmoschatus moschatus Linn., Clitoria tematea L., Plumbagozeylanica L., Psorolea corylifolia L. and Withania sominifera L. were grown in a polypot experiment in five soils representing coal mine soil, coppermine soil, fly ash, skeletal soil and forest soil with and without mycorrhizal inoculations in a completely randomized block design. Dry matter yield and mycorrhizal root colonization of plants varied both in uninoculated and inoculated conditions. The forest soil rendered highest dry matter due to higher yield of A. moschatus, P. zeylanica and P corylifolia while fly ash showed lowest dry matter without any inoculants. P. cematea were best in coalmine soil and W. sominifera in copper mine soil without mycorrhizal inoculation. The mycorrhiza was found to enhance the dry matter yield. This contributed minimum 0.19% to maximum up to 422.0% in different soils as compared to uninoculated plants. The mycorrhizal dependency was noticed maximum in plants grown in fly ash followed by coal mine soil, copper mine soil, skeletal soil and forest soil. The mycorrhizal response was increased maximum in W. sominifera due to survival in fly ash after inoculation followed by P corylifolia and P cematea. Percent root colonization in inoculated plant was increased minimum of 1.10 fold to maximum of 12.0 folds in comparison to un-inoculated plants . The native mycorrhiza fungi were also observed to colonize 4.0 to 32.0% roots in plants understudy. This study suggests that mycorrhizal inoculation increased the dry matter yield of medicinal plants in all soils under study. It also helps in survival of W. sominifera in fly ash. PMID:21506485

  13. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. I - Generation of gases and condensates under dry condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments conducted at 200 and 300 C on kerogen and bitumen from the Monterey formation and on the Green River Formation kerogen with montmorillonite, illite, and calcite added are described. The pyrolysis products are identified and gas and condensate analyses are performed. A catalytic effect is detected in the pyrolysis of kerogen with montmorillonite; however, illite and calcite display no catalytic activity. The increased production of C1-C6 hydrocarbons and the dominance of branched hydrocarbons in the C4-C6 range reveals a catalytic influence. It is observed that the catalysis of montmorillonite is greater during bitumen pyrolysis than for kerogen, and catalysis with minerals affects the production of CO2. It is concluded that a mineral matrix is important in determining the type and amount of gases and condensates forming from organic matter under thermal stress.

  14. Immersion and dry ArF scanners enabling 22nm HP production and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Yusaku; Ishikawa, Jun; Kohno, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Eiichiro; Ohba, Masanori; Shibazaki, Yuichi

    2012-03-01

    Pattern shrinks using multiple patterning techniques will continue to the 22nm half pitch (HP) node and beyond. The cutting-edge Nikon NSR-S621D immersion lithography tool, which builds upon the technology advancements of the NSR-S620D [1], was developed to satisfy the aggressive requirements for the 22 nm HP node and subsequent generations. The key design challenge for the S621D was to deliver further improvements to product overlay performance and CD uniformity, while also providing increased productivity. Since many different products are made within an IC manufacturing facility, various wafer process-related issues, including the flatness or grid distortion of the processed wafers and exposure-induced heating had to be addressed. Upgrades and enhancements were made to the S620D hardware and software systems to enable the S621D to minimize these process-related effects and deliver the necessary scanner performance. To enable continued process technology advancements, in addition to pattern shrinks at the most critical layers, resolution for less critical layers must also be improved proportionally. As a result, increased demand for dry ArF instead of KrF scanners is expected for less critical layers, and dry ArF tools are already being employed for some of these applications. Further, multiple patterning techniques, such as sidewall double patterning, actually enable use of dry ArF instead of immersion scanners for some critical layers having relaxed pattern resolution requirements. However, in order for this to be successful, the ArF dry tool must deliver overlay performance that is comparable to the latest generation immersion systems. Understanding these factors, an ArF dry scanner that has excellent overlay performance could be used effectively for critical layers and markedly improve cost of ownership (CoO). Therefore, Nikon has developed the NSR-S320F, a new dry ArF scanner also built upon the proven S620D Streamlign platform. By incorporating the

  15. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M. Cata

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure during anaerobic digestion. The inclusion of 30% DDGS in the cow diet caused a significant increase of 14% in daily bioenergy production (NL methane day−1·cow−1). abstract The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet. PMID:26479885

  16. Changes in oil content, fatty acid composition, and functional lipid profiles during dry grind ethanol production from corn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for alternatives to fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic increase in ethanol production from corn. The dry grind method has been the major process, resulting in a large volume of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a co-product. This presentation reports our study to monitor ...

  17. Ultrasonic characterization of the fat source and composition of formulated dry-cured meat products.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Edith Corona; García-Pérez, Jose Vicente; Canillas, Sonia Ventanas; Fort, Jose Javier Benedito

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to test the feasibility of using ultrasonic measurements to estimate the fat content and identify the fat sources used in formulated dry-cured pork meat products. For that purpose, dry-cured sausages were prepared using different fat sources (two Iberian pork backfats, Iberian lard, and sunflower oil) and contents (fat content from 3% to 17% wet basis) and characterized by measuring the ultrasonic velocity (at 2 degrees C, 6 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 25 degrees C), fatty acid profile, thermal behavior, and composition. The fatty acid composition affected the melting behavior of the sausages, which also involved different ultrasonic velocities, depending on the fat source used for the sausage formulation. Significant (p < 0.05) linear relationships were established between the ultrasonic velocity and the percentage of melted fat, by means of which the sausage batches were differentiated according to the fat source used. The ultrasonic velocity temperature dependence allowed the determination of the fat content (explained variance 96.1%) by measuring the ultrasonic velocity in the dry-cured sausages at 2 degrees C and 25 degrees C and using a semi-empirical equation. Therefore, the ultrasonic measurements could be considered as a reliable tool for the characterization and differentiation of formulated dry-cured meat products with different fat sources and contents. PMID:23751543

  18. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit; Boerner, James Robert; Su, Wei

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  19. Efficiency of Resource-use and Marginal Productivities in Dry Season Amaranth Production in Edo South, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emokaro, C. O.; Ekunwe, P. A.

    The objective of the study was to determine whether the resources employed in the production process were efficiently utilized. The primary data used in the study were gathered with the help of a well structured questionnaire, administered through the cost-route method of data collection. The simple random sampling technique was adopted after the study area had been stratified into regions where dry season amaranth production is carried out. The underlying analytical techniques employed were multiple regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The result showed that dry season amaranth producers in Edo South are smallholder farmers, predominantly males, with mean farm sizes ranging between 0.046, 0.067 and 0.093 hectare. It was also shown in the study that none of the resources employed in the production process was efficiently utilized. While land and fertilizer were underutilized (with efficiency estimate of 5.57 and 1.78, respectively), labour was shown to be over-utilized (with an efficiency estimate of 0.27). The immediate implication of these findings is that there is enough potential for increased production of amaranth, especially in the dry season when amaranth is known to be scarce. This can be actualized by the cropping of larger hectares, regulated usage of higher quantities of fertilizers and the provision of labour saving machines like water pumps and irrigation devices, which would help reduce labour requirements and enhance efficiency. This would go a long way in addressing the serious nutritional deficiencies in the diets of the average Nigerian.

  20. Factors affecting ethylene and carbon dioxide concentrations during ripening: Incidence on final dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity of mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Ripening of climacteric fruits is associated with pronounced changes in fruit gas composition caused by a concomitant rise in respiration and ethylene production. There is a discrepancy in the literature since some authors reported that changes in fruit gas compositions differ in attached and detached fruits. This study presents for the first time an overview of pre- and post-harvest factors that lead to variations in the climacteric respiration and ethylene production, and attempts to determine their impacts on fruit composition, i.e., dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity. The impact of growing conditions such as the fruit position in the canopy and the fruit carbon supply; fruit detachment from the tree, including the maturity stage at harvest; and storage conditions after harvest, i.e., relative humidity and temperature were considered as well as changes in fruit skin resistance to gas diffusion during fruit growth and storage. Results showed that fruit gas composition vary with all pre and post-harvest factors studied. Although all mangoes underwent a respiratory climacteric and an autocatalytic ethylene production, whatever pre and post-harvest factors studied, large differences in ethylene production, climacteric respiration and fruit quality were measured. Results suggested that the ripening capacity is not related to the fruit ability to produce great amount of ethylene. In agreement with precedent studies, this work provided several lines of evidence that gas composition of fruit is related to its water balance. Our measurements indicated that skin resistance to gas diffusion increased after the harvest and during storage. It was so suggested that the faster ripening of detached fruit may be explained in part by changes in fruit water balance and skin resistance to gas diffusion caused by fruit detachment. PMID:27085177

  1. Stability and genotype by environment interaction of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert Sezi; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-01-01

    Efforts are underway to develop staple crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which has afflicted the health of resource-poor people in the developing world. As a staple crop for more than 500 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, cassava enriched with provitamin A carotenoids could have a widespread nutritional impact. To this effect, 13 provitamin A clones were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in six environments to assess genotype by environment interaction (GEI) effects for total carotenoid (TCC) and dry matter content (DMC) in roots. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis showed significant variation among genotypes for TCC, DMC, fresh root weight and harvest index. Environmental effects were non-significant for TCC, but GEI effects were significantly large for all traits measured. There were significant temporal increments for all traits measured within 12 months after planting. TCC correlated negatively with DMC, illustrating an important challenge to overcome when developing provitamin A cassava varieties without compromising DMC, which is a major farmer-preference trait. Nonetheless, best performing genotypes were identified for TCC, DMC and FRW, and these could constitute genetic resources for advancement or developing breeding populations through hybridization. PMID:27436954

  2. Nitrogen and dry-matter partitioning in soybean plants during onset of and recovery from nitrogen stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that resupplying nitrogen after a period of nitrogen stress leads to restoration of the balance between root and shoot growth and normal functional activity. Nonnodulated soybean plants were grown hydroponically for 14 days with 1.0 mM NO3- in a complete nutrient solution. One set of plants was continued on the complete nutrient solution for 25 days; a second set was given 0.0 mM NO3- for 25 days; and the third set was given 0.0 mM NO3- for 10 days followed by transfer to the complete solution with 1.0 mM NO3- for 15 days. In continuously nitrogen-stressed plants, emergence and expansion of main-stem and branch leaves were severely inhibited as low nitrogen content limited further growth. This was followed by a shift in partitioning of dry matter from the leaves to the roots, resulting in an initial stimulation of root growth and a decreased shoot:root ratio. Reduced nitrogen also was redistributed from the leaves into the stem and roots. When nitrogen stress was relieved, leaf initiation and expansion were renewed. With the restoration of the balance between root and shoot function, the shoot:root ratio and distribution of reduced nitrogen within the plant organs returned to levels similar to those of nonstressed plants.

  3. Investigation of major gene for milk yield, milking speed, dry matter intake, and body weight in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Karacaören, Burak; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Janss, Luc L G

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine if there exist any major gene for milk yield (MY), milking speed (MS), dry matter intake (DMI), and body weight (BW) recorded at various stages of lactation in first-lactation dairy cows (2543 observations from 320 cows) kept at the research farm of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology between April 1994 and April 2004. Data were modelled based a simple repeatability covariance structure and analysed by using Bayesian segregation analyses. Gibbs sampling was used to make statistical inferences on posterior distributions; inferences were based on a single run of the Markov chain for each trait with 500,000 samples, with each 10th sample collected because of the high correlation among the samples. The posterior mean (+/-SD) of major gene variance was 2.61 (+/-2.46) for MY, 0.83 (+/-1.26) for MS, 4.37 (+/-2.34) for DMI, and 2056.43 (+/-665.67) for BW. Highest posterior density regions for 3 of the 4 traits did not include 0 (except MS), which supported the evidence for major gene. With additional tests for agreement with Mendelian transmission probabilities, we could only confirm the existence of a major gene for MY, but not for MS, DMI, and BW. Expected Mendelian transmission probabilities and their model fits were also compared. PMID:17132898

  4. Stability and genotype by environment interaction of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert Sezi; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-06-01

    Efforts are underway to develop staple crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which has afflicted the health of resource-poor people in the developing world. As a staple crop for more than 500 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, cassava enriched with provitamin A carotenoids could have a widespread nutritional impact. To this effect, 13 provitamin A clones were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in six environments to assess genotype by environment interaction (GEI) effects for total carotenoid (TCC) and dry matter content (DMC) in roots. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis showed significant variation among genotypes for TCC, DMC, fresh root weight and harvest index. Environmental effects were non-significant for TCC, but GEI effects were significantly large for all traits measured. There were significant temporal increments for all traits measured within 12 months after planting. TCC correlated negatively with DMC, illustrating an important challenge to overcome when developing provitamin A cassava varieties without compromising DMC, which is a major farmer-preference trait. Nonetheless, best performing genotypes were identified for TCC, DMC and FRW, and these could constitute genetic resources for advancement or developing breeding populations through hybridization. PMID:27436954

  5. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Polania, Jose A.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  6. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance.

    PubMed

    Polania, Jose A; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  7. Integrating Fasciolosis Control in the Dry Cow Management: The Effect of Closantel Treatment on Milk Production

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Johannes; Hostens, Miel; Jacobs, Jos; Van Ranst, Bonny; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals) exposed to F. hepatica to 1) assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80–42 days before calving in first-calving heifers) on milk production parameters and 2) evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3–6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg) and a slightly higher persistence (9%) of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3–0.5 optical density ratio (ODR)), but not a very high (≥0.5 ODR) F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters. PMID:22916226

  8. Reducing drying/preheat cycle time to increase pellet production at the BHP Whyalla Pellet Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, C.S.; Reynolds, G.; Haines, B.

    1997-12-31

    The feasibility of changing the Whyalla Pellet Plant drying/preheat pattern to reduce the cycle time without causing extra spalling of the preheated balls was investigated using both plant and laboratory produced green balls in the BHP Research pot grate facility. It was found that the results were consistent for both plant and laboratory produced balls in that for the pellet production at 5,000t/d, spalling of the preheated balls was mainly caused by the remaining bound water in the balls. Removing the bound water resulted in a dramatic reduction in spalling. At the plant, the balls were dried at less than 350 C for less than 6 min, which was insufficient heat to drive off all the bound water. The balls then entered the preheat furnace at over 1,000 C. The bound water rapidly vaporized causing the balls to spall. Introducing a dehydration step would involve recouping air from the cooler at 600 C and directing this hot air to the hotter end of the drying furnace to remove most of the bound water. For increased pellet production at 5,800t/d, it was found that an extended dehydration (1/3 drying, 2/3 dehydration) step in the shorter drying/preheat cycle under a higher suction was necessary to have minimum spalling. Implementing this finding required mass and energy balance, a task undertaken by Robert Cnare of Davy John Brown, to allow recommendations to be made for an optimum configuration for plant modifications.

  9. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1998-03-01

    The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. A three-phase study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate high-volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products as alternates to landfilling. Phase 1 characterized the chemical, physical, mineralogical, and engineering properties of FGD by-products from 13 coal-fired boilers, and provided a preliminary evaluation of the economic feasibility of various FGD by-product applications. This report covers Phase 2 of the study, which included (1) laboratory and greenhouse studies to evaluate the use of dry FGD by-products as a soil conditioning amendment for acidic minespoils and agricultural soils, (2) field studies to test several high-volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) development and preliminary application of a basic methodological framework for estimation of the economic costs and benefits to society of various beneficial reuse options.

  10. Effect of Lactobacillus mucosae on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Dried Brewers Grain, Methane Production and Bacterial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Alvin P.; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Choi, Yeon Jae; Jeong, Chang Dae; Bae, Gui Seck; Chang, Moon Baek; Lee, S. Suk

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Lactobacillus mucosae (L. mucosae), a potential direct fed microbial previously isolated from the rumen of Korean native goat, on the rumen fermentation profile of brewers grain were evaluated. Fermentation was conducted in serum bottles each containing 1% dry matter (DM) of the test substrate and either no L. mucosae (control), 1% 24 h broth culture of L. mucosae (T1), or 1% inoculation with the cell-free culture supernatant (T2). Each serum bottle was filled anaerobically with 100 mL of buffered rumen fluid and sealed prior to incubation for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h from which fermentation parameters were monitored and the microbial diversity was evaluated. The results revealed that T1 had higher total gas production (65.00 mL) than the control (61.33 mL) and T2 (62.00 mL) (p<0.05) at 48 h. Consequently, T1 had significantly lower pH values (p<0.05) than the other groups at 48 h. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and acetate:propionate ratio were higher in T1 and T2 than the control, but T1 and T2 were comparable for these parameters. Total methane (CH4) production and carbon dioxide (CO2) were highest in T1. The percent DM and organic matter digestibilities were comparable between all groups at all times of incubation. The total bacterial population was significantly higher in T1 (p<0.05) at 24 h, but then decreased to levels comparable to the control and T2 at 48 h. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile of the total bacterial 16s rRNA showed higher similarity between T1 and T2 at 24 h and between the control and T1 at 48 h. Overall, these results suggest that addition of L. mucosae and cell-free supernatant during the in vitro fermentation of dried brewers grain increases the VFA production, but has no effect on digestibility. The addition of L. mucosae can also increase the total bacterial population, but has no significant effect on the total microbial diversity. However

  11. Critical processing parameters of carbon dioxide spray drying for the production of dried protein formulations: A study with myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Nuchuchua, O; Every, H A; Jiskoot, W

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to gain fundamental insight into protein destabilization induced by supercritical CO2 spray drying processing parameters. Myoglobin was used as a model protein (5mg/ml with 50mg/ml trehalose in 10mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.2). The solution was exposed to sub- and supercritical CO2 conditions (65-130bar and 25-50°C), and CO2 spray drying under those conditions. The heme binding of myoglobin was determined by UV/Vis, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, while myoglobin aggregation was studied by using size-exclusion chromatography and flow imaging microscopy. It was found that pressure and temperature alone did not influence myoglobin's integrity. However, when pressurized CO2 was introduced into myoglobin solutions at any condition, the pH of the myoglobin formulation shifted to about 5 (measured after depressurization), resulting in heme binding destabilization and aggregation of myoglobin. When exposed to CO2, these degradation processes were enhanced by increasing temperature. Heme binding destabilization and myoglobin aggregation were also seen after CO2 spray drying, and to a greater extent. Moreover, the CO2 spray drying induced the partial loss of heme. In conclusion, pressurized CO2 destabilizes the myoglobin, leading to heme loss and protein aggregation upon spray drying. PMID:27080205

  12. Improvements in the production of Yb:YAG transparent ceramic materials: Spray drying optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serantoni, Marina; Piancastelli, Andreana; Costa, Anna Luisa; Esposito, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Spray drying parameters have been optimized for the preparation of granulated stoichiometric mixture of oxides. These oxides are used in the production of Yb:YAG laser grade ceramic materials by reactive sintering. The selected compositions were Yb0.294Y2.706Al5O12 and Yb0.03Y2.97Al5O12, i.e. YAG doped with 9.8 and 1.0 at% of Yb with respect to the overall Y + Yb amount. The influence of solid content, drying medium flux, temperature and aspiration rate of the spray drying process on the transparency of the sintered materials has been evaluated. Sintering was conducted under high vacuum and clean atmosphere in the temperature range of 1650-1735 °C and with a soaking time of 16 h. SEM analysis of the microstructure of granulated powders and sintered materials, as well as the transmittance measurement, were used as tools to guide the selection of the best spray drying parameters.

  13. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI < 0.00) or positive (POS; RFI > 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P < 0.01; 6.4 and 5.5 ± 0.16) for the HEV compared with LIT BW cows. No RFI by day interaction or RFI group main effect occurred for endocrine markers during LACT; however, a negative relationship (P = 0.04) existed between BW group and combined T3 data, and a positive relationship (P = 0.04) existed between RFI and combined insulin data. For both LACT and NOLACT, RFI was similar (P > 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg

  14. Dark matter production associated with a heavy quarkonium at B factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chaehyun; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-04-01

    We investigate light dark matter production associated with a heavy quarkonium at B factories in a model-independent way by adopting the effective field theory approach for the interaction of dark matter with standard model particles. We consider the effective operators for the dark matter-heavy quark interaction, which are relevant to the production of dark matter associated with a heavy quarkonium. We calculate the cross sections for dark matter production associated with a J / ψ or ηc to compare with the standard model backgrounds. We set bounds on the energy scale of new physics for various effective operators and also obtain the corresponding limits for the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections for light dark matter with mass of the order of a few GeV.

  15. More Stable Productivity of Semi Natural Grasslands than Sown Pastures in a Seasonally Dry Climate

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Sonia; Rusch, Graciela M.; Pezo, Danilo; Casanoves, Fernando; Sinclair, Fergus L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Neotropics the predominant pathway to intensify productivity is generally thought to be to convert grasslands to sown pastures, mostly in monoculture. This article examines how above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) in semi-natural grasslands and sown pastures in Central America respond to rainfall by: (i) assessing the relationships between ANPP and accumulated rainfall and indices of rainfall distribution, (ii) evaluating the variability of ANPP between and within seasons, and (iii) estimating the temporal stability of ANPP. We conducted sequential biomass harvests during 12 periods of 22 days and related those to rainfall. There were significant relationships between ANPP and cumulative rainfall in 22-day periods for both vegetation types and a model including a linear and quadratic term explained 74% of the variation in the data. There was also a significant correlation between ANPP and the number of rainfall events for both vegetation types. Sown pastures had higher ANPP increments per unit rainfall and higher ANPP at the peak of the rainy season than semi-natural grasslands. In contrast, semi-natural grasslands showed higher ANPP early in the dry season. The temporal stability of ANPP was higher in semi-natural grasslands than in the sown pastures in the dry season and over a whole annual cycle. Our results reveal that, contrary to conventional thinking amongst pasture scientists, there appears to be no increase in ANPP arising from replacing semi-natural grasslands with sown pastures under prevailing pasture management practices in seasonally dry climates, while the temporal distribution of ANPP is more even in semi-natural grasslands. Neither sown pastures nor semi-natural grasslands are productive towards the end of the dry season, indicating the potential importance of the widespread practice of retaining tree cover in pastures. PMID:22590506

  16. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  17. Measurement of rumen dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability of feeds by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Belanche, A; Weisbjerg, M R; Allison, G G; Newbold, C J; Moorby, J M

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the potential of partial least squares (PLS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to predict rumen dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation parameters of a wide range of feeds for ruminants, as an alternative to the in situ method. In total, 663 samples comprising 80 different feed types were analyzed. In situ DM and NDF degradabilities were determined as follows: effective degradability (ED), rumen soluble fraction (A), degradable but not soluble fraction (B), rate of degradation of the B fraction (C), and indigestible NDF (iNDF). Infrared spectra of dry samples were collected by attenuated total reflectance from 600 to 4000cm(-1). Feeds were randomly classified into 2 subsets of samples with representation of all feed types; one subset was used to develop regression models using partial least squares, and the second subset was used to conduct an external validation of the models. This study indicated that universal models containing all feed types and specific models containing concentrate feeds could provide only a relatively poor estimation of in situ DM degradation parameters because of compositional heterogeneity. More research, such as a particle size distribution analysis, is required to determine whether this lack of accuracy was due to limitations of the FTIR approach, or simply due to methodological error associated with the in situ method. This latter hypothesis may explain the low accuracy observed in the prediction of degradation rates if there was physical leakage of fine particles from the mesh bags used during in situ studies. In contrast, much better predictions were obtained when models were developed for forage feeds alone. Models for forages led to accurate predictions of DMA, DMB, NDFED, and NDF concentration (R(2)=0.91, 0.89, 0.85, and 0.79, standard error = 4.34, 5.97, 4.59, and 4.41% of DM, respectively), and could be used for screening of DMED, NDFC, and iNDF. These models relied on

  18. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  19. Effects of fertilizer application and dry/wet processing of Miscanthus x giganteus on bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Mims, Michelle; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-03-01

    The effects of wet and dry processing of miscanthus on bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process were investigated, with wet samples showing higher ethanol yields than dry samples. Miscanthus grown with no fertilizer, with fertilizer and with swine manure were sampled for analysis. Wet-fractionation was used to separate miscanthus into solid and liquid fractions. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was employed and the SSF process was performed with saccharomyces cerevisiae and a cocktail of enzymes at 35°C. After pretreatment, cellulose compositions of biomass of the wet samples increased from 61.0-67.0% to 77.0-87.0%, which were higher than the compositions of dry samples. The highest theoretical ethanol yield of 88.0% was realized for wet processed pretreated miscanthus, grown with swine manure. Changes to the morphology and chemical composition of the biomass samples after pretreatment, such as crystallinity reduction, were observed using SEM and FTIR. These changes improved ethanol production. PMID:26773953

  20. Two Measurement Methods of Leaf Dry Matter Content Produce Similar Results in a Broad Range of Species

    PubMed Central

    Vaieretti, María Victoria; Díaz, Sandra; Vile, Denis; Garnier, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) is widely used as an indicator of plant resource use in plant functional trait databases. Two main methods have been proposed to measure LDMC, which basically differ in the rehydration procedure to which leaves are subjected after harvesting. These are the ‘complete rehydration’ protocol of Garnier et al. (2001, Functional Ecology 15: 688–695) and the ‘partial rehydration’ protocol of Vendramini et al. (2002, New Phytologist 154: 147–157). Methods To test differences in LDMC due to the use of different methods, LDMC was measured on 51 native and cultivated species representing a wide range of plant families and growth forms from central-western Argentina, following the complete rehydration and partial rehydration protocols. Key Results and Conclusions The LDMC values obtained by both methods were strongly and positively correlated, clearly showing that LDMC is highly conserved between the two procedures. These trends were not altered by the exclusion of plants with non-laminar leaves. Although the complete rehydration method is the safest to measure LDMC, the partial rehydration procedure produces similar results and is faster. It therefore appears as an acceptable option for those situations in which the complete rehydration method cannot be applied. Two notes of caution are given for cases in which different datasets are compared or combined: (1) the discrepancy between the two rehydration protocols is greatest in the case of high-LDMC (succulent or tender) leaves; (2) the results suggest that, when comparing many studies across unrelated datasets, differences in the measurement protocol may be less important than differences among seasons, years and the quality of local habitats. PMID:17353207

  1. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds. PMID:27372581

  2. 76 FR 45859 - In the Matter of Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and...

  3. 76 FR 4935 - In the Matter of Certain Reduced Ignition Proclivity Cigarette Paper Wrappers and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Reduced Ignition Proclivity Cigarette Paper Wrappers and Products... within the United States after importation of certain reduced ignition proclivity cigarette paper... certain reduced ignition proclivity cigarette paper wrappers and products containing same that...

