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Sample records for dry plant formations

  1. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, microbiological characteristics, and biogenic amines formation in dry-cured bacons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (tea polyphenol, grape seed extract, and gingerol) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, microbiological counts, and biogenic amines were determined in dry-cured bacons at the end of ripening. Results showed that plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol significantly...

  2. Reflectance characteristics of dry plant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorophyll and water obscure the absorption features of all other leaf constituents in the spectra of green leaves. The predominant near-IR and thermal IR spectral features of dry plant materials originate from lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. These compounds account for 80 to 98 percent of the dry weight in most plant materials.

  3. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  4. Running dry at the power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, B.

    2007-07-01

    In the future, competition for water will require electricity generators in the United States to address conservation of fresh water. There are a number of avenues to consider. One is to use dry-cooling and dry-scrubbing technologies. Another is to find innovative ways to recycle water within the power plant itself. A third is to find and use alternative sources of water, including wastewater supplies from municipalities, agricultural runoff, blackish groundwater, or seawater. Dry technologies are usually more capital intensive and typically exact a penalty in terms of plant performance, which in turn raises the cost of power generation. On the other hand, if the cost of water increases in response to greater demand, the cost differences between dry and wet technologies will be reduced. EPRI has a substantial R & D programme evaluating new water-conserving power plant technologies, improving dry and hybrid cooling technologies, reducing water losses in cooling towers, using degraded water sources and developing resource assessment and management decision support tools. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  5. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  6. Pattern formation in drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, D.; Sobac, B.; Loquet, B.; Sampol, J.

    2011-01-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood exhibits coupled physical mechanisms, such as Marangoni flow, evaporation and wettability. The final stage of a whole blood drop evaporation reveals regular patterns with a good reproducibility for a healthy person. Other experiments on anaemic and hyperlipidemic people were performed, and different patterns were revealed. The flow motion inside the blood drop is observed and analyzed with the use of a digital camera: the influence of the red blood cells (RBCs) motion is revealed at the drop periphery as well as its consequences on the final stage of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of the dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of haematology. The blood drop evaporation process is evidenced to be driven only by Marangoni flow. The same axisymetric pattern formation is observed, and can be forecast for different blood drop diameters. The evaporation mass flux can be predicted with a good agreement, assuming only the knowledge of the colloids mass concentration.

  7. Drying without senescence in resurrection plants

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Cara A.; Gaff, Donald F.; Neale, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Research into extreme drought tolerance in resurrection plants using species such as Craterostigma plantagineum, C. wilmsii, Xerophyta humilis, Tortula ruralis, and Sporobolus stapfianus has provided some insight into the desiccation tolerance mechanisms utilized by these plants to allow them to persist under extremely adverse environmental conditions. Some of the mechanisms used to ensure cellular preservation during severe dehydration appear to be peculiar to resurrection plants. Apart from the ability to preserve vital cellular components during drying and rehydration, such mechanisms include the ability to down-regulate growth-related metabolism rapidly in response to changes in water availability, and the ability to inhibit dehydration-induced senescence programs enabling reconstitution of photosynthetic capacity quickly following a rainfall event. Extensive research on the molecular mechanism of leaf senescence in non-resurrection plants has revealed a multi-layered regulatory network operates to control programed cell death pathways. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that resurrection plants employ to avoid undergoing drought-related senescence during the desiccation process. To survive desiccation, dehydration in the perennial resurrection grass S. stapfianus must proceed slowly over a period of 7 days or more. Leaves detached from the plant before 60% relative water content (RWC) is attained are desiccation-sensitive indicating that desiccation tolerance is conferred in vegetative tissue of S. stapfianus when the leaf RWC has declined to 60%. Whilst some older leaves remaining attached to the plant during dehydration will senesce, suggesting dehydration-induced senescence may be influenced by leaf age or the rate of dehydration in individual leaves, the majority of leaves do not senesce. Rather these leaves dehydrate to air-dryness and revive fully following rehydration. Hence it seems likely that there are genes expressed in

  8. Elapsed time for crack formation during drying.

    PubMed

    Giorgiutti-Dauphiné, F; Pauchard, L

    2014-05-01

    The drying of colloidal films usually leads to mechanical instabilities that affect the uniformity of the final deposit. The resulting patterns are the signature of the mechanical stress, and reveal the way the system consolidates. We report experimental results on the crack patterns induced by the drying of sessile drops of concentrated dispersions. Crack patterns exhibit a well-defined spatial order, and a regular temporal periodicity. In addition, the onset of cracking occurs after a well-defined elapsed time that depends on the mechanical properties of the gel, and on the drying kinetics. The estimation of the time elapsed before cracks form is related to the elastic properties of the material. This is supported by quantitative measurements using indentation testing and by a simple scaling law derived from poro-elastic theory. PMID:24853634

  9. Formation of Shear Bands in Drying Colloidal Dispersions.

    PubMed

    Kiatkirakajorn, Pree-Cha; Goehring, Lucas

    2015-08-21

    In directionally dried colloidal dispersions regular bands can appear behind the drying front, inclined at ±45° to the drying line. Although these features have been noted to share visual similarities with shear bands in metal, no physical mechanism for their formation has ever been suggested, until very recently. Here, through microscopy of silica and polystyrene dispersions, dried in Hele-Shaw cells, we demonstrate that the bands are indeed associated with local shear strains. We further show how the bands form, that they scale with the thickness of the drying layer, and that they are eliminated by the addition of salt to the drying dispersions. Finally, we reveal the origins of these bands in the compressive forces associated with drying, and show how they affect the optical properties (birefringence) of colloidal films and coatings. PMID:26340215

  10. Formation of Shear Bands in Drying Colloidal Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkirakajorn, Pree-Cha; Goehring, Lucas

    2015-08-01

    In directionally dried colloidal dispersions regular bands can appear behind the drying front, inclined at ±45 ° to the drying line. Although these features have been noted to share visual similarities with shear bands in metal, no physical mechanism for their formation has ever been suggested, until very recently. Here, through microscopy of silica and polystyrene dispersions, dried in Hele-Shaw cells, we demonstrate that the bands are indeed associated with local shear strains. We further show how the bands form, that they scale with the thickness of the drying layer, and that they are eliminated by the addition of salt to the drying dispersions. Finally, we reveal the origins of these bands in the compressive forces associated with drying, and show how they affect the optical properties (birefringence) of colloidal films and coatings.

  11. 9. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DRY CANAL BED IN FOREGROUND. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  12. 6. VIEW OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DRY CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DRY CANAL BED TO THE LEFT. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  13. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, residual nitrites, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines formation during ripening and storage of dry-cured bacon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract (GSE) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation, residual nitrite, microbiological counts, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines were determined in bacons during dry-curing and storage. Results show ...

  14. Geothermal energy savings for a New Zealand alfalfa drying plant

    SciTech Connect

    van de Wydeven, F.; Freeston, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    The existing alfalfa drying plant was analyzed to determine the efficiency and cost of energy use per unit of production. Further studies are reported of possibilities for energy savings both in the existing plant and in the future development which will incorporate a second dryer and treble the output. (MHR)

  15. Pattern Formation in Drying Drops of Polystyrene/Water nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    We study the pattern formation and the evaporation dynamics of drying drops of polystyrene/water based nanofluids with concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 6%. Cracks formation is evidenced to depend on the nanoparticles concentration. The dynamics of evaporation is recorded using an electronic balance with an accuracy of 10 μg. A top view recording enables to analyze the pattern formation in relation with the mass evolution. We determine several key parameters such as the time of evaporation, the wetting diameter, the final solid deposition diameter, the number and the spacing of the cracks. We evidence a ring formation above a critical concentration. We evidenced by change of the surrounding humidity in the range of 10 to 90% that this pattern remains constant. The pattern formation is influenced by the liquid phase evaporation dynamics but only depends on the concentration in nanoparticles. These results are of great interest regarding the formation of droplets in several areas such as inkjet printing, pharmacology...

  16. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Hierarchical Structure Formation of Nanoparticulate Spray-Dried Composite Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Sabrina; Garnweitner, Georg; Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten; Schilde, Carsten

    2015-11-24

    The design of hierarchically structured nano- and microparticles of different sizes, porosities, surface areas, compositions, and internal structures from nanoparticle building blocks is important for new or enhanced application properties of high-quality products in a variety of industries. Spray-drying processes are well-suited for the design of hierarchical structures of multicomponent products. This structure design using various nanoparticles as building blocks is one of the most important challenges for the future to create products with optimized or completely new properties. Furthermore, the transfer of designed nanomaterials to large-scale products with favorable handling and processing can be achieved. The resultant aggregate structure depends on the utilized nanoparticle building blocks as well as on a large number of process and formulation parameters. In this study, structure formation and segregation phenomena during the spray drying process were investigated to enable the synthesis of tailor-made nanostructures with defined properties. Moreover, a theoretical model of this segregation and structure formation in nanosuspensions is presented using a discrete element method simulation. PMID:26505280

  18. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to pose appropriate questions according to the location of the student. A student's location can be obtained using the device position or by scanning a QR code attached to a dried plant sheet in a herbarium or to a fresh plant in an arboretum. The assessment questions are complemented with elaborated feedback that, according to the students' responses, provides indications of possible mistakes and correct answers. Three experiments were designed to measure the effectiveness of the formative assessment using dried and fresh plants. Three questionnaires were used to evaluate the system performance from the students' perspective. The results clearly indicate that formative assessment is objectively effective compared to traditional methods and that the students' attitudes towards the system were very positive.

  19. Formation kinetics of particulate films in directional drying of a colloidal suspension.

    PubMed

    Inasawa, S; Oshimi, Y; Kamiya, H

    2016-08-10

    We observed the kinetics of formation of colloidal films through directional drying with a pinned drying interface. The volume fraction of particles accumulated at the pinned drying interface increased in two stages: it rapidly increased in the initial stage of drying and then slowly increased. The final filling factor of the dried films decreased with increasing drying flux. We found a threshold drying flux for the formation of colloidal films below which uneven films are formed at the drying interface. This threshold flux is well explained by the competition between transport of particles by flow and transport by diffusion. We also found a minimum thickness for the formation of a packed layer of particles. The formation kinetics of a packed layer of particles due to drying was discussed. PMID:27471046

  20. 39. REDUCTION PLANT THIRD FLOOR The dried fish meal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. REDUCTION PLANT - THIRD FLOOR The dried fish meal was blown into the left side of the room (behind the cloth barrier). When the meal settled to the floor level, it was picked up by an Archimedes screw-shaft which carried it to the far end of the room, where it was blown through pipes (supported by a truss) across Cannery Row to the sacking and storage building. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  1. Dry matter and energy partitioning in plants under climatic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Bolhar-Nordenkampf, H.R.; Postl, W.F.; Meister, M.H.; Ledl, D.; Nemeth, K.; Ludlow, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    During ontogenesis plants distribute assimilates quite differently among their organs depending on the environmental conditions. In case of high sink capacity energetically cheap storing compounds such as carbohydrates and/or organic acids are formed, whereas during periods with low demand proteins and lipids may be accumulated. Besides ontogenesis, drought and increased CO{sub 2} are able to modify sink capacity and by this transients in the partitioning pattern of carbon are induced. Plants, well adapted to several dry seasons during the year are able to allocate carbon predominantly to below ground organs. During this period many leaves become senescent. In any case stems and remaining green leaves will loose dry matter and energy. With 80% of plants under investigation CO{sub 2} enrichment was shown to induce an enforced allocation of carbon to below ground organs. Roots and Rhizomes, beets and tubers act as a sink for the additionally fixed carbon. It was demonstrated that sink capacity is controlling photosynthetic activity. With respect to agricultural production, to ecosystems and to single plants, climatic change will modify productivity and plants distribution pattern as a consequence of quite different metabolic changes. These responses are depending on the effect of natural and anthropogenic stress factors on the use of enhanced CO{sub 2} and on the allocation of additionally formed assimilates.

  2. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality.

    PubMed

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant factor during drying of Allium roseum leaves. Five models selected from the literature were found to satisfactorily describe drying kinetics of Allium roseum leaves for all tested drying conditions. Drying data were analyzed to obtain moisture diffusivity values. During the falling rate-drying period, moisture transfer from Allium roseum leaves was described by applying the Fick's diffusion model. Moisture diffusivity varied from 2.55 × 10(-12) to 8.83 × 10(-12) m(2)/s and increased with air temperature. Activation energy during convective drying was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation and ranged between 46.80 and 52.68 kJ/mol. All sulfur compounds detected in the fresh leaves were detected in the dried leaves. Convective air drying preserved the sulfur compounds potential formation. PMID:26028758

  3. NAD + -dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Alekseeva, A.A.; Savin, S.S.; Tishkov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) widely occurs in nature. FDH consists of two identical subunits and contains neither prosthetic groups nor metal ions. This type of FDH was found in different microorganisms (including pathogenic ones), such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. As opposed to microbiological FDHs functioning in cytoplasm, plant FDHs localize in mitochondria. Formate dehydrogenase activity was first discovered as early as in 1921 in plant; however, until the past decade FDHs from plants had been considerably less studied than the enzymes from microorganisms. This review summarizes the recent results on studying the physiological role, properties, structure, and protein engineering of plant formate dehydrogenases. PMID:22649703

  4. Relationship soil-water-plant after the dry season in dry Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Jiménez-Donaire, V.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    Preliminary studies have determined the existence of a pluviometric gradient around Mediterranean system, which varies from 240 to 1 100 mm mean annual rainfall. This gradient has an incidence in the physical, chemical and hydrological properties in soils with the same litology. Empiric results conclude that humid eco-geomorphological systems are controlled by biotic processes, whereas in arid eco-geomorphological systems, are abiotic factors which have more importance in soil degradation processes. The study area of the present work is located in Málaga (Andalusia, Spain), in the southern part of the Natural Park "Sierra Tejeda, Almijara y Alhama". There, the mean annual temperature is around 18 °C and the mean rainfall is 650 mm. Predominant vegetation corresponds to the termomediterranean serie Smilaci Mauritanicae-Querceto Rotundifoliae Sigmetum, typical of basic soils. The aim of this study is to analyse the immediate hydrological response of the soil under different vegetation covers, through the analysis of certain properties, all this, under subhumid ombrotipe. A random choice of ten representative plants has been done. These plants, with different sizes, were located in the same Southern slope. The soil samples were taken right beside the plant log, and also within a distance of 0.4 to 1 metre from them, depending on the plant size. The sampling was carried out between the end of the dry season and the beginning of the wet one, after a 20% of the mean annual rainfall had rained. The physical, chemical and hydrological analyzes -both in the field and the laboratory- were: exchange-base, total carbon, cation exchange capacity, soil infiltration capacity, salt content, hydrophobia, organic matter, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, wetting profile in bared soil, wetting profile under vegetation cover (shrubland), and p.H. Literature reveals that rainfall affects significantly the edafogenetic factors, regarding the pluviometric gradient level. In the

  5. Insights from plants: tunable nano-flows induced by drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Olivier; Robin, Antoine; Szenicer, Alexandre; Stroock, Abraham

    2015-11-01

    Moving fluids through nanoscale confinements is a difficult process due to high friction with the walls. Pushing fluids to achieve significant (or even measurable) flows requires very large pressures, which can be inconvenient and costly. Inspired by plants, we used evaporation to generate controlled steady-state nano-flows in pores ~ 3 nm in diameter embedded in a silicon-based micro-platform. The capillary negative pressure that drives the flow, on the order of tens to hundreds of MPa in magnitude, develops spontaneously upon drying and can be externally tuned by changing the relative humidity (vapor saturation) outside of the sample. We show that the analysis of the dynamic drying response allows to get precise measurements of the behavior of highly confined liquids and could be used both as tool for the study of nanoscale fluid physics and as a method to handle liquids in a controlled way for lab-on-chip applications. We also discuss flow enhancement possibilities based on ideas from the vascular anatomy of plants.

  6. Formation of triploid plants via possible polyspermy.

    PubMed

    Toda, Erika; Okamoto, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Polyploidization is a common phenomenon in angiosperms, and polyploidy has played a major role in the long-term diversification and evolutionary success of plants. Triploid plants are considered as the intermediate stage in the formation of stable autotetraploid plants, and this pathway of tetraploid formation is known as the triploid bridge. As for the mechanism of triploid formation among diploid populations, fusion of an unreduced gamete with a reduced gamete is generally accepted. In addition, the possibility of polyspermy has been proposed for maize, wheat and some orchids, although it has been regarded as an uncommon mechanism of polyploid formation. One of the reasons why polyspermy is regarded as uncommon is because it is difficult to reproduce the polyspermy situation in zygotes and to analyze the developmental profiles of polyspermic zygotes. In the study, we produced polyspermic rice zygotes by electric fusion of an egg cell with two sperm cells and monitored their developmental profiles. The two sperm nuclei and the egg nucleus fused into a zygotic nucleus in the polyspermic zygote, and the triploid zygote divided into a two-celled embryo via mitotic division with a typical bipolar microtubule spindle. The two-celled proembryos developed and regenerated into triploid plants. These results suggest that polyspermic plant zygotes have the potential to form triploid embryos, and that polyspermy in angiosperms might be a pathway for the formation of triploid plants. PMID:27617495

  7. INVESTIGATION OF THE FORMATION OF A PORTLAND CEMENT PLANT DETACHED PLUME

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gaseous and particulate source emissions sampling program has been conducted at a Portland Cement production plant in Rapid City South Dakota. The study was conducted to determine the cause of the formation of an opaque detached plume from the plants' dry process kiln. The inst...

  8. Formation of monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Kathryn; Wu, Winston Duo; Wu, Zhangxiong; Liu, Wenjie; Selomulya, Cordelia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a protocol to synthesize monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via a unique microfluidic jet spray-drying route is reported for the first time. The microparticles demonstrated highly ordered hexagonal mesostructures with surface areas ranging from ~900 up to 1500 m(2)/g and pore volumes from ~0.6 to 0.8 cm(3)/g. The particle size could be easily controlled from ~50 to 100 μm from the same diameter nozzle via changing the initial solute content, or changing the drying temperature. The ratio of the surfactant (CTAB) and silica (TEOS), and the amount of water in the precursor were found to affect the degree of ordering of mesopores by promoting either the self-assembly of the surfactant-silica micelles or the condensation of the silica as two competing processes in evaporation induced self-assembly. The drying rate and the curvature of particles also affected the self-assembly of the mesostructure. The particle mesostructure is not influenced by the inlet drying temperature in the range of 92-160 °C, with even a relatively low temperature of 92 °C producing highly ordered mesoporous microparticles. The spray-drying derived mesoporous silica microparticles, while of larger sizes and more rapidly synthesized, showed a comparable performance with the conventional mesoporous silica MCM-41 in controlled release of a dye, Rhodamine B, indicating that these spray dried microparticles could be used for the immobilisation and controlled release of small molecules. PMID:24461839

  9. Chromatin Ring Formation at Plant Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Veit; Ruban, Alevtina; Houben, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We observed the formation of chromatin ring structures at centromeres of somatic rye and Arabidopsis chromosomes. To test whether this behavior is present also in other plant species and tissues we analyzed Arabidopsis, rye, wheat, Aegilops and barley centromeres during cell divisions and in interphase nuclei by immunostaining and FISH. Furthermore, structured illumination microscopy (super-resolution) was applied to investigate the ultrastructure of centromere chromatin beyond the classical refraction limit of light. It became obvious, that a ring formation at centromeres may appear during mitosis, meiosis and in interphase nuclei in all species analyzed. However, varying centromere structures, as ring formations or globular organized chromatin fibers, were identified in different tissues of one and the same species. In addition, we found that a chromatin ring formation may also be caused by subtelomeric repeats in barley. Thus, we conclude that the formation of chromatin rings may appear in different plant species and tissues, but that it is not specific for centromere function. Based on our findings we established a model describing the ultrastructure of plant centromeres and discuss it in comparison to previous models proposed for animals and plants. PMID:26913037

  10. Spore formation in plants: sporocyteless and more.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    Plant reproduction is initiated by the specification of sporocytes that form haploid spores through meiosis. A new study in Arabidopsis published in Cell Research shows how the product of sporocyteless/nozzle, a key gene in this process, partners with co-repressors and transcription factors to promote spore formation, and draws interesting parallels with fungi. PMID:25512340

  11. Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

  12. Design of Peumus boldus tablets by direct compression using a novel dry plant extract.

    PubMed

    Palma, Santiago; Luján, Claudia; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Barboza, Gloria; Manzo, Ruben Hilario; Allemandi, Daniel Alberto

    2002-02-21

    A solid pharmaceutical dosage formulation using a novel dry plant extract of Peumus boldus MOL. (Monimiaceae) (Pb) is proposed. The botanical evaluation of plant material, through morphological and anatomical diagnosis, is presented. This evaluation permits to identify the herb to be used correctly. The analysis of the most extractive solvent mixture and the attainment of plant extract (fluid and dry) are reported. Several formulations (tablets) containing a novel dry plant extract of Pb and common excipients for direct compression are evaluated. The following formulation: dry plant extract of Pb (170 mg), Avicel PH101 (112 mg), Lactose CD (112) and magnesium stearate (6 mg), compressed at 1000 mPa, showed the best pharmaceutical performance. PMID:11897423

  13. Drying and Storage Methods Affect Cyfluthrin Concentrations in Exposed Plant Samples.

    PubMed

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Locke, M A

    2016-08-01

    Standard procedures do not exist for drying and storage of plant samples prior to chemical analyses. Since immediate analysis is not always possible, current research examined which plant drying and storage method yielded the highest cyfluthrin recovery rates compared to traditional mechanical freeze-drying methods. Fifteen mesocosms were planted with rice. Cyfluthrin (5 mg L(-1)) was amended into the water column of individual mesocosms. 48 h later, plant material in the water column was collected from each mesocosm. Control (mechanical freeze drying) recovery was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than all 14 combinations of drying and storage. Significant differences also existed between all 14 different combinations. Greatest cyfluthrin recoveries in non-control plants were from the freezer-greenhouse-freezer drying and storage method. Results offer evidence for the efficient plant drying and storage methods prior to cyfluthrin analysis. Future studies should perform comparable analyses on various pesticide classes to determine possible relationships. PMID:27225509

  14. Simulation of Latex Film Formation Using a Cell Model in Real Space: Vertical Drying.

    PubMed

    Gromer, A; Nassar, M; Thalmann, F; Hébraud, P; Holl, Y

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents a simulation tool applied to latex film formation by drying, a hybrid between a classical numerical resolution method using finite differences and cellular automata, and making use of object-oriented programming. It consists of dividing real space into cells and applying local physical laws to simulate the exchange of matter between neighboring cells. In a first step, the simulation was applied to the simple case of vertical drying of a latex containing only one population of monodisperse particles and water. Our results show how the distribution of latex particles evolves through the different drying stages due to a combination of diffusion, convection, and particle deformation. While repulsive interactions between the particles tend to favor homogeneous distributions in the first drying stage, concentration gradients that develop in opposite ways can be observed depending on the drying regime. The distributions, calculated in various cases, reproduce and extend several theoretical results and are in qualitative agreement with some experimental findings. PMID:26378376

  15. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  16. WET/DRY COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS: WATER CONSERVATION AND PLUME ABATEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement. Results of cost optimizations of wet/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the wester...

  17. Use of dried aquatic plant roots to adsorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of heavy metal ions by dried aquatic macrophytes was investigated. The ability of the biomass, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Typha latifolia (cattail), Sparganium minimum (burr reed) and Menyanthes trifoliata to abstract lead and mercury ions is presented here, along with a conceptual filter design. This paper examines an alternative to both the traditional and recent systems designed for metal removal. It involves the use of dried aquatic macrophytes. There are numerous advantages for the use of dried macrophytes in the treatment of industrial wastewater. First, it is cost-effective. There are also funding opportunities through a variety of Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) programs. It is more environmentally conscious because a wetland, the harvesting pond, has been created. And, it creates public goodwill by providing a more appealing, less hardware-intensive, natural system.

  18. Rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using dried medicinal plant of basil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Naheed; Sharma, Seema; Alam, Md K; Singh, V N; Shamsi, S F; Mehta, B R; Fatma, Anjum

    2010-11-01

    Plants respond to heavy metal stress by metal complexation process like production of phytochelations or by other metal chelating peptides. In this paper we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the room dried stem and root of Ocimum sanctum. The broth of the plant is used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles at room temperature. The reaction process was simple and was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). There was formation of highly stable silver nanoparticles in the solution. The morphology and crystalline phase of the NPs were determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies showed that the silver nanoparticles obtained from roots and stem were of sizes 10+/-2 and 5+/-1.5 nm, respectively. The various phytochemicals present within the ocimum plant result in effective reduction of silver salts to nanoparticles but their chemical framework is also effective at wrapping around the nanoparticles to provide excellent robustness against agglomeration. PMID:20656463

  19. Simulating Plant Water Stress and Phenology in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests: Plant Hydraulics and Trait-Driven Trade-Offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests account for over 40% of the forested area in tropical and subtropical regions. Previous studies suggest that seasonal water stress is one main driver of phenology and related vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests. Species that coexist in seasonally dry tropical forests have different plant traits, experience different degrees of plant water stress and show distinctive phenological patterns. However, the observed diversity in plant phenology and related vegetation dynamics is poorly represented in current dynamic vegetation models. In this study, we employ a new modeling approach to enhance our model skills in seasonally dry tropical forests. First, we implement a new plant hydraulic module under the framework of a state-of-the-art dynamic vegetation model, Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2). Second, we link plant water stress with several key coordinated plant traits. Unlike previous models, the updated ED2 does not prescribe leaf phenology (deciduous or evergreen) and plant water stress is not determined by empirical water stress factors or by soil moisture alone. Instead, the model tracks more mechanistic indicators of plant water stress like leaf water potential, accounts for different abilities to tolerate water stress among plant functional types and predicts dry season leaf deciduousness and related vegetation dynamics. The updated model is then tested with in-situ meteorological data and long-term ecological observations. We also perform numerical experiments to explore the possible biases of ignoring the observed diversity in seasonally dry tropical forests. We find that (i) variations of several key plant traits (specific leaf area, wood density, turgor loss point and rooting depth) can account for the observed distinctive phenological patterns as well as inter-annual variations in vegetation growth among species. (ii) Ignoring the trait-driven trade-offs and diversity in seasonality would introduce significant

  20. Reduction of primary freeze-drying time by electric field induced ice nucleus formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Ansgar; Rau, Guenter; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2006-08-01

    The potential of a high electric field was utilized to induce ice nucleus formation in aqueous solutions. Using this technique it was possible to reduce the primary drying time during lyophilization. Samples of 10% (w/v) hydroxyethylstarch (HES) solution were frozen at a constant rate of -1 K/min, while nucleation was initiated at temperatures of -1.5, -4.5 and -8.5°C. In contrast, spontaneous nucleation was observed in a range between -11.5 and -17.1°C. Electrically induced nucleus formation has proved to be a reliable method to start crystallization at a desired temperature. Continuous measurement of the weight allowed to determine the drying rate and to detect at which time primary drying was completed. The drying time and the drying rate were found to be strongly dependent on the nucleation temperature during freezing. A relation between the nucleation temperature, the structure of the frozen samples and the drying times could be established.

  1. Laboratory bioassay for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on plant growth and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, K.S.; Liberta, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    A laboratory bioassay is described for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on juvenile corn growth and the ability of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi, indigenous to coal spoil, to form mycorrhizae. The bioassay demonstrated that application rates can be identified that have the potential to promote increased plant dry weight without suppressing the formation of VA mycorrhizae in a plant's root system.

  2. Pattern formation in vibrated beds of dry and wet granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan Lim, Eldin Wee

    2014-01-01

    The Discrete Element Method was coupled with a capillary liquid bridge force model for computational studies of pattern formation in vibrated granular beds containing dry or wet granular materials. Depending on the vibration conditions applied, hexagonal, stripes, or cellular pattern was observed in the dry vibrated granular bed. In each of these cases, the same hexagonal, stripes, or cellular pattern was also observed in the spatial distribution of the magnitudes of particle-particle collision forces prior to the formation of the corresponding actual pattern in physical distributions of the particles. This seemed to suggest that the pattern formation phenomenon of vibrated granular bed systems might be the result of a two-dimensional Newton's cradle effect. In the presence of a small amount of wetness, these patterns were no longer formed in the vibrated granular beds under the same corresponding set of vibration conditions. Despite the relatively much weaker capillary forces arising from the simulated liquid bridges between particles compared with particle-particle collision forces, the spatial distributions of these collision forces, physical distributions of particles, as well as time profiles of average collision forces were altered significantly in comparison with the corresponding distributions and profiles observed for the dry vibrated granular beds. This seemed to suggest the presence of a two-dimensional Stokes' cradle effect in these wet vibrated granular bed systems which disrupted the formation of patterns in the wet granular materials that would have been observed in their dry counterparts.

  3. Influence of surface modification on structure formation and micromechanical properties of spray-dried silica aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Sabrina; Lindenau, Maylin; Michel, Stephanie; Garnweitner, Georg; Schilde, Carsten

    2016-02-15

    Spray drying processes were utilized for the production of hierarchical materials with defined structures. The structure formation during the spray drying process and the micromechanical properties of the obtained aggregates depend on the particle-particle interactions, the primary particle size and morphology as well as the process parameters of the spray drying process. Hence, the effect of different primary particle systems prepared as stable dispersions with various surface modifications were investigated on the colloidal structure formation and the micromechanical properties of silica particles as model aggregates and compared to theoretical considerations. The obtained results show that the structure formation of aggregates during the spray drying process for stable suspensions is almost independent on the functional groups present at the particle surface. Further, the mechanical properties of these aggregates differ considerably with the content of the bound ligand. This allows the defined adjustment of the aggregate properties, such as the strength and surface properties, as well as the formation of defined hierarchical aggregate structures. PMID:26619128

  4. Drying bacterial biosaline patterns capable of vital reanimation upon rehydration: novel hibernating biomineralogical life formations.

    PubMed

    Gómez Gómez, José María; Medina, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Rull, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Water is the fundamental molecule for life on Earth. Thus, the search for hibernating life-forms in waterless environments is an important research topic for astrobiology. To date, however, the organizational patterns containing microbial life in extremely dry places, such as the deserts of Earth, the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, or Mars analog regolith, have been poorly characterized. Here, we report on the formation of bacterial biosaline self-organized drying patterns formed over plastic surfaces. These emerge during the evaporation of sessile droplets of aqueous NaCl salt 0.15 M solutions containing Escherichia coli cells. In the present study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analyses indicated that the bacterial cells and the NaCl in these biosaline formations are organized in a two-layered characteristic 3-D architectural morphology. A thin filmlike top layer formed by NaCl conjugated to, and intermingled with, "mineralized" bacterial cells covers a bottom layer constructed by the bulk of the nonmineralized bacterial cells; both layers have the same morphological pattern. In addition, optical microscopic time-lapsed movies show that the formation of these patterns is a kinetically fast process that requires the coupled interaction between the salt and the bacterial cells. Apparently, this mutual interaction drives the generative process of self-assembly that underlies the drying pattern formation. Most notably, the bacterial cells inside these drying self-assembled patterns enter into a quiescent suspended anhydrobiotic state resistant to complete desiccation and capable of vital reanimation upon rehydration. We propose that these E. coli biosaline drying patterns represent an excellent experimental model for understanding different aspects of anhydrobiosis phenomena in bacteria as well as for revealing the mechanisms of bacterially induced biomineralization, both highly relevant topics for the search of life in

  5. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to…

  6. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  7. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

    2006-03-01

    U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

  8. Measuring dry plant residues in grasslands: A case study using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Ustin, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    Grasslands, savannah, and hardwood rangelands are critical ecosystems and sensitive to disturbance. Approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface are grasslands and represent 3 million ha. in California alone. Developing a methodology for estimating disturbance and the effects of cumulative impacts on grasslands and rangelands is needed to effectively monitor these ecosystems. Estimating the dry biomass residue remaining on rangelands at the end of the growing season provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of land management practices. The residual biomass is indicative of the grazing pressure and provides a measure of the system capacity for nutrient cycling since it represents the maximum organic matter available for decomposition, and finally, provides a measure of the erosion potential for the ecosystem. Remote sensing presents a possible method for measuring dry residue. However, current satellites have had limited application due to the coarse spatial scales (relative to the patch dynamics) and insensitivity of the spectral coverage to resolve dry plant material. Several hypotheses for measuring the biochemical constituents of dry plant material, particularly cellulose and lignin, using high spectral resolution sensors were proposed. The use of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) to measure dry plant residues over an oak savannah on the eastern slopes of the Coast Range in central California was investigated and it was asked what spatial and spectral resolutions are needed to quantitatively measure dry plant biomass in this ecosystem.

  9. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Wei Zhang

    2004-07-01

    This is the sixth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Coal drying experiments were performed with a Powder River Basin coal to measure the effects of fluidization velocity and drying temperature on rate of drying in a batch drying process. Comparisons to computational results using the batch bed drying model show good agreement. Comparisons to drying results with North Dakota lignite at the same process conditions confirm the lignite dries slightly more rapidly than the PRB. Experiments were also carried out to determine the effects of inlet air humidity on drying rate. The specific humidity ranged from a value typical for air at temperatures near freezing to a value for 30 C air at 90 percent relative humidity. The experimental results show drying rate is strongly affected by inlet air humidity, with the rate decreasing with more humid inlet air. The temperature of the drying process also plays a strong role, with the negative impacts of high inlet moisture being less of a factor in a higher temperature drying process. Concepts for coal drying systems integrated into a power plant were developed. These make use of hot circulating cooling water from the condenser, steam extraction from the turbine cycle and thermal energy extracted from hot flue gas, in various combinations. Analyses are under way to calculate the effects of drying system design and process conditions on unit performance, emissions, and cooling tower makeup water.

  10. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation. PMID:26994604

  11. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P.; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  12. Jurassic "savannah" - Plant taphonomy and climate of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic, Western USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Judith T.; Peterson, F.; Turner, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Morrison Formation contains six plant taphofacies: Wood, whole-leaf, leaf-mat, root, common carbonaceous debris, and rare carbonaceous debris. None of these taphofacies is common in the Morrison; particularly striking is the paucity of wood, even in more reducing environments. The flora of the Morrison Formation is distinct in the Kimmeridgian and Tithonian parts of the section. The plant taphofacies are consistent with a predominantly herbaceous vegetation. Evidence from the plant taphofacies, floras, and sedimentology of the Morrison is consistent with a warm, seasonal, semi-arid climate throughout, changing from dry semi-arid to humid semi-arid from the Kimmeridgian to the Tithonian parts of the formation. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Interfacial force-driven pattern formation during drying of Aβ (25-35) fibrils.

    PubMed

    Sett, Ayantika; Bag, Sudipta; Dasgupta, Swagata; DasGupta, Sunando

    2015-08-01

    Pattern formation during evaporation of biofluids finds significant applications in the biomedical field for disease identification. Aβ (25-35) is the smallest peptide in the amyloid peptide family that retains the toxicity of a full length peptide responsible for Alzheimer's disease and is chosen here as the model solute. Drying experiments on substrates of varying wettability exhibit unique drying patterns of Aβ (25-35) fibrils visualized through fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The unique pattern formations can be interpreted as manifestations of the changes in the self-pinning mechanism with changes in wettability, which in some cases resembles the well-known coffee ring effect. Additionally, the delicate balance between the drag and capillary forces has been perturbed by initiating controlled rates of evaporation and probing their effects on the fibril patterning. PMID:25964177

  14. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established. PMID:26686009

  15. Toward breeding new land-sea plant hybrid species irrigable with seawater for dry regions.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A plant species growing in sea or coastal saltmarsh is greatly tolerant to high concentrations of salts, and a plant species growing in desert or dry regions is highly tolerant to drought. Breeding a new plant hybrid species from both species by means of cellular grafting, genome fusion or nuclear transfer would generate, at least in theory, a hybrid plant species that should be strongly tolerant to harsh aridity and salinity and would be potentially irrigable with seawater. Such prospective species can be used for example as a fodder, biofuel crop or stabilizer species to protect soil from wind erosion and sandy storms in dry regions. Breeding such species would change the surface of the world and help to solve major challenges of starvation, malnutrition and poverty. Here, I propose potential approaches that would be worthy of investigation toward this purpose. PMID:25806436

  16. Toward breeding new land-sea plant hybrid species irrigable with seawater for dry regions

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A plant species growing in sea or coastal saltmarsh is greatly tolerant to high concentrations of salts, and a plant species growing in desert or dry regions is highly tolerant to drought. Breeding a new plant hybrid species from both species by means of cellular grafting, genome fusion or nuclear transfer would generate, at least in theory, a hybrid plant species that should be strongly tolerant to harsh aridity and salinity and would be potentially irrigable with seawater. Such prospective species can be used for example as a fodder, biofuel crop or stabilizer species to protect soil from wind erosion and sandy storms in dry regions. Breeding such species would change the surface of the world and help to solve major challenges of starvation, malnutrition and poverty. Here, I propose potential approaches that would be worthy of investigation toward this purpose. PMID:25806436

  17. The effect of AMF suppression on plant species composition in a nutrient-poor dry grassland.

    PubMed

    Dostálek, Tomáš; Pánková, Hana; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Rydlová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are expected to be one of the key drivers determining the diversity of natural plant communities, especially in nutrient-poor and dry habitats. Several previous studies have explored the importance of AMF for the composition of plant communities in various types of habitats. Surprisingly, studies of the role of AMF in nutrient-poor dry grassland communities dominated by less mycotrophic plant species are still relatively rare. We present the results of a 3-year study in which a plant community in a species-rich dry grassland was subjected to the fungicide carbendazim to suppress AMF colonization. We tested the effect of the fungicide on the following parameters: the plant species composition; the number of plant species; the cover of the rare, highly mycorrhiza-dependent species Aster amellus; the cover of the dominant, less mycorrhiza-dependent species Brachypodium pinnatum; and the cover of graminoids and perennial forbs. In addition, we examined the mycorrhizal inoculation potential of the soil. We found that the suppression of AMF with fungicide resulted in substantial changes in plant species composition and significant decrease in species richness, the cover of A. amellus and the cover of perennial forbs. In contrast the species increasing their cover after fungicide application were graminoids--the C3 grasses B. pinnatum and Bromus erectus and the sedge Carex flacca. These species appear to be less mycorrhiza dependent. Moreover, due to their clonal growth and efficient nutrient usage, they are, most likely, better competitors than perennial forbs under fungicide application. Our results thus suggest that AMF are an essential part of the soil communities supporting a high diversity of plant species in species-rich dry grasslands in nutrient-poor habitats. The AMF are especially important for the maintenance of the populations of perennial forbs, many of which are rare and endangered in the area. PMID:24265829

  18. The Effect of AMF Suppression on Plant Species Composition in a Nutrient-Poor Dry Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Dostálek, Tomáš; Pánková, Hana; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Rydlová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are expected to be one of the key drivers determining the diversity of natural plant communities, especially in nutrient-poor and dry habitats. Several previous studies have explored the importance of AMF for the composition of plant communities in various types of habitats. Surprisingly, studies of the role of AMF in nutrient-poor dry grassland communities dominated by less mycotrophic plant species are still relatively rare. We present the results of a 3-year study in which a plant community in a species-rich dry grassland was subjected to the fungicide carbendazim to suppress AMF colonization. We tested the effect of the fungicide on the following parameters: the plant species composition; the number of plant species; the cover of the rare, highly mycorrhiza-dependent species Aster amellus; the cover of the dominant, less mycorrhiza-dependent species Brachypodium pinnatum; and the cover of graminoids and perennial forbs. In addition, we examined the mycorrhizal inoculation potential of the soil. We found that the suppression of AMF with fungicide resulted in substantial changes in plant species composition and significant decrease in species richness, the cover of A. amellus and the cover of perennial forbs. In contrast the species increasing their cover after fungicide application were graminoids—the C3 grasses B. pinnatum and Bromus erectus and the sedge Carex flacca. These species appear to be less mycorrhiza dependent. Moreover, due to their clonal growth and efficient nutrient usage, they are, most likely, better competitors than perennial forbs under fungicide application. Our results thus suggest that AMF are an essential part of the soil communities supporting a high diversity of plant species in species-rich dry grasslands in nutrient-poor habitats. The AMF are especially important for the maintenance of the populations of perennial forbs, many of which are rare and endangered in the area. PMID:24265829

  19. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel dry storage studies at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Kenneth J.

    1980-09-01

    Conceptual designs are presented utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant for the dry interim storage of spent light water reactor fuel. Studies were conducted to determine feasible approaches to storing spent fuel by methods other than wet pool storage. Fuel that has had an opportunity to cool for several years, or more, after discharge from a reactor is especially adaptable to dry storage since its thermal load is greatly reduced compared to the thermal load immediately following discharge. A thermal analysis was performed to help in determining the feasibility of various spent fuel dry storage concepts. Methods to reject the heat from dry storage are briefly discussed, which include both active and passive cooling systems. The storage modes reviewed include above and below ground caisson-type storage facilities and numerous variations of vault, or hot cell-type, storage facilities.

  20. Drying and storage methods affect cyfluthrin concentrations in exposed plant samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard procedures exist for collection and chemical analyses of pyrethroid insecticides in environmental matrices. However, less detail is given for drying and potential storage methods of plant samples prior to analyses. Due to equipment and financial limitations, immediate sample analysis is n...

  1. Forage Production on Dry Rangelands of Binary Grass-Legume Mixtures at Four Plant Densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage production on Western US rangelands can be increased with the right combination of plants. Our objective was to demonstrate the relative forage production advantage of including a legume on dry rangelands. A falcata and rhizomatous alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), alti wildrye [Leymus andustus...

  2. Plant Hormones: How They Affect Root Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Diana Hereda

    This science study aid, produced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, includes a series of plant rooting activities for secondary science classes. The material in the pamphlet is written for students and includes background information on plant hormones, a vocabulary list, and five learning activities. Objectives, needed materials, and…

  3. ETHYLMERCURY: FORMATION IN PLANT TISSUES AND RELATION TO METHYLMERCURY FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seedlings of the common dwarf garden pea, Pisum sativum, cv. Little Marvel, exposed to elemental mercury vapor formed both methylmercury and ethylmercury in all parts of the plant. Concentrations of both organomercury compounds fluctuated considerably over a 48-hour exposure peri...

  4. Evaporation of multi-component mixtures and shell formation in spray dried droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Pedro; Duarte, Íris; Porfirio, Tiago; Temtem, Márcio

    2015-11-01

    Drug particles where the active pharmaceutical ingredient (APIs) is dispersed in a polymer matrix forming an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is a commonly used strategy to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble APIs. However, the formation and stability of an amorphous solid dispersion depends on the polymer/API combination and process conditions to generate it. The focus of the present work is to further develop a numerical tool to predict the formation of ASDs by spray drying solutions of different polymer/API combinations. Specifically, the evaporation of a multi-component droplet is coupled with a diffusion law within the droplet that minimizes the Gibbs free energy of the polymer/API/solvents system, following the Flory-Huggins model. Prior to the shell formation, the evaporation of the solvents is modelled following the simplified approach proposed by Abramzon & Sirignano (1989) which accounts for the varying relative velocity between the droplet and the drying gas. After shell formation, the diffusion of the solvents across the porous shell starkly modifies the evaporative dynamics.

  5. Do vineyards in contrasting landscapes contribute to conserve plant species of dry calcareous grasslands?

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Juri; Zottini, Michela; Ivan, Diego; Casagrande, Valentina; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    The increasing development of vineyards in Mediterranean areas worldwide is considered a major driver of conversion of several habitats of conservation concern, including calcareous dry grasslands that are targeted for biodiversity conservation by the European Union, according to Natura 2000 policies. Here, we aim at evaluating the potential of extensive vineyards located in contrasting landscapes (semi-natural vs crop-dominated) for providing suitable habitat conditions to plant species associated with dry grasslands. This study was carried out in one of the economically most important winemaking districts of Italy, characterized by a hilly landscape with steep slope vineyards. We compared plant communities of vineyards in contrasting landscapes with those of the remnants of dry grasslands. Our study demonstrates that landscape composition strongly affects local plant communities in vineyards, with a positive effect of semi-natural habitats bordering the cultivated areas. Our findings thus supply an additional tool for improving the effectiveness of viticultural landscapes for nature conservation. In particular, our results indicate that vineyards on steep slopes could provide moderate chance for the conservation of plant specialists inhabiting calcareous dry grasslands, depending on the landscape composition: vineyards embedded in semi-natural landscapes have more potential for conservation than those in crop-dominated landscapes. Our study also indicates that conservation efforts should aim at (a) decreasing the current management intensity that likely hampers the beneficial effects of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape on local plant assemblages, and (b) strictly conserving the remnants of dry grasslands that are irreplaceable refugia for habitat specialists and species of conservation concern. PMID:26747988

  6. Reducing drying/preheat cycle time to increase pellet production at the BHP Whyalla Pellet Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, C.S.; Reynolds, G.; Haines, B.

    1997-12-31

    The feasibility of changing the Whyalla Pellet Plant drying/preheat pattern to reduce the cycle time without causing extra spalling of the preheated balls was investigated using both plant and laboratory produced green balls in the BHP Research pot grate facility. It was found that the results were consistent for both plant and laboratory produced balls in that for the pellet production at 5,000t/d, spalling of the preheated balls was mainly caused by the remaining bound water in the balls. Removing the bound water resulted in a dramatic reduction in spalling. At the plant, the balls were dried at less than 350 C for less than 6 min, which was insufficient heat to drive off all the bound water. The balls then entered the preheat furnace at over 1,000 C. The bound water rapidly vaporized causing the balls to spall. Introducing a dehydration step would involve recouping air from the cooler at 600 C and directing this hot air to the hotter end of the drying furnace to remove most of the bound water. For increased pellet production at 5,800t/d, it was found that an extended dehydration (1/3 drying, 2/3 dehydration) step in the shorter drying/preheat cycle under a higher suction was necessary to have minimum spalling. Implementing this finding required mass and energy balance, a task undertaken by Robert Cnare of Davy John Brown, to allow recommendations to be made for an optimum configuration for plant modifications.

  7. Formation of circular crack pattern in deposition self-assembled by drying nanoparticle suspension.

    PubMed

    Jing, Guangyin; Ma, Jun

    2012-05-31

    Curved cracks widely exist in nanoparticle (NP) deposition produced by drying colloidal suspension. Circular cracks, for example, initiate and propagate along a circular trajectory. One feasible theoretical explanation of a circular crack is the Xia-Hutchinson model, in which a preexisting track (flaw loop) in the film is necessary for initiating and propagating the crack on the circular path. Here, we report the first experimental evidence of dried deposition to support this model. Our results indicate that cracks along the circular trajectory can surprisingly "pass" across a 180 μm air gap. Moreover, two arc-path cracks originate in different areas and propagate to meet, forming a circular trajectory. These unexpected crack initiation and propagation indicate that the crack propagates alone the "preformed" track, experimentally confirming the hypothesis proposed by the Xia-Hutchinson model. The transition of the circular crack to a radial one indicates that the deposition microstructure is the dominant factor for the crack formation. PMID:22577983

  8. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. PMID:25959614

  9. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge. PMID:26642353

  10. Pattern formation in miniature: the female gametophyte of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Alandete-Saez, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Plant reproduction involves gamete production by a haploid generation, the gametophyte. For flowering plants, a defining characteristic in the evolution from the 'naked-seed' plants, or gymnosperms, is a reduced female gametophyte, comprising just seven cells of four different types--a microcosm of pattern formation and gamete specification about which only little is known. However, several genes involved in the differentiation, fertilization and post-fertilization functions of the female gametophyte have been identified and, recently, the morphogenic activity of the plant hormone auxin has been found to mediate patterning and egg cell specification. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the pattern formation, maternal effects and evolution of this essential unit of plant reproduction. PMID:20040485

  11. Sun-drying diminishes the antioxidative potentials of leaves of Eugenia uniflora against formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced in homogenates of rat brain and liver.

    PubMed

    Kade, Ige Joseph; Ibukun, Emmanuel Oluwafemi; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2008-08-01

    Extracts from leaves of Pitanga cherry (Eugenia uniflora) are considered to be effective against many diseases, and are therefore used in popular traditional medicines. In the present study, the antioxidative effect of sun-dried (PCS) and air-dried (PCA) ethanolic extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves were investigated. The antioxidant effects were tested by measuring the ability of both PCS and PCA to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) induced by prooxidant agents such as iron (II) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in rat brain and liver tissues. The results showed that while PCA significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited the formation of TBARS in both liver and brain tissues homogenates, PCS did not. Further investigation reveals that the phenolic content of the PCS was significantly (P<0.0001) lower compared to PCA. Since phenolics in plants largely contributed to the antioxidative potency of plants, we conclude that air-drying should be employed in the preparation of extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves before it is administered empirically as a traditional medicament, and hence this study serves a public awareness to traditional medical practitioners. PMID:18539016

  12. Distribution of Cenozoic plant relicts in China explained by drought in dry season.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongjiang; Jacques, Frédéric M B; Su, Tao; Ferguson, David K; Tang, Hui; Chen, Wenyun; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-01-01

    Cenozoic plant relicts are those groups that were once widespread in the Northern Hemisphere but are now restricted to some small isolated areas as a result of drastic climatic changes. They are good proxies to study how plants respond to climatic changes since their modern climatic requirements are known. Herein we look at the modern distribution of 65 palaeoendemic genera in China and compare it with the Chinese climatic pattern, in order to find a link between the plant distribution and climate. Central China and Taiwan Island are shown to be diversity centres of Cenozoic relict genera, consistent with the fact that these two regions have a shorter dry season with comparatively humid autumn and spring in China. Species distribution models indicate that the precipitation parameters are the most important variables to explain the distribution of relict genera. The Cenozoic wide-scale distribution of relict plants in the Northern Hemisphere is therefore considered to be linked to the widespread humid climate at that time, and the subsequent contraction of their distributional ranges was probably caused by the drying trend along with global cooling. PMID:26369980

  13. Distribution of Cenozoic plant relicts in China explained by drought in dry season

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjiang; Jacques, Frédéric M. B.; Su, Tao; Ferguson, David K.; Tang, Hui; Chen, Wenyun; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-01-01

    Cenozoic plant relicts are those groups that were once widespread in the Northern Hemisphere but are now restricted to some small isolated areas as a result of drastic climatic changes. They are good proxies to study how plants respond to climatic changes since their modern climatic requirements are known. Herein we look at the modern distribution of 65 palaeoendemic genera in China and compare it with the Chinese climatic pattern, in order to find a link between the plant distribution and climate. Central China and Taiwan Island are shown to be diversity centres of Cenozoic relict genera, consistent with the fact that these two regions have a shorter dry season with comparatively humid autumn and spring in China. Species distribution models indicate that the precipitation parameters are the most important variables to explain the distribution of relict genera. The Cenozoic wide-scale distribution of relict plants in the Northern Hemisphere is therefore considered to be linked to the widespread humid climate at that time, and the subsequent contraction of their distributional ranges was probably caused by the drying trend along with global cooling. PMID:26369980

  14. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Demuth, Scott Francis; Sprinkle, James K.

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  15. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy

    2005-10-01

    Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits

  16. Understanding the Formation of Anisometric Supraparticles: A Mechanistic Look Inside Droplets Drying on a Superhydrophobic Surface.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Marcel; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-07-12

    Evaporating drops of nanoparticle suspensions on superhydrophobic surfaces can give anisotropic superaparticles. Previous studies implied the formation of a stiff shell that collapses, but the exact mechanism leading to anisotropy was unclear so far. Here we report on a new experiment using confocal laser scanning microscopy for a detailed characterization of particle formation from droplets of aqueous colloidal dispersions on superhydrophobic surfaces. In a customized setup, we investigated droplets of fumed silica suspensions using two different fluorescent dyes for independently marking silica and the water phase. Taking advantage of interfacial reflection, we locate the drop-air interface and extract normalized time-resolved intensity profiles for dyed silica throughout the drying process. Using comprehensive image analysis we observe and quantify shell-like interfacial particle accumulation arising from droplet evaporation. This leads to a buildup of a stiff fumed silica mantle of ∼20 μm thickness that causes deformation of the droplet throughout further shrinkage, consequently leading to the formation of solid anisometric fumed silica particles. PMID:27336463

  17. Contribution of plant polymers to coal formation

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Profiles of five representative peats from the Florida Everglades and the Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia, have been examined by various analytical techniques. The emphasis of the work reported here will be the application of FT-IR spectroscopy to these peats to determine the presence and extent of alteration of the carbohydrate and lignin components of peat. The results of this study suggest that most peats contain ..cap alpha..-cellulose in appreciable amounts at the uppermost levels, but that little polysaccharide of any kind is identifiable at lower depths. Lignin, though probably chemically altered, becomes concentrated with increasing depth of burial. A computer program was used to fit the spectra of lignin and holocellulose to the spectra of peat. Where the fit was good an estimate of holocellulose and lignin components was made. Where the fit was not good chemical alteration of the plant polymers was inferred. Furthermore, the lignin-derived material is oxidized, so that various types of hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxylic acid groups are prominent components of the peat, to different extents in different peats. The fine-grained humic fractions show weak amide vibrations characteristic of proteinaceous material. Also, in some cores there is an increase with depth of the intensity of aliphatic C-H stretching modes, suggesting the presence of polymeric alkanes; the origin of these is still speculative. Measurements by both FT-IR and CP/MAS /sup 13/C NMR techniques for the amount of carbohydrate retained in peat were remarkably similar at the upper levels of the cores, though NMR showed a larger quantity, at the lower depths. The increase of alkanes with depth is also indicated by both techniques. In contrast to previous studies, some systematic changes in peat as a function of depth of burial were noted in this study.

  18. The length of the dry season may be associated with leaf scleromorphism in cerrado plants.

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcelo C; Franco, Augusto C; Haridasan, Mundayatan; Rossatto, Davi R; de Araújo, Janaína F; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-09-01

    Despite limitations of low fertility and high acidity of the soils, the cerrado flora is the richest amongst savannas. Many cerrado woody species show sclerophyllous leaves, which might be related to the availability of water and nutrients in the soil. To better understand the function and structure of cerrado vegetation within its own variations, we compared two cerrado communities: one in its core region in central Brazil (Brasília, DF) and the other on its southern periphery (Itirapina, SP). We contrasted the length of the dry season, soil fertility rates, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and the specific leaf area (SLA) between these communities. The dry season was shorter on the periphery, where the soil was more fertile although more acidic. Plants from the periphery showed higher SLA and higher leaf concentrations of N, P, Ca and Mg. We propose that the higher SLA of plants from the periphery is related to the shorter dry season, which allows better conditions for nutrient uptake. PMID:26221991

  19. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Yinon; Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven; Haspel, Carynelisa

    2014-05-01

    In cold high altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and mid-latitudes, ice partciles that are exposed to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. In this talk we will describe experiements that simulate the atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols. We find that aerosols with high organic content can form highly porous particles (HPA) with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogenous aerosol following ice subliation. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure follwoing ice sublimation. We find that the highly porous aerosol scatter solar light less efficiently than non-porous aerosol particles. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

  20. The Film Formation of Polymer Particles in Drying Thin Films of Aqueous Acrylic Latices.

    PubMed

    van Tent A; te Nijenhuis K

    2000-12-15

    The aim of this study is to determine the factors that contribute to the process of film formation of binder particles in drying aqueous dispersion coatings, based on acrylic polymers. It is known that concentrated latices of uniform size show iridescent, colored light patterns. These colors are caused by interparticle interference, and they are only present when the latex particles are ordered in a regular structure. The interparticle interference can be characterized by measuring the transmission as a function of wavelength of the incident light. It appeared that the changes of the interparticle interference of a drying latex film can be related to changes in the interparticle distance and displacement. It was also found that the interparticle distance becomes "negative" upon coalescence of the latex particles. This means that from this point on, the change in interparticle interference is directly related to the indentation or deformation of the latex particles. It became clear that the coalescence process differs from deformation mechanisms accepted in the literature. It seems that the deformation of the particles follows a biaxial mechanism. This means that the particles deform only in one direction, perpendicular to the film surface. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:11097771

  1. Self-heating of dried industrial tannery wastewater sludge induced by pyrophoric iron sulfides formation.

    PubMed

    Bertani, R; Biasin, A; Canu, P; Della Zassa, M; Refosco, D; Simionato, F; Zerlottin, M

    2016-03-15

    Similarly to many powders of solids, dried sludge originated from tannery wastewater may result in a self-heating process, under given circumstances. In most cases, it causes a moderate heating (reaching 70-90°C), but larger, off-design residence times in the drier, in a suboxic atmosphere, extremely reactive solids can be produced. Tannery waste contains several chemicals that mostly end up in the wastewater treatment sludge. Unexpected and uncontrolled self heating could lead to a combustion and even to environmental problems. Elaborating on previous studies, with the addition of several analytical determinations, before and after the self-heating, we attempted to formulate a mechanism for the onset of heating. We demonstrated that the system Fe/S/O has been involved in the process. We proved that the formation of small quantities of pyrophoric iron sulfides is the key. They are converted to sulfated by reaction with water and oxygen with exothermic processes. The pyrite/pyrrhotite production depends on the sludge drying process. The oxidation of sulfides to oxides and sulfates through exothermic steps, reasonably catalyzed by metals in the sludge, occurs preferentially in a moist environment. The mechanism has been proved by reproducing in the laboratory prolonged heating under anoxic/suboxic atmosphere. PMID:26651067

  2. Skin formation in drying a film of soft matter solutions: Application of solute based Lagrangian scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Luo; Fanlong, Meng; Junying, Zhang; Masao, Doi

    2016-07-01

    When a film of soft matter solutions is being dried, a skin layer often forms at its surface, which is a gel-like elastic phase made of concentrated soft matter solutions. We study the dynamics of this process by using the solute based Lagrangian scheme which was proposed by us recently. In this scheme, the process of the gelation (i.e., the change from sol to gel) can be naturally incorporated in the diffusion equation. Effects of the elasticity of the skin phase, the evaporation rate of the solvents, and the initial concentration of the solutions are discussed. Moreover, the condition for the skin formation is provided. Project supported by the National Natural Science of China (Grant Nos. 21434001, 51561145002, and 11421110001).

  3. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES: VOLUME 2. PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a mini-pilot test program to investigate potential new sorbents and processes for dry SO2 removal. Initial tests showed that the 85 cu m/h pilot plant could be used successfully to evaluate both spray dryer and dry injection processes using traditional calciu...

  4. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES - VOLUME 2 - PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a mini-pilot test program to investigate potential new sorbents and processes for dry SO2 removal. Initial tests showed that the 85 cu m/h pilot plant could be used successfully to evaluate both spray dryer and dry injection processes using traditional calciu...

  5. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-12-17

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  6. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H.; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-01-01

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  7. Role of plant polyphenols in acrylamide formation and elimination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbing; Wang, Pengpu; Chen, Fang; Yuan, Yuan; Zhu, Yuchen; Yan, Haiyang; Hu, Xiaosong

    2015-11-01

    Acrylamide found in thermal-treated foods has led to an intensive and persistent research effort, since it is a neurotoxic, genotoxic and probable carcinogenic compound to humans. Plant polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diet. Several researches indicated that the polyphenols affected the acrylamide formation during heating. However, the controversial effects of the polyphenols on acrylamide formation were related to their structure, concentrations, and antioxidant capacity, as well as reaction condition. Polyphenols can inhibit acrylamide formation through trapping of carbonyl compounds and preventing against lipid oxidation, while some special polyphenols can enhance the acrylamide content by providing carbonyl groups, accelerating the conversion from 3-aminopropionamide (3-APA) to acrylamide and inhibiting acrylamide elimination. This review concludes the effects of polyphenols in the Maillard reaction and food systems conducted so far, aimed to give an overview on the role of plant polyphenols in acrylamide formation and elimination. PMID:25976790

  8. Importance of Silicon and Mechanisms of Biosilica Formation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Siti Nor Akmar, Abdullah; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Tengoua, F. F.; Nurul Mayzaitul Azwa, Jamaludin; Shabanimofrad, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation. PMID:25685787

  9. Importance of silicon and mechanisms of biosilica formation in plants.

    PubMed

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Siti Nor Akmar, Abdullah; Rafii, Mohd Y; Azizi, Parisa; Tengoua, F F; Nurul Mayzaitul Azwa, Jamaludin; Shabanimofrad, M

    2015-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation. PMID:25685787

  10. Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes in Dry Valleys of Antartica: Martian Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Terrestrial weathering processes in cold-desert climates such as the Dry Valleys of Antarctica may provide an excellent analog to chemical weathering and diagenesis of soils on Mars. Detailed studies of soil development and the chemical and mineralogical alterations occurring within soil columns in Wright Valley, Antarctica show incredible complexity in the upper meter of soil. Previous workers noted the ice-free Dry Valleys are the best terrestrial approximations to contemporary Mars. Images returned from the Pathfinder and Spirit landers show similarities to surfaces observed within the Dry Valleys. Similarities to Mars that exist in these valleys are: mean temperatures always below freezing (-20 C), no rainfall, sparse snowfall-rapidly removed by sublimation, desiccating winds, diurnal freeze-thaw cycles (even during daylight hours), low humidity, oxidative environment, relatively high solar radiation and low magnetic fields . The Dry Valley soils contain irregular distributions and low abundances of soil microorganisms that are somewhat unusual on Earth. Physical processes-such as sand abrasion-are dominant mechanisms of rock weathering in Antarctica. However, chemical weathering is also an important process even in such extreme climates. For example, ionic migration occurs even in frozen soils along liquid films on individual soil particles. It has also been shown that water with liquid-like properties is present in soils at temperatures on the order of approx.-80 C and it has been observed that the percentage of oxidized iron increases with increasing soil age and enrichments in oxidized iron occurs toward the surface. The presence of evaporates is evident and appear similar to "evaporite sites" within the Pathfinder and Spirit sites. Evaporites indicate ionic migration and chemical activity even in the permanently frozen zone. The presence of evaporates indicates that chemical weathering of rocks and possibly soils has been active. Authogenic zeolites have

  11. Impact of Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling on Concentrating Solar Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the sensitivity of Rankine cycle plant performance to dry cooling and hybrid (parallel) wet/dry cooling combinations with the traditional wet-cooled model as a baseline. Plants with a lower temperature thermal resource are more sensitive to fluctuations in cooling conditions, and so the lower temperature parabolic trough plant is analyzed to assess the maximum impact of alternative cooling configurations. While low water-use heat rejection designs are applicable to any technology that utilizes a Rankine steam cycle for power generation, they are of special interest to concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies that are located in arid regions with limited water availability. System performance is evaluated using hourly simulations over the course of a year at Daggett, CA. The scope of the analysis in this paper is limited to the power block and the heat rejection system, excluding the solar field and thermal storage. As such, water used in mirror washing, maintenance, etc., is not included. Thermal energy produced by the solar field is modeled using NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM).

  12. Patterns of fine-scale plant species richness in dry grasslands across the eastern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palpurina, Salza; Chytrý, Milan; Tzonev, Rossen; Danihelka, Jiří; Axmanová, Irena; Merunková, Kristina; Duchoň, Mário; Karakiev, Todor

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale plant species richness varies across habitats, climatic and biogeographic regions, but the large-scale context of this variation is insufficiently explored. The patterns at the borders between biomes harbouring rich but different floras are of special interest. Dry grasslands of the eastern Balkan Peninsula, situated in the Eurasian forest-steppe zone and developed under Mediterranean influence, are a specific case of such biome transition. However, there are no studies assessing the patterns of fine-scale species richness and their underlying factors across the eastern Balkans. To explore these patterns, we sampled dry and semi-dry grasslands (phytosociological class Festuco-Brometea) across Bulgaria and SE Romania. In total, 172 vegetation plots of 10 × 10 m2 were sampled, in which all vascular plant species were recorded, soil depth was measured, and soil samples were collected and analysed in a laboratory for pH and plant-available nutrients. Geographic coordinates were used to extract selected climatic variables. Regression trees and linear regressions were used to quantify the relationships between species richness and environmental variables. Climatic factors were identified as the main drivers of species richness: (1) Species richness was strongly positively correlated with the mean temperature of the coldest month: sub-Mediterranean areas of S and E Bulgaria, characterized by warmer winters, were more species-rich. (2) Outside the sub-Mediterranean areas, species richness strongly increased with annual precipitation, which was primarily controlled by altitude. (3) Bedrock type and soil pH also significantly affected dry grassland richness outside the sub-Mediterranean areas. These results suggest that fine-scale species richness of dry grasslands over large areas is driven by processes at the regional level, especially by the difference in the species pools of large regions, in our case the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographic regions

  13. Air-dense medium fluidized bed dry beneficiation of coal: Results of 50 MTPH demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qingru; Yang Yi; Liang Chuncheng; Tao Xiuxiang; Luo Zhenfu

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the performance results of the 50 MTPH Coal Dry Beneficiation Demonstration Plant constructed in the Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China. The separating media used in this process consists of an air/dense medium (magnetite, or magnetic pearls, a remnant of coal combustion in power plants) fluidized bed controllable at specific gravities ranging from 1.3 to 2.0. That portion of the feedstock with a specific gravity less than the separating gravity floats to the top of the fluidized bed where it is recovered at one end of the vessel. That portion of the feedstock with a specific gravity higher than the separating gravity sinks and is discharged from the other end of the vessel. The process has separating efficiencies similar to a heavy media vessel or cyclone with the additional advantages of (1) can be utilized in an arid region containing insufficient water supply, (2) results in a dry product requiring no additional dewatering and coal slime treatment, and (3) as result of air flow will remove some surface moisture present in the feedstock. As a result of the magnetite used in the fluidized bed and the subsequent downstream recovery of this magnetite, the current demonstration plant utilizes a 6mm bottom size. The topsize of the feed is a function of the size of the system and the site specific ash liberation requirement. The Demonstration Plant commenced operation in September 1992. The mechanical processes of the system including coal feeding, sizing, gravity separation/beneficiation, and medium recovery, functioned as anticipated from the 10 MTPH pilot plant. Preliminary results with separating gravities in the range of 1.3--2.0 showed a probable error as low as 0.05 with magnetite losses of 0.5 kg/MT of feed.

  14. Hyperosmolar Stress Induces Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation: Implications for Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tibrewal, Sapna; Ivanir, Yair; Sarkar, Joy; Nayeb-Hashemi, Neema; Bouchard, Charles S.; Kim, Eunjae; Jain, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if hyperosmolar stress can stimulate human neutrophils to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and to investigate potential strategies to reduce formation of NETs (NETosis) in a hyperosmolar environment. Methods. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood of healthy subjects and incubated in iso-osmolar (280 mOsM) or hyperosmolar (420 mOsM) media for 4 hours. Neutrophil extracellular traps were quantified using a PicoGreen dye assay to measure extracellular DNA. Two known inhibitors of NETosis, staurosporine and anti-β2 integrin blocking antibody, and two proresolution formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonists, annexin/lipocortin-1 mimetic peptide and 15-epi-lipoxin A4, were evaluated as possible strategies to reduce hyperosmolarity-induced NETosis. Results. The amount of NETs induced by hyperosmolar medium (420 mOsM) increased linearly over time to 3.2 ± 0.3 times that induced by iso-osmolar medium at 4 hours (P < 0.05). NETosis increased exponentially with increasing osmolarity and was independent of the stimulus used to increase osmolarity. Upon neutrophil exposure to hyperosmolar stress, restoration of iso-osmolar conditions decreased NET formation by 52.7% ± 5% (P < 0.05) but did not completely abrogate it. Among the strategies tested to reduce NETosis in a hyperosmolar environment, annexin-1 peptide was the most efficacious. Conclusions. Hyperosmolarity induces formation of NETs by neutrophils. This NETosis mechanism may explain the presence of excessive NETs on the ocular surface of patients with dry eye disease. Because they reduce hyperosmolarity-induced NETosis, FPR2 agonists may have therapeutic potential in these patients. PMID:25406284

  15. An effective system to produce smoke solutions from dried plant tissue for seed germination studies1

    PubMed Central

    Coons, Janice; Coutant, Nancy; Lawrence, Barbara; Finn, Daniel; Finn, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. • Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch) were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g) of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smoke through the water. The entire apparatus was operated in a laboratory fume hood. • Conclusions: Compared with other smoke solution preparation systems, the system described is easy to assemble and operate, inexpensive to build, and effective at producing smoke solutions from desired species in a small indoor space. Quantitative measurements can be made when using this system, allowing for replication of the process. PMID:25202613

  16. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  17. Subtask 5.10 - Testing of an Advanced Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Christopher; Pavlish, John

    2013-09-30

    The University of North Dakota’s Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is developing a market-focused dry cooling technology that is intended to address the key shortcomings of conventional dry cooling technologies: high capital cost and degraded cooling performance during daytime temperature peaks. The unique aspect of desiccant dry cooling (DDC) is the use of a hygroscopic working fluid—a liquid desiccant—as a heat-transfer medium between a power plant’s steam condenser and the atmosphere. This configuration enables a number of beneficial features for large-scale heat dissipation to the atmosphere, without the consumptive use of cooling water. The overall goal of this project was to accurately define the performance and cost characteristics of DDC to determine if further development of the concept is warranted. A balanced approach of modeling grounded in applied experimentation was pursued to substantiate DDC-modeling efforts and outline the potential for this technology to cool full-scale power plants. The resulting analysis shows that DDC can be a lower-cost dry cooling alternative to an air-cooled condenser (ACC) and can even be competitive with conventional wet recirculating cooling under certain circumstances. This project has also highlighted the key technological steps that must be taken in order to transfer DDC into the marketplace. To address these issues and to offer an extended demonstration of DDC technology, a next-stage project should include the opportunity for outdoor ambient testing of a small DDC cooling cell. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Wyoming State Legislature under an award made through the Wyoming Clean Coal Technologies Research Program.

  18. Salinity and Alkaline pH of Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: I. Growth and Shoot Dry Weight Partitioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marigold, is one of the most popular annual ornamental plants. Both the short-statured cultivars (Tagetes patula L.) and the taller cultivars (T. erecta L.) are used as container plants, in landscape and garden settings. Tagetes erecta varieties make excellent cut and dried flowers for the florist...

  19. Color formation in nitrite-free dried hams as related to Zn-protoporphyrin IX and Zn-chelatase activity.

    PubMed

    Parolari, Giovanni; Benedini, Riccardo; Toscani, Tania

    2009-08-01

    The development of red pigment Zn-protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in nitrite-free Parma hams was investigated in 5 leg muscles at several stages of processing and the activity of muscle Zn-chelatase was concurrently assayed for its potential role in ZPP formation. A steady increase of the pigment was observed throughout the manufacturing stages at mild temperatures while no development was observed during the prior cold resting phase. The enzyme was partly inactivated according to a muscle-dependent pattern, resulting in similar ZPP contents, hence color, in finished hams. It is concluded that enzyme-dependent synthesis of ZPP in nitrite-free dried hams contributes to color development, enabling muscles in dried hams to become more similar in redness than in green thighs. Therefore, checking raw meat for the enzyme content may be a means to control color formation in nitrite-free dry-cured meat derivatives. PMID:19723176

  20. [Determination of Trace Germanium in Plant Samples by Dry Ashing-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-jie; Yu, Zhao-shui; Bai, Jin-feng; Li, Qing-xia; Liu, Ya-xuan; Bo, Wei; Zhang, Qin

    2015-04-01

    To reduce the limit of detection (LOD) and allow the accurate determination of Ge, a dry ashing method was performed to enrich the Ge in plant samples. A method for the determination.of trace Ge in plant samples by HG-AFS was established. Study of the effect of temperature on the ashing of plant samples showed that no volatile loss of Ge occurred even at 900 °C. Additional experiments indicated that a 4 h burning process at 600 °C would be sufficient to fully ash the plant samples. Various digestion methods (involving nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and sulfuric acid digestion methods) for ashed samples were investigated. High-temperature ashing with large sample weights was used, which could reduce the reagent doses and the method's LOD effectively and simultaneously, the precision of the method was improved. The method's LOD was 0.27 ng · g(-1), and the relative standard deviation was 3.99%-6.81%. Verified with national biological reference materials (grade I), the proposed method was accurate and reliable. PMID:26197600

  1. The growth and survival of plants in urban green roofs in a dry climate.

    PubMed

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-04-01

    Green roofs as one of the components of water-sensitive urban design have become widely used in recent years. This paper describes performance monitoring of four prototype-scale experimental green roofs in a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, undertaken over a 1-year period. Four species of indigenous Australian ground cover and grass species comprising Carpobrotus rossii, Lomandra longifolia 'Tanika,' Dianella caerula 'Breeze' and Myoporum parvifolium were planted in extensive and intensive green roof configurations using two different growing media. The first medium consisted of crushed brick, scoria, coir fibre and composted organics while the second comprised scoria, composted pine bark and hydro-cell flakes. Plant growth indices including vertical and horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot and root biomasses, water use efficiency and irrigation regimes were studied during a 12-month period. The results showed that the succulent species, C. rossii, can best tolerate the hot, dry summer conditions of South Australia, and this species showed a 100% survival rate and had the maximum horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot biomass and water use efficiency. All of the plants in the intensive green roofs with the crushed brick mix media survived during the term of this study. It was shown that stormwater can be used as a source of irrigation water for green roofs during 8 months of the year in Adelaide. However, supplementary irrigation is required for some of the plants over a full annual cycle. PMID:24468503

  2. Resolution of the direct containment heating issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry containments or subatmospheric containments

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Klamerus, E.W.

    1996-03-01

    This report uses the methodology and scenarios described in NUREG/CR-6075 and NUREG/CR-6075, Supplement 1, to address the direct containment heating (DCH) issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry or subatmospheric containments. DCH is considered resolved if the conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) is less than 0.1. The methodology calls for an initial screening phase in which the CCFP for each plant is calculated based on loads versus strength evaluations using plant-specific information. The DCH issue is considered resolved for a plant if the CCFP calculated in the screening phase is less than 0.01. This value is more stringent than the overall success criterion of 0.1. The CCFPs for all of the Westinghouse plants with dry containments were less than 0.01 in the screening phase calculations, and thus, the DCH issue is resolved for these plants based on containment loads alone. No additional analyses are required.

  3. Effect of different drying methods on concentrations of several phytochemicals in herbal preparation of 8 medicinal plants leaves.

    PubMed

    Mahanom, H; Azizah, A; Dzulkifly, M

    1999-12-01

    The effect of oven drying at 50ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 9 hour, 70ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 5 hour and freeze drying on retention of chlorophyll, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in herbal preparation consisting of 8 medicinal plants was evaluated. The medicinal plants selected were leaves of Apium graveolens (saderi), Averrhoa bilimbi (belimbing buluh), Centella asiatica (pegaga), Mentha arvensis (pudina), Psidium guajava (jambu batu), Sauropus androgynous (cekor manis), Solanum nigrum (terung meranti) and Polygonum minus (kesum ). Results revealed that both type and conditions of the drying treatments affected retention of all phytochemicals analysed. Herbal preparation developed using oven drying was found to have inferior phytochemicals content compared to that obtained by freeze dryer. Nevertheless, the herbal preparation developed using all treatments still retain appreciable amount of phytochemicals studied, especially carotenoids, ascorbic acid, niacin and riboflavin and thus have potential for commercial purposes. PMID:22692357

  4. Hormonal interplay during adventitious root formation in flooded tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Vidoz, Maria Laura; Loreti, Elena; Mensuali, Anna; Alpi, Amedeo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2010-08-01

    Soil flooding, which results in a decline in the availability of oxygen to submerged organs, negatively affects the growth and productivity of most crops. Although tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is known for its sensitivity to waterlogging, its ability to produce adventitious roots (ARs) increases plant survival when the level of oxygen is decreased in the root zone. Ethylene entrapment by water may represent the first warning signal to the plant indicating waterlogging. We found that treatment with the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) resulted in a reduction of AR formation in waterlogged plants. We observed that ethylene, perceived by the Never Ripe receptor, stimulated auxin transport. In a process requiring the Diageotropica gene, auxin accumulation in the stem triggered additional ethylene synthesis, which further stimulated a flux of auxin towards to the flooded parts of the plant. Auxin accumulation in the base of the plant induces growth of pre-formed root initials. This response of tomato plants results in a new root system that is capable of replacing the original one when it has been damaged by submergence. PMID:20497380

  5. THE ROLE OF DRY MERGERS FOR THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ruszkowski, M.; Springel, V. E-mail: volker@map-garching.mpg.de

    2009-05-10

    Using a resimulation technique, we perform high-resolution cosmological simulations of dry mergers in a massive (10{sup 15} M {sub sun}) galaxy cluster identified in the Millennium Run. Our initial conditions include well resolved compound galaxy models consisting of dark matter halos and stellar bulges that are used to replace the most massive cluster progenitor halos at redshift z = 3, allowing us to follow the subsequent dry merger processes that build up the cluster galaxies in a self-consistent cosmological setting. By construction, our galaxy models obey the stellar mass-size relation initially. Also, we study both galaxy models with adiabatically contracted and uncompressed halos. We demonstrate that the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) evolves away from the Kormendy relation as defined by the smaller mass galaxies (i.e., the relation bends). This is accompanied by a significantly faster dark matter mass growth within the half-light radius of the BCG compared to the increase in the stellar mass inside the same radius. As a result of the comparatively large number of mergers the BCG experiences, its total mass-to-light ratio becomes significantly higher than in typical elliptical galaxies. We also show that the mixing processes between dark matter and stars lead to a small but numerically robust tilt in the fundamental plane and that the BCG lies on the tilted plane. Our model is consistent with the observed steepening of the logarithmic mass-to-light gradient as a function of the stellar mass. As we have not included effects from gas dynamics or star formation, these trends are exclusively due to N-body and stellar dynamical effects. Surprisingly, we find only tentative weak distortion in the Faber-Jackson relation that depends on the aperture size, unlike expected based on studies of isolated merger simulations. This may be due to differences in the distribution of galaxy orbits, which is given in our approach directly by the cosmological context while it has

  6. Peduncles elicit large-mammal endozoochory in a dry-fruited plant

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Youbing; Newman, Chris; Xie, Zongqiang; Macdonald, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants have evolved a variety of seed dispersal mechanisms to overcome lack of mobility. Many species embed seeds in fleshy pulp to elicit endozoochory, i.e. disseminating seed through the animal gut. In contrast to well-studied fleshy fruited plants, dry-fruited plants may exploit this dispersal mutualism by producing fleshy appendages as a nutritional reward to entice animals to swallow their diaspores, but this has been little studied. In this study, it is hypothesized that these accessory fruits represent co-adaptations facilitating the syndrome of mammalian endozoochorous dispersal. Methods Field observations (focal tree watches, faecal surveys and fruiting phenology) with experimental manipulations (examination of seed germination and feeding trials) were conducted over 2 years in a native population of the raisin tree, Hovenia dulcis, which produces enlarged, twisted brown peduncles with external black seeds, in central China. Key Results Birds were not observed to swallow seeds or carry infructescences away during 190 h of focal tree watches. However, H. dulcis seeds were detected in 247 faecal samples, representative of two herbivore and four carnivore mammalian species. Feeding trials revealed that peduncles attracted mammals to consume the entire infructescence, thereby facilitating effective seed dispersal. The germination rate of egested seeds proved higher than that of unconsumed seeds. It was also noted that this mutualism was most vulnerable in degraded forest. Conclusions Hovenia dulcis peduncle sets are confirmed to adapt primarily to mammalian endozoochory, a mutualistic association similar in function to fleshy pulp or foliage. This demonstrates that plant organ systems can be adapted to unique mutualisms that utilize animal dispersal agents. Such an ecological role has until now been attributed only to bird epizoochory. Future studies should consider more widely the putative role of peduncle sets and mammalian endozoochory

  7. β-Diversity of Functional Groups of Woody Plants in a Tropical Dry Forest in Yucatan

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Jorge Omar; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Meave, Jorge Arturo; Gallardo-Cruz, José Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two main theories have attempted to explain variation in plant species composition (β-diversity). Niche theory proposes that most of the variation is related to environment (environmental filtering), whereas neutral theory posits that dispersal limitation is the main driver of β-diversity. In this study, we first explored how α- and β-diversity of plant functional groups defined by growth form (trees, shrubs and lianas, which represent different strategies of resource partitioning), and dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, which represent differences in dispersal limitation) vary with successional age and topographic position in a tropical dry forest. Second, we examined the effects of environmental, spatial, and spatially-structured environmental factors on β-diversity of functional groups; we used the spatial structure of sampling sites as a proxy for dispersal limitation, and elevation, soil properties and forest stand age as indicators of environmental filtering. We recorded 200 species and 22,245 individuals in 276 plots; 120 species were trees, 41 shrubs and 39 lianas. We found that β-diversity was highest for shrubs, intermediate for lianas and lowest for trees, and was slightly higher for zoochorous than for autochorous and anemochorous species. All three dispersal syndromes, trees and shrubs varied in composition among vegetation classes (successional age and topographic position), whilst lianas did not. β-diversity was influenced mostly by proxies of environmental filtering, except for shrubs, for which the influence of dispersal limitation was more important. Stand age and topography significantly influenced α-diversity across functional groups, but showed a low influence on β-diversity –possibly due to the counterbalancing effect of resprouting on plant distribution and composition. Our results show that considering different plant functional groups reveals important differences in both α- and β-diversity patterns and

  8. Rice chalky ring formation caused by temporal reduction in starch biosynthesis during osmotic adjustment under foehn-induced dry wind.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hiroshi; Masumoto-Kubo, Chisato; Gholipour, Yousef; Nonami, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Tsutsumi, Koichi; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Morita, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Foehn-like extreme hot and dry wind conditions (34°C, >2.5 kPa vapor pressure deficit, and 7 m s(-1)) strongly affect grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.). This is a current concern because of the increasing frequency and intensity of combined heat and water-deficit stress under climate change. Foehn-induced dry wind conditions during the grain-filling stage increase ring-shaped chalkiness as a result of spatiotemporal reduction in starch accumulation in the endosperm, but kernel growth is sometimes maintained by osmotic adjustment. Here, we assess the effects of dry wind on chalky ring formation in environmentally controlled growth chambers. Our results showed that hot and dry wind conditions that lasted for >24 h dramatically increased chalky ring formation. Hot and dry wind conditions temporarily reduced panicle water potential to -0.65 MPa; however, kernel growth was maintained by osmotic adjustment at control levels with increased transport of assimilate to the growing kernels. Dynamic tracer analysis with a nano-electrospray-ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometer and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that starch degradation was negligible in the short-term treatment. Overall expression of starch synthesis-related genes was found to be down-regulated at moderately low water potential. Because the events observed at low water potential preceded the packing of starch granules in cells, we concluded that reduced rates of starch biosynthesis play a central role in the events of cellular metabolism that are altered at osmotic adjustment, which leads to chalky ring formation under short-term hot and dry wind conditions. PMID:25330305

  9. Rice Chalky Ring Formation Caused by Temporal Reduction in Starch Biosynthesis during Osmotic Adjustment under Foehn-Induced Dry Wind

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hiroshi; Masumoto-Kubo, Chisato; Gholipour, Yousef; Nonami, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Tsutsumi, Koichi; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Morita, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Foehn-like extreme hot and dry wind conditions (34°C, >2.5 kPa vapor pressure deficit, and 7 m s−1) strongly affect grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.). This is a current concern because of the increasing frequency and intensity of combined heat and water-deficit stress under climate change. Foehn-induced dry wind conditions during the grain-filling stage increase ring-shaped chalkiness as a result of spatiotemporal reduction in starch accumulation in the endosperm, but kernel growth is sometimes maintained by osmotic adjustment. Here, we assess the effects of dry wind on chalky ring formation in environmentally controlled growth chambers. Our results showed that hot and dry wind conditions that lasted for >24 h dramatically increased chalky ring formation. Hot and dry wind conditions temporarily reduced panicle water potential to –0.65 MPa; however, kernel growth was maintained by osmotic adjustment at control levels with increased transport of assimilate to the growing kernels. Dynamic tracer analysis with a nano-electrospray-ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometer and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that starch degradation was negligible in the short-term treatment. Overall expression of starch synthesis-related genes was found to be down-regulated at moderately low water potential. Because the events observed at low water potential preceded the packing of starch granules in cells, we concluded that reduced rates of starch biosynthesis play a central role in the events of cellular metabolism that are altered at osmotic adjustment, which leads to chalky ring formation under short-term hot and dry wind conditions. PMID:25330305

  10. Basis for assessing the movement of spent nuclear fuels from wet to dry storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Johnson, A.B.; Lund, A.L.; Pednekar, S.P.; Windes, W.E.

    1994-12-01

    An assessment of the possible material interactions arising from the movement of previously wet stored spent nuclear fuel (SNF) into long-term dry interim storage has been conducted for selected fuels in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Three main classes of fuels are addressed: aluminum (Al) clad, stainless steel (SS) clad, and unclad Uranium-Zirconium Hydride (UZrHx) fuel types. Degradation issues for the cladding, fuel matrix material, and storage canister in both wet and dry storage environments are assessed. Possible conditioning techniques to stabilize the fuel and optimum dry environment conditions during storage are also addressed.

  11. Enzyme Production by Industrially Relevant Fungi Cultured on Coproduct From Corn Dry Grind Ethanol Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ximenes, Eduardo A.; Dien, Bruce S.; Ladisch, Michael R.; Mosier, Nathan; Cotta, Michael A.; Li, Xin-Liang

    Distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) is the major coproduct produced at a dry grind ethanol facility. Currently, it is sold primarily as a ruminant animal feed. DDGS is low cost and relatively high in protein and fiber contents. In this study, DDGS was investigated as carbon source for extracellular hydrolytic enzyme production. Two filamentous fungi, noted for their high cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzyme titers, were grown on DDGS: Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and Aspergillus niger NRRL 2001. DDGS was either used as delivered from the plant (untreated) or after being pretreated with hot water. Both microorganisms secreted a broad range of enzymes when grown on DDGS. Higher xylanase titers were obtained when cultured on hot water DDGS compared with growth on untreated DDGS. Maximum xylanase titers were produced in 4 d for A. niger and 8 d for T. reesei in shake flask cultures. Larger amounts of enzymes were produced in bioreactors (5L) either equipped with Rushton (for T. reesei) or updraft marine impellers (A. niger). Initial production titers were lower for bioreactor than for flask cultures, especially for T. reesei cultures. Improvement of enzyme titers were obtained using fed-batch feeding schemes.

  12. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Wei Zhang

    2005-04-01

    This is the ninth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, comparative analyses were performed for lignite and PRB coals to determine how unit performance varies with coal product moisture. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level and coal rank affect parameters such as boiler efficiency, station service power needed for fans and pulverizers and net unit heat rate. Results are also given for the effects of coal drying on cooling tower makeup water and comparisons are made between makeup water savings for various times of the year.

  13. PCDD/F enviromental impact from municipal solid waste bio-drying plant.

    PubMed

    Rada, E C; Ragazzi, M; Zardi, D; Laiti, L; Ferrari, A

    2011-06-01

    The present work indentifies some environmental and health impacts of a municipal solid waste bio-drying plant taking into account the PCDD/F release into the atmosphere, its concentration at ground level and its deposition. Four scenarios are presented for the process air treatment and management: biofilter or regenerative thermal oxidation treatment, at two different heights. A Gaussian dispersion model, AERMOD, was used in order to model the dispersion and deposition of the PCDD/F emissions into the atmosphere. Considerations on health risk, from different exposure pathways are presented using an original approach. The case of biofilter at ground level resulted the most critical, depending on the low dispersion of the pollutants. Suggestions on technical solutions for the optimization of the impact are presented. PMID:21550632

  14. The effect of freezing and drying on leaching of DOM from above ground vascular plant material from the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosh, M. S.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of the seasonal dynamics of fluvial dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations and fluxes in Arctic catchments has increased substantially during recent years, especially during the spring, which historically has been an under-sampled time period. While a number of studies have observed peaks in both DOM concentrations and fluxes during the spring snowmelt, our knowledge of the mechanisms that control these observations are still lacking. During the initial snowmelt period, frozen ground and the snow matrix act to constrain melt-water to the soil surface. We hypothesize that restriction of flow during this time facilitates leaching of DOM from senescent above ground vegetation and detritus contributing to the high DOM concentrations observed during the spring melt. This study focuses on the effect of freezing and drying on the leaching of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC and DON) from above ground vascular plant material. Specifically, we examined the treatment effects of freezing, drying, and freeze-drying on three genera of common Alaskan Arctic vascular plants; Eriophorum (spp.), Carex (spp.), and Salix (spp.). Frozen and freeze-dried plant material released more DOC over the experimental 96 hour leaching period compared to plant material that was only dried. Qualitatively, these patterns were similar among the different plant types, while quantitatively Salix leached more DOC than either Eriophorum or Carex in all treatments. Similar patterns were also seen for DON between the different treatments and among the different plant types. Compositionally, DOM that was leached from frozen and freeze-dried material had higher C:N ratios than material that was only dried. Comparatively, DOM leached from Salix had much higher C:N ratios than either Eriophorum or Carex. During the first 24 hours of leaching, C:N ratios tended to increase followed by a subsequent leveling or decrease, suggesting that the composition of leached DOM varied

  15. Adaptive Speckle Imaging Interferometry: a new technique for the analysis of microstructure dynamics, drying processes and coating formation.

    PubMed

    Brunel, L; Brun, A; Snabre, P; Cipelletti, L

    2007-11-12

    We describe an extension of multi-speckle diffusing wave spectroscopy adapted to follow the non-stationary microscopic dynamics in drying films and coatings in a very reactive way and with a high dynamic range. We call this technique "Adaptive Speckle Imaging Interferometry". We introduce an efficient tool, the inter-image distance, to evaluate the speckle dynamics, and the concept of "speckle rate" (SR, in Hz) to quantify this dynamics. The adaptive algorithm plots a simple kinetics, the time evolution of the SR, providing a non-invasive characterization of drying phenomena. A new commercial instrument, called HORUS(R), based on ASII and specialized in the analysis of film formation and drying processes is presented. PMID:19550809

  16. Ftsz Ring Formation at the Chloroplast Division Site in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vitha, Stanislav; McAndrew, Rosemary S.; Osteryoung, Katherine W.

    2001-01-01

    Among the events that accompanied the evolution of chloroplasts from their endosymbiotic ancestors was the host cell recruitment of the prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ to function in chloroplast division. FtsZ, a structural homologue of tubulin, mediates cell division in bacteria by assembling into a ring at the midcell division site. In higher plants, two nuclear-encoded forms of FtsZ, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, play essential and functionally distinct roles in chloroplast division, but whether this involves ring formation at the division site has not been determined previously. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and expression of green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana, we demonstrate here that FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 localize to coaligned rings at the chloroplast midpoint. Antibodies specific for recognition of FtsZ1 or FtsZ2 proteins in Arabidopsis also recognize related polypeptides and detect midplastid rings in pea and tobacco, suggesting that midplastid ring formation by FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 is universal among flowering plants. Perturbation in the level of either protein in transgenic plants is accompanied by plastid division defects and assembly of FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 into filaments and filament networks not observed in wild-type, suggesting that previously described FtsZ-containing cytoskeletal-like networks in chloroplasts may be artifacts of FtsZ overexpression. PMID:11285278

  17. Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Namgail, T.; Rawat, G.S.; Mishra, C.; van Wieren, S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    A non-linear relationship between phytodiversity and altitude has widely been reported, but the relationship between phytomass and altitude remains little understood. We examined the phytomass and diversity of vascular plants along altitudinal gradients on the dry alpine rangelands of Ladakh, western Himalaya. We used generalized linear and generalized additive models to assess the relationship between these vegetation parameters and altitude. We found a hump-shaped relationship between aboveground phytomass and altitude. We suspect that this is engendered by low rainfall and trampling/excessive grazing at lower slopes by domestic livestock, and low temperature and low nutrient levels at higher slopes. We also found a unimodal relationship between plant species-richness and altitude at a single mountain as well as at the scale of entire Ladakh. The species-richness at the single mountain peaked between 5,000 and 5,200 m, while it peaked between 3,500 and 4,000 m at entire Ladakh level. Perhaps biotic factors such as grazing and precipitation are, respectively, important in generating this pattern at the single mountain and entire Ladakh. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

  18. Optimisation potential for a SBR plant based upon integrated modelling for dry and wet weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Rönner-Holm, S G E; Kaufmann Alves, I; Steinmetz, H; Holm, N C

    2009-01-01

    Integrated dynamic simulation analysis of a full-scale municipal sequential batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was performed using the KOSMO pollution load simulation model for the combined sewer system (CSS) and the ASM3 + EAWAG-BioP model for the WWTP. Various optimising strategies for dry and storm weather conditions were developed to raise the purification and hydraulic performance and to reduce operation costs based on simulation studies with the calibrated WWTP model. The implementation of some strategies on the plant led to lower effluent values and an average annual saving of 49,000 euro including sewage tax, which is 22% of the total running costs. Dynamic simulation analysis of CSS for an increased WWTP influent over a period of one year showed high potentials for reducing combined sewer overflow (CSO) volume by 18-27% and CSO loads for COD by 22%, NH(4)-N and P(total) by 33%. In addition, the SBR WWTP could easily handle much higher influents without exceeding the monitoring values. During the integrated simulation of representative storm events, the total emission load for COD dropped to 90%, the sewer system emitted 47% less, whereas the pollution load in the WWTP effluent increased to only 14% with 2% higher running costs. PMID:19844042

  19. A Role for Shoot Protein in Shoot–Root Dry Matter Allocation in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    ANDREWS, M.; RAVEN, J. A.; LEA, P. J.; SPRENT, J. I.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims It is stated in many recent publications that nitrate (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) acts as a signal to regulate dry matter partitioning between the shoot and root of higher plants. Here we challenge this hypothesis and present evidence for the viewpoint that \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and other environmental effects on the shoot : root dry weight ratio (S:R) of higher plants are often related mechanistically to changes in shoot protein concentration. • Methods The literature on environmental effects on S:R is reviewed, focusing on relationships between S:R, growth and leaf \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and protein concentrations. A series of experiments carried out to test the proposal that S:R is dependent on shoot protein concentration is highlighted and new data are presented for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). • Key Results/Evidence Results from the literature and new data for tobacco show that S:R and leaf \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage

  20. The Formation and Function of Plant Cuticles1

    PubMed Central

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2013-01-01

    The plant cuticle is an extracellular hydrophobic layer that covers the aerial epidermis of all land plants, providing protection against desiccation and external environmental stresses. The past decade has seen considerable progress in assembling models for the biosynthesis of its two major components, the polymer cutin and cuticular waxes. Most recently, two breakthroughs in the long-sought molecular bases of alkane formation and polyester synthesis have allowed construction of nearly complete biosynthetic pathways for both waxes and cutin. Concurrently, a complex regulatory network controlling the synthesis of the cuticle is emerging. It has also become clear that the physiological role of the cuticle extends well beyond its primary function as a transpiration barrier, playing important roles in processes ranging from development to interaction with microbes. Here, we review recent progress in the biochemistry and molecular biology of cuticle synthesis and function and highlight some of the major questions that will drive future research in this field. PMID:23893170

  1. Plant development in space: Observations on root formation and growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Kann, R. P.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1990-01-01

    Root growth in space is discussed and observations on root production from plants flown as part of the Chromex project that were defined as to their origin, stage of development and physiological status, are presented. Roots were generated from fully differentiated, aseptically maintained individuals of Haplopappus gracilis (Compositae) under spaceflight conditions. Results are compared for tissue culture generated plantlets and comparably sized seedling clone individuals, both of which had their roots trimmed on Earth before they were loaded into NASA's plant growth unit and subjected to a 5 day shuttle flight (STS-29). Asepsis was maintained throughout the experiment. Overall root production was 40 to 50 percent greater under spaceflight conditions than during ground control tests. However, root formation slowed down towards the end of the flight. This decrease in new roots did not occur in the ground controls that sought to simulate flight except for microgravity.

  2. Transcriptional Switches Direct Plant Organ Formation and Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A.; Van Norman, Jaimie M.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Development of multicellular organisms requires specification of diverse cell types. In plants, development is continuous and because plant cells are surrounded by rigid cell walls, cell division and specification of daughter cell fate must be carefully orchestrated. During embryonic and postembryonic plant development, the specification of cell types is determined both by positional cues and cell lineage. The establishment of distinct transcriptional domains is a fundamental mechanism for determining different cell fates. In this review, we focus on four examples from recent literature of switches operating in cell fate decisions that are regulated by transcriptional mechanisms. First, we highlight a transcriptional mechanism involving a mobile transcription factor in formation of the two ground tissue cell types in roots. Specification of vascular cell types is then discussed, including new details about xylem cell-type specification via a mobile microRNA. Next, transcriptional regulation of two key embryonic developmental events is considered: establishment of apical–basal polarity in the single-celled zygote and specification of distinct root and shoot stem cell populations in the plant embryo. Finally, a dynamic transcriptional mechanism for lateral organ positioning that integrates spatial and temporal information into a repeating pattern is summarized. PMID:22305165

  3. Dioxin formation and control in a gasification-melting plant.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Katsuya; Miyata, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated dioxin formation and removal in a commercial thermal waste treatment plant employing a gasification and melting process that has become widespread in the last decade in Japan. The aim was to clarify the possibility of dioxin formation in a process operation at high temperatures and the applicability of catalytic decomposition of dioxins. Also, the possible use of dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The main test parameter was the influence of changes in the amount and type of municipal solid waste (MSW) supplied to the thermal waste treatment plant which from day to day operation is a relevant parameter also from commercial perspective. Here especially, the plastic content on dioxin release was assessed. The following conclusions were reached: (1) disturbance of combustion by adding plastic waste above the capability of the system resulted in a considerable increase in dioxin content of the flue gas at the inlet of the bag house and (2) bag filter equipment incorporating a catalytic filter effectively reduced the gaseous dioxin content below the standard of 0.1 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/m(3) N, by decomposition and partly adsorption, as was revealed by total dioxin mass balance and an increased levels in the fly ash. Also, the possible use of organohalogen compounds as dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The levels of these surrogates did not exceed values corresponding to 0.1 ng TEQ/m(3) N dioxins established from former tests. This further substantiated that surrogate measurement therefore can well reflect dioxin levels. PMID:24894757

  4. Zeolites replacing plant fossils in the Denver formation, Lakewood, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Verbeek, E.R.; Grout, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Well-developed crystals of heulandite and stilbite, within fossil wood, occur in sedimentary rocks in Lakewood, Jefferson County. The rocks belong to the Denver formation, a locally fossiliferous deposit of fluvial claystone, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate, containing some volcanic mudflows (andesitic) of late Cretaceous to Palaeocene age. Altered volcanic glass released Na and Ca into the ground-water and subsequently zeolites were crystallized in the open spaces between grains and within fossil plant structures. Minor pyrite, quartz (jasper), calcite and apatite also occur as replacements of fossil wood. Similar zeolite occurrences in other areas are reviewed.-R.S.M.

  5. Evaluation of Plant Introductions and Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two insect-susceptible, orange-fleshed check cultivars (‘Beauregard’ and ‘SC1149 19’), three insect-resistant check cultivars (‘Regal’, ‘Ruddy’ and ‘Sumor’), 21 dry-flesh genotypes from the USVL sweetpotato breeding program, and 12 other varieties and plant introductions (PI) obtained from the Natio...

  6. Freeze-Drying of Mononuclear Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood Followed by Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Natan, Dity; Nagler, Arnon; Arav, Amir

    2009-01-01

    Background We recently showed that freeze-dried cells stored for 3 years at room temperature can direct embryonic development following cloning. However, viability, as evaluated by membrane integrity of the cells after freeze-drying, was very low; and it was mainly the DNA integrity that was preserved. In the present study, we improved the cells' viability and functionality after freeze-drying. Methodology/Principal Findings We optimized the conditions of directional freezing, i.e. interface velocity and cell concentration, and we added the antioxidant EGCG to the freezing solution. The study was performed on mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from human umbilical cord blood. After freeze-drying, we tested the viability, number of CD34+-presenting cells and ability of the rehydrated hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into different blood cells in culture. The viability of the MNCs after freeze-drying and rehydration with pure water was 88%–91%. The total number of CD34+-presenting cells and the number of colonies did not change significantly when evaluated before freezing, after freeze-thawing, and after freeze-drying (5.4×104±4.7, 3.49×104±6 and 6.31×104±12.27 cells, respectively, and 31±25.15, 47±45.8 and 23.44±13.3 colonies, respectively). Conclusions This is the first report of nucleated cells which have been dried and then rehydrated with double-distilled water remaining viable, and of hematopoietic stem cells retaining their ability to differentiate into different blood cells. PMID:19381290

  7. Effects of past burning frequency on plant species structure and composition in dry dipterocarp forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanthongchai, Dr.; Bauhus, Prof.; Goldammer, Prof.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic burning in dry dipterocarp forests (DDF) has become a common phenomenon throughout Thailand. It is feared that too frequent fires may affect vegetation structure and composition and thus impact on ecosystem productivity. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of prescribed fires on sites with different past burning regimes on vegetation structure and composition in the Huay Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (HKK), Thailand. Fire frequency was determined from satellite images and ranged from frequent, infrequent, rare and unburned with fire occurrences of 7, 2, 1 and 0 out of the past 10 years, respectively. The pre-burn fuel loads, the overstorey and understorey vegetation structure and composition were determined to investigate the effects of the contrasting past burning regimes. The burning experiment was carried out, applying a three-strip head-fire burning technique. The vegetation structure and composition were sampled again one year after the fire to assess the fire impacts. Aboveground fine fuel loads increased with the length of fire-free interval. The woody plant structures of the frequently burned stand differed from those of the other less frequently burned stands. The species composition of the overstorey on the frequently burned site, in particular that of small sized trees (4.5-10 cm dbh), also differed significantly from that of the other sites. Whilst the ground vegetation including shrubs and herbs did not differ between the past burning regimes, frequent burning obviously promoted the proliferation of graminoid vegetation. There was no clear evidence showing that the prescribed fires affected the mortality of trees (dbh> 4.5 cm) on the sites of the different past burning regimes. The effects of prescribed burning on the understorey vegetation structures varied between the past burning regimes and the understorey vegetation type. Therefore, it is recommended that the DDF at HKK should be subjected to a prescribed fire frequency

  8. Resolution of the direct containment heating issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry containments or subatmospheric containments

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Klamerus, E.W.

    1996-02-01

    This report uses the scenarios described in NUREG/CR-6075 and NUREG/CR-6075, Supplement 1, to address the direct containment heating (DCH) issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry or subatmospheric containments. DCH is considered resolved if the conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) is less than 0.1. Loads versus strength evaluations of the CCFP were performed for each plant using plant-specific information. The DCH issue is considered resolved for a plant if a screening phase results in a CCFP less than 0.01, which is more stringent than the overall success criterion. If the screening phase CCFP for a plant is greater than 0.01, then refined containment loads evaluations must be performed and/or the probability of high pressure at vessel breach must be analyzed. These analyses could be used separately or could be integrated together to recalculate the CCFP for an individual plant to reduce the CCFP to meet the overall success criterion of less than 0.1. The CCFPs for all of the Westinghouse plants with dry containments were less than 0.01 at the screening phase, and thus, the DCH issue is resolved for these plants based on containment loads alone. No additional analyses are required.

  9. [Effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation characteristics and yield of soybean in maize-soybean intercropping systems].