  4. Biocontrol of Penicillium nordicum Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Native Yeasts of Dry Cured Ham

    PubMed Central

    Virgili, Roberta; Simoncini, Nicoletta; Toscani, Tania; Camardo Leggieri, Marco; Formenti, Silvia; Battilani, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Twelve yeast strains isolated from the surface of Italian typical dry-cured hams, belonging to D. hansenii, D. maramus, C. famata, C. zeylanoides and H. burtonii species, and previously selected for their ability to grow in dry-cured ham-like substrates, were screened for antagonistic activity against a toxigenic strain of P. nordicum and inhibition of ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis. On average, yeast inhibitory activity was lowered by increasing fungal inoculum and enhanced by NaCl presence. In the assay conditions, H. burtonii and C. zeylanoides were the most effective, both in inhibiting P. nordicum growth and OTA production. D. hansenii was the species with the lowest inhibitory activity, especially in the absence of salt. OTA production dropped from the range < LOD − 5000 ppb in P. nordicum control plates to the range < LOD − 200 ppb in yeast-added plates. OTA production increased in the presence of NaCl in P. nordicum control plates, while salt enhanced inhibition against OTA production in yeast-added plates. PMID:22474567

  5. Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-05-01

    A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %. PMID:24665070

  6. Variations of net ecosystem production due to seasonal precipitation differences in a tropical dry forest of northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Vivian S.; Garatuza-Payán, Jaime; Yépez, Enrico A.; Watts, Christopher J.; Rodríguez, Julio C.; Robles-Morua, Agustin; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their large extent and high primary productivity, tropical dry forests (TDF) are important contributors to atmospheric carbon exchanges in subtropical and tropical regions. In northwest Mexico, a bimodal precipitation regime that includes winter precipitation derived from Pacific storms and summer precipitation from the North American monsoon (NAM) couples water availability with ecosystem processes. We investigated the net ecosystem production of a TDF ecosystem using a 4.5 year record of water and carbon fluxes obtained from the eddy covariance method complemented with remotely sensed data. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer that respiration is mainly due to decomposition of soil organic matter accumulated from the prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the NAM. Precipitation characteristics during NAM have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF into the fall season. We identified that a threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of monsoon precipitation leads to a switch in the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This monsoonal precipitation threshold is typically exceeded one out of every 2 years. The close coupling of winter and summer periods with respect to carbon fluxes suggests that the annual carbon balance is dependent on precipitation amounts in both seasons in TDF ecosystems.

  7. Size control in production and freeze-drying of poly-ε-caprolactone nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zelenková, Tereza; Fissore, Davide; Marchisio, Daniele L; Barresi, Antonello A

    2014-06-01

    This work is focused on the control of poly-ε-caprolactone nanoparticle characteristics, notably size and size distribution, in both the production and preservation (by using freeze-drying) stages. Nanoparticles were obtained by employing the solvent displacement method in a confined impinging jets mixer. The effect of several operating conditions, namely, initial polymer concentration and solvent-to-antisolvent flow rate ratio, and the influence of postprocessing conditions, such as final dilution and solvent evaporation, on nanoparticle characteristics was investigated. Further addition of antisolvent (water) after preparation was demonstrated to be effective in obtaining stable nanoparticles, that is, avoiding aggregation that would result in larger particles. On the contrary, solvent (acetone) evaporation was shown to have a small effect on the final nanoparticle characteristics. Eventually, freeze-drying of the solutions containing nanoparticles, after solvent evaporation, was also investigated. To ensure maximum nanoparticles stability, lyoprotectants (e.g., sucrose and mannitol) and steric stabilizers (e.g., Cremophor EL and Poloxamer 388) had to be added to the suspensions. The efficacy of the selected lyoprotectants, in the presence (or absence) of steric stabilizers, and in various concentrations, to avoid particle aggregation during the freeze-drying process was investigated, thus pointing to the optimal formulation. PMID:24737658

  8. Dry anaerobic digestion of cow dung for methane production: effect of mixing.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ajay Kumar; Li, Jianzheng; Ban, Qiaoying; Zhang, Liguo; Zhao, Bowei

    2012-12-01

    The performance characteristics of a dry batch reactor with a blender treating cow dung has been evaluated for 35 days in a single-stage batch reactor of 3 L effective volume at 35 +/- 1 degree C to investigate the effect of continuous-mixing on biogas production and organic materials removal. The results showed that the performance of unmixed and mixed digesters was quite different and the dry digester with mixing system produced methane of 0.358 LCH4/gVS(r) which was 7.50% higher than that for unmixed digester. Moreover, the organic material removal efficiency was increased by 9.73% in term of VS. The wide diversity of prominent bacteria and methanogenic archaea affiliated with all steps along the anaerobic degradation pathway made the process stable. But the dry digester with mixing system during start up was not beneficial, as it resulted in relatively higher volatile fatty acids, higher volatile fatty acid to alkalinity ratio, lower pH and consequently prolonged start up time. PMID:24261113

  9. Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

    PubMed Central

    Safa, S.; Soleimani, A.; Heravi Moussavi, A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 (p≤0.05). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25049832

  10. Construction of Novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Bioethanol Active Dry Yeast (ADY) Production

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kehui; Liu, Zewei; Zhang, Xing; Li, Ou; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Du, Fengguang; Sun, Peiyong; Qu, Aimin; Wu, Xuechang

    2013-01-01

    The application of active dry yeast (ADY) in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS) process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes. PMID:24376860

  11. One-Pot dry chemo-mechanical deconstruction for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Sambusiti, C; Licari, A; Solhy, A; Aboulkas, A; Cacciaguerra, T; Barakat, A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was the application of an innovative dry chemo-mechanical pretreatment using different mechanical stresses to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The effect of different milling methods on physicochemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis, bioethanol production and energy efficiency was also evaluated. SB was pretreated with NaOH and H3PO4 at high materials concentration (5 kg/L). Results indicate that vibratory milling (VBM) was more effective in the reduction of particles size and cellulose crystallinity compared to centrifugal (CM) and ball (BM) milling. NaOH pretreatment coupling to BM and VBM was preferred to enhance glucose yields and bioethanol production, while CM consumed less energy compared to BM and VBM. Moreover, the highest energy efficiency (η=0.116 kg glucose/kWh) was obtained with NaOH-CM. Therefore, the combination of dry NaOH and CM appears the most suitable and interesting pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from SB. PMID:25656863

  12. Development of Paper Products from Dried Sweetpotato Stems and Peanut Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnell, R.; Smith, R.; Jones, G.; Lu, J. Y.

    1998-01-01

    One of the goals of NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS) for sustaining human life in space is to achieve a closed system in plant production and usage. That all inedible plant parts should be recycled or used in some way. A Tuskegee University team researching sweetpotato and peanut for ALS has developed paper products from dried sweet-potato stems and peanut shells. In this study, the sweet-potato stems and peanut shells were soaked separately in water for 48 hours. After 48 hours, researchers manually separated the pulp and the unusable parts. To form the paper, 160 g of pulp and water mixture was poured through a 15.1 cm (diameter) filtration funnel and the pulp was trapped on 15 cm (diameter) filter paper. The filter paper and pulp were dried in an air oven, and the filter paper was removed, An examination under a scanning electron microscope showed that the sweet-potato paper was composed of "fibers", whereas the peanut shell paper was composed of "blocks". Results of physical testing showed that the sweet-potato stem paper was stronger than the peanut shell paper. It is anticipated that there may be other uses of these products such as writing paper, bags and packaging material. Because of its biodegradability, it can be incorporated into the resource recycling system at the end of its use.

  13. Effects of organic matter amendments on net primary productivity and greenhouse gas emissions in annual grasslands.

    PubMed

    Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's grasslands are managed for livestock production. A critical component of the long-term sustainability and profitability of rangelands (e.g., grazed grassland ecosystems) is the maintenance of plant production. Amending grassland soils with organic waste has been proposed as a means to increase net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem carbon (C) storage, while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. Few studies have evaluated the effects of amendments on the C balance and greenhouse gas dynamics of grasslands. We used field manipulations replicated within and across two rangelands (a valley grassland and a coastal grassland) to determine the effects of a single application of composted green waste amendments on NPP and greenhouse gas emissions over three years. Amendments elevated total soil respiration by 18% +/- 4% at both sites but had no effect on nitrous oxide or methane emissions. Carbon losses were significantly offset by greater and sustained plant production. Amendments stimulated both above- and belowground NPP by 2.1 +/- 0.8 Mg C/ha to 4.7 +/- 0.7 Mg C/ha (mean +/- SE) over the three-year study period. Net ecosystem C storage increased by 25-70% without including the direct addition of compost C. The estimated magnitude of net ecosystem C storage was sensitive to estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration but was greater than controls in five out of six fields that received amendments. The sixth plot was the only one that exhibited lower soil moisture than the control, suggesting an important role of water limitation in these seasonally dry ecosystems. Treatment effects persisted over the course of the study, which were likely derived from increased water-holding capacity in most plots, and slow-release fertilization from compost decomposition. We conclude that a single application of composted organic matter can significantly increase grassland C storage, and that effects of a single application are likely to

  14. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  15. Enzyme Production by Industrially Relevant Fungi Cultured on Coproduct From Corn Dry Grind Ethanol Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ximenes, Eduardo A.; Dien, Bruce S.; Ladisch, Michael R.; Mosier, Nathan; Cotta, Michael A.; Li, Xin-Liang

    Distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) is the major coproduct produced at a dry grind ethanol facility. Currently, it is sold primarily as a ruminant animal feed. DDGS is low cost and relatively high in protein and fiber contents. In this study, DDGS was investigated as carbon source for extracellular hydrolytic enzyme production. Two filamentous fungi, noted for their high cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzyme titers, were grown on DDGS: Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and Aspergillus niger NRRL 2001. DDGS was either used as delivered from the plant (untreated) or after being pretreated with hot water. Both microorganisms secreted a broad range of enzymes when grown on DDGS. Higher xylanase titers were obtained when cultured on hot water DDGS compared with growth on untreated DDGS. Maximum xylanase titers were produced in 4 d for A. niger and 8 d for T. reesei in shake flask cultures. Larger amounts of enzymes were produced in bioreactors (5L) either equipped with Rushton (for T. reesei) or updraft marine impellers (A. niger). Initial production titers were lower for bioreactor than for flask cultures, especially for T. reesei cultures. Improvement of enzyme titers were obtained using fed-batch feeding schemes.

  16. Ileal and total tract digestibility of wet and dried wheat distillers grain products in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lyberg, K; Borling, J; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were evaluated in 2 commercially available products: wheat (Triticum aestivum) wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) and wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). Two diets included (DM basis) 50% basal diet with either 50% WDGS (W) or 50% DDGS (D). The basal diet included corn (Zea mays) starch, sugar, vitamins, and minerals. Seven castrated male pigs with post valve T-cecum cannulas were fed the diets according to a changeover design during two 14-d periods. In a pre- and postperiod, casein was given as the only protein source with the basal diet to estimate endogenous losses of N and AA for calculation of standardized ileal digestibility (SID). The AID of OM did not differ between diets, but ATTD of OM was higher (P < 0.05) for diet W. The AID (76.2 vs. 68.9%), SID, and ATTD of CP was higher (P < 0.05) in diet W than diet D. The SID for Lys (75.7 vs. 51.8%) and Met (75.8 vs. 70.1%) was higher (P < 0.01) in WDGS than DDGS. In conclusion, drying of wheat distillers grain products can markedly lower ileal digestibility of Lys and Met whereas negative effects on energy value are small. PMID:23365306

  17. Quantifying particulate matter deposition in Niwot Ridge, Colorado: Collection of dry deposition using marble inserts and particle imaging using the FlowCAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Natasha R.; Mladenov, Natalie; Seibold, Christine M.; Chowanski, Kurt; Seitz, Leslie; Wellemeyer, T. Barret; Williams, Mark W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric wet and dry deposition are important sources of carbon for remote alpine lakes and soils. The carbon inputs from dry deposition in alpine National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) collectors, including aeolian dust and biological material, are not well constrained due to difficulties in retaining particulate matter in the collectors. Here, we developed and tested a marble insert for dry deposition collection at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (NWT LTER) Soddie site (3345 m) between 24 May and 8 November 2011. We conducted laboratory tests of the insert's effect on particulate matter (PM) mass and non-purgeable organic carbon (DOC) and found that the insert did not significantly change either measurement. Thus, the insert may enable dry deposition collection of PM and DOC at NADP sites. We then developed a method for enumerating the collected wet and dry deposition with the Flow Cytometer and Microscope (FlowCAM), a dynamic-image particle analysis tool. The FlowCAM has the potential to establish morphology, which affects particle settling and retention, through particle diameter and aspect ratio. Particle images were used to track the abundance of pollen grains over time. Qualitative image examination revealed that most particles were biological in nature, such as intact algal cells and pollen. Dry deposition loading to the Soddie site as determined by FlowCAM measurements was highly variable, ranging from 100 to >230 g ha-1 d-1 in June-August 2011 and peaking in late June. No significant difference in diameter or aspect ratio was found between wet and dry deposition, suggesting fundamental similarities between those deposition types. Although FlowCAM statistics and identification of particle types proved insightful, our total-particle enumeration method had a high variance and underestimated the total number of particles when compared to imaging of relatively large volumes (60-125 mL) from a single sample. We recommend use of

  18. Dark matter signals in dilepton production at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Fox, Patrick J.; Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Raj, Nirmal

    2015-06-01

    We show that new physics can show up in dileptonic events through its radiative contributions to the dilepton invariant mass, leading to unique "monocline" features in mℓℓ, as well as the angular distribution of the leptons. We focus in particular on the case of dark matter with scalar messengers coupling it to the quarks and leptons. Consistent thermal models require the dark matter to have masses of 100s of GeV and have ≳1 couplings to the Standard Model (SM), implying that radiative corrections to the SM Drell-Yan rate can be sizable. We consider the case of Majorana, Dirac, and pseudo-Dirac dark matter and show that there are regions of parameter space where the nonexistence of a monocline, which starts at roughly twice the dark matter mass, mℓℓ˜2 mχ , places the strongest constraint on the model. We make predictions for the sensitivities at the high luminosity 14 TeV LHC as well as a future 100 TeV proton-proton collider. We find that our dilepton signal is most sensitive when the mediator and the dark matter are nearly degenerate and conventional missing-transverse-momentum-based searches are least sensitive.

  19. Destroying lignocellulosic matters for enhancing methane production from excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Hu, Yuansheng; Cao, Daqi

    2016-01-01

    A lot of lignocellulosic matters are usually present in excess sludge, which are hardly degraded in anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus remains mostly in digested sludge. This is a reason why the conversion rate of sludge organics into energy (CH4) is often low. Obviously, the hydrolysis of AD cannot destruct the structure of lignocellulosic matters. Structural destruction of lignocellulosic matters has to be performed in AD. In this study, pretreatments with the same principles as cell disintegration of sludge were applied to destruct lignocellulosic matters so that these materials could be converted to CH4 via AD. Acid, alkali, thermal treatment and ultrasonic were used in the experiments to observe the destructed/degraded efficiency of lignocellulosic matters. Thermal treatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment. Under optimized conditions (T = 150 °C and t = 30  min), pretreated sludge had a degraded rate of 52.6% in AD, due to easy destruction and/or degradation of hemicelluloses and celluloses in pretreatment. The sludge pretreated by thermal treatment could enhance the CH4 yield (mL CH4 g(-1) VSS) by 53.6% compared to raw sludge. Economically, the thermal treatment can balance the input energy with the produced energy (steam and electricity). PMID:26215289

  20. Utilization of AFBC waste by-product as a FGD sorbent for circulating dry scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, J.K.; Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.; Burnett, T.A.; Westmoreland, R.; Norwood, V.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is currently interested in finding applications for the spent bed sorbent by-product generated at their 160 MW AFBC facility. Calcium utilization in this by-product is relatively low, having an available alkalinity from 20 to 40 wt%, as Ca(OH){sub 2}, thus, creating a potential disposal problem. It is possible that this byproduct material could be used as a supplemental sorbent in the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) reactor located at the TVA`s Center for Emissions Research in Paducah, Kentucky. GSA technology is a semi-dry, lime based, FGD process that utilizes a circulating bed arrangement for contacting sorbent with SO{sub 2}-laden flue gas under coolside conditions. A pilot-scale fluid bed reactor was modified to simulate a generic circulating dry scrubber (CDS) process similar to the GSA technology.The purpose of this program was to investigate the feasibility of using AFBC waste in conjunction with hydrated lime as a sorbent for the CDS process. An AFBC by-product from the 160 MW plant was pulverized to liberate CaO and slaked along with a fresh lime feedstock. CDS sulfur capture was evaluated with and without chloride addition to the sorbent slurry. Control tests using lime-only feeds were also conducted. In general, the sulfur capture reactivity of the sorbent which included slaked lime/AFBC material was found to be equivalent to or greater than that containing only fresh lime. With a nominal Ca/S ratio of 1.3 (1.0 with fresh lime, 0.3 slaked by-product), the reactor sulfur capture varied between 65 and 90% depending on the specific test conditions. An effective fuel chloride of 0.2 wt% was found to enhance the sulfur capture by as much as 8 to 12%.

  1. Ethanol production from dry-mill corn starch in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-08-01

    The development of a high-rate process for the production of fuel ethanol from dry-mill corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) technology is discussed. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale FBR using immobilized biocatalysts. Two ethanol production process designs were considered in this study. In the first design, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed at 35 C using {kappa}-carageenan beads (1.5 mm to 1.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis. For dextrin feed concentration of 100 g/L, the single-pass conversion ranged from 54% to 89%. Ethanol concentrations of 23 to 36 g/L were obtained at volumetric productivities of 9 to 15 g/L-h. No accumulation of glucose was observed, indicating that saccharification was the rate-limiting step. In the second design, saccharification and fermentation were carried out sequentially. In the first stage, solutions of 150 to 160 g/L dextrins were pumped through an immobilized glucoamylase packed column maintained at 55 C. Greater than 95% conversion was obtained at a residence time of 1 h, giving a product of 165 to 170 g glucose/L. In the second stage, these glucose solutions were fed to the FBR containing Z. mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carageenan beads. At a residence time of 2 h, 94% conversion and ethanol concentration of 70 g/L was achieved, giving an overall productivity of 23 g/L-h.

  2. 76 FR 42138 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and... investigation as to TPV Technology, Ltd.; TPV International (USA), Inc.; Top Victory Electronics (Taiwan) Co... certain digital televisions and certain products containing same by reason of infringement of...

  3. Optimization of process parameters for the production of spray dried Ber (Ziziphus jujube L.) powder.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Pandey, Sheela; Pare, Akash; Singh, R B

    2014-12-01

    The study covers effect of operating variables of spray dryer i.e. inlet temperature (170, 180, 190, 200 and 210 °C,), aspirator blower capacity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 %) and feed pump capacity (9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 %) and processing parameters of feed i.e. total soluble solid (TSS) of feed (7.5 %) and encapsulating material, maltodextrin (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 %), aerosil (1.0 %), citric acid (0.25 %) upon the physical properties (colour, packed density and hygroscopicity) of powder were observed. After complete evaluation and analysis of all the attributes for physical properties i.e. colour, packed density (0.45 g/cc) and hygroscopicity (0.17 g/g dry matter), it was concluded that best quality of Ber powder were obtained at inlet air temperature 190 °C, aspirator blower capacity 60 %, feed pump capacity 15 %, encapsulating material 8 %. PMID:25477666

  4. Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller’s Grains with Solubles

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller’s grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p<0.001) RUP intake (0.90, 0.86, and 0.88 kg/d corresponding to R-SBM, DDGS, and SB-DG) compared to the control (0.61 kg/d). Feeding roasted SBM and CDDGS alone or in combination had no significant effect on milk composition of dairy cows (p>0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183

  5. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. PMID:27523619

  6. Characteristics of waste products from dry-scrubbing systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, A.G.; Meserole, F.B.; Heinrich, D.L.; Owens, J.B.; Wells, R.E.; Williams, K.R.

    1982-12-01

    Disposal-related characteristics of dry-scrubbing waste products from a variety of sources were measured and similar disposal characteristics were determined. Samples were obtained primarily from test facilities operated by vendors. Waste products exhibited a wide range of chemical compositions based on elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction and infrared compound identification. Leachate compositions also varied but all waste products were classified as nontoxic under May 19, 1980, RCRA rules and regulations. Analysis of the engineering properties of the waste products indicated that most samples developed adequate strength for landfill disposal if enough water was added and the moist materials were compacted. Measured unconfined compressive strengths after 28 days of curing ranged from 10 to 1300 pounds per sq. inch. The water required for strength development varied between samples and did not necessarily correspond to the amounts required to achieve optimum compacted density. Measured permeability coefficients ranged rom 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -10/ cm/sec with most values in the 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -6/ range.

  7. Simultaneous Polymerization and Polypeptide Particle Production via Reactive Spray-Drying.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Lidija; Odelius, Karin; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2016-09-12

    A method for producing polypeptide particles via in situ polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides during spray-drying has been developed. This method was enabled by the development of a fast and robust synthetic pathway to polypeptides using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as an initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides. The polymerizations finished within 5 s and proved to be very tolerant toward impurities such as amino acid salts and water. The formed particles were prepared by mixing the monomer, N-carboxyanhydride of l-glutamic acid benzyl ester (NCAGlu) and the initiator (DBU) during the atomization process in the spray-dryer and were spherical with a size of ∼1 μm. This method combines two steps; making it a straightforward process that facilitates the production of polypeptide particles. Hence, it furthers the use of spray-drying and polypeptide particles in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27445061

  8. Fate of Free and Conjugated Mycotoxins within the Production of Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Dzuman, Zbynek; Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Vaclavikova, Marta; Tomaniova, Monika; Veprikova, Zdenka; Slavikova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-06-22

    Contamination of feed with mycotoxins represents a serious worldwide problem concerning animal health and related economic losses. The present paper provides comprehensive knowledge about the fate of mycotoxins during the production of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The study was carried out using naturally infected maize material in five repetitions. For mycotoxin analysis, a QuEChERS-like ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") isolation approach and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used. A significant increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its glycosylated form, DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc), was observed during the first part of fermentation, when hydrolytic enzymes were added. After yeast addition, the total DON content rapidly decreased. An opposite trend was observed for fumonisin B1 (FB1), in which yeast addition contributed to increase of its content. Further considerable change in mycotoxin content occurred during the drying step, in which approximately two-thirds of the original content was lost. PMID:27244266

  9. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  10. Ozone production and transport over the Amazon Basin during the dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bela, M. M.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Moreira, D. S.; Beck, V.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gerbig, C.; Wiedemann, K.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-06-01

    The Regional Carbon Balance in Amazonia (BARCA) campaign provided the first Amazon Basin-wide aircraft measurements of O3 during both the dry-to-wet (November and December 2008) and wet-to-dry (May 2009) transition seasons. Extremely low background values (<20 ppb) were observed to the west and north of Manaus in both seasons and in all regions during the wet-to-dry transition. On the other hand, elevated O3 levels (40-60 ppb) were seen during the dry-to-wet transition to the east and south of Manaus, where biomass burning emissions of O3 precursors were present. Chemistry simulations with the CCATT-BRAMS and WRF-Chem models are within the error bars of the observed O3 profiles in the boundary layer (0-3 km a.s.l.) in polluted conditions. However, the models overestimate O3 in the boundary layer in clean conditions, despite lacking the predominant NO source from soil. In addition, O3 simulated by the models was either within the error bars or lower than BARCA observations in mid-levels (3-5 km a.s.l.), indicating that the models do not represent the free troposphere - boundary layer gradient in O3. Total tropospheric O3 retrieved from OMI/MLS was higher than that simulated by the models, suggesting that the satellite observations are dominated by the middle troposphere and long-range processes and are not a~good indication of O3 conditions in the PBL. Additional simulations with WRF-Chem showed that the model O3 production is very sensitive to both the O3 deposition velocities, which were about one half of observed values, and the NOx emissions. These results have implications for the monitoring and prediction of increases in O3 production in the Amazon Basin as the regional population grows.

  11. 75 FR 24742 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... semiconductor chips and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos... certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips or products containing the same that...

  12. 75 FR 14467 - In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same... random access memory semiconductors and products containing same, including memory modules, by reason of... after importation of certain dynamic random access memory semiconductors or products containing the...

  13. 76 FR 16445 - In the Matter of Certain Gemcitabine and Products Containing Same; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Gemcitabine and Products Containing Same; Notice of Investigation AGENCY... the sale within the United States after importation of certain gemcitabine and products containing... after importation of certain gemcitabine and products containing same by reason of infringement of...

  14. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S.; Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T.

    1998-07-01

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  15. Separation, fractionation, concentration and drying of food products: Final report, March 4, 1987--March 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Merlo, C.A.; Rose, W.W.; Pedersen, L.D.; Brewbaker, P.L.

    1988-03-01

    This project studied energy efficient processes for separation, fractionation, concentration, drying, and recombination of food products, in order to reduce energy requirements for processing, preservation, and transportation. The project had three phases. In the laboratory-scale phase, results of which are summarized in this report, tomato puree was separated by three methods: conventional vacuum filtration, centrifugation, and crossflow microfiltration to produce pulp and serum. Three methods of recombination were examined: homogenizing, stomacher blending, and static (in-line) mixing. Satisfactory recombined purees were obtained. In addition, after centrifugation, the pulp was rinsed producing rinsed-pulp, and the rinse water was added to the serum producing rinse/serum. The rinse/serum was concentrated by evaporation. This was recombined with the rinsed-pulp and water producing satisfactory puree. 11 refs., 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Dry mixing technique for the large scale production of iodine fortified salt in India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, S; Sundaresan, S; Raghavendra, I; Kalyani, S

    1997-06-01

    Dry mixing technique was used successfully in three factories in India for the manufacture of iodine fortified salt. Permitted food additives, calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, were used with potassium iodate. The technology was smooth and free from any problem. Since the formerly conventional, but now superceded on analytical performance criteria, spray-mixing system was not used in the study, plants of the economics either batch mixing or continuous processes were more in evidence, and could be compared with avoidable spray mixing production performance data. The iodine fortified salt was free-flowing and retained the colour of the common salt. The iodine distribution was uniform (about 30 ppm). Long distance road transportation did not affect the iodine stability and its consistency. Storage studies showed satisfactory stability and the fortified salt had prolonged shelf-life beyond one year. PMID:24394707

  17. Evaluation of Dried Sweet Sorghum Stalks as Raw Material for Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296 mL CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12 FPU/g sweet sorghum. PMID:25210715

  18. [Attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of dried shark fin products].