    PubMed

    Cui, Liang; Yang, Wen-yu; Huang, Ni; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Yan-ling; Wang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yang; Yan, Shou

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation and yield of soybean, a field experiment was conducted in 2013, including three maize-soybean relay strip intercropping systems. The relay strip intercropping systems were designed as soybean (Gongxuan 1) intercropped with Denghai 605 (RI1), Chuandan 418 (RI2) or Yayu 13 ( RI3), and the monocultured soybean was used as control. The results demonstrated that the dry matter accumulation rates of intercropped soybean in RI2 and RI3 treatments were lower than in RI1 treatment, and the leaf, stem and pod dry matter accumulation of intercropped soybean in RI1 treatment was 17.6%, 16.5% and 13.7% higher than that in RI2 treatment, and 34.6%, 33.1% and 28.4% higher than that in RI3 treatment, respectively. The distribution proportion of leaf and stem of intercropped soybean was in the order of RI1 > RI2 > RI3. However, the trend of the distribution proportion of pod was opposite. Compared with RI2 and RI3, the dry matter translocation amount, translocation proportion, contribution proportion of soybean vegetative organs to pod of soybean were improved in RI, treatment, and the pod per plant, seeds per plant, seeds per pod, yield per plant and yield of soybean in RI, were higher than RI2 and RI3 by 6.8%, 11.5%, 4.4%, 15.9%, 15.6% and 14.3%, 22.2%, 6.7%, 33.4%, 36.8%, respectively. The results showed that the yield was positively related with the accumulation rate of dry matter, dry matter translocation, dry matter translocation ratio and the contribution of dry matter accumulation, and these indices were highest in RI treatment. The results indicated that the compact maize relay intercropped with soybean could effectively regulate the dry matter accumulation, translocation and distribution, and improve the yield of soybean. PMID:26685605

  10. Role of particle shape anisotropy on crack formation in drying of colloidal suspension

    PubMed Central

    Dugyala, Venkateshwar Rao; Lama, Hisay; Satapathy, Dillip K.; Basavaraj, Madivala G.

    2016-01-01

    Cracks in a colloidal film formed by evaporation induced drying can be controlled by changing drying conditions. We show, for the first time that the crack morphologies in colloidal films are dependent on shape of constituting particles apart from the microstructure and particle assembly. In order to investigate the particle shape effect on crack patterns, monodispered spherical and ellipsoidal particles are used in sessile drop experiments. On observing the dried sessile drop we found cracks along the radial direction for spherical particle dispersions and circular crack patterns for ellipsoidal particle dispersions. The change in crack pattern is a result of self assembly of shape anisotropic particles and their ordering. The ordering of particles dictate the crack direction and the cracks follow the path of least resistance to release the excess stress stored in the particle film. Ellipsoids having different aspect ratio (~3 to 7) are used and circular crack patterns are repeatedly observed in all experiments. PMID:27477261

  11. Role of particle shape anisotropy on crack formation in drying of colloidal suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugyala, Venkateshwar Rao; Lama, Hisay; Satapathy, Dillip K.; Basavaraj, Madivala G.

    2016-08-01

    Cracks in a colloidal film formed by evaporation induced drying can be controlled by changing drying conditions. We show, for the first time that the crack morphologies in colloidal films are dependent on shape of constituting particles apart from the microstructure and particle assembly. In order to investigate the particle shape effect on crack patterns, monodispered spherical and ellipsoidal particles are used in sessile drop experiments. On observing the dried sessile drop we found cracks along the radial direction for spherical particle dispersions and circular crack patterns for ellipsoidal particle dispersions. The change in crack pattern is a result of self assembly of shape anisotropic particles and their ordering. The ordering of particles dictate the crack direction and the cracks follow the path of least resistance to release the excess stress stored in the particle film. Ellipsoids having different aspect ratio (~3 to 7) are used and circular crack patterns are repeatedly observed in all experiments.

  12. Effect of interfacial free energy on the formation of polymer microcapsules by emulsification/freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weisi; Yates, M Z

    2008-02-01

    Hollow polymer microparticles with a single opening on the surface were formed by freeze-drying aqueous polymer colloids swollen with solvent. The results show that the particle morphology is due to phase separation in the polymer emulsion droplets upon freezing in liquid nitrogen, and that morphological changes are driven largely by lowering interfacial free energy. The effects of added surfactant, volume fraction of solvent, type of solvent, and processing conditions on the particle morphology were examined and compared to theoretical predictions. The dried hollow particles were resuspended in a dispersing media and exposed to a second swelling solvent to close the surface opening and form microcapsules. The interfacial free energy difference between the inside and outside surfaces is the driving force for closing the hole on the surface. The emulsification/freeze-drying technique can be used to encapsulate hydrophilic additives in the core of the microcapsules, demonstrating the potential of the technique in controlled-release applications. PMID:18173290

  13. Role of particle shape anisotropy on crack formation in drying of colloidal suspension.

    PubMed

    Dugyala, Venkateshwar Rao; Lama, Hisay; Satapathy, Dillip K; Basavaraj, Madivala G

    2016-01-01

    Cracks in a colloidal film formed by evaporation induced drying can be controlled by changing drying conditions. We show, for the first time that the crack morphologies in colloidal films are dependent on shape of constituting particles apart from the microstructure and particle assembly. In order to investigate the particle shape effect on crack patterns, monodispered spherical and ellipsoidal particles are used in sessile drop experiments. On observing the dried sessile drop we found cracks along the radial direction for spherical particle dispersions and circular crack patterns for ellipsoidal particle dispersions. The change in crack pattern is a result of self assembly of shape anisotropic particles and their ordering. The ordering of particles dictate the crack direction and the cracks follow the path of least resistance to release the excess stress stored in the particle film. Ellipsoids having different aspect ratio (~3 to 7) are used and circular crack patterns are repeatedly observed in all experiments. PMID:27477261

  14. Plant growth with new fluorescent lamps : I. Fresh and dry weight yields of tomato seedlings.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A S; Dunn, S

    1966-06-01

    Tomato seedlings were grown under seven kinds of fluorescent lamps, including two that are commercially available, and five experimental lamps. Detailed descriptions and spectral emission curves for these lamps are presented.The 78/22 lamp, which emitted most of its energy above 500 mμ, more than ten percent above 700 mμ, and had a sharp peak output at 660 mμ, generally produced superior fresh and dry weight yields. This effect may be due primarily to the high peak of energy emitted at approximately 660 mμ, combined with a considerable emission in the far-red, which in turn may be related to the red ↔ far-red reversibility phenomeon.The Com I lamp, which lacked the sharp peak output at 660 mμ and emitted more energy in the blue than the 78/22 lamp, was generally second only to the latter in promoting plant growth. A high moisture content was found in plants under this lamp in some experiments.The IRIII lamp had the sharp peak output at 660 mμ but greater output in the blue than the 78/22 lamp. The 282 lamp output was similar to the 78/22 but lacked the high peak. Both of these lamps generally gave improved results over those produced by commercial Gro-Lux, Warm-white, and FLAT lamps. This was attributed to the greater percentage of red and far-red energy emission by the former two lamps. The yields with the FLAT lamp were consistently lowest of all. This has been attributed to the high percentage of emitted energy in the blue and green portions of the spectrum.Both length of the test period (13 days versus 26 days) and light intensity (550 μw/cm(2) versus 1100 μw/cm(2)) may be important factors in determining which composition of spectral energy emission produces the greatest yields. Under low intensity and short test period the Com I light produced highest fresh- and dry-weight yields, but under high intensity and longer growth period the 78/22 lamp gave greatest yields. This effect may be due to inhibition of leaf expansion by red light in the early

  15. Neural network implementation for a reversal procedure for water and dry matter estimation on plant leaves using selected LED wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; de Rosny, Gilles

    2015-06-10

    An inversion method based on a neural network was used to estimate water and dry matter contents on plant leaves, from transmittance and reflectance measurements, using light emitting diodes (LEDs) at specific wavelengths in NIR and FIR. The preliminary results for the predicted water content by the neural network method showed a RMSE value of 0.0027 g/cm(2) and |σ| value of approximately 3.53%, computed on 127 plant leaf samples over 51 species. Dry matter estimation also was performed, which showed potential implementation after future improvements. We believe this inversion method could be implemented in a portable system based on any silicon platform with the capability to perform in situ measurements on plant tissue. PMID:26192847

  16. Impact of processing conditions on the kinetic of vitamin C degradation and 2-furoylmethyl amino acid formation in dried strawberries.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Soria, A Cristina; Olano, Agustín; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, a study on the usefulness of the determination of vitamin C together with indicators of the initial steps of Maillard reaction (2-furoylmethyl amino acids, 2-FM-AA) during the convective drying of strawberries has been carried out for the first time, paying special attention to the kinetics of degradation and formation, respectively, of both parameters. Formation of 2-FM-AA of Lys, Arg and GABA and vitamin C loss increased with time and temperature following, respectively, a zero and first-order kinetics. As supported by its lower activation energy, 2-FM-GABA (55.9 kJ/mol) and 2-FM-Lys+2-FM-Arg (58.2 kJ/mol) were shown to be slightly more sensitive indicators than vitamin C (82.1 kJ/mol). The obtained results, together with a complementary study on the rehydration ability and sensorial attributes of samples, pointed out the suitability of the convective drying system to obtain dried strawberries of high nutritive quality and bioactivity and good consumer acceptance. PMID:24491716

  17. Accelerated thermokarst formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J. S.; Fountain, A. G.; Dickson, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Okal, M. H.; Marchant, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Thermokarst is a land surface lowered and disrupted by melting ground ice. Thermokarst is a major consequence of climate change in the Arctic, but has been considered to be a minor process in Antarctica. Garwood Valley (78°S, 164°E) is a coastal valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica and is a natural laboratory in which competing models of Antarctic thermokarst erosion can be tested. Garwood Valley is partially filled with a remnant of the Ross Sea Ice Sheet, a debris-covered ice mass that lodged in the valley during the Pleistocene. Rapid ablation of this buried ice mass via melting and block calving has recently been detected at a large retrogressive thaw feature referred to as the Garwood Valley ice cliff. Curiously, regional air temperatures in the MDV have been declining or stable on decadal timescales. Despite no increase in thawing degree days in Garwood Valley, biannual LiDAR scans show large-scale thermokarst backwasting occurring along the entire face of the ice cliff. Since ground-based data collection began in November 2010 to January, 2012, the ~400 m long ice cliff has backwasted ~1-3 m. Since airborne LiDAR data were first collected in 2001-2002 to January, 2012, backwasting along the ice cliff has ranged from 10-55 m, totaling 44,900 × 900 m3, or on average, 5,000 × 100 m3/year. From November 2010 to January 2011, 6,700 × 130 m3 of ice and capping sediment was removed from the Garwood Valley ice cliff; from January 2011 to January 2012, 11,300 × 230 m3 of material was removed. These melt and calving rates are comparable to the low end of retrogressive thaw slump erosion in Arctic and alpine environments, and suggest that some coastal MDV ground ice may no longer be stable under current climate conditions. Here, we combine this ground-based and airborne LiDAR data with with timelapse imaging and meteorological data to show that 1) thermokarst formation has accelerated in Garwood Valley; 2) the rate of

  18. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO42− and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m−2, in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3−–N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+–N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3−–N and NH4+–N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3−–N and NH4+–N in 0–10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD. PMID:24977238

  19. Stability and extractability of double-stranded RNA of pangola stunt and sugarcane Fiji disease viruses in dried plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Hicks, S; Harding, R M; Teakle, D S

    1991-06-01

    When leaves infected with pangola stunt virus (PaSV) were dried at 23, 37, 50, 70 or 105 degrees C, the dsRNA was stable and could be extracted after aerobic storage at room temperature for 1 month, although at 105 degrees C the amount obtained was reduced. The dsRNA was also recovered after leaves were freeze dried and stored in vacuo at room temperature for 6 months, or were dried and stored aerobically at room temperature for 10.5 months. dsRNA of sugarcane Fiji disease virus (FDV) was also stable when infected leaves were dried at 23, 37, 50 or 105 degrees C and stored aerobically for 3 months or for at least 6 months when infected leaves were dried at 70 degrees C. The unexpected high stability and extractability of both PaSV and FDV dsRNA when dried in leaves at low or high temperatures and stored at room temperature indicate that these, and probably other plant-infecting reoviruses, can be transported readily in desiccated host tissue between different countries for later extraction and comparison of their dsRNAs. PMID:1939508

  20. Wet and dry atmospheric depositions of inorganic nitrogen during plant growing season in the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junbao; Ning, Kai; Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei; Gao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO4 (2-) and Na(+) were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m(-2), in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3 (-)-N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4 (+)-N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N in 0-10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD. PMID:24977238

  1. Caterpillar regurgitant induces pore formation in plant membranes.

    PubMed

    Lühring, Hinrich; Nguyen, Van Dy; Schmidt, Lilian; Röse, Ursula S R

    2007-11-27

    Formation of channel-like pores in a plant membrane was induced within seconds after application of an aqueous solution containing regurgitant of the insect larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Gated pore currents recorded on the tonoplast of the Charophyte Chara corallina displayed conductances up to several hundred pS. A voltage-dependent gating reaction supports the assumption that pore-forming molecules have amphipathic properties. Regurgitant samples separated into masses smaller or larger than 3kDa were evaluated by patch-clamp and mass spectroscopy. Fractions containing peptides larger than 3kDa constituted pores of large conductances, peptides smaller than 3kDa constituted pores of small conductances. Peptide-free eluates did not constitute conducting pores, indicating that pore-forming components in regurgitant are membrane-spanning oligopeptides. PMID:17967419

  2. Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant

    SciTech Connect

    Faletti, D.W.

    1981-03-01

    Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

  3. Water-Hydrogel Binding Affinity Modulates Freeze-Drying-Induced Micropore Architecture and Skeletal Myotube Formation.

    PubMed

    Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Marshall, Nicholas; Clay, Nicholas; Chen, Jinrong; Mahmassani, Ziad; Boppart, Marni; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-08-10

    Freeze-dried hydrogels are increasingly used to create 3D interconnected micropores that facilitate biomolecular and cellular transports. However, freeze-drying is often plagued by variance in micropore architecture based on polymer choice. We hypothesized that water-polymer binding affinity plays a significant role in sizes and numbers of micropores formed through freeze-drying, influencing cell-derived tissue quality. Poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels with alginate methacrylate (AM) were used due to AM's higher binding affinity for water than PEGDA. PEGDA-AM hydrogels with larger AM concentrations resulted in larger sizes and numbers of micropores than pure PEGDA hydrogels, attributed to the increased mass of water binding to the PEGDA-AM gel. Skeletal myoblasts loaded in microporous PEGDA-AM hydrogels were active to produce 3D muscle-like tissue, while those loaded in pure PEGDA gels were localized on the gel surface. We propose that this study will be broadly useful in designing and improving the performance of various microporous gels. PMID:26113238

  4. Pyridine metabolism in tea plants: salvage, conjugate formation and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Pyridine compounds, including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, are key metabolites of both the salvage pathway for NAD and the biosynthesis of related secondary compounds. We examined the in situ metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide, [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid riboside in tissue segments of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, and determined the activity of enzymes involved in pyridine metabolism in protein extracts from young tea leaves. Exogenously supplied (14)C-labelled nicotinamide was readily converted to nicotinic acid, and some nicotinic acid was salvaged to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and then utilized for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. The nicotinic acid riboside salvage pathway discovered recently in mungbean cotyledons is also operative in tea leaves. Nicotinic acid was converted to nicotinic acid N-glucoside, but not to trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid), in any part of tea seedlings. Active catabolism of nicotinic acid was observed in tea leaves. The fate of [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid indicates that glutaric acid is a major catabolite of nicotinic acid; it was further metabolised, and carbon atoms were finally released as CO(2). The catabolic pathway observed in tea leaves appears to start with the nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; this pathway differs from catabolic pathways observed in microorganisms. Profiles of pyridine metabolism in tea plants are discussed. PMID:22527843

  5. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Hugo Caram; Zheng Yao; Gu Feng

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A description is given of the equipment, instrumentation and procedures being used for the fluidized bed drying experiments. Experimental data were obtained during this last quarter on the effects of particle size on drying rate for a North Dakota lignite. Other experiments looked at drying a PRB coal. The tests comparing drying rates with lignite particles of different diameters were carried out with particle top sizes from 2 to 9.5 mm and covered a range of air velocities. The results show that drying rate increased with air velocity, but that, within the accuracy of the data, the data for all four particle size distributions follow the same curve. This suggests the higher drying rates associated with the larger particles are due to higher air velocities and not to any inherently different drying rates due to particle size. The drying data with the PRB coal show qualitatively similar behavior to that observed with lignite. However, quantitative comparisons of the drying rate data obtained so far for the two coals show the PRB dried at rates which were 14 to 20 percent lower than the lignite, for comparable process conditions. The equilibrium relationship between relative humidity and coal moisture was refined using a correction for temperature. This reduced the scatter in the coal moisture versus relative humidity data and improved the predictions made with the first principle drying model.

  6. The Role of Edaphic Environment and Climate in Structuring Phylogenetic Pattern in Seasonally Dry Tropical Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Marcelo Freire; Silva, Igor Aurélio; de Araújo, Francisca Soares; Nic Lughadha, Eimear; Meagher, Thomas R.; Martins, Fernando Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical plant formations (SDTF) are likely to exhibit phylogenetic clustering owing to niche conservatism driven by a strong environmental filter (water stress), but heterogeneous edaphic environments and life histories may result in heterogeneity in degree of phylogenetic clustering. We investigated phylogenetic patterns across ecological gradients related to water availability (edaphic environment and climate) in the Caatinga, a SDTF in Brazil. Caatinga is characterized by semiarid climate and three distinct edaphic environments – sedimentary, crystalline, and inselberg –representing a decreasing gradient in soil water availability. We used two measures of phylogenetic diversity: Net Relatedness Index based on the entire phylogeny among species present in a site, reflecting long-term diversification; and Nearest Taxon Index based on the tips of the phylogeny, reflecting more recent diversification. We also evaluated woody species in contrast to herbaceous species. The main climatic variable influencing phylogenetic pattern was precipitation in the driest quarter, particularly for herbaceous species, suggesting that environmental filtering related to minimal periods of precipitation is an important driver of Caatinga biodiversity, as one might expect for a SDTF. Woody species tended to show phylogenetic clustering whereas herbaceous species tended towards phylogenetic overdispersion. We also found phylogenetic clustering in two edaphic environments (sedimentary and crystalline) in contrast to phylogenetic overdispersion in the third (inselberg). We conclude that while niche conservatism is evident in phylogenetic clustering in the Caatinga, this is not a universal pattern likely due to heterogeneity in the degree of realized environmental filtering across edaphic environments. Thus, SDTF, in spite of a strong shared environmental filter, are potentially heterogeneous in phylogenetic structuring. Our results support the need for scientifically

  7. The role of edaphic environment and climate in structuring phylogenetic pattern in seasonally dry tropical plant communities.

    PubMed

    Moro, Marcelo Freire; Silva, Igor Aurélio; de Araújo, Francisca Soares; Nic Lughadha, Eimear; Meagher, Thomas R; Martins, Fernando Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical plant formations (SDTF) are likely to exhibit phylogenetic clustering owing to niche conservatism driven by a strong environmental filter (water stress), but heterogeneous edaphic environments and life histories may result in heterogeneity in degree of phylogenetic clustering. We investigated phylogenetic patterns across ecological gradients related to water availability (edaphic environment and climate) in the Caatinga, a SDTF in Brazil. Caatinga is characterized by semiarid climate and three distinct edaphic environments - sedimentary, crystalline, and inselberg -representing a decreasing gradient in soil water availability. We used two measures of phylogenetic diversity: Net Relatedness Index based on the entire phylogeny among species present in a site, reflecting long-term diversification; and Nearest Taxon Index based on the tips of the phylogeny, reflecting more recent diversification. We also evaluated woody species in contrast to herbaceous species. The main climatic variable influencing phylogenetic pattern was precipitation in the driest quarter, particularly for herbaceous species, suggesting that environmental filtering related to minimal periods of precipitation is an important driver of Caatinga biodiversity, as one might expect for a SDTF. Woody species tended to show phylogenetic clustering whereas herbaceous species tended towards phylogenetic overdispersion. We also found phylogenetic clustering in two edaphic environments (sedimentary and crystalline) in contrast to phylogenetic overdispersion in the third (inselberg). We conclude that while niche conservatism is evident in phylogenetic clustering in the Caatinga, this is not a universal pattern likely due to heterogeneity in the degree of realized environmental filtering across edaphic environments. Thus, SDTF, in spite of a strong shared environmental filter, are potentially heterogeneous in phylogenetic structuring. Our results support the need for scientifically

  8. Diversity in plant hydraulic traits explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangtao; Medvigy, David; Powers, Jennifer S; Becknell, Justin M; Guan, Kaiyu

    2016-10-01

    We assessed whether diversity in plant hydraulic traits can explain the observed diversity in plant responses to water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) was updated with a trait-driven mechanistic plant hydraulic module, as well as novel drought-phenology and plant water stress schemes. Four plant functional types were parameterized on the basis of meta-analysis of plant hydraulic traits. Simulations from both the original and the updated ED2 were evaluated against 5 yr of field data from a Costa Rican SDTF site and remote-sensing data over Central America. The updated model generated realistic plant hydraulic dynamics, such as leaf water potential and stem sap flow. Compared with the original ED2, predictions from our novel trait-driven model matched better with observed growth, phenology and their variations among functional groups. Most notably, the original ED2 produced unrealistically small leaf area index (LAI) and underestimated cumulative leaf litter. Both of these biases were corrected by the updated model. The updated model was also better able to simulate spatial patterns of LAI dynamics in Central America. Plant hydraulic traits are intercorrelated in SDTFs. Mechanistic incorporation of plant hydraulic traits is necessary for the simulation of spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation dynamics in SDTFs in vegetation models. PMID:27189787

  9. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  10. Formation of type 4 resistant starch and maltodextrins from amylose and amylopectin upon dry heating: A model study.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fernando M; Lopes, Edgar S; Moreira, Ana S P; Simões, Joana; Coimbra, Manuel A; Domingues, Rosário M

    2016-05-01

    Starch is one of the main components of human diet. During food processing, starch is submitted to high temperatures in the presence or absence of water. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify structural modifications caused by dry heating in starch polysaccharides (amylose and amylopectin) and structurally related oligosaccharides, maltotetraose (M4) and glucosyl-maltotriose (GM3), simulating processing conditions. The structural modifications were evaluated by methylation analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and anionic chromatography after in vitro enzymatic digestion. Dry heating promoted dehydration, depolymerization, as well as changes in Glc glycosidic linkage positions and anomeric configuration. In oligosaccharides, polymerization was also observed. All these changes resulted in a lower in vitro digestibility, suggesting that dry heating of starch polysaccharides and related oligosaccharides may be associated with the formation of type 4 resistant starch and maltodextrins, non-digestible carbohydrates that are responsible for beneficial effects in human intestinal tract. PMID:26877020

  11. Development of a Dry Sorbent-based Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Coleman, Luke; Anderson, Matthew; Gupta, Raghubir; Herr, Joshua; Kalluri, Ranjeeth; Pavani, Maruthi

    2009-12-31

    The objective of this research and development (R&D) project was to further the development of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process based on sodium carbonate (i.e. the Dry Carbonate Process) that is capable of capturing>90% of the CO2 as a nearly pure stream from coal-fired power plant flue gas with <35% increase in the cost of electrictiy (ICOE).

  12. Extraradical development and contribution to plant performance of an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis exposed to complete or partial rootzone drying.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Elke; Schmid, Barbara; Römheld, Volker; George, Eckhard

    2009-11-01

    Sweet potato plants were grown with or without Glomus intraradices in split-root pots with adjacent root compartments containing a soil with a low availability of phosphate. One fungal tube, from which root growth was excluded, was inserted into each root compartment. During 4 weeks before harvest, the soil moisture level in either both or only one of the two root-compartments of each pot was decreased. Controls remained well watered. Low soil moisture generally had a negative effect on the amount of extraradical mycelium of G. intraradices extracted from the fungal tubes. Sporulation in the fungal tubes was much higher compared with the soil in the root compartment, but remained unaffected by the soil moisture regime. Concentrations of P in extraradical mycelium were much lower than usually found in plants and fungi, while P concentrations in associated mycorrhizal host plant tissues were in an optimum range. This suggests efficient transfer of P from the extraradical mycelium to the host plant. Despite the negative effect of a low soil moisture regime on extraradical G. intraradices development, the symbiosis indeed contributed significantly to P uptake of plants exposed to partial rootzone drying. The possibility that extraradical arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal development was limited by P availability under dry soil conditions is discussed. PMID:19499252

  13. Economic evaluation of four types of dry/wet cooling applied to the 5-MWe Raft River geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Allemann, R.T.

    1982-07-01

    A cost study is described which compared the economics of four dry/wet cooling systems to use at the existing Raft River Geothermal Plant. The results apply only at this site and should not be generalized without due consideration of the complete geothermal cycle. These systems are: the Binary Cooling Tower, evaporative condenser, Combin-aire, and a metal fin-tube dry cooling tower with deluge augmentation. The systems were evaluated using cooled, treated geothermal fluid instead of ground or surface water in the cooling loops. All comparisons were performed on the basis of a common plant site - the Raft River 5 MWe geothermal plant in Idaho. The Binary Cooling Tower and the Combin-aire cooling system were designed assuming the use of the isobutane/water surface condenser currently installed at the Raft River Plant. The other two systems had the isobutane ducted to the evaporative condensers. Capital credit was not given to the system employing the direct condensing process. The cost of the systems were estimated from designs provided by the vendors. The levelized energy cost range for each cooling system is listed below. The levelized energy cost reflects the incremental cost of the cooling system for the life of the plant. The estimates are presented in 1981 dollars.

  14. Using the "Kalanchoe daigremontiana" Plant To Show the Effects of Photoperiodism on Plantlet Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity demonstrating the importance of photoperiod on plant development. Uses the plant devil's backbone for the experiment and studies the details of photoperiodic requirement for plantlet formation. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  15. Formation of brown lines in paper: characterization of cellulose degradation at the wet-dry interface.

    PubMed

    Souguir, Zied; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; de la Rie, E René

    2008-09-01

    Brown lines were generated at the wet-dry interface on Whatman paper No. 1 by suspending the sheet vertically in deionized water. Formic acid and acetic acid were quantified in three areas of the paper defined by the wet-dry boundary (above, below, and at the tideline) using capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. Their concentration increased upon accelerated aging of the paper and was highest in the tideline. The hydroperoxides have been quantified using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection based on the determination of triphenylphosphine oxide produced from the reaction with triphenylphosphine, and their highest concentration was found in the tideline as well. For the first time, it was shown that various types of hydroperoxides were present, water-soluble and non-water-soluble, most probably in part hydroperoxide functionalized cellulose. After accelerated aging, a significant increase in hydroperoxide concentration was found in all the paper areas. The molar masses of cellulose determined using size-exclusion chromatography with multiangle light scattering detection showed that, upon aging, cellulose degraded significantly more in the tideline area than in the other areas of the paper. The area below the tideline was more degraded than the area above. A kinetic study of the degradation of cellulose allowed determining the constants for glycosidic bond breaking in each of the areas of the paper. PMID:18715033

  16. Influence of management regime and harvest date on the forage quality of rangelands plants: the importance of dry matter content.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Iris; Garnier, Eric; Bastianelli, Denis; Richarte, Jean; Bonnal, Laurent; Kazakou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In spite of their recognized ecological value, relatively little is known about the nutritional value of species-rich rangelands for herbivores. We investigated the sources of variation in dry matter digestibility (DMD), neutral detergent fibre content (NDF) and nitrogen concentration (NC) in plants from species-rich Mediterranean rangelands in southern France, and tested whether the dry matter content (DMC) was a good predictor of the forage quality of different plant parts. Sixteen plant species with contrasting growth forms (rosette, tussock, extensive and stemmed-herb) were studied, representative of two management regimes imposed in these rangelands: (i) fertilization and intensive grazing and (ii) non-fertilization and moderate grazing. Among the 16 plant species, four species were found in both treatments, allowing us to assess the intraspecific variability in forage quality and DMC across the treatments. The components of nutritional value (DMD, NDF and NC) as well as the DMC of leaves, stems and reproductive plant parts, were assessed at the beginning of the growing season and at peak standing biomass. All components of nutritional value and DMC were affected by species growth form: rosettes had higher DMD and NC than tussocks; the reverse being found for NDF and DMC. As the season progressed, DMD and NC of the different plant parts decreased while NDF and DMC increased for all species. DMC was negatively related to DMD and NC and positively to NDF, regardless of the source of variation (species, harvest date, management regime or plant part). Path analysis indicated that NDF was the main determinant of DMD. Better assessment of forage quality in species-rich systems requires consideration of their growth form composition. DMC of all plant parts, which is closely related to NDF, emerged as a good predictor and easily measured trait to estimate DMD in these species-rich systems. PMID:27339049

  17. Influence of management regime and harvest date on the forage quality of rangelands plants: the importance of dry matter content

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Iris; Garnier, Eric; Bastianelli, Denis; Richarte, Jean; Bonnal, Laurent; Kazakou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In spite of their recognized ecological value, relatively little is known about the nutritional value of species-rich rangelands for herbivores. We investigated the sources of variation in dry matter digestibility (DMD), neutral detergent fibre content (NDF) and nitrogen concentration (NC) in plants from species-rich Mediterranean rangelands in southern France, and tested whether the dry matter content (DMC) was a good predictor of the forage quality of different plant parts. Sixteen plant species with contrasting growth forms (rosette, tussock, extensive and stemmed-herb) were studied, representative of two management regimes imposed in these rangelands: (i) fertilization and intensive grazing and (ii) non-fertilization and moderate grazing. Among the 16 plant species, four species were found in both treatments, allowing us to assess the intraspecific variability in forage quality and DMC across the treatments. The components of nutritional value (DMD, NDF and NC) as well as the DMC of leaves, stems and reproductive plant parts, were assessed at the beginning of the growing season and at peak standing biomass. All components of nutritional value and DMC were affected by species growth form: rosettes had higher DMD and NC than tussocks; the reverse being found for NDF and DMC. As the season progressed, DMD and NC of the different plant parts decreased while NDF and DMC increased for all species. DMC was negatively related to DMD and NC and positively to NDF, regardless of the source of variation (species, harvest date, management regime or plant part). Path analysis indicated that NDF was the main determinant of DMD. Better assessment of forage quality in species-rich systems requires consideration of their growth form composition. DMC of all plant parts, which is closely related to NDF, emerged as a good predictor and easily measured trait to estimate DMD in these species-rich systems. PMID:27339049

  18. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Vogel, J.G.; Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S., III

    2008-01-01

    Plant biomass accumulation and productivity are important determinants of ecosystem carbon (C) balance during post-fire succession. In boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, we quantified aboveground plant biomass and net primary productivity (ANPP) for 4 years after a 1999 wildfire in a well-drained (dry) site, and also across a dry and a moderately well-drained (mesic) chronosequence of sites that varied in time since fire (2 to ???116 years). Four years after fire, total biomass at the 1999 burn site had increased exponentially to 160 ?? 21 g m-2 (mean ?? 1SE) and vascular ANPP had recovered to 138 ?? 32 g m-2 y -1, which was not different than that of a nearby unburned stand (160 ?? 48 g m-2 y-1) that had similar pre-fire stand structure and understory composition. Production in the young site was dominated by re-sprouting graminoids, whereas production in the unburned site was dominated by black spruce. On the dry and mesic chronosequences, total biomass pools, including overstory and understory vascular and non-vascular plants, and lichens, increased logarithmically (dry) or linearly (mesic) with increasing site age, reaching a maximum of 2469 ?? 180 (dry) and 4008 ?? 233 g m-2 (mesic) in mature stands. Biomass differences were primarily due to higher tree density in the mesic sites because mass per tree was similar between sites. ANPP of vascular and non-vascular plants increased linearly over time in the mesic chronosequence to 335 ?? 68 g m-2 y -1 in the mature site, but in the dry chronosequence it peaked at 410 ?? 43 g m-2 y-1 in a 15-year-old stand dominated by deciduous trees and shrubs. Key factors regulating biomass accumulation and production in these ecosystems appear to be the abundance and composition of re-sprouting species early in succession, the abundance of deciduous trees and shrubs in intermediate aged stands, and the density of black spruce across all stand ages. A better understanding of the controls

  19. PCB decomposition and formation in thermal treatment plant equipment.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yukari; Noma, Yukio; Yamamoto, Takashi; Mori, Yoshihito; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2007-04-01

    In this study we investigated both the decomposition and unintentional formation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners during combustion experiments of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and automobile shredder residue (ASR) at several stages in thermal treatment plant equipment composed of a primary combustion chamber, a secondary combustion chamber, and other equipments for flue gas treatment. In both experiments, the unintentional formation of PCB occurred in the primary combustion chamber at the same time as the decomposition of PCB in input samples. By combusting RDF, non-ortho-PCB predominantly formed, whereas ortho-PCB and symmetric chlorinated biphenyls (e.g., #52/69, #87/108, and #151) tended to be decomposed. ASR formed the higher chlorinated biphenyls more than RDF. These by-products from ASR had no structural relation with ortho-chlorine. Lower chlorinated biphenyls appeared as predominant homologues at the final exit site, while all congeners from lower to higher chlorinated PCB were unintentionally formed as by-products in the primary combustion chamber. This result showed that the flue gas treatment equipments effectively removed higher chlorinated PCB. Input marker congeners of RDF were #11, #39, and #68, while those for ASR were #11, #101, #110/120, and #118. Otherwise, combustion marker congeners of RDF were #13/12, #35, #77, and #126, while those for ASR were #170, #194, #206, and #209. While the concentration of PCB increased significantly in the primary combustion chamber, the value of toxicity equivalency quantity for dioxin-like PCB decreased in the secondary combustion chamber and the flue gas treatment equipments. PMID:17134732

  20. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate induces a defense response and resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in dry bean plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marília Barros; Junior, Murillo Lobo; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Petrofeza, Silvana

    2015-06-15

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes a disease known as white mold, which is a major problem for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other crops in many growing areas in Brazil. To investigate the role of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in defending dry bean plants against S. sclerotiorum, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) of cDNA and identified genes that are differentially expressed during plant-pathogen interactions after treatment. Exogenous MeJA application enhanced resistance to the pathogen, and SSH analyses led to the identification of 94 unigenes, presumably involved in a variety of functions, which were classified into several functional categories, including metabolism, signal transduction, protein biogenesis and degradation, and cell defense and rescue. Using RT-qPCR, some unigenes were found to be differentially expressed in a time-dependent manner in dry bean plants during the interaction with S. sclerotiorum after MeJA treatment, including the pathogenesis-related protein PR3 (chitinase), PvCallose (callose synthase), PvNBS-LRR (NBS-LRR resistance-like protein), PvF-box (F-box family protein-like), and a polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP). Based on these expression data, the putative roles of differentially expressed genes were discussed in relation to the disease and MeJA resistance induction. Changes in the activity of the pathogenesis-related proteins β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase in plants after MeJA treatment and following inoculation of the pathogen were also investigated as molecular markers of induced resistance. Foliar application of MeJA induced partial resistance against S. sclerotiorum in plants as well as a consistent increase in pathogenesis-related protein activities. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of resistance induced by MeJA in the P. vulgaris-S. sclerotiorum pathosystem

  1. Mathematical modeling of pattern formation caused by drying of colloidal film under a mask.

    PubMed

    Tarasevich, Yuri Yu; Vodolazskaya, Irina V; Sakharova, Lyudmila V

    2016-02-01

    In our model, we simulate an experiment (D.J. Harris, H. Hu, J.C. Conrad, J.A. Lewis, Patterning colloidal films via evaporative lithography, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 148301 (2007)). A thin colloidal sessile droplet is allowed to dry out on a horizontal hydrophilic surface. A mask just above the droplet predominantly allows evaporation from the droplet free surface directly beneath the holes in the mask. We consider one special case, when the holes in the mask are arranged so that the system has rotational symmetry of order m . We use a speculative evaporative flux to mimic the real system. Advection, diffusion, and sedimentation are taken into account. FlexPDE is utilized to solve an advection-diffusion equation using the finite element method. The simulation demonstrates that the colloidal particles accumulate below the holes as the solvent evaporates. Diffusion can reduce this accumulation. PMID:26920529

  2. Soil-plant-atmosphere processes along an elevation gradient in a dry alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Chiesa, Stefano; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Niedrist, Georg Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    In mountain regions soil-plant-atmosphere processes exhibit rapid changes within short distance due to the complex pattern of topography and atmospheric processes. An elevation transect can be seen as a proxy of climate change (CC), as it affects air temperature, precipitation amount and its partitioning into snow and rain, snow cover duration, and the resulting changing length of vegetation period. In order to quantitatively investigate the exchange of energy, water and carbon with respect to elevation for mountain grassland ecosystems within an inner dry alpine valley, a transect of three micro-meteorological stations was established since 2009 in the Venosta valley (South Tyrol, Italy). It has been designed with three stations, with an elevation difference among the stations of 500 m, which means an average temperature gradient of 2.7 K. In this contribution, the GEOtop-dv model was employed to simulate the effects of the elevation gradient on snow, soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET) and above ground net primary production (ANPP) dynamics in two years with different climatic conditions. Simulations have been validated with observations of soil moisture, snow height, ANPP and eddy-covariance measured ET. Considering the observed contrasting natural trends of increasing precipitation and of decreasing temperature with higher elevation, numerical simulation results show that, in this type of climate, snow dynamics are highly nonlinear with the elevation due to differential precipitation partitioning in early winter and spring. Despite the relatively cold climatic conditions, soil moisture dynamics indicate that severe drought occurs in the bottom of the valley, while at the higher elevations cold temperatures limit growing season duration, and therefore ET and ANPP. Those contrasting trends result in an optimal altitude at about 1400 m a.s.l., where temperature and water availability are optimal in terms of maximum annual ET and ANPP. Our results indicate that

  3. [Indoor simulation on dew formation on plant leaves].

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, You-Ke; Wei, Xin-Guang; Liu, Shou-Yang; He, Zi-Li; Zhou, Yu-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Dew forming on plant leaves through water condensation plays a significant ecological role in arid and semi-arid areas as an ignorable fraction of water resources. In this study, an artificial intelligent climate chamber and an automatic temperature-control system for leaves were implemented to regulate the ambient temperature, the leaf surface temperature and the leaf inclination for dew formation. The impact of leaf inclination, ambient temperature and dew point-leaf temperature depression on the rate and quantity of dew accumulation on leaf surface were analyzed. The results indicated that the accumulation rate and the maximum volume of dew on leaves decreased with increasing the leaf inclination while increased with the increment of dew point-leaf temperature depression, ambient temperature and relative humidity. Under the horizontal configuration, dew accumulated linearly on leaf surface over time until the maximum volume (0.80 mm) was reached. However, dew would fall down after reaching the maximum volume when the leaf inclination existed (45 degrees or 90 degrees), significantly slowing down the accumulative rate, and the zigzag pattern for the dynamic of dew accumulation appeared. PMID:24984489

  4. Formation dry-out from CO2 injection into saline aquifers: Part 1, Effects of solids precipitation and their mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Muller, Nadja

    2009-02-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers may cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, which may reduce formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. This paper uses numerical simulation to explore the role of different processes and parameters in the salt precipitation process and to examine injection strategies that could mitigate the effects. The main physical mechanisms affecting the dry-out and salt precipitation process include (1) displacement of brine away from the injection well by injected CO{sub 2}, (2) dissolution (evaporation) of brine into the flowing CO{sub 2} stream, (3) upflow of CO{sub 2} due to gravity effects (buoyancy), (4) backflow of brine toward the injection point due to capillary pressure gradients that oppose the pressure gradient in the CO{sub 2}-rich ('gas') phase, and (5) molecular diffusion of dissolved salt. The different mechanisms operate on a range of spatial scales. CO{sub 2} injection at constant rate into a homogeneous reservoir with uniform initial conditions is simulated in 1-D radial geometry, to resolve multiscale processes by taking advantage of the similarity property, i.e., the evolution of system conditions as a function of radial distance R and time t depends only on the similarity variable R{sup 2}/t. Simulations in 2-D vertical cross sections are used to examine the role of gravity effects. We find that counterflow of CO{sub 2} and brine can greatly increase aqueous phase salinity and can promote substantial salt precipitation even in formations with low dissolved solids. Salt precipitation can accentuate effects of gravity override. We find that injecting a slug of fresh water prior to commencement of CO{sub 2} injection can reduce salt precipitation and permeability loss near the injection well.

  5. Wastewater treatment by batch adsorption method onto micro-particles of dried Withania frutescens plant as a new adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Chiban, Mohamed; Soudani, Amina; Sinan, Fouad; Persin, Michel

    2012-03-01

    A new adsorbent for removing metallic elements, nitrate and phosphate ions from municipal and industrial wastewaters has been investigated. This new adsorbent consists of micro-particles of dried Withania frutescens plant (<500 μm). Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the removal of metallic elements and anions from raw wastewaters by W. frutescens particles. The results show that the micro-particles of W. frutescens plant presented a good adsorption of metallic elements, nitrate and phosphate ions from both real wastewaters. This adsorption increased with increasing of contact time. The percentage of metallic elements removal from industrial wastewater by W. frutescens plant was 98 ≈ 99% for Pb(II), 92 ≈ 93% for Cd(II), 91 ≈ 92% for Cu(II) and 92 ≈ 93% for Zn(II). The maximum adsorption capacity was dependent on the type of ions. The results also indicate that the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease after the contact with W. frutescens particles. Based on the results it can be concluded that the dried W. frutescens plant appears to be an economical and environmentally friendly material for wastewater treatment. PMID:21803480

  6. Accelerated thermokarst formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Joseph S.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Okal, Marianne; Marchant, David R.; Watters, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst is a land surface lowered and disrupted by melting ground ice. Thermokarst is a major driver of landscape change in the Arctic, but has been considered to be a minor process in Antarctica. Here, we use ground-based and airborne LiDAR coupled with timelapse imaging and meteorological data to show that 1) thermokarst formation has accelerated in Garwood Valley, Antarctica; 2) the rate of thermokarst erosion is presently ~ 10 times the average Holocene rate; and 3) the increased rate of thermokarst formation is driven most strongly by increasing insolation and sediment/albedo feedbacks. This suggests that sediment enhancement of insolation-driven melting may act similarly to expected increases in Antarctic air temperature (presently occurring along the Antarctic Peninsula), and may serve as a leading indicator of imminent landscape change in Antarctica that will generate thermokarst landforms similar to those in Arctic periglacial terrains. PMID:23881292

  7. Accelerated thermokarst formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Levy, Joseph S; Fountain, Andrew G; Dickson, James L; Head, James W; Okal, Marianne; Marchant, David R; Watters, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst is a land surface lowered and disrupted by melting ground ice. Thermokarst is a major driver of landscape change in the Arctic, but has been considered to be a minor process in Antarctica. Here, we use ground-based and airborne LiDAR coupled with timelapse imaging and meteorological data to show that 1) thermokarst formation has accelerated in Garwood Valley, Antarctica; 2) the rate of thermokarst erosion is presently ~ 10 times the average Holocene rate; and 3) the increased rate of thermokarst formation is driven most strongly by increasing insolation and sediment/albedo feedbacks. This suggests that sediment enhancement of insolation-driven melting may act similarly to expected increases in Antarctic air temperature (presently occurring along the Antarctic Peninsula), and may serve as a leading indicator of imminent landscape change in Antarctica that will generate thermokarst landforms similar to those in Arctic periglacial terrains. PMID:23881292

  8. Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of lithium ion batteries requires some processing steps to be carried out in a dry room, where the moisture content should remain below 100 parts per million. The design and operation of such a dry room adds to the cost of the battery. This paper studied the humidity management of the air to and from the dry room to understand the impact of design and operating parameters on the energy demand and the cost contribution towards the battery manufacturing cost. The study was conducted with the help of a process model for a dry room with a volume of 16,000 cubic meters. For a defined base case scenario it was found that the dry room operation has an energy demand of approximately 400 kW. The paper explores some tradeoffs in design and operating parameters by looking at the humidity reduction by quenching the make-up air vs. at the desiccant wheel, and the impact of the heat recovery from the desiccant regeneration cycle.

  9. User's guide for the BNW-III optimization code for modular dry/wet-cooled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    This user's guide describes BNW-III, a computer code developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Dry Cooling Enhancement Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNW-III code models a modular dry/wet cooling system for a nuclear or fossil fuel power plant. The purpose of this guide is to give the code user a brief description of what the BNW-III code is and how to use it. It describes the cooling system being modeled and the various models used. A detailed description of code input and code output is also included. The BNW-III code was developed to analyze a specific cooling system layout. However, there is a large degree of freedom in the type of cooling modules that can be selected and in the performance of those modules. The costs of the modules are input to the code, giving the user a great deal of flexibility.

  10. Analysis of liquid water formation in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell flow fields with a dry cathode supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gößling, Sönke; Klages, Merle; Haußmann, Jan; Beckhaus, Peter; Messerschmidt, Matthias; Arlt, Tobias; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Manke, Ingo; Scholta, Joachim; Heinzel, Angelika

    2016-02-01

    PEM fuel cells can be operated within a wide range of different operating conditions. In this paper, the special case of operating a PEM fuel cell with a dry cathode supply and without external humidification of the cathode, is considered. A deeper understanding of the water management in the cells is essential for choosing the optimal operation strategy for a specific system. In this study a theoretical model is presented which aims to predict the location in the flow field at which liquid water forms at the cathode. It is validated with neutron images of a PEM fuel cell visualizing the locations at which liquid water forms in the fuel cell flow field channels. It is shown that the inclusion of the GDL diffusion resistance in the model is essential to describe the liquid water formation process inside the fuel cell. Good agreement of model predictions and measurement results has been achieved. While the model has been developed and validated especially for the operation with a dry cathode supply, the model is also applicable to fuel cells with a humidified cathode stream.

  11. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Hugo Caram; Zheng Yao; Gu Feng

    2003-10-01

    This is the third Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A description is given of the equipment, instrumentation and procedures being used for the fluidized bed drying experiments. Laboratory data are presented on the effects of bed depth on drying rate. These show that drying rate decreased strongly with an increase in bed depth as the settled bed depth varied from 0.25 to 0.65 m. These tests were performed with North Dakota lignite having a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) top size, constant inlet air and heater surface temperatures, constant rate of heat addition per unit initial mass of wet coal and constant superficial air velocity. A theoretical model of the batch dryer is described. This model uses the equations for conservation of mass and energy and empirical data on the relationship between relative humidity of the air and coal moisture content at equilibrium. Outputs of the model are coal moisture content, bed temperature, and specific humidity of the outlet air as functions of time. Preliminary comparisons of the model to laboratory drying data show very good agreement.

  12. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy

    2003-03-01

    This is the first Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A description is given of the equipment and instrumentation being used for the fluidized bed drying experiments. Results of fluidization and drying tests performed with North Dakota lignite, having a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) top size, are presented. The experiments were performed with a 381 mm (15 inch) settled bed depth, with inlet air and in-bed heater surface temperatures of 44.3 C (110 F), and with the superficial air velocity ranging from 0.2 m/s to 1.4 m/s. Drying rate is shown to be a strong function of air velocity, increasing seven-fold from 0.2 m/s to 1.4 m/s. Increases in velocity from 0.75 m/s (minimum fluidization velocity) to 1.4 m/s resulted in a doubling of the drying rate.

  13. Climatic, ecophysiological and phenological controls on plant ecohydrological strategies in seasonally dry ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large areas of tropical and mid-latitude regions are characterized by a pronounced seasonality and extreme inter-annual rainfall variability, which places local ecosystems under unique patterns of water availability, temperature, and irradiance. Despite the importance of these seasonally dry ecosyst...

  14. Response of weeds and ornamental plants to potting soil amended with dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol produced from corn and developing new uses for DDGS could increase the profitability of ethanol production. This research evaluated DDGS as a soil amendment to container grown ornamentals to suppress weeds. Adding DDGS to a com...

  15. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Wei Zhang

    2004-10-01

    This is the seventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Coal drying experiments were performed with lignite and Powder River Basin coals to determine the effects of inlet air moisture level on the equilibrium relationship between coal moisture and exit air relative humidity and temperature. The results show that, for lignite, there is a slight dependence of equilibrium moisture on inlet humidity level. However, the equilibrium relationship for PRB coal appears to be independent of inlet air humidity level. The specific equilibrium model used for computing lignite coal dryer performance has a significant effect on the prediction accuracy for exit air relative humidity; but its effects on predicted coal product moisture, exit air temperature and specific humidity are minimal. Analyses were performed to determine the effect of lignite product moisture on unit performance for a high temperature drying system. With this process design, energy for drying is obtained from the hot flue gas entering the air preheater and the hot circulating cooling water leaving the steam condenser. Comparisons were made to the same boiler operating with lignite which had been dried off-site.

  16. Three air quality studies: Great Lakes ozone formation and nitrogen dry deposition; and Tucson aerosol chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Theresa

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 was promulgated after thousands of lives were lost in four catastrophic air pollution events. It authorized the establishment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards or (NAAQS) for six pollutants that are harmful to human health and welfare: carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, ozone and sulfur dioxide. The Clean Air Act also led to the establishment of the United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to set and enforce regulations. The first paper in this dissertation studies ozone in the Lake Michigan region (Foley, T., Betterton, E.A., Jacko, R., Hillery, J., 2011. Lake Michigan air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP). Atmospheric Environment 45, 3192-3202.) The Chicago-Milwaukee-Gary metropolitan area has been unable to meet the ozone NAAQS since the Clean Air Act was implemented. The Lake Michigan Air Directors' Consortium (LADCO) hypothesized that land breezes transport ozone precursor compounds over the lake, where a large air/water temperature difference creates a shallow conduction layer, which is an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. In the afternoon, lake breezes and prevailing synoptic winds then transport ozone back over the land. To further evaluate this hypothesis, LADCO sponsored the 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP) to measure the air quality over Lake Michigan and the surrounding areas. This study has found that the LAP data supports this hypothesis of ozone formation, which has strong implications for ozone control strategies in the Lake Michigan region. The second paper is this dissertation (Foley, T., Betterton, E.A., Wolf, A.M.A., 2012. Ambient PM10 and metal concentrations measured in the Sunnyside Unified School District, Tucson, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 43, 67-76) evaluated the airborne concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less) and eight metalloids and metals

  17. Nitrogen and dry-matter partitioning in soybean plants during onset of and recovery from nitrogen stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that resupplying nitrogen after a period of nitrogen stress leads to restoration of the balance between root and shoot growth and normal functional activity. Nonnodulated soybean plants were grown hydroponically for 14 days with 1.0 mM NO3- in a complete nutrient solution. One set of plants was continued on the complete nutrient solution for 25 days; a second set was given 0.0 mM NO3- for 25 days; and the third set was given 0.0 mM NO3- for 10 days followed by transfer to the complete solution with 1.0 mM NO3- for 15 days. In continuously nitrogen-stressed plants, emergence and expansion of main-stem and branch leaves were severely inhibited as low nitrogen content limited further growth. This was followed by a shift in partitioning of dry matter from the leaves to the roots, resulting in an initial stimulation of root growth and a decreased shoot:root ratio. Reduced nitrogen also was redistributed from the leaves into the stem and roots. When nitrogen stress was relieved, leaf initiation and expansion were renewed. With the restoration of the balance between root and shoot function, the shoot:root ratio and distribution of reduced nitrogen within the plant organs returned to levels similar to those of nonstressed plants.

  18. High dry matter whole-plant corn as a biomass feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research investigated the harvest, ambient pre-treatment, and storage of whole-plant corn as an alternative to conventional systems whereby corn grain and stover are fractionated at harvest. Harvesting the whole-plant, both grain and most of the above ground stover, after physiological maturity...

  19. Microautoradiography of Water-Soluble Compounds in Plant Tissue after Freeze-Drying and Pressure Infiltration with Epoxy Resin

    PubMed Central

    Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Dickson, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    It is difficult to retain and localize radioactive, water-soluble compounds within plant cells. Existing techniques retain water-soluble compounds with varying rates of efficiency and are limited to processing only a few samples at one time. We developed a modified pressure infiltration technique for the preparation of microautoradiographs of 14C-labeled, water-soluble compounds in plant tissue. Samples from cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) labeled with 14C were excised, quick frozen in liquid N2, freeze-dried at −50°C, and pressure-infiltrated with epoxy resin without intermediate solvents or prolonged incubation times. The technique facilitates the mass processing of samples for microautoradiography, gives good cellular retention of labeled water-soluble compounds, and is highly reproducible. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662542

  20. Recent field studies of dry deposition to surfaces in plant canopies

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S.E.; Lovett, G.M.; Bondietti, E.A.; Davidson, C.I.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of field techniques were used to assess the dry deposition of sulfur. In a deciduous forest canopy in eastern Tennessee, inert petri plates and adjacent chestnut oak leaves showed similar SO/sub 4//sup -2/ deposition velocities of about 0.1 cm s/sup -1/. In the same forest, statistical analysis of throughfall yielded a deposition velocity of 0.48 cm s/sup -1/ for total sulfur (SO/sub 4//sup -2/ plus SO/sub 2/). The throughfall technique appears useful for scaling individual surface measurements to larger spatial and temporal scales. On a grassy field in Illinois, flat Teflon plates, petri dishes, and dustfall buckets were exposed side by side. Measured sulfate deposition increased with increasing rim height on the collection surface, and deposition velocities ranged from 0.14 to 0.70 cm s/sup -1/. Much of the deposition to these surfaces can be attributed to large-particle SO/sub 4//sup -2/. Dry season (summer) deposition velocities of /sup 7/Be in California were found to be similar to dry deposition velocities of /sup 212/Pb in Tennessee, ranging from 0.18 to 0.35 cm s/sup -1/. These natural radionuclides attach to submicron aerosols in the atmosphere and may be useful tracers of submicron SO/sub 4//sup -2/ deposition. 9 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Knowledge, use and management of native wild edible plants from a seasonal dry forest (NE, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite being an ancient practice that satisfies basic human needs, the use of wild edible plants tends to be forgotten along with associated knowledge in rural communities. The objective of this work is to analyze existing relationships between knowledge, use, and management of native wild edible plants and socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, family income, individual income, past occupation and current occupation. Methods The field work took place between 2009 and 2010 in the community of Carão, Altinho municipality, in the state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 members of the community regarding knowledge, use and management of 14 native wild edible plants from the Caatinga region, corresponding to 12 vegetable species. In parallel, we documented the socioeconomic aspects of the interviewed population (age, gender, family income, individual income, past occupation and current occupation). Results Knowledge about edible plants was related to age but not to current occupation or use. Current use was not associated with age, gender or occupation. The association between age and past use may indicate abandonment of these resources. Conclusion Because conservation of the species is not endangered by their use but by deforestation of the ecosystems in which these plants grow, we suggest that the promotion and consumption of the plants by community members is convenient and thereby stimulates the appropriation and consequent protection of the ecosystem. To promote consumption of these plants, it is important to begin by teaching people about plant species that can be used for their alimentation, disproving existing myths about plant use, and encouraging diversification of use by motivating the invention of new preparation methods. An example of how this can be achieved is through events like the “Preserves Festival”. PMID:24279311

  2. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p < 0.05) was noted for T. colubriformis. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity. PMID:26350377

  3. FIBER SEPARATED FROM DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES AS A FEEDSTOCK FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION TO INCREASE OUTPUT FROM DRY GRIND CORN PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the dry grind process, corn starch is converted into sugars which are fermented into ethanol. The remaining corn components (protein, fiber, fat, and ash) form coproduct, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification), known as elus...

  4. Removal of lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solution by adsorption onto micro-particles of dry plants.

    PubMed

    Benhima, H; Chiban, M; Sinan, F; Seta, P; Persin, M

    2008-01-15

    In the present work, Pb(II) and Cd(II) ion adsorption onto inert organic matter (IOM) obtained from ground dried plants: Euphorbia echinus, Launea arborescens, Senecio anthophorbium growing in semi-arid zones of Morocco and Carpobrotus edulis as the Mediterranean plant has been studied. A suspension of plant deroed micro-particles adsorbs lead and cadmium present as ionic species, with a higher affinity for Pb(II). The kinetics and the maximum capacity adsorption depend on the type of plant as well as on the metal ions (atomic weight, ionic radius and electronegativity). The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, solution volume to mass of plant particles ratio (m/V), particle size, solution pH and metal concentration. A dose of 25 g/l of adsorbent was optimal to obtain maximum adsorption of both metal ions. The maximum metal uptake was obtained with particles of organic matter of <50 microm. As to classical ionic adsorption phenomena, the adsorption of both metal ions increases with the increase of the initial concentration in the solution. For the two metal cations, the uptake efficiency of the studied plants ranged from: C. edulis>E. echinus>S. anthophorbium>L. arborescens, however, the differences are rather small. Two different waste water types (domestic and industrial) were tested and good results were obtained for removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) at more than 90%. The removal of the metal and mineral ions waste water was observed for PO(4)(3-) at 88%, for NO(3)(-) at 96.5% and for metal ions (Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)) at about 100%, using IOM as absorbent. PMID:17869071

  5. Optimization of struvite fertilizer formation from baker's yeast wastewater: growth and nutrition of maize and tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ayla; Demir, Sinan; Sayilgan, Emine; Eraslan, Figen; Kucukyumuk, Zeliha

    2014-03-01

    Struvite precipitate obtained from yeast industry anaerobic effluent with high ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) was investigated for fertilizer effect on plant growth and nutrition according to applications of N, nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium (NPK), and control. Optimum struvite formation conditions were determined via Box-Behnken design. Optimum condition was obtained at pH 9.0 and Mg/N/P molar ratio of 1.5:1:1. Under these conditions, heavy metal concentrations in the obtained struvite precipitate (except Cu) were below the detection limits. In addition to high N, P, and Mg content, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that the struvite also included the nutritional elements Ca, K, Na, and Fe. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the complex structures of NaAl(SO4)2(H2O)12, NaMn(2+)Fe2(PO4)3, and (Na2,Ca)O2(Fe,Mn)O.P2O5 in the precipitate. High Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations in the anaerobic effluent reacted with phosphate during struvite precipitation. Different applications and struvite dosages significantly affected fresh and dry weights and nutrient element uptakes by plants (P < 0.05). N, P, and Mg uptakes of plants were significantly higher at struvite ×2, ×3, and ×4 dosages compared with NPK application. For adequate nutrition and supply of optimum dry weight, struvite ×2 dosage (5.71 g struvite/kg soil) was found appropriate for both maize and tomato plants. PMID:24217971

  6. Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Antoinette Weil

    The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of

  7. Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: microbiological and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    de Melo Júnior, E J M; Raposo, M J; Lisboa Neto, J A; Diniz, M F A; Marcelino Júnior, C A C; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of medicinal herbs as antimicrobial agents was tested on isolated microorganisms from an induced alveolitis and on alveolitis in rats. Sixteen ethanolic extracts from plants were prepared and tested. The plant materials were selected from ethnobotanic data and the best result was obtained with Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. The activity on Enterococcus, Bacillus corineforme, Streptococcus viridans and S. beta-hemolytic was better than the one presented by the antibiotic currently used for the treatment of alveolitis. The extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi has shown good wound-healing activity by histological analysis. PMID:11995943

  8. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in an annual plant: grandparental and parental drought stress enhance performance of seedlings in dry soil.

    PubMed

    Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Riggs, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    Stressful parental (usually maternal) environments can dramatically influence expression of traits in offspring, in some cases resulting in phenotypes that are adaptive to the inducing stress. The ecological and evolutionary impact of such transgenerational plasticity depends on both its persistence across generations and its adaptive value. Few studies have examined both aspects of transgenerational plasticity within a given system. Here we report the results of a growth-chamber study of adaptive transgenerational plasticity across two generations, using the widespread annual plant Polygonum persicaria as a naturally evolved model system. We grew five inbred Polygonum genetic lines in controlled dry vs. moist soil environments for two generations in a fully factorial design, producing replicate individuals of each genetic line with all permutations of grandparental and parental environment. We then measured the effects of these two-generational stress histories on traits critical for functioning in dry soil, in a third (grandchild) generation of seedling offspring raised in the dry treatment. Both grandparental and parental moisture environment significantly influenced seedling development: seedlings of drought-stressed grandparents or parents produced longer root systems that extended deeper and faster into dry soil compared with seedlings of the same genetic lines whose grandparents and/or parents had been amply watered. Offspring of stressed individuals also grew to a greater biomass than offspring of nonstressed parents and grandparents. Importantly, the effects of drought were cumulative over the course of two generations: when both grandparents and parents were drought-stressed, offspring had the greatest provisioning, germinated earliest, and developed into the largest seedlings with the most extensive root systems. Along with these functionally appropriate developmental effects, seedlings produced after two previous drought-stressed generations had

  9. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Tang, Camilla; Eriksson, Eva; Jönsson, Karin; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening. PMID:24830785

  10. Ethyl Formate Fumigation of Dry and Semidry Date Fruits: Experimental Kinetics, Modeling, and Lethal Effect on Carob Moth.

    PubMed

    Bessi, Haithem; Bellagha, Sihem; Lebdi, Kaouthar Grissa; Bikoba, Veronique; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    Ethyl formate (EF) was studied as a fumigant agent with the objective to replace methyl bromide (MB) for date fruit disinfestations. Date fruits Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet Nour' with different initial moisture content (16% for dry dates, 20% for semidry dates, and a mixture of the two types) were separately fumigated with EF at different concentrations: 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 for 2 h. Experimental data of EF sorption during fumigation was successfully fitted to Peleg's model. This model allows the prediction of the effects of date moisture content and EF concentration on sorption behavior. Samples with different moisture content showed similar EF sorption behavior. Dates were artificially infested with carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller)) at different life stages. Eggs, third- and fifth-instars, and pupae were exposed to 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 EF for 2 h. Among these life stages, fifth-instars were the most resistant to EF fumigation. A 2-h fumigation with 114.6 g/m3 EF provided complete control of eggs, third-instars, and pupae of carob moth, and generated 91.6% mortality of fifth-instars. A longer fumigation time or higher EF concentration may provide complete control of all life stages of carob moth. PMID:26470221

  11. High-precision 40Ar/ 39Ar age constraints on the basal Lanqi Formation and its implications for the origin of angiosperm plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Su-chin; Zhang, Haichun; Renne, Paul R.; Fang, Yan

    2009-03-01

    Abundant Mesozoic terrestrial fossils were discovered in the Haifanggou Formation and the overlying Lanqi Formation in northeastern China. The recent discovery of Schmeissneria sinensis from the Haifanggou Formation provides evidence that the origin of angiosperms could be much earlier than previously believed. 92 taxa of plant fossils from the Lanqi Formation provide unique opportunities to understand the floral evolution and its diversification in the Mesozoic. Here we present robust high-precision 40Ar/ 39Ar data of 160.7 ± 0.4 Ma and 158.7 ± 0.6 Ma for two tuffs from the lowest part of the Lanqi Formation near the main outcrop of floral fossils in Beipiao City, Liaoning, China. Our age results indicate the whole Lanqi Formation was deposited in the Late Jurassic; consequently, the underlying Haifanggou Formation and Schmeissneria sinensis are at least Middle Jurassic in age. Besides its importance for floral evolution, our high-precision age results for the basal Lanqi Formation indicate the paleoenvironment in the north margin of the North China Craton was dry and hot in the Late Jurassic. Moreover, the new age data for the basal Lanqi Formation suggest that the unearthed fossils from the Haifanggou Formation and Lanqi Formation should be equivalent to the Daohugou Biota in Inner Mongolia, China.

  12. PLANT FRUCTANS: A NOVEL CLASS OF POLYMERIC PROTECTANTS FOR MEMBRANES DURING DRYING.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fructan (polyfructose)-family of oligo- and polysaccharides is a group of compounds that have for a long time been implicated as protective agents in the drought and freezing tolerance of many plant species. We have shown before that low concentrations (up to 10 mg/mL) of inulins (linear fructos...

  13. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-307-1581, Big Dry Creek Plant, Westminister, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, P.

    1985-04-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for acrylamide, butyl-acetate, acetic-acid, and hydrogen-sulfide at Big Dry Creek waste water treatment facility, Westminister, Colorado in July and November, 1984. Noise monitoring was also conducted. The survey was requested by a facility representative to evaluate potential health hazards associated with chemicals used in the waste-water-treatment process and from noise. The author concludes that a health hazard from chemical over exposure at the facility does not exist. A potential hazard does exist from noise over exposure. Evaluation of all air compressors, periodic noise monitoring, use of hearing protective devices using EPA noise reduction ratings, and an employee education program about chemical and noise exposure hazards are recommended.

  14. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Gu Feng; Wei Zhang

    2004-04-01

    This is the fifth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A theoretical model, for computing the effects of dryer design and operating conditions on performance of a continuous flow fluidized bed dryer, operating at steady state conditions, is described. Numerical results from the model, compared to data from a pilot scale lignite dryer located at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station, show good agreement. The dryer model was used to perform parametric calculations on the effects of dryer design and operating conditions on dryer performance and required in-bed heat transfer. Other analyses show the first order effects of firing lignite and PRB coals, dried to various moisture levels, on flow rates of coal, combustion air and flue gas, fan and mill power and unit heat rate.

  15. Plant hydraulic responses to long-term dry season nitrogen deposition alter drought tolerance in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Santiago, Louis S; Vourlitis, George L; Grantz, David A; Allen, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition represents a significant N input for many terrestrial ecosystems. N deposition can affect plants on scales ranging from photosynthesis to community composition, yet few studies have investigated how changes in N availability affect plant water relations. We tested the effects of N addition on plant water relations, hydraulic traits, functional traits, gas exchange, and leaf chemistry in a semi-arid ecosystem in Southern California using long-term experimental plots fertilized with N for over a decade. The dominant species were Artemisia california and Salvia mellifera at Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve and Adenostoma fasciculatum and Ceanothus greggii at Sky Oaks Field Station. All species, except Ceanothus, showed increased leaf N concentration, decreased foliar carbon to N ratio, and increased foliar N isotopic composition with fertilization, indicating that added N was taken up by study species, yet each species had a differing physiological response to long-term N addition. Dry season predawn water potentials were less negative with N addition for all species except Adenostoma, but there were no differences in midday water potentials, or wet season water potentials. Artemisia was particularly responsive, as N addition increased stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance, and leaf carbon isotopic composition, and decreased wood density. The alteration of water relations and drought resistance parameters with N addition in Artemisia, as well as Adenostoma, Ceanothus, and Salvia, indicate that N deposition can affect the ability of native Southern California shrubs to respond to drought. PMID:27017604

  16. FORMATION OF A DETACHED PLUME FROM A CEMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A coordinated study of process, source emissions, and plume sampling was conducted at a coal-fired cement production plant. Both source and plume sampling consisted of particle and gas measurement and characterization. Particulate sampling of both the source and plume addressed p...

  17. Preschool Children's Explanations of Plant Growth and Rain Formation: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christidou, Vasilia; Hatzinikita, Vassilia

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the different types and characteristics of preschool children's explanations of plant growth and rain formation. The children's explanations were categorized as naturalistic, non-naturalistic, or synthetic, i.e., explanations containing both naturalistic and non-naturalistic parts. In regards to plant growth the children…

  18. Adventitious Root Formation of Forest Trees and Horticultural Plants - From Genes to Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adventitious root formation is a key step in the clonal propagation of forest trees and horticultural crops. Difficulties in forming adventitious roots (ARs) on stem cuttings and plants produced in vitro hinders the propagation of elite trees and efficient production of many horticultural plant spec...

  19. Limited influence of dry deposition of semivolatile organic vapors on secondary organic aerosol formation in the urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Karl, T.; Camredon, M.; Mouchel-Vallon, C.

    2013-06-01

    The dry deposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its impact on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are investigated in the Mexico City plume. Gas-phase chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of oxygenated VOCs are modeled with the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) from C3 to C25 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics. Results show that dry deposition of oxidized gases is not an efficient sink for SOA, as it removes <5% of SOA within the city's boundary layer and ~15% downwind. Dry deposition competes with the gas-particle uptake, and only gases with fewer than ~12 carbons dry deposit while longer species partition to SOA. Because dry deposition of submicron aerosols is slow, condensation onto particles protects organic gases from deposition, thus increasing their atmospheric burden and lifetime. In the absence of this condensation, ~50% of the regionally produced mass would have been dry deposited.

  20. Historical climate change and speciation: neotropical seasonally dry forest plants show patterns of both tertiary and quaternary diversification.

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt; Prado, Darién E; Pendry, Colin A; Pell, Susan K; Butterworth, Charles A

    2004-01-01

    Historical climate changes have had a major effect on the distribution and evolution of plant species in the neotropics. What is more controversial is whether relatively recent Pleistocene climatic changes have driven speciation, or whether neotropical species diversity is more ancient. This question is addressed using evolutionary rate analysis of sequence data of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers in diverse taxa occupying neotropical seasonally dry forests, including Ruprechtia (Polygonaceae), robinioid legumes (Fabaceae), Chaetocalyx and Nissolia (Fabaceae), and Loxopterygium (Anacardiaceae). Species diversifications in these taxa occurred both during and before the Pleistocene in Central America, but were primarily pre-Pleistocene in South America. This indicates plausibility both for models that predict tropical species diversity to be recent and that invoke a role for Pleistocene climatic change, and those that consider it ancient and implicate geological factors such as the Andean orogeny and the closure of the Panama Isthmus. Cladistic vicariance analysis was attempted to identify common factors underlying evolution in these groups. In spite of the similar Mid-Miocene to Pliocene ages of the study taxa, and their high degree of endemism in the different fragments of South American dry forests, the analysis yielded equivocal, non-robust patterns of area relationships. PMID:15212100

  1. Single-droplet evaporation kinetics and particle formation in an acoustic levitator. Part 2: drying kinetics and particle formation from microdroplets of aqueous mannitol, trehalose, or catalase.

    PubMed

    Schiffter, Heiko; Lee, Geoffrey

    2007-09-01

    A single droplet drying acoustic levitator has been used to examine the drying behavior of droplets of pharmaceutically relevant solutes used to produce protein-loaded particles via spray-drying. The drying behavior of solution droplets of mannitol, trehalose, or catalase was determined. Evidence of super-saturation of the solute in the droplet surface up to the critical point of drying was obtained. The trehalose achieves a lower degree of super-saturation than does the mannitol before precipitating at the droplet surface. This results in a shorter duration of the constant-rate period, but protracted further drying of this amorphous material. Mannitol achieved a higher degree of super-saturation, and a later critical point with shorter falling-rate period. Measurements of dried particle radius showed that both solutes form hollow particles. The catalase formed holed, hollow particles with characteristic drying rate profiles that correlated well with developing particle morphology. A strong similarity between the morphologies of dried particles of mannitol, trehalose, or catalase produced either in the levitator or in a spray-dryer was found. PMID:17523166

  2. Identification of Chromium Resistant Bacteria from Dry Fly Ash Sample of Mejia MTPS Thermal Power Plant, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Roopali; Mukherjee, Pritam; Roy, Madhumita

    2016-02-01

    Eight chromium resistant bacteria were isolated from a dry fly ash sample of DVC-MTPS thermal power plant located in Bankura, West Bengal, India. These isolates displayed different degrees of chromate reduction under aerobic conditions. According to 16S rDNA gene analysis, five of them were Staphylococcus, two were Bacillus and one was Micrococcus. The minimum inhibitory concentration towards chromium and the ability to reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium was highest in Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain HMR17. All the strains were resistant to multiple heavy metals (As, Cu, Cd, Co, Zn, Mn, Pb and Fe) and reduced toxic hexavalent chromium to relatively non toxic trivalent chromium even in the presence of these multiple heavy metals. All of them showed resistance to different antibiotics. In a soil microcosm study, S. haemolyticus strain HMR17 completely reduced 4 mM hexavalent chromium within 7 days of incubation. PMID:26602566

  3. Studies on mycorrhizal inoculation on dry matter yield and root colonization of some medicinal plants grown in stress and forest soils.

    PubMed

    Chandra, K K; Kumar, Neeraj; Chand, Gireesh

    2010-11-01

    Five medicinal plants viz. Abelmoschatus moschatus Linn., Clitoria tematea L., Plumbagozeylanica L., Psorolea corylifolia L. and Withania sominifera L. were grown in a polypot experiment in five soils representing coal mine soil, coppermine soil, fly ash, skeletal soil and forest soil with and without mycorrhizal inoculations in a completely randomized block design. Dry matter yield and mycorrhizal root colonization of plants varied both in uninoculated and inoculated conditions. The forest soil rendered highest dry matter due to higher yield of A. moschatus, P. zeylanica and P corylifolia while fly ash showed lowest dry matter without any inoculants. P. cematea were best in coalmine soil and W. sominifera in copper mine soil without mycorrhizal inoculation. The mycorrhiza was found to enhance the dry matter yield. This contributed minimum 0.19% to maximum up to 422.0% in different soils as compared to uninoculated plants. The mycorrhizal dependency was noticed maximum in plants grown in fly ash followed by coal mine soil, copper mine soil, skeletal soil and forest soil. The mycorrhizal response was increased maximum in W. sominifera due to survival in fly ash after inoculation followed by P corylifolia and P cematea. Percent root colonization in inoculated plant was increased minimum of 1.10 fold to maximum of 12.0 folds in comparison to un-inoculated plants . The native mycorrhiza fungi were also observed to colonize 4.0 to 32.0% roots in plants understudy. This study suggests that mycorrhizal inoculation increased the dry matter yield of medicinal plants in all soils under study. It also helps in survival of W. sominifera in fly ash. PMID:21506485

  4. Biofilm formation by enteric pathogens and its role in plant colonization and persistence

    PubMed Central

    Yaron, Sima; Römling, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The significant increase in foodborne outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, such as alfalfa sprouts, lettuce, melons, tomatoes and spinach, during the last 30 years stimulated investigation of the mechanisms of persistence of human pathogens on plants. Emerging evidence suggests that Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, which cause the vast majority of fresh produce outbreaks, are able to adhere to and to form biofilms on plants leading to persistence and resistance to disinfection treatments, which subsequently can cause human infections and major outbreaks. In this review, we present the current knowledge about host, bacterial and environmental factors that affect the attachment to plant tissue and the process of biofilm formation by S. enterica and E. coli, and discuss how biofilm formation assists in persistence of pathogens on the plants. Mechanisms used by S. enterica and E. coli to adhere and persist on abiotic surfaces and mammalian cells are partially similar and also used by plant pathogens and symbionts. For example, amyloid curli fimbriae, part of the extracellular matrix of biofilms, frequently contribute to adherence and are upregulated upon adherence and colonization of plant material. Also the major exopolysaccharide of the biofilm matrix, cellulose, is an adherence factor not only of S. enterica and E. coli, but also of plant symbionts and pathogens. Plants, on the other hand, respond to colonization by enteric pathogens with a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which can effectively inhibit biofilm formation. Consequently, plant compounds might be investigated for promising novel antibiofilm strategies. PMID:25351039

  5. Plant Sexual Systems and a Review of the Breeding System Studies in the Caatinga, a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, ISABEL CRISTINA; LOPES, ARIADNA VALENTINA; SAZIMA, MARLIES

    2006-01-01

    • Backgrounds and Aims The reproductive biology of a community can provide answers to questions related to the maintenance of the intraspecific pollen flow and reproductive success of populations, sharing and competition for pollinators and also questions on conservation of natural habitats affected by fragmentation processes. This work presents, for the first time, data on the occurrence and frequency of plant sexual systems for Caatinga communities, and a review of the breeding system studies of Caatinga species. • Methods The sexual systems of 147 species from 34 families and 91 genera occurring in three Caatinga areas in north-eastern Brazil were analysed and compared with worldwide studies focusing on reproductive biology of different tropical communities. • Key Results The frequency of hermaphrodite species was 83·0 % (122 species), seven of these (or 4·8 % of the total) being heterostylous. Monoecy occurred in 9·5 % (14) of the species, and andromonoecy in 4·8 % (seven). Only 2·7 % (four) of the species were dioecious. A high percentage of hermaphrodite species was expected and has been reported for other tropical ecosystems. With respect to the breeding system studies with species of the Caatinga, the authors' data for 21 species and an additional 18 species studied by others (n = 39) revealed a high percentage (61·5 %) of obligatory self-incompatibility. Agamospermy was not recorded among the Caatinga studied species. • Conclusions The plant sexual systems in the Caatinga, despite the semi-arid climate, are similar to other tropical dry and wet forest communities, including those with high rainfall levels, except for the much lower percentage of dioecious species. The high frequency of self-incompatible species is similar to that reported for Savanna areas in Brazil, and also for dry (deciduous and semideciduous) and humid tropical forest communities. PMID:16377654

  6. Effects of Dry Chilling on the Microflora on Beef Carcasses at a Canadian Beef Packing Plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Youssef, M K; Yang, X

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the course of effects on the microflora on beef carcasses of a commercial dry chilling process in which carcasses were dry chilled for 3 days. Groups of 25 carcasses selected at random were sampled when the chilling process commenced and after the carcasses were chilled for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 67 h for determination of the numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The temperatures of the surfaces and the thickest part of the hip (deep leg) of carcasses, as well as the ambient air conditions, including air temperature, velocity, and relative humidity (RH), were monitored throughout the chilling process. The chiller was operated at 0°C with an off-coil RH of 88%. The air velocity was 1.65 m/s when the chiller was loaded. The initial RH levels of the air in the vicinity of carcasses varied with the locations of carcasses in the chiller and decreased rapidly during the first hour of chilling. The average times for shoulder surfaces, rump surfaces, and the deep leg of carcasses to reach 7°C were 13.6 ± 3.1, 16.0 ± 2.4 and 32.4 ± 3.2 h, respectively. The numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and E. coli on carcasses before chilling were 5.33 ± 0.42, 1.95 ± 0.77, 1.42 ± 0.78 log CFU/4,000 cm(2), respectively. The number of aerobes on carcasses was reduced by 1 log unit each in the first hour of chilling and in the subsequent 23 h of chilling. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the numbers of aerobes recovered from carcasses after 24 and 67 h of chilling. The total numbers (log CFU/100,000 cm(2)) on carcasses before chilling and after the first hour of chilling were 3.86 and 2.24 for coliforms and 3.30 and 2.04 for E. coli. The subsequent 23 h of chilling reduced the numbers of both groups of organisms by a further log unit. No coliforms or E. coli were recovered after 67 h of chilling. The findings show that the chilling regime investigated in this study resulted in significant reductions of all

  7. The implications of a dry climate for the paleoecology of the fauna of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, George F.; Chure, Daniel J.; Fiorillo, Anthony R.

    2004-05-01

    In light of diverse geological evidence that indicates a seasonal, semiarid climate for the time of deposition of the Morrison Formation, one can assume these general environmental conditions for the purpose of reconstructing the ancient ecosystem. Wet environments that preserved plant fossils and some invertebrates and small vertebrates in the Morrison can be interpreted as representing local conditions limited in space and/or time. These elements of the biota and the smaller dinosaurs were probably restricted to such wetland areas at times of environmental stress. A diverse fauna of large, herbivorous, sauropod dinosaurs ranged throughout the environment. Although this seems to be inconsistent with an environment with sparse resources, large size confers physiologic advantages that are adaptive for just such conditions. The scaling effect of large size makes large herbivores very efficient relative to their size in needing proportionately less food and food of poorer quality than smaller herbivores. They can also survive starvation longer and travel more efficiently to reach widely separated resource patches. Although few in number at any time, the sauropod dinosaurs are locally abundant and seemingly ubiquitous in the fossil record of the Morrison Formation because of overrepresentation of their highly preservable remains in an attritional fossil assemblage.

  8. Characteristics of fly ash from the dry flue gas desulfurization system for iron ore sintering plants.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guanghong; Huang, Peng; Mou, Yaqin; Zhou, Chenhui

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of fly ash from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system are important for its reuse and are mainly depend on the desulfurization process. The physical and chemical properties of DSF ash, which refers to fly ash from the dry FGD system for the iron ore sintering process, were investigated. Its mineralogical contents were determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis, and its micro-morphology was studied by scanning electric micrograph analysis. The results show that DSF ash has a higher CaO and SO3 content, and the main sulfur form is sulfite, with only a part of it oxidized to sulfate. The major minerals present in DSF ash are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite and portlandite; a minor constituent is calcium chloride. The particles of DSF ash are irregular, fragmentary and small, and hannebachite grows on their surfaces. Particle size is affected by the FGD process, and the ash size from the maximized emission reduction of the sintering-FGD process is lower than that from the circulating fluidized bed-FGD process. The particle size distribution of DSF ash follows the Rosin--Rammler-Bennet equation. PMID:22720407

  9. An integrated database of wood-formation related genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Ma, Tao; Hu, Quanjun; Liu, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    Wood, which consists mainly of plant cell walls, is an extremely important resource in daily lives. Genes whose products participate in the processes of cell wall and wood formation are therefore major subjects of plant science research. The Wood-Formation Related Genes database (WFRGdb, http://me.lzu.edu.cn/woodformation/) serves as a data resource center for genes involved in wood formation. To create this database, we collected plant genome data published in other online databases and predicted all cell wall and wood formation related genes using BLAST and HMMER. To date, 47 gene families and 33 transcription factors from 57 genomes (28 herbaceous, 22 woody and 7 non-vascular plants) have been covered and more than 122,000 genes have been checked and recorded. To provide easy access to these data, we have developed several search methods, which make it easy to download targeted genes or groups of genes free of charge in FASTA format. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses are also available online. WFRGdb brings together cell wall and wood formation related genes from all available plant genomes, and provides an integrative platform for gene inquiry, downloading and analysis. This database will therefore be extremely useful for those who focuses on cell wall and wood research. PMID:26078228

  10. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  11. New insights on molecular regulation of biofilm formation in plant-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W

    2016-04-01

    Biofilms are complex bacterial assemblages with a defined three-dimensional architecture, attached to solid surfaces, and surrounded by a self-produced matrix generally composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, lipids and extracellular DNA. Biofilm formation has evolved as an adaptive strategy of bacteria to cope with harsh environmental conditions as well as to establish antagonistic or beneficial interactions with their host. Plant-associated bacteria attach and form biofilms on different tissues including leaves, stems, vasculature, seeds and roots. In this review, we examine the formation of biofilms from the plant-associated bacterial perspective and detail the recently-described mechanisms of genetic regulation used by these organisms to orchestrate biofilm formation on plant surfaces. In addition, we describe plant host signals that bacterial pathogens recognize to activate the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to multicellular behavior. PMID:26377849

  12. Formation of stable chlorinated hydrocarbons in weathering plant material

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2001-10-01

    Though several chlorinated organic compounds produced by humans are carcinogenic and toxic, some are also produced by the biotic and abiotic processes in the environment. In situ x-ray spectroscopy data indicate that natural organic matter in soils, sediments, and natural waters contain stable, less volatile organic compounds with chlorinated phenolic and aliphatic groups as the principal Cl forms. These compounds are formed at rapid rates from the transformation of inorganic Cl during humification of plant material and, thus, play a critical role in the cycling of Cl and of several major and trace elements in the environment and may influence human health. [References: 19

  13. Evaluation of plant constituents associated with pecan phylloxera gall formation.

    PubMed

    Hedin, P A; Neel, W W; Burks, M L; Grimley, E

    1985-04-01

    The weights of pecanCarya illinoensis Koch galls caused by several species ofPhylloxera (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) were negatively correlated with leaf and nut weights and nut production. Several allelochemicals (isoquercitrin, juglone, and 2 proanthocyanidins) were isolated from galls, and their antibiotic potentials were estimated, based on their toxicity to the bacteriaPseudomones maltophilia (Hugh et Ryschenkow). Pecan proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) were characterized for the first time, and their stereochemistry was elucidated. The protein and total sugar contents of total leaves and leaf surface washings were determined. The leaf surface sugar content was very low, suggesting that the puncturing strategy of this insect may be for the purpose of finding sugars. The plant growth hormones gibberellic acid, zeatin, zeatin riboside, kinetin, indole acetic acid, and abscisic acid were found in pecan leaves, stems, and their galls. Gibberellic and abscisic acids were present in highest concentrations in all tissues, but lower in galled tissues, suggesting that increased biosynthesis by pecan plant growth regulators did not occur in response to insect attack. PMID:24310069

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Bum; Li, Ying; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Topical application of 0.1% medicinal plant extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice. PMID:27313829

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won; Lee, Jee Bum; Cui, Lian; Li, Ying; Li, Zhengri; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Topical application of 0.1% medicinal plant extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice. PMID:27313829

  16. Gap formation following climatic events in spatially structured plant communities.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jinbao; De Boeck, Hans J; Li, Zhenqing; Nijs, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Gaps play a crucial role in maintaining species diversity, yet how community structure and composition influence gap formation is still poorly understood. We apply a spatially structured community model to predict how species diversity and intraspecific aggregation shape gap patterns emerging after climatic events, based on species-specific mortality responses. In multispecies communities, average gap size and gap-size diversity increased rapidly with increasing mean mortality once a mortality threshold was exceeded, greatly promoting gap recolonization opportunity. This result was observed at all levels of species richness. Increasing interspecific difference likewise enhanced these metrics, which may promote not only diversity maintenance but also community invasibility, since more diverse niches for both local and exotic species are provided. The richness effects on gap size and gap-size diversity were positive, but only expressed when species were sufficiently different. Surprisingly, while intraspecific clumping strongly promoted gap-size diversity, it hardly influenced average gap size. Species evenness generally reduced gap metrics induced by climatic events, so the typical assumption of maximum evenness in many experiments and models may underestimate community diversity and invasibility. Overall, understanding the factors driving gap formation in spatially structured assemblages can help predict community secondary succession after climatic events. PMID:26114803

  17. The formation and function of plant volatiles: perfumes for pollinator attraction and defense.

    PubMed

    Pichersky, Eran; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2002-06-01

    Plants synthesize and emit a large variety of volatile organic compounds with terpenoids and fatty-acid derivatives the dominant classes. Whereas some volatiles are probably common to almost all plants, others are specific to only one or a few related taxa. The rapid progress in elucidating the biosynthetic pathways, enzymes, and genes involved in the formation of plant volatiles allows their physiology and function to be rigorously investigated at the molecular and biochemical levels. Floral volatiles serve as attractants for species-specific pollinators, whereas the volatiles emitted from vegetative parts, especially those released after herbivory, appear to protect plants by deterring herbivores and by attracting the enemies of herbivores. PMID:11960742

  18. A Numerical Study of the Impacts of Dry Air on Tropical Cyclone Formation: A Development Case and a Non-development Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, C.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The impacts of dry air on tropical cyclone formation are examined in the numerical model simulations of ex-Gaston (2010) and pre-Fay (2008). The former, a remnant low downgraded from a short-lived tropical cyclone, can be regarded as a non-developing system as it failed to redevelop, and the latter developed into a tropical cyclone despite lateral dry air entrainment and a transient upper-level dry air intrusion. Water vapor budget analysis suggests that the mean vertical moisture transport plays the dominant role in moistening the free atmosphere. Backward trajectory analysis and water budget analysis show that vertical transport of dry air from the middle and upper troposphere, where a well-defined wave pouch is absent, contributes to the mid-level drying near the pouch center in ex-Gaston. The mid-level drying suppresses deep convection, reduces moisture supply from the boundary layer, and contributes to the non-development of ex-Gaston. Three-dimensional trajectory analysis based on the numerical model simulation of Fay suggests that dry air entrained at the pouch periphery tends to stay off the pouch center due to the weak mid-level inflow or gets moistened along its path even if being wrapped into the wave pouch. Lateral entrainment in the middle troposphere thus does not suppress convection near the pouch center or prevent the development of Tropical Storm Fay. This study suggests that the upper troposphere is a weak spot of the wave pouch at the early formation stage and that the vertical transport is likely a more direct pathway for dry air to influence moist convection near the pouch center. Fig. 1 (a) 3 km relative humidity and storm relative streamlines for Gaston (2010) at 0800 UTC 05 September 2010 with a group of ensemble forward parcel trajectories (gray); (b) vertical cross section of RH along 17.5°N (contour intervals are set to 15%) and backward trajectories (gray) projected on the longitude-height plane. The box in (a) highlights a pocket of

  19. Structural transitions in the intrinsically disordered plant dehydration stress protein LEA7 upon drying are modulated by the presence of membranes.

    PubMed

    Popova, Antoaneta V; Hundertmark, Michaela; Seckler, Robert; Hincha, Dirk K

    2011-07-01

    Dehydration stress-related late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins have been found in plants, invertebrates and bacteria. Most LEA proteins are unstructured in solution, but some fold into amphipathic α-helices during drying. The Pfam LEA_4 (Group 3) protein LEA7 from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana was predicted to be 87% α-helical, while CD spectroscopy showed it to be largely unstructured in solution and only 35% α-helical in the dry state. However, the dry protein contained 15% β-sheets. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the β-sheets to be largely due to aggregation. β-Sheet content was reduced and α-helix content increased when LEA7 was dried in the presence of liposomes with secondary structure apparently influenced by lipid composition. Secondary structure was also affected by the presence of membranes in the fully hydrated state. A temperature-induced increase in the flexibility of the dry protein was also only observed in the presence of membranes. Functional interactions of LEA7 with membranes in the dry state were indicated by its influence on the thermotropic phase transitions of the lipids and interactions with the lipid headgroup phosphates. PMID:21443857

  20. Influence of dry deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC) on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the Mexico City plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, Alma; Madronich, Sasha; Aumont, Bernard; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Karl, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The dry deposition removal of organic compounds from the atmosphere and its impact on organic aerosol mass is currently unexplored and unaccounted for in chemistry-climate models. The main reason for this omission is that current models use simplified SOA mechanisms that lump precursors and their products into volatility bins, therefore losing information on other important properties of individual molecules (or groups) that are needed to calculate dry deposition. In this study, we apply the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to simulate SOA formation and estimate the influence of dry deposition of VOCs on SOA concentrations downwind of Mexico City. SOA precursors considered here include short- and long-chain alkanes (C3-25), alkenes, and light aromatics. The results suggest that 90% of SOA produced in Mexico City originates from the oxidation and partitioning of long-chain (C>12) alkanes, while the regionally exported SOA is almost equally produced from long-chain alkanes and from shorter alkanes and light aromatics. We show that dry deposition of oxidized gases is not an efficient sink for SOA, as it removes <5% of SOA within the city's boundary layer and ~15% downwind. We discuss reasons for this limited influence, and investigate separately the impacts on short and long-chain species. We show that the dry deposition is competing with the uptake of gases to the aerosol phase, and because dry deposition of submicron aerosols is slow, condensation onto particles protects organic gases from deposition and therefore increases their atmospheric burden and lifetime. In the absence of this condensation, ~50% of the regionally produced mass would have been dry-deposited.

  1. Effects of VA mycorrhiza formation on plant nitrogen uptake and rhizosphere bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal sorghum plants were grown in pots at three levels of fertilizer nitrogen ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) which had been enriched with /sup 15/N. Root colonization by Glomus mosseae did not affect plant growth or total N uptake, but significant reductions in mycorrhizal plant /sup 15/N:/sup 14/N ratios and increased 'A' values were found. This suggested that mycorrhizal plants had access to an N source which was less available to nonmycorrhizal plants. In two additional experiments, mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal celery plants were grown in pots which allowed VAM fungal hyphae, but not roots, to have direct access to /sup 15/N-enriched organic or inorganic N sources. Root dry weight was significantly reduced in mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants had significantly greater shoot and root /sup 15/N content than nonmycorrhizal plants. Number and length of VAM fungal hyphae crossing into the area of /sup 15/N placement were positively correlated with mycorrhizal plant /sup 15/N content in the inorganic-N but not organic-N treatment. In a fourth experiment, the effect of G. mosseae on the rhizosphere populations of five bacterial isolates associated with blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) was examined. No significant differences in bacterial populations were found in nonrhizosphere soil samples from pots of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. One bacterial isolate was significantly increased in number, while a different isolate and total bacterial populations were significantly reduced by the presence of the mycorrhizal fungus. The results suggest that root colonization by VAM fungi can alter rhizosphere bacterial populations.

  2. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  3. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  4. Reduction in energy usage during dry grind ethanol production by enhanced enzymatic dewatering of whole stillage: plant trial, process model and economic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant trial was conducted at a 54 MGPY dry grind fuel ethanol facility to evaluate the use of enhanced water removal from whole stillage by enzyme addition during fermentation. Laboratory data had previously shown significant improvements in water removal that could potentially result in significa...

  5. DIVALENT INORGANIC REACTIVE GASEOUS MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A MERCURY CELL CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT AND ITS IMPACT ON NEAR FIELD ATMOSPHERIC DRY DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emission of inorganic divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) from a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (MCCAP) cell building and the impact on near field (100 km) dry deposition was investigated as part of a larger collaborative study between EPA, University of Michigan, Oak ...

  6. Differences in Leaf Flammability, Leaf Traits and Flammability-Trait Relationships between Native and Exotic Plant Species of Dry Sclerophyll Forest

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Brad R.; Hardstaff, Lyndle K.; Phillips, Megan L.

    2013-01-01

    The flammability of plant leaves influences the spread of fire through vegetation. Exotic plants invading native vegetation may increase the spread of bushfires if their leaves are more flammable than native leaves. We compared fresh-leaf and dry-leaf flammability (time to ignition) between 52 native and 27 exotic plant species inhabiting dry sclerophyll forest. We found that mean time to ignition was significantly faster in dry exotic leaves than in dry native leaves. There was no significant native-exotic difference in mean time to ignition for fresh leaves. The significantly higher fresh-leaf water content that was found in exotics, lost in the conversion from a fresh to dry state, suggests that leaf water provides an important buffering effect that leads to equivalent mean time to ignition in fresh exotic and native leaves. Exotic leaves were also significantly wider, longer and broader in area with significantly higher specific leaf area–but not thicker–than native leaves. We examined scaling relationships between leaf flammability and leaf size (leaf width, length, area, specific leaf area and thickness). While exotics occupied the comparatively larger and more flammable end of the leaf size-flammability spectrum in general, leaf flammability was significantly correlated with all measures of leaf size except leaf thickness in both native and exotic species such that larger leaves were faster to ignite. Our findings for increased flammability linked with larger leaf size in exotics demonstrate that exotic plant species have the potential to increase the spread of bushfires in dry sclerophyll forest. PMID:24260169

  7. Salt drying: a low-cost, simple and efficient method for storing plants in the field and preserving biological repositories for DNA diversity research.

    PubMed

    Carrió, Elena; Rosselló, Josep A

    2014-03-01

    Although a variety of methods have been optimized for the collection and storage of plant specimens, most of these are not suited for field expeditions for a variety of logistic reasons. Drying specimens with silica gel in polyethylene bags is currently the standard for field-sampling methods that are suitable for subsequent DNA extraction. However, silica-gel repositories are not readily available in remote areas, and its use is not very cost-effective for the long-term storage of collections or in developing countries with limited research budgets. Salting is an ancient and traditional drying process that preserves food samples by dehydrating tissues and inhibiting water-dependent cellular metabolism. We compared salt and silica-gel drying methods with respect to dehydration rates overtime, DNA quality and polymerase chain reaction(PCR) success to assess whether dry salting can be used as an effective plant preservation method for DNA analysis. Specimens from eleven plant species covering a variety of leaf structures, leaf thicknesses and water contents were analysed. Experimental work indicated that (i) levels of dehydration in sodium chloride were usually comparable to those obtained when silica gel was used, (ii) no spoilage, fungal or bacterial growth was observed for any of the species with all drying treatments and (iii) good yields of quality genomic DNA suitable for PCR applications were obtained in the salt-drying treatments. The preservation of plant tissues in commercial table salt appears to be a satisfactory, and versatile method that may be suitable in remote areas where cryogenic resources and silica repositories are not available. PMID:24103361

  8. Oral delivery of Acid Alpha Glucosidase epitopes expressed in plant chloroplasts suppresses antibody formation in treatment of Pompe mice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Doerfler, Phillip A.; Byrne, Barry J.; Herzog, Roland W.; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Summary Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease in which the patients systemically accumulate lysosomal glycogen in muscles and nervous systems, often resulting in infant mortality. Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is effective in treating patients with Pompe disease, formation of antibodies against rhGAA complicates treatment. In this report, we investigated induction of tolerance by oral administration of GAA expressed in chloroplasts. Because full-length GAA could not be expressed, N-terminal 410-amino acids of GAA (as determined by T-cell epitope mapping) were fused with the transmucosal carrier CTB. Tobacco transplastomic lines expressing CTB-GAA were generated through site-specific integration of transgenes into the chloroplast genome. Homoplasmic lines were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Despite low-level expression of CTB-GAA in chloroplasts, yellow or albino phenotype of transplastomic lines was observed due to binding of GAA to a chloroplast protein that has homology to mannose-6 phosphate receptor. Oral administration of the plant-made CTB-GAA fusion protein even at 330-fold lower dose (1.5 μg) significantly suppressed immunoglobulin formation against GAA in Pompe mice injected with 500 μg rhGAA per dose, with several-fold lower titre of GAA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a. Lyophilization increased CTB-GAA concentration by 30-fold (up to 190 μg per g of freeze-dried leaf material), facilitating long-term storage at room temperature and higher dosage in future investigations. This study provides the first evidence that oral delivery of plant cells is effective in reducing antibody responses in ERT for lysosomal storage disorders facilitating further advances in clinical investigations using plant cell culture system or in vitro propagation. PMID:26053072

  9. Novel ideas for maximising dew collection to aid plant establishment to combat desertification and restore degraded dry and arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzen, Benz

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the potential of dew to provide water to plants and potentially to people as well in remote and difficult to reach areas where rainfall and underground water cannot be harvested. The combat of desertification and the restoration of degraded and desertified dry and arid lands has never been more urgent. A key practical component of this strategy is the restoration of habitat with planting. But for habitat and planting to survive there needs to be an adequate supply of water. In most cases providing water to the plant's roots is vital. In some areas where habitats have been destroyed, sufficient water is immediately available, for example through seasonal rainfall, or it can be harvested to concentrate adequate supplies of water to the roots. However, in arid and hyper arid areas, as well as in some dryland areas, a consistent and adequate supply of water cannot be provided by any conventional proven method. Thus, as the need to combat desertification and to restore desertified dry and arid land increases, so the need to find novel methods of establishing and maintaining planting and thus habitat increases. In more traditional land management scenarios this can be achieved through manipulating landform on a micro and macro scale, for example, by creating catchments, thereby collecting precipitation and directing it to the plants. Where this cannot be done, other means of water supply are usually required. Bainbridge (2007) and others have shown that supplying water to plants is possible through a number of traditional methods, for example, using clay pots. But most of these techniques require an introduced source of water, for example, obtained through water harvesting methods or by delivering water to site in tanks and by water bowser. This can work but requires continuous manpower. It is expensive and can be physically prohibitive in areas where access is difficult and/or remote. The concept of using dew to supply water in drylands is not new

  10. Novel ideas for maximising dew collection to aid plant establishment to combat desertification and restore degraded dry and arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzen, Benz

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the potential of dew to provide water to plants and potentially to people as well in remote and difficult to reach areas where rainfall and underground water cannot be harvested. The combat of desertification and the restoration of degraded and desertified dry and arid lands has never been more urgent. A key practical component of this strategy is the restoration of habitat with planting. But for habitat and planting to survive there needs to be an adequate supply of water. In most cases providing water to the plant's roots is vital. In some areas where habitats have been destroyed, sufficient water is immediately available, for example through seasonal rainfall, or it can be harvested to concentrate adequate supplies of water to the roots. However, in arid and hyper arid areas, as well as in some dryland areas, a consistent and adequate supply of water cannot be provided by any conventional proven method. Thus, as the need to combat desertification and to restore desertified dry and arid land increases, so the need to find novel methods of establishing and maintaining planting and thus habitat increases. In more traditional land management scenarios this can be achieved through manipulating landform on a micro and macro scale, for example, by creating catchments, thereby collecting precipitation and directing it to the plants. Where this cannot be done, other means of water supply are usually required. Bainbridge (2007) and others have shown that supplying water to plants is possible through a number of traditional methods, for example, using clay pots. But most of these techniques require an introduced source of water, for example, obtained through water harvesting methods or by delivering water to site in tanks and by water bowser. This can work but requires continuous manpower. It is expensive and can be physically prohibitive in areas where access is difficult and/or remote. The concept of using dew to supply water in drylands is not new

  11. Preschool Children's Explanations of Plant Growth and Rain Formation: A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Hatzinikita, Vassilia

    2006-09-01

    This paper explores the different types and characteristics of preschool children's explanations of plant growth and rain formation. The children's explanations were categorized as naturalistic, non-naturalistic, or synthetic, i.e., explanations containing both naturalistic and non-naturalistic parts. In regards to plant growth the children tended to rely on synthetic or on naturalistic explanations, which involved direct and indirect agents (such as water, a person, fertilizers, roots) enabling the plant to grow. Non-naturalistic explanations of plant growth, or the non-naturalistic parts of synthetic explanations, were mainly animistic (anthropomorphic). In the case of rain formation the children most frequently used non-naturalistic explanations, which were mainly teleological or metaphysical. The naturalistic explanations recorded on rain formation, as well as the naturalistic parts of synthetic explanations tended to have a non-agentive character, i.e., children considered rainwater as preexisting in containers such as the clouds. Overall, the explanations recorded about plant growth tended to be more complex than the ones for rain formation. It is suggested that science activities designed for preschool children should take into account the types and characteristics of their explanations in order to select which phenomena are appropriate for this age group, and aim at fostering the children's ability at formulating naturalistic explanations.

  12. Biofilm formation by enteric pathogens and its role in plant colonization and persistence.

    PubMed

    Yaron, Sima; Römling, Ute

    2014-11-01

    The significant increase in foodborne outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, such as alfalfa sprouts, lettuce, melons, tomatoes and spinach, during the last 30 years stimulated investigation of the mechanisms of persistence of human pathogens on plants. Emerging evidence suggests that Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, which cause the vast majority of fresh produce outbreaks, are able to adhere to and to form biofilms on plants leading to persistence and resistance to disinfection treatments, which subsequently can cause human infections and major outbreaks. In this review, we present the current knowledge about host, bacterial and environmental factors that affect the attachment to plant tissue and the process of biofilm formation by S. enterica and E. coli, and discuss how biofilm formation assists in persistence of pathogens on the plants. Mechanisms used by S. enterica and E. coli to adhere and persist on abiotic surfaces and mammalian cells are partially similar and also used by plant pathogens and symbionts. For example, amyloid curli fimbriae, part of the extracellular matrix of biofilms, frequently contribute to adherence and are upregulated upon adherence and colonization of plant material. Also the major exopolysaccharide of the biofilm matrix, cellulose, is an adherence factor not only of S. enterica and E. coli, but also of plant symbionts and pathogens. Plants, on the other hand, respond to colonization by enteric pathogens with a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which can effectively inhibit biofilm formation. Consequently, plant compounds might be investigated for promising novel antibiofilm strategies. PMID:25351039

  13. Contribution of plant lignin to the soil organic matter formation and stabilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is the third most abundant plant constituent after cellulose and hemicellulose and thought to be one of the building blocks for soil organic matter formation. Lignin can be used as a predictor for long-term soil organic matter stabilization and C sequestration. Soils and humic acids from fo...

  14. ADVANCES IN OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL FORMATION AND FUNCTION IN PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium oxalate crystal formation in plants appears to play a central role in a variety of important functions, including tissue calcium regulation, protection from herbivory, and metal detoxification. Evidence is mounting to support ascorbic acid as the primary precursor to oxalate biosynthesis. ...

  15. Plant calcium oxalate crystal formation, function, and its impact on human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crystals of calcium oxalate have been observed among members from most taxonomic groups of photosynthetic organisms ranging from the smallest algae to the largest trees. The biological roles for calcium oxalate crystal formation in plant growth and development include high capacity calcium regulatio...