    PubMed

    Han, Wan-qing; Luo, Hai-ying; Xian, Yan-ping; Luo, Dong-hui; Mu, Torng-na; Guo, Xin-dong

    2015-02-01

    Sixty-four pieces of shark fin dried products (including real, fake and artificial shark fin products) and real products coated with gelatin were rapidly and nondestructively analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The characteristic of IR spectrograms among the above four kinds of samples were systematically studied and comparied, the results showed that the spectrograms of the same kind of samples were repeatable, and different kinds of shark fin products presented significant differences in the spectrograms, which mainly manifested as the specific absorption peaks of amido bonds in protein (1650, 1544 cm(-1)) and skeletal vibration in polysaccharide (1050 cm(-1)). The spectrograms of real shark fins were characterized by the strong absorption peaks of protein characteristic amide I and II absorbent (1650, 1544 cm(-1)) and relatively weak C--O--C vibration absorbent (1050 cm(-1)) owing to the high content of protein and relatively low level of polysaccharide. For fake shark fin products that were molded form by mixing together with the offcut of shark, collagen and other substances, the introduction of non-protein materials leaded to the weaker amido bonds absorbent than real products along with a 30 cm(-1) blue shift of amide I absorbent. Opposite to the real sample, the relatively strong absorption peak of polysaccharide (approximately 1047 cm(-1)) and barely existed amide absorbent were the key features of the spectrogram of artificial samples, which was synthersized by polysaccharide like sodium alginate. Real samples coated with gelatin, the peak strength of protein and polysaccharide were decreased simultaneously when the data collection was taken at the surface of sample, while the spectrogram presented no significant difference to real samples when the data was collected in the section. The results above indicated that by analyzing the characteristic of IR spectrograms and the value range of Apro

  19. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  20. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  1. Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of By-Products from Olive Oil Processing

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20–50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10−11 to 1.406 × 10−9 m2/s in forced convection (ma = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10−11 to 6.277 × 10−10 m2/s in natural convection (ma = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick’s diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order. PMID:22174639

  2. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P < 0.001 for sex by day interaction), and leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤ 3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P < 0.001), with the mean leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th

  3. Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Devi, Khunjamayum Romapati; Deka, Manab; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-04-16

    Ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish Puntius sophore (Ham.) in Manipur state of Northeast India. The microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. The culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community structural change in comparison to its raw material. To understand the bacterial dynamics during this dry fermentation, time series samples collected over a period of nine months through destructive sampling from two indigenous ngari production centres were analysed by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. A total of 210 bacteria isolated from the samples were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) based grouping and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis. The dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii (38.0%), Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis (16.8%), a novel phylotype related to Lactobacillus pobuzihii (7.2%), Enterococcus faecium (7.2%), Bacillus indicus (6.3%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (3.8%). Distinct bacterial dynamics with the emergence of T. halophilus at third month (10(6)CFU/g), L. pobuzihii at sixth month (10(6)CFU/g), S. carnosus at three to six months (10(4)CFU/g) and B. indicus at six to nine months (10(5)CFU/g) in both the production centres was observed during ngari fermentation. However, the other two dominant bacteria S. cohnii and E. faecium were isolated throughout the fermentation with the population of 10(6)CFU/g and 10(4)CFU/g respectively. Culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis further showed the presence of additional species, in which Kocuria halotolerans and Macrococcus caseolyticus disappeared during fermentation while Clostridium irregulare and

  4. Short communication: Effects of molasses products on productivity and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Siverson, A; Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Bradford, B J

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that replacing up to 5% [of dietary dry matter (DM)] corn with cane molasses can partially alleviate milk fat depression when cows are fed high-concentrate, low-fiber rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary molasses alters milk fatty acid (FA) profile or improves solids-corrected milk yield in the context of a more typical lactation diet. A secondary objective was to assess production responses to increasing rumen-degradable protein supply when molasses was fed. Twelve primiparous and 28 multiparous Holstein cows (196 ± 39 d in milk) were blocked by parity and assigned to 4 pens. Pens were randomly allocated to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 21 d, with 17 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample and data collection. Treatments were a control diet, providing 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DM basis), 35% neutral detergent fiber, 30% starch, and 5% ether extract; a diet with 4.4% cane molasses replacing a portion of the corn grain; a diet with 2.9% molasses supplement containing 32% crude protein on a DM basis; and a diet with 5.8% (DM basis) molasses supplement. Animal-level data were analyzed using mixed models, including the fixed effect of treatment and the random effects of period, pen, period × pen interaction, and cow within pen to recognize pen as the experimental unit. Diets did not alter DM intake, milk production, milk component concentration or yield, feed efficiency (DM intake/milk yield), body weight change, or milk somatic cell count. Milk stearic acid content was increased by the diet containing 5.8% molasses supplement compared with the control diet and the diet containing 2.9% molasses supplement, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.27, 11.75, and 11.69 ± 0.29 g/100g of FA). Production data revealed a dramatic effect of period on milk fat

  5. Changes in mineral concentrations and phosphorus profile during dry-grind process of corn into ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For determining variation in mineral composition and phosphorus (P) profile among streams of dry-grind ethanol production, samples of ground corn, intermediate streams, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were obtained from 3 commercial plants. Most attributes (dry matter concentration...

  6. The effect of microwave power and heating time pretreatment on biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Budiyono, Mardiani, Dini Tri

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of microwave pretreatment of fresh and dried water hyacinth on biogas production. The variations of microwave power levels are 240; 400; 560 and 800 W. The variations of microwave heating time are 5; 7 and 9 min. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth are used as control. The result of research showed that almost all pretreated water hyacinth produced biogas were higher compare tounpretreated water hyacinth. The maximum of biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinthwere obtained at 560 W for 7 min and 400 W for 7 min of microwave pretreatment. In this condition, pretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth resulted biogas production of 75,12 and 53,06 mL/g TS, respectively. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth produced biogas of 37,56 and 33,56 mL/g TS, respectively. The microwave pretreatment of water hyacinth improved biogas production. Microwave pretreatment had a positive impact on anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth.

  7. Sterile neutrino Dark Matter production from scalar decay in a thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Marco; Kang, Jin U.

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the production rate of singlet fermions from the decay of neutral or charged scalar fields in a hot plasma. We find that there are considerable thermal corrections when the temperature of the plasma exceeds the mass of the decaying scalar. We give analytic expressions for the temperature-corrected production rates in the regime where the decay products are relativistic. We also study the regime of non-relativistic decay products numerically. Our results can be used to determine the abundance and momentum distribution of Dark Matter particles produced in scalar decays. The inclusion of thermal corrections helps to improve predictions for the free streaming of the Dark Matter particles, which is crucial to test the compatibility of a given model with cosmic structure formation. With some modifications, our results may be generalised to the production of other Dark Matter candidates in scalar decays.

  8. Metabolism and udder health at dry-off in cows of different breeds and production levels.

    PubMed

    Odensten, M O; Berglund, B; Persson Waller, K; Holtenius, K

    2007-03-01

    The effects of milk yield at dry-off (DO), different calving intervals (CI; 12 and 15 mo) and breed on metabolism and udder health were studied in 56 primiparous and multiparous cows of the Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Swedish Holstein (SH) breeds. The cows were dried off 55 +/- 5 d prior to expected parturition. They were fed 4 kg of DM as silage and wheat straw ad libitum for 5 d, and were milked in the morning of d 2 and 5. Depending on their daily milk yield, the cows were divided into 3 numerically equal groups on 2 d during the week prior to DO: low (LY; 5.0 to 11.4 kg of milk/d, n = 19), medium (MY; 11.5 to 17.7 kg of milk/d, n = 19), and high (HY; 17.8 to 29.5 kg of milk/d, n = 18). The plasma cortisol concentration increased during DO only in MY and HY cows. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids increased during DO in all groups, but the maximum nonesterified fatty acid concentration was related to the milk yield prior to DO. The plasma glucose level during the DO period was not significantly affected by yield, but the insulin concentration decreased after DO, with a more pronounced drop in the HY group. The CI 15-mo group had a higher glucose level and tended to have a higher insulin level in plasma than the CI 12-mo group before DO. They also had a higher body condition than the CI 12-mo group. The results indicate that the CI 15-mo cows had a more positive nutrient balance. There were no effects of CI on milk production or composition during DO. The SRB and SH breeds did not differ in any of the measured plasma parameters or milk production. However, the lower somatic cell counts in SRB than in SH observed before and during DO, as well as after parturition, were attributed to being an effect of breed. The proportion of cows with intramammary infections (IMI) was significantly lower just after calving in the LY group than in the other yield groups. At 2 and 3 wk after DO, significantly fewer cows in the LY group had open teat canals compared with the HY

  9. Cow characteristics and their association with production performance with different dry period lengths.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; van Knegsel, A T M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2014-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation. Both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Some cows have less milk production loss than other cows after applying no DP or a short DP. The aim of this study is to evaluate which cow characteristics are associated with the amount of milk production losses following no DP or a short DP (30d). Daily production information from the lactation before and after the DP was available from 161 dairy cows (54 cows with a 0-d DP, 51 cows with a 30-d DP, and 56 cows with a 60-d DP) from a research herd. Daily production (milk, fat, and protein) until 305d in milk was estimated for all cows. Subsequently, total fat- and protein-corrected milk yield from 60d before the expected calving date until 305d in the following lactation (FPCMtotal) was estimated. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate which cow characteristics were associated with limited or no production losses following no DP or a short DP, compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Average FPCMtotal was 9,341, 10,499, and 10,795kg for cows with no DP, a 30-d DP, and a 60-d DP, respectively. The cow characteristics parity, daily milk production at 12wk before the expected calving date, and reduction in daily milk production between 16 and 12wk before the expected calving date were associated with production loss due to a short (30d) or no DP. Compared with 60d DP, multiparous cows had less production loss (987kg) following no DP than primiparous cows (2,132kg). The difference in FPCMtotal between the 3DP groups was largest for cows with a low milk production (e.g., 10kg/d) at 12wk before the expected calving date. The greater the reduction in milk production between 16 and 12wk before the expected calving date, the larger the difference in FPCMtotal between

  10. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity) of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties. PMID:20385002

  11. Differences between the Bud End and Stem End of Potatoes in Dry Matter Content, Starch Granule Size, and Carbohydrate Metabolic Gene Expression at the Growing and Sprouting Stages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Guodong; Murphy, Agnes; De Koeyer, David; Tai, Helen; Bizimungu, Benoit; Si, Huaijun; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2016-02-10

    Potatoes usually have the tuber bud end dominance in growth during tuber bulking and in tuber sprouting, likely using carbohydrates from the tuber stem end. We hypothesized that the tuber bud end and tuber stem end coordination in carbohydrate metabolism gene expression is different between the bulking dominance and sprouting dominance of the tuber bud end. After comparing the growing tubers at harvest from a green vine and the stage that sprouts just started to emerge after storage of tubers at room temperature, we found the following: (1) Dry matter content was higher in the tuber stem end than the tuber bud end at both stages. (2) The starch granule size was larger in the tuber bud end than in the tuber stem end. (3) The tuber bud end had higher gene expression for starch synthesis but a lower gene expression of sucrose transporters than the tuber stem end during tuber growing. (4) The tuber stem end at the sprouting stage showed more active gene expression in both starch degradation and resynthesis, suggesting more active export of carbohydrates, than the tuber bud end. The results indicate that the starch accumulation mechanism in the tuber bud end was different between field growing and post-harvest sprouting tubers and that tubers already increased dry matter and average starch granule sizes in the tuber bud end prior to the rapid growth of sprouts. PMID:26760673

  12. GeV-scale dark matter: Production at the main injector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2015-02-03

    In this study, assuming that dark matter particles interact with quarks via a GeV-scale mediator, we study dark matter production in fixed target collisions. The ensuing signal in a neutrino near detector consists of neutral-current events with an energy distribution peaked at higher values than the neutrino background. We find that for a Z' boson of mass around a few GeV that decays to dark matter particles, the dark matter beam produced by the Main Injector at Fermilab allows the exploration of a range of values for the gauge coupling that currently satisfy all experimental constraints. The NOνA near detectormore » is well positioned for probing the presence of a dark matter beam, and future LBNF near detectors would provide more sensitive probes.« less

  13. GeV-scale dark matter: Production at the main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2015-02-03

    In this study, assuming that dark matter particles interact with quarks via a GeV-scale mediator, we study dark matter production in fixed target collisions. The ensuing signal in a neutrino near detector consists of neutral-current events with an energy distribution peaked at higher values than the neutrino background. We find that for a Z' boson of mass around a few GeV that decays to dark matter particles, the dark matter beam produced by the Main Injector at Fermilab allows the exploration of a range of values for the gauge coupling that currently satisfy all experimental constraints. The NOνA near detector is well positioned for probing the presence of a dark matter beam, and future LBNF near detectors would provide more sensitive probes.

  14. Fed-batch SSCF using steam-exploded wheat straw at high dry matter consistencies and a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain: effect of laccase supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol is expected to play an important role in fossil fuel replacement in the short term. Process integration, improvements in water economy, and increased ethanol titers are key considerations for cost-effective large-scale production. The use of whole steam-pretreated slurries under high dry matter (DM) conditions and conversion of all fermentable sugars offer promising alternatives to achieve these goals. Results Wheat straw slurry obtained from steam explosion showed high concentrations of degradation compounds, hindering the fermentation performance of the evolved xylose-recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE6-12 strain. Fermentability tests using the liquid fraction showed a higher number of colony-forming units (CFU) and higher xylose consumption rates when treating the medium with laccase. During batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) processes, cell growth was totally inhibited at 12% DM (w/v) in untreated slurries. However, under these conditions laccase treatment prior to addition of yeast reduced the total phenolic content of the slurry and enabled the fermentation. During this process, an ethanol concentration of 19 g/L was obtained, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 39% of the theoretical yield. By changing the operation from batch mode to fed-batch mode, the concentration of inhibitors at the start of the process was reduced and 8 g/L of ethanol were obtained in untreated slurries with a final consistency of 16% DM (w/v). When fed-batch SSCF medium was supplemented with laccase 33 hours after yeast inoculation, no effect on ethanol yield or cell viability was found compared to untreated fermentations. However, if the laccase supplementation (21 hours after yeast inoculation) took place before the first addition of substrate (at 25 hours), improved cell viability and an increased ethanol titer of up to 32 g/L (51% of the theoretical) were found. Conclusions Laccase treatment in SSCF processes

  15. 75 FR 51843 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ..., based on a complaint filed by Panasonic Corporation (``Panasonic'') of Japan. 75 FR 24742-43. The... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... importation of certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips and products containing same...

  16. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... methods is found in appendix M of 40 CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  17. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... methods is found in appendix M of 40 CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  18. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... methods is found in appendix M of 40 CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  19. 76 FR 12133 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... (collectively, ``Broadcom''). 72 FR 25777 (2007). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 in the... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding... importation of certain GPS devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of...

  20. 76 FR 39896 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software; Notice..., components thereof, and related software by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,209... navigation products, components thereof, and related software that infringe one or more of claims 14 and...

  1. Evaluation of freeze-dried kefir coculture as starter in feta-type cheese production.

    PubMed

    Kourkoutas, Y; Kandylis, P; Panas, P; Dooley, J S G; Nigam, P; Koutinas, A A

    2006-09-01

    The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4 degrees C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compared to salted rennet cheese. Determination of bacterial diversity at the end of the ripening process in salted kefir and rennet cheeses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology, based on both DNA and RNA analyses, suggested a potential species-specific inhibition of members of the genera Staphylococcus and Psychrobacter by kefir coculture. The main active microbial associations in salted kefir cheese appeared to be members of the genera Pseudomonas and Lactococcus, while in salted rennet cheese, Oxalobacteraceae, Janthinobacterium, Psychrobacter, and Pseudomonas species were noted. The effect of the starter culture on the production of aroma-related compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied by the solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Kefir coculture also appeared to extend the shelf life of unsalted cheese. Spoilage of kefir cheese was observed on the 9th and 20th days of preservation at 10 and 5 degrees C, respectively, while spoilage in the corresponding rennet cheese was detected on the 7th and 16th days. Microbial counts during preservation of both types of unsalted cheese increased steadily and reached similar levels, with the exception of staphylococci, which were significantly lower in unsalted kefir cheese. All types of cheese produced with kefir as a starter were approved and accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation compared to commercial feta-type cheese. PMID:16957238

  2. Effects of prepartum roughage neutral detergent fiber levels on periparturient dry matter intake, metabolism, and lactation in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Homwong, N; Buatong, N

    2010-06-01

    Heat stress of lactating cattle results in dramatic reductions in dry matter intake (DMI). As a result, energy input cannot satisfy energy needs and thus accelerates body fat mobilization. Decreasing the level of roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in prepartum diets, and thereby increasing the amount of nonfiber carbohydrates, may provide an adequate supply of energy and glucose precursors to maintain and minimize the decrease in DMI while reducing mobilization of adipose tissue. The effects of 3-wk prepartum diets containing different amounts of roughage NDF on DMI, blood metabolites, and lactation performance of dairy cows were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Thirty cross-bred cows (87.5% Holstein x 12.5% Sahiwal) were dried off 60 d before their expected calving date and were assigned immediately to a nonlactating cow diet containing the net energy for lactation recommended by the National Research Council (2001) model. The treatment diets contained 17.4, 19.2, and 21.0% DM as roughage NDF from bana grass (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum glaucum) silage. Levels of concentrate NDF were 39.8, 40.2, and 38.6% of dietary NDF, so the levels of dietary NDF were 28.9, 32.1, and 34.2% of DM. After parturition, all cows received a lactating cow diet containing 12.7% roughage NDF and 23% dietary NDF. During the entire experiment, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity index averaged 77.7 and 86.8, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for the induction of extreme heat stress. As parturition approached, DMI decreased steadily, resulting in a 12.9, 25, and 32.8% decrease in DMI from d -21 until calving for nonlactating cows fed prepartum diets containing 17.4, 19.2, and 21% roughage NDF, respectively. During the 3-wk prepartum period, intakes of DM and net energy for lactation and concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin were higher for cows fed diets containing less roughage NDF. In cows fed the 3-wk prepartum diets

  3. Efforts to improve and sustain the productive utilization of dry grasslands in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhunts, Bagrat; Navasardyan, Marine

    2014-05-01

    Armenia is a small mountainous country (29,743 km2) located in the South Caucasus. It lies in the sub-tropical zone and has a continental climate with hot summers (av. +250C) and cold winters (av. -60C). The average precipitation is 550 mm; in the dry-steppe zone it amounts to only 250 mm and with a rainy season in spring-early summer. Altitudinal variation (390-4,095 m) gives rise to a range of climatic zones (from semi-desert to alpine), soil types and plant communities. Besides, Armenia is situated on the crossroads of Caucasian - mesophyllous (humid) and Armeno-Iranian - xerophyllous (arid) floristic provinces, which has made it to a "biodiversity hotspot". Agriculture is important as a source of employment and for domestic food supply. The rural population (ca. 1.2 million) is largely dependent on livestock for their livelihood. The principal feed resource is extensive grasslands (60% of total agricultural lands), but past practices of uncontrolled grazing management has led to low grassland productivity and low proportion of valuable legume forages. Improvement of natural grasslands, enhancement of feed quality, prevention of soil erosion and re-establishment of vegetation cover are key socio-economic challenges and are needed to raise the livelihood of rural population in Armenia. This presentation focuses on present status and trends of dry pastureland degradation, exposed to intensive grazing, and on results from case studies to increase productivity and restore valuable forage species for sustainable use in agriculture. Three different conventional approaches have been applied in these studies including: fertilization with moderate doses of ammonium and potassium nitrate and superphosphate, over-sowing by local legume seeds and implementation of a 2-year rest period in overgrazed areas. From 1986 to 2007, the total yield (TY) in studied dry-steppe pastures decreased by 40%, while at the same time, the proportion of grasses in total yield decreased by 50

  4. Fungal growth pattern, sources and factors of mould contamination in a dry-cured meat production facility.

    PubMed

    Asefa, Dereje T; Kure, Cathrine F; Gjerde, Ragnhild O; Omer, Mohamed K; Langsrud, Solveig; Nesbakken, Truls; Skaar, Ida

    2010-06-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate the patterns of fungal growth on dry-cured meat products, identify the important sources and factors of contamination and recommend intervention measures. The production processes of two smoked dry-cured hams and one unsmoked dry-cured leg of lamb were studied. A longitudinal observational study was performed to collect 642 samples from the meat, production materials, room installations and indoor and outdoor air of the production facility. Standard mycological isolation and identification procedures were followed. Totally, 901 fungal isolates were obtained; of which 57% were moulds while 43% were yeast. Yeasts were dominant on meat surfaces by covering 64% of the isolates. Mould growth was not observed until late in the dry-ripening stage. Yeasts and moulds were isolated from half of the environmental samples, of which moulds contributed by 80%. More than 39 mould species were isolated from the entire production process with a 77% contribution by the species of Penicillium. Penicillium nalgiovense dominated the species composition of moulds isolated from the products and the production environment. A preliminary bioassay analysis on bacterial colonies indicated that most of the P. nalgiovense isolates have the ability to produce penicillin. Such isolates might produce penicillin on the products and can become potential food safety hazards. Improper pressing at the salting process, the air quality in salting, brining and smoking rooms and activities in the sorting room were identified as important factors and sources of fungal contamination. Technical solutions and organized production activities that reduce crack formation, airborne spore concentration and improve air circulation in the facility are recommended as intervention measures. PMID:20442004

  5. Effect of corn dry fractionation on the distribution of mycotoxins in pre-fermentation ethanol co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production is projected to increase through the next decade. Associated with this increase will be a proportionate increase in byproducts, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Because of high fiber content and low market value, DDGS are normally included in ruminant anim...

  6. Effect of Corn Dry Fractionation on the Distribution of Mycotoxins in Pre-fermentation Ethanol Co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production is projected to increase through the next decade. Associated with this increase will be a proportionate increase in byproducts, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Because of high fiber content and low market value, DDGS are normally included in ruminant anim...

  7. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  8. Economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from hulled barley by the EDGE (Enhanced Dry Grind Enzymatic) process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost model was developed for fuel ethanol production from barley based on the EDGE (Enhanced Dry Grind Enzymatic) process (Nghiem, et al., 2008). In this process, in addition to beta-glucanases, which is added to reduce the viscosity of the barley mash for efficient mixing, another enzyme, beta-...

  9. Effects of dry period length on milk production and health of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Watters, R D; Guenther, J N; Brickner, A E; Rastani, R R; Crump, P M; Clark, P W; Grummer, R R

    2008-07-01

    Holstein cows (n = 781) in a commercial dairy herd were used in a randomized design to evaluate 2 dry period (DP) management strategies on milk production, milk components, milk quality, colostrum quality, and incidence of metabolic disorders. Cows were randomly assigned to a traditional 55 d (T) or shortened 34 d (S) DP. Cows assigned to T were fed a low-energy diet until 34 d before expected calving at which time all cows were fed a moderate-energy transition diet until calving. Postpartum, cows assigned to T produced more milk and tended to produce more solids-corrected milk than cows on S. Treatment differences in milk and solids-corrected milk yield were accounted for by cows in their second lactation. Milk fat percentage did not differ between treatments, but milk protein percentage was greater for cows assigned to S. Colostrum quality measured as IgG concentration did not differ between management strategies. Somatic cell score and cases of mastitis were not affected by management strategy. There was a tendency for prepartum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) to be lower for cows assigned to T compared with S. However, postpartum, cows assigned to S had significantly lower NEFA concentrations than those assigned to T. The incidences of ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and metritis did not differ between treatments. Postpartum energy balance, as indicated by plasma NEFA, may have been improved for cows assigned to S; there was no detectable effect on animal health. PMID:18565918

  10. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 4, annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, J.; Su, Wei; Yan, Hui

    1997-07-01

    Heating softwood in a low-headspace environment draws out the VOCs from the wood, without removing the water. The VOCs can be collected from the headspace, and represent a valuable product. The VOC-depleted wood can then be dried conventionally with much reduced emissions. Heating can be accomplished through radiofrequency (RF) or steam. For lumber, steam is inefficient, but brief RF treatment under low-headspace conditions draws out 80% of the VOCs. The power used is quite low, since the RF energy is not used to remove water, but only to maintain the wood at a set temperature. The technology is now at the pre-pilot stage. Either steam or RF can be used for particle, OSB, and veneer, again under low-headspace conditions. Increasing steam temperature facilitates VOC removal. In order to understand the mechanism of VOC release in lumber, the transport of water and VOCs to the surface is being studied as a function of sample size and orientation. Characterization of the terpenes and resin/fatty acids from a control set of trees is underway in order to define the seasonal influence on VOCs.

  11. Intensity of energy input during radiation drying of porcelain products in metallic molds

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarev, V.A.; Mikhalev, V.P.; Gubskii, G.Z.

    1987-03-01

    The authors seek to optimize the energy input and efficiency of the process and equipment for drying porcelain in a parametric analysis which maximizes the drying rate against the limiting condition of the onset of temperature-dependent crack propagation in the porcelain.

  12. Characterization of low saturation palm oil products after continuous enzymatic interesterification and dry fractionation.

    PubMed

    Huey, Saw Mei; Hock, Chuah Cheng; Lin, Siew Wai

    2009-01-01

    The lipase-catalyzed interesterification of refined, bleached, deodorized palm olein with iodine value (IV) of 62 was studied in a pilot continuous packed-bed reactor operating at 65 degrees C. Sn-1,3 specific immobilized enzyme; Lipozyme TL IM (Thermomyces Lanuginosa) from Novozyme A/S was used in this study. The interesterification reaction produced fully solidified fats at ambient temperature due to the production of trisaturated triacylglycerols (TAG) (PPP and PPS, where P = palmitic acid, S = stearic acid). The reaction also increased the percentage of triunsaturated TAG (OLL, OLO, and OOO, where O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid). The interesterified product was then dry fractionated at temperatures of 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 degrees C to separate the saturated fats from the unsaturated. The results show that IV of olein increased when the fractionation temperature (T(FN)) decreased. The highest IV of olein was 72, obtained from T(FN) at 9 degrees C. After interesterification and laboratory-scale fractionation, the olein fractions contained higher unsaturation content ranging from 64.7% to 67.7% compared to the starting material (58.3%), while the saturation content was reduced from 41.7% to the range of 32.3% to 35.3%. The yields of these oleins were low with the range of 24.8% to 51.8% due to the limitation of the vacuum filtration. Ten kilograms of pilot-scale fractionation with membrane press filter was used to determine the exact olein yield. At T(FN) of 12 degrees C, 67.1% of olein with saturation content of 33.9% was obtained. PMID:19490322

  13. Reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles reduces the risk for milk fat depression and supports milk production and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Jenkins, C J R; Aluthge, N D; Anderson, C; Fernando, S C; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-03-01

    Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, with (mean ± SD) 91 ± 19 d in milk and 595 ± 81 kg were used in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to compare the effects of feeding conventional dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and reduced-fat DDGS (RFDDGS) in combination with rumen-inert fat (RIF) on milk production and rumen fermentation; one square contained rumen cannulated animals for rumen measurements. In each 21-d period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (values on a dry matter basis): (1) control (CON) that contained 0% DDGS; (2) DG contained 30% DDGS; (3) RFDG contained 30% RFDDGS in substitution of DDGS; and (4) RFDG+RIF was similar to RFDG with the addition of 1.9% RIF. Unlike most practical diets in the dairy field, our diets had <22% forage neutral detergent fiber and >18.0% crude protein. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments with any form of DDGS averaging 26.0 ± 0.6 kg/d, whereas the CON diet resulted in less dry matter intake, 21.6 ± 0.6 kg/d. Milk yield tended to be 1.7 kg/d greater for diets with either type of DDGS. Concentration of milk protein was greatest for the DG and RFDG diets, intermediate for the RFDG+RIF diet, and least for the CON diet, namely 3.22, 3.21, 3.12, and 3.07 ± 0.05%. Reduced milk fat percentage and yield were observed when cows consumed the DG diet, 3.27 ± 0.10% and 1.11 ± 0.04 kg/d, respectively, whereas these responses were similar among CON, RFDG, and RFDG+RIF, which averaged 3.68 ± 0.10% and 1.22 ± 0.04 kg/d. The presence of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was only detected in milk from cows consuming the DG diet; similarly, concentration and yield of trans-10 18:1 were greater for cows consuming this diet. Rumen ammonia was similar across treatments averaging 27.0 ± 2.1mg/dL. The CON and RFDG+RIF diets had similar mean pH, 6.1 ± 0.11, whereas DG and RFDG resulted in lower pH averaging 5.79 ± 0.11. No effect on total concentration of volatile

  14. Optimization of a pharmaceutical freeze-dried product and its process using an experimental design approach and innovative process analyzers.