  16. A year (2014-2015) of plants in Proteomics journal. Progress in wet and dry methodologies, moving from protein catalogs, and the view of classic plant biochemists.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lucas, Rosa; Mehta, Angela; Valledor, Luis; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Romero-Rodrıguez, M Cristina; Simova-Stoilova, Lyudmila; Demir, Sekvan; Rodriguez-de-Francisco, Luis E; Maldonado-Alconada, Ana M; Jorrin-Prieto, Ana L; Jorrín-Novo, Jesus V

    2016-03-01

    The present review is an update of the previous one published in Proteomics 2015 Reviews special issue [Jorrin-Novo, J. V. et al., Proteomics 2015, 15, 1089-1112] covering the July 2014-2015 period. It has been written on the bases of the publications that appeared in Proteomics journal during that period and the most relevant ones that have been published in other high-impact journals. Methodological advances and the contribution of the field to the knowledge of plant biology processes and its translation to agroforestry and environmental sectors will be discussed. This review has been organized in four blocks, with a starting general introduction (literature survey) followed by sections focusing on the methodology (in vitro, in vivo, wet, and dry), proteomics integration with other approaches (systems biology and proteogenomics), biological information, and knowledge (cell communication, receptors, and signaling), ending with a brief mention of some other biological and translational topics to which proteomics has made some contribution. PMID:26621614

  17. Endocytosis of cell surface material mediates cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Baluska, Frantisek; Schlicht, Markus; Hlavacka, Andrej; Samaj, Jozef; Friml, Jirí; Gadella, Theodorus W J

    2006-01-01

    Dividing plant cells perform a remarkable task of building a new cell wall within the cytoplasm in a few minutes. A long-standing paradigm claims that this primordial cell wall, known as the cell plate, is generated by delivery of newly synthesized material from Golgi apparatus-originated secretory vesicles. Here, we show that, in diverse plant species, cell surface material, including plasma membrane proteins, cell wall components, and exogenously applied endocytic tracers, is rapidly delivered to the forming cell plate. Importantly, this occurs even when de novo protein synthesis is blocked. In addition, cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE as well as plasma membrane (PM) resident proteins localize to endosomes that fuse to initiate the cell plate. The rate of endocytosis is strongly enhanced during cell plate formation, and its genetic or pharmacological inhibition leads to cytokinesis defects. Our results reveal that endocytic delivery of cell surface material significantly contributes to cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis. PMID:16399085

  18. Plant metabolism and cell wall formation in space (microgravity) and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1994-01-01

    Variations in cell wall chemistry provide vascular plants with the ability to withstand gravitational forces, as well as providing facile mechanisms for correctional responses to various gravitational stimuli, e.g., in reaction wood formation. A principal focus of our current research is to precisely and systematically dissect the essentially unknown mechanism(s) of vascular plant cell wall assembly, particularly with respect to formation of its phenolic constituents, i.e., lignins and suberins, and how gravity impacts upon these processes. Formation of these phenolic polymers is of particular interest, since it appears that elaboration of their biochemical pathways was essential for successful land adaptation. By extrapolation, we are also greatly intrigued as to how the microgravity environment impacts upon 'normal' cell wall assembly mechanisms/metabolism.

  19. High genetic diversity declines towards the geographic range periphery of Adonis vernalis, a Eurasian dry grassland plant.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H; Wagner, V; Danihelka, J; Ruprecht, E; Sánchez-Gómez, P; Seifert, M; Hensen, I

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity is important for species' fitness and evolutionary processes but our knowledge on how it varies across a species' distribution range is limited. The abundant centre hypothesis (ACH) predicts that populations become smaller and more isolated towards the geographic range periphery - a pattern that in turn should be associated with decreasing genetic diversity and increasing genetic differentiation. We tested this hypothesis in Adonis vernalis, a dry grassland plant with an extensive Eurasian distribution. Its life-history traits and distribution characteristics suggest a low genetic diversity that decreases and a high genetic differentiation that increases towards the range edge. We analysed AFLP fingerprints in 28 populations along a 4698-km transect from the geographic range core in Russia to the western range periphery in Central and Western Europe. Contrary to our expectation, our analysis revealed high genetic diversity (range of proportion of polymorphic bands = 56-81%, He = 0.168-0.238) and low genetic differentiation across populations (Φ(ST) = 0.18). However, in congruence with the genetic predictions of the ACH, genetic diversity decreased and genetic differentiation increased towards the range periphery. Spanish populations were genetically distinct, suggesting a divergent post-glacial history in this region. The high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation in the remaining A. vernalis populations is surprising given the species' life-history traits and points to the possibility that the species has been widely distributed in the studied region or that it has migrated from a diverse source in an East-West direction, in the past. PMID:26122089

  20. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3 ~ 12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9 ~ 2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  1. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    PubMed

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation. PMID:27107260

  2. [Microcrystalline cellulose and their flow -- morphological properties modifications as an effective excpients in tablet formulation technology containing lattice established API and also dry plant extract].

    PubMed

    Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Nachajski, Michał Jakub; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The production technology of powder cellulose (Arbocel) and microcrystaline cellulose (Vivapur) and their application in the composition of direct compression tablet mass was provided. The function of silicified microcrystaline cellulose type Prosolv in the direct compression process of dry plant extract was discussed. An analysis of the chemical structure of cellulose fiber (Vitacel) enabled determining its properties and applications in the manufacture of diet supplement, pharmaceutical and food products. PMID:19580170

  3. The dependence of aerosol formation in a plant chamber on temperature, UV radiation and relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Maso, M.; Hohaus, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, Th. F.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2009-04-01

    The ongoing climate change is expected to raise air temperatures; this will have an effect on the vegetation and its emission pattern. Biogenic VOC emissions are temperature dependent, with increasing temperatures causing increasing emissions. Increased temperatures could also lead to increased occurrences of heat stress in plants, inducing changes in plant emission patterns. This has given rise to propositions for a feedback between vegetation and climate, with increasing temperatures causing increased aerosol loading, which in turn has a cooling effect. We have investigated the dependence on the aerosol production from plant emissions on various environmental factors, such as temperature, RH or UV intensity in the Jülich Aerosol Atmosphere Plant Chamber setup (JPAC). Higher temperatures in the plant chamber lead to higher emissions; this also lead to higher particle number production as well as increased growth rates. Relative humidity and UV irradiation were also shown to influence particle formation; the possible chemical and physical pathways causing this will be discussed. We will also discuss the relative roles of formation rate and growth rate enhancements in producing cloud condensation nuclei utilising a simple aerosol dynamics modelling approach.

  4. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  5. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  6. Bacterial biofilm formation inhibitory activity revealed for plant derived natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Artini, M; Papa, R; Barbato, G; Scoarughi, G L; Cellini, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Selan, L

    2012-01-15

    Use of herbal plant remedies to treat infectious diseases is a common practice in many countries in traditional and alternative medicine. However to date there are only few antimicrobial agents derived from botanics. Based on microbiological screening tests of crude plant extracts we identified four compounds derived from Krameria, Aesculus hippocastanum and Chelidonium majus that showed a potentially interesting antimicrobial activity. In this work we present an in depth characterization of the inhibition activity of these pure compounds on the formation of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus as well as of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. We show that two of these compounds possess interesting potential to become active principles of new drugs. PMID:22182580

  7. Alternative modes of biofilm formation by plant-associated Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tantan; Foulston, Lucy; Chai, Yunrong; Wang, Qi; Losick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form multicellular communities known as biofilms is a widespread adaptive behavior of bacteria. Members of the Bacillus group of bacteria have been found to form biofilms on plant roots, where they protect against pathogens and promote growth. In the case of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis the genetic pathway controlling biofilm formation and the production of an extracellular matrix is relatively well understood. However, it is unclear whether other members of this genus utilize similar mechanisms. We determined that a plant-associated strain of Bacillus cereus (905) can form biofilms by two seemingly independent pathways. In one mode involving the formation of floating biofilms (pellicles) B. cereus 905 appears to rely on orthologs of many of the genes known to be important for B. subtilis biofilm formation. We report that B. cereus 905 also forms submerged, surface-associated biofilms and in a manner that resembles biofilm formation by the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. This alternative mode, which does not rely on B. subtilis-like genes for pellicle formation, takes place under conditions of glucose fermentation and depends on a drop in the pH of the medium. PMID:25828975

  8. Colorimetric Method for Identifying Plant Essential Oil Components That Affect Biofilm Formation and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Niu, C.; Gilbert, E. S.

    2004-01-01

    The specific biofilm formation (SBF) assay, a technique based on crystal violet staining, was developed to locate plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation. SBF analysis determined that cinnamon, cassia, and citronella oils differentially affected growth-normalized biofilm formation by Escherichia coli. Examination of the corresponding essential oil principal components by the SBF assay revealed that cinnamaldehyde decreased biofilm formation compared to biofilms grown in Luria-Bertani broth, eugenol did not result in a change, and citronellol increased the SBF. To evaluate these results, two microscopy-based assays were employed. First, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to examine E. coli biofilms cultivated in flow cells, which were quantitatively analyzed by COMSTAT, an image analysis program. The overall trend for five parameters that characterize biofilm development corroborated the findings of the SBF assay. Second, the results of an assay measuring growth-normalized adhesion by direct microscopy concurred with the results of the SBF assay and CLSM imaging. Viability staining indicated that there was reduced toxicity of the essential oil components to cells in biofilms compared to the toxicity to planktonic cells but revealed morphological damage to E. coli after cinnamaldehyde exposure. Cinnamaldehyde also inhibited the swimming motility of E. coli. SBF analysis of three Pseudomonas species exposed to cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, or citronellol revealed diverse responses. The SBF assay could be useful as an initial step for finding plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation and structure. PMID:15574886

  9. Cadmium induces hypodermal periderm formation in the roots of the monocotyledonous medicinal plant Merwilla plumbea

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Lišková, Desana; Kulkarni, Manoj G.; Stirk, Wendy A.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Merwilla plumbea is an important African medicinal plant. As the plants grow in soils contaminated with metals from mining activities, the danger of human intoxication exists. An experiment with plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) was performed to investigate the response of M. plumbea to this heavy metal, its uptake and translocation to plant organs and reaction of root tissues. Methods Plants grown from seeds were cultivated in controlled conditions. Hydroponic cultivation is not suitable for this species as roots do not tolerate aquatic conditions, and additional stress by Cd treatment results in total root growth inhibition and death. After cultivation in perlite the plants exposed to 1 and 5 mg Cd L−1 in half-strength Hoagland's solution were compared with control plants. Growth parameters were evaluated, Cd content was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and root structure was investigated using various staining procedures, including the fluorescent stain Fluorol yellow 088 to detect suberin deposition in cell walls. Key Results The plants exposed to Cd were significantly reduced in growth. Most of the Cd taken up by plants after 4 weeks cultivation was retained in roots, and only a small amount was translocated to bulbs and leaves. In reaction to higher Cd concentrations, roots developed a hypodermal periderm close to the root tip. Cells produced by cork cambium impregnate their cell walls by suberin. Conclusions It is suggested that the hypodermal periderm is developed in young root parts in reaction to Cd toxicity to protect the root from radial uptake of Cd ions. Secondary meristems are usually not present in monocotyledonous species. Another interpretation explaining formation of protective suberized layers as a result of periclinal divisions of the hypodermis is discussed. This process may represent an as yet unknown defence reaction of roots when exposed to elemental stress. PMID:21118841

  10. Variation in soil water uptake and its effect on plant water status in Juglans regia L. during dry and wet seasons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Wan, Xianchong

    2011-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in the water status of walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) and the soil in which they were growing were traced by analyzing the differences in hydrogen isotopes during spring and summer in a 7-year-old walnut stand. Walnut root dynamics were measured in both dry and wet seasons. Walnut roots were mainly distributed in the upper soil (0-30 cm depth), with around 60% of the total root mass in upper soil layers and 40% in deep soil layers (30-80 cm depth). The upper soil layers contributed 68% of the total tree water requirement in the wet season, but only 47% in the dry season. In the wet season, total roots, living roots and new roots were all significantly more abundant than in the dry season. There were significant differences in pre-dawn branch percentage loss of hydraulic conductance (PLC), pre-dawn leaf water potential and transpiration between the dry and wet seasons. Water content in the upper soil layers remarkably influenced xylem water stable-hydrogen isotope (δD) values. Furthermore, there were linear relationships between the xylem water δD value and pre-dawn branch PLC, pre-dawn leaf water potential, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate. In summary, J. regia was compelled to take a larger amount of water from the deep soil layers in the dry season, but this shift could not prevent water stress in the plant. The xylem water δD values could be used as an indicator to investigate the water stress of plants, besides probing profiles of soil water use. PMID:22116051

  11. ESTIMATION OF FORAGE NITROGEN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO DRY MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GRASS PASTURES USING PLANT CANOPY HYPERSPECTRAL REFLECTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timely assessment of forage nitrogen (N) concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) during the growing season can help livestock managers make decisions for adjusting stocking rate and managing pastures. Nondestructive measurements of pasture canopy hyperspectral reflectance may pro...

  12. Formation dry-out from CO2 injection into saline acquifers: Part 2, Analytical model for salt precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2009-02-01

    From a mass balance for water dissolved into the flowing CO{sub 2} stream, and a consideration of saturation profiles from the Buckley-Leverett (1942) fractional flow theory, we derive an equation that directly relates gas saturation S{sub g,d} at the dry-out front to temperature, pressure and salinity dependence of fluid properties. The equation is easily solved by iteration or interpolation. From gas saturation at the front we derive the average gas saturation in the dry-out region, from which we obtain the 'solid saturation' S{sub S}, i.e., the fraction of pore space filled with solid precipitate. Values of S{sub S} derived from this theory show excellent agreement with numerical simulations presented in the preceding companion paper ('Part 1'). Thus, from relative permeabilities and fluid properties at in situ conditions prior to CO{sub 2} injection, it is possible to directly make an accurate estimate of solids precipitation, without having to perform a numerical simulation of the injection process.

  13. Modelling new particle formation from Jülich plant atmosphere chamber and CERN CLOUD chamber measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Li; Boy, Michael; Mogensen, Ditte; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Franchin, Alessandro; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kleist, Einhard; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kulmala, Markku; dal Maso, Miikka

    2013-05-01

    An MALTE-BOX model is used to study the effects of oxidation of SO2 and BVOCs to new particle formation from Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber and CERN CLOUD chamber measurements. Several days of continuously measurements were chosen for the simulation. Our preliminary results show that H2SO4 is one of the critical compounds in nucleation process. Nucleation involving the oxidation of BVOCs shows better agreements with measurements.

  14. Process simulation of modified dry grind ethanol plant with recycle of pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed distillers' grains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    Distillers' grains (DG), a co-product of a dry grind ethanol process, is an excellent source of supplemental proteins in livestock feed. Studies have shown that, due to its high polymeric sugar contents and ease of hydrolysis, the distillers' grains have potential as an additional source of fermentable sugars for ethanol fermentation. The benefit of processing the distillers' grains to extract fermentable sugars lies in an increased ethanol yield without significant modification in the current dry grind technology. Three different potential configurations of process alternatives in which pretreated and hydrolyzed distillers' grains are recycled for an enhanced overall ethanol yield are proposed and discussed in this paper based on the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of distillers' grains. Possible limitations of each proposed process are also discussed. This paper presents a compositional analysis of distillers' grains, as well as a simulation of the modified dry grind processes with recycle of distillers' grains. Simulated material balances for the modified dry grind processes are established based on the base case assumptions. These balances are compared to the conventional dry grind process in terms of ethanol yield, compositions of its co-products, and accumulation of fermentation inhibitors. Results show that 14% higher ethanol yield is achievable by processing and hydrolyzing the distillers' grains for additional fermentable sugars, as compared to the conventional dry grind process. Accumulation of fermentation by-products and inhibitory components in the proposed process is predicted to be 2-5 times higher than in the conventional dry grind process. The impact of fermentation inhibitors is reviewed and discussed. The final eDDGS (enhanced dried distillers' grains) from the modified processes has 30-40% greater protein content per mass than DDGS, and its potential as a value-added process is also analyzed. While the case studies used to illustrate the

  15. Viability of dried vegetative trichomes, formation of akinetes and heterocysts and akinete germination in some blue-green algae under water stress.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C; Singh, V

    1999-01-01

    Almost all dried vegetative trichomes ofAnabaena iyengarii, Westiellopsis prolifica andNostochopsis lobatus died within 1 h, while those ofOscillatoria acuminata retained viability to some extent for 1 d under similar storage conditions. The viability of dried vegetative trichomes ofO. acuminata decreased about equally on storage at 20 degrees C in the light or in the dark, but dropped rapidly at 12 and 0 degrees C in the dark. Vegetative trichomes ofA. iyengarii, N. lobatus andW. prolifica were more sensitive to frost than those ofO. acuminata, and this correlated with their low resistance to desiccation because both types of exposure involved osmotic stress. Both dried and wet akinetes ofA. iyengarii, W. prolifica andN. lobatus were about equally viable when stored at 20 degrees C in the light or the dark or at 12 and 0 degrees C in the dark, but their germination ability decreased on storage at 0 degrees C. The water stress imposed on growing vegetative trichomes either in high-agar media or in NaCl-supplemented liquid media reduced the survival ofO. acuminata trichomes, decreased or totally suppressed akinete and heterocyst formation and akinete germination inA. iyengarii, W. prolifica andN. lobatus. The sensitivity decreased in the sequenceA. iyengarii formation. In all of them, akinetes formed under water stress were equally viable as those formed under normal conditions. Trichomes ofO. acuminata became broader when grown in 0.5-0.8 mol/L NaCl-supplemented media, probably due to polyol accumulation, and they also developed a thin sheath-like structure. PMID:18461490

  16. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  17. Impact of Plant Extracts and Antibiotics on Biofilm Formation of Clinical Isolates From Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Saba; Mujtaba Ghauri, Shahbaz; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Otitis media can lead to severe health consequences, and is the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions and biofilm-mediated infections. However, the increased pattern of drug resistance in biofilm forming bacteria complicates the treatment of such infections. Objectives: This study was aimed to estimate the biofilm formation potential of the clinical isolates of otitis media, and to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics and plant extracts as alternative therapeutic agents in biofilm eradication. Materials and Methods: The ear swab samples collected from the otitis media patients visiting the Mayo Hospital in Lahore were processed to isolate the bacteria, which were characterized using morphological, biochemical, and molecular (16S rRNA ribotyping) techniques. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antibiotics and crude plant extracts were measured against the isolates. The cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation potential were determined, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with and without antibiotics. Finally, the molecular characterization of the biofilm forming proteins was done by amplifying the ica operon. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KC417303-05), Staphylococcus hemolyticus (KC417306), and Staphylococcus hominis (KC417307) were isolated from the otitis media specimens. Among the crude plant extracts, Acacia arabica showed significant antibacterial characteristics (MIC up to 13 mg/ml), while these isolates exhibited sensitivity towards ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.2 µg/mL). All of the bacterial strains had hydrophobic cellular surfaces that helped in their adherence to abiotic surfaces, leading to strong biofilm formation potential (up to 7 days). Furthermore, the icaC gene encoding polysaccharide intercellular adhesion protein was amplified from S. hemolyticus. Conclusions: The bacterial isolates exhibited strong biofilm formation potential, while the extracts of Acacia arabica significantly inhibited biofilm

  18. Stabilization of thylakoid membranes in isoprene-emitting plants reduces formation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Velikova, Violeta; Sharkey, Thomas D; Loreto, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Isoprene is emitted by a significant fraction of the world's vegetation. Isoprene makes leaves more thermotolerant, yet we do not fully understand how. We have recently shown that isoprene stabilizes thylakoid membranes under heat stress. Here we show that heat-stressed, isoprene-emitting transgenic Arabidopsis plants also produce a lower pool of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and that this was especially due to a lower accumulation of H2O2 in isoprene emitting plants. It remains difficult to disentangle whether in heat stressed plants isoprene also directly reacts with and quenches reactive oxygen species (ROS), or reduces ROS formation by stabilizing thylakoids. We present considerations that make the latter a more likely mechanism, under our experimental circumstances. PMID:22301981

  19. Formation of plant cuticle: evidence for the occurrence of the peroxygenase pathway.

    PubMed

    Lequeu, José; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Chammaï, Antoine; Bronner, Roberte; Blée, Elizabeth

    2003-10-01

    Cuticle plays a major role as a protective barrier in plants. Despite its physiological importance, the mode of formation of this complex structure remains poorly understood. In particular, none of the putative enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the cutin, the matrix of cuticle, have been cloned. We have shown previously that peroxygenase is able to catalyze in vitro the epoxidation step required for the biosynthesis of C18 cutin monomers. In the present work, we have confirmed in planta that this oxidase is indeed a key enzyme involved in the formation of cutin. Thus, in maize leaves, the specific inactivation of peroxygenase by organophosphorothioates resulted in a dramatic decrease of cuticular epoxide content, as visualized by a specific histochemical technique that was accompanied by a reduced thickness of the cuticle. A strict correlation could also be established between the extent of inhibition of the peroxygenase and the modification of the cuticle triggered by a family of structurally related inhibitors. Importantly, these effects were restricted to plants that contain a cutin originating from C18 monomers. The altered cuticle of maize, treated with the peroxygenase inhibitor, was characterized by an increased permeability to pesticides. In addition, such plants became largely susceptible to infection by fungi, implying that the cuticle represents a crucial target for the modulation of the response in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:14535881

  20. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

  1. Interaction between sulfur and lead in toxicity, iron plaque formation and lead accumulation in rice plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junxing; Liu, Zhiyan; Wan, Xiaoming; Zheng, Guodi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Lin; Wang, Xuedong; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Guo, Qingjun; Xu, Ruixiang; Zhou, Guangdong; Peters, Marc; Zhu, Guangxu; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun

    2016-06-01

    Human activities have resulted in lead and sulfur accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on iron plaque formation and Pb accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under two Pb levels (0 and 600 mg kg(-1)), combined with four S concentrations (0, 30, 60, and 120 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that S supply significantly decreased Pb accumulation in straw and grains of rice. This result may be attributed to the enhancement of Fe plaque formation, decrease of Pb availability in soil, and increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) in rice leaves. Moderate S supply (30 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased Fe plaque formation on the root surface and in the rhizosphere, whereas excessive S supply (60 and 120 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased the amounts of iron plaque on the root surface. Sulfur supply significantly enhanced the GSH contents in leaves of rice plants under Pb treatment. With excessive S application, the rice root acted as a more effective barrier to Pb accumulation compared with iron plaque. Excessive S supply may result in a higher monosulfide toxicity and decreased iron plaque formation on the root surface during flooded conditions. However, excessive S supply could effectively decrease Pb availability in soils and reduce Pb accumulation in rice plants. PMID:26946285

  2. Formation, composition and particle size distribution of fly-ashes from biomass combustion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, T.; Dahl, J.; Obernberger, I.

    1998-12-31

    Due to the fact that fly-ash particles and aerosols formed during biomass combustion and gasification processes are contaminated with environmentally harmful heavy metals like zinc, cadmium and lead, efficient dust removal from the flue gas is of great importance. In order to characterize biomass fly-ashes and to describe and investigate influencing factors on fly-ash and dust formation, comprehensive particle size measurements were performed with low pressure Berner-type cascade impactors under consideration of different combustion technologies and various types of biomass fuels (bark, wood chips and straw). The results showed that biomass fly-ash can be divided into two major fractions differing in particle size and composition. The first fraction consists of coarse fly-ash particles with an average particle size larger than 5{micro}m results from particles entrained from the fuel bed and is formed mainly by non-volatile minerals (Si, Ca, Mg). The second fraction consists of aerosols (particles smaller than 1{micro}m) which are formed when the flue gas is cooled (in the heat exchanger section) by condensation of volatile ash forming compounds. Chemical analyses of aerosol particles collected by low-pressure impactors revealed that these particles mainly consist of chlorides and sulfates of alkali compounds. These results are in accordance with the outputs of chemical equilibrium calculations performed for the test run conditions. Concerning heavy metal concentrations, the aerosols formed in grate furnaces contain considerable amounts of the environmentally relevant and volatile heavy metals Cd, Zn and Pb due to condensation of metal vapors with decreasing flue gas temperature. The aerosols formed in CFB combustion plants do not contain significant amounts of heavy metals which means that in these systems condensation of gaseous metal compounds does not play a major role. Chemical surface reactions between coarse fly-ash particles and metal vapors seem to be

  3. A Theoretical Model of Jigsaw-Puzzle Pattern Formation by Plant Leaf Epidermal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Akita, Kae; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Yoshimura, Kenji; Miura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Plant leaf epidermal cells exhibit a jigsaw puzzle–like pattern that is generated by interdigitation of the cell wall during leaf development. The contribution of two ROP GTPases, ROP2 and ROP6, to the cytoskeletal dynamics that regulate epidermal cell wall interdigitation has already been examined; however, how interactions between these molecules result in pattern formation remains to be elucidated. Here, we propose a simple interface equation model that incorporates both the cell wall remodeling activity of ROP GTPases and the diffusible signaling molecules by which they are regulated. This model successfully reproduces pattern formation observed in vivo, and explains the counterintuitive experimental results of decreased cellulose production and increased thickness. Our model also reproduces the dynamics of three-way cell wall junctions. Therefore, this model provides a possible mechanism for cell wall interdigitation formation in vivo. PMID:27054467

  4. A Theoretical Model of Jigsaw-Puzzle Pattern Formation by Plant Leaf Epidermal Cells.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Akita, Kae; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Yoshimura, Kenji; Miura, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Plant leaf epidermal cells exhibit a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern that is generated by interdigitation of the cell wall during leaf development. The contribution of two ROP GTPases, ROP2 and ROP6, to the cytoskeletal dynamics that regulate epidermal cell wall interdigitation has already been examined; however, how interactions between these molecules result in pattern formation remains to be elucidated. Here, we propose a simple interface equation model that incorporates both the cell wall remodeling activity of ROP GTPases and the diffusible signaling molecules by which they are regulated. This model successfully reproduces pattern formation observed in vivo, and explains the counterintuitive experimental results of decreased cellulose production and increased thickness. Our model also reproduces the dynamics of three-way cell wall junctions. Therefore, this model provides a possible mechanism for cell wall interdigitation formation in vivo. PMID:27054467

  5. Flavour formation from hydrolysis of pork sarcoplasmic protein extract by a unique LAB culture isolated from Harbin dry sausage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Liu, Qian; Sun, Qinxiu; Kong, Baohua; Xiong, Youling

    2015-02-01

    The lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from Harbin dry sausage were assessed for their protein hydrolysis and flavour development in pork muscle sarcoplasmic protein extracts. Gel electrophoresis indicated that sarcoplasmic proteins were degraded by all of the strains, especially by P. pentosaceus and L. curvatus. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides increased in all of the samples (P < 0.05), especially samples inoculated with P. pentosaceus. Samples inoculated with P. pentosaceus and L. curvatus had higher free amino acid contents than did the other two strains(P < 0.05), and glutamic acid and alanine appeared to be the predominant free amino acids. The volatile compound analysis indicated that the highest aldehydes, alcohols and acid contents were found in the sample with P. pentosaceus followed by L. curvatus. The results revealed that P. pentosaceus could be appropriate for use as a meat starter culture. PMID:25460113

  6. “I eat the manofê so it is not forgotten”: local perceptions and consumption of native wild edible plants from seasonal dry forests in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little information available on the factors influencing people’s selection of wild plants for consumption. Studies suggest a suitable method of understanding the selection of edible plants is to assess people’s perceptions of these resources. The use and knowledge of wild resources is disappearing, as is the opportunity to use them. This study analyzes people’s perceptions of native wild edible plants in a rural Caatinga (seasonal dry forest) community in Northeast Brazil and the relationships between the use of these resources and socioeconomic factors. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 39 people were conducted to form a convenience sample to gather information regarding people’s perceptions of 12 native wild edible plant species. The relationships between variables were assessed by simple linear regression analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses, and in the case of nominal variables, contingency tables. The discourse of participants regarding their opinions of the use of wild plants as food was analyzed through the collective subject discourse analysis technique. Results Perceptions were classified into 18 categories. The most cited category was organoleptic characteristics of the edible part; more specifically, flavor. Flavor was the main positive perception associated with plant use, whereas the negative perception that most limited the use of these plants was cultural acceptance. Perceptions of the use of wild edible plants were directly correlated with both interviewee age and income. Conclusion Within the studied community, people’s perceptions of native wild edible plants are related to their consumption. Moreover, the study found that young people have less interest in these resources. These findings suggest that changing perceptions may affect the conservation of plants, traditional practices and the associated knowledge. PMID:24886156

  7. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE OXIDATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE PRESENCE OF DRY SUBMICRON AMMONIUM SULFATE AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine formation of secondary organic aerosols. A smog chamber system was developed for studying gas-aerosol interactions in a dynamic flow reactor. These experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of gas and aerosol phase compounds ...

  8. Leaching of the residue from the dry off-gas de-dusting and desulfurization process of an iron ore sinter plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof; Xu, Qi; Neuhold, Robert

    2015-02-01

    The residue from a second-stage dry sinter plant off-gas cleaning process contains both the fine dust from the sinter plant and the sorbent used. Recycling of the material that is usually handled by landfills to the sinter plant feed is not possible because of its chloride content. Leaching of the chlorides allow the recycling of remaining solids. The saline leachate produced contains some heavy metals and must be treated before it is discharged into the sea. In laboratory experiments, leaching tests with the subsequent treatment of the leachate were conducted. After the process was optimized, all heavy-metal concentrations were below the permissible values. The optimum treatment conditions for heavy-metal precipitation were observed to be the filtration of the suspended solids followed by the dosing of liquid with lime milk (pH 10) and the subsequent precipitation using sodium sulfide.

  9. Atlantic tropical cyclone formation: Pre-genesis evolution of tropical easterly waves and impacts of the middle to upper tropospheric dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankes, Isaac E.

    This study first provides an overview of the dynamic and thermodynamic evolution of tropical easterly waves (TEWs) for 164 named tropical storms over the Atlantic during 1989-2010 July-October. The evolution of precipitation and the low-level convergence suggests that convection begins to organize near the center of the wave critical layer about one day prior to genesis, along with the rapid intensification of vorticity. The composites derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis reveal higher specific humidity and equivalent potential temperature near the center of the wave critical layer, especially in the middle troposphere within one day prior to genesis. The study then focuses on the formation of the Cape Verde storms over the East Atlantic. There are two groups of easterly waves over West Africa, one to the south and the other to the north of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ), which sometimes merge near the coast of West Africa. Three groups of waves are identified in order to determine the role of wave merger in tropical cyclogenesis over the East Atlantic: non-merger developers, merger developers, and merger non-developers. Relative to non-mergers, it is found that merger developers have a weaker circulation near the surface at the early stages but the merger of a southern wave with a northern wave leads to a stronger and deeper wave pouch, which is more conducive to tropical cyclogenesis. It is also found that dry air intrusion west of the wave trough in the middle and upper troposphere inhibits deep convection and leads to the nondevelopment of some mergers, but that boundary layer dry air in the northern waves moistens quickly over the ocean and does not impede development. The interannual variability of the middle and upper tropospheric dry air and its impacts on tropical cyclone activity over the Atlantic are further examined using the EOF analysis and composite analysis. It is found that the interannual variability of the upper-tropospheric (300-500 hPa) dry

  10. Geochemical patterns and microbial contribution to iron plaque formation in the rice plant rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisch, Markus; Murata, Chihiro; Unger, Julia; Kappler, Andreas; Schmidt, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Rice is the major food source for more than half of the world population and 80 percent of the worldwide rice cultivation is performed on water logged paddy soils. The establishment of reducing conditions in the soil and across the soil-water interface not only stimulates the microbial production and release of the greenhouse gas methane. These settings also create optimal conditions for microbial iron(III) reduction and therefore saturate the system with reduced ferrous iron. Through the reduction and dissolution of ferric minerals that are characterized by their high surface activity, sorbed nutrients and contaminants (e.g. arsenic) will be mobilized and are thus available for uptake by plants. Rice plants have evolved a strategy to release oxygen from their roots in order to prevent iron toxification in highly ferrous environments. The release of oxygen to the reduced paddy soil causes ferric iron plaque formation on the rice roots and finally increases the sorption capacity for toxic metals. To this date the geochemical and microbiological processes that control the formation of iron plaque are not deciphered. It has been hypothesized that iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria play a potential role in the iron(III) mineral formation along the roots. However, not much is known about the actual processes, mineral products, and geochemical gradients that establish within the rhizosphere. In the present study we have developed a growth set-up that allows the co-cultivation of rice plants and iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria, as well as the visual observation and in situ measurement of geochemical parameters. Oxygen and dissolved iron(II) gradients have been measured using microelectrodes and show geochemical hot spots that offer optimal growth conditions for microaerophilic iron(II) oxidizers. First mineral identification attempts of iron plaque have been performed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and microscopy. The obtained results on mineraology and crystallinity have been

  11. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive ... or twice a week Add conditioners Avoid blow drying and harsh styling products

  12. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  13. Pothole and channel system formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica: New insights from cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Jennifer L.; Ackert, Robert P.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2012-11-01

    Large pothole and channel features (˜15 m deep, ˜30 m wide) carved into the Beacon Sandstone in the upland Dry Valleys of Antarctica have been used to infer catastrophic subglacial flooding beneath an expanded East Antarctic Ice Sheet that overran the Transantarctic Mountains during the mid-Miocene. Though the age and erosion rates of these geomorphic features have not been quantified, preservation of the potholes and channels has been attributed to negligible erosion under consistent polar desert conditions since the retreat of the ice sheet at ˜14 Ma. We present cosmogenic 21Ne and 10Be data from samples collected along vertical transects of pothole and channel walls, as well as from intervening benches, within Battleship Promontory in the Convoy Range and within Sessrumnir Valley in the Western Asgard Range to constrain their exposure history. Measurements of fissiogenic 136Xe are used to estimate a nucleogenic 21Ne concentration in the Beacon Sandstone of 7.7±2.4×106 atoms g-1 and to correct our 21Ne data for this component. Sample concentrations of cosmogenic 21Ne and 10Be are significantly lower than previously measured in the regional bedrock and reveal steady state erosion rates ranging from 99 to 171 cm Ma-1 in Battleship Promontory and from 59 to 383 cm Ma-1 in Sessrumnir Valley. Continuous exposure at such erosion rates would remove 8-54 m of bedrock over a 14 Ma period, a length scale similar to the features themselves, and suggests that these systems could have formed primarily through subaerial erosive processes. Alternatively, if the features formed subglacially in the Miocene, then a complex erosion and exposure history must have occurred to prevent the accumulation of cosmogenic nuclides to levels higher than those observed. Either prolonged and extensive ice cover of these features prior to 2 Ma, or a threefold increase in erosion rates during the Plio-Pleistocene could produce the 21Ne and 10Be concentrations measured here. Ultimately, all

  14. A parthenogenesis gene of apomict origin elicits embryo formation from unfertilized eggs in a sexual plant.

    PubMed

    Conner, Joann A; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Huo, Heqiang; Chae, Keun; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-09-01

    Apomixis is a naturally occurring mode of asexual reproduction in flowering plants that results in seed formation without the involvement of meiosis or fertilization of the egg. Seeds formed on an apomictic plant contain offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Apomixis has significant potential for preserving hybrid vigor from one generation to the next in highly productive crop plant genotypes. Apomictic Pennisetum/Cenchrus species, members of the Poaceae (grass) family, reproduce by apospory. Apospory is characterized by apomeiosis, the formation of unreduced embryo sacs derived from nucellar cells of the ovary and, by parthenogenesis, the development of the unreduced egg into an embryo without fertilization. In Pennisetum squamulatum (L.) R.Br., apospory segregates as a single dominant locus, the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). In this study, we demonstrate that the PsASGR-BABY BOOM-like (PsASGR-BBML) gene is expressed in egg cells before fertilization and can induce parthenogenesis and the production of haploid offspring in transgenic sexual pearl millet. A reduction of PsASGR-BBML expression in apomictic F1 RNAi transgenic plants results in fewer visible parthenogenetic embryos and a reduction of embryo cell number compared with controls. Our results endorse a key role for PsASGR-BBML in parthenogenesis and a newly discovered role for a member of the BBM-like clade of APETALA 2 transcription factors. Induction of parthenogenesis by PsASGR-BBML will be valuable for installing parthenogenesis to synthesize apomixis in crops and will have further application for haploid induction to rapidly obtain homozygous lines for breeding. PMID:26305939

  15. A parthenogenesis gene of apomict origin elicits embryo formation from unfertilized eggs in a sexual plant

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Joann A.; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Huo, Heqiang; Chae, Keun; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Apomixis is a naturally occurring mode of asexual reproduction in flowering plants that results in seed formation without the involvement of meiosis or fertilization of the egg. Seeds formed on an apomictic plant contain offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Apomixis has significant potential for preserving hybrid vigor from one generation to the next in highly productive crop plant genotypes. Apomictic Pennisetum/Cenchrus species, members of the Poaceae (grass) family, reproduce by apospory. Apospory is characterized by apomeiosis, the formation of unreduced embryo sacs derived from nucellar cells of the ovary and, by parthenogenesis, the development of the unreduced egg into an embryo without fertilization. In Pennisetum squamulatum (L.) R.Br., apospory segregates as a single dominant locus, the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). In this study, we demonstrate that the PsASGR-BABY BOOM-like (PsASGR-BBML) gene is expressed in egg cells before fertilization and can induce parthenogenesis and the production of haploid offspring in transgenic sexual pearl millet. A reduction of PsASGR-BBML expression in apomictic F1 RNAi transgenic plants results in fewer visible parthenogenetic embryos and a reduction of embryo cell number compared with controls. Our results endorse a key role for PsASGR-BBML in parthenogenesis and a newly discovered role for a member of the BBM-like clade of APETALA 2 transcription factors. Induction of parthenogenesis by PsASGR-BBML will be valuable for installing parthenogenesis to synthesize apomixis in crops and will have further application for haploid induction to rapidly obtain homozygous lines for breeding. PMID:26305939

  16. Cell cycle and cell death are not necessary for appressorium formation and plant infection in the fungal plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    Nesher, Iris; Barhoom, Sima; Sharon, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. Many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, which are essential for successful pathogenic development. In the model plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea completion of mitosis and autophagy cell death of the spore are necessary for appressoria-mediated plant infection; blocking of mitosis prevents appressoria formation, and prevention of autophagy cell death results in non-functional appressoria. Results We found that in the closely related plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, blocking of the cell cycle did not prevent spore germination and appressoria formation. The cell cycle always lagged behind the morphogenetic changes that follow spore germination, including germ tube and appressorium formation, differentiation of the penetrating hypha, and in planta formation of primary hyphae. Nuclear division was arrested following appressorium formation and was resumed in mature appressoria after plant penetration. Unlike in M. grisea, blocking of mitosis had only a marginal effect on appressoria formation; development in hydroxyurea-treated spores continued only for a limited number of cell divisions, but normal numbers of fully developed mature appressoria were formed under conditions that support appressoria formation. Similar results were also observed in other Colletotrichum species. Spores, germ tubes, and appressoria retained intact nuclei and remained viable for several days post plant infection. Conclusion We showed that in C. gloeosporioides the differentiation of infection structures including appressoria precedes mitosis and can occur without nuclear division. This phenomenon was also found to be common in other Colletotrichum species. Spore cell death did not occur during plant infection and the fungus primary infection structures remained viable throughout the infection cycle

  17. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM, BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. The report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Sp...

  18. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM - BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  19. Potential of Chilopsis Linearis for Gold Phytomining: Using XAS to Determine Gold Reduction And Nanoparticle Formation Within Plant Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    E, Rodriguez; Parsons, J.G.; Peralta-Videa, J.R.; Cruz-Jiminez, G.; Romera-Gonzalez, J.; Sanchez-Salcido, B.E.; Saupe, G.B.; Duarte-Gardea, M.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2009-06-04

    This study reports on the capability of the desert plant Chilopsis linearis (Cav.) Sweet (desert willow) to uptake gold (Au) from gold-enriched media at different plant-growth stages. Plants were exposed to 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 mg Au L{sup -1} in agar-based growing media for 13, 18, 23, and 35 d. The Au content and oxidation state of Au in the plants were determined using an inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometer (ICP/OES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), respectively. Gold concentrations ranging from 20 to 80 mg Au L{sup -1} did not significantly affect Chilopsis linearis plant growth. The concentration of gold in the plants increased as the age of the plant increased. The Au concentrations in leaves for the 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg Au L{sup -1} treatments were 32, 60, 62, and 179 mg Au kg{sup -1} dry weight mass, respectively, demonstrating the gold uptake capability of desert willow. The XAS data indicated that desert willow produced gold nanoparticles within plant tissues. Plants exposed to 160 mg Au L{sup -1} formed nanoparticles that averaged approximately 8, 35, and 18 in root, stem, and leaves, respectively. It was observed that the average size of the Au nanoparticles formed by the plants is related to the total Au concentration in tissues and their location in the plant.

  20. Slurry flow and structures formation in a magma mush: the Basement Sill, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petford, N.; Jerram, D.; Davidson, J.

    2005-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, forming part of the Ferrar dolerite Large Igneous Province, comprises a vertical stack of four interconnected sills linked to surface flows of the Kirkpatrick flood basalts1. The lowermost intrusion, the Basement Sill, offers unprecedented exposure through a magmatic slurry flow (congested melt-particle mixture), comprised of abundant Opx pheoncrysts (MgO up to 20%). The overall geometry of the axially confined slurry is tongue-like, with the sill margins relatively aphiric2. The 3D nature of the exposure (100%) permits petrographical and structural observations to be made in unprecedented detail. Key properties of the Opx tongue that have bearing upon emplacement and solidification include microscale matrix properties (grain size, roughness, porosity and permeability, packing density and fluctuations), and the assumed fluid properties (viscosity and density) of the intergranular melt phase. These and other structures related to transport phenomena and deformation of the slurry during flow constitute the initial conditions for sophisticated physics-based modeling of the magma emplacement process. Initial results of a 2D numerical model employing a generalised form of the Navier- Stokes equations will be presented. It is noteworthy that features long recognized in classical layered intrusions formed here on a timescale (short) governed by the local cooling rate of a c. 300 m thick sill. A distinction between structures formed during transport, where the shearing regime dominates, and post- emplacement features due to mechanical compaction of the mush, is required. Information on conditions under which the touching Opx framework may collapse to expel interstitial fluid is also under investigation. 1. Marsh, B. (2004), Eos, 85, 497-502, 2004. 2. Charrier, A & Marsh, B. (2004), Eos Trans AGU 85, v24A-03.

  1. Ester-Mediated Amide Bond Formation Driven by Wet-Dry Cycles: A Possible Path to Polypeptides on the Prebiotic Earth.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Jay G; Yu, Sheng-Sheng; Mamajanov, Irena; Grover, Martha A; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Fernández, Facundo M; Hud, Nicholas V

    2015-08-17

    Although it is generally accepted that amino acids were present on the prebiotic Earth, the mechanism by which α-amino acids were condensed into polypeptides before the emergence of enzymes remains unsolved. Here, we demonstrate a prebiotically plausible mechanism for peptide (amide) bond formation that is enabled by α-hydroxy acids, which were likely present along with amino acids on the early Earth. Together, α-hydroxy acids and α-amino acids form depsipeptides-oligomers with a combination of ester and amide linkages-in model prebiotic reactions that are driven by wet-cool/dry-hot cycles. Through a combination of ester-amide bond exchange and ester bond hydrolysis, depsipeptides are enriched with amino acids over time. These results support a long-standing hypothesis that peptides might have arisen from ester-based precursors. PMID:26201989

  2. Design and initial operation of the Spray Dry FGD system at the Marquette Michigan Board of Light and Power Shiras number 3 plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.; Arello, J.; Fortune, O.; Puska, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the design issues, design decisions, start-up, and early operation of a Spray Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (SDFGD) system which went into operation at the Marquette Michigan Board of Light and Power Shiras number 3 in May 1983. This fortyfour (44) megawatt unit consisting of a rotary atomizer reactor, reverse air fabric filter, lime preparation, and reagent recycle system was engineered in the 1980-82 time period utilizing pilot plant and prototype industrial system results as a design basis. Initial operation has been uneventful with performance results in the expected ranges.

  3. The exopolysaccharide of Xylella fastidiosa is essential for biofilm formation, plant virulence, and vector transmission.

    PubMed

    Killiny, N; Martinez, R Hernandez; Dumenyo, C Korsi; Cooksey, D A; Almeida, R P P

    2013-09-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) synthesized by plant-pathogenic bacteria are generally essential for virulence. The role of EPS produced by the vector-transmitted bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was investigated by knocking out two genes implicated in the EPS biosynthesis, gumD and gumH. Mutant strains were affected in growth characteristics in vitro, including adhesion to surfaces and biofilm formation. In addition, different assays were used to demonstrate that the mutant strains produced significantly less EPS compared with the wild type. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that both mutant strains did not produce oligosaccharides. Biologically, the mutants were deficient in movement within plants, resulting in an avirulent phenotype. Additionally, mutant strains were affected in transmission by insects: they were very poorly transmitted by and retained within vectors. The gene expression profile indicated upregulation of genes implicated in cell-to-cell signaling and adhesins while downregulation in genes was required for within-plant movement in EPS-deficient strains. These results suggest an essential role for EPS in X. fastidiosa interactions with both plants and insects. PMID:23678891

  4. Analyses of the Red-Dry-Rough Phenotype of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain and Its Role in Biofilm Formation and Resistance to Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Uhlich, Gaylen A.; Cooke, Peter H.; Solomon, Ethan B.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, we identified Congo red-binding and -nonbinding phase variants of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strain ATCC 43895. The Congo red-binding variant, strain 43895OR, produced a dry, aggregative colony that was similar to the red, dry, and rough (rdar) phenotype characteristic of certain strains of Salmonella. In contrast, variant 43895OW produced a smooth and white colony morphology. In this study, we show that, similar to rdar strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, strain 43895OR forms large aggregates in broth cultures, firm pellicles at the air-medium interface on glass, and dense biofilms on glass and polystyrene. However, unlike S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, strain 43895OR does not stain positive for cellulose production. When strain 43895OR was fixed on agar, scanning electron microscopy showed cells expressing extracellular matrix (ECM) containing curli fibers. Strain 43895OW was devoid of any ECM or curli fibers on agar but showed expression of curli fibers during attachment to glass. Strain 43895OR produced >4-fold-larger amounts of biofilm than strain 43895OW on polystyrene, glass, stainless steel, and Teflon; formation was >3-fold higher in rich medium than in nutrient-limited medium. Biofilm-associated cells of both strains showed statistically greater resistance (P < 0.05) to hydrogen peroxide and quaternary ammonium sanitizer than their respective planktonic cells. This study shows that the rdar phenotype of E. coli O157:H7 strain 43895OR is important in multicellular growth, biofilm formation, and resistance to sanitizers. However, the lack of cellulose production by strain 43895OR indicates important differences in the ECM composition compared to that of Salmonella. PMID:16597958

  5. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  6. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

  7. The formation of Ca-Cl-rich groundwaters in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica: Field measurements and modeling of reactive transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, Jonathan D.; Sletten, Ronald S.

    2013-06-01

    Ca-Cl-rich brines have been found in shallow subsurface flows, groundwater systems, lakes, and ponds throughout the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The apparent abundance of Ca-Cl-rich waters near the surface is unusual compared to global surface water compositions and a number of theories have been proposed to explain the genesis of these brines. We show that an ice-cemented soil developing on fluvial sediment in Taylor Valley also contains Ca-Cl-rich brine. The distribution of soluble ions, exchangeable cations, and stable isotopes down to 2.1 m depth in the soil suggests that CaCl2 was formed by cation exchange reactions during downward reactive transport of Na-Cl-rich brine from the soil surface. To explore the implications of exchange reactions for the formation of Ca-Cl-rich brine, Ca-Na and Ca-Mg exchange properties were measured in 1 mM, 0.1 M, and 4.75 M solutions. Low-temperature reactions and brine transport were modeled in PHREEQC by incorporating FREZCHEM Pitzer parameters and solubility products into PHREEQC. Modeling shows that by freezing soils in equilibrium with Dry Valley surface waters, a strong Ca-Mg enrichment of the soil solution is caused by the exchange of aqueous Na+ with exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+. Ca-Mg enrichment also occurs as Na-Cl-rich brine from the soil surface advects into ice-cemented soil. By modeling this process in the borehole soil, trends in ion distributions with depth can be predicted. Brine compositions from cation exchange reactions are consistent with Ca-Cl-rich brine compositions in the Dry Valleys, although additional water-rock interaction is proposed to account for the low Mg2+ concentrations in Don Juan Pond. Furthermore, the amount of CaCl2 that can be produced by exchange reactions is consistent with estimated amounts of CaCl2 in groundwaters beneath Don Juan Pond. This suggests that cation exchange reactions can explain the Ca-Cl-rich composition of the enigmatic Don Juan Pond and other brines in the Dry Valleys.

  8. Prevention of Bacterial Biofilms Formation on Urinary Catheter by Selected Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Adesina, T D; Nwinyi, O C; Olugbuyiro, J A O

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum leaf extracts in preventing Escherichia coli biofilm formation. The plants extractions were done with methanol under cold extraction. The various concentrations 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) were used to coat 63 catheters under mild heat from water bath. Biofilm formation on the catheter was induced using cultures of E. coli. Biofilm formation was evaluated using aerobic plate count and turbidity at 600 nm. From the obtained results, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum delayed the onset of biofilm formation for a week. Ocimum gratissimum coated catheter had the highest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) with bacterial count ranging from 2.2 x 10(5)-7.0 x 10(4) and 5.7 x 10(5)-3.7 x10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. The Psidium guajava coated catheter had the lowest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1), with bacterial count ranging between 4.3 x 10(5)-1.9 x 10(3) and 7.7 x 10(5)-3.8 x 10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. Despite the antimicrobial activities, the differences in the activity of these plant extracts were statistically not significant (p < 0.05). PMID:26364356

  9. Complex formation of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) anthocyanins during freeze-drying and its influence on their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Correa-Betanzo, Julieta; Padmanabhan, Priya; Corredig, Milena; Subramanian, Jayasankar; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2015-03-25

    Biological activity of polyphenols is influenced by their uptake and is highly influenced by their interactions with the food matrix. This study evaluated the complex formation of blueberry polyphenols with fruit matrixes such as pectin and cellulose and their effect on the biological and antiproliferative properties of human colon cell lines HT-29 and CRL 1790. Free or complexed polyphenols were isolated by dialyzing aqueous or methanolic blueberry homogenates. Seven phenolic compounds and thirteen anthocyanins were identified in blueberry extracts. Blueberry extracts showed varying degrees of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, as well as α-glucosidase activity. Fruit matrix containing cellulose and pectin, or purified polygalacturonic acid and cellulose, did not retain polyphenols and showed very low antioxidant or antiproliferative activities. These findings suggest that interactions between polyphenols and the food matrix may be more complex than a simple association and may play an important role in the bioefficacy of blueberry polyphenols. PMID:25727778

  10. Strain Partitioning into Dry and Wet Zones, and the Formation of Calcic Myrmekites in Syntectonic Syenites During High-T Crystallization/Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Toni, G. B.; Bitencourt, M. D. F.; Nardi, L. V. S.

    2014-12-01

    Myrmekites are fine intergrowths of (generally Na-rich) plagioclase and vermicular quartz developed on K-feldspar. The myrmekite-forming reaction is intimately related to deformation as it results in volume decrease and finer grainsize, thus enhancing plastic behaviour. In south Brazil, myrmekites are described in 642 Ma syntectonic syenites intrusive in a ca. 650 Ma collisional thrust pile comprised of granulite-facies gneisses. Syenites are porphyritic or fine-grained equigranular, with biotite, clinopyroxene (Cpx) and amphibole as mafic phases. They are variably deformed, and disposed in alternating m- to cm-thick layers. Within low-strain zones, well-developed magmatic foliation and lineation are marked by shape alignment of K-feldspar (Kf) and mafic minerals. Subgrains and recrystallized grains (ca. 0,5 mm) are common features at the border of Kf megacrysts, developed to different degrees. In highly deformed sites, the strain softening promoted by the inflow of late-magmatic fluids has lead to deformation partitioning into wet and dry zones, where different end-products are formed from a single syenite protolith. Within the dry zones, high-T recrystallization is abundant in both Kf and Cpx, but primary mineralogy is preserved. Within the wet zones the rock contains biotite and minor amphibole, but no Cpx. Kf megacrysts are progressively invaded by myrmekite (An38-43) mantles, especially along foliation-parallel faces. In their pressure shadows, 5mm-sized, subhedral plagioclase crystals (An44-48) containing irregular quartz inclusions are interpreted as crystallized from Ca-enriched, late-magmatic fluids which have destabilized Cpx. Large plagioclase crystals and myrmekite aggregates are further recrystallized, and the process has eventually lead to the formation of plagioclase-rich rocks restricted to m-thick bands. Deformation partitioning into dry and wet zones, and the fact that myrmekites are restricted to the latter demonstrate that fluids are the

  11. Evaluation of Plant Introductions and Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insect-susceptible, orange-fleshed check cultivar (‘SC1149 19’), two insect-resistant check cultivars (‘Ruddy’ and ‘Sumor’), and 26 plant introductions (PI) from the National Plant Germplasm System, sweetpotato collection, Griffin, GA, were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field tria...

  12. WET/DRY COOLING AND COOLING TOWER BLOWDOWN DISPOSAL IN SYNTHETIC FUEL AND STEAM-ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report extends the results of a previous study dealing with the detailed determination of consumptive water use and wet-solids residuals for coal and oil shale conversion plants and coal-fired steam-electric power generation plants located in the western United States. The p...

  13. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.

  14. Dynamic effects of wet-dry cycles and crust formation on the saturated hydraulic conductivity of surface soils in the constructed Hühnerwasser ("Chicken Creek") catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Christoph; Schümberg, Sabine; Kubitz, Anita; Frank, Franzi; Cheng, Zhang; Nanu Frechen, Tobias; Pohle, Ina

    2016-04-01

    showed that the removal of the crust lead generally to a decrease in hydraulic conductivity. The process of crust removal represented a severe disturbance of the surface soil which to our understanding causes particle mobilisation and subsequent pore clogging. The first hypothesis could neither be rejected nor accepted. The second set of experiments showed that the hydraulic conductivity significantly dropped in particular after the first drying event.. This was observed for both undisturbed and repacked samples. The following drying cycles further decreased the hydraulic conductivity in the repacked samples. The decrease in hydraulic conductivity was positively correlated to turbidity values in the effluent of the samples, indicating particle mobilisation in all samples. The results imply that hydraulic properties in such substrates undergo rapid changes that depend on the temporal dynamics of atmospheric drivers, precipitation and evaporative demand, controlling the degree of wetness and the rate and degree of drying during the very early stage after placement. Associated with the dynamics of the atmospheric drivers are the biological changes due to the formation of biological soil crusts and the establishment of vegetation, both of them contributing to the stabilisation of hydraulic properties.

  15. Formation of Plant Canopy Hierarchies and Consequences for Water Use: Insights From Field Experiments and Individual Based Modeling of Weed-Crop Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A. G.; McDonald, A. J.; Riha, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    In an agricultural landscape, water use is tightly linked to the dynamics of canopy development. When weeds are present, the plant community may develop leaf area faster than crop monocultures and several hierarchies of plants may be formed. The position of each individual plant within these hierarchies depends on the spatial arrangement of the plants, the initial sizes, and the availability of resources as determined by management, soil properties, weather, and competition. Together, these factors establish a highly dynamic system with nonlinear responses to the availability of resources (e.g. soil water) that is reflected in high levels of site and regional variability in crop yield losses due to weed interference. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual based model of plant competition to evaluate dynamic outcomes of crop-weed interactions and implications for water use. The model simulates the growth of individual plants using the light interception algorithms of the forest model MAESTRA, and estimates photosynthesis through the Farquhar-vonCaemmerer method. Transpiration and photosynthesis are coupled through stomatal conductance. Maximum stomatal conductance is determined by the photosynthetic demand for CO2, but under water stress, actual transpiration per plant is used to estimate stomatal conductance and then the actual rate of photosynthesis. We also used a novel approach to estimate profile water uptake, scaling the root zone of influence (volume of soil exploited by each individual plant) to plant biomass. Additive field experiments with maize in monoculture and in combination with high-density stands of a common annual weed species (A. theophrasti M.) were established to test model performance. Despite exceptionally dry conditions in the field in some years, we found no evidence that the maize-weed mixtures had less total soil water or different rates of water extraction through the profile than the maize monocrop. Furthermore, time series

  16. Preservation of terrestrial plant biomarkers from Nachukui Formation sediments and their viability for stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, E.; Uno, K. T.; Polissar, P. J.; Lepre, C. J.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary records from the Turkana Basin in eastern Africa provide a unique opportunity to compare a high-resolution record of climate and terrestrial vegetation with important changes in the record of human evolution. Molecular biomarkers from terrestrial vegetation can yield stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and carbon that reflect ancient climate and vegetation. However, the preservation of long-chain plant wax biomarkers in these paleosol, fluvial, and lacustrine sediments is not known, and this preservation must be studied to establish their utility for molecular stable isotope studies. We investigated leaf wax biomarkers in Nachukui Formation sediments deposited between 2.3 and 1.7 Ma to assess biomarker preservation. We analyzed n alkane and n alkanoic acid concentrations and, where suitable, molecular carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios. Molecular abundance distributions show a great deal of variance in biomarker preservation and plant-type source as indicated by the carbon preference index and average chain length. This variation suggests that some samples are suitable for isotopic analysis, while other samples lack primary terrestrial plant biomarker signatures. The biomarker signal in many samples contains significant additional material from unidentified sources. For example, the n-alkane distributions contain an unresolved complex mixture underlying the short and mid-chain n-alkanes. Samples from lacustrine intervals include long-chain diacids, hydroxy acids and (ω-1) ketoacids that suggest degradation of the original acids. Degradation of poorly preserved samples and the addition of non-terrestrial plant biomarkers may originate from a number of processes including forest fire or microbial alteration. Isotopic analysis of well-preserved terrestrial plant biomarkers will be presented along with examples where the original biomarker distribution has been altered.

  17. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies on formation of calcium oxalate in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelmottaleb, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Plant calcium oxalate crystals occur within cells called crystal idioblasts. Important aspects of this calcification phenomenon have not been characterized. This dissertation examines some of the aspects of this ubiquitous type of calcification including (1) characterization of ultrastructural features of developing crystal idioblasts, (2) determination of the relationship of specialized ultrastructural features of the idioblasts to transport of compounds and mechanisms of crystal deposition, and (3) the biochemical relationship between ascorbic acid metabolism and production of oxalic acid used for crystal formation. Structural and cytochemical studies revealed that crystal idioblasts have dense cytoplasm, modified plastids, enlarged nuclei, extensive endoplasmic reticulum, numerous dictyosomes and vesicles, and a bundle of raphide crystals in their vacuoles. A mechanism for Ca transport and crystal precipitation is proposed, based on these results. There is a strong and dynamic relationship between Ca concentration and oxalic acid produced for crystal formation, where increasing Ca level in the growth medium lead to increased total and insoluble oxalate in the plant. Calmodulin antagonists reduced oxalic acid production.

  18. Formation of virions is strictly required for turnip yellows virus long-distance movement in plants.

    PubMed

    Hipper, Clémence; Monsion, Baptiste; Bortolamiol-Bécet, Diane; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2014-02-01

    Viral genomic RNA of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV; genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) is protected in virions formed by the major capsid protein (CP) and the minor component, the readthrough (RT*) protein. Long-distance transport, used commonly by viruses to systemically infect host plants, occurs in phloem sieve elements and two viral forms of transport have been described: virions and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. With regard to poleroviruses, virions have always been presumed to be the long-distance transport form, but the potential role of RNP complexes has not been investigated. Here, we examined the requirement of virions for polerovirus systemic movement by analysing CP-targeted mutants that were unable to form viral particles. We confirmed that TuYV mutants that cannot encapsidate into virions are not able to reach systemic leaves. To completely discard the possibility that the introduced mutations in CP simply blocked the formation or the movement of RNP complexes, we tested in trans complementation of TuYV CP mutants by providing WT CP expressed in transgenic plants. WT CP was able to facilitate systemic movement of TuYV CP mutants and this observation was always correlated with the formation of virions. This demonstrated clearly that virus particles are essential for polerovirus systemic movement. PMID:24214396

  19. Effect of plant phenolic compounds on biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Plyuta, Vladimir; Zaitseva, Julia; Lobakova, Elena; Zagoskina, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Alexander; Khmel, Inessa

    2013-11-01

    In the natural environment, bacteria predominantly exist in matrix-enclosed multicellular communities associated with various surfaces, referred to as biofilms. Bacteria in biofilms are extremely resistant to antibacterial agents thus causing serious problems for antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we showed that different plant phenolic compounds, at concentrations that did not or weakly suppressed bacterial growth, increased the capacity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to form biofilms. Biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was enhanced 3- to 7-fold under the action of vanillin and epicatechin, and 2- to 2.5-fold in the presence of 4-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, cinnamic, sinapic, ferulic, and chlorogenic acids. At higher concentrations, these compounds displayed an inhibiting effect. Similar experiments carried out for comparison with Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 showed the same pattern. Vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic, and gallic acids at concentrations within the range of 40 to 400 μg/mL increased the production of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone in P. aeruginosa PAO1 which suggests a possible relationship between stimulation of biofilm formation and Las Quorum Sensing system of this bacterium. Using biosensors to detect N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL), we demonstrated that the plant phenolics studied did not mimic AHLs. PMID:23594262

  20. Jasmonates trigger prey-induced formation of 'outer stomach' in carnivorous sundew plants.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoko; Reichelt, Michael; Mayer, Veronika E; Mithöfer, Axel

    2013-05-22

    It has been widely accepted that the growth-related phytohormone auxin is the endogenous signal that initiates bending movements of plant organs. In 1875, Charles Darwin described how the bending movement of leaves in carnivorous sundew species formed an 'outer stomach' that allowed the plants to enclose and digest captured insect prey. About 100 years later, auxin was suggested to be the factor responsible for this movement. We report that prey capture induces both leaf bending and the accumulation of defence-related jasmonate phytohormones. In Drosera capensis fed with fruitflies, within 3 h after prey capture and simultaneous with leaf movement, we detected an increase in jasmonic acid and its isoleucine conjugate. This accumulation was spatially restricted to the bending segment of the leaves. The application of jasmonates alone was sufficient to trigger leaf bending. Only living fruitflies or the body fluids of crushed fruitflies induced leaf curvature; neither dead flies nor mechanical treatment had any effect. Our findings strongly suggest that the formation of the 'outer stomach' in Drosera is a chemonastic movement that is triggered by accumulation of endogenous jasmonates. These results suggest that in carnivorous sundew plants the jasmonate cascade might have been adapted to facilitate carnivory rather than to defend against herbivores. PMID:23516244

  1. Relationship between plant growth and cytological effect in root apical meristem after exposure of wheat dry seeds to carbon ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Zhuanzi; Zhou, Libin; Qu, Ying; Lu, Dong; Yu, Lixia; Du, Yan; Jin, Wenjie; Li, Wenjian

    2013-06-01

    In order to analyze the relationship between plant growth and cytological effects, wheat dry seeds were exposed to various doses of 12C6+ beams and the biological endpoints reflecting plant growth and root apical meristem (RAM) activities were investigated. The results showed that most of the seeds were able to germinate normally within all dose range, while the plant survival rate descended at higher doses. The seedling growth including root length and seedling height also decreased significantly at higher doses. Mitotic index (MI) in RAM had no changes at 10 and 20 Gy and decreased obviously at higher doses and the proportion of prophase cells had the same trend with MI. These data suggested that RAM cells experienced cell cycle arrest, which should be responsible for the inhibition of root growth after exposure to higher doses irradiation. Moreover, various types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) were observed in the mitotic cells. The frequencies of mitotic cells with lagging chromosomes and these with anaphase bridges peaked around 60 Gy, while the frequencies of these with fragments increased as the irradiation doses increased up to 200 Gy. The total frequencies of mitotic cells with CAs induced by irradiation increased significantly with the increasing doses. The serious damage of mitotic chromosomes maybe caused cell cycle arrest or cell death. These findings suggested that the influences of 12C6+ beams irradiation on plant growth were related to the alternation of mitotic activities and the chromosomal damages in RAM.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide is a novel gasotransmitter with pivotal role in regulating lateral root formation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Jun; Shi, Zhi-Qi; Gan, Li-Jun; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), is a critical neuromodulator in the pathogenesis of various diseases from neurodegenerative diseases to diabetes or heart failure. The crosstalk between NO and H2S has been well established in mammalian physiology. In planta, NO is demonstrated to regulate lateral root formation by acting downstream of auxin. The recent reports revealed that H2S is a novel inducer of lateral root (LR) formation by stimulating the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (CCRGs), acting similarly with NO, CO, and IAA. Interestingly, during the initiation of lateral root primordia, IAA is a potent inducer of endogenous H2S and CO, which is produced by L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), respectively. The increasing evidences suggest that H2S-promoted LR growth is dependent on the endogenous production of CO. In addition, our results indicate that the H2S signaling in the regulation of LR formation can be associated to NO and Ca2+. In this addendum, we advanced a proposed schematic model for H2S-mediated signaling pathway of plant LR development. PMID:24832131

  3. Plant-derived decapeptide OSIP108 interferes with Candida albicans biofilm formation without affecting cell viability.

    PubMed

    Delattin, Nicolas; De Brucker, Katrijn; Craik, David J; Cheneval, Olivier; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Veber, Matija; Girandon, Lenart; Davis, Talya R; Weeks, Anne E; Kumamoto, Carol A; Cos, Paul; Coenye, Tom; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-05-01

    We previously identified a decapeptide from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, OSIP108, which is induced upon fungal pathogen infection. In this study, we demonstrated that OSIP108 interferes with biofilm formation of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans without affecting the viability or growth of C. albicans cells. OSIP108 displayed no cytotoxicity against various human cell lines. Furthermore, OSIP108 enhanced the activity of the antifungal agents amphotericin B and caspofungin in vitro and in vivo in a Caenorhabditis elegans-C. albicans biofilm infection model. These data point to the potential use of OSIP108 in combination therapy with conventional antifungal agents. In a first attempt to unravel its mode of action, we screened a library of 137 homozygous C. albicans mutants, affected in genes encoding cell wall proteins or transcription factors important for biofilm formation, for altered OSIP108 sensitivity. We identified 9 OSIP108-tolerant C. albicans mutants that were defective in either components important for cell wall integrity or the yeast-to-hypha transition. In line with these findings, we demonstrated that OSIP108 activates the C. albicans cell wall integrity pathway and that its antibiofilm activity can be blocked by compounds inhibiting the yeast-to-hypha transition. Furthermore, we found that OSIP108 is predominantly localized at the C. albicans cell surface. These data point to interference of OSIP108 with cell wall-related processes of C. albicans, resulting in impaired biofilm formation. PMID:24566179

  4. Polyamine formation by arginine decarboxylase as a transducer of hormonal, environmental and stress stimuli in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Flores, H. E.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.

    1982-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates polyamines including putrescine in the regulation of such diverse plant processes as cell division, embryogenesis and senescence. We find that the enzyme arginine decarboxylase, which controls the rate of putrescine formation in some plant systems, is activated by light acting through P(r) phytochrome as a receptor, by the plant hormone gibberellic acid, by osmotic shock and by other stress stimuli. We therefore propose arginine decarboxylase as a possible transducer of the various initially received tropistic stimuli in plants. The putrescine formed could act by affecting cytoskeletal components.

  5. Fresh, dried or smoked? repellent properties of volatiles emitted from ethnomedicinal plant leaves against malaria and yellow fever vectors in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the search for plant-based mosquito repellents, volatile emanations were investigated from five plant species, Corymbia citriodora, Ocimum suave, Ocimum lamiifolium, Olea europaea and Ostostegia integrifolia, traditionally used in Ethiopia as protection against mosquitoes. Methods The behaviour of two mosquitoes, the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis and the arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti, was assessed towards volatiles collected from the headspace of fresh and dried leaves, and the smoke from burning the dried leaves in a two-choice landing bioassay and in the background of human odour. Results Volatile extracts from the smoke of burning dried leaves were found to be more repellent than those from fresh leaves, which in turn were more repellent to mosquitoes than volatiles from dried leaves. Of all smoke and fresh volatile extracts, those from Co. citriodora (52-76%) and Oc. suave (58-68%) were found to be the most repellent, Os. integrifolia (29-56%) to be intermediate while Ol. europaea (23-40%) and Os. integrifolia (19-37%) were the least repellent. One volatile present in each of the fresh leaf extracts of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia was ß-ocimene. The levels of ß-ocimene reflected the mosquito repellent activity of these three fresh leaf extracts. Female host-seeking mosquitoes responded dose-dependently to ß-ocimene, both physiologically and behaviourally, with a maximal behavioural repulsion at 14% ß-ocimene. ß-ocimene (14%) repels mosquitoes in our 6-minute landing assays comparable to the synthetic insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (10% DEET). Conclusions Volatiles in the smoke of burning as well as fresh leaves of Co. citriodora and Oc. suave have significant repellent properties against host seeking An. arabiensis and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. ß-ocimene, present in the fresh leaf headspace of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia, is a significantly effective volatile mosquito repellent in the

  6. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... or under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  7. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF SILICA-ENHANCED LIME SORBENTS FOR DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent work on lime enhancement and testing at the bench-scale, followed by evaluation of the more promising sorbents in a pilot plant to develop low cost, retrofittable flue gas cleaning technology specifically the development of highly reactive sorbents. Con...

  9. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  10. Plant development. Integration of growth and patterning during vascular tissue formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    De Rybel, Bert; Adibi, Milad; Breda, Alice S; Wendrich, Jos R; Smit, Margot E; Novák, Ondřej; Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Yoshida, Saiko; Van Isterdael, Gert; Palovaara, Joakim; Nijsse, Bart; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hooiveld, Guido; Beeckman, Tom; Wagner, Doris; Ljung, Karin; Fleck, Christian; Weijers, Dolf

    2014-08-01

    Coordination of cell division and pattern formation is central to tissue and organ development, particularly in plants where walls prevent cell migration. Auxin and cytokinin are both critical for division and patterning, but it is unknown how these hormones converge upon tissue development. We identify a genetic network that reinforces an early embryonic bias in auxin distribution to create a local, nonresponding cytokinin source within the root vascular tissue. Experimental and theoretical evidence shows that these cells act as a tissue organizer by positioning the domain of oriented cell divisions. We further demonstrate that the auxin-cytokinin interaction acts as a spatial incoherent feed-forward loop, which is essential to generate distinct hormonal response zones, thus establishing a stable pattern within a growing vascular tissue. PMID:25104393

  11. Wiring a plant: genetic networks for phloem formation in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Villalon, Antia

    2016-04-01

    45 I. 45 II. 46 III. 46 IV. 47 V. 48 VI. 48 49 References 49 SUMMARY: In plants, phloem conduits form a specialized vascular network mediating the exchange of nutrients and signaling molecules between distantly separated organs. To become effective transport elements, protophloem cells undergo a rather unique, differentiation program that involves nucleus degradation, organelle rearrangement and cell wall thickening. Yet, protophloem sieve elements remain alive because their essential metabolic functions are supported by their neighboring companion cells. In spite of the importance of the phloem, the molecular mechanisms orchestrating protophloem specification and differentiation remain still poorly understood. In this review, I provide a summary of recent discoveries regarding morphogenetic events that determine phloem formation, and also a discussion of the systemic effects on root architecture derived from impaired protophloem differentiation programs. PMID:26171671

  12. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. PMID:25596347

  13. WD40-Repeat Proteins in Plant Cell Wall Formation: Current Evidence and Research Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Gea; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Ezcurra, Inés

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic complexity of living organisms relies on supramolecular protein structures which ensure vital processes, such as signal transduction, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis. In eukaryotes WD40-repeat (WDR) proteins often function as molecular “hubs” mediating supramolecular interactions. WDR proteins may display a variety of interacting partners and participate in the assembly of complexes involved in distinct cellular functions. In plants, the formation of lignocellulosic biomass involves extensive synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides, a process that requires the assembly of large transmembrane enzyme complexes, intensive vesicle trafficking, interactions with the cytoskeleton, and coordinated gene expression. Because of their function as supramolecular hubs, WDR proteins could participate in each or any of these steps, although to date only few WDR proteins have been linked to the cell wall by experimental evidence. Nevertheless, several potential cell wall-related WDR proteins were recently identified using in silico approaches, such as analyses of co-expression, interactome and conserved gene neighborhood. Notably, some WDR genes are frequently genomic neighbors of genes coding for GT2-family polysaccharide synthases in eukaryotes, and this WDR-GT2 collinear microsynteny is detected in diverse taxa. In angiosperms, two WDR genes are collinear to cellulose synthase genes, CesAs, whereas in ascomycetous fungi several WDR genes are adjacent to chitin synthase genes, chs. In this Perspective we summarize and discuss experimental and in silico studies on the possible involvement of WDR proteins in plant cell wall formation. The prospects of biotechnological engineering for enhanced biomass production are discussed. PMID:26734023

  14. Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Khatibi, Piyum A.; McMaster, Nicole J.; Musser, Robert; Schmale, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g−1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g−1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g−1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g−1), and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g−1. Twenty six percent (36/141) of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g−1 DON, 2% (3/141) contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g−1 DON, and 3% (4/141) contained >10.0 μg g−1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products. PMID:24674933

  15. Survey of mycotoxins in corn distillers' dried grains with solubles from seventy-eight ethanol plants in twelve States in the U.S. In 2011.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Piyum A; McMaster, Nicole J; Musser, Robert; Iii, David G Schmale

    2014-04-01

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g-1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g-1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g-1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g-1), and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g-1. Twenty six percent (36/141) of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g-1 DON, 2% (3/141) contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g-1 DON, and 3% (4/141) contained >10.0 μg g-1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products. PMID:24674933

  16. Asymmetric bulges and mismatches determine 20-nt microRNA formation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Chi; Lu, Shin-Hua; Lu, Ming-Hsuan; Yang, Chen-Jui; Wu, Shu-Hsing; Chen, Ho-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are predominantly 21 nucleotides (nt) long but non-canonical lengths of 22 and 20 nt are commonly observed in diverse plant species. While miRNAs longer than 21 nt can be attributed to the neglect of unpaired bases within asymmetric bulges by the ruler function of DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1), how 20-nt miRNA is generated remains obscure. Analysis of small RNA data revealed that 20-nt miRNA can be divided into 3 main groups featured by atypical 3′ overhangs or shorter duplex regions. Asymmetric bulges or mismatches at specific positions are commonly observed within each group and were shown to be crucial for 20-nt miRNA formation. Analysis of DCL1 cleavage sites on 20-nt miRNA precursors suggests that these determinants might alter precursor structure or trigger 3′-end decay of mature miRNA. The results herein advance our understanding of miRNA biogenesis and demonstrate that the effect of asymmetric bulges on miRNA length could be position-dependent. PMID:26383777

  17. Growth, Root Formation, and Nutrient Value of Triticale Plants Fertilized with Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative. PMID:22593686

  18. Effects of thermal power plant effluents on formation and senescence of reproductive parts of Anagallis arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M.; Khan, F.A.; Saquib, M.; Ahmad, Z.; Ghouse, A.K.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon and particulates are the major air pollutants emitted in huge amounts by the Thermal Power Plant Complex of Kasimpur (Aligarh, UP, India) running on 3192 MT of coal/day. These effluents significantly affect reproductive phase of Anagallis arvensis L. Samples of 10 plants each were randomly collected at monthly intervals at seedling to mature stage from 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leeward from the power plant complex. Bud formation and flowering were delayed in the population thriving at 0.5 km from the pollution source. As a 2 month old stage, 60% of the population showed a decline in bud formation in the vicinity of the source compared to a heavy bud emergence in the whole population thriving 20 km away from it. Bud formation, flowering fruit set and seed set showed a correlation with multiple growth factors viz productivity, shoot length and distance from the source.

  19. Tetracycline-HCl-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres prepared by a spray drying technique: influence of gamma-irradiation on radical formation and polymer degradation.

    PubMed

    Bittner, B; Mäder, K; Kroll, C; Borchert, H H; Kissel, T

    1999-05-01

    Tetracycline-HCl (TCH)-loaded microspheres were prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by spray drying. The drug was incorporated in the polymer matrix either in solid state or as w/o emulsion. The spin probe 4-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) and the spin trap tert-butyl-phenyl-nitrone (PBN) were co-encapsulated into the TCH-loaded and placebo particles. We investigated the effects of gamma-irradiation on the formation of free radicals in polymer and drug and the mechanism of chain scission after sterilization. Gamma-Irradiation was performed at 26.9 and 54.9 kGy using a 60Co source. The microspheres were characterized especially with respect to the formation of radicals and in vitro polymer degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for characterization of the microspheres. Using EPR spectroscopy, we successfully detected gamma-irradiation induced free radicals within the TCH-loaded microspheres, while unloaded PLGA did not contain radicals under the same conditions. The relatively low glass transition temperature of the poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (37-39 degrees C) seems to favor subsequent reactions of free radicals due to the high mobility of the polymeric chains. Because of the high melting point of TCH (214 degrees C), the radicals can only be stabilized in drug loaded microspheres. In order to determine the mechanism of polymer degradation after exposure to gamma-rays, the spin trap PBN and the spin probe TEMPOL were encapsulated in the microspheres. gamma-Irradiation of microspheres containing PBN resulted in the formation of a lipophilic spin adduct, indicating that a polymeric radical was generated by random chain scission. Polymer degradation by an unzipping mechanism would have

  20. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants. PMID:26517544

  1. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants. PMID:26517544

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Autophagy in Plants: Role of ATG8 Proteins in Formation and Functioning of Autophagosomes.

    PubMed

    Ryabovol, V V; Minibayeva, F V

    2016-04-01

    Autophagy is an efficient way of degradation and removal of unwanted or damaged intracellular components in plant cells. It plays an important role in recycling of intracellular structures (during starvation, removal of cell components formed during plant development or damaged by various stress factors) and in programmed cell death. Morphologically, autophagy is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which are essential for the isolation and degradation of cytoplasmic components. Among autophagic (ATG) proteins, ATG8 from the ubiquitin-like protein family plays a key role in autophagosome formation. ATG8 is also involved in selective autophagy, fusion of autophagosome with the vacuole, and some other intracellular processes not associated with autophagy. In contrast to yeasts that carry a single ATG8 gene, plants have multigene ATG8 families. The reason for such great ATG8 diversity in plants remains unclear. It is also unknown whether all members of the ATG8 family are involved in the formation and functioning of autophagosomes. To answer these questions, the identification of the structure and the possible functions of plant proteins from ATG8 family is required. In this review, we analyze the structures of ATG8 proteins from plants and their homologs from yeast and animal cells, interactions of ATG8 proteins with functional ligands, and involvement of ATG8 proteins in different metabolic processes in eukaryotes. PMID:27293092

  3. Phenylpropanoids of plant origin as inhibitors of biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Raut, Jayant Shankar; Shinde, Ravikumar Bapurao; Chauhan, Nitin Mahendra; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2014-09-01

    Biofilm-related infections of Candida albicans are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, especially those with immunocompromised status. Options of the antifungal drugs available for successful treatment of drug-resistant biofilms are very few, and as such, new strategies need to be explored against them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of phenylpropanoids of plant origin against planktonic cells, important virulence factors, and biofilm forms of C. albicans. Standard susceptibility testing protocol was used to evaluate the activities of 13 phenylpropanoids against planktonic growth. Their effects on adhesion and yeast-to-hyphae morphogenesis were studied in microplate-based methodologies. An in vitro biofilm model analyzed the phenylpropanoid-mediated prevention of biofilm development and mature biofilms using XTT-metabolic assay, crystal violet assay, and light microscopy. Six molecules exhibited fungistatic activity at ≤0.5 mg/ml, of which four were fungicidal at low concentrations. Seven phenylpropanoids inhibited yeast-to-hyphae transition at low concentrations (0.031-0.5 mg/ml), whereas adhesion to the solid substrate was prevented in the range of 0.5-2 mg/ml. Treatment with ≤0.5 mg/ml concentrations of at least six small molecules resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of biofilm formation by C. albicans. Mature biofilms that are highly resistant to antifungal drugs were susceptible to low concentrations of 4 of the 13 molecules. This study revealed phenylpropanoids of plant origin as promising candidates to devise preventive strategies against drug-resistant biofilms of C. albicans. PMID:24851813

  4. A Pleistocene palaeovegetation record from plant wax biomarkers from the Nachukui Formation, West Turkana, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kevin T; Polissar, Pratigya J; Kahle, Emma; Feibel, Craig; Harmand, Sonia; Roche, Hélène; deMenocal, Peter B

    2016-07-01

    Reconstructing vegetation at hominin fossil sites provides us critical information about hominin palaeoenvironments and the potential role of climate in their evolution. Here we reconstruct vegetation from carbon isotopes of plant wax biomarkers in sediments of the Nachukui Formation in the Turkana Basin. Plant wax biomarkers were extracted from samples from a wide range of lithologies that include fluvial-lacustrine sediments and palaeosols, and therefore provide a record of vegetation from diverse depositional environments. Carbon isotope ratios from biomarkers indicate a highly dynamic vegetation structure (ca 5-100% C4 vegetation) from 2.3 to 1.7 Ma, with an overall shift towards more C4 vegetation on the landscape after about 2.1 Ma. The biomarker isotope data indicate ca 25-30% more C4 vegetation on the landscape than carbon isotope data of pedogenic carbonates from the same sequence. Our data show that the environments of early Paranthropus and Homo in this part of the Turkana Basin were primarily mixed C3-C4 to C4-dominated ecosystems. The proportion of C4-based foods in the diet of Paranthropus increases through time, broadly paralleling the increase in C4 vegetation on the landscape, whereas the diet of Homo remains unchanged. Biomarker isotope data associated with the Kokiselei archaeological site complex, which includes the site where the oldest Acheulean stone tools to date were recovered, indicate 61-97% C4 vegetation on the landscape.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298466

  5. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  6. Influence of curli expression on biofilm formation and attachment to plant surface by shiga toxigenic E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) outbreaks have been linked to consumption of fresh produce. Bacteria extracellular appendages, such as curli fibers and cellulose may play critical role in STEC biofilm formation and adherence to plant surface. We determined cellulose and curli product...

  7. Studies on the medicinal properties of Solanum chrysotrichum in tissue culture: I. Callus formation and plant induction from axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, M L; Muñoz, J

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture method is described for micropropagation and callus formation from Solanum chrysotricum axillary bud explants in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium, supplemented with various growth regulators. Induction of rooted plants were initiated only when indol-3 acetic acid (IAA) was present as an auxin in combination with either of two cytokinins: kinetin (KN) or benzyladenine (BA); however, the combination of IAA (0.1 mg.lt.-1) + BA (0.2 mg.lt.-1) was found to be best suited for morphogenesis purposes. Alternatively, callus tissue formation was influenced in presence of naphthalene acetic acid; which in combination with kinetin (NAA 0.1 mg.lt.-1 + KN 0.2 mg.lt.-1) exhibit the best response studied. The plant material obtained by this procedure is proposed for pharmacological and chemical studies of this important antimycotic plant remedy. PMID:1819987

  8. Dry socket

    MedlinePlus

    ... care for the dry socket at home: Take pain medicine and antibiotics as directed Apply a cold pack to the outside of your jaw Carefully rinse the dry socket as directed by your dentist If taking antibiotics, avoid smoking or using tobacco and alcohol

  9. Dried whole-plant Artemisia annua slows evolution of malaria drug resistance and overcomes resistance to artemisinin

    PubMed Central

    Elfawal, Mostafa A.; Towler, Melissa J.; Reich, Nicholas G.; Weathers, Pamela J.; Rich, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical monotherapies against human malaria have proven effective, although ephemeral, owing to the inevitable evolution of resistant parasites. Resistance to two or more drugs delivered in combination will evolve more slowly; hence combination therapies have become the preferred norm in the fight against malaria. At the forefront of these efforts has been the promotion of Artemisinin Combination Therapy, but despite these efforts, resistance to artemisinin has begun to emerge. In 2012, we demonstrated the efficacy of the whole plant (WP)—not a tea, not an infusion—as a malaria therapy and found it to be more effective than a comparable dose of pure artemisinin in a rodent malaria model. Here we show that WP overcomes existing resistance to pure artemisinin in the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii. Moreover, in a long-term artificial selection for resistance in Plasmodium chabaudi, we tested resilience of WP against drug resistance in comparison with pure artemisinin (AN). Stable resistance to WP was achieved three times more slowly than stable resistance to AN. WP treatment proved even more resilient than the double dose of AN. The resilience of WP may be attributable to the evolutionary refinement of the plant’s secondary metabolic products into a redundant, multicomponent defense system. Efficacy and resilience of WP treatment against rodent malaria provides compelling reasons to further explore the role of nonpharmaceutical forms of AN to treat human malaria. PMID:25561559

  10. Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing and biofilm formation by extracts of neotropical rainforest plants.

    PubMed

    Ta, Chieu Anh; Freundorfer, Marie; Mah, Thien-Fah; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Garcia, Mario; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Poveda, Luis; Maschek, J Alan; Baker, Bill J; Adonizio, Allison L; Downum, Kelsey; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John T

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms are responsible for many persistent infections by many clinically relevant pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofilms are much more resistant to conventional antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. Quorum sensing, an intercellular communication system, controls pathogenesis and biofilm formation in most bacterial species. Quorum sensing provides an important pharmacological target since its inhibition does not provide a selective pressure for resistance. In this study, we investigated the quorum sensing and biofilm inhibitory activities of 126 plant extracts from 71 species collected from neotropical rainforests in Costa Rica. Quorum sensing and biofilm interference were assessed using a modified disc diffusion bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12,472 and a spectrophotometric bioassay with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, respectively. Species with significant anti-quorum sensing and/or anti-biofilm activities belonged to the Meliaceae, Melastomataceae, Lepidobotryaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae families. IC50 values ranged from 45 to 266 µg/mL. Extracts of these active species could lead to future development of botanical treatments for biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24488718

  11. Terpenoids of plant origin inhibit morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Raut, Jayant S; Shinde, Ravikumar B; Chauhan, Nitin M; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections caused by Candida albicans and associated drug resistant micro-organisms are serious problems for immunocompromised populations. Molecules which can prevent or remove biofilms are needed. Twenty-eight terpenoids of plant origin were analysed for their activity against growth, virulence attributes, and biofilms of C. albicans. Eighteen molecules exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations of <2 mg ml(-1) for planktonic growth. Selected molecules inhibited yeast to hyphal dimorphism at low concentrations (0.031-0.5 mg ml(-1)), while adhesion to a solid surface was prevented at 0.5-2 mg ml(-1). Treatment with 14 terpenoids resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of biofilm formation, and of these, linalool, nerol, isopulegol, menthol, carvone, α-thujone, and farnesol exhibited biofilm-specific activity. Eight terpenoids were identified as inhibitors of mature biofilms. This study demonstrated the antibiofilm potential of terpenoids, which need to be further explored as therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated infections of C. albicans. PMID:23216018

  12. Struvite formation from the supernatants of an anaerobic digestion pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Pastor, L; Mangin, D; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the influence of the characteristics of the supernatants on the struvite precipitation process. Eighteen experiments with the supernatants generated in an anaerobic digestion pilot plant were performed in a stirred reactor. In order to obtain the pH control during the crystallization process, a Fuzzy Logic based controller was used. High phosphorus precipitation and recovery efficiencies were obtained. The composition of the supernatants was analyzed in order to study its influence on the solids formed from those solutions. The presence of calcium reduced the percentage of phosphorus precipitated as struvite leading to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which tended to be lost with the effluent of the reactor. Calcite was also formed when supernatants with high magnesium:phosphorus (Mg/P) and calcium:phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratios were employed. Some ammonium volatilization by conversion to NH(3) occurred in all the experiments. The use of air to increase the pH to an adequate value showed to be feasible. Aeration cleaned struvite crystals from suspended solids, which makes aeration interesting for struvite separation. However, aeration slightly increased the loss of phosphorus with the effluent of the reactor and promoted ammonium volatilization. PMID:19733058

  13. The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange; tectonic setting and melange formation in the Quebec Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, P.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange (RPOM) is the largest and best exposed of the three known ophiolitic melanges that contain blocks of Chain Lakes Massif (CLM). All three lie along the Baie Verte-Brompton line, which marks the suture between the continental rocks of the Humber zone and the oceanic rocks of the Dunnage zone. The ophiolitic melange is composed of: serpentinized ultramafic rocks, some of which are sheared and/or carbonatized; blocks of amphibolitized gabbro; basalt; volcanogenic breccia; and conglomerates. It also contains continental K-rich granitoid rocks and high-grade metamorphic (upper amphibolite facies) rocks. The RPOM is part of the Saint-Daniel Melange, an accretionary prism onto which the RPOM has been tectonically emplaced. The CLM was part of a terrane accreted to the Laurentian margin during the Taconian orogeny. Blocks of the CLM along the Baie Verte-Brompton line are interpreted as fragments of this terrane caught within the suture zone. It is proposed that the CLM could be the equivalent of Grenville-derived greywacke originally laid down during the phase of continental rifting that led to the formation of the Iapetus Ocean and was later tectonized and metamorphosed during the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. The RPOM would represent the relic of a serpentinite diapir that rose within a deep oceanic fault. The presence of continental rocks like the CLM suggest that a continental magmatic arc was put in contact with an oceanic crust along this fault.

  14. Formation of hot particles during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kashparov, V.A.; Ivanov, Y.A.; Zvarisch, S.I.; Protsak, V.P.; Khomutinin, Y.V.; Kurepin, A.D.; Pazukhin, E.M.

    1996-05-01

    The oxidation of irradiated Chernobyl nuclear fuel at 670 to 1,170 K for 3 to 21 h resulted in its destruction into fine particles, the dispersal composition of which is well described by lognormal distribution regularity. The median radius of the formed particles does not depend on the annealing temperature and decreases with the increase of the annealing period from 10 to 3 {micro}m. Proceeding from the dispersal composition and matrix composition of the Chernobyl hot fuel particles, it can be concluded that the oxidation of nuclear fuel was one of the basic mechanisms of hot fuel particle formation during the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. With oxidation in air and the dispersal of irradiated oxide nuclear fuel at as low as 670 K, ruthenium, located on the granular borders, is released. Ruthenium is oxidized to volatile RuO{sub 4}, sublimated, and condensed on materials of iron. Nickel and stainless steel can be efficiently used at high temperatures (tested to 1,200 K) for radioruthenium adsorption in accidents and for some technological operations. As the temperature of hot fuel particles annealed in inert media increases from 1,270 to 2,270 K, the relative release of radionuclides increases in the following sequence: cesium isotopes; europium isotopes; cerium isotopes; americium isotopes; and ruthenium, plutonium, and curium isotopes.

  15. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    SciTech Connect

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Modelling the contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds to new particle formation in the Jülich plant atmosphere chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldin, P.; Liao, L.; Mogensen, D.; Dal Maso, M.; Rusanen, A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Mentel, T. F.; Wildt, J.; Kleist, E.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillmann, R.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M.

    2015-09-01

    We used the Aerosol Dynamics gas- and particle-phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM) to simulate the contribution of BVOC plant emissions to the observed new particle formation during photooxidation experiments performed in the Jülich Plant-Atmosphere Chamber and to evaluate how well smog chamber experiments can mimic the atmospheric conditions during new particle formation events. ADCHAM couples the detailed gas-phase chemistry from Master Chemical Mechanism with a novel aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module. Our model simulations reveal that the observed particle growth may have either been controlled by the formation rate of semi- and low-volatility organic compounds in the gas phase or by acid catalysed heterogeneous reactions between semi-volatility organic compounds in the particle surface layer (e.g. peroxyhemiacetal dimer formation). The contribution of extremely low-volatility organic gas-phase compounds to the particle formation and growth was suppressed because of their rapid and irreversible wall losses, which decreased their contribution to the nano-CN formation and growth compared to the atmospheric situation. The best agreement between the modelled and measured total particle number concentration (R2 > 0.95) was achieved if the nano-CN was formed by kinetic nucleation involving both sulphuric acid and organic compounds formed from OH oxidation of BVOCs.

  17. Topsoil drying combined with increased sulfur supply leads to enhanced aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica juncea leaves and roots.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yu; Gabriel-Neumann, Elke; Ngwene, Benard; Krumbein, Angelika; George, Eckhard; Platz, Stefanie; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The decrease of water availability is leading to an urgent demand to reduce the plants' water supply. This study evaluates the effect of topsoil drying, combined with varying sulfur (S) supply on glucosinolates in Brassica juncea in order to reveal whether a partial root drying may already lead to a drought-induced glucosinolate increase promoted by an enhanced S supply. Without decreasing biomass, topsoil drying initiated an increase in aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and in topsoil dried roots supported by increased S supply. Simultaneously, abscisic acid was determined, particularly in dehydrated roots, associated with an increased abscisic acid concentration in leaves under topsoil drying. This indicates that the dehydrated roots were the direct interface for the plants' stress response and that the drought-induced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates is related to abscisic acid formation. Indole and aromatic glucosinolates decreased, suggesting that these glucosinolates are less involved in the plants' response to drought. PMID:24444925

  18. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    PubMed

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals. PMID:26505322

  19. Dry root rot of chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry root rot of chickpea is a serious disease under dry hot summer conditions, particularly in the semi-arid tropics of Ethiopia, and in central and southern India. It usually occurs at reproductive stages of the plant. Symptoms include drooping of petioles and leaflets of the tips, but not the low...

  20. Evaluation of economically feasible, natural plant extract-based microbiological media for producing biomass of the dry rot biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in liquid culture.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Sadia; Ali, Tasneem Adam; Skory, Chris; Slininger, Patricia J; Schisler, David A

    2016-02-01

    The production of microbial biomass in liquid media often represents an indispensable step in the research and development of bacterial and fungal strains. Costs of commercially prepared nutrient media or purified media components, however, can represent a significant hurdle to conducting research in locations where obtaining these products is difficult. A less expensive option for providing components essential to microbial growth in liquid culture is the use of extracts of fresh or dried plant products obtained by using hot water extraction techniques. A total of 13 plant extract-based media were prepared from a variety of plant fruits, pods or seeds of plant species including Allium cepa (red onion bulb), Phaseolus vulgaris (green bean pods), and Lens culinaris (lentil seeds). In shake flask tests, cell production by potato dry rot antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in plant extract-based media was generally statistically indistinguishable from that in commercially produced tryptic soy broth and nutrient broth as measured by optical density and colony forming units/ml produced (P ≤ 0.05, Fisher's protected LSD). The efficacy of biomass produced in the best plant extract-based media or commercial media was equivalent in reducing Fusarium dry rot by 50-96% compared to controls. In studies using a high-throughput microbioreactor, logarithmic growth of P22Y05 in plant extract-based media initiated in 3-5 h in most cases but specific growth rate and the time of maximum OD varied as did the maximum pH obtained in media. Nutrient analysis of selected media before and after cell growth indicated that nitrogen in the form of NH4 accumulated in culture supernatants, possibly due to unbalanced growth conditions brought on by a scarcity of simple sugars in the media tested. The potential of plant extract-based media to economically produce biomass of microbes active in reducing plant disease is considerable and deserves further research. PMID:26745985

  1. Effects of spray-dried porcine plasma and plant extracts on intestinal morphology and on leukocyte cell subsets of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Nofrarías, M; Manzanilla, E G; Pujols, J; Gibert, X; Majó, N; Segalés, J; Gasa, J

    2006-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of a 6% spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) and a plant extracts mixture (XT; 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin) on the productive performance, intestinal morphology, and leukocyte cell subsets of early-weaned pigs compared with a control group. Morphometry of the jejunum, ileum, and colon, and immune cell analysis of blood, ileocolic lymph node (LN), and ileal Peyer's patches were done in 24 weaned pigs (20 +/- 2 d) at 19 or 21 d postweaning. Although SDPP and XT treatments did not increase ADG or ADFI, SDPP improved the G:F ratio (P = 0.024) compared with the control group. Dietary SDPP reduced the percentages of blood monocytes (P = 0.006) and macrophages in ileal Peyer's patches and LN (P = 0.04), of B lymphocytes (P = 0.04) and gammadelta+ T cells in LN (P = 0.009), and of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P = 0.026) as well as the density of lamina propria cells in the colon (P < 0.01). Dietary XT reduced intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers in jejunum (P = 0.034) and the percentages of blood cytotoxic cells (P = 0.07) and B lymphocytes in LN (P = 0.03); however, XT increased blood monocytes (P = 0.038) and the density of lamina propria lymphocytes in the colon (P = 0.003). These results indicate that dietary SDPP and plant extracts can affect intestinal morphology and immune cell subsets of gut tissues and blood in weaned pigs. Furthermore, the effects of SDPP suggest lower activation of the immune system of the piglets. PMID:16971575

  2. Steam drying -- Modeling and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmerstedt, R.; Hager, J.

    1996-08-01

    The concept of steam drying originates from the mid of the last century. However, a broad industrial acceptance of the technique has so far not taken place. The paper deals with modelling the steam drying process and applications of steam drying within certain industrial sectors where the technique has been deemed to have special opportunities. In the modelling section the mass and heat transfer processes are described along with equilibrium, capillarity and sorption phenomena occurring in porous materials during the steam drying process. In addition existing models in the literature are presented. The applications discussed involve drying of fuels with high moisture contents, cattle feed exemplified by sugar beet pulp, lumber, paper pulp, paper and sludges. Steam drying is compared to flue gas drying of biofuels prior to combustion in a boiler. With reference to a current installation in Sweden, the exergy losses, as manifested by loss of co-generation capacity, are discussed. The energy saving potential when using steam drying of sugar beet pulp as compared to other possible plant configurations is demonstrated. Mechanical vapor recompression applied to steam drying is analyzed with reference to reported data from industrial plants. Finally, environmental advantages when using steam drying are presented.

  3. Chloroplast SRP54 Was Recruited for Posttranslational Protein Transport via Complex Formation with Chloroplast SRP43 during Land Plant Evolution.

    PubMed

    Dünschede, Beatrix; Träger, Chantal; Schröder, Christine Vera; Ziehe, Dominik; Walter, Björn; Funke, Silke; Hofmann, Eckhard; Schünemann, Danja

    2015-05-22

    In bacteria, membrane proteins are targeted cotranslationally via a signal recognition particle (SRP). During the evolution of higher plant chloroplasts from cyanobacteria, the SRP pathway underwent striking adaptations that enable the posttranslational transport of the abundant light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b-binding proteins (LHCPs). The conserved 54-kDa SRP subunit in higher plant chloroplasts (cpSRP54) is not bound to an SRP RNA, an essential SRP component in bacteria, but forms a stable heterodimer with the chloroplast-specific cpSRP43. This heterodimeric cpSRP recognizes LHCP and delivers it to the thylakoid membrane whereby cpSRP43 plays a central role. This study shows that the cpSRP system in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii differs significantly from that of higher plants as cpSRP43 is not complexed to cpSRP54 in Chlamydomonas and cpSRP54 is not involved in LHCP recognition. This divergence is attributed to altered residues within the cpSRP54 tail and the second chromodomain of cpSRP43 that are crucial for the formation of the binding interface in Arabidopsis. These changes are highly conserved among chlorophytes, whereas all land plants contain cpSRP proteins with typical interaction motifs. These data demonstrate that the coevolution of LHCPs and cpSRP43 occurred independently of complex formation with cpSRP54 and that the interaction between cpSRP54 and cpSRP43 evolved later during the transition from chlorophytes to land plants. Furthermore, our data show that in higher plants a heterodimeric form of cpSRP is required for the formation of a low molecular weight transit complex with LHCP. PMID:25833951

  4. [Role of Bacterial Adhesin RAPA1 in Formation of Efficient Symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum with Bean Plants].

    PubMed

    Nigmatullina, L R; Lavina, A M; Vershinina, Z R; Baimiev, Al Kh

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesins, the proteins responsible for attachment of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to plant roots, are involved in formation of stable associative symbioses. In the present work enhanced expression of the rapA1 adhesin gene in Rhizobium leguminosarum PVu5 was shown to improve the efficiency of nodulation on bean roots inoculated with the modified strain. The rapA1 gene was cloned into the pJN105Turbo plasmid, this construct was used for transformation of R. leguminosarum PVu5, bean plants were inoculated by this transgenic strain, and efficiency of root nodule formation was determined. In the plants treated with rapA1-transgenic rhizobia, the number of root nodules was on average two times higher than in the plants inoculated with the original strain. Aggregation of R. leguminosarum was achieved when the rapA1 gene expression was enhanced either in rhizobia or in the co-cultured modified strain E. coli pJN105TurboRapA1. PMID:26964360

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Parathion, Malathion, Diazinon, and Pirimiphos Methyl in Dried Medicinal Plants Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibre Coated with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Salimi, Mona; Sarkhail, Parisa; Rastkari, Noushin

    2012-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of different organophosphorus pesticides in dried medicinal plant samples is described. The analytes were extracted by single-walled carbon nanotubes as a new solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. The developed method showed good performance. For diazinon and pirimiphos methyl calibration, curves were linear (r2 ≥ 0.993) over the concentration ranges from 1.5 to 300 ng g−1, and the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.3 ng g−1. For parathion and malathion, the linear range and limit of detection were 2.5–300 (r2 ≥ 0.991) and 0.5 ng g−1, respectively. In addition, a comparative study between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre for the determination of target analytes was carried out. Single-walled carbon nanotubes fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350°C), and longer lifespan (over 250 times) than the commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The developed method was successfully applied to determine target organophosphorus pesticides in real samples. PMID:22645439

  6. Formation and fates of nitrosamines and their formation potentials from a surface water source to drinking water treatment plants in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Wang, Chung-Ya; Huang, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-10-01

    Nitrosamines are toxic and emerging disinfection byproducts. In this study, three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in southern Taiwan treating the same source water in Gaoping River with comparable technologies were selected. The objective was to evaluate the formation and fates of six nitrosamines and their formation potentials (FPs) from a surface water source to drinking water. Albeit decreased further downstream in the river, four nitrosamine-FPs were observed in the source water due to anthropogenic pollution in the upstream areas. In the DWTPs, nitrosamines were formed and NDMA was the main species. While high organic carbon concentrations indicated elevated nitrosamine-FPs in the source water, NDMA formation in the DWTPs was more positively associated with reductions of water parameters that quantify organic matters with double bonded ring structures. Although precursor removal via pre-oxidation is a viable approach to limit nitrosamine formation during post-disinfection, this study clearly indicates that a great portion of NDMA in treated water has been formed in the 1st oxidation step of drinking water treatment. The pre-oxidation simulations in the lab demonstrated the impact of pre-chlorination on nitrosamine formation. Given the limited removal in conventional treatment processes, avoiding nitrosamine-FPs in sources and/or nitrosamine formation during pre-oxidation become important issues to control the threats of nitrosamines in drinking water. Under current circumstance in which pre-oxidation is widely used to optimize the treatment effectiveness in many DWTPs, its adverse effect by forming nitrosamines needs to be carefully minimized and using technologies other than pre-chlorination (e.g., pre-ozonation) may be considered. PMID:27479356

  7. Quantification of the effects of architectural traits on dry mass production and light interception of tomato canopy under different temperature regimes using a dynamic functional–structural plant model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi My Nguyet; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in evaluating the environmental effects on crop architectural traits and yield improvement. However, crop models describing the dynamic changes in canopy structure with environmental conditions and the complex interactions between canopy structure, light interception, and dry mass production are only gradually emerging. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as a model crop, a dynamic functional–structural plant model (FSPM) was constructed, parameterized, and evaluated to analyse the effects of temperature on architectural traits, which strongly influence canopy light interception and shoot dry mass. The FSPM predicted the organ growth, organ size, and shoot dry mass over time with high accuracy (>85%). Analyses of this FSPM showed that, in comparison with the reference canopy, shoot dry mass may be affected by leaf angle by as much as 20%, leaf curvature by up to 7%, the leaf length:width ratio by up to 5%, internode length by up to 9%, and curvature ratios and leaf arrangement by up to 6%. Tomato canopies at low temperature had higher canopy density and were more clumped due to higher leaf area and shorter internodes. Interestingly, dry mass production and light interception of the clumped canopy were more sensitive to changes in architectural traits. The complex interactions between architectural traits, canopy light interception, dry mass production, and environmental conditions can be studied by the dynamic FSPM, which may serve as a tool for designing a canopy structure which is ‘ideal’ in a given environment. PMID:25183746

  8. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  9. Formation and use of coal combustion residues from three types of power plants burning Illinois coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Hughes, R.E.; DeMaris, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, ash, and limestone samples from a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant, a pulverized coal combustion (PC) plant, and a cyclone (CYC) plant in Illinois were analyzed to determine the combustion behavior of mineral matter, and to propose beneficial uses for the power plant ashes. Pyrite and marcasite in coal were converted during combustion to glass, hematite and magnetite. Calcite was converted to lime and anhydrite. The clay minerals were altered to mullite and glass. Quartz was partially altered to glass. Trace elements in coal were partially mobilized during combustion and, as a result, emitted into the atmosphere or adsorbed on fly ash or on hardware on the cool side of the power plants. Overall, the mobilities of 15 trace elements investigated were lower at the FBC plant than at the other plants. Only F and Mn at the FBC plant, F, Hg, and Se at the PC plant and Be, F, Hg, and Se at the CYC plant had over 50% of their concentrations mobilized. Se and Ge could be commercially recovered from some of the combustion ashes. The FBC ashes could be used as acid neutralizing agents in agriculture and waste treatment, and to produce sulfate fertilizers, gypsum wall boards, concrete, and cement. The PC and CYC fly ashes can potentially be used in the production of cement, concrete, ceramics, and zeolites. The PC and CYC bottom ashes could be used in stabilized road bases, as frits in roof shingles, and perhaps in manufacturing amber glass. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The decrease in the IgG-binding capacity of intensively dry heated whey proteins is associated with intense Maillard reaction, structural changes of the proteins and formation of RAGE-ligands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fahui; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Wichers, Harry J; Hettinga, Kasper A

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatment is the most common way of milk processing, inducing structural changes as well as chemical modifications in milk proteins. These modifications influence the immune-reactivity and allergenicity of milk proteins. This study shows the influence of dry heating on the solubility, particle size, loss of accessible thiol and amino groups, degree of Maillard reaction, IgG-binding capacity and binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) of thermally treated and glycated whey proteins. A mixture of whey proteins and lactose was dry heated at 130 °C up to 20 min to mimic the baking process in two different water activities, 0.23 to mimic the heating in the dry state and 0.59 for the semi-dry state. The dry heating was accompanied by a loss of soluble proteins and an increase in the size of dissolved aggregates. Most of the Maillard reaction sites were found to be located in the reported conformational epitope area on whey proteins. Therefore the structural changes, including exposure of the SH group, SH-SS exchange, covalent cross-links and the loss of available lysine, subsequently resulted in a decreased IgG-binding capacity (up to 33%). The binding of glycation products to RAGE increased with the heating time, which was correlated with the stage of the Maillard reaction and the decrease in the IgG-binding capacity. The RAGE-binding capacity was higher in samples with a lower water activity (0.23). These results indicate that the intensive dry heating of whey proteins as it occurs during baking may be of importance to the immunological properties of allergens in cow's milk, both due to chemical modifications of the allergens and formation of AGEs. PMID:26524422

  11. Modelling Contribution of Biogenic VOCs to New Particle Formation in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Boy, M.; Mogensen, D.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillman, R.; Kulmala, M. T.; Dal Maso, M.