    PubMed

    De Beer, T R M; Wiggenhorn, M; Hawe, A; Kasper, J C; Almeida, A; Quinten, T; Friess, W; Winter, G; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2011-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possibilities/advantages of using recently introduced in-line spectroscopic process analyzers (Raman, NIR and plasma emission spectroscopy), within well-designed experiments, for the optimization of a pharmaceutical formulation and its freeze-drying process. The formulation under investigation was a mannitol (crystalline bulking agent)-sucrose (lyo- and cryoprotector) excipient system. The effects of two formulation variables (mannitol/sucrose ratio and amount of NaCl) and three process variables (freezing rate, annealing temperature and secondary drying temperature) upon several critical process and product responses (onset and duration of ice crystallization, onset and duration of mannitol crystallization, duration of primary drying, residual moisture content and amount of mannitol hemi-hydrate in end product) were examined using a design of experiments (DOE) methodology. A 2-level fractional factorial design (2(5-1)=16 experiments+3 center points=19 experiments) was employed. All experiments were monitored in-line using Raman, NIR and plasma emission spectroscopy, which supply continuous process and product information during freeze-drying. Off-line X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Karl-Fisher titration were performed to determine the morphology and residual moisture content of the end product, respectively. In first instance, the results showed that - besides the previous described findings in De Beer et al., Anal. Chem. 81 (2009) 7639-7649 - Raman and NIR spectroscopy are able to monitor the product behavior throughout the complete annealing step during freeze-drying. The DOE approach allowed predicting the optimum combination of process and formulation parameters leading to the desired responses. Applying a mannitol/sucrose ratio of 4, without adding NaCl and processing the formulation without an annealing step, using a freezing rate of 0.9°C/min and a secondary drying temperature of 40°C resulted in

  15. The effects of temperature, organic matter and time-dependency on rheological properties of dry anaerobic digested swine manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang-Jin; Liu, Yi; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Yun-Hui; Chen, Zi-Ai; Deng, Liang-Wei

    2015-04-01

    An efficient way to avoid the pollution of swine wastewater is the application of dry anaerobic digestion, which needs rheological parameter for stirring and pipe designing. The rheological properties of this kind of sludge have been studied for many decades, yet their effects only solid concentration has been investigated widely. In this paper, the influences of temperature, organic and time-dependency on the efficiency of anaerobic digested swine manure were studied. The viscosity decreased with temperature arranged from 10 to 60 °C which caused increase in protein from 7.18 to 8.49 g/kg. 60 °C can make the digested swine manure with TS from 16.6% to 21.5% reach to the same rheology state. The added peptone decreased the viscosity because of its function of water-reducing admixture and air entraining mixture. Time-dependent experiment showed the decrease of shear stress over time. The first and the second yield stress of dry anaerobic digested swine manure were evaluated through time-dependent model. PMID:25616554

  16. Densitometric thin-layer chromatographic determination of aescin in a herbal medicinal product containing Aesculus and Vitis dry extracts.

    PubMed

    Apers, Sandra; Naessens, Tania; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

    2006-04-21

    A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method is developed to analyze the total saponin content, also referred to as the aescin content, in a herbal medicinal product (HMP) containing two dry extracts in capsules. The capsules contain 250 mg of Aesculus hippocastanum dry extract, 120 mg of Vitis vinifera dry extract and 50mg of excipients. After a purification step using C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the samples are analyzed on a silica-gel HPTLC plate with the upper layer of a mixture of acetic acid/water/butanol (10/40/50 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Spots are visualized by spraying with anisaldehyde reagent and heating the plate for 5-10 min (100-105 degrees C) and measured at a wavelength of 535 nm. This method, applicable for the quality control and stability investigation of both the Aesculus dry extract and HMP capsules thereof containing Vitis dry extract in combination with the Aesculus dry extract, is validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The proposed assay method is specific for aescin in the presence of Vitis dry extract and formulation excipients. Analysis of stressed samples in forced degradation tests proves the method to be applicable for stability evaluation. The standard aescin curve is linear (r > 0.99) over a concentration range of 0.16-0.80 microg/spot. Recovery from the HMP capsules is statistically equal to 100%. The precision of the method with respect to time and concentration is acceptable, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.28 and 1.49%, respectively. PMID:16364347

  17. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object's size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object's bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  18. Prediction of single-cross hybrid performance for grain yield and grain dry matter content in maize using AFLP markers associated with QTL.

    PubMed

    Schrag, T A; Melchinger, A E; Sørensen, A P; Frisch, M

    2006-10-01

    Prediction methods to identify single-cross hybrids with superior yield performance have the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of commercial maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid breeding programs. Our objectives were to (1) identify marker loci associated with quantitative trait loci for hybrid performance or specific combining ability (SCA) in maize, (2) compare hybrid performance prediction by genotypic value estimates with that based on general combining ability (GCA) estimates, and (3) investigate a newly proposed combination of the GCA model with SCA predictions from genotypic value estimates. A total of 270 hybrids was evaluated for grain yield and grain dry matter content in four Dent x Flint factorial mating experiments, their parental inbred lines were genotyped with 20 AFLP primer-enzyme combinations. Markers associated significantly with hybrid performance and SCA were identified, genotypic values and SCA effects were estimated, and four hybrid performance prediction approaches were evaluated. For grain yield, between 38 and 98 significant markers were identified for hybrid performance and between zero and five for SCA. Estimates of prediction efficiency (R (2)) ranged from 0.46 to 0.86 for grain yield and from 0.59 to 0.96 for grain dry matter content. Models enhancing the GCA approach with SCA estimates resulted in the highest prediction efficiency if the SCA to GCA ratio was high. We conclude that it is advantageous for prediction of single-cross hybrids to enhance a GCA-based model with SCA effects estimated from molecular marker data, if SCA variances are of similar or larger importance as GCA variances. PMID:16896712

  19. A feasibility study into the production of a freeze-dried oyster reference material for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Higman, Wendy A; Burrell, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Matrix reference materials are an essential component for the validation and quality control of analytical methodologies for the quantitation of marine biotoxins in shellfish. Given the potential advantages of reference materials in powder form, a study was conducted to assess the feasibility for the production of a freeze-dried oyster tissue reference material containing a range of important paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. One bulk sample of a wet oyster tissue homogenate was generated following mass culturing of toxic Alexandrium and oyster feeding experiments. The bulk tissue was used to prepare untreated wet frozen aliquots with the remainder being freeze-dried and processed into appropriately-sized powder samples. A pre-column oxidation LC-FLD analysis was used to confirm the absence of any chromatographic artefacts resulting from the processing and to confirm acceptable homogeneity of the tissues. Excellent stability over both the short-term (1 month) and long-term (1 year) of the freeze-dried material was demonstrated as compared with the stability of the untreated wet tissue. A post-column oxidation LC-FLD method was used to confirm the absence of toxin epimerisation in freeze-dried tissues which were observed in the wet tissues. Overall the work showed the feasibility of an approach to produce a homogenous freeze-dried oyster matrix material with enhanced stability in comparison to the untreated wet tissue. The potential for use of the process for preparation of large scale production batches of a freeze-dried CRM for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins has therefore been demonstrated. PMID:23922056

  20. Use of cheese whey for biomass production and spray drying of probiotic lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Lavari, Luisina; Páez, Roxana; Cuatrin, Alejandra; Reinheimer, Jorge; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The double use of cheese whey (culture medium and thermoprotectant for spray drying of lactobacilli) was explored in this study for adding value to this wastewater. In-house formulated broth (similar to MRS) and dairy media (cheese and ricotta whey and whey permeate) were assessed for their capacity to produce biomass of Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lb. rhamnosus 64 and Lb. gasseri 37. Simultaneously, spray drying of cheese whey-starch solution (without lactobacilli cells) was optimised using surface response methodology. Cell suspensions of the lactobacilli, produced in in house-formulated broth, were spray-dried in cheese whey-starch solution and viability monitored throughout the storage of powders for 2 months. Lb. rhamnosus 64 was able to grow satisfactorily in at least two of the in-house formulated culture media and in the dairy media assessed. It also performed well in spray drying. The performance of the other strains was less satisfactory. The growth capacity, the resistance to spray drying in cheese whey-starch solution and the negligible lost in viability during the storage (2 months), makes Lb. rhamnosus 64 a promising candidate for further technological studies for developing a probiotic dehydrated culture for foods, utilising wastewaters of the dairy industry (as growth substrate and protectant) and spray drying (a low-cost widely-available technology). PMID:24666842

  1. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    PubMed

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material. PMID:26788308

  2. Microbial Community Responses to Increased Water and Organic Matter in the Arid Soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Heather N; Winter, Ara S; Van Horn, David J; Barrett, John E; Gooseff, Michael N; Schwartz, Egbert; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2016-01-01

    The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are an extreme polar desert, inhabited exclusively by microscopic taxa. This region is on the threshold of anticipated climate change, with glacial melt, permafrost thaw, and the melting of massive buried ice increasing liquid water availability and mobilizing soil nutrients. Experimental water and organic matter (OM) amendments were applied to investigate how these climate change effects may impact the soil communities. To identify active taxa and their functions, total community RNA transcripts were sequenced and annotated, and amended soils were compared with unamended control soils using differential abundance and expression analyses. Overall, taxonomic diversity declined with amendments of water and OM. The domain Bacteria increased with both amendments while Eukaryota declined from 38% of all taxa in control soils to 8 and 11% in water and OM amended soils, respectively. Among bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria (59%) dominated water-amended soils and Firmicutes (45%) dominated OM amended soils. Three bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes) were primarily responsible for the observed positive functional responses, while eukaryotic taxa experienced the majority (27 of 34) of significant transcript losses. These results indicated that as climate changes in this region, a replacement of endemic taxa adapted to dry, oligotrophic conditions by generalist, copiotrophic taxa is likely. PMID:27486436

  3. Microbial Community Responses to Increased Water and Organic Matter in the Arid Soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Buelow, Heather N.; Winter, Ara S.; Van Horn, David J.; Barrett, John E.; Gooseff, Michael N.; Schwartz, Egbert; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.

    2016-01-01

    The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are an extreme polar desert, inhabited exclusively by microscopic taxa. This region is on the threshold of anticipated climate change, with glacial melt, permafrost thaw, and the melting of massive buried ice increasing liquid water availability and mobilizing soil nutrients. Experimental water and organic matter (OM) amendments were applied to investigate how these climate change effects may impact the soil communities. To identify active taxa and their functions, total community RNA transcripts were sequenced and annotated, and amended soils were compared with unamended control soils using differential abundance and expression analyses. Overall, taxonomic diversity declined with amendments of water and OM. The domain Bacteria increased with both amendments while Eukaryota declined from 38% of all taxa in control soils to 8 and 11% in water and OM amended soils, respectively. Among bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria (59%) dominated water-amended soils and Firmicutes (45%) dominated OM amended soils. Three bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes) were primarily responsible for the observed positive functional responses, while eukaryotic taxa experienced the majority (27 of 34) of significant transcript losses. These results indicated that as climate changes in this region, a replacement of endemic taxa adapted to dry, oligotrophic conditions by generalist, copiotrophic taxa is likely. PMID:27486436

  4. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  5. Production of Fe from Fe2O3 using a dry Mechanical Alloying Process

    SciTech Connect

    Waanders, F.B.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A.F.

    2005-04-26

    Mechanical alloying has been, and is still being employed extensively to synthesize a variety of alloy phases. The primary interest is to produce materials for scientific research and technological applications for magnetic recording media and permanent magnetic field devices. In the present investigation however the aim was not to produce a special alloy phases but to prove the viability of the production of iron from naturally occurring hematite, using mechanical alloying. Discard fines from the biggest hematite producer, Kumba Resources, Sishen, South Africa, were obtained and mixed with aluminum powder in the ratio of 25 at.% Al, balance hematite. About 50 g of the hematite-Al mixture, to be mechanically milled, was dry milled in a planetary ball milling equipment. The milling times varied between 30 min. and 30 hours and samples for Moessbauer spectroscopy, SEM analyses and Malvern sizing were obtained for each milling interval. Milling of the fine hematite with the much coarser Al resulted in a mixture with a particle size distribution of d0.5 = 54{mu}m to be extracted from the mill after 30 min. The Moessbauer spectra yielded 93% Fe2O3 and a 7% intermetallic Fe-Al component for this milling period. A final particle size of d0.5 = 20{mu}m for the milled product was obtained after milling for up to 30 h. However, within an hour all the hematite was completely converted to iron ({approx_equal} 86%) and two intermetallic Fe-Al compounds of combined intensity {approx_equal} 14%. The intensity ratio of the two intermetallic Fe-Al alloys that were observed as two doublets, changed after 3 h milling time and the averaged Moessbauer parameters for the two doublets are reported as: D1 = ({delta} = 0.50 {+-} 0.03 mm.s-1 and {delta} = 0.24 {+-} 0.03 mm.s-1) and D2 = ({delta} = 2.07 {+-} 0.03 mm.s-1 and {delta} = 0.98 {+-} 0.03 mm.s-1) respectively.

  6. Alternate Wetting and Drying as an Effective Management Practice to Reduce Methane in Arkansas Rice Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B.; Smith, S. F.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 15% of the global 308 Tg CH4 emitted by anthropogenic sources is currently attributed to rice cultivation. Arkansas, the leading state in rice cultivation, produces over 42% of the total rice and represents over 43% of total land planted to rice in the US. Although rice production is generally water-intensive, some rice producers have adopted a conservation practice, 'Alternate Wetting and Drying' (AWD), in which the flood is released periodically during the growing season. In addition, implementing AWD can reduce CH4 emissions though the introduction of aerobic conditions. To assess the magnitude of this reduction, conventionally flooded (CONV) and AWD fields were identically instrumented for the 2015 season and fluxes of CH4 were measured with an open path IRGA. Other biophysical variables were monitored to determine the relative dominance of potential drivers. Half-hourly CH4 fluxes from the AWD and CONV fields during their similar initial flood (DOY 138-161) were well correlated (R2 = 0.762), indicating similar mechanisms controlling CH4 emissions in both fields. After the initial drydown event in the AWD field (162 DOY), daily median CH4 fluxes continued to rise to 7.80 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 163 DOY before subsiding to a local minimum of 0.162 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 171 DOY. Daily median CH4 fluxes between 9.24 and 16.0 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 were observed in the CONV field during this same period. Cumulative emissions from both fields following the drydown event and prior to rewetting demonstrated a reduction in CH4 emissions by the AWD treatment by 82%. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD in the early growing season supports and expands upon previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in AR rice production. The presentation will also assess the latter portion of the growing season, currently underway, and will provide process-based relationships between biophysical parameters and CH

  7. The influence of soils on heterotrophic respiration exerts a strong control on net ecosystem productivity in seasonally dry Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, J. R.; Shrestha, R. K.; Arora, V. K.

    2014-08-01

    Net ecosystem productivity of carbon (NEP) in seasonally dry forests of the Amazon varies greatly between sites with similar precipitation patterns. Correctly modeling the NEP seasonality with terrestrial ecosystem models has proven difficult. Previous modelling studies have mostly advocated incorporating processes that act to reduce water stress on gross primary productivity (GPP) during the dry season such as including deep soils and roots, plant-mediated hydraulic redistribution of soil moisture, and increased dry season leaf litter generation which reduces leaf age and thus increases photosynthetic capacity. Recent observations, however, indicate that seasonality in heterotrophic respiration also contributes to the observed seasonal cycle of NEP. Here, we use the dynamic vegetation model CLASS-CTEM - without deep soils or roots, hydraulic redistribution of soil moisture or increased dry season litter generation - at two Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment (LBA) sites (Tapajós km 83 and Jarú Reserve). These LBA sites exhibit opposite seasonal NEP cycles despite similar meteorological conditions. Our simulations are able to reproduce the observed NEP seasonality at both sites. Simulated GPP, heterotrophic respiration, latent and sensible heat fluxes, litter fall rate, soil moisture and temperature, and basic vegetation state are also compared with available observation-based estimates which provide confidence that the model overall behaves realistically at the two sites. Our results indicate that appropriately representing the influence of soil texture and depth, through soil moisture, on seasonal patterns of GPP and, especially, heterotrophic respiration is important to correctly simulating NEP seasonality.

  8. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

    2012-06-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

  9. Hydrogen-rich gas production via fast pyrolysis of biophysical dried sludge: Effect of particle size and moisture content on product yields and syngas composition.

    PubMed

    Han, Rong; Liu, Jinwen; Zhao, Chenxi; Li, Yuliang; Chen, Aixia

    2016-06-01

    After biophysical drying, a novel biophysical dried sludge particle was obtained. This work aims to investigate the function and effects of particle sizes and moisture contents on the fast pyrolysis of biophysical dried sludge particles. The results showed that large particles (>4 mm) favoured the oil generation with a maximum value of 19.0%, and small particles (<0.27 mm) favoured the char yield with a maximum value of 60.6%. Medium particle fractions (between 0.27 mm and 4 mm) benefited syngas production and induced higher H2 and CO emission, owing to the well-developed microstructure, enrichment of cellulose, and enhanced catalytic effects during the charring process. The introduction of proper moisture content (53.9% to 62.6%) to biophysical dried sludge was found to dramatically enhance syngas yield, hydrogen production, and carbon conversion efficiency. H2 molar concentration reached a maximum of 46.02% at a moisture content of 53.9%, which was attributed to the steam reforming and steam gasification accompanying the initial biophysical dried sludge pyrolysis. PMID:27118735

  10. Natural Organic Matter as Global Antennae for Primary Production

    PubMed Central

    Van Trump, J. Ian; Rivera Vega, Fransheska J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Humic substances (HS) are high-molecular-weight complex refractory organics that are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic environments. While resistant to microbial degradation, these compounds nevertheless support microbial metabolism via oxidation or reduction of their (hydro)quinone moieties. As such, they are known to be important electron sinks for respiratory and fermentative bacteria and electron sources for denitrifying and perchlorate-reducing bacteria. HS also strongly promote abiotic reduction of Fe(III) when irradiated with light. Here, we show that HS-enhanced Fe(III) photoreduction can also drive chemolithotrophic microbial respiration by producing Fe(II), which functions as a respiratory electron donor. Due to their molecular complexity, HS absorb most of the electromagnetic spectrum and can act as broad-spectrum antennae converting radiant energy into bioavailable chemical energy. The finding that chemolithotrophic organisms can utilize this energy has important implications for terrestrial, and possibly extraterrestrial, microbial processes and offers an alternative mechanism of radiation-driven primary productivity to that of phototrophy. Key Words: Deep subsurface biosphere—Chemolithotrophic microorganisms—Organic matter—Geochemistry—Iron-oxidizing bacteria. Astrobiology 13, 476–482. PMID:23683047

  11. Natural organic matter as global antennae for primary production.

    PubMed

    Van Trump, J Ian; Rivera Vega, Fransheska J; Coates, John D

    2013-05-01

    Humic substances (HS) are high-molecular-weight complex refractory organics that are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic environments. While resistant to microbial degradation, these compounds nevertheless support microbial metabolism via oxidation or reduction of their (hydro)quinone moieties. As such, they are known to be important electron sinks for respiratory and fermentative bacteria and electron sources for denitrifying and perchlorate-reducing bacteria. HS also strongly promote abiotic reduction of Fe(III) when irradiated with light. Here, we show that HS-enhanced Fe(III) photoreduction can also drive chemolithotrophic microbial respiration by producing Fe(II), which functions as a respiratory electron donor. Due to their molecular complexity, HS absorb most of the electromagnetic spectrum and can act as broad-spectrum antennae converting radiant energy into bioavailable chemical energy. The finding that chemolithotrophic organisms can utilize this energy has important implications for terrestrial, and possibly extraterrestrial, microbial processes and offers an alternative mechanism of radiation-driven primary productivity to that of phototrophy. PMID:23683047

  12. Milk production from Holstein half udders after concurrent thirty- and seventy-day dry periods.

    PubMed

    Gulay, M S; Hayen, M J; Head, H H; Wilcox, C J; Bachman, K C

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to use a within-cow, half-udder model to compare the effect of cessation of milk removal from mammary quarters within respective half udders at either 30 or 70 d before expected calving date (ECD) on the ability of the half udders to subsequently produce milk. Pregnant Holstein cows were assigned to control (n = 14) or treatment (TRT, n = 26) groups. All mammary quarters in the udder of cows in the control group had 70-d (68 +/- 9 d) dry periods, whereas in each cow of the TRT group, 1 randomly selected half udder was dried at 70 d before ECD and the other half udder continued to be milked twice daily until dried at 30 d before ECD. From 80 through 70 d before ECD, amounts of milk produced by the left and right half udders of cows in the TRT group were measured at the first-shift milking. No differences were detected in the actual or relative amounts of milk produced by the left (3.46 +/- 0.2 kg; 48.8 +/- 1.0%) and the right (3.63 +/- 0.2 kg; 51.2 +/- 1.0%) half udders. Furthermore, the actual and relative amounts of milk produced by the half udders (n = 12 left, 14 right) subsequently dry for 67 +/- 7 d (3.56 +/- 0.2 kg; 50.2 +/- 1.0%) and the half udders (n = 14 left, 12 right) subsequently dry for 27 +/- 7 d (3.54 +/- 0.2 kg; 49.8 +/- 1.0%) did not differ before they were dried. However, from 3 to 100 d of the subsequent lactation, the 30-d dry half udders produced 18.9% less milk than the 70-d dry half udders (16.3 vs. 20.1 +/- 1.0 kg/d). In addition, relative amounts of total-udder milk produced by the 30- and 70-d dry half udders in the same cow differed (44.9 vs. 55.1 +/- 0.2%, respectively). Cows in the control group produced more milk than cows in the TRT group through 80 DIM (39.5 vs. 35.2 +/- 0.6 kg/d), but not from 3 through 150 DIM (39.0 vs. 36.2 +/- 1.6 kg/d). Thus, half udders that produced the same actual and relative amounts of milk before being dried did not do so when given a 30-d dry period instead of a 70-d dry

  13. 75 FR 81643 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 6,042,998. 75 FR. 44,015 (July 27, 2010). The complaint named two... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and... for ] importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain...

  14. 76 FR 55110 - In the Matter of Certain Gemcitabine and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Lilly and Company (``Lilly''). 76 FR 16445. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of the... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Gemcitabine and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain gemcitabine and...

  15. 75 FR 51481 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Modification Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... FR 25777 (May 7, 2007). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19... efforts and any interactions with U.S. Customs and Border Protection.'' 75 FR 8398 (Feb. 24, 2010). After... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Modification Proceeding...

  16. PHOTOCHEICAL PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYL RADICAL IN NATURAL WATER - THE ROLE OF IRON AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photochemical hydroxyl radical (OH) production was measured in several natural waters to investigate the importance of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and iron-CDOM complexes as sources of OH. High rates of OH photoproduction in highly colored, iron-rich, acidic waters a...

  17. 75 FR 14470 - Enforcement Proceeding; In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... a complaint filed by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (``Samsung'') of Korea. 74 FR 67248. The... COMMISSION Enforcement Proceeding; In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display...

  18. 75 FR 18548 - In the Matter of Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    .... 1337) based on a complaint filed by Amgen, Inc. (``Amgen'') of Thousand Oaks, California. 71 FR 27742... Presidential Memorandum of July 21, 2005, 70 FR. 43251 (July 26, 2005). During this period, the subject... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant...

  19. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide from natural algicides: decomposition organic matter from straw.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Liyin; Yang, Jixiang

    2015-08-01

    The ability of decomposition organic matter from three natural algicides (barley, rice, and wheat straw) and natural organic matter (NOM) isolates to generate hydrogen peroxide under simulated solar irradiation was evaluated in order to understand the mechanism of indirect algae inhibition through a photochemical pathway. Specific optical properties (higher phenolic hydroxyl group contents and lower E2/E3) of barley straw organic matter (BSOM) reveal its outstanding ability to produce H2O2 as a photosensitizer. The appearance of a protein-like structure in BSOM indicated that bacteria or fungi probably transformed the structure of BSOM and brought other organic matter, which may account for its distinct optical properties. The ΦH2O2 of BSOM obtained through aerobic decomposition is 14.73 × 10(-5), which is three times the value of SRHA, whereas the ΦH2O2 value of BSOM obtained for non-aerobic decomposition was 5.30 × 10(-5), still higher than that of SRHA. The ΦH2O2 of rice straw organic matter was slightly lower than those of SRHA and SRFA, but much higher than that of wheat straw organic matter. The superior ability of BSOM to generate H2O2 was partly responsible for the outstanding potential and prior choice of barley straw for cyanobacteria or algae inhibition in various plant decomposition products. PMID:26153543

  20. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Vogel, J.G.; Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S., III

    2008-01-01

    Plant biomass accumulation and productivity are important determinants of ecosystem carbon (C) balance during post-fire succession. In boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, we quantified aboveground plant biomass and net primary productivity (ANPP) for 4 years after a 1999 wildfire in a well-drained (dry) site, and also across a dry and a moderately well-drained (mesic) chronosequence of sites that varied in time since fire (2 to ???116 years). Four years after fire, total biomass at the 1999 burn site had increased exponentially to 160 ?? 21 g m-2 (mean ?? 1SE) and vascular ANPP had recovered to 138 ?? 32 g m-2 y -1, which was not different than that of a nearby unburned stand (160 ?? 48 g m-2 y-1) that had similar pre-fire stand structure and understory composition. Production in the young site was dominated by re-sprouting graminoids, whereas production in the unburned site was dominated by black spruce. On the dry and mesic chronosequences, total biomass pools, including overstory and understory vascular and non-vascular plants, and lichens, increased logarithmically (dry) or linearly (mesic) with increasing site age, reaching a maximum of 2469 ?? 180 (dry) and 4008 ?? 233 g m-2 (mesic) in mature stands. Biomass differences were primarily due to higher tree density in the mesic sites because mass per tree was similar between sites. ANPP of vascular and non-vascular plants increased linearly over time in the mesic chronosequence to 335 ?? 68 g m-2 y -1 in the mature site, but in the dry chronosequence it peaked at 410 ?? 43 g m-2 y-1 in a 15-year-old stand dominated by deciduous trees and shrubs. Key factors regulating biomass accumulation and production in these ecosystems appear to be the abundance and composition of re-sprouting species early in succession, the abundance of deciduous trees and shrubs in intermediate aged stands, and the density of black spruce across all stand ages. A better understanding of the controls

  1. Evaluation of MODIS-LAI products in the tropical dry secondary forest of Mata Seca, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamarte Loreto, Payri Alejandra

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) advances scientific knowledge of the role of secondary forests in forest area conservation. MODIS-LAI products provide an alternative, efficient and cost-effective method for measuring LAI in Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs). The performance of MODIS-LAI satellite products in a TDF was studied as a function of successional stages by (1) estimating seasonal LAI variations compared to in situ LAI values (2) using dry season MODIS-LAI products to estimate Woody Area Index (WAI) (3) estimating phenology changes through comparisons to in situ data. The study demonstrates (1) MODIS-LAI product showed agreement with in situ values with increasing successional stage. (2) MODIS-LAI product showed best agreement to in situ WAI values in the intermediate successional stage. (3) TIMESAT analysis indicated that MODIS-LAI products detected start-of-season 1-2 weeks before in situ values and end-of-season 20-30 days after in situ values, indicating that MODIS-LAI product captures canopy leafing, but is not suitable for detecting senescence. Keywords: Leaf Area Index, Validation, MODIS, Woody Area Index, Phenology, Tropical Secondary Forest Succession, Hemispherical Photography, LAI-2000,.

  2. Soft X-Ray Photoionizing Organic Matter from Comet Wild 2: Evidence for the Production of Organic Matter by Impact Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Jacobsen, C.; Na

    2011-01-01

    The Stardust mission collected both mineral and organic matter from Comet Wild 2 [1,2,3,4]. The organic matter discovered in Comet Wild 2 ranges from aromatic hydrocarbons to simple aliphatic chains and is as diverse and complex as organic matter found in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles.[3,5,6,7,8,9]. Compared to insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites the organic matter in Comet Wild 2 more closely resembles organic matter found in the IDPS both hydrous and anhydrous. Common processes for the formation of organic matter in space include: Fischer-Tropsch, included with this aqueous large body and moderate heating alterations; UV irradiation of ices; and; plasma formation and collisions. The Fischer-Tropsch could only occur on large bodies processes, and the production of organic matter by UV radiation is limited by the penetration depth of UV photons, on the order of a few microns or less for most organic matter, so once organic matter coats the ices it is formed from, the organic production process would stop. Also, the organic matter formed by UV irradiation would, by the nature of the process, be in-sensitive to photodissocation from UV light. The energy of soft X-rays, 280-300 eV occur within the range of extreme ultraviolet photons. During the preliminary examination period we found a particle that nearly completely photoionized when exposed to photons in the energy range 280-310eV. This particle experienced a long exposure time to the soft x-ray beam which caused almost complete mass loss so little chemical information was obtain. During the analysis of our second allocation we have discovered another particle that photoionized at these energies but the exposure time was limited and more chemical information was obtained.

  3. Dry-bean production under climate change conditions in the north of Argentina: Risk assessment and economic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Feijoo, M.; Mestre, F.; Castagnaro, A.

    1997-12-31

    This study evaluates the potential effect of climate change on Dry-bean production in Argentina, combining climate models, a crop productivity model and a yield response model estimation of climate variables on crop yields. The study was carried out in the North agricultural regions of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Tucuman which include the largest areas of Argentina where dry beans are grown as a high input crop. The paper combines the output from a crop model with different techniques of analysis. The scenarios used in this study were generated from the output of two General Circulation Models (GCMs): the Goddard Institute for Space Studies model (GISS) and the Canadian Climate Change Model (CCCM). The study also includes a preliminary evaluation of the potential changes in monetary returns taking into account the possible variability of yields and prices, using mean-Gini stochastic dominance (MGSD). The results suggest that large climate change may have a negative impact on the Argentine agriculture sector, due to the high relevance of this product in the export sector. The difference negative effect depends on the varieties of dry bean and also the General Circulation Model scenarios considered for double levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  4. 76 FR 14687 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... importation of certain semiconductor chips and products containing the same. The Commission's notice...

  5. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi Production: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Transverse Momentum Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, E.G.; Fleuret, F.; Lansberg, J.P.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2010-08-26

    Cold nuclear matter effects on J/{psi} production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are evaluated taking into account the specific J/{psi}-production kinematics at the partonic level, the shadowing of the initial parton distributions and the absorption in the nuclear matter. We consider two different parton processes for the c{bar c}-pair production: one with collinear gluons and a recoiling gluon in the final state and the other with initial gluons carrying intrinsic transverse momentum. Our results are compared to RHIC observables. The smaller values of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in the forward rapidity region (with respect to the mid rapidity region) are partially explained, therefore potentially reducing the need for recombination effects.

  6. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    PubMed

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed

    2016-06-15

    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction. PMID:26868572

  7. Effects of sun and freeze-drying techniques on molecular, fatty acid and therapeutic properties of fermented goat milk product.

    PubMed

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Al-Rabadi, Ghaid J; Althnaibat, Rami M; Ereifej, Khalil; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Al-Ismail, Khaild; Brewer, Susan

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of sun drying (Sd) and freeze drying (Fd) on the chemical, nutritional and biological properties of either unsalted (Us) or salted (Sa) Jameed produced from goat milk. The products were characterized by measuring the chemical, physical and biological properties. SDS-PAGE was used to characterize the effect of processing conditions on protein subunits. Major new bands were found in SDS-PAGE of Jameed prepared by SdUs and FdUs from goat milk but not from that prepared by SdSa and FdSa. Preparation of Jameed by with or without salt treatments of Jameed by sun drying enhances the contents of short chain fatty acids. Result showed that the preparation of Jameed by SdUs decreased the content of caprylic acid. That prepared by sun drying and with or without salt increased the stability, shelf life and inhibitory activities of ACE and α-amylase. The optimum color values were found in Jameed prepared by FdSa. Different processing treatments influenced content of all fatty acids except for margaric and oleic acid. PMID:26345018

  8. Development of volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón," a Spanish traditional meat product.

    PubMed

    Purriños, Laura; Bermúdez, Roberto; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-01-01

    Volatile compounds were determined throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón," a traditional dry-salted, and ripened meat product made in the north-west of Spain from the foreleg of the pig following a similar process to that of dry-cured ham. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry. One hundred and two volatile compounds were identified. In raw material, only 34 volatile compounds were found and at very low levels. The number of volatile compounds increased during processing. The substances identified belonged to several chemical classes: aldehydes (23), alcohols (9), ketones (15), hydrocarbons (37), esters (4), acids (3), furans (4), sulphur compounds (1), chloride compounds (1), and other compounds (4). Results indicated that the most abundant chemical family in flavor at the end of the manufacturing process was aldehydes, followed by hydrocarbons and ketones. Lipids were the most important precursor of flavor compounds of dry-cured "lacón." PMID:21535660

  9. Development strategies for herbal products reducing the influence of natural variance in dry mass on tableting properties and tablet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Qusaj, Ylber; Leng, Andreas; Alshihabi, Firas; Krasniqi, Blerim; Vandamme, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    One "Quality by Design" approach is the focus on the variability of the properties of the active substance. This is crucially important for active substances that are obtained from natural resources such as herbal plant material and extracts. In this paper, we present various strategies for the development of herbal products especially taking into account the natural batch-to-batch variability (mainly of the dry mass) of tablets that contain a fixed amount of tincture. The following steps in the development have been evaluated for the outcome of the physico-chemical properties of the resulting tablets and intermediates: concentration of the tincture extracted from Echinacea fresh plant, loading of the concentrate onto an inert carrier, the respective wet granulation and drying step, including milling, and the adjuvant excipients for the tablet compression step. The responses that were investigated are the mean particle size of the dried and milled granulates, compaction properties and disintegration time of the tablets. Increased particle size showed a significant increase of the disintegration time and a decrease of the compaction properties. In addition, our results showed that the particle size has a great dependency on the ratio of liquid to carrier during the wet granulation process. Thus, the variability of the respective parameters tested was influenced by the performed strategies, which is how the tincture correlated to its dry mass and the relation of the amount of carrier used. In order to optimize these parameters, a strategy considering the above-mentioned points has to be chosen. PMID:24300367

  10. Polymorphisms in POMC are not associated with dry matter intake and average daily gain phenotypes in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of feed for beef cattle is the largest expense incurred by cattle producers. The ability to genetically select for more efficient animals that require less feed while still achieving acceptable levels of production will result in a substantial cost savings. The purpose of this study was to ...

  11. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  12. Separation, fractionation, concentration and drying of food products: Technology progress report, October 1, 1984-March 3, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, W. W.; Pederson, L. D.; Merlo, C. A.; Brewbaker, P. L.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the first and second phases of a three phase project, the object of which is to develop energy efficient separation, concentration, and drying processes for food products, especially juice products, in order to reduce energy requirements and their associated costs for processing, preservation, and transportation. Presently in juice processing, much water is eliminated through evaporation. However, there are significant limits to the current evaporation technology. If, however, the juice could be separated, prior to evaporation, into liquid and solid fractions, and the liquid concentrated further, the containerization and transportation costs could be significantly reduced. Separation methods investigated in this project are: vacuum filtration, centrifugation, and crossflow microfiltration.

  13. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Capuco, Anthony V; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Grossi, Paolo; Choudhary, Ratan K; Vanzant, Eric S; Elsasser, Theodore H; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio; Aiken, Glen E; McLeod, Kyle R

    2016-09-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming these grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation, and milk production. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups. Starting at 90±4 d prepartum, cows were fed endophyte-free fescue seed (control; CON), endophyte-free fescue seed plus 3×/wk subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine (0.1mg/kg of body weight, positive control; BROMO), or endophyte-infected fescue seed (INF) as 10% of the diet on an as fed basis. Although milk yield of groups did not differ before treatment, at dry off (-60 d prepartum) INF and BROMO cows produced less milk than CON. Throughout the treatment period, basal concentrations of PRL and the prepartum increase in plasma PRL were reduced in INF and BROMO cows compared with CON cows. Three weeks after the end of treatment, circulating concentrations of PRL were equivalent across groups. In the subsequent lactation milk yield was not decreased; in fact, BROMO cows exhibited a 9% increase in milk yield relative to CON. Evaluation of mammary tissue during the dry period and the subsequent lactation, by quantitative histology and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation markers and putative mammary stem or progenitor cell markers, indicated that feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed did not significantly affect mammary growth and development. Feeding endophyte-infected grasses during the dry period may permit effective utilization of feed resources without compromising milk production in the next lactation. PMID:27320660

  14. Advantages and challenges of the spray-drying technology for the production of pure drug particles and drug-loaded polymeric carriers.

    PubMed

    Sosnik, Alejandro; Seremeta, Katia P

    2015-09-01

    Spray-drying is a rapid, continuous, cost-effective, reproducible and scalable process for the production of dry powders from a fluid material by atomization through an atomizer into a hot drying gas medium, usually air. Often spray-drying is considered only a dehydration process, though it also can be used for the encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds within different carriers without substantial thermal degradation, even of heat-sensitive substances due to fast drying (seconds or milliseconds) and relatively short exposure time to heat. The solid particles obtained present relatively narrow size distribution at the submicron-to-micron scale. Generally, the yield% of spray-drying at laboratory scale with conventional spray-dryers is not optimal (20-70%) due to the loss of product in the walls of the drying chamber and the low capacity of the cyclone to separate fine particles (<2 μm). Aiming to overcome this crucial drawback in early development stages, new devices that enable the production of submicron particles with high yield, even for small sample amounts, have been introduced into the market. This review describes the most outstanding advantages and challenges of the spray-drying method for the production of pure drug particles and drug-loaded polymeric particles and discusses the potential of this technique and the more advanced equipment to pave the way toward reproducible and scalable processes that are critical to the bench-to-bedside translation of innovative pharmaceutical products. PMID:26043877

  15. FIBER SEPARATED FROM DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES AS A FEEDSTOCK FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION TO INCREASE OUTPUT FROM DRY GRIND CORN PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the dry grind process, corn starch is converted into sugars which are fermented into ethanol. The remaining corn components (protein, fiber, fat, and ash) form coproduct, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification), known as elus...

  16. Gravitational induced particle production through a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, José P.; Pavón, Diego

    2015-08-01

    We consider the possibility of a gravitationally induced particle production through the mechanism of a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling. An interesting feature of this gravitational theory is that the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor is nonzero. As a first step in our study we reformulate the model in terms of an equivalent scalar-tensor theory, with two arbitrary potentials. By using the formalism of open thermodynamic systems, we interpret the energy balance equations in this gravitational theory from a thermodynamic point of view, as describing irreversible matter creation processes. The particle number creation rates, the creation pressure, and the entropy production rates are explicitly obtained as functions of the scalar field and its potentials, as well as of the matter Lagrangian. The temperature evolution laws of the newly created particles are also obtained. The cosmological implications of the model are briefly investigated, and it is shown that the late-time cosmic acceleration may be due to particle creation processes. Furthermore, it is also shown that due to the curvature-matter coupling, during the cosmological evolution a large amount of comoving entropy is also produced.

  17. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    PubMed

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production. PMID:26897414

  18. NANOPARTICLES. Production of amorphous nanoparticles by supersonic spray-drying with a microfluidic nebulator.

    PubMed

    Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O; Brenner, Michael P; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A

    2015-08-28

    Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules. PMID:26315432

  19. Microlens array production in a microtechnological dry etch and reflow process for display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knieling, T.; Shafi, M.; Lang, W.; Benecke, W.

    2012-03-01

    The fabrication of arrays consisting of densely ordered circular convex microlenses with diameters of 126 mum made of quartz glass in a photoresist reflow and dry etch structure transition process is demonstrated. The rectangular lens arrays with dimensions of 6 mm x 9 mm were designed for focussing collimated light on the pixel center regions of a translucent interference display, which also was produced in microtechnological process steps. The lenses focus light on pixel centers and thus serve for increasing display brightness and contrast since incoming collimated light is partially blocked by opaque metallic ring contacts at the display pixel edges. The focal lengths of the lenses lie between 0.46 mm and 2.53 mm and were adjusted by varying ratio of the selective dry etch rate of photoresist and quartz glass. Due to volume shrinking and edge line pinning of the photoresist structures the lenses curvatures emerge hyperbolic, leading to improved focussing performance.

  20. Production of amorphous nanoparticles by supersonic spray-drying with a microfluidic nebulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Brenner, Michael P.; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules.

  1. Ochratoxin A in dried grapes and grape-derived products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Ayse Sibel; Ozden, Sibel; Alpertunga, Buket

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin and widespread food contaminant which results in a probable human exposure. A total of 85 samples (50 dried grapes, 10 grape juices and 25 pekmez (boiled and concentrated grape juices) were collected from different supermarkets and traditional bazaars in Istanbul during 2008-2009. An analytical method based on immuno-affinity column for clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection was used to determine the OTA. Contamination frequencies were 8%, 20% and 88% with mean concentrations of positive samples of 1.15, 1.40 and 2.04 µg/kg for dried grapes, grape juices and pekmez samples, respectively. These levels were lower than the maximum levels as set by the European Commission (EC). However, 12 of 25 pekmez samples had higher levels than permitted by the European Union (EU) for safe consumption. PMID:24779935

  2. Dry particle coating of polymer particles for tailor-made product properties

    SciTech Connect

    Blümel, C. Schmidt, J. Dielesen, A. Sachs, M. Winzer, B. Peukert, W. Wirth, K.-E.

    2014-05-15

    Disperse polymer powders with tailor-made particle properties are of increasing interest in industrial applications such as Selective Laser Beam Melting processes (SLM). This study focuses on dry particle coating processes to improve the conductivity of the insulating polymer powder in order to assemble conductive devices. Therefore PP particles were coated with Carbon Black nanoparticles in a dry particle coating process. This process was investigated in dependence of process time and mass fraction of Carbon Black. The conductivity of the functionalized powders was measured by impedance spectroscopy. It was found that there is a dependence of process time, respectively coating ratio and conductivity. The powder shows higher conductivities with increasing number of guest particles per host particle surface area, i.e. there is a correlation between surface functionalization density and conductivity. The assembled composite particles open new possibilities for processing distinct polymers such as PP in SLM process. The fundamentals of the dry particle coating process of PP host particles with Carbon Black guest particles as well as the influence on the electrical conductivity will be discussed.

  3. Dry particle coating of polymer particles for tailor-made product properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümel, C.; Schmidt, J.; Dielesen, A.; Sachs, M.; Winzer, B.; Peukert, W.; Wirth, K.-E.

    2014-05-01

    Disperse polymer powders with tailor-made particle properties are of increasing interest in industrial applications such as Selective Laser Beam Melting processes (SLM). This study focuses on dry particle coating processes to improve the conductivity of the insulating polymer powder in order to assemble conductive devices. Therefore PP particles were coated with Carbon Black nanoparticles in a dry particle coating process. This process was investigated in dependence of process time and mass fraction of Carbon Black. The conductivity of the functionalized powders was measured by impedance spectroscopy. It was found that there is a dependence of process time, respectively coating ratio and conductivity. The powder shows higher conductivities with increasing number of guest particles per host particle surface area, i.e. there is a correlation between surface functionalization density and conductivity. The assembled composite particles open new possibilities for processing distinct polymers such as PP in SLM process. The fundamentals of the dry particle coating process of PP host particles with Carbon Black guest particles as well as the influence on the electrical conductivity will be discussed.

  4. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 6

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H.; Wild, M.P.; Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S.; Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty five Southern pine boards were machined into 2 x 4 inch pieces. Next, the 8 foot boards were cut in half into matched pairs. One of the two was irradiated with RF, while the other served as a control. Both sets were dried under a conventional temperature-time based schedule. Results and conclusions are: RF pretreatment of lumber does not affect strength; the amount of pinene lost into the headspace during low-VOC RF-treatment of wood approximately corresponds to the amount of material lost from the wood; virtually all the pinene can be removed from the low-VOC reactor with steam, suggesting that pinene can be collected when the small amount of steam released during low-headspace treatment is condensed; temperature and moisture loss profiles for particle at 105 C has been modeled using experimental data at 130 C and 160 C; the VOC-temperature curve from dried particle shows a break at about 156 C, the boiling point of {alpha}-pinene, demonstrating that pinene boil-off occurs beyond this threshold; VOC release from dry particle has been successfully modeled; the transport of VOC from sapwood to the atmosphere for pine is faster than the corresponding movement from heartwood to sapwood; and seasonal variations in pine extractives are small.

  5. The influence of soils on heterotrophic respiration exerts a strong control on net ecosystem productivity in seasonally dry Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, J. R.; Shrestha, R. K.; Arora, V. K.

    2015-02-01

    Net ecosystem productivity of carbon (NEP) in seasonally dry forests of the Amazon varies greatly between sites with similar precipitation patterns. Correctly modeling the NEP seasonality with terrestrial ecosystem models has proven difficult. Previous modelling studies have mostly advocated for incorporating processes that act to reduce water stress on gross primary productivity (GPP) during the dry season, such as deep soils and roots, plant-mediated hydraulic redistribution of soil moisture, and increased dry season leaf litter generation which reduces leaf age and thus increases photosynthetic capacity. Recent observations, however, indicate that seasonality in heterotrophic respiration also contributes to the observed seasonal cycle of NEP. Here, we use the dynamic vegetation model CLASS-CTEM (Canadian Land Surface Scheme-Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model) - without deep soils or roots, hydraulic redistribution of soil moisture, or increased dry season litter generation - at two Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment (LBA) sites (Tapajós km 83 and Jarú Reserve). These LBA sites exhibit opposite seasonal NEP cycles despite reasonably similar meteorological conditions. Our simulations are able to reproduce the observed NEP seasonality at both sites. Simulated GPP, heterotrophic respiration, latent and sensible heat fluxes, litter fall rate, soil moisture and temperature, and basic vegetation state are also compared with available observation-based estimates which provide confidence that overall the model behaves realistically at the two sites. Our results indicate that representing the effect of soil moisture on heterotrophic respiration in terms of soil matric potential and constraining heterotrophic respiration when absolute soil matric potential is both low (wetter soils) and high (drier soils), with optimum conditions in between, allows %appropriately representing the influence of soil texture and depth, %through soil moisture, on seasonal patterns

  6. Significant anaerobic production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the deep East Sea (Sea of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) was examined by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Humic-like FDOM (FDOMH) increased with depth and was significantly correlated with Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU), indicating that FDOMH in the deep water is mainly produced by oxidation of organic matter. In addition, a surprisingly large excess of FDOMH relative to that expected from the observed AOU was found from 1000 m to the bottom (up to 3500 m). Based on the high-resolution geographical distribution and characteristics of FDOM in the East Sea, we conclude that this excess likely originates from anaerobic FDOMH production in subsurface bottom sediments. This FDOMH flux accounts for 8-15% of the total FDOM production in the water column. Our results suggest that anaerobic activities in subsurface sediments are an important hidden source of FDOM in the ocean.

  7. Sterile neutrino dark matter production in the neutrino-phillic two Higgs doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adulpravitchai, Adisorn; Schmidt, Michael A.

    2015-12-01

    Sterile Neutrinos with a mass in the keV range form a good candidate for dark matter. They are naturally produced from neutrino oscillations via their mixing with the active neutrinos. However the production via non-resonant neutrino oscillations has recently been ruled out. The alternative production via Higgs decay is negligibly small compared to neutrino oscillations. We show that in the neutrino-phillic two Higgs doublet model, the contribution from Higgs decay can dominate over the contribution from neutrino oscillations and evade all constraints. We also study the free-streaming horizon and find that a sterile neutrino mass in the range of 4 to 53 keV leads to warm dark matter.

  8. Subdominant Dark Matter sterile neutrino resonant production in the light of PLANCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, L. A.; Tonoiu, D.

    2015-09-01

    Few independent detections of a weak X-ray line at an energy of ~ 3.5 keV seen toward a number of astrophysical sites have been reported. If this signal will be confirmed to be the signature of decaying DM sterile neutrino with a mass of ~ 7.1 keV, then the cosmological observables should be consistent with its properties. In this paper we make a coupled treatment of the weak decoupling, primordial nucleosynthesis and photon decoupling epochs in the sterile neutrino resonant production scenario, including the extra radiation energy density via Neff. We compute the radiation and matter perturbations including the full resonance sweep solution for να/bar nuα → νs flavor conversion in the expanding Universe.We show that the cosmological measurements are in agreement with subdominant Dark Matter sterile neutrino resonant production with following parameters (errors at 95% CL): mass mνs=6.08 ± 3.22 keV, mixing angle sin2 2θ < 5.61 × 10-10, lepton number per flavor L4 = 1.23 ± 0.04 (L4 ≡ 104 Lνa) and sterile neutrino mass fraction fνs< 0.078.Our results are in good agreement with the sterile neutrino resonant production parameters inferred in ref. [1] from the linear large scale structure constraints to produce full Dark Matter density.

  9. THE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF THE DIET OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) IS BETTER ASSESSED RELATIVE TO METABOLIZABLE ENERGY THAN DRY MATTER.

    PubMed

    Ardente, Amanda J; Hill, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Nutrient concentrations in a diet can be expressed either "as fed," relative to dry matter (DM), or relative to metabolizable energy (ME). Most published literature evaluates the diet of dolphins by comparing nutrient content relative to DM. Nevertheless, ME requirements, not DM, determine how much food dolphins need to maintain their body condition. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate why it is important to calculate the ME content of fish fed to dolphins and compare nutrient concentrations in dolphin diets relative to ME, not DM. Two studies that compared the nutrient composition of fish species on a DM basis were reevaluated. The ME content of each fish species was calculated and found to vary widely among species, from 0.94 to 1.58 Mcal/kg as fed. Water, mineral, and fat concentrations relative to ME also varied markedly among fish species. To demonstrate the magnitude of nutrient content differences between fish, the percent change in nutrient concentration for each species was calculated relative to herring. The percent changes for DM and ME analyses were then compared. Percent change in nutrient concentration was either over- or underestimated on a DM basis when compared with the percent change on an ME basis. Notable discrepancies were evident among important nutrients, such as crude protein, water, and sodium. Caretakers of managed dolphins must account for differences in energy density when deciding how much to feed and assessing the nutrient composition of the diet. PMID:26056869

  10. Grazing behaviour and dry matter intake of llamas (Lama glama) and German black- head mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) under Central European conditions.

    PubMed

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Gauly, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the behaviour of llamas (Lama glama) and German blackhead mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) when kept under Central European grazing conditions. In total, six adult female sheep and six adult female llamas were observed by direct observation during one week, in which each group was observed for a total time of 24 h. The animals were kept on the same pasture, but the species were raised in separate plots. Forage height before and after the experimental period were determined using a rising plate meter to calculate the average daily dry matter intake (DMI). Llamas had a daily DMI of 0.85%/BW and sheep of 1.04%/BW, respectively. The following behaviours were recorded by direct observation: grazing standing up, grazing lying down, ruminating standing up, ruminating lying down, lying down, lying down lateral and standing. Both species grazed for more than 50% of the time. Ruminating was predominantly performed while standing and lying by sheep (about 50% of the night and 12% of the day) and while lying by llamas (54% of the night and 10% of the day). In conclusion, sheep and llamas differed in grazing behaviour and daily biorhythm. These differences indicate that sheep and llamas may not synchronize their behaviour when co-grazed, though particularly in co-grazing studies the observation period should be extended. PMID:26591388

  11. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  12. Production of microparticles of molinate degrading biocatalysts using the spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana R; Sousa, Vera M; Estevinho, Berta N; Leite, José P; Moreira, Nuno F F; Gales, Luís; Rocha, Fernando; Nunes, Olga C

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the capability of mixed culture DC1 to mineralize the thiocarbamate herbicide molinate through the activity of molinate hydrolase (MolA). Because liquid suspensions are not compatible with long-term storage and are not easy to handle when bioremediation strategies are envisaged, in this study spray drying was evaluated as a cost-effective method to store and transport these molinate biocatalysts. Microparticles of mixed culture DC1 (DC1) and of cell free crude extracts containing MolA (MA) were obtained without any carrier polymer, and with calcium alginate (CA) or modified chitosan (MCt) as immobilizing agents. All the DC1 microparticles showed high molinate degrading activity upon storage for 6 months, or after 9 additions of ∼0.4 mM molinate over 1 month. The DC1-MCt microparticles were those with the highest survival rate and lowest heterogeneity. For MA microparticles, only MA-MCt degraded molinate. However, its Vmax was only 1.4% of that of the fresh cell free extract (non spray dried). The feasibility of using the DC1-MCt and MA-MCt microparticles in bioaugmentation processes was assessed in river water microcosms, using mass (g):volume (L) ratios of 1:13 and 1:0.25, respectively. Both type of microparticles removed ∼65-75% of the initial 1.5 mg L(-1) molinate, after 7 days of incubation. However, only DC1-MCt microparticles were able to degrade this environmental concentration of molinate without disturbing the native bacterial community. These results suggest that spray drying can be successfully used to produce DC1-MCt microparticles to remediate molinate polluted sites through a bioaugmentation strategy. PMID:27421102

  13. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in heat stressed group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  14. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in heat stressed group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes. PMID:26232368

  15. Dark matter production from Goldstone boson interactions and implications for direct searches and dark radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Ibarra, Alejandro; Molinaro, Emiliano E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de

    2013-11-01

    The stability of the dark matter particle could be attributed to the remnant Z{sub 2} symmetry that arises from the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry. This plausible scenario contains a Goldstone boson which, as recently shown by Weinberg, is a strong candidate for dark radiation. We show in this paper that this Goldstone boson, together with the CP-even scalar associated to the spontaneous breaking of the global U(1) symmetry, plays a central role in the dark matter production. Besides, the mixing of the CP-even scalar with the Standard Model Higgs boson leads to novel Higgs decay channels and to interactions with nucleons, thus opening the possibility of probing this scenario at the LHC and in direct dark matter search experiments. We carefully analyze the latter possibility and we show that there are good prospects to observe a signal at the future experiments LUX and XENON1T provided the dark matter particle was produced thermally and has a mass larger than ∼ 25 GeV.