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic VOCs are substantially emitted from vegetation to atmosphere. The oxidation of BVOCs by OH, O3, and NO3 in air generating less volatile compounds may lead to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosol, and thus presents a link to the vegetation, aerosol, and climate interaction system (Kulmala et al, 2004). Studies including field observations, laboratory experiments and modelling have improved our understanding on the connection between BVOCs and new particle formation mechanism in some extent (see e.g. Tunved et al., 2006; Mentel et al., 2009). Nevertheless, the exact formation process still remains uncertain, especially from the perspective of BVOC contributions. The purpose of this work is using the MALTE aerosol dynamics and air chemistry box model to investigate aerosol formation from reactions of direct tree emitted VOCs in the presence of ozone, UV light and artificial solar light in an atmospheric simulation chamber. This model employs up to date air chemical reactions, especially the VOC chemistry, which may potentially allow us to estimate the contribution of BVOCs to secondary aerosol formation, and further to quantify the influence of terpenes to the formation rate of new particles. Experiments were conducted in the plant chamber facility at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany (Jülich Plant Aerosol Atmosphere Chamber, JPAC). The detail regarding to the chamber facility has been written elsewhere (Mentel et al., 2009). During the experiments, sulphuric acid was measured by CIMS. VOC mixing ratios were measured by two GC-MS systems and PTR-MS. An Airmodus Particle size magnifier coupled with a TSI CPC and a PH-CPC were used to count the total particle number concentrations with a detection limit close to the expected size of formation of fresh nanoCN. A SMPS measured the particle size distribution. Several other parameters including ozone, CO2, NO, Temperature, RH, and flow rates were also measured. MALTE is a modular model to predict

  12. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  13. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  14. The plant secondary metabolite citral alters water status and prevents seed formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Graña, E; Díaz-Tielas, C; López-González, D; Martínez-Peñalver, A; Reigosa, M J; Sánchez-Moreiras, A M

    2016-05-01

    Based on previous results, which showed that the secondary metabolite citral causes disturbances to plant water status, the present study is focused on demonstrating and detailing these effects on the water-related parameters of Arabidopsis thaliana adult plants, and their impact on plant fitness. Clear evidence of effects on water status and fitness were observed: plants treated with 1200 and 2400 μm citral showed decreased RWC, reduced Ψs , increased Ψw and reduced stomatal opening, even 7 days after the beginning of the experiment. Plant protection signals, such as leaf rolling or increased anthocyanin content, were also detected in these plants. In contrast, 14 days after beginning the treatment, treated plants showed signs of citral-related damage. Moreover, the reproductive success of treated plants was critically compromised, with prematurely withered flowers and no silique or seed development. This effect of citral on fitness of adult plants suggests a promising application of this natural compound in weed management by reducing the weed seed bank in the soil. PMID:26587965

  15. Gallic acid, one of the components in many plant tissues, is a potential inhibitor for insulin amyloid fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Jayamani, Jayaraman; Shanmugam, Ganesh

    2014-10-01

    Proteins under stressful conditions can lead to the formation of an ordered self-assembled structure, referred to as amyloid fibrils, to which many neurodegenerative diseases such as Type II diabetes, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, etc., are attributed. Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation using natural products is one of the main therapeutic strategies to prevent the progression of these diseases. Polyphenols are the mostly consumed as antioxidants in a human nutrition. Herein, we have studied the effect of a simple polyphenol, gallic acid (GA), one of the main components in plant tissues, especially in tea leaves, on the insulin amyloid fibril formation. Different biophysical characterizations such as turbidity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Thioflavin T (ThT) assays, circular dichroism, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy have been used to analyze the inhibition of amyloid fibril formation. The occurrence of fibrils in an AFM image and ThT fluorescence enhancement confirms the formation of insulin amyloid fibrils when incubated under acidic pH 2 at 65 °C. In the presence of GA, absence of fibrils in AFM image and no change in the intensity of ThT fluorescence confirms the inhibition of insulin amyloid fibrils by GA. Spectroscopic results reveal that GA inhibits the conformational transition of α-helix → β-sheet, which is generally induced during the insulin fibril formation. It was found that the inhibitory effect of GA is concentration dependent and non-linear. Based on the observed results, we propose that GA interacts with native insulin, preventing nuclei formation, which is essential for fibril growth, thereby inhibiting the amyloid fibril formation. The present results thus demonstrate that GA can effectively inhibit insulin amyloid fibril formation in vitro. PMID:25105923

  16. Nature of the contribution of the polymers of cell walls of the higher plants to coal formation

    SciTech Connect

    Given, P.H.

    1983-08-29

    Three peat cores from differing environments in the Florida Everglades and one from the Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia, were collected in the field in 1982. The strategy adopted in this project is to hand-pick any large fragments of decayed plant tissue from peat samples and then separate plant debris from fine-grained humic material by passing a water slurry through an 80-mesh sieve. The large pieces, the +80-mesh and -80-mesh are then to be examined separately. The recognizable plant tissue is to be characterized botanically by microscopic study, and all samples are to be studied chemically as indicated below. The apparently simple operation of wet-sieving proved unexpectedly troublesome; the humic matter was incompletely removed from the +80-mesh material, and after drying it proved impossible to complete the separation. The earlier FTIR spectra were therefore made on unsatisfactory samples and interpretation was complex. More careful slurrying and operation on a smaller scale now routinely gives clean separations in the sense that the +80-mesh fibrous rootlets are free of humic matter. Microscopic examination of the -80-mesh material shows the presence of some very small fragments of plant tissue, but the selection of an 80-mesh sieve seems very reasonable in segregating plant tissue from amorphous granular material. Large pieces and the +80-mesh tissue are Soxhlet-extracted with benzene/ethanol before chemical study, to remove simple phenols, lipids, pigments, etc. The -80-mesh material is extracted both with 2N HCl at room temperature and with benzene/ethanol. Most of the data obtained so far derive from FTIR, though some /sup 13/C NMR spectra are available. Data for seven samples from three peat cores taken at different sites have been studied at the time of writing.

  17. Gamete formation via meiotic nuclear restitution generates fertile amphiploid F1 (oat x maize) plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat x maize crosses generated hybrid zygotes that by undergoing complete and incomplete uniparental genome loss of the maize genome during embryogenesis resulted in both euhaploid plants that have complete oat chromosome complements and no maize chromosome and aneuhaploid plants that have complete o...

  18. Method of creating starch-like ultra-fine rice flour and effect of spray drying on formation of free fatty acid.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice flour from long, medium, and short grain cultivars were processed by passing a 32% rice flour slurry through a microfluidizer at 100 MPa, and spray dryer at three different outlet temperatures, OT (50°C, 80°C, and 115°C). Spray drying conditions were controlled by the flow-rate of the slurry ...

  19. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  20. [Importance of competition for pollination in formation of the entomophylous plants complex structure].

    PubMed

    Dlusskiĭ, G M

    2013-01-01

    Many species of entomophylous plants have a wide range of pollinators, and the same insects visit flowers of many plants. The competition for pollination leads to decreasing in seed production of competing species. However, there exists a variety of adaptations that allow plants to reduce the intensity of competition. A comparative analysis of pollinators spectra has allowed to designate groups (subcomplexes) of plants with regard to dominance of various groups of pollinators: myiophylous (flies from the superfamily Muscomorha dominate), syphidophylous (flies from the family Syrphidae dominate), psychophylous (butterflies dominate), cantharophylous (beetles dominate), nonspecialized and specialized melittophylous (Apidae, mainly bumblebees, dominate). The belonging of plants to a specific subcomplex is defined mainly by the structure of flowers and inflorescences. Modes of mechanical and attractive isolation are discussed that lead to restriction of pollinators composition. Competition abatement between species with similar spectra of pollinators and belonging to the same subcomplex is achieved mainly by spatial (ecological) and temporal (different timing of flowering) isolation. PMID:25438575

  1. Metabolic analysis of the increased adventitious rooting mutant of Artemisia annua reveals a role for the plant monoterpene borneol in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Liu, Shuoqian; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenwen; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical process for plant clonal propagation. The role of plant secondary metabolites in AR formation is still poorly understood. Chemical and physical mutagenesis in combination with somatic variation were performed on Artemisia annua in order to obtain a mutant with changes in adventitious rooting and composition of plant secondary metabolites. Metabolic and morphological analyses of the iar (increased adventitious rooting) mutant coupled with in vitro assays were used to elucidate the relationship between plant secondary metabolites and AR formation. The only detected differences between the iar mutant and wild-type were rooting capacity and borneol/camphor content. Consistent with this, treatment with borneol in vitro promoted adventitious rooting in wild-type. The enhanced rooting did not continue upon removal of borneol. The iar mutant displayed no significant differences in AR formation upon treatment with camphor. Together, our results suggest that borneol promotes adventitious rooting whereas camphor has no effect on AR formation. PMID:24329606

  2. Magnetically responsive dry fluids.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Filipa L; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J O

    2013-08-21

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. PMID:23831769

  3. Rice Distillers Dried Grain Is a Promising Ingredient as a Partial Replacement of Plant Origin Sources in the Diet for Juvenile Red Seabream (Pagrus major)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Lee, Sang-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to test the effects of dietary distillers dried grain (DDG) level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and antioxidant activity of juvenile red seabream (Pagrus major). Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% DDG from rice (designated as DDG0, DDG5, DDG10, DDG15, DDG20, and DDG25), respectively. Juvenile red seabream averaging 10.1±0.05 g were randomly distributed into 400-L tanks in a flow through systems. Three replicate groups of fish were fed one of the experimental diets to visual satiation two times a day for 10 weeks. Survival, weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and hepatosomatic index of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Proximate and amino acid composition of whole body in juvenile red seabream were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Plasma content of total protein, glucose, cholesterol, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, phospholipid and triglyceride were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and alkyl radical scavenging activities in plasma and liver of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). The results of this experiment suggest that DDG has the potential to replace plant origin ingredients such as wheat flour and corn gluten meal and could be used up to 25% in diet without incurring negative effects on the growth performance of juvenile red seabream. PMID:25358367

  4. Magnetically responsive dry fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J. O.

    2013-07-01

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid.Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01784b

  5. Investigating the Toxicity, Uptake, Nanoparticle Formation and Genetic Response of Plants to Gold

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew F.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Bruce, Neil C.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the physiological and genetic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Arabidopsis) to gold. The root lengths of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on nutrient agar plates containing 100 mg/L gold were reduced by 75%. Oxidized gold was subsequently found in roots and shoots of these plants, but gold nanoparticles (reduced gold) were only observed in the root tissues. We used a microarray-based study to monitor the expression of candidate genes involved in metal uptake and transport in Arabidopsis upon gold exposure. There was up-regulation of genes involved in plant stress response such as glutathione transferases, cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and peroxidases. In parallel, our data show the significant down-regulation of a discreet number of genes encoding proteins involved in the transport of copper, cadmium, iron and nickel ions, along with aquaporins, which bind to gold. We used Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) to study nanoparticle uptake from hydroponic culture using ionic gold as a non-nanoparticle control and concluded that nanoparticles between 5 and 100 nm in diameter are not directly accumulated by plants. Gold nanoparticles were only observed in plants exposed to ionic gold in solution. Together, we believe our results imply that gold is taken up by the plant predominantly as an ionic form, and that plants respond to gold exposure by up-regulating genes for plant stress and down-regulating specific metal transporters to reduce gold uptake. PMID:24736522

  6. Investigating the toxicity, uptake, nanoparticle formation and genetic response of plants to gold.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew F; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Anderson, Christopher W N; Bruce, Neil C

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the physiological and genetic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Arabidopsis) to gold. The root lengths of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on nutrient agar plates containing 100 mg/L gold were reduced by 75%. Oxidized gold was subsequently found in roots and shoots of these plants, but gold nanoparticles (reduced gold) were only observed in the root tissues. We used a microarray-based study to monitor the expression of candidate genes involved in metal uptake and transport in Arabidopsis upon gold exposure. There was up-regulation of genes involved in plant stress response such as glutathione transferases, cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and peroxidases. In parallel, our data show the significant down-regulation of a discreet number of genes encoding proteins involved in the transport of copper, cadmium, iron and nickel ions, along with aquaporins, which bind to gold. We used Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) to study nanoparticle uptake from hydroponic culture using ionic gold as a non-nanoparticle control and concluded that nanoparticles between 5 and 100 nm in diameter are not directly accumulated by plants. Gold nanoparticles were only observed in plants exposed to ionic gold in solution. Together, we believe our results imply that gold is taken up by the plant predominantly as an ionic form, and that plants respond to gold exposure by up-regulating genes for plant stress and down-regulating specific metal transporters to reduce gold uptake. PMID:24736522

  7. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies. PMID:20039220

  8. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery, called punctal cautery, is recommended to permanently close the drainage holes. The procedure helps keep the limited volume of tears on the eye for a longer period of time. In some patients with dry eye, supplements or dietary sources (such as tuna fish) of omega-3 fatty ...

  9. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  10. Formation of deposits on the surfaces of superheaters and economisers of MSW incinerator plants.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, J; Pfrang-Stotz, G; Bergfeldt, B; Seifert, H; Knapp, P

    2013-01-01

    Mineralogical and chemical investigations of deposits from superheaters and economisers from a MSWI plant in Mannheim, Germany, lead to a classification system which provides information about the most critical parameters leading to fouling and corrosion. With the help of this classification system parameters like the geometry of boilers and the waste input can be changed in order to prolong run times between revisions and enhance energy efficiency of MSWI plants. PMID:23017646

  11. Parallel ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the quantification of HIV protease inhibitors using dried spot sample collection format.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyoko; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2014-08-15

    An assay was developed and validated for the quantification of eight protease inhibitors (indinavir (IDV), ritonavir (RTV), lopinavir (LPV), saquinavir (SQV), amprenavir (APV), nelfinavir (NFV), atazanavir (AZV) and darunavir (DRV)) in dried plasma spots using parallel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. For each analyte an isotopically labeled internal standard was used and the assay based on liquid-solid extraction the area response ratio (analyte/IS) was found to be linear; from 0.025 μg/ml to 20 μg/ml for IDV, SQV, DRV, AZV, LPV, from 0.025 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml for NFV, APV and from 0.025 μg/ml to 5 μg/ml for RTV using 15 μl of plasma spotted on filter paper placed in a sample tube. The total analysis time was of 4 min and inter-assay accuracies and precisions were in the range of 87.7-109% and 2.5-11.8%, respectively. On dried plasma spots all analytes were found to be stable for at least 7 days. Practicability of the assay to blood was also demonstrated. The sample drying process could be reduced to 5 min using a commercial microwave system without any analyte degradation. Together with quantification, confirmatory analysis was performed on representative clinical samples. PMID:25049214

  12. Nutrient database for sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles from ethanol plants in the Western Plains Region and their effects on nursery pig performance.

    PubMed

    Sotak, K M; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Derouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

    2014-01-01

    Samples of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected and analyzed to establish a nutrient database and evaluate the quality and consistency between and within 5 ethanol plants in Kansas and Texas. Each sample (n = 21) was analyzed for AA, DM, CP, crude fiber, crude fat, ash, NDF, ADF, trace minerals, and starch. Mean values (DM basis) were 0.88% Lys, 10.49% crude fat, 34.21% CP, and 4,722 kcal/kg GE. The standard deviations among sorghum DDGS plants were similar to those within plants for most nutrients. Results of these analyses were used to formulate diets for 2 nursery trials. The 2 experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding sorghum DDGS (29.0% CP and 7.2% crude fat) to corn- or sorghum-based diets on nursery pig growth performance. In Exp. 1, 360 nursery barrows (6.8 kg and 26 d of age) were used in a 34-d study. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments with 5 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial with main effects of grain source (corn vs. sorghum) and sorghum DDGS (0, 15, 30, or 45%). Diets were formulated to 1.30 and 1.25% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys in phases 1 and 2, respectively, but were not balanced for energy. Overall, there were no differences among pigs fed sorghum- or corn-based diets for ADG and ADFI; however, as sorghum DDGS increased from 0 to 45% of the diet, ADG decreased (linear, P < 0.01). There was a DDGS × grain source interaction (linear, P < 0.04) observed for G:F. In corn-based diets, pigs fed increasing sorghum DDGS had relatively similar G:F. However, in pigs fed sorghum-based diets, G:F was best for those fed 0% DDGS but was decreased in pigs fed 15, 30, or 45% sorghum DDGS. In Exp. 2, 180 nursery pigs (10.7 kg and 38 d of age) were used in a 21-d study with 6 pigs per pen and 5 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of grain source (corn vs. sorghum) and DDGS (0 vs. 30% corn or

  13. Formation of N-nitroso-N-methylurea in various samples of smoked/dried fish, fish sauce, seafoods, and ethnic fermented/pickled vegetables following incubation with nitrite under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sen, N P; Seaman, S W; Baddoo, P A; Burgess, C; Weber, D

    2001-04-01

    In continuation of our previous studies on N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) formation in cured meats following incubation with nitrite at gastric pH, we extended the investigation to other foods mentioned in the title of this paper. The main objective was to determine whether these foods have the potential to form NMU at pH's that can be found in the human stomach. This was done by nitrosating an aliquot (5 g for fish sauce, 10 g for the others) of each with 7.25 microM to 1.59 mM levels of sodium nitrite for 2 h at room temperature at pH 0.8--1.5 and measuring the amounts of NMU formed. Of the samples tested, fish sauce formed 2--712 ng of NMU, followed in decreasing order by herring (<0.3--688 ng); dried anchovy, shrimp, and other fishes (<0.3--134 ng); crab and lobster paté (<0.3--342 ng); sardines (6--59 ng); oysters and mussels (11--31 ng); dried squid (3--47 ng); kimchi (7--107 ng); and Japanese pickled radish (<0.3--72 ng). Incorporation of 200-2000 ppm of ascorbic acid in the fish sauce and other foods, prior to nitrosation, appreciably inhibited such NMU formation. Although previous researchers in China reported NMU formation in nitrosated samples of fish sauce, this is the first reported formation of NMU upon nitrosation of the other foods mentioned above, and the first reported inhibition of such formation by added ascorbic acid. PMID:11308373

  14. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion. PMID:26123979

  15. Twin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shang; Moravek, Alexander; von der Heyden, Lisa; Held, Andreas; Sörgel, Matthias; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace-gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. Compared with a single-cuvette system, the twin-cuvette system is insensitive to disturbing background effects such as wall deposition. In combination with a climate chamber, we can perform flux measurements under constant and controllable environmental conditions. With an Automatic Temperature Regulated Air Humidification System (ATRAHS), we are able to regulate the relative humidity inside both cuvettes between 40 and 90 % with a high precision of 0.3 %. Thus, we could demonstrate that for a cuvette system operated with a high flow rate (> 20 L min-1), a temperature-regulated humidification system such as ATRAHS is an accurate method for air humidification of the flushing air. Furthermore, the fully automatic progressive fill-up of ATRAHS based on a floating valve improved the performance of the entire measurement system and prevented data gaps. Two reactive gas species, ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), were used to demonstrate the quality and performance of the twin-cuvette system. O3 and PAN exchange with Quercus ilex was investigated over a 14 day measurement period under controlled climate chamber conditions. By using O3 mixing ratios between 32 and 105 ppb and PAN mixing ratios between 100 and 350 ppt, a linear dependency of the O3 flux as well as the PAN flux in relation to its ambient mixing ratio could be observed. At relative humidity (RH) of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the deposition of O3 to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by the leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves. Furthermore, the formation of water films on the leaf surface of plants inside the chamber could be continuously tracked with our custom built leaf wetness sensors

  16. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S.; De La Torre, Carola M.; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Grundler, Florian M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction. PMID:26417108

  17. Antibody array in a multiwell plate format for the sensitive and multiplexed detection of important plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Elliott, Christopher T; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-07-15

    The global seed market is considered to be an important industry with a total value of $10,543 million US dollars in 2012. Because plant pathogens such as bacteria and viruses cause a significant economic loss to both producers and exporters, the seed export industry urgently requires rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive testing for the pathogens to prevent disease spreading worldwide. This study developed an antibody array in a multiwell plate format to simultaneously detect four crucial plant pathogens, namely, a bacterial fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV, potyvirus), Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV), and Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). The capture antibodies specific to the pathogens were immobilized on each well at preassigned positions by an automatic microarrayer. The antibodies on the arrays specifically captured the corresponding pathogens present in the sample extracts. The presence of pathogens bound on the capture antibodies was subsequently detected by a cocktail of fluorescently conjugated secondary antibodies. The limits of detection of the developed antibody array for the detection of Aac, ChiVMV, WSMoV, and MYSV were 5 × 10(5) CFU/mL, 30 ng/mL, 1000 ng/mL, and 160 ng/mL, respectively, which were very similar to those of the conventional ELISA method. The antibody array in a multiwell plate format accurately detected plant pathogens in single and multiple detections. Moreover, this format enables easy handling of the assay at a higher speed of operation. PMID:24945525

  18. Preliminary mineralogical characterization of weathered and less-weathered strata of the Meade Peak phosphatic shale member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation: measured sections C and D, Dry Valley, Caribou County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, Andrew C.; Gunter, Mickey E.; Herring, James R.

    2001-01-01

    The Permian Phosphoria Formation of southeastern Idaho is one of the largest phosphate producing deposits in the world. Despite the economic significance of this Formation, the finegrained nature of this phosphorite deposit has discouraged detailed mineralogical characterization and quantification studies. Recently Se and other potentially hazardous trace elements in mine wastes have drawn increased attention to this formation, and motivated more extensive study. Part of this effort has focused on a more detailed geological, including a mineralogical, characterization of the area. Past research identified the major minerals in the Formation, including carbonatefluorapatite, quartz, and dolomite, and a variety of sheet silicates and feldspars. Minor phases such as pyrite and sphalerite have also been identified in the deposit and may be sources of Se. This study used powder X-ray diffraction, with Rietveld quantification software to quantify and characterize the mineralogy of the 83 samples collected from two stratigraphic sections measured by the U.S. Geological Survey at the Dry Valley mine in the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation. Analyses show extensive variability of carbonate substitution in the fluorapatite structure, determined by measuring the apatite a-cell dimension, as well as patterns of correlation between mineralogy and the stratigraphy.

  19. Convective drying of sludge cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  20. Plant chamber investigations of the formation of new particles in natural VOC mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wildt, J.; Dal Maso, M.; Hohaus, T.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, T.; Tillmann, R.; Uerlings, R.; Wahner, A.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic emissions forms new particles which can act as cooling agent in the climate system. New particle formation in Boreal regions is related to monoterpene emissions and estimated to contribute a current negative radiative forcing. Biogenic emissions are known to depend on ambient conditions most notably solar radiation and temperature. Here we present results from simulation experiments conducted under atmospherically relevant conditions. The emissions of trees (spruce, pine, birch, beech and oak) were taken as gas phase SOA precursors. The formation of new particles was observed to depend on OH and VOC concentration. Of the tree species investigated oak emissions were observed to lead to the lowest nucleation rates. Possible implications for new particle formation in response to climate change will be discussed.

  1. Exo70E2 is essential for exocyst subunit recruitment and EXPO formation in both plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan; Chun Lai, John Ho; Ling Chan, Vivian Hoi; Wang, Xiangfeng; Cai, Yi; Tan, Xiaoyun; Bao, Yiqun; Xia, Jun; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2014-02-01

    In contrast to a single copy of Exo70 in yeast and mammals, the Arabidopsis genome contains 23 paralogues of Exo70 (AtExo70). Using AtExo70E2 and its GFP fusion as probes, we recently identified a novel double-membrane organelle termed exocyst-positive organelle (EXPO) that mediates an unconventional protein secretion in plant cells. Here we further demonstrate that AtExo70E2 is essential for exocyst subunit recruitment and for EXPO formation in both plants and animals. By performing transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts, we established that a number of exocyst subunits (especially the members of the Sec family) are unable to be recruited to EXPO in the absence of AtExo70E2. The paralogue AtExo70A1 is unable to substitute for AtExo70E2 in this regard. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirm the interaction between AtExo70E2 and Sec6 and Sec10. AtExo70E2, but not its yeast counterpart, is also capable of inducing EXPO formation in an animal cell line (HEK293A cells). Electron microscopy confirms the presence of double-membraned, EXPO-like structures in HEK293A cells expressing AtExo70E2. Inversely, neither human nor yeast Exo70 homologues cause the formation of EXPO in Arabidopsis protoplasts. These results point to a specific and crucial role for AtExo70E2 in EXPO formation. PMID:24307681

  2. Exo70E2 is essential for exocyst subunit recruitment and EXPO formation in both plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan; Chun Lai, John Ho; Ling Chan, Vivian Hoi; Wang, Xiangfeng; Cai, Yi; Tan, Xiaoyun; Bao, Yiqun; Xia, Jun; Robinson, David G.; Jiang, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to a single copy of Exo70 in yeast and mammals, the Arabidopsis genome contains 23 paralogues of Exo70 (AtExo70). Using AtExo70E2 and its GFP fusion as probes, we recently identified a novel double-membrane organelle termed exocyst-positive organelle (EXPO) that mediates an unconventional protein secretion in plant cells. Here we further demonstrate that AtExo70E2 is essential for exocyst subunit recruitment and for EXPO formation in both plants and animals. By performing transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts, we established that a number of exocyst subunits (especially the members of the Sec family) are unable to be recruited to EXPO in the absence of AtExo70E2. The paralogue AtExo70A1 is unable to substitute for AtExo70E2 in this regard. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirm the interaction between AtExo70E2 and Sec6 and Sec10. AtExo70E2, but not its yeast counterpart, is also capable of inducing EXPO formation in an animal cell line (HEK293A cells). Electron microscopy confirms the presence of double-membraned, EXPO-like structures in HEK293A cells expressing AtExo70E2. Inversely, neither human nor yeast Exo70 homologues cause the formation of EXPO in Arabidopsis protoplasts. These results point to a specific and crucial role for AtExo70E2 in EXPO formation. PMID:24307681

  3. N-nitrosodimethylamine formation upon ozonation and identification of precursors source in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Sgroi, Massimiliano; Roccaro, Paolo; Oelker, Gregg L; Snyder, Shane A

    2014-09-01

    Ozone doses normalized to the dissolved organic carbon concentration were applied to the primary influent, primary effluent, and secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant producing water destined for potable reuse. Results showed the most N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) production from primary effluent, and the recycle streams entering the primary clarifiers were identified as the main source of NDMA precursors. The degradation of aminomethylated polyacrylamide (Mannich) polymer used for sludge treatment was a significant cause of precursor occurrence. A strong correlation between NDMA formation and ammonia concentration was found suggesting an important role of ammonia oxidation on NDMA production. During ozonation tests in DI water using dimethylamine (DMA) as model precursor, the NDMA yield significantly increased in the presence of ammonia and bromide due to the formation of hydroxylamine and brominated nitrogenous oxidants. In addition, NDMA formation during ozonation of dimethylformamide (DMF), the other model precursor used in this study, occurred only in the presence of ammonia, and it was attributable to the oxidation of DMF by hydroxyl radicals. Filtered wastewater samples (0.7 μm) produced more NDMA than unfiltered samples, suggesting that ozone reacted with dissolved precursors and supporting the hypothesis of polymer degradation. Particularly, the total suspended solids content similarly affected NDMA formation and the UV absorbance decrease during ozonation due to the different ozone demand created in filtered and unfiltered samples. PMID:25029629

  4. Polyphenol-aluminum complex formation: Implications for aluminum tolerance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural polyphenols may play an important role in aluminum detoxification in some plants. We examined the interaction between Al3+ and the purified high molecular weight polyphenols pentagalloyl glucose (940 Da) and oenothein B (1568 Da), and the related compound methyl gallate (184 Da) at pH 4 and ...

  5. Formation of biomineral iron oxides compounds in a Fe hyperaccumulator plant: Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

    PubMed

    Fuente, V; Rufo, L; Juárez, B H; Menéndez, N; García-Hernández, M; Salas-Colera, E; Espinosa, A

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed work of composition and location of naturally formed iron biominerals in plant cells tissues grown in iron rich environments as Imperata cylindrica. This perennial grass grows on the Tinto River banks (Iberian Pyritic Belt) in an extreme acidic ecosystem (pH∼2.3) with high concentration of dissolved iron, sulphate and heavy metals. Iron biominerals were found at the cellular level in tissues of root, stem and leaf both in collected and laboratory-cultivated plants. Iron accumulated in this plant as a mix of iron compounds (mainly as jarosite, ferrihydrite, hematite and spinel phases) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetometry (SQUID), electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX; TEM-EDX; HRSTEM). A low fraction of phosphorous was detected in this iron hyperaccumulator plant. Root and rhizomes tissues present a high proportion of ferromagnetic iron oxide compounds. Iron oxides-rich zones are localized in electron dense intra and inter-cellular aggregates that appear as dark deposits covering the inner membrane and organelles of the cell. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of accumulation, transport, distribution of iron in Imperata cylindrica. PMID:26592710

  6. Mathematical modelling of the formation of rennet-induced gels by plant coagulants and chymosin.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C L; Lucey, J A; Pires, E M

    2001-08-01

    Rheological properties of reconstituted skim milk coagulated with plant coagulants Cynara cardunculus L., Cynara humilis L. and chymosin was monitored by dynamic low amplitude oscillation. There are no published reports on the modelling of the gelation behaviour of milk by plant coagulants. Three mathematical models, Scott Blair. Douillard and Carlson, were fitted to the storage modulus (G') as function of time curves. For all coagulants. Scott Blair model was the most efficient in modelling the gelation process, and gave both the smallest residuals and standard error of residuals, Se (P < 0.0001). Douillard model gave the poorest fit and in particular it was not able to predict the initial part of the gelation curves. Carlson model had an intermediate behaviour and, in the case of chymosin, it gave results that were quite comparable to Scott Blair model. The parameters of the Scott Blair model were different for plant coagulants and chymosin. Chymosin had the longest rate constant (tau) and the time shift coefficient (t8) was also different between vegetable coagulants and chymosin (P < 0.0005). These results are in agreement with the overall trends for gelation profiles obtained for vegetable coagulants and chymosin. In the beginning of gelation both plant coagulants produced gels with slightly higher G' values than chymosin, but after longer incubation times chymosin gels had higher G' values. It was concluded that the Scott Blair model was the best equation to follow the gelation of milk induced by both plant coagulants as well as chymosin. Modelling is an important and useful method for comparing the gelation process in gels formed by different types of coagulants. PMID:11694051

  7. Plants defective in calcium oxalate crystal formation have more bioavailable calcium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioavailable calcium affects bone formation and calcification. Here we investigate how a single gene mutation altering calcium partitioning in the forage crop Medicago truncatula affects calcium bioavailability. Previously, the cod5 Medicago mutant was identified which contains wild-type amounts o...

  8. The superiority of silver nanoellipsoids synthesized via a new approach in suppressing the coffee-ring effect during drying and film formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yao; He, Wei; Wang, Shouxu; Tao, Zhihua; Cheng, Lijuan

    2014-03-01

    Silver nanoellipsoids (Ag NEs) with about 40 nm diameter minor axis and 100 nm major axis were prepared by a typical polyol process in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), using Cl- as etching agent at the early stage of synthesis and poly(ethylene glycol) at the later stage to control the size. A suspension of these kinds of Ag NEs can resist the coffee-ring effect and deposit uniform films after drying. By contrast, suspensions of spherical silver nanoparticles suffer the coffee-ring effect badly, always leaving a ring on the edge of patterns after evaporation is complete. The reasons behind these phenomena can be mainly attributed to the long-ranged interparticle attraction between Ag NEs that preserves them from being transported by Marangoni flows during the drying process. These Ag NEs will be very useful in the preparation of conductive inks. They can perform well in the solidification process of printed patterns, forming uniform and smooth films, greatly enhancing the printing efficiency.

  9. Drying Thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    In searching for an improved method of removing water from polyester type resins without damaging the materials, Conair Inc. turned to the NASA Center at the University of Pittsburgh for assistance. Taking an organized, thorough look at existing technology before beginning research has helped many companies save significant time and money. They searched the NASA and other computerized files for microwave drying of thermoplastics. About 300 relevant citations were retrieved - eight of which were identified as directly applicable to the problem. Company estimates it saved a minimum of a full year in compiling research results assembled by the information center.

  10. Formation of deposits on the surfaces of superheaters and economisers of MSW incinerator plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, J.; Pfrang-Stotz, G.; Bergfeldt, B.; Seifert, H.; Knapp, P.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition of deposits depends on the temperature profile and boiler geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mineralogy of deposits defines critical and uncritical zones in the boiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical zones in boilers can be characterised by a classification systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific measures to enhance energy efficiency can be defined. - Abstract: Mineralogical and chemical investigations of deposits from superheaters and economisers from a MSWI plant in Mannheim, Germany, lead to a classification system which provides information about the most critical parameters leading to fouling and corrosion. With the help of this classification system parameters like the geometry of boilers and the waste input can be changed in order to prolong run times between revisions and enhance energy efficiency of MSWI plants.

  11. Genes involved in Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation at a simulated food processing plant temperature of 15 °C.

    PubMed

    Piercey, Marta J; Hingston, Patricia A; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2016-04-16

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic foodborne bacterium whose persistence in food processing environments is in part attributed to its biofilm formation. Most biofilm studies have been carried out at 30-37 °C rather than at temperatures found in the food processing plants (i.e., 10-20 °C). The objective of the present study was to mine for novel genes that contribute to L. monocytogenes biofilm formation at 15 °C using the random insertional mutagenesis approach. A library of 11,024 L. monocytogenes 568 (serotype 1/2a) Himar1 insertional mutants was created. Mutants with reduced or enhanced biofilm formation at 15 °C were detected in microtiter plate assays with crystal violet and safranin staining. Fourteen mutants expressed enhanced biofilm phenotypes, and harbored transposon insertions in genes encoding cell wall biosynthesis, motility, metabolism, stress response, and cell surface associated proteins. Deficient mutants (n=5) contained interruptions in genes related to peptidoglycan, teichoic acid, or lipoproteins. Enhanced mutants produced significantly (p<0.05) higher cell densities in biofilm formed on stainless steel (SS) coupons at 15 °C (48 h) than deficient mutants, which were also more sensitive to benzalkonium chloride. All biofilm deficient mutants and four enhanced mutants in the microtiter plate assay (flaA, cheR, lmo2563 and lmo2488) formed no biofilm in a peg lid assay (Calgary biofilm device) while insertions in lmo1224 and lmo0543 led to excess biofilm in all assays. Two enhanced biofilm formers were more resistant to enzymatic removal with DNase, proteinase K or pectinase than the parent strain. Scanning electron microscopy of individual biofilms made by five mutants and the parent on SS surfaces showed formation of heterogeneous biofilm with dense zones by immotile mutants, while deficient mutants exhibited sparse growth. In conclusion, interruptions of 9 genes not previously linked to biofilm formation in L. monocytogenes (lmo2572, lmo

  12. The identification of cutin synthase: formation of the plant polyester cutin

    PubMed Central

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Martin, Laetitia B. B.; Viart, Hélène M.-F.; Isaacson, Tal; He, Yonghua; Zhao, Lingxia; Matas, Antonio J.; Buda, Gregory J.; Domozych, David S.; Clausen, Mads H.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrophobic cuticle consisting of waxes and the polyester cutin covers the aerial epidermis of all land plants, providing essential protection from desiccation and other stresses. We have determined the enzymatic basis of cutin polymerization through characterization of a tomato extracellular acyltransferase, CD1, and its substrate, 2-mono(10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoyl)glycerol (2-MHG). CD1 has in vitro polyester synthesis activity and is required for cutin accumulation in vivo, indicating that it is a cutin synthase. PMID:22610035

  13. Microspore embryogenesis: assignment of genes to embryo formation and green vs. albino plant production.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, M; Svensson, J T; Castillo, A M; Close, T J; Vallés, M P

    2009-08-01

    Plant microspores can be reprogrammed from their normal pollen development to an embryogenic route in a process termed microspore embryogenesis or androgenesis. Stress treatment has a critical role in this process, inducing the dedifferentiation of microspores and conditioning the following androgenic response. In this study, we have used three barley doubled haploid lines with similar genetic background but different androgenic response. The Barley1 GeneChip was used for transcriptome comparison of these lines after mannitol stress treatment, allowing the identification of 213 differentially expressed genes. Most of these genes belong to the functional categories "cell rescue, defense, and virulence"; "metabolism"; "transcription"; and "transport". These genes were grouped into clusters according to their expression profiles among lines. A principal component analysis allowed us to associate specific gene expression clusters to phenotypic variables. Genes associated with the ability of microspores to divide and form embryos were mainly involved in changes in the structure and function of membranes, efficient use of available energy sources, and cell fate. Genes related to stress response, transcription and translation regulation, and degradation of pollen-specific proteins were associated with green plant production, while expression of genes related to plastid development was associated with albino plant regeneration. PMID:19229567

  14. Formation of higher plant component microbial community in closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    2001-07-01

    Closed ecological systems (CES) place at the disposal of a researcher unique possibilities to study the role of microbial communities in individual components and of the entire system. The microbial community of the higher plant component has been found to form depending on specific conditions of the closed ecosystem: length of time the solution is reused, introduction of intrasystem waste water into the nutrient medium, effect of other component of the system, and system closure in terms of gas exchange. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of wheat. The composition of the components' microflora changed, species diversity decreased, individual species of bacteria and fungi whose numbers were not so great before the closure prevailed. Special attention should be paid to phytopathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species of microorganisms potentially hazardous to man or plants and the least controlled in CES. This situation can endanger creation of CES and make conjectural existence of preplanned components, man, specifically, and consequently, of CES as it is.

  15. Acyl CoA Binding Proteins are Required for Cuticle Formation and Plant Responses to Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ye; Yu, Keshun; Gao, Qing-ming; Wilson, Ella V.; Navarre, Duroy; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) and lipids are well known regulators of plant defense. Our previous studies have shown that components of prokaryotic (plastidal) FA biosynthesis pathway regulate various aspects of plant defense. Here, we investigated the defense related roles of the soluble acyl CoA binding proteins (ACBPs), which are thought to facilitate the intracellular transport of FA/lipids. We show that ACBP3 and 4 are required for maintaining normal lipid levels and that ACBP3 contributes to the lipid flux between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways. We also show that loss of ACBP3, 4, or 6 impair normal development of the cuticle and affect both basal and resistance protein-mediated defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Loss of ACBP3, 4, or 6 also inhibits the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) due to the plants inability to generate SAR inducing signal(s). Together, these data show that ACBP3, ACBP4, and ACBP6 are required for cuticle development as well as defense against microbial pathogens. PMID:23060893

  16. Hormone-Mediated Pattern Formation in Seedling of Plants: a Competitive Growth Dynamics Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Mimura, Masayasu; Ohya, Tomoyuki; Oikawa, Noriko; Okabe, Hirotaka; Kai, Shoichi

    2001-10-01

    An ecologically relevant pattern formation process mediated by hormonal interactions among growing seedlings is modeled based on the experimental observations on the effects of indole acetic acid, which can act as an inhibitor and activator of root growth depending on its concentration. In the absence of any lateral root with constant hormone-sensitivity, the edge effect phenomenon is obtained depending on the secretion rate of hormone from the main root. Introduction of growth-stage-dependent hormone-sensitivity drastically amplifies the initial randomness, resulting in spatially irregular macroscopic patterns. When the lateral root growth is introduced, periodic patterns are obtained whose periodicity depends on the length of lateral roots. The growth-stage-dependent hormone-sensitivity and the lateral root growth are crucial for macroscopic periodic-pattern formation.

  17. Repair of adjacent single-strand breaks is often accompanied by the formation of tandem sequence duplications in plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Schiml, Simon; Fauser, Friedrich; Puchta, Holger

    2016-06-28

    Duplication of existing sequences is a major mechanism of genome evolution. It has been previously shown that duplications can occur by replication slippage, unequal sister chromatid exchange, homologous recombination, and aberrant double-strand break-induced synthesis-dependent strand annealing reactions. In a recent study, the abundant presence of short direct repeats was documented by comparative bioinformatics analysis of different rice genomes, and the hypothesis was put forward that such duplications might arise due to the concerted repair of adjacent single-strand breaks (SSBs). Applying the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we were able to test this hypothesis experimentally in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana Using a Cas9 nickase to induce adjacent genomic SSBs in different regions of the genome (genic, intergenic, and heterochromatic) and at different distances (∼20, 50, and 100 bps), we analyzed the repair outcomes by deep sequencing. In addition to deletions, we regularly detected the formation of direct repeats close to the break sites, independent of the genomic context. The formation of these duplications as well as deletions may be associated with the presence of microhomologies. Most interestingly, we found that even the induction of two SSBs on the same DNA strand can cause genome alterations, albeit at a much lower level. Because such a scenario reflects a natural step during nucleotide excision repair, and given that the germline is set aside only late during development in plants, the repair of adjacent SSBs indeed seems to have an important influence on the shaping of plant genomes during evolution. PMID:27307441

  18. A role for plant microtubules in the formation of transmission-specific inclusion bodies of Cauliflower mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Martinière, Alexandre; Gargani, Daniel; Uzest, Marilyne; Lautredou, Nicole; Blanc, Stéphane; Drucker, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Interactions between microtubules and viruses play important roles in viral infection. The best-characterized examples involve transport of animal viruses by microtubules to the nucleus or other intracellular destinations. In plant viruses, most work to date has focused on interaction between viral movement proteins and the cytoskeleton, which is thought to be involved in viral cell-to-cell spread. We show here, in Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV)-infected plant cells, that viral electron-lucent inclusion bodies (ELIBs), whose only known function is vector transmission, require intact microtubules for their efficient formation. The kinetics of the formation of CaMV-related inclusion bodies in transfected protoplasts showed that ELIBs represent newly emerging structures, appearing at late stages of the intracellular viral life cycle. Viral proteins P2 and P3 are first produced in multiple electron-dense inclusion bodies, and are later specifically exported to transiently co-localize with microtubules, before concentrating in a single, massive ELIB in each infected cell. Treatments with cytoskeleton-affecting drugs suggested that P2 and P3 might be actively transported on microtubules, by as yet unknown motors. In addition to providing information on the intracellular life cycle of CaMV, our results show that specific interactions between host cell and virus may be dedicated to a later role in vector transmission. More generally, they indicate a new unexpected function for plant cell microtubules in the virus life cycle, demonstrating that microtubules act not only on immediate intracellular or intra-host phenomena, but also on processes ultimately controlling inter-host transmission. PMID:19077170

  19. A phloem-limited fijivirus induces the formation of neoplastic phloem tissues that house virus multiplication in the host plant.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiangfeng; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jianping; Sun, Liying

    2016-01-01

    A number of phloem-limited viruses induce the development of tumours (enations) in the veins of host plants, but the relevance of tumour induction to the life cycle of those viruses is unclear. In this study, we performed molecular and structural analyses of tumours induced by rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, genus Fijivirus) infection in maize plants. The transcript level of the maize cdc2 gene, which regulates the cell cycle, was highly elevated in tumour tissues. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified 25 cellular proteins with altered accumulation in the tumour tissues. These proteins are involved in various metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, redox, energy pathways and amino acid synthesis. Histological analysis indicated that the tumours predominantly originated from hyperplastic growth of phloem, but those neoplastic tissues have irregular structures and cell arrangements. Immunodetection assays and electron microscopy observations indicated that in the shoots, RBSDV is confined to phloem and tumour regions and that virus multiplication actively occurs in the tumour tissue, as indicated by the high accumulation of non-structural proteins and formation of viroplasms in the tumour cells. Thus, the induction of tumours by RBSDV infection provides a larger environment that is favourable for virus propagation in the host plant. PMID:27432466

  20. A phloem-limited fijivirus induces the formation of neoplastic phloem tissues that house virus multiplication in the host plant

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jiangfeng; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jianping; Sun, Liying

    2016-01-01

    A number of phloem-limited viruses induce the development of tumours (enations) in the veins of host plants, but the relevance of tumour induction to the life cycle of those viruses is unclear. In this study, we performed molecular and structural analyses of tumours induced by rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, genus Fijivirus) infection in maize plants. The transcript level of the maize cdc2 gene, which regulates the cell cycle, was highly elevated in tumour tissues. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified 25 cellular proteins with altered accumulation in the tumour tissues. These proteins are involved in various metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, redox, energy pathways and amino acid synthesis. Histological analysis indicated that the tumours predominantly originated from hyperplastic growth of phloem, but those neoplastic tissues have irregular structures and cell arrangements. Immunodetection assays and electron microscopy observations indicated that in the shoots, RBSDV is confined to phloem and tumour regions and that virus multiplication actively occurs in the tumour tissue, as indicated by the high accumulation of non-structural proteins and formation of viroplasms in the tumour cells. Thus, the induction of tumours by RBSDV infection provides a larger environment that is favourable for virus propagation in the host plant. PMID:27432466

  1. Quorum quenching bacteria isolated from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant and their application for controlling biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, A-Leum; Park, Son-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2014-11-28

    Bacteria recognize changes in their population density by sensing the concentration of signal molecules, N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). AHL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) plays a key role in biofilm formation, so the interference of QS, referred to as quorum quenching (QQ), has received a great deal of attention. A QQ strategy can be applied to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for advanced wastewater treatment to control biofouling. To isolate QQ bacteria that can inhibit biofilm formation, we isolated diverse AHL-degrading bacteria from a laboratory-scale MBR and sludge from real wastewater treatment plants. A total of 225 AHLdegrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge sample by enrichment culture. To identify the enzyme responsible for AHL degradation in QQ bacteria, AHL-degrading activities were analyzed using cell-free lysate, culture supernatant, and whole cells. Afipia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains produced the intracellular QQ enzyme, whereas Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus sp. produced the extracellular QQ enzyme that was most likely to produce AHLacylase. AHL-degrading activity was observed in whole-cell assay with the Microbacterium sp. and Rhodococcus sp. strains. There has been no report for AHL-degrading capability in the case of Streptococcus sp. and Afipia sp. strains. Finally, inhibition of biofilm formation by isolated QQ bacteria or enzymes was observed on glass slides and 96-well microtiter plates using crystal violet staining. QQ strains or enzymes not only inhibited initial biofilm development but also reduced established biofilms. PMID:25112313

  2. Chemical characteristics of waters in Karst Formations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    Several waste disposal sites are located adjacent to or on a karst aquifer composed of the Cambrian Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Cambrian Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. Highly variable chemical characteristics (i.e., hardness) can indicate that the portion of the aquifer tapped by a particular well is subject to a significant quick-flow component where recharge to the system is rapid and water levels and water quality change rapidly in response to precipitation events. Water zones in wells at the Y-12 Plant that exhibit quick-flow behavior (i.e., high hydraulic conductivity) are identified based on their geochemical characteristics and variability in geochemical parameters, and observations made during drilling of the wells. The chemical data used in this study consist of between one and 20 chemical analyses for each of 102 wells and multipart monitoring zones. Of these 102 water zones, 10 were consistently undersaturated with respect to calcite suggesting active dissolution. Repeat sampling of water zones shows that both supersaturation and undersaturation with respect to dolomite occurs in 46 water zones. Twelve of the zones had partial pressure of CO{sub 2} near atmospheric values suggesting limited interaction between recharge waters and the gases and solids in the vadose zone and aquifer, and hence, relatively short residence times. The preliminary data suggest that the Cmn is composed of a complicated network of interconnected, perhaps anastomosing, cavities. The degree of interconnection between the identified cavities is yet to be determined, although it is expected that there is a significant vertical and lateral interconnection between the cavities located at shallow depths in the Cnm throughout Bear Creek Valley and the Y-12 Plant area.

  3. Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM9 involvement in cuticle formation and maintenance of plant water status.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shiyou; Zhao, Huayan; Des Marais, David L; Parsons, Eugene P; Wen, Xiaoxue; Xu, Xiaojing; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth K; Wang, Guangchao; Rowland, Owen; Juenger, Thomas; Bressan, Ray A; Jenks, Matthew A

    2012-07-01

    Mutation of the ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) causes elevated amounts of 18-carbon-length cutin monomers and a dramatic shift in the cuticular wax profile (especially on leaves) toward the very-long-chain free fatty acids tetracosanoic acid (C₂₄) and hexacosanoic acid (C₂₆). Relative to the wild type, cer9 mutants exhibit elevated cuticle membrane thickness over epidermal cells and cuticular ledges with increased occlusion of the stomatal pore. The cuticular phenotypes of cer9 are associated with delayed onset of wilting in plants experiencing water deficit, lower transpiration rates, and improved water use efficiency measured as carbon isotope discrimination. The CER9 protein thus encodes a novel determinant of plant drought tolerance-associated traits, one whose deficiency elevates cutin synthesis, redistributes wax composition, and suppresses transpiration. Map-based cloning identified CER9, and sequence analysis predicted that it encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase homologous to yeast Doa10 (previously shown to target endoplasmic reticulum proteins for proteasomal degradation). To further elucidate CER9 function, the impact of CER9 deficiency on interactions with other genes was examined using double mutant and transcriptome analyses. For both wax and cutin, cer9 showed mostly additive effects with cer6, long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase1 (lacs1), and lacs2 and revealed its role in early steps of both wax and cutin synthetic pathways. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the cer9 mutation affected diverse cellular processes, with primary impact on genes associated with diverse stress responses. The discovery of CER9 lays new groundwork for developing novel cuticle-based strategies for improving the drought tolerance and water use efficiency of crop plants. PMID:22635115

  4. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Xerostomia Request Permissions Print to PDF Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... a dry mouth. Signs and symptoms of dry mouth The signs and symptoms of dry mouth include ...