  16. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  17. Quality by design in formulation and process development for a freeze-dried, small molecule parenteral product: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mockus, Linas N; Paul, Timothy W; Pease, Nathan A; Harper, Nancy J; Basu, Prabir K; Oslos, Elizabeth A; Sacha, Gregory A; Kuu, Wei Y; Hardwick, Lisa M; Karty, Jacquelyn J; Pikal, Michael J; Hee, Eun; Khan, Mansoor A; Nail, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    A case study has been developed to illustrate one way of incorporating a Quality by Design approach into formulation and process development for a small molecule, freeze-dried parenteral product. Sodium ethacrynate was chosen as the model compound. Principal degradation products of sodium ethacrynate result from hydrolysis of the unsaturated ketone in aqueous solution, and dimer formation from a Diels-Alder condensation in the freeze-dried solid state. When the drug crystallizes in a frozen solution, the eutectic melting temperature is above -5°C. Crystallization in the frozen system is affected by pH in the range of pH 6-8 and buffer concentration in the range of 5-50 mM, where higher pH and lower buffer concentration favor crystallization. Physical state of the drug is critical to solid state stability, given the relative instability of amorphous drug. Stability was shown to vary considerably over the ranges of pH and buffer concentration examined, and vial-to-vial variability in degree of crystallinity is a potential concern. The formulation design space was constructed in terms of pH and drug concentration, and assuming a constant 5 mM concentration of buffer. The process design space is constructed to take into account limitations on the process imposed by the product and by equipment capability. PMID:21932931

  18. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    On September 30, 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Souther Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines``. Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a ``paste`` mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a surface demonstration-test of both technologies. During the current quarter the main thrust was to develop the equipment necessary for the program. Shop drawings were completed for the pneumatic placement equipment, and purchase orders issued for many of the component parts. The final pneumatic placement system will be assembled in the SIUC Carterville facility.

  20. Development Strategies for Herbal Products Reducing the Influence of Natural Variance in Dry Mass on Tableting Properties and Tablet Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Qusaj, Ylber; Leng, Andreas; Alshihabi, Firas; Krasniqi, Blerim; Vandamme, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    One “Quality by Design” approach is the focus on the variability of the properties of the active substance. This is crucially important for active substances that are obtained from natural resources such as herbal plant material and extracts. In this paper, we present various strategies for the development of herbal products especially taking into account the natural batch-to-batch variability (mainly of the dry mass) of tablets that contain a fixed amount of tincture. The following steps in the development have been evaluated for the outcome of the physico-chemical properties of the resulting tablets and intermediates: concentration of the tincture extracted from Echinacea fresh plant, loading of the concentrate onto an inert carrier, the respective wet granulation and drying step, including milling, and the adjuvant excipients for the tablet compression step. The responses that were investigated are the mean particle size of the dried and milled granulates, compaction properties and disintegration time of the tablets. Increased particle size showed a significant increase of the disintegration time and a decrease of the compaction properties. In addition, our results showed that the particle size has a great dependency on the ratio of liquid to carrier during the wet granulation process. Thus, the variability of the respective parameters tested was influenced by the performed strategies, which is how the tincture correlated to its dry mass and the relation of the amount of carrier used. In order to optimize these parameters, a strategy considering the above-mentioned points has to be chosen. PMID:24300367

  1. Changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production and absorption rate during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Schonewille, J T; Bannink, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to study changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using an isotope dilution technique, and changes in VFA fractional absorption rate (kaVFA) using a buffer incubation technique (BIT) during the dry period and early lactation, as affected by the postpartum (pp) rate of increase of concentrate allowance. The current results are complementary to previously reported changes on rumen papillae morphology from the same experiment. From 50 d antepartum to 80 d pp, VFA production rate was measured 5 times and kaVFA was measured 10 times in 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian cows. Cows had free access to a mixed ration, consisting of grass and corn silage, soybean meal, and (dry period only) chopped straw. Treatment consisted of either a rapid (RAP; 1.0 kg of DM/d; n=6) or gradual (GRAD; 0.25 kg of DM/d; n=6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of DM/d), starting at 4 d pp, aimed at creating a contrast in rumen-fermentable organic matter intake. For the BIT, rumen contents were evacuated, the rumen washed, and a standardized buffer fluid introduced [120 mM VFA, 60% acetic (Ac), 25% propionic (Pr), and 15% butyric (Bu) acid; pH 5.9 and Co-EDTA as fluid passage marker]. For the isotope dilution technique, a pulse-dose of (13)C-labeled Ac, Pr, and Bu and Co-EDTA as fluid passage marker was infused. The rate of total VFA production was similar between treatments and was 2 times higher during the lactation (114 mol/d) than the dry period (53 mol/d). Although papillae surface area at 16, 30, and 44 d pp was greater in RAP than GRAD, Bu and Ac production at these days did not differ between RAP and GRAD, whereas at 16 d pp RAP produced more Pr than GRAD. These results provide little support for the particular proliferative effects of Bu on papillae surface area. Similar to developments in papillae surface area in the dry period and early lactation, the kaVFA (per hour), measured using the BIT, decreased from 0.45 (Ac), 0

  2. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  3. Dark matter production mechanisms with a nonthermal cosmological history: A classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Nelson, Brent D.; Zheng, Bob

    2016-03-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of models of dark matter (DM) in a Universe with a nonthermal cosmological history, i.e. with a phase of pressureless matter domination before the onset of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Such cosmological histories are generically predicted by UV completions that contain gravitationally coupled scalar fields (moduli). We classify the different production mechanisms for DM in this framework, generalizing previous works by considering a wide range of DM masses/couplings and allowing for DM to be in equilibrium with a "dark" sector. We identify four distinct parametric regimes for the production of relic DM, and derive accurate semianalytic approximations for the DM relic abundance. Our results are particularly relevant for supersymmetric theories, in which the standard nonthermally produced DM candidates are disfavored by indirect-detection constraints. We also comment on experimental signals in this framework, focusing on novel effects involving the power spectrum of DM density perturbations. In particular, we identify a class of models where the spectrum of DM density perturbations is sensitive to the pressureless matter-dominated era before BBN, giving rise to interesting astrophysical signatures to be looked for in the future. A worthwhile future direction would be to study well-motivated theoretical models within this framework and carry out detailed studies of the pattern of expected experimental signals.

  4. Production of potassium manganate and barium manganate from spent zinc-MnO2 dry cells via fusion with potassium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha, Renan Azevedo; Quintanilha, Carolina Leão; Lanxin, Thayná Viana; Afonso, Júlio Carlos; Vianna, Cláudio Augusto; Gante, Valdir; Mantovano, José Luiz

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a route for extracting manganese and zinc from spent zinc-manganese dioxide dry cells via fusion of the electroactive components with potassium hydroxide to form potassium manganate (K2MnO4) and soluble zincates. The fused mass was dissolved in aqueous KOH and the insoluble matter was separated. Under the best optimal conditions, 70-78 wt% of manganese was solubilized as K2MnO4 whereas 30-44 wt% of zinc was solubilized as [Zn(OH)4]2- ions. Lead was the only minor component dissolved in detectable amounts. Manganese was isolated by a one-step precipitation procedure as barium manganate (BaMnO4) or via crystallization of K2MnO4. Lead and excess barium were isolated as sulfate by adding K2SO4. Zinc was precipitated as hydroxide after neutralizing the alkaline solution with H2SO4. pH control is essential to avoid decomposition of manganate ions and for the sequential precipitation of leached elements. K2SO4 was partially recovered as by-product after partial evaporation of the neutralized solution.

  5. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P < 0.05). The LD group consumed 1.3 kg/d (DM) more diet compared with HD group in the last 24 h before calving. The milk yield and the postpartum DMI were increased by the reduced energy density diet prepartum (P < 0.05). The changes in BCS and BW prepartum and postpartum were not affected by prepartum diets. HD group had higher milk fat content and lower lactose content compared with LD group during the first 3 wk of lactation (P < 0.05). The energy consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P < 0.05), and 72.7%, 73.1% and 75.2% during the first 4 wk postpartum, respectively. In conclusion, the low energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum. PMID:24976969

  6. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9 [January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S.; Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  7. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S.; Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  8. Estimation of aboveground net primary productivity in secondary tropical dry forests using the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach (CASA) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, GA; Duran, SM; Calvo-Rodriguez, S.

    2016-07-01

    Although tropical dry forests (TDFs) cover roughly 42% of all tropical ecosystems, extensive deforestation and habitat fragmentation pose important limitations for their conservation and restoration worldwide. In order to develop conservation policies for this endangered ecosystem, it is necessary to quantify their provision of ecosystems services such as carbon sequestration and primary production. In this paper we explore the potential of the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach (CASA) for estimating aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a secondary TDF located at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. We calculated ANPP using the CASA model (ANPPCASA) in three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late). Each stage has a stand age of 21 years, 32 years, and 50+ years, respectively, estimated as the age since land abandonment. Our results showed that the ANPPCASA for early, intermediate, and late successional stages were 3.22 Mg C ha‑1 yr‑1, 8.90 Mg C ha‑1 yr‑1, and 7.59 Mg C ha‑1 yr‑1, respectively, which are comparable with rates of carbon uptake in other TDFs. Our results indicate that key variables that influence ANPP in our dry forest site were stand age and precipitation seasonality. Incident photosynthetically active radiation and temperature were not dominant in the ANPPCASA. The results of this study highlight the potential of the use of remote sensing techniques and the importance of incorporating successional stage in accurate regional TDF ANPP estimation.

  9. Novel technology development through thermal drying of encapsulated Kluyveromyces marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose in lactose fermentation and its evaluation for food production.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Harris; Servetas, Yiannis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-12-01

    A novel technology development based on the production of a low-cost starter culture for ripening of cheeses and baking is reported in the present study. The starter culture comprises thermally dried cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus encapsulated in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose. For production of a low-cost and effective biocatalyst, whey was used as raw material for biomass production and thermal drying methods (convective, conventional, and vacuum) were applied and evaluated at drying temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 °C. The effect of drying temperature of biocatalysts on fermentability of lactose and whey was evaluated. Storage stability and suitability of biocatalysts as a commercial starter cultures was also assessed and evaluated. All thermally dried biocatalysts were found to be active in lactose and whey fermentation. In all cases, there was sugar conversion ranging from 92 to 100 %, ethanol concentration of up to 1.47 % (v/v), and lactic acid concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 5.5 g/l. However, convective drying of the encapsulated cells of K. marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose was faster and a more effective drying method while drying at 42 °C appear to be the best drying temperature in terms of cell activity, ethanol, and lactic acid formation. Storage of the biocatalysts for 3 months at 4 °C proved maintenance of its activity even though fermentation times increased by 50-100 % compared with the fresh dried ones. PMID:23111921

  10. Use of Commercial Dry Yeast Products Rich in Mannoproteins for White and Rosé Sparkling Wine Elaboration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Bueno-Herrera, Marta; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2015-06-17

    In sparkling wines, mannoproteins released during yeast autolysis largely affect their final quality. This process is very slow and may take several months. The aim of this work was to study the effect of several commercial dry yeast autolysates on the chemical composition, foam, and sensory properties of white and rosé sparkling wines aged on lees for 9 months during two consecutive vintages. The addition of these products in the tirage phase did not affect either the content of phenolic compounds, amino acids, and biogenic amines or the foam properties. The commercial product with the highest mannoprotein content and the highest purity caused significant changes in the volatile composition of the wines and enhanced the fruity aromas in both Verdejo and Godello sparkling wines. PMID:26027899

  11. Production of Colletotrichum truncatum for use as a mycoherbicide: effects of culture, drying and storage on recovery and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Silman, R W; Bothast, R J; Schisler, D A

    1993-01-01

    Colletotrichum truncatum (Schwein.) Andrus and Moore NRRL 13737 (= NRRL 18434) is a fungal plant pathogen which shows promise as a bioherbicide against the troublesome weed Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Rydb. ex A. W. Hill. Previous studies showed similar amounts of spores were produced/ml of medium in liquid and solid-state fermentations. In this study, Colletotrichum truncatum spores were produced in liquid (LC), solid/vermiculite (SV), and solid/perlite-cornmeal-agar (SP). After drying at room temperature with flowing air, SV and SP retained the most viability. Each product was then stored at 4 degrees, 15 degrees, and 25 degrees C. All three products stored at 4 degrees C and SP stored at 15 degrees C retained highest viability. Efficacy based upon assays utilizing equal numbers of viable spores showed SV and SP spores incited more severe disease symptoms than LC spores. PMID:14545677

  12. Liming efficacy and transport in soil of a dry PFBC by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.A.

    1995-12-01

    The by-products of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems are mixtures of coal ash, anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}), and unspent alkaline sorbent. Because PFBC by-products are alkaline and contain large concentrations of readily soluble bases (Ca and in some cases Mg) and other essential plant nutrients such as S and K, they have potential use as soil amendments, especially in acidic soils. PFBC by-products (particularly those with large Mg contents) may cause excessively high soluble salt concentrations when applied to soil. This could be detrimental to plant growth and might also impact the release of trace elements from the coal ash component of the by-product. In field experiments on three acidic soils, the liming effectiveness of a PFBC by-product, its effects on corn and alfalfa growth, and its impacts on crop, soil, and water quality were investigated.

  13. Optimization of secondary drying condition for desired residual water content in a lyophilized product using a novel simulation program for pharmaceutical lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Masahito; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2014-07-20

    The aim of this study was to optimize the shelf temperature and the drying time, mainly dependent on the residual water content of a lyophilized product using a novel simulation program for the secondary drying of lyophilization. The simulation program was developed based upon heat transfer formulas, two empirical formulas, and a modified Fick's second law. When a preliminary lyophilization run of secondary drying was carried out, the equilibrium product temperature at the end of secondary drying under various shelf temperatures was accurately predicted by the heat transfer formulas. The apparent diffusion coefficient of water, Deff, and the apparent equilibrium residual water content, We, under the predicted equilibrium product temperature were estimated by two empirical formulas. These estimated Deff and We allow the modified Fick's second law to predict the residual water content in the lyophilized product. Using the developed simulation program, it was verified that the secondary drying condition to achieve the desired residual water content in the lyophilized product was successfully predicted. Therefore, the simulation program can be used to effectively design the secondary drying condition of lyophilization cycles without a trial and error approach. PMID:24751732

  14. Estimating leaf functional traits by inversion of PROSPECT: Assessing leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area in mixed mountainous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Abebe Mohammed; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Duren, Iris van; Heiden, Uta; Heurich, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Assessments of ecosystem functioning rely heavily on quantification of vegetation properties. The search is on for methods that produce reliable and accurate baseline information on plant functional traits. In this study, the inversion of the PROSPECT radiative transfer model was used to estimate two functional leaf traits: leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA). Inversion of PROSPECT usually aims at quantifying its direct input parameters. This is the first time the technique has been used to indirectly model LDMC and SLA. Biophysical parameters of 137 leaf samples were measured in July 2013 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. PROSPECT was inverted using a look-up table (LUT) approach. The LUTs were generated with and without using prior information. The effect of incorporating prior information on the retrieval accuracy was studied before and after stratifying the samples into broadleaf and conifer categories. The estimated values were evaluated using R2 and normalized root mean square error (nRMSE). Among the retrieved variables the lowest nRMSE (0.0899) was observed for LDMC. For both traits higher R2 values (0.83 for LDMC and 0.89 for SLA) were discovered in the pooled samples. The use of prior information improved accuracy of the retrieved traits. The strong correlation between the estimated traits and the NIR/SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum suggests that these leaf traits could be assessed at canopy level by using remotely sensed data.

  15. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv /Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv /Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and has been widely used for early stress detection in plants. Previously, we have used a three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm to identify naturally existing genetic variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40°C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv /Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits under moderate heat stress (1 week at 36/30°C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stress was positively correlated to Fv /Fm . The high Fv /Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv /Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci ) was non-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified cultivars may serve as a valuable resource for further studies to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the genetic variability in heat sensitivity of photosynthesis. PMID:24962705

  16. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    Reclamation of mine-sites with acid overburden requires the use of alkaline amendments and represents a potential high-volume use of alkaline dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by products. In a greenhouse study, 25-cm columns of acid mine spoil were amended with two FGD by-products; lime injection multistage burners (LIMB) fly ash or pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) fly ash at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32% by weight (0, 40, 80, 160, and 320 tons/acre). Amended spoil was covered with 20 cm of acid topsoil amended with the corresponding FGD by-product to pH 7. Column leachate pH increased with FGD amendment rate while leachate Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased, Leachate Ca, S, and Mg decreased with LIMB amendment rate and increased with PFBC amendment. Leachate concentrations of regulated metals were decreased or unaffected by FGD amendment except for Se which was increased by PFBC. Spoil pH was increased up to 8.9 by PFBC, and up to 9.2 by LIMB amendment. Spoil pH also increased with depth with FGD amendments of 16 and 32%, Yield of fescue was increased by FGD amendment of 4 to 8%. Plant tissue content of most elements was unaffected by FGD amendment rate, and no toxicity symptoms were observed. Plant Ca and Mg were increased by LIMB and PFBC respectively, while plant S, Mn and Sr were decreased. Plant Ca and B was increased by LIMB, and plant Mg and S by PFBC amendment. These results indicate dry FGD by-products are effective in ameliorating acid, spoils and have a low potential for creating adverse environmental impacts.

  17. 75 FR 55604 - In the Matter of Certain Flash Memory Chips and Products Containing the Same; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Computer Forensic Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice of... importation of certain computer forensic devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of... importation of certain computer forensic devices and products containing same that infringe one or more...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

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  1. 75 FR 59290 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Interoperable With the Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Interoperable With the Same... States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices and products interoperable with the... after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices and products interoperable with the...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

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  5. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Notebook Computer Products and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Notebook Computer Products and Components Thereof; Notice of... computer products and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 7... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain notebook computer products...

  6. Dissolved organic matter composition drives the marine production of brominated very short-lived substances.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yina; Thornton, Daniel C O; Bianchi, Thomas S; Arnold, William A; Shields, Michael R; Chen, Jie; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A

    2015-03-17

    Brominated very short-lived substances (BrVSLS), such as bromoform, are important trace gases for stratospheric ozone chemistry. These naturally derived trace gases are formed via bromoperoxidase-mediated halogenation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater. Information on DOM type in relation to the observed BrVSLS concentrations in seawater, however, is scarce. We examined the sensitivity of BrVSLS production in relation to the presence of specific DOM moieties. A total of 28 model DOM compounds in artificial seawater were treated with vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO). Our results show a clear dependence of BrVSLS production on DOM type. In general, molecules that comprise a large fraction of the bulk DOM pool did not noticeably affect BrVSLS production. Only specific cell metabolites and humic acid appeared to significantly enhance BrVSLS production. Amino acids and lignin phenols suppressed enzyme-mediated BrVSLS production and may instead have formed halogenated nonvolatile molecules. Dibromomethane production was not observed in any experiments, suggesting it is not produced by the same pathway as the other BrVSLS. Our results suggest that regional differences in DOM composition may explain the observed BrVSLS concentration variability in the global ocean. Ultimately, BrVSLS production and concentrations are likely affected by DOM composition, reactivity, and cycling in the ocean. PMID:25723123

  7. Impact of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter on UV Inhibition of Primary Productivity in the Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Brown, Christopher W.

    1996-01-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on phytoplankton production within the euphotic zone. The rate of depth-integrated daily gross primary productivity within the euphotic zone was evaluated as a function of date, latitude, CDONI absorption characteristics, chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration, vertical stratification, and phytoplankton sensitivity to UV radiation (UVR). Results demonstrated that primary production was enhanced in the upper 30 m of the water column by the presence of CDOM, where predicted increases in production due to the removal of damaging UVR more than offset its reduction resulting from the absorption of photosynthetically usable radiation. At greater depths, where little UVR remained, primary production was always reduced due to removal by CDOM of photosynthetically usable radiation. When CDOM was distributed homogeneously within the euphotic zone, the integral over z [(GPP)(sub ez)], was reduced under most bio-optical (i.e. solar zenith angle, and CDOM absorption, and ozone concentration) and photophysiological production at depth was greater than the enhancement of production at the surface.

  8. Evolution of perturbations and cosmological constraints in decaying dark matter models with arbitrary decay mass products

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Shohei; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Ichiki, Kiyotomo E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp E-mail: naoshi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-07-01

    Decaying dark matter (DDM) is a candidate which can solve the discrepancies between predictions of the concordance ΛCDM model and observations at small scales such as the number counts of companion galaxies of the Milky Way and the density profile at the center of galaxies. Previous studies are limited to the cases where the decay particles are massless and/or have almost degenerate masses with that of mother particles. Here we expand the DDM models so that one can consider the DDM with arbitrary lifetime and the decay products with arbitrary masses. We calculate the time evolutions of perturbed phase-space distribution functions of decay products for the first time and study effects of DDM on the temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background and the matter power spectrum at present. From a recent observational estimate of σ{sub 8}, we derive constraints on the lifetime of DDM and the mass ratio between the decay products and DDM. We also discuss implications of the DDM model for the discrepancy in the measurements of σ{sub 8} recently claimed by the Planck satellite collaboration.

  9. Viability, Acid and Bile Tolerance of Spray Dried Probiotic Bacteria and Some Commercial Probiotic Supplement Products Kept at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-06-01

    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment. PMID:27145163

  10. Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E; Ruan, Roger

    2011-05-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

  11. Components of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) promote hypothiocyanite production by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Rusch, Dorothea; Czerwińska, Monika Ewa; Rauwald, Hans-Wilhelm; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    We investigated in vitro the ability of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) (OLE) as well as of its single components to circumvent the hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of the hypothiocyanite-producing activity of lactoperoxidase (LPO). The rate of hypothiocyanite (⁻OSCN) formation by LPO was quantified by spectrophotometric detection of the oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). By using excess hydrogen peroxide, we forced the accumulation of inactive enzymatic intermediates which are unable to promote the two-electronic oxidation of thiocyanate. Both OLE and certain extract components showed a strong LPO-reactivating effect. Thereby an o-hydroxyphenolic moiety emerged to be essential for a good reactivity with the inactive LPO redox states. This basic moiety is found in the main OLE components oleuropein, oleacein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid as well as in different other constituents including the OLE flavone luteolin. As LPO is a key player in the humoral immune response, these results propose a new mode of action regarding the well-known bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extract of Olea europaea L. PMID:24657078

  12. Particulate Organic Matter Responses to Perennial Grass Production in Midwestern Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantola, I. B.; Masters, M. D.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon sequestration is essential to mitigating atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. While annual row crop agriculture contributes to soil carbon loss in the Midwest, the establishment of perennial crops has the potential to increase soil carbon stocks through increased organic inputs and changes soil carbon pools and fluxes. Perennial grasses eliminate the need for tillage and increase belowground biomass, both critical to the conservation of soil organic matter and soil carbon sequestration. The effect of C4 perennial grasses on particulate organic matter (POM) was evaluated in Illinois, where native switchgrass and a sterile hybrid of the Asian grass Miscanthus were planted at the University of Illinois Energy Farm in 2008. During 6 years after establishment of perennial crops, POM was compared with plots growing a corn-corn-soy rotation typical of the area and a 26-species restored prairie. POM concentrations increased for all crops between 67 and 79% over 6 years, with the greatest increases in prairie and miscanthus soils. POM concentrations were highest at the 0-10 cm depth, however POM accrued faster in the 10-30 cm depth. Isotopic analyses of POM material showed that after 6 years, POM carbon consisted of 22-33% C4 material under perennial monoculture crops, indicating the incorporation of newly-established plant material to the POM fraction. As POM carbon is primarily plant-derived, increases in POM reflect increases in organic matter inputs as well as the cessation of tillage. While increases in POM under annual row crops reflect the incorporation of aboveground organic matter by tillage, POM increases in untilled perennial crops mirror increases in belowground biomass and the formation large soil aggregates, structures which protect POM carbon from microbial degradation and result in longer residence times for soil carbon. Therefore untilled soils under long-term perennial crop production provide an important environment for the storage and

  13. Impact of burning and fertilization on dry Mediterranean grassland productivity and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamad, Mohammad N.; Alrababah, Mohammad A.; Gharaibeh, Mamoun A.

    2012-04-01

    Fire alters plant community structure by changing dominant plant species and shifting resource mobilization, while fertilizer application alters plant community structure through its impact on productivity. Here we studied prescribed burning and fertilizer treatments on the productivity and diversity of a semi-arid Mediterranean grassland ecosystem. Variables measured were aboveground plant productivity, vegetation, litter and soil cover, species richness and plant density of an Avena/Hordeum (A-H) dominated plant community using a split-plot experimental design over a three-year period. Burning increased vegetative cover by 21.2% and reduced litter cover by 22.6%, while fertilization increased vegetative cover by 31.6%. The combined effect of burning and fertilization increased vegetative cover by 35.5% and reduced litter cover by 13.9%. Aboveground biomass was also higher in burned treatments (52.41 g 0.25 m-2) by 39.5% over unburned treatments. Burning reduced the proportion of the dominant Avena/Hordeum complex by 43.1%, thus significantly enhancing overall species richness by 52.5% over the unburned plots. On the other hand, fertilizer application increased biomass production and species richness by 37.4% and 13.5%, respectively, over the unfertilized plots. The combined effect of burning and fertilization enhanced biomass production and species richness by 90.8% and 69.8%, respectively, and reduced the dominant A-H by 45.5%. Burning generally resulted in lowering the dominance of the A-H complex compared to the control while fertilizer application had variable effect, reducing the proportion of A-H with burning but increasing it without burning. Reduction in the A-H complex increased the presence of other species, therefore enhancing diversity. Our findings showed that burning and fertilization treatments have a synergistic effect on both productivity and diversity of an arid grassland.

  14. Phytase production by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm: characterization of enzymatic activity after spray drying in presence of carbohydrates and nonconventional adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira; Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandez; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2014-02-28

    Microbial phytases are enzymes with biotechnological interest for the feed industry. In this article, the effect of spray-drying conditions on the stability and activity of extracellular phytase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus biofilm is described. The phytase was spray-dried in the presence of starch, corn meal (>150 μm), soy bean meal (SB), corn meal (<150 μm) (CM), and maltodextrin as drying adjuvants. The residual enzyme activity after drying ranged from 10.7% to 60.4%, with SB and CM standing out as stabilizing agents. Water concentration and residual enzyme activity were determined in obtained powders as a function of the drying condition. When exposed to different pH values, the SB and CM products were stable, with residual activity above 50% in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.5 for 60 min. The use of CM as drying adjuvant promoted the best retention of enzymatic activity compared with SB. Spray drying of the R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase using different drying adjuvants showed interesting results, being quite feasible with regards their biotechnological applications, especially for poultry diets. PMID:24196167

  15. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Third quarterly report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to create beneficial reuse standards for coal ash and clean coal technology by-products. One of the highlights of the report is the benefits of FGD by-products for agriculture. Alfalfa growth and yields have been better this year than any other year. The report provides a brief information on study of FGD benefits for neutralizing acid mine spoil or coal refuse. Chemical Speciation models were conducted to improve our understanding of the impact of FGD on soil, water and plant quality.

  16. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds. PMID:22029787

  17. Porous filtering media comparison through wet and dry sampling of fixed bed gasification products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allesina, G.; Pedrazzi, S.; Montermini, L.; Giorgini, L.; Bortolani, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2014-11-01

    The syngas produced by fixed bed gasifiers contains high quantities of particulate and tars. This issue, together with its high temperature, avoids its direct exploitation without a proper cleaning and cooling process. In fact, when the syngas produced by gasification is used in an Internal Combustion engine (IC), the higher the content of tars and particulate, the higher the risk to damage the engine is. If these compounds are not properly removed, the engine may fail to run. A way to avoid engine fails is to intensify the maintenance schedule, but these stops will reduce the system profitability. From a clean syngas does not only follow higher performance of the generator, but also less pollutants in the atmosphere. When is not possible to work on the gasification reactions, the filter plays the most important role in the engine safeguard process. This work is aimed at developing and comparing different porous filters for biomass gasifiers power plants. A drum filter was developed and tested filling it with different filtering media available on the market. As a starting point, the filter was implemented in a Power Pallet 10 kW gasifier produced by the California-based company "ALL Power Labs". The original filter was replaced with different porous biomasses, such as woodchips and corn cobs. Finally, a synthetic zeolites medium was tested and compared with the biological media previously used. The Tar Sampling Protocol (TSP) and a modified "dry" method using the Silica Gel material were applied to evaluate the tars, particulate and water amount in the syngas after the filtration process. Advantages and disadvantages of every filtering media chosen were reported and discussed.

  18. Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

  19. Protease addition to increase yield and fermentation rate in dry grind ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a small scale laboratory procedure (100g shake flasks) for ethanol production from corn, the effects of acid protease addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The batch fermentations were conducted in duplicate using standard conditions and with protease addition during fermentati...

  20. Quantifying physical structure changes and non-uniform water flow in cattle manure during dry anaerobic digestion process at lab scale: Implication for biogas production.

    PubMed

    André, L; Durante, M; Pauss, A; Lespinard, O; Ribeiro, T; Lamy, E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify non-uniform water flow during dry AD and its implication for biogas production. Laboratory tracer experiments were performed on cattle manure over the course of AD. The evolution of the permeability, the dry bulk density, the dry porosity, the total and volatile solid contents of cattle manure at different stages of AD, revealed waste structure changes, impacting water flow and methane production. Tracer experiments and numerical modeling performed by using a physical non-equilibrium model indicated non-uniform preferential flow patterns during degradation. According to literature, the increase of inoculum recirculation frequency improved methane production rate. However, these results demonstrated that this improvement occurs only at the beginning of manure degradation. After 19 days of degradation the inoculum recirculation and the flow patterns modification had no effect on methane production rate. PMID:26094191

  1. Soil organic matter decomposition follows plant productivity response to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Peter; Jensen, Kai; Megonigal, James Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) is an important mechanism for many tidal wetlands to keep pace with sea-level rise. SOM accumulation is governed by the rates of production and decomposition of organic matter. While plant productivity responses to sea-level rise are well understood, far less is known about the response of SOM decomposition to accelerated sea-level rise. Here we quantified the effects of sea-level rise on SOM decomposition by exposing planted and unplanted tidal marsh monoliths to experimentally manipulated flood duration. The study was performed in a field-based mesocosm facility at the Smithsonian Global Change Research Wetland, a micro tidal brackish marsh in Maryland, US. SOM decomposition was quantified as CO2 efflux, with plant- and SOM-derived CO2 separated using a stable carbon isotope approach. Despite the dogma that decomposition rates are inversely related to flooding, SOM mineralization was not sensitive to varying flood duration over a 35 cm range in surface elevation in unplanted mesocoms. In the presence of plants, decomposition rates were strongly and positively related to aboveground biomass (p≤0.01, R2≥0.59). We conclude that rates of soil carbon loss through decomposition are driven by plant responses to sea level in this intensively studied tidal marsh. If our result applies more generally to tidal wetlands, it has important implications for modeling carbon sequestration and marsh accretion in response to accelerated sea-level rise.

  2. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi and Upsilon Production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2009-06-23

    The charmonium yields are expected to be considerably suppressed if a deconfined medium is formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In addition, the bottomonium states, with the possible exception of the {Upsilon}(1S) state, are also expected to be suppressed in heavy-ion collisions. However, in proton-nucleus collisions the quarkonium production cross sections, even those of the {Upsilon}(1S), scale less than linearly with the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. These 'cold nuclear matter' effects need to be accounted for before signals of the high density QCD medium can be identified in the measurements made in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We identify two cold nuclear matter effects important for midrapidity quarkonium production: 'nuclear absorption', typically characterized as a final-state effect on the produced quarkonium state and shadowing, the modification of the parton densities in nuclei relative to the nucleon, an initial-state effect. We characterize these effects and study their energy and rapidity dependence.

  3. Inefficient microbial production of refractory dissolved organic matter in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Osterholz, Helena; Niggemann, Jutta; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Simon, Meinhard; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the oceans constitutes a major carbon pool involved in global biogeochemical cycles. More than 96% of the marine DOM resists microbial degradation for thousands of years. The composition of this refractory DOM (RDOM) exhibits a molecular signature ubiquitously detected in the deep oceans. Surprisingly efficient microbial transformation of labile into stable forms of DOM has been shown previously, implying that microorganisms apparently produce far more RDOM than needed to sustain the global pool. Here we show, by assessing the microbial formation and transformation of DOM in unprecedented molecular detail for 3 years, that most of the microbial DOM is different from RDOM in the ocean. Only <0.4% of the net community production is channelled into a form of DOM that is undistinguishable from oceanic RDOM. Our study provides a molecular background for global models on the production, turnover and accumulation of marine DOM. PMID:26084883

  4. Tracing the long-term microbial production of recalcitrant fluorescent dissolved organic matter in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Stedmon, Colin A.; Granskog, Mats A.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-04-01

    The majority of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean is resistant to microbial degradation, yet its formation remains poorly understood. The fluorescent fraction of DOM can be used to trace the formation of recalcitrant DOM (RDOM). A long-term (> 1 year) experiment revealed 27-52% removal of dissolved organic carbon and a nonlinear increase in RDOM fluorescence associated with microbial turnover of semilabile DOM. This fluorescence was also produced using glucose as the only initial carbon source, suggesting that degradation of prokaryote remnants contributes to RDOM. Our results indicate that the formation of a fluorescent RDOM component depends on the bioavailability of the substrate: the less labile, the larger the production of fluorescent RDOM relative to organic carbon remineralized. The anticipated increase in microbial carbon demand due to ocean warming can potentially force microbes to degrade less labile substrates, thereby increasing RDOM production and stimulating ocean carbon storage.

  5. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  6. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products: Progress report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, J.; Su, Wei; Banerjee, Sujit; Shmulsky, Rubin; Thompson, Ashlie; Ingram, Leonard; Conners, Terry

    1997-03-01

    Studies on the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from wood or wood products were conducted. Steam-induced extraction of VOC from oriented strand board (OSB) was studied using a tube furnace at 130 C which resulted in over 50% removal in 30 minutes. RF treatment of softwood lumber removed up to 68% of VOC in 20 minutes. Studies on the transport of moisture in wood confirmed that transport is greatest in the transverse surface, followed by the tangential and radial faces.

  7. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products: Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.H.; Dick, W.A.; Haefner, R.J.

    1995-02-01

    The project involves the testing of several ground application uses for flue gas desulfurization by-products, including the mitigation of acid mine drainage, agronomic liming, cattle feedlot, stabilization of coal refuse, and road embankments. The project also involves ground water monitoring, environmental modeling, and economic modeling. This quarterly report deals mostly with the financial aspects of the research project. Monthly progress reports from various sites are included.

  8. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  9. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

    2015-03-01

    Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000 kg milk/305 d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1 wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8 wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was

  10. Studies on digestion and absorption in the intestines of growing pigs. 2. Measurements of the flow of dry matter, ash and water.

    PubMed

    Low, A G; Partridge, I G; Sambrook, I E

    1978-05-01

    1. Digesta were collected from twenty-three pigs, initially of 30 kg live weight, and fitted with single Ash re-entrant cannulas in either the duodenum, jejunum or ileum. A further twenty-four pigs were used in a conventional digestibility trial. 2. The diets contained: barley, fine wheat offal, white fish meal, minerals and vitamins (diet BWF); starch, sucrose, maize oil, cellulose, minerals, vitamins and either groundnut (diet SSG) or casein (diet SSC). 3. The flow-rates of dry matter (DM), ash and water were measured hourly in the duodenum and jejunum, and every 6 h in the ileum during 24 h collection periods. Faeces were collected during 5 d periods. 4. Marked increases in the flow rates of each of the digesta components after feeding each diet were observed in the duodenum and jejunum, but not in the ileum. The total flow in 24 h periods was much lower in the ileum than at the other sites. 5. Values for the ratio, DM output: intake for DM outputs from the duodenal, jejunal or ileal cannulas, and in faeces, in 24 h periods were respectively 0.94, 0.81, 0.28 and 0.22 for diet BWF; 0.96, 0.76, 0.20 and 0.15 for diet SSG; 0.96, 0.73, 0.08 and 0.04 for diet SSC. The corresponding values for ash were: 1.47, 1.65, 0.74 and 0.53 for diet BWF; 1.28, 1.34, 0.59 and 0.51 for diet SSG; 1.63, 1.35, 0.50 and 0.26 for diet SSC. The corresponding values for water were: 3.49, 3.41, 0.88 and 0.18 for diet BWF, 2.75, 2.80, 0.80 and 0.08 for diet SSG and 2.61, 1.87, 0.23 and 0.01 for diet SSC. PMID:638121

  11. Predicting grass dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat and protein yield of spring calving grazing dairy cows during the grazing season.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B F; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Shalloo, L; Galvin, N; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; Delagarde, R

    2013-08-01

    Predicting the grass dry matter intake (GDMI), milk yield (MY) or milk fat and protein yield (milk solids yield (MSY)) of the grazing dairy herd is difficult. Decisions with regard to grazing management are based on guesstimates of the GDMI of the herd, yet GDMI is a critical factor influencing MY and MSY. A data set containing animal, sward, grazing management and concentrate supplementation variables recorded during weeks of GDMI measurement was used to develop multiple regression equations to predict GDMI, MY and MSY. The data set contained data from 245 grazing herds from 10 published studies conducted at Teagasc, Moorepark. A forward stepwise multiple regression technique was used to develop the multiple regression equations for each of the dependent variables (GDMI, MY, MSY) for three periods during the grazing season: spring (SP; 5 March to 30 April), summer (SU; 1 May to 31 July) and autumn (AU; 1 August to 31 October). The equations generated highlighted the importance of different variables associated with GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season. Peak MY was associated with an increase in GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season with the exception of GDMI in SU when BW accounted for more of the variation. A higher body condition score (BCS) at calving was associated with a lower GDMI in SP and SU and a lower MY and MSY in all periods. A higher BCS was associated with a higher GDMI in SP and SU, a higher MY in SU and AU and a higher MSY in all periods. The pre-grazing herbage mass of the sward (PGHM) above 4 cm was associated with a quadratic effect on GDMI in SP, on MY in SP and SU and on MSY in SU. An increase in daily herbage allowance (DHA) above 4 cm was associated with an increase in GDMI in AU, an increase in MY in SU and AU and MSY in AU. Supplementing grazing dairy cows with concentrate reduced GDMI and increased MY and MSY in all periods. The equations generated can be used by the Irish dairy industry during the grazing season to predict the

  12. Effects of an exogenous protease on the fermentation and nutritive value of corn silage harvested at different dry matter contents and ensiled for various lengths of time.

    PubMed

    Windle, M C; Walker, N; Kung, L

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding an experimental protease to corn plants harvested at different maturities on silage fermentation and in vitro ruminal starch digestibility (IVSD). Corn plants were harvested at maturities resulting in plants with 31 or 40% dry matter (DM). Plants were chopped, kernel processed, and treated with (1) only a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 5.5, 5% vol/wt of fresh forage), (2) buffer with protease to obtain a final concentration of 20mg of protease/kg of wet forage, and (3) buffer with protease to obtain a final concentration of 2,000 mg of protease/kg of wet forage. Treated forages (about 500 g) were ensiled in nylon-polyethylene pouches and stored between 21 and 23°C for 0, 45, 90, and 150 d. Data were analyzed as a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments, with the main effects of harvest DM, dose of protease, days of ensiling, and their interactions. The treatment with the highest dose of protease resulted in more robust fermentations across harvest DM with higher concentrations of lactic and acetic acids compared with untreated silage. Concentrations of soluble protein (% of crude protein) increased with time of ensiling, regardless of DM content at harvest. However, averaged over both harvest DM contents, it increased by 37% for silages treated with the high dose of protease compared with an average 11% increase for untreated silages and silage treated with the low dose of protease, between d 0 and 45. Averaged over both harvest DM contents, the concentration of soluble protein peaked in silages treated with the high dose of protease after 45 d of ensiling, whereas it peaked at d 90 in untreated silages and silage treated with the low dose of protease. Similar changes occurred in the concentration of NH3-N due to length of ensiling and treatment with protease. In fresh forages, the concentration of starch for early- and late-harvested forages was similar, but IVSD was lower in the latter

  13. Genomic prediction of dry matter intake in dairy cattle from an international data set consisting of research herds in Europe, North America, and Australasia.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Y; Pryce, J E; Calus, M P L; Wall, E; Berry, D P; Løvendahl, P; Krattenmacher, N; Miglior, F; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D; Macdonald, K A; Hulsegge, B; Veerkamp, R F

    2015-09-01

    With the aim of increasing the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, data from 10 research herds in Europe, North America, and Australasia were combined. The DMI records were available on 10,701 parity 1 to 5 records from 6,953 cows, as well as on 1,784 growing heifers. Predicted DMI at 70 d in milk was used as the phenotype for the lactating animals, and the average DMI measured during a 60- to 70-d test period at approximately 200 d of age was used as the phenotype for the growing heifers. After editing, there were 583,375 genetic markers obtained from either actual high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes or imputed from 54,001 marker SNP genotypes. Genetic correlations between the populations were estimated using genomic REML. The accuracy of genomic prediction was evaluated for the following scenarios: (1) within-country only, by fixing the correlations among populations to zero, (2) using near-unity correlations among populations and assuming the same trait in each population, and (3) a sharing data scenario using estimated genetic correlations among populations. For these 3 scenarios, the data set was divided into 10 sub-populations stratified by progeny group of sires; 9 of these sub-populations were used (in turn) for the genomic prediction and the tenth was used for calculation of the accuracy (correlation adjusted for heritability). A fourth scenario to quantify the benefit for countries that do not record DMI was investigated (i.e., having an entire country as the validation population and excluding this country in the development of the genomic predictions). The optimal scenario, which was sharing data, resulted in a mean prediction accuracy of 0.44, ranging from 0.37 (Denmark) to 0.54 (the Netherlands). Assuming near-unity among-country genetic correlations, the mean accuracy of prediction dropped to 0.40, and the mean within-country accuracy was 0.30. If no

  14. Dephosphorization when using DRI

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-21

    The increase in high quality steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) requires the use of scrap substitute materials, such as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI). Although DRI and HBI products have lower copper and nickel contents than most scrap materials, they can contain up to ten times more phosphorus. This project, led by Carnegie Mellon University’s Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, improves the understanding of how phosphorus behaves when DRI and HBI melt.

  15. Ubiquitous Autofragmentation of Fluorescent Proteins Creates Abundant Defective Ribosomal Products (DRiPs) for Immunosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiajie; Gibbs, James S; Hickman, Heather D; Cush, Stephanie S; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2015-06-26

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and other fluorescent proteins are essential tools for biological research. When fused to peptides or proteins as a reporter, GFP enables localization and quantitation of gene products in otherwise unmanipulated live cells or organisms. We previously reported that a sizable fraction of nascent GFP is post-translationally converted into a 20-kDa Triton X-100-insoluble proteasome substrate (Qian, S. B., Princiotta, M. F., Bennink, J. R., and Yewdell, J. W. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 392-400; Dolan, B. P., Li, L., Veltri, C. A., Ireland, C. M., Bennink, J. R., and Yewdell, J. W. (2011) J. Immunol. 186, 2065-2072). Here, we show that a similarly sized fragment is generated by all GFP and red fluorescent protein family members we examined. We demonstrate that fragmentation is a by-product of GFP chromophore rearrangement. A non-rearranging GFP mutant fails to fragment and generates diminished levels of K(b)-SIINFEKL complexes when SIINFEKL is genetically fused to either the C- or N-terminal domains of GFP fusion proteins. Instructively, another fragmenting GFP mutant that cannot create the functional chromophore but still generates fragments also demonstrates diminished K(b)-SIINFEKL generation. However, the mutant and wild-type fragments differ fundamentally in that wild-type fragments are rapidly liberated from the intact molecule and degraded quickly, accounting for increased K(b)-SIINFEKL generation. In the fragmenting mutant, the fragments are generated slowly and remain associated, likely in a native conformation based on their original structural description (Barondeau, D. P., Kassmann, C. J., Tainer, J. A., and Getzoff, E. D. (2006) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 4685-4693). The wild-type GFP fragments represent the first biochemically defined natural defective ribosomal products to contribute peptides for immunosurveillance, enabling quantitation of peptide generation efficiency from this source of defective ribosomal products. More

  16. Ubiquitous Autofragmentation of Fluorescent Proteins Creates Abundant Defective Ribosomal Products (DRiPs) for Immunosurveillance*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiajie; Gibbs, James S.; Hickman, Heather D.; Cush, Stephanie S.; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and other fluorescent proteins are essential tools for biological research. When fused to peptides or proteins as a reporter, GFP enables localization and quantitation of gene products in otherwise unmanipulated live cells or organisms. We previously reported that a sizable fraction of nascent GFP is post-translationally converted into a 20-kDa Triton X-100-insoluble proteasome substrate (Qian, S. B., Princiotta, M. F., Bennink, J. R., and Yewdell, J. W. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 392–400; Dolan, B. P., Li, L., Veltri, C. A., Ireland, C. M., Bennink, J. R., and Yewdell, J. W. (2011) J. Immunol. 186, 2065–2072). Here, we show that a similarly sized fragment is generated by all GFP and red fluorescent protein family members we examined. We demonstrate that fragmentation is a by-product of GFP chromophore rearrangement. A non-rearranging GFP mutant fails to fragment and generates diminished levels of Kb-SIINFEKL complexes when SIINFEKL is genetically fused to either the C- or N-terminal domains of GFP fusion proteins. Instructively, another fragmenting GFP mutant that cannot create the functional chromophore but still generates fragments also demonstrates diminished Kb-SIINFEKL generation. However, the mutant and wild-type fragments differ fundamentally in that wild-type fragments are rapidly liberated from the intact molecule and degraded quickly, accounting for increased Kb-SIINFEKL generation. In the fragmenting mutant, the fragments are generated slowly and remain associated, likely in a native conformation based on their original structural description (Barondeau, D. P., Kassmann, C. J., Tainer, J. A., and Getzoff, E. D. (2006) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 4685–4693). The wild-type GFP fragments represent the first biochemically defined natural defective ribosomal products to contribute peptides for immunosurveillance, enabling quantitation of peptide generation efficiency from this source of defective ribosomal products. More

  17. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  18. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1989-05-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during manufacture of paper and similar web products. Impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip where one of the rolls is heated to a very high temperature. Steam generated by contact with the hot roll expands and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is much lower than that required for conventional evaporative drying. Tests have been completed that elucidate the unique displacement mechanism of water removal in the impulse drying process. A pilot roll press has been designed, installed and used to examine impulse drying under conditions that simulate commercial press conditions. The results of this earlier work have been reported in three previous reports. During this report period October, 1987 to September, 1988, the pilot press was equipped with a second impulse drying roll to facilitate studies of surface uniformity in impulse dried paper. Studies have also been completed which examine the origins of sheet delamination that has been been encountered during impulse drying of certain heavyweight paper grades, and which investigate approaches to prevent delamination in these grades. Finally, an experimental plan has been formalized to examine impulse drying of lightweight grades which are candidates for early commercialization. 7 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The welfare and productivity of dry sows in different group housing systems in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Chidgey, Kirsty L; Morel, Patrick C H; Barugh, Ian W

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate sow welfare and identify potential welfare compromise in specific group housing systems for sows in New Zealand. The relationship between overall welfare outcome on-farm and sow productivity was also investigated. Twenty commercial farms were chosen to represent the spectrum of layouts and management practices of New Zealand pork producers. During a farm visit, housing, management, behavior, welfare, and productivity data were collected. The following criteria were used to describe each farm: group size, the duration of time in a gestation stall, presence of bedding, feeding method, and feeding frequency. Sows in medium groups had the most piglets born alive per litter (13.14 piglets). Sows fed twice daily had significantly higher stereotypies than sows fed at a different frequency. A welfare index (WI; minimum possible WI = 0.33, maximum possible WI = 5.0) was calculated for each farm and accounted for the following parameters: injuries, lameness, stereotypies, coat condition, and soiling. The mean WI was 0.65 (± 0.14 SD). A low WI represented fewer indicators that were associated with compromised welfare. Thus, existing group housing systems are being managed effectively to achieve good standards of sow welfare. PMID:23544755

  20. 76 FR 41824 - In the Matter of Certain Flash Memory Chips And Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... complaint filed by Spansion LLC of Sunnyvale, California (``Spansion''). 75 FR. 55604-5 (Sept 13, 2010). The... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Flash Memory Chips And Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission..., Certain Flash Memory Chips and Products Containing Same on the basis of a settlement agreement....

  1. 75 FR 11909 - In the Matter of: Certain Flash Memory Chips and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Flash Memory Chips and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... flash memory chips and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various claims...

  2. 76 FR 58841 - In the Matter of Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ..., Kentucky; and Airsec S.A.S. of France. 76 FR 36576 (June 22, 2011). The complaint alleged a violation of... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Commission Decision... importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain flip-top vials and products...

  3. 76 FR 11277 - In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission... on May 12, 2010. 75 FR 41889 (Jul. 19, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain collaborative system products...

  4. 75 FR 65509 - In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission... FR 41889 (Jul. 19, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930... within the United States after importation of certain collaborative system products and...

  5. 75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same. The...

  6. 76 FR 2708 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same. The...

  7. 76 FR 4375 - In the Matter of Certain MLC Flash Memory Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...''). 74 FR 43723-4 (August 27, 2009). The complaint, as amended and supplemented, alleges violations of... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain MLC Flash Memory Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of... flash memory devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of...

  8. 75 FR 6705 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display modules... importation of liquid crystal display modules or products containing the same, or methods for making the...

  9. 75 FR 14470 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Corporation (``Sharp'') of Japan. 75 FR 6705-06 (Feb. 10, 2010). The complaint, as amended and supplemented... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and... importation of certain liquid crystal display modules, products containing the same, and methods for...

  10. 76 FR 30968 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Technology, Inc. d/b/a TCL America of Indianapolis, Indiana; and VIZIO, Inc. of Irvine, California. 76 FR... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods for... importation of certain liquid crystal display (``LCD'') devices, products containing same, and methods...

  11. 75 FR 76024 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... (collectively, ``Broadcom''). 72 FR 25777 (2007). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 in the... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding; Notice... importation of certain global positioning system (``GPS'') devices and products containing the same by...

  12. 76 FR 15340 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ..., ``Broadcom''). 72 FR 25777 (2007). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 in the importation into... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... certain GPS devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various claims of...

  13. 75 FR 60478 - In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Corporation of Mountain View, California (collectively ``complainants''). 74 FR 34589-90 (July 16, 2009). The... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing... importation of certain machine vision software, machine vision systems, or products containing same by...

  14. 75 FR 65380 - In the Matter of Certain Lighting Products; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Nos. 3,703,710, 3,703,711, 3,700,479, and 3,700,480. 75 FR 30855 (June 2, 2010). The complaint, as... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Lighting Products; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an Initial... States after importation of certain lighting products by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent No....

  15. Trichloroethylene decomposition and in-situ dry sorption of Cl-products by calcium oxides prepared from hydrated limes.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Yoshimi; Iwata, Goichi; Choh, Kyaw; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Matsuda, Hitoki

    2011-10-01

    A comparison of CaOs produced by calcining two types of hydrated lime and calcium carbonate was made for decomposition of trichloroethylene and in-situ dry sorption of the decomposed Cl-products using a lab-scale gas flow type tubular packed bed reactor. About 20 mg of CaO sample was mixed with about 2 g of Al2O3 particles and packed in the reactor and allowed to react with a flowing standard gas containing 500 ppm of C2HCl3 (N2 balance) at 673 and 873 K, under the condition that the reaction of CaO with C2HCl3 might be completed within a few hours. It was found that no thermal decomposition of C2HCl3 at or below 673 K was observed in a reactor packed only with Al2O3 particles. However, a considerable amount of decomposition of C2HCl3 was obtained in a reactor packed with CaO and Al2O3, even at 673 K. For 1 mol of CaO prepared by calcining highly reactive Ca(OH)2 at 673 K, decomposition of 0.42 mol of C2HCl3 and in-situ absorption product of 0.53 mol of CaCl2 were obtained. At 873 K, about 46% of C2HCl3 was thermally decomposed. The total amount of C2HCl3 decomposed in CaO-Al2O3 particle bed at 873 K became nearly twice larger than that at 673 K. For 1 mol of CaO prepared by calcining highly reactive Ca(OH)2 at 873 K, decomposition of 0.59 mol of C2HCl3 and in-situ absorption product of 0.67 mol of CaCl2 were obtained. Small amounts of C2Cl2, C2Cl4, CCl4, etc. were detected during decomposition of C2HCl3 at 673 and 873 K. It was recognized that the data on decomposition of C2HCl3 as well as in-situ dry sorption of Cl-products in CaO particle bed were correlated with specific surface area of the CaO employed. PMID:21821273

  16. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  17. Constraints on sterile neutrino dark matter production in the light of Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Lucia Aurelia

    Distortions of CMB temperature and polarization anisotropy maps caused by gravitational lensing, observable with high angular resolution and sensitivity of the Planck mission are used to constrain the Dark Matter (DM) sterile neutrino mass. This analysis offers several advantages against the analysis based on the combination of CMB, LSS and Ly-alpha forest power spectra. As the gravitational lensing effect depends on the matter distribution, no assumption on light-to-mass bias is required. In addition, unlike the galaxy clustering and Ly-alpha forest power spectra, the projected gravitational potential power spectrum probes a larger range of angular scales, the non-linear corrections being required only at very small scales. Taking into account the changes in the time-temperature relation of the primordial plasma and the modification of the neutrino thermal potential, we compute the projected gravitational potential power spectrum and its correlation with the temperature in the presence of DM sterile neutrino. We show that the cosmological parameters are generally not biased when DM sterile neutrino is included. From this analysis we placed lower limits on DM sterile neutrino for both resonant and non-resonant production. We conclude that although the information that can be obtained from lensing extraction is rather limited due to the high level of the lensing noise of Planck experiment, weak lensing of CMB offers a valuable alternative to constrain the DM sterile neutrino mass.