  5. Soil-plant-atmosphere conditions regulating convective cloud formation above southeastern US pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Novick, Kimberly; Oishi, Andrew Christopher; Noormets, Asko; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) occupy more than 20% of the forested area in the southern United States, represent more than 50% of the standing pine volume in this region, and remove from the atmosphere about 500 g C m-2 per year through net ecosystem exchange. Hence, their significance as a major regional carbon sink can hardly be disputed. What is disputed is whether the proliferation of young plantations replacing old forest in the southern United States will alter key aspects of the hydrologic cycle, including convective rainfall, which is the focus of the present work. Ecosystem fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) and large-scale, slowly evolving free atmospheric temperature and water vapor content are known to be first-order controls on the formation of convective clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer. These controlling processes are here described by a zero-order analytical model aimed at assessing how plantations of different ages may regulate the persistence and transition of the atmospheric system between cloudy and cloudless conditions. Using the analytical model together with field observations, the roles of ecosystem Hs and LE on convective cloud formation are explored relative to the entrainment of heat and moisture from the free atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that cloudy-cloudless regimes at the land surface are regulated by a nonlinear relation between the Bowen ratio Bo=Hs/LE and root-zone soil water content, suggesting that young/mature pines ecosystems have the ability to recirculate available water (through rainfall predisposition mechanisms). Such nonlinearity was not detected in a much older pine stand, suggesting a higher tolerance to drought but a limited control on boundary layer dynamics. These results enable the generation of hypotheses about the impacts on convective cloud formation driven by afforestation/deforestation and groundwater depletion projected to increase following increased human population in the

  6. Survey of mycotoxins in corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles from seventy-eight ethanol plants in twelve states the U.S. in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 7...

  7. PROCEEDINGS: JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON DRY SO2 AND SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (1ST): VOLUME 2. POWER PLANT INTEGRATION, ECONOMICS, AND FULL-SCALE EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the First Joint Symposium on Dry SO2 and Simultaneous SO2/NOx Control Technologies, held November 13-16, 1984, in San Diego, CA. The symposium, sponsored jointly by EPRI and EPA, was the first meeting of its kind devoted solely to the discussion of emissi...

  8. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM, BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  9. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM - BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  10. Investigation of the formation possibilities of alkyl iodides in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoníček, B.; Habersbergerová, A.

    The radiolytic decomposition of ion-exchange resins used in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants for the purification of the reactor coolant and chemical control of H 3BO 3 concentration in the coolant was studied with regard to the determination of sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are potential precursors of alkyl iodides. On irradiation of ion-exchange resins in deaerated borate solution, C 1-C 4 hydrocarbons are formed. These hydrocarbons are produced also in the radiolysis of the emulsion of turbine oil in the same solution. The radiation stability of cation-exchange resins is higher than that of anion-exchange resins. Radiolytic and thermal reactions occuring in the gaseous mixtures containing I 2, CH 4, H 2O, and air/Ar give rise to CH 3I. CH 3I is produced also in the radiolysis of aqueous solutions containing CH 4 and I 2 or I -.

  11. Spatiotemporal relationships among Late Pennsylvanian plant assemblages: Palynological evidence from the Markley Formation, West Texas, U.S.A

    PubMed Central

    Looy, Cindy V.; Hotton, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    The Pennsylvanian lowlands of western Pangea are best known for their diverse wetland floras of arborescent and herbaceous ferns, and arborescent horsetails and clubmosses. In apparent juxtaposition, a very different kind of flora, dominated by a xerophilous assemblage of conifers, taeniopterids and peltasperms, is occasionally glimpsed. Once believed to represent upland or extrabasinal floras from well-drained portions of the landscape, these dryland floras more recently have been interpreted as lowland assemblages growing during drier phases of glacial/interglacial cycles. Whether Pennsylvanian dryland and wetland floras were separated spatially or temporally remains an unsettled question, due in large part to taphonomic bias toward preservation of wetland plants. Previous paleobotanical and sedimentological analysis of the Markley Formation of latest Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) age, from north central Texas, U.S.A, indicates close correlation between lithofacies and distinct dryland and wetland megaflora assemblages. Here we present a detailed analysis one of those localities, a section unusual in containing abundant palynomorphs, from the lower Markley Formation. Paleobotanical, palynological and lithological data from a section thought to represent a single interglacial/glacial phase are integrated and analyzed to create a complex picture of an evolving landscape. Megafloral data from throughout the Markley Formation show that conifer-dominated dryland floras occur exclusively in highly leached kaolinite beds, likely eroded from underlying soils, whereas a mosaic of wetland floras occupy histosols, ultisols, and fluvial overbank deposits. Palynological data largely conform to this pattern but reveal a more complex picture. An assemblage of mixed wetland and dryland palynofloral taxa is interpolated between a dryland assemblage and an overlying histosol containing wetland taxa. In this section, as well as elsewhere in the Markley Formation, kaolinite and overlying

  12. Foam formation in biogas plants caused by anaerobic digestion of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Lucie; Lehnig, Marcus; Schenk, Joachim; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The use of sugar beet in anaerobic digestion (AD) during biogas production can lead to process upsets such as excessive foaming in fermenters. In the present study, foam formation in sugar beet-fed digestates was studied in foaming tests. The increasing disintegration grade of sugar beet was observed to have a promoting effect on foaming in the digestate but did not affect the biogas yield. Chemical analysis of foam and digestate from sugar beet silage AD showed high concentrations of pectin, other carbohydrates and N-containing substances in the foam. Both pectin and sucrose showed little foaming in AD. Nevertheless, sucrose and calcium chloride had a promoting effect on foaming for pectin AD. Salts of divalent ions also enhanced the foam intensity in the case of sugar beet silage AD, whereas ammonium chloride and urea had a lessening effect on sugar beet-based foaming. PMID:25446785

  13. Nanoparticles in plant extracts--factors which influence the formation of nanoparticles in black tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Gröning, R; Breitkreutz, J; Baroth, V; Müller, R S

    2001-10-01

    The influence of different factors on the formation of nanoparticles in freshly brewed tea extracts was investigated. A black tea infusion was observed during cooling using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The mean particle size and the number of the nanoparticles increase with decreasing temperature. In the presence of caffeine more particles are formed within the infusion. To study the influence of slight structural differences between methylxanthines, the effect of the addition of caffeine to solutions of freshly prepared decaffeinated tea was compared to that of theophylline and theobromine. In the case of theophylline fewer nanoparticles were formed. Molecular modelling calculations were performed to evaluate the most probable geometries for caffeine-polyphenol complexes. A parallel position and a congruent orientation of the 6-membered ring of caffeine and the aromatic galloyl group is the most probable geometry. PMID:11683125

  14. Dry sand foam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Edgley, K.D.; Stromberg, J.L.

    1988-10-25

    A method of generating a foam containing particulate material for treating a subsurface earth formation penetrated by a well bore, the method comprising: (a) introducing a first stream of pressurized gas having dry particulate material entrained therein into a vessel, the particulate material flowing vertically downward into the vessel, at least in part due to the action of gravity; (b) introducing a second stream of liquid into the vessel; (c) varying the second stream into a self-impinging conical jet; (d) impinging the conical jet onto the first stream and thereby forming a foam containing particulate material; and (e) injecting such a foam into the well bore.

  15. Source/Sink Matching for U.S. Ethanol Plants and Candidate Deep Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2008-09-18

    This report presents data on the 140 existing and 74 planned ethanol production facilities and their proximity to candidate deep geologic storage formations. Half of the existing ethanol plants and 64% of the planned units sit directly atop a candidate geologic storage reservoir. While 70% of the existing and 97% of the planned units are within 100 miles of at least one candidate deep geologic storage reservoir. As a percent of the total CO2 emissions from these facilities, 92% of the exiting units CO2 and 97% of the planned units CO2 emissions are accounted for by facilities that are within 100 miles of at least one potential CO2 storage reservoir.

  16. PLUVIUS: a generalized one-dimensional model of reactive pollutant behavior, including dry deposition, precipitation formation, and wet removal. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report is a second-edition user's manual for the PLUVIUS reactive-storm model. The PLUVIUS code simulates the formation of storm systems of a variety of types, and characterizes the behavior of air pollutants as they flow through, react within, and are scavenged by the storms. The computer code supplied with this report is known as PLUVIUS MOD 5.0, and is a substantial improvement over the MOD 3.1 version given in the original user's manual. Example applications of MOD 5.0 are given in the report to facilitate rapid application of the code for a variety of specific uses. 22 references, 7 figures, 48 tables.

  17. Polyphenol-Aluminum Complex Formation: Implications for Aluminum Tolerance in Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Ruiqiang; Gung, Benjamin W; Tindall, Steven; Gonzalez, Javier M; Halvorson, Jonathan J; Hagerman, Ann E

    2016-04-20

    Natural polyphenols may play an important role in aluminum detoxification in some plants. We examined the interaction between Al(3+) and the purified high molecular weight polyphenols pentagalloyl glucose (940 Da) and oenothein B (1568 Da), and the related compound methyl gallate (184 Da) at pH 4 and 6. We used spectrophotometric titration and chemometric modeling to determine stability constants and stoichiometries for the aluminum-phenol (AlL) complexes. The structures and spectral features of aluminum-methyl gallate complexes were evaluated with quantum chemical calculations. The high molecular weight polyphenols formed Al3L2 complexes with conditional stability constants (β) ∼ 1 × 10(23) at pH 6 and AlL complexes with β ∼ 1 × 10(5) at pH 4. Methyl gallate formed AlL complexes with β = 1 × 10(6) at pH 6 but did not complex aluminum at pH 4. At intermediate metal-to-polyphenol ratios, high molecular weight polyphenols formed insoluble Al complexes but methyl gallate complexes were soluble. The high molecular weight polyphenols have high affinities and solubility features that are favorable for a role in aluminum detoxification in the environment. PMID:27022835

  18. Bacterial communities involved in soil formation and plant establishment triggered by pyrite bioweathering on arctic moraines.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rizzi, Agostino; Baldi, Franco; Ventura, Stefano; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2011-02-01

    In arctic glacier moraines, bioweathering primed by microbial iron oxidizers creates fertility gradients that accelerate soil development and plant establishment. With the aim of investigating the change of bacterial diversity in a pyrite-weathered gradient, we analyzed the composition of the bacterial communities involved in the process by sequencing 16S rRNA gene libraries from different biological soil crusts (BSC). Bacterial communities in three BSC of different morphology, located within 1 m distance downstream a pyritic conglomerate rock, were significantly diverse. The glacier moraine surrounding the weathered site showed wide phylogenetic diversity and high evenness with 15 represented bacterial classes, dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and pioneer Cyanobacteria colonizers. The bioweathered area showed the lowest diversity indexes and only nine bacterial families, largely dominated by Acidobacteriaceae and Acetobacteraceae typical of acidic environments, in accordance with the low pH of the BSC. In the weathered BSC, iron-oxidizing bacteria were cultivated, with counts decreasing along with the increase of distance from the rock, and nutrient release from the rock was revealed by environmental scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analyses. The vegetated area showed the presence of Actinomycetales, Verrucomicrobiales, Gemmatimonadales, Burkholderiales, and Rhizobiales, denoting a bacterial community typical of developed soils and indicating that the lithoid substrate of the bare moraine was here subjected to an accelerated colonization, driven by iron-oxidizing activity. PMID:20953598

  19. Circulating system simplifies dry scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, S.Q.; Jorgensen, C.

    1995-10-01

    This article describes a circulating dry scrubber, based on fluid-bed absorption process, which demonstrates high SO{sub 2} removal with minimal O and M requirements. Unlike other dry scrubbers, this one involves dry reagent and results in dry products. Before construction can begin on a new coal-fired plant, a rigorous set of permit requirements must be satisfied. When the Roanoke Valley Energy Facility, Weldon, NC, began the permitting process for their proposed 44-MW pulverized-coal (p-c)-fired Unit 2, the facility permit limited not only SO{sub 2} emissions (0.187 lb SO{sub 2}/million Btu) but also the removal efficiency of the flue-gas desulfurization process (93%) and the maximum amount of sulfur in the coal (1.6%).

  20. New Potassium-Argon Ages for Georgiaites and the Upper Eocene Dry Branch Formation (Twiggs Clay Member): Inferences About Tektite Stratigraphic Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.; Wampler, J. M.

    1996-03-01

    The tektites of east-central Georgia, called "georgiaites," are a subset of the larger North American tektite strewn field. Previous studies have reported the potassium-argon age of Georgia tektites at 32.0 Ma, 33.7 Ma, and 34.0 Ma, respectively. Glass et al., using the 40Ar-39Ar method, obtained a 34.5 Ma age for a single Muong Nong type georgiaite. Corrected fission track ages given by Storzer et al. have a range between 1.0 and 35.8 Ma with the lower dates accounted for by post-depositional thermal alteration. However, isotopic dating of North American microtektites from Barbados suggests that the strewn field was produced at 35.4 (+/- 0.6) Ma. In addition to the lack of consistently reliable age data for Georgia tektites, their stratigraphic occurrence has yet to be satisfactorily resolved. Although the North American strewn field was deposited in the late Eocene, georgiaites have been found only on formations ranging in age from Oligocene to Pleistocene so are thought to have been transported from their original site of deposition. In this investigation we present new potassium-argon ages for the Georgia tektites and an upper Eocene formation in an effort to resolve tektite stratigraphic location in coastal main deposits of east-central Georgia.

  1. Arctic plant origins and early formation of circumarctic distributions: a case study of the mountain sorrel, Oxyria digyna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Jianquan; Allen, Geraldine A; Ma, Yazhen; Yue, Wei; Marr, Kendrick L; Abbott, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species comprising the present-day Arctic flora are thought to have originated in the high mountains of North America and Eurasia, migrated northwards as global temperatures fell during the late Tertiary period, and thereafter attained a circumarctic distribution. However, supporting evidence for this hypothesis that provides a temporal framework for the origin, spread and initial attainment of a circumarctic distribution by an arctic plant is currently lacking. Here we examined the origin and initial formation of a circumarctic distribution of the arctic mountain sorrel (Oxyria digyna) by conducting a phylogeographic analysis of plastid and nuclear gene DNA variation. We provide evidence for an origin of this species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of southwestern China, followed by migration into Russia c. 11 million yr ago (Ma), eastwards into North America by c. 4 Ma, and westwards into Western Europe by c. 1.96 Ma. Thereafter, the species attained a circumarctic distribution by colonizing Greenland from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Following the arrival of the species in North America and Europe, population sizes appear to have increased and then stabilized there over the last 1 million yr. However, in Greenland a marked reduction followed by an expansion in population size is indicated to have occurred during the Pleistocene. PMID:26197783

  2. The coal-forming plants of the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous Starosuchan Formation (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugdaeva, E. V.; Markevich, V. S.; Volynets, E. B.

    2014-05-01

    The plant remains and palynological assemblages are studied in detail in the section of the coal-bearing upper part of the Aptian Starosuchan Formation near the village of Molchanovka (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region). On the basis of the light and electron microscopic study of the disperse cuticles, it was established that the coals are mostly composed of remains of taxodialean Elatides asiatica (Yok.) Krassil., subordinate Miroviaceae, rare ginkgoalean Pseudotorellia sp., and bennettite Nilssoniopteris rithidorachis (Krysht.) Krassil. The spores Gleicheniidites and pollen Taxodiaceaepollenites are dominant in the palynospectrum of the coal interlayer. It was found that dominant taxodialeans and gleicheniaceous ferns with less abundant Miroviaceae, ginkgoaleans, and rare bennettites occurred in the Aptian swamp communities of the Partizansk basin. Shoots and leaves of Elatides asiatica, fronds of Birisia onychioides (Vassil. et K.-M.) Samyl., are dominant in the burials of plants from the clastic rocks. The fragments of leaves of Nilssoniopteris, scale-leaved conifers, and Ginkgo ex gr. adiantoides are rare. The disperse cuticle of these layers mostly includes Pseudotorellia sp.; however, its remains in burials were not found. The spores Laevigatosporites are dominant in the palynospectra from the clastic interlayers. Ginkgocycadophytus and taxa close to Pinaceae are plentiful among the pollen of gymnosperms.

  3. No evidence for acid-catalyzed secondary organic aerosol formation in power plant plumes over metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, R. E.; Sullivan, A. P.; Weber, R. J.; Wollny, A. G.; Holloway, J. S.; Brock, C. A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Atlas, E. L.

    2007-03-01

    Aircraft-based measurements of the water-soluble fraction of fine PM organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic salt composition in the Atlanta, GA region were conducted in the summer of 2004. Five notable plumes of SO2, apparently from coal-fired power plants, were intercepted, and had NH4 +/SO4 2- molar ratios ranging from approximately 0.8 to 1.4 compared to molar ratios near 2 outside of the plumes. Sulfate aerosol concentrations increased from a regional background of 5-8 μg m-3 to as high as 19.5 μg m-3 within these plumes. No increase in WSOC concentrations was observed in plumes compared to out-of-plumes within a WSOC measurement uncertainty of 8%. These measurements suggest that secondary organic aerosol formation via heterogeneous acid-catalyzed reactions within power plant plumes are not likely a significant contributor to the ambient aerosol mass loading in Atlanta and the surrounding region. Because this region is rich in both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic carbon (VOC), the results may be widely applicable.

  4. Organogenic Nodule Formation in Hop: A Tool to Study Morphogenesis in Plants with Biotechnological and Medicinal Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Ana M.; Santos, Filipa; Pais, Maria S.

    2010-01-01

    The usage of Humulus lupulus for brewing increased the demand for high-quality plant material. Simultaneously, hop has been used in traditional medicine and recently recognized with anticancer and anti-infective properties. Tissue culture techniques have been reported for a wide range of species, and open the prospect for propagation of disease-free, genetically uniform and massive amounts of plants in vitro. Moreover, the development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors enables the industrial production of secondary metabolites. Reliable and efficient tissue culture protocol for shoot regeneration through organogenic nodule formation was established for hop. The present review describes the histological, and biochemical changes occurring during this morphogenic process, together with an analysis of transcriptional and metabolic profiles. We also discuss the existence of common molecular factors among three different morphogenic processes: organogenic nodules and somatic embryogenesis, which strictly speaking depend exclusively on intrinsic developmental reprogramming, and legume nitrogen-fixing root nodules, which arises in response to symbiosis. The review of the key factors that participate in hop nodule organogenesis and the comparison with other morphogenic processes may have merit as a study presenting recent advances in complex molecular networks occurring during morphogenesis and together, these provide a rich framework for biotechnology applications. PMID:20811599

  5. Zeaxanthin Radical Cation Formation in Minor Light-Harvesting Complexes of Higher Plant Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Avenson, Thomas H.; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Zigmantas, Donatas; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Li, Zhirong; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-01-31

    Previous work on intact thylakoid membranes showed that transient formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation was correlated with regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting via energy-dependent quenching. A molecular mechanism for such quenching was proposed to involve charge transfer within a chlorophyll-zeaxanthin heterodimer. Using near infrared (880-1100 nm) transient absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrate that carotenoid (mainly zeaxanthin) radical cation generation occurs solely in isolated minor light-harvesting complexes that bind zeaxanthin, consistent with the engagement of charge transfer quenching therein. We estimated that less than 0.5percent of the isolated minor complexes undergo charge transfer quenching in vitro, whereas the fraction of minor complexes estimated to be engaged in charge transfer quenching in isolated thylakoids was more than 80 times higher. We conclude that minor complexes which bind zeaxanthin are sites of charge transfer quenching in vivo and that they can assume Non-quenching and Quenching conformations, the equilibrium LHC(N)<--> LHC(Q) of which is modulated by the transthylakoid pH gradient, the PsbS protein, and protein-protein interactions.

  6. Analysis of solutes in groundwaters from the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1986, groundwater samples from more than 60 locations in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site were collected and analyzed for a variety of major, minor, and trace solutes. Most of the samples were from the Rustler Formation (the Culebra Dolomite, the Magenta Dolomite, or the zone at the contact between the Rustler and underlying Salado Formations) or the Dewey Lake Red Beds. The analytical data from the laboratories are presented here with accompanying discussions of sample collection methods, supporting field measurements, and laboratory analytical methods. A comparison of four data sets and a preliminary evaluation of the data for the major solutes (Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Na, K, Ca, and Mg) shows that the data for samples analyzed by UNC/Bendix for SNL seem to be the most reliable, but that at some locations, samples representative of the native, unperturbed groundwater have not been collected. At other locations, the water chemistry has apparently changed between sampling episodes.

  7. Effect of Algae and Plant Lectins on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Silva, Helton Colares; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Cavada, Benildo; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250 μg/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML), Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL), Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL), and Hypnea musciformis (HML) showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining) and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units). The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins. PMID:24982871

  8. Effect of algae and plant lectins on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in clinically relevant bacteria and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Silva, Helton Colares; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Cavada, Benildo; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Henriques, Mariana; Pereira, Maria Olivia

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250  μ g/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML), Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL), Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL), and Hypnea musciformis (HML) showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining) and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units). The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins. PMID:24982871

  9. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  10. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  11. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  12. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  13. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  14. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  15. Ester-Mediated Amide Bond Formation Driven by Wet–Dry Cycles: A Possible Path to Polypeptides on the Prebiotic Earth**

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Jay G; Yu, Sheng-Sheng; Mamajanov, Irena; Grover, Martha A; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Fernández, Facundo M; Hud, Nicholas V

    2015-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that amino acids were present on the prebiotic Earth, the mechanism by which α-amino acids were condensed into polypeptides before the emergence of enzymes remains unsolved. Here, we demonstrate a prebiotically plausible mechanism for peptide (amide) bond formation that is enabled by α-hydroxy acids, which were likely present along with amino acids on the early Earth. Together, α-hydroxy acids and α-amino acids form depsipeptides—oligomers with a combination of ester and amide linkages—in model prebiotic reactions that are driven by wet–cool/dry–hot cycles. Through a combination of ester–amide bond exchange and ester bond hydrolysis, depsipeptides are enriched with amino acids over time. These results support a long-standing hypothesis that peptides might have arisen from ester-based precursors. PMID:26201989

  16. A new method to enhance rhizosheath formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, katayoun; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosheath is defined as the soil that adheres to the roots by help of root hairs and mucilage. Rhizosheath maintain the contact between roots and soil improving water and nutrient uptake. Here we introduce: (1) a technique to quantify the formation of rhizosheath around the roots, and (2) a method to enhance the formation of rhizosheath around the roots. Additionally, we measured the relation between rhizosheath thickness and the carbon content and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere. We grew lupine plants in aluminum containers (28×30×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When plants were two weeks-old and the soil had a water content of 30%, we stopped the irrigation and let the plants to uptake water to a soil water content of 4-5%. Thereafter, half of the plants (4 plants) were irrigated with water and the other half with water with an additive (international patent is pending). We repeated the drying and rewetting cycle three times. At the end of the third drying cycle, when plants were 40 days old and soil had a water content of 4-5%,the containers were opened and roots and their surrounding soils were gently collected. We used imaging to quantify the rhizosheath formation. The method consists of scanning the roots and the surrounding soil using the Winrhizo software. By image analysis we quantified the thickness of roots and their rhizosheath. The plants irrigated with the additive had 63% thicker rhizopsheath than plants irrigated with water. So, the additive enhanced gelation of mucilage exuded by the roots. Carbon content and enzyme activity in the collected rhizosheath showed that the rhizosheath of plants irrigated with the additive had higher carbon content and enzyme activity than the rhizopsheath of plants irrigated with water. The new method to increase rhizosheath has the great advantage that can be easily applied to the irrigation water to improve plant uptake of water and nutrients in semiarid and arid areas.

  17. Apoplastic sugars and cell-wall invertase are involved in formation of the tolerance of cold-resistant potato plants to hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Deryabin, A N; Burakhanova, E A; Trunova, T I

    2015-01-01

    We studied the involvement of apoplastic sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) and the cell-wall invertase (CWI) in the formation of the tolerance of cold-resistant potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L., cv Désirée) to hypothermia. The activity of CW1 and the content in the cell and the apoplast substrate (sucrose) and the reaction products of this enzyme (glucose and fructose) have a significant influence on the formation of the tolerance of cold-resistant potato plants to hypothermia. PMID:26728726

  18. [Effects of nitrogen application and ridge film furrow planting on water use of winter wheat in dry land of south Shanxi].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying-he; Li, Ting-liang; Hong, Jian-ping; Liu, Li-ping; Pang, Jiao; Feng, Qian; Deng, Shu-yuan; Shan, Jie

    2011-08-01

    A 2-year (2008-2010) field experiment was conducted to study the effects of basal dressing nitrogen, topdressing nitrogen, and ridge film furrow planting on the 0-2 m soil moisture status and the grain yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat in rain-fed area of South Shanxi Province. In all treatments, the soil moisture status during winter wheat growth period had the same change trend, being increased steadily from pre-sowing to revival stage and decreased sharply from revival stage to heading stage, and then increased gradually till maturity stage. From revival stage to heading stage, the soil water consumption was the most. Increasing nitrogen basal application rate or topdressing nitrogen increased the soil water consumption, widened the soil moisture active layer, and deepened the relatively stable layer. Topdressing nitrogen increased grain yield significantly; ridge film furrow planting decreased soil water consumption obviously. The water use efficiency under ridge film furrow planting was 23.4% and 39.1% higher than that under conventional planting system in 2009 and 2010 (P < 0.01). The grain yield under ridge film furrow planting plus top-dressing nitrogen was 3643 kg x hm(-2), which was significantly higher than that under single ridge film furrow planting or topdressing nitrogen, displaying a preferable water-fertilizer coupling effect. PMID:22097365

  19. Hydrodynamic model for drying emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Sprakel, Joris; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2015-08-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model for film formation in a dense oil-in-water emulsion under a unidirectional drying stress. Water flow through the plateau borders towards the drying end leads to the buildup of a pressure gradient. When the local pressure exceeds the critical disjoining pressure, the water films between droplets break and the droplets coalesce. We show that, depending on the critical pressure and the evaporation rate, the coalescence can occur in two distinct modes. At low critical pressures and low evaporation rates, coalescence occurs throughout the sample, whereas at high critical pressures and high evaporation rate, coalescence occurs only at the front. In the latter case, an oil layer develops on top of the film, which acts as a diffusive barrier and slows down film formation. Our findings, which are summarized in a state diagram for film formation, are in agreement with recent experimental findings.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae), an Endangered Plant Endemic to the Dry-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Sun, Weibang; Wang, Zhonglang; Guan, Kaiyun; Yang, Junbo

    2011-01-01

    Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae) is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, a total of 40 microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in H. aridicola for the first time. Polymorphisms were evaluated in 39 individuals from four natural populations. Fifteen of the markers showed polymorphisms with two to six alleles per locus; the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.72. These microsatellite loci would be useful tools for population genetics studies on H. aridicola and other con-generic species which are important to the conservation and development of endangered species. PMID:22016620

  1. Interaction of two intrinsically disordered plant stress proteins (COR15A and COR15B) with lipid membranes in the dry state.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer, Anja; Hundertmark, Michaela; Popova, Antoaneta V; Seckler, Robert; Hincha, Dirk K

    2010-09-01

    COR15A and COR15B form a tandem repeat of highly homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Both genes are highly cold induced and the encoded proteins belong to the Pfam LEA_4 group (group 3) of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Both proteins were predicted to be intrinsically disordered in solution. Only COR15A has previously been characterized and it was shown to be localized in the soluble stroma fraction of chloroplasts. Ectopic expression of COR15A in Arabidopsis resulted in increased freezing tolerance of both chloroplasts after freezing and thawing of intact leaves and of isolated protoplasts frozen and thawed in vitro. In the present study we have generated recombinant mature COR15A and COR15B for a comparative study of their structure and possible function as membrane protectants. CD spectroscopy showed that both proteins are predominantly unstructured in solution and mainly alpha-helical after drying. Both proteins showed similar effects on the thermotropic phase behavior of dry liposomes. A decrease in the gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature depended on both the unsaturation of the fatty acyl chains and lipid headgroup structure. FTIR spectroscopy indicated no strong interactions between the proteins and the lipid phosphate and carbonyl groups, but significant interactions with the galactose headgroup of the chloroplast lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. These findings were rationalized by modeling the secondary structure of COR15A and COR15B. Helical wheel projection indicated the presence of amphipathic alpha-helices in both proteins. The helices lacked a clear separation of positive and negative charges on the hydrophilic face, but contained several hydroxylated amino acids. PMID:20510170

  2. Interpretation of in-situ pressure and flow measurements of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, S.M.; Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.; Finley, S.J.; Nowak, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary interpretation of in-situ pressure and flow measurements of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP facility is located 660 m underground in the Salado, a bedded salt deposit. Shut-in pressure tests were conducted prior to, and subsequent to, the mining of a circular drift in order to evaluate excavation effects on pore pressure, permeability, and host rock heterogeneity. Borehole deformation was measured during these tests and used to correct for changes in the test region volume due to salt creep effects. Preliminary pre-excavation results indicate that the flow properties of this layered host rock are heterogeneous. Resulting pore pressures range from 1 to 14 MPa and permeabilities range from below measurable to about 1 nanodarcy. Normalized borehole diameter change rates were between {minus}4 and 63 microstrains/day. Shut-in pressures and borehole diameters in all test boreholes were affected by the excavation of Room Q coincident with the advances of the boring machine. Preliminary results from post-excavation test results show decreased pore pressures compared to pre-excavation values.

  3. Hydrogeochemical studies of the Rustler Formation and related rocks in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Area, Southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.D.; Lambert, S.J.; Robinson, K.L.

    1991-08-01

    Chemical, mineralogical, isotopic, and hydrological studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation and related rocks are used to delineate hydrochemical facies and form the basis for a conceptual model for post-Pleistocene groundwater flow and chemical evolution. Modern flow within the Culebra in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area appears to be largely north-to-south; however, these flow directions under confined conditions are not consistent with the salinity distribution in the region surrounding the WIPP Site. Isotopic, mineralogical, and hydrological data suggest that vertical recharge to the Culebra in the WIPP area and to the immediate east and south has not occurred for several thousand years. Eastward increasing {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios suggest recharge from a near-surface Pleistocene infiltration zone flowing from the west-northwest and imply a change in flow direction in the last 30,000 to 12,000 years. 49 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won; Kim, Jae Chan; Kim, Won Soo; Oh, Han Jin; Yang, Jee Myung; Lee, Jee Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED). Methods Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25) or placebo glasses (N = 25). Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break up time (BUT), and Schirmer’s test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. Results OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001). Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007). The results of the Schirmer’s test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035), however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusions Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry 71217488 PMID:26457673

  5. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  6. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases. PMID:23646297

  7. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1989-05-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during manufacture of paper and similar web products. Impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip where one of the rolls is heated to a very high temperature. Steam generated by contact with the hot roll expands and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is much lower than that required for conventional evaporative drying. Tests have been completed that elucidate the unique displacement mechanism of water removal in the impulse drying process. A pilot roll press has been designed, installed and used to examine impulse drying under conditions that simulate commercial press conditions. The results of this earlier work have been reported in three previous reports. During this report period October, 1987 to September, 1988, the pilot press was equipped with a second impulse drying roll to facilitate studies of surface uniformity in impulse dried paper. Studies have also been completed which examine the origins of sheet delamination that has been been encountered during impulse drying of certain heavyweight paper grades, and which investigate approaches to prevent delamination in these grades. Finally, an experimental plan has been formalized to examine impulse drying of lightweight grades which are candidates for early commercialization. 7 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Cumulative ventilation air drying potential as an indication of dry mass content in wastewater sludge in a thin-layer solar drying facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Controlling low-temperature drying facilities which utilise nonprepared air is quite difficult, due to very large variability of ventilation air parameters - both in daily and seasonal cycles. The paper defines the concept of cumulative drying potential of ventilation air and presents experimental evidence that there is a relation between this parameter and condition of the dried matter (sewage sludge). Knowledge on current dry mass content in the dried matter (sewage sludge) provides new possibilities for controlling such systems. Experimental data analysed in the paper was collected in early 2012 during operation of a test solar drying facility in a sewage treatment plant in Błonie near Warsaw, Poland.

  9. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  10. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  11. Interpretation of brine-permeability tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: First interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, R.L. ); Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Avis, J.D. )

    1991-08-01

    Pressure-pulse tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Hydraulic conductivities ranging from about 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}11} m/s (permeabilities of about 10{sup {minus}21} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}) have been interpreted from nine tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within eleven meters of the WIPP underground excavations. Tests of a pure halite layer showed no measurable permeability. Pore pressures in the stratigraphic intervals range from about 0.5 to 9.3 MPa. An anhydrite interbed (Marker Bed 139) appears to be one or more orders of magnitude more permeable than the surrounding halite. Hydraulic conductivities appear to increase, and pore pressures decrease, with increasing proximity to the excavations. These effects are particularly evident within two to three meters of the excavations. Two tests indicated the presence of apparent zero-flow boundaries about two to three meters from the boreholes. The other tests revealed no apparent boundaries within the radii of influence of the tests, which were calculated to range from about four to thirty-five meters from the test holes. The data are insufficient to determine if brine flow through evaporites results from Darcy-like flow driven by pressure gradients within naturally interconnected porosity or from shear deformation around excavations connecting previously isolated pores, thereby providing pathways for fluids at or near lithostatic pressure to be driven towards the low-pressure excavations. Future testing will be performed at greater distances from the excavations to evaluate hydraulic properties and processes beyond the range of excavation effects.

  12. Modelling the contribution of biogenic VOCs to new particle formation in the Jülich plant atmosphere chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Dal Maso, M.; Mogensen, D.; Roldin, P.; Rusanen, A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Mentel, T. F.; Wildt, J.; Kleist, E.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillmann, R.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M.

    2014-11-01

    We used the MALTE-BOX model including near-explicit air chemistry and detailed aerosol dynamics to study the mechanisms of observed new particle formation events in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber. The modelled and measured H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) concentrations agreed within a factor of two. The modelled total monoterpene concentration was in line with PTR-MS observations, and we provided the distributions of individual isomers of terpenes, when no measurements were available. The aerosol dynamic results supported the hypothesis that H2SO4 is one of the critical compounds in the nucleation process. However, compared to kinetic H2SO4 nucleation, nucleation involving OH oxidation products of monoterpenes showed a better agreement with the measurements, with R2 up to 0.97 between modelled and measured total particle number concentrations. The nucleation coefficient for kinetic H2SO4 nucleation was 2.1 × 10-11 cm3 s-1, while the organic nucleation coefficient was 9.0 × 10-14 cm3 s-1. We classified the VOC oxidation products into two sub-groups including extremely low-volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). These ELVOCs and SVOCs contributed approximately equally to the particle volume production, whereas only ELVOCs made the smallest particles to grow in size. The model simulations revealed that the chamber walls constitute a major net sink of SVOCs on the first experiment day. However, the net wall SVOC uptake was gradually reduced because of SVOC desorption during the following days. Thus, in order to capture the observed temporal evolution of the particle number size distribution, the model needs to consider reversible gas-wall partitioning.

  13. Comparative analyses of the effect of triacontanol on photosynthesis, photorespiration and growth of tomato (C3-plant) and maize (C 4-plant).

    PubMed

    Eriksen, A B; Selldén, G; Skogen, D; Nilsen, S

    1981-05-01

    Tomato (C3-plants) and maize (C4-plants) were grown in a nutrient solution to which triacontanol was added twice a week. After about 4 weeks the triacontanol treatment caused a significant increase in the dry weight of the tomato plants. Leaf area and dry weight measurements of tomato leaves at different stages of development showed that the largest increase in growth was obtained when triacontanol treatment was initiated before bud formation. In maize, no effect of the triacontanol treatment on dry wieght was observed. Photosynthesis was inhibited by 27% in young leaves from triacontanol-treated tomato plants and 39% in the controls, when the oxygen concentration was raised from 2% to 21%. In maize no change in photosynthesis could be observed, neither after altered oxygen concentration nor after triacontanol treatment. The difference in the response of C3- and C4-plants to triacontanol indicates that it regulates processes related to photosynthesis. PMID:24302317

  14. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  15. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth ... Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you may have include: Mouth sores Thick ...

  16. Sessile nanofluid droplet drying.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluid droplet evaporation has gained much audience nowadays due to its wide applications in painting, coating, surface patterning, particle deposition, etc. This paper reviews the drying progress and deposition formation from the evaporative sessile droplets with the suspended insoluble solutes, especially nanoparticles. The main content covers the evaporation fundamental, the particle self-assembly, and deposition patterns in sessile nanofluid droplet. Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented. The effects of the type, concentration and size of nanoparticles on the spreading and evaporative dynamics are elucidated at first, serving the basis for the understanding of particle motion and deposition process which are introduced afterward. Stressing on particle assembly and production of desirable residue patterns, we express abundant experimental interventions, various types of deposits, and the effects on nanoparticle deposition. The review ends with the introduction of theoretical investigations, including the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of solutions, the Diffusion Limited Aggregation approach, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method, and the Dynamical Density Functional Theory. Nanoparticles have shown great influences in spreading, evaporation rate, evaporation regime, fluid flow and pattern formation of sessile droplets. Under different experimental conditions, various deposition patterns can be formed. The existing theoretical approaches are able to predict fluid dynamics, particle motion and deposition patterns in the particular cases. On the basis of further understanding of the effects of fluid dynamics and particle motion, the desirable patterns can be obtained with appropriate experimental regulations. PMID:25578408

  17. A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Rik; Hontelez, Jan; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Wen, Jiangqi; Bisseling, Ton; Limpens, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobium bacteria are accommodated in specialized membrane compartments that form a host-microbe interface. To better understand how these interfaces are made, we studied the regulation of exocytosis during interface formation. We used a phylogenetic approach to identify target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) that are dedicated to symbiosis and used cell-specific expression analysis together with protein localization to identify t-SNAREs that are present on the host-microbe interface in Medicago truncatula. We investigated the role of these t-SNAREs during the formation of a host-microbe interface. We showed that multiple syntaxins are present on the peri-arbuscular membrane. From these, we identified SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II (SYP13II) as a t-SNARE that is essential for the formation of a stable symbiotic interface in both AM and rhizobium symbiosis. In most dicot plants, the SYP13II transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in two isoforms, SYP13IIα and SYP13IIβ. These splice-forms differentially mark functional and degrading arbuscule branches. Our results show that vesicle traffic to the symbiotic interface is specialized and required for its maintenance. Alternative splicing of SYP13II allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules. PMID:27110912

  18. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic ... mouth trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking a burning feeling in the mouth a dry feeling in the throat cracked lips ...

  19. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  20. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  1. Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 hours growth using an optical density (OD600nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 hours, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD570nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50 ≤32 μg/ml for biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. The anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants was significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications. PMID:18556162

  2. Differences in biofilm formation of produce and poultry Salmonella enterica isolates and their persistence on spinach plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeat irrigation of spinach plants with water containing Salmonella was used to determine Salmonella persistence on spinach leaves. Spinach plants were irrigated four times (biweekly) with water containing ca. 2.1 log CFU Salmonella per 100 ml water (the maximum generic E. coli MPN recommended by...

  3. Variation in dry grassland communities along a heavy metals gradient.

    PubMed

    Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł; Stefanowicz, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in plant communities growing on metal-enriched sites created by historical Zn–Pb mining. The study sites were 65 small heaps of waste rock covered by grassland vegetation and scattered mostly over agricultural land of southern Poland. The sites were described in terms of plant coverage, species richness and composition, and the composition of plant traits. They were classified using phytosociological methods and detrended correspondence analysis. Identified plant communities were compared for vegetation parameters and habitat properties (soil characteristics, distance from the forest) by analysis of variance. The variation in plant community parameters was explained by multiple regression, in which the predictors were properties of the habitat selected on the basis of factor analysis. Grasslands that developed at low and high concentrations of heavy metals in soil were similar to some extent: they were composed on average of 17–20 species (per 4 m(2)), and their total coverage exceeded 90%. The species composition changed substantially with increasing contamination with heavy metals; metal-sensitive species withdrew, while the metal-tolerant became more abundant. Other important predictors of community structure were: proximity to the forest (responsible for the encroachment of competitive forest species and ruderals), and the thickness of the surface soil (shallow soil favored the formation of the heavy metal grassland). The heavy metal grassland was closely related to the dry calcareous grasslands. The former was an earlier succession stage of the latter at low contamination with heavy metals. PMID:26493699

  4. Different hydrogen isotope fractionations during lipid formation in higher plants: Implications for paleohydrology reconstruction at a global scale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinzhao; Liu, Weiguo; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Leaf wax δDn-alkane values have shown to differ significantly among plant life forms (e.g., among grasses, shrubs, and trees) in higher plants. However, the underlying causes for the differences in leaf wax δDn-alkane values among different plant life forms remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that leaf wax δDn-alkane values between major high plant lineages (eudicots versus monocots) differed significantly under the same environmental conditions. Such a difference primarily inherited from different hydrogen biosynthetic fractionations (εwax-lw). Based upon a reanalysis of the available leaf wax δDn-alkane dataset from modern plants in the Northern Hemisphere, we discovered that the apparent hydrogen fractionation factor (εwax-p) between leaf wax δDn-alkane values of major angiosperm lineages and precipitation δD values exhibited distinguishable distribution patterns at a global scale, with an average of -140‰ for monocotyledonous species, -107‰ for dicotyledonous species. Additionally, variations of leaf wax δDn-alkane values and the εwax-p values in gymnosperms are similar to those of dicotyledonous species. Therefore, the data let us believe that biological factors inherited from plant taxonomies have a significant effect on controlling leaf wax δDn-alkane values in higher plants. PMID:26806719

  5. Different hydrogen isotope fractionations during lipid formation in higher plants: Implications for paleohydrology reconstruction at a global scale

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinzhao; Liu, Weiguo; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Leaf wax δDn-alkane values have shown to differ significantly among plant life forms (e.g., among grasses, shrubs, and trees) in higher plants. However, the underlying causes for the differences in leaf wax δDn-alkane values among different plant life forms remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that leaf wax δDn-alkane values between major high plant lineages (eudicots versus monocots) differed significantly under the same environmental conditions. Such a difference primarily inherited from different hydrogen biosynthetic fractionations (εwax-lw). Based upon a reanalysis of the available leaf wax δDn-alkane dataset from modern plants in the Northern Hemisphere, we discovered that the apparent hydrogen fractionation factor (εwax-p) between leaf wax δDn-alkane values of major angiosperm lineages and precipitation δD values exhibited distinguishable distribution patterns at a global scale, with an average of −140‰ for monocotyledonous species, −107‰ for dicotyledonous species. Additionally, variations of leaf wax δDn-alkane values and the εwax-p values in gymnosperms are similar to those of dicotyledonous species. Therefore, the data let us believe that biological factors inherited from plant taxonomies have a significant effect on controlling leaf wax δDn-alkane values in higher plants. PMID:26806719

  6. Different hydrogen isotope fractionations during lipid formation in higher plants: Implications for paleohydrology reconstruction at a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinzhao; Liu, Weiguo; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Leaf wax δDn-alkane values have shown to differ significantly among plant life forms (e.g., among grasses, shrubs, and trees) in higher plants. However, the underlying causes for the differences in leaf wax δDn-alkane values among different plant life forms remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that leaf wax δDn-alkane values between major high plant lineages (eudicots versus monocots) differed significantly under the same environmental conditions. Such a difference primarily inherited from different hydrogen biosynthetic fractionations (ɛwax-lw). Based upon a reanalysis of the available leaf wax δDn-alkane dataset from modern plants in the Northern Hemisphere, we discovered that the apparent hydrogen fractionation factor (ɛwax-p) between leaf wax δDn-alkane values of major angiosperm lineages and precipitation δD values exhibited distinguishable distribution patterns at a global scale, with an average of -140‰ for monocotyledonous species, -107‰ for dicotyledonous species. Additionally, variations of leaf wax δDn-alkane values and the ɛwax-p values in gymnosperms are similar to those of dicotyledonous species. Therefore, the data let us believe that biological factors inherited from plant taxonomies have a significant effect on controlling leaf wax δDn-alkane values in higher plants.

  7. Response diversity of free-floating plants to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature: growth and resting body formation.

    PubMed

    McCann, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Free-floating plants, like most groups of aquatic primary producers, can become nuisance vegetation under certain conditions. On the other hand, there is substantial optimism for the applied uses of free-floating plants, such as wastewater treatment, biofuel production, and aquaculture. Therefore, understanding the species-specific responses of floating plants to abiotic conditions will inform both management decisions and the beneficial applications of these plants. I measured the responses of three floating plant species common in the northeast United States (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Wolffia brasiliensis) to nutrient stoichiometry (nitrogen and phosphorus) and temperature in the laboratory. I also used survey data to determine the pattern of species richness of floating plants in the field and its relationship with the dominance of this group. Floating plant species exhibited unique responses to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature in the laboratory, especially under low temperatures (18 °C) and low nutrient conditions (0.5 mg N L(-1), 0.083 mg P L(-1)). The three species displayed an apparent tradeoff with different strategies of growth or dormancy. In the field, water bodies with three or more species of floating plants were not more frequently dominated by this group. The response diversity observed in the lab may not be associated with the dominance of this group in the field because it is masked by environmental variability, has a weak effect, or is only important during transient circumstances. Future research to develop applied uses of floating plants should examine response diversity across a greater range of species or clones and environmental conditions. PMID:26989619

  8. Response diversity of free-floating plants to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature: growth and resting body formation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Free-floating plants, like most groups of aquatic primary producers, can become nuisance vegetation under certain conditions. On the other hand, there is substantial optimism for the applied uses of free-floating plants, such as wastewater treatment, biofuel production, and aquaculture. Therefore, understanding the species-specific responses of floating plants to abiotic conditions will inform both management decisions and the beneficial applications of these plants. I measured the responses of three floating plant species common in the northeast United States (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Wolffia brasiliensis) to nutrient stoichiometry (nitrogen and phosphorus) and temperature in the laboratory. I also used survey data to determine the pattern of species richness of floating plants in the field and its relationship with the dominance of this group. Floating plant species exhibited unique responses to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature in the laboratory, especially under low temperatures (18 °C) and low nutrient conditions (0.5 mg N L−1, 0.083 mg P L−1). The three species displayed an apparent tradeoff with different strategies of growth or dormancy. In the field, water bodies with three or more species of floating plants were not more frequently dominated by this group. The response diversity observed in the lab may not be associated with the dominance of this group in the field because it is masked by environmental variability, has a weak effect, or is only important during transient circumstances. Future research to develop applied uses of floating plants should examine response diversity across a greater range of species or clones and environmental conditions. PMID:26989619

  9. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1990-09-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. Impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. Hence, it has been projected that wide commercialization of impulse drying would result in at least a 10% industry-wide energy saving. This report covers work completed between October, 1988 and September, 1989. During this period, pilot press trails demonstrated that newsprint as well as linerboard experience delamination. Hence, the major focus of the research was the resolution of the delamination problem. In order to document potential process improvements, measurement methods were developed to quantify sheet delamination. Using these methods, low thermal diffusivity ceramic roll surfaces were shown to extend the range of impulse drying operating conditions while avoiding sheet delamination. As compared to steel surfaces, ceramics were found to provide significantly higher water volume without inducing sheet delamination. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Dry deposition velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  11. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. PMID:26705850

  12. Analysis of by-product formation and sugar monomerization in sugarcane bagasse pretreated at pilot plant scale: differences between autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Edwin; Bakker, Rob; van Zeeland, Alniek; Sanchez Garcia, David; Punt, Arjen; Eggink, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is an interesting feedstock for the biobased economy since a large fraction is polymerized sugars. Autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment conditions combined with enzyme hydrolysis were used on lignocellulose rich bagasse to acquire monomeric. By-products found after pretreatment included acetic, glycolic and coumaric acid in concentrations up to 40, 21 and 2.5 g/kg dry weight bagasse respectively. Alkaline pretreated material contained up to 45 g/kg bagasse DW of sodium. Acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment results in a furan formation of 14 g/kg and 25 g/kg DW bagasse respectively. Enzyme monomerization efficiencies of pretreated solid material after 72 h were 81% for acid pretreatment, 77% for autohydrolysis and 57% for alkaline pretreatment. Solid material was washed with superheated water to decrease the amount of by-products. Washing decreased organic acid, phenol and furan concentrations in solid material by at least 60%, without a major sugar loss. PMID:25643957

  13. An assessment of engineered calcium oxalate crystal formation on plant growth and development as a step toward evaluating its use to enhance plant defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill ...

  14. Microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying using oleosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, S.; Ghebremedhin, M.; Zielbauer, B. I.; Knorr, D.; Vilgis, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    The food industry has discovered that oleosomes are beneficial as carriers of bioactive ingredients. Oleosomes are subcellular oil droplets typically found in plant seeds. Within seeds, they exist as pre-emulsified oil high in unsaturated fatty acids, stabilised by a monolayer of phospholipids and proteins, called oleosins. Oleosins are anchored into the oil core with a hydrophobic domain, while the hydrophilic domains remain on the oleosome surface. To preserve the nutritional value of the oil and the function of oleosomes, microencapsulation by means of spray drying is a promising technique. For the microencapsulation of oleosomes, maltodextrin was used. To achieve a high oil encapsulation efficiency, optimal process parameters needed to be established. In order to better understand the mechanisms of drying behind powder formation and the associated powder properties, the findings obtained using different microscopic and spectroscopic measurements were correlated with each other. By doing this, it was found that spray drying of pure oleosome emulsions resulted in excessive component segregation and thus in a poor encapsulation efficiency. With the addition of maltodextrin, the oil encapsulation efficiency was significantly improved.

  15. Instrumentation used for hydraulic testing of potential water-bearing formations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basler, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements for testing hydrologic test wells at the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, necessitated the use of inflatable formation packers and pressure transducers. Observations during drilling and initial development indicated small formation yields which would require considerable test times by conventional open-casing methods. A pressure-monitoring system was assembled for performance evaluation utilizing commercially available components. Formation pressures were monitored with a down-hole strain-gage transducer. An inflatable packer equipped with a 1/4-inch-diameter steel tube extending through the inflation element permitted sensing formation pressures in isolated test zones. Surface components of the monitoring system provided AC transducer excitation, signal conditioning for recording directly in engineering units, and both analog and digital recording. Continuous surface monitoring of formation pressures provided a means of determining test status and projecting completion times during any phase of testing. Maximum portability was afforded by battery operation with all surface components mounted in a small self-contained trailer. (USGS)

  16. Abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds from plant biomass and its dependence on temperature and UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derendorp, L.; Holzinger, R.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from living vegetation are measured for many different plant species. However, almost no research has been performed on the VOC emissions from plant litter and senescent leaves. The few studies that are done on plant litter indicate that the VOC emissions from this material can be significant for atmospheric chemistry and the global budgets of those VOCs. Recently, research showed that methane is emitted from dead and senescent leaves, and that the emission rates are influenced by temperature and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is also observed that not only methane, but also ethane and ethylene were emitted from leaf material under the influence of UV radiation. In this study, the emissions of ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, propylene, i-butane, n-butane and methyl chloride are measured with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. The effect of temperature and UV radiation on the emission rates of the different VOCs is measured for leaves of several plant species. The emission rates of ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, and methylchloride increased exponentially with increasing temperature for all measured plant species, while a linear increase of the emission rates was observed for increasing intensity of the UV radiation. Emissions of acetylene, i-butane, and n-butane were not observed.

  17. Triple oxygen and sulfur isotope analyses of sulfate extracted from voluminous volcanic ashes in the Oligocene John Day Formation: insight into dry climate conditions and ozone contribution to supereruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, J.; Bindeman, I. N.; Martin, E.; Retallack, G.; Palandri, J. L.; Weldon, N.

    2014-12-01

    Large volume pyroclastic silicic eruptions emit hundreds of megatons of SO2 into the troposphere and stratosphere that is oxidized into sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by a variety of reactions with mass independent oxygen signatures (MIF), Δ17O>0. Sulfuric acid is then preserved as gypsum in parental volcanic deposits. Diagenic effects are mass dependent and can dilute, but otherwise do not affect MIF ratios. Pleistocene Yellowstone and Bishop tuffs