  18. Effect of co-products of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans on ethanol production in dry-grind corn fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Jasreen K; Jung, Stephanie; Wang, Tong; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2015-09-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) is an environmentally-friendly alternative to solvent and mechanical oil extraction methods, and can achieve ∼ 97% oil recovery from soybeans. The present study utilized soy skim (protein rich) and insoluble fiber (IF; carbohydrate rich), both co-products of EAEP, in dry-grind corn fermentation. The effects of adding soy skim and untreated IF (UIF), either separately or together, and adding pretreated IF (TIF), on ethanol production were investigated. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when UIF and skim were slurried together (corn-to-UIF ratio 1:0.16; skim-to-UIF ratio 6.5:1) and when fiber-hydrolyzing enzymes were added to corn fermentation. This modification to corn fermentation increased ethanol yield by 20%, ethanol production rate by 3%, and decreased fermentation time by 38 h compared to corn-only fermentation. An attempt was also made to utilize pentoses (from soy skim and IF) in integrated corn-soy fermentation slurry by an additional Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation step. PMID:26080102

  19. Bioethanol production from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Shan-Mei; He, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2015-04-01

    It has been found that recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6525 can produce high concentration of ethanol in one-step fermentation from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers or inulin. However, the utilization rate of raw materials was low and the fermentation process was costly and complicated. Therefore, in this study, after the optimum processing conditions for ethanol production in fed-batch fermentation were determined in flask, the recombinant S. cerevisiae 6525 was first used to produce ethanol from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in 5-L agitating fermentor. After 72 h of fermentation, around 84.3 g/L ethanol was produced in the fermentation liquids, and the conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 0.453, or 88.6 % of the theoretical value of 0.511. This study showed high feasibility of bioethanol industrial production from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers and provided a basis for it in the future. PMID:25605047

  20. On finite density effects on cosmic reheating and moduli decay and implications for Dark Matter production

    SciTech Connect

    Drewes, Marco

    2014-11-01

    We study the damping of an oscillating scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime by perturbative processes, taking into account the back-reaction of the plasma of decay products on the damping rate. The scalar field may be identified with the inflaton, in which case this process resembles the reheating of the universe after inflation. It can also model a modulus that dominates the energy density of the universe at later times. We find that the finite density corrections to the damping rate can have a drastic effect on the thermal history and considerably increase both, the maximal temperature in the early universe and the reheating temperature at the onset of the radiation dominated era. As a result the abundance of some Dark Matter candidates may be considerably larger than previously estimated. We give improved analytic estimates for the maximal and the reheating temperatures and confirm them numerically in a simple model.

  1. Probing parton dynamics of QCD matter with Ω and ϕ production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, J.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We present measurements of Ω and ϕ production at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies √{sN N}=7.7 , 11.5 , 19.6 , 27, and 39 GeV by the STAR experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Motivated by the coalescence formation mechanism for these strange hadrons, we study the ratios of N (Ω-+Ω¯+) /[2 N (ϕ ) ] . These ratios as a function of transverse momentum pT fall on a consistent trend at high collision energies, but start to show deviations in peripheral collisions at √{sN N}=19.6 , 27, and 39 GeV, and in central collisions at 11.5 GeV in the intermediate pT region of 2.4 -3.6 GeV/c . We further evaluate empirically the strange quark pT distributions at hadronization by studying the Ω /ϕ ratios scaled by the number of constituent quarks (NCQ). The NCQ-scaled Ω /ϕ ratios show a suppression of strange quark production in central collisions at 11.5 GeV compared to √{sN N}≥19.6 GeV. The shapes of the presumably thermal strange quark distributions in 0-60% most central collisions at 7.7 GeV show significant deviations from those in 0-10% most central collisions at higher energies. These features suggest that there is likely a change of the underlying strange quark dynamics in the transition from quark matter to hadronic matter at collision energies below 19.6 GeV.

  2. Production of bioavailable and refractory dissolved organic matter by coastal heterotrophic microbial populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lønborg, Christian; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé A.; Davidson, Keith; Miller, Axel E. J.

    2009-05-01

    Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by heterotrophic microbial communities isolated from Loch Creran (Scotland) was studied in time course incubations in which cells were re-suspended in artificial seawater amended with variable proportions of glucose, ammonium and phosphate. The incubation experiments demonstrated that microheterotrophs released part of the substrate as new DOM, with a production efficiency of 11 ± 1% for DOC, 18 ± 2% for DON and 17 ± 2% for DOP. Estimating the impact of this production in Loch Creran, showed that from 3 ± 1% (DOC) to 72 ± 16% (DOP) of DOM could originate from the heterotrophic microbial community. The produced DOM (PDOM) was both bioavailable (BDOM) and refractory (RDOM). Bioavailability as assessed by the difference between the maximum and the end DOM concentration, was generally higher than found in natural systems, with DOP (73 ± 15%, average ± SD) more bioavailable than DON (70 ± 15%), and DON than DOC (34 ± 13%). The stoichiometry of PDOM was linked to both nutrient uptake and BDOM ratios. Absorption and fluorescence of DOM increased significantly during the incubation time, indicating that microheterotrophs were also a source of coloured DOM (CDOM) and that they produce both bioavailable protein-like and refractory humic-like fluorophores.

  3. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3 ~ 12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9 ~ 2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  4. Use of dried waste of cassava starch extraction for feeding lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Tatiane; Zambom, Maximiliane A; Castagnara, Deise D; Souza, Leiliane C; Damasceno, Daiane O; Schmidt, Emerson L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best level of utilization of dried waste of cassava starch extraction (WCSEd) as a substitute for corn for lactating cows. Four lactating cows were fed diets with increasing levels (0%, 33%, 66% and 100%) of WCSEd as a substitute for corn. The intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, milk production and composition, blood parameters of glucose and urea and microbial synthesis of the diets were evaluated. There was a reduction in dry matter intake, organic matter, ether extract and total carbohydrate, and increased intake of acid detergent fiber. Nutrient digestibility was not affected while the synthesis of microbial protein increased. These changes resulted in reduced milk production, without altering the efficiency of production or the constituents of milk, with a decreasing effect on daily production of lactose, solids and minerals. Metabolic parameters, glucose and urea nitrogen in plasma, remained within appropriate levels. The dried residue from the extraction of cassava starch can be used as feed for dairy cows to replace up to 100% of the corn ration. However, its use promotes a reduction in intake of dry matter and nutrients as well as a reduction in the production of milk, with impacts on the profitability of the product. PMID:25860971

  5. Influence of anthropogenic emissions on the production of organic particulate matter during GoAmazon2014/5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sá, S. S.; Palm, B. B.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Liu, Y.; Thalman, R. M.; Shilling, J. E.; Newburn, M. K.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Artaxo, P.; Wang, J.; Goldstein, A. H.; Alexander, L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    As part of GoAmazon2014/5, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed to characterize the composition of fine-mode particulate matter (PM) and provide insights into the production of airborne particle material in the central Amazon basin, Brazil. The focus was on the influence of biogenic-anthropogenic interactions on the measured aerosol particles, especially as related to the formation of organic PM. Through a combination of meteorology, emissions, and chemistry, the T3 research site (located 70 km downwind of Manaus) was affected by biogenic emissions from the tropical rainforest that were periodically mixed with urban outflow from the Manaus metropolitan area as well as with biomass burning plumes. Results from the T3 site are presented in the context of measurements at T0a (ATTO) and T2, representing predominantly clean and polluted conditions, respectively. At T3, in the wet season (1/Feb - 31/Mar 2014) the non-refractory PM1 mass concentration had values on order of 1 to 2 μg m-3, while in the dry season (15/Aug - 15/Oct 2014) PM1was eight times higher. In both seasons, the organic component was dominant, contributing 80-85% by mass.The analysis of the results aims at delineating the anthropogenic impact on the measurements, especially focusing on anthropogenic sulfate as a mediator. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis is applied to the time series of organic mass spectra. The factors and their loadings provide information on the relative and time-varying contributions of different sources and processes of organic PM. A factor associated with secondary organic material produced from the reactive uptake of epoxydiols (a product of isoprene photooxidation under HO2-dominant conditions) is resolved for both seasons (hereafter, IEPOX-SOA). The time trends of the factors, especially of IEPOX-SOA, are investigated against co-located measurements, toward the goal of improving the understanding of anthropogenic

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  7. Effect of vaccination against gonadotrophin-releasing factor on growth performance, carcass, meat and fat quality of male Duroc pigs for dry-cured ham production.

    PubMed

    Font-I-Furnols, M; Gispert, M; Soler, J; Diaz, M; Garcia-Regueiro, J A; Diaz, I; Pearce, M C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare production, carcass and meat quality parameters, boar taint compounds and fat composition of green and dry-cured hams, between immunocastrated (IM), surgically castrated (CM) and female (FE) Duroc purebred pigs (n=75, 138.7±8.27kg). Liveweight and fat and muscle thicknesses were measured and average daily gain was calculated during growth. Carcass, meat and fat quality parameters were measured. Immunocastrated grew faster than CM or FE after the second dose of vaccine. IM had the lowest dressing percentage but similar % of ham and carcass lean to FE and CM. The effect of the immunocastration on carcass fatness depended on the location, did not affect fat and meat quality and reduced skatole and androstenone levels. Both in green and dry-cured ham, immunocastration slightly altered FA composition. Thus, Duroc pigs vaccinated with Improvac are suitable for the production of high quality dry-cured ham. PMID:22309935

  8. Use of cheese whey for vitamin B12 production. 3. Growth studies and dry-weight activity.

    PubMed

    Bullerman, L B; Berry, E C

    1966-05-01

    The patterns of growth and vitamin formation by Propionibacterium shermanii in whey were similar to the patterns established in other substrates. The vitamin formation was observed during the latter part of the fermentation after the organism approached maximal growth. Lactose utilization by the organism corresponded to the logarithmic-growth phase of the organism. Analyses of the dried culture showed a large increase of vitamin B(12) in the fermentation solids compared with unfermented dried whey. A feed analysis showed a notable increase of protein and a large decrease in nitrogen-free extract of the dried fermentation solid compared with dried whey. PMID:5970819

  9. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114 ± 14 d in milk and weighed 533 ± 56 kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of NovaSil Plus (NSP) for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were hous...

  10. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  11. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  12. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  13. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  14. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  15. Engineering soil organic matter quality: Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) stimulates exudation of nitrogenous microbial biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Redmile-Gordon, Marc A.; Evershed, Richard P.; Kuhl, Alison; Armenise, Elena; White, Rodger P.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Goulding, Keith W.T.; Brookes, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) is a complex organic material formed during the transesterification of lipids. We investigated the effect of BCP on the extracellular microbial matrix or ‘extracellular polymeric substance’ (EPS) in soil which is suspected to be a highly influential fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). It was hypothesised that more N would be transferred to EPS in soil given BCP compared to soil given glycerol. An arable soil was amended with BCP produced from either 1) waste vegetable oils or 2) pure oilseed rape oil, and compared with soil amended with 99% pure glycerol; all were provided with 15N labelled KNO3. We compared transfer of microbially assimilated 15N into the extracellular amino acid pool, and measured concomitant production of exopolysaccharide. Following incubation, the 15N enrichment of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) indicated that intracellular anabolic products had incorporated the labelled N primarily as glutamine and glutamate. A greater proportion of the amino acids in EPS were found to contain 15N than those in the THAA pool, indicating that the increase in EPS was comprised of bioproducts synthesised de novo. Moreover, BCP had increased the EPS production efficiency of the soil microbial community (μg EPS per unit ATP) up to approximately double that of glycerol, and caused transfer of 21% more 15N from soil solution into EPS-amino acids. Given the suspected value of EPS in agricultural soils, the use of BCP to stimulate exudation is an interesting tool to consider in the theme of delivering sustainable intensification. PMID:26635420

  16. Organic matter production during late summer-winter period in a temperate sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marić, Daniela; Frka, Sanja; Godrijan, Jelena; Tomažić, Igor; Penezić, Abra; Djakovac, Tamara; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Precali, Robert; Gašparović, Blaženka

    2013-03-01

    The quantity and quality of fresh organic matter (OM) formed by primary production in relation to phytoplankton community structure was calculated for the late summer-winter 2009/2010 in the northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). Phytoplankton species, as a direct measure of fresh OM, chlorophyll a, the OM pool (DOC and POC) and lipids, including classes, were analyzed. Data for temperature, salinity and nutrients enabled deeper insight into the conditions that promoted fresh OM production and associated processes at two stations of different trophic status. Phytoplankton growth was controlled by bottom regenerated nutrients and to lesser extent by riverine nutrients. The phytoplankton community was mainly dominated by nanoplankton. Species of moderate carbon content Chaetoceros compressus, Asterionellopsis glacialis, Leptocylindrus danicus and Bacteriastrum jadranum dominated the microplankton fraction. Availability of orthophosphates was the key factor influencing fresh OM production. POC varied from 37-522 μg l-1. Freshphyto POC, i.e. carbon fixed in phytoplankton cells, contributed 7-79% to the POC pool. The DOC (890-1560 μg l-1) level decreased during the investigated period. Calculation of fresh DOC, i.e. carbon fixed during primary production and released as dissolved OM, revealed it as a minor part (0-2%) of the DOC pool. Lipid concentrations varied from 9.9-55.0 μg l-1 and 20.0-40.2 μg l-1 in the particulate and dissolved fractions, respectively. Nutrient limitation caused increased synthesis of lipids, among which energy reserve lipids triacylglycerols, which are further immobilized for the construction of glycolipids with increasing depletion of orthophosphates.

  17. Will enhanced turbulence in inland waters result in elevated production of autochthonous dissolved organic matter?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jian; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Tang, Xiangming; Han, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Biological activity in lakes is strongly influenced by hydrodynamic conditions, not least turbulence intensity; which increases the encounter rate between plankter and nutrient patches. To investigate whether enhanced turbulence in shallow and eutrophic lakes may result in elevated biological production of autochthonous chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a combination of field campaigns and mesocosm experiments was used. Parallel factor analysis identified seven components: four protein-like, one microbial humic-like and two terrestrial humic-like components. During our field campaigns, elevated production of autochthonous CDOM was recorded in open water with higher wind speed and wave height than in inner bays, implying that elevated turbulence resulted in increased production of autochthonous CDOM. Confirming the field campaign results, in the mesocosm experiment enhanced turbulence resulted in a remarkably higher microbial humic-like C1 and tryptophan-like C3 (p<0.01), indicating that higher turbulence may have elevated the production of autochthonous CDOM. This is consistent with the significantly higher mean concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the enhanced phytoplanktonic alkaline phosphatase activity (PAPA) recorded in the experimental turbulence groups than in the control group (p<0.05). The C:N ratio (from 3.34 to 25.72 with a mean of 13.13±4.08) for the mesocosm CDOM samples further suggested their probable autochthonous origin. Our results have implications for the understanding of CDOM cycling in shallow aquatic ecosystems influenced by wind-induced waves, in which the enhanced turbulence associated with extreme weather conditions may be further stimulated by the predicted global climate change. PMID:26599140

  18. Photochemical Production of Singlet Oxygen from Dissolved Organic Matter in Ice.

    PubMed

    Fede, Alexis; Grannas, Amanda M

    2015-11-01

    Dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous component of natural waters and an important photosensitizer. A variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be produced from DOM photochemistry, including singlet oxygen, 1O2. Recently, it has been determined that humic-like substances and unknown organic chromophores are significant contributors to sunlight absorption in snowpack; however, DOM photochemistry in snow/ice has received little attention in the literature. We recently showed that DOM plays an important role in indirect photolysis processes in ice, producing ROS and leading to the efficient photodegradation of a probe hydrophobic organic pollutant, aldrin.1 ROS scavenger experiments indicated that 1O2 played a significant role in the indirect photodegradation of aldrin. Here we quantitatively examine 1O2 photochemically produced from DOM in frozen and liquid aqueous solutions. Steady-state 1O2 production is enhanced up to nearly 1000 times in frozen DOM samples compared to liquid samples. 1O2 production is dependent on the concentration of DOM, but the nature of the DOM source (terrestrial vs microbial) does not have a significant effect on 1O2 production in liquid or frozen samples, with different source types producing similar steady-state concentrations of 1O2. The temperature of frozen samples also has a significant effect on steady-state 1O2 production in the range of 228-262 K, with colder samples producing more steady-state 1O2. The large enhancement in 1O2 in frozen samples suggests that it may play a significant role in the photochemical processes that occur in snow and ice, and DOM could be a significant, but to date poorly understood, oxidant source in snow and ice. PMID:26460930

  19. Scale-up of ethanol production from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process in fermentors up to 300 liters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fermentation process, which was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process, has recently been developed for barley ethanol production. In the EDGE process, in addition to the enzymes normally required for starch hydrolysis, commercial Beta-glucanases were used to hydrolyze (1,3)(1,...

  20. Pond demonstration of production diets using high levels of distiller's dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the increased availability and potential price advantage of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), there is considerable interest in utilizing this product in aquaculture diets. The response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to practical diets containing 20% and 30% DDGS with and...

  1. Complex aggregation patterns in drying nanocolloidal suspensions: size matters when it comes to the thermomechanical stability of nanoparticle-based structures.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Samer; Mougin, Karine; Haidara, Hamidou

    2010-11-16

    We report the results of a model study on the interrelation among the occurrence of complex aggregation patterns in drying nanofluids, the size of the constitutive nanoparticles (NPs), and the drying temperature, which is a critical issue in the genesis of complex drying patterns that was never systematically reported before. We show that one can achieve fine control over the occurrence and topological features of these drying-mediated complex structures through the combination of the particle size, the drying temperature, and the substrate surface energy. Most importantly, we show that a transition in the occurrence of the patterns appears with the temperature and the particle size, which accounts for the size dependence of the thermomechanical stability of the aggregates in the nanoscale range. Using simple phenomenological and scaling considerations, we showed that the thermomechanical stability of the aggregates was underpinned by physical quantities that scale with the size of the NPs (R) either as R(-2) or R(-3). These insights into the size-dependent dissipation mechanisms in nanoclusters should help in designing NPs-based structures with tailored thermomechanical and environmental stability and hence with an optimized morphological stability that guarantees their long-term functional properties. PMID:20883008

  2. Production and excitation-emission fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter from marine tropical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, W. G.; Zika, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays an important key role in the photochemistry and biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the coastal region. Their distribution can vary in space and time due to supply of CDOM from different sources. To determine properties of fluorescence-CDOM produced by various marine tropical species, two species from each of the different marine communities were examined after incubation in the dark for forty-nine (49) days: seagrasses-Enhalus acoroides (EA), Thalassia testudinium (TT); corals-Pocillopora cylindrical (PC), Seriatopora hystrix (SH) ; mangroves- Avicennia marina (AM), Sonneratia alba (SA); brown algae-Hormophysa cuneiformis (HC), Sargassum sp.(SS). Average CDOM production is highest from mangrove species (218 QSU/g-sample/day), followed by seagrass (42 QSU/g-sample/day), brown alga (26 QSU/g-sample/day) then corals (19 QSU/g-sample/day).The fluorescence maximum at 312; 380-420 nm emission-excitation pair appears to be present in all species that is an identified humic-like signature. These results suggest that the production of the fluorescent CDOM fraction is a common phenomenon of tropical marine species and as such constitutes a major part of the marine CDOM pool in coastal regions.

  3. Dodelson-Widrow production of sterile neutrino Dark Matter with non-trivial initial abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, Alexander; Schneider, Aurel; Totzauer, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    The simplest way to create sterile neutrinos in the early Universe is by their admixture to active neutrinos. However, this mechanism, connected to the Dark Matter (DM) problem by Dodelson and Widrow (DW), cannot simulatenously meet the relic abundance constraint as well as bounds from structure formation and X-rays. Nonetheless, unless a symmetry forces active-sterile mixing to vanish exactly, the DW mechanism will unavoidably affect the sterile neutrino DM population created by any other production mechanism. We present a semi-analytic approach to the DW mechanism acting on an arbitrary initial abundance of sterile neutrinos, allowing to combine DW with any other preceeding production mechanism in a physical and precise way. While previous analyses usually assumed that the spectra produced by DW and another mechanism can simply be added, we use our semi-analytic results to discuss the validity of this assumption and to quantify its accurateness, thereby also scrutinising the DW spectrum and the derived mass bounds. We then map our results to the case of sterile neutrino DM from the decay of a real SM singlet coupled to the Higgs. Finally, we will investigate aspects of structure formation beyond the usual simple free-streaming estimates in order to judge on the effects of the DW modification on the sterile neutrino DM spectra generated by scalar decay.

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  5. On the Rust Products Formed on Weathering and Carbon Steels Exposed to Chloride in Dry-Wet Cyclical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Barrero, C. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2005-02-01

    The rust products formed on weathering and carbon steels exposed to dry-wet cyclical processes in different chloride-rich solutions are carefully examined by means of different techniques. Special emphasis is given to the methodology of analysis of the data using 300 K and 77 K Mössbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The rust that is loosely bound to the metal surface and that it is lost during the corrosion process, for both types of steel, was found to be composed of lepidocrocite, superparamagnetic goethite, hematite, and traces of akaganeite. On the other hand, the adherent rust, which is differentiated as scraped and hit according to the way it is obtained, from both steels was found to be composed of akaganeite, spinel phase, goethite exhibiting broad distribution of particle sizes and lepidocrocite. The relative abundances of rust components for both steels were very similar, suggesting similar corrosion processes. Mass loss measurements show that the corrosion rates increases with increasing the chloride concentration. The presence of large quantities of spinel phase and akaganeite are a consequence of a corrosion process under the influence of very high chloride concentrations. Our results are useful for assessing the behavior of weathering steels where the levels of chlorides are high or in contact with sea water.

  6. Bioanalytical and chemical assessment of the disinfection by-product formation potential: role of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Farré, Maria José; Day, Sophie; Neale, Peta A; Stalter, Daniel; Tang, Janet Y M; Escher, Beate I

    2013-09-15

    Disinfection by-products (DBP) formed from natural organic matter and disinfectants like chlorine and chloramine may cause adverse health effects. Here, we evaluate how the quantity and quality of natural organic matter and other precursors influence the formation of DBPs during chlorination and chloramination using a comprehensive approach including chemical analysis of regulated and emerging DBPs, total organic halogen quantification, organic matter characterisation and bioanalytical tools. In vitro bioassays allow us to assess the hazard potential of DBPs early in the chain of cellular events, when the DBPs react with their molecular target(s) and activate stress response and defence mechanisms. Given the reactive properties of known DBPs, a suite of bioassays targeting reactive modes of toxic action including genotoxicity and sensitive early warning endpoints such as protein damage and oxidative stress were evaluated in addition to cytotoxicity. Coagulated surface water was collected from three different drinking water treatment plants, along with reverse osmosis permeate from a desalination plant, and DBP formation potential was assessed after chlorination and chloramination. While effects were low or below the limit of detection before disinfection, the observed effects and DBP levels increased after disinfection and were generally higher after chlorination than after chloramination, indicating that chlorination forms higher concentrations of DBPs or more potent DBPs in the studied waters. Bacterial cytotoxicity, assessed using the bioluminescence inhibition assay, and induction of the oxidative stress response were the most sensitive endpoints, followed by genotoxicity. Source waters with higher dissolved organic carbon levels induced increased DBP formation and caused greater effects in the endpoints related to DNA damage repair, glutathione conjugation/protein damage and the Nrf2 oxidative stress response pathway after disinfection. Fractionation studies

  7. Randomized noninferiority field trial comparing 2 first-generation cephalosporin products at dry off in quarters receiving an internal teat sealant in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Rota, N; Locatelli, C; Colombo, L; Pollera, C; Giacinti, G; Bronzo, V; Casula, A; Arpinelli, A; Brossette, V; Facchi, M; Patelli, A; Ruggeri, A; Barberio, A; Potenza, G; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2016-08-01

    The study objective was to compare 2 commercial dry cow mastitis products at the quarter level, with concurrent internal teat sealant application, evaluating the cure risk difference, odds of a cure, odds of a new intramammary infection (NIMI) during the dry period, and risk for a clinical mastitis (CM) case between calving and 60d in milk (DIM). A total of 590 cows (2,360 quarters) from 8 commercial dairy herds in Italy were enrolled and randomized to 1 of the 2 treatments at dry off: Cefovet A (CF; 250mg of cephazoline; Merial Italia SpA, Milan, Italy), and Cepravin (CP; 250mg of cephalonium dehydrate MSD Animal Health Srl, Segrate, Italy). Quarter milk samples were collected before dry cow therapy treatment at dry off, 2 to 9 DIM, and 10 to 17 DIM. Quarter milk samples from CM cases were collected during the first 60 DIM. Noninferiority analysis was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on the risk difference of a bacteriological cure during the dry period, the primary outcome. The odds of cure, developing a NIMI during the dry period, and the risk of a CM event within 60 DIM were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression and hazard analysis, respectively. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of NIMI at dry off was 15.3%. The most common pathogen isolated from milk samples at dry-off was coagulase-negative staphylococci. Noninferiority analysis showed no effect of treatment on the risk difference for a cure between dry off and both postpartum samples, difference was 0.013. The least squares means from the multivariable model evaluating the odds of cure was 94% for CF and 95%for CP. We observed no effect of treatment on the odds for the presence of a NIMI at 2 to 9 DIM (least squares means: CF=0.09 and CP=0.07), nor did we note a difference in risk of experiencing a CM event between calving and 60 DIM (hazard ratio=0.8). In conclusion, no difference was observed between the 2 products evaluated when assessing the aforementioned outcomes in

  8. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SITJC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC-30252). Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mine workings, and assess the environmental impact of such underground placements. This report discusses the technical progress achieved during the period October 1 - December 31, 1995. Rapid Aging Test columns were placed in operation during the second quarter of 1995, and some preliminary data were acquired during this quarter. These data indicate that the highly caustic pH is initially generated in the pneumatic mix, but that such pH is short lived. The initial pH rapidly declines to the range of 8 to 9. Leachates in this pH range will have little or no effect on environmental concerns. Dedicated sampling equipment was installed in the groundwater monitoring wells at the proposed placement site at the Peabody Number 10 mine. Also, the groundwater monitoring wells were {open_quotes}developed{close_quotes} during the quarter to remove the fines trapped in the sand pack and screen. A new procedure was used in this process, and proved successful. A series of tests concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the pneumatic mixes were conducted. Results show that both moisture content and curing time have a direct effect on the strength of the mixes. These are, of course, the expected general results. The Christmas holidays and the closing of the University during an extended period affected the progress of the program during the quarter. However, the program is essentially on schedule, both technically and fiscally, and any delays will be overcome during the first quarter of 1996.

  9. White matter pathway supporting phonological encoding in speech production: a multi-modal imaging study of brain damage patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; Huang, Ruiwang; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    In speech production, an important step before motor programming is the retrieval and encoding of the phonological elements of target words. It has been proposed that phonological encoding is supported by multiple regions in the left frontal, temporal and parietal regions and their underlying white matter, especially the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) or superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). It is unclear, however, whether the effects of AF/SLF are indeed related to phonological encoding for output and whether there are other white matter tracts that also contribute to this process. We comprehensively investigated the anatomical connectivity supporting phonological encoding in production by studying the relationship between the integrity of all major white matter tracts across the entire brain and phonological encoding deficits in a group of 69 patients with brain damage. The integrity of each white matter tract was measured both by the percentage of damaged voxels (structural imaging) and the mean fractional anisotropy value (diffusion tensor imaging). The phonological encoding deficits were assessed by various measures in two oral production tasks that involve phonological encoding: the percentage of nonword (phonological) errors in oral picture naming and the accuracy of word reading aloud with word comprehension ability regressed out. We found that the integrity of the left SLF in both the structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures consistently predicted the severity of phonological encoding impairment in the two phonological production tasks. Such effects of the left SLF on phonological production remained significant when a range of potential confounding factors were considered through partial correlation, including total lesion volume, demographic factors, lesions on phonological-relevant grey matter regions, or effects originating from the phonological perception or semantic processes. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the central role of

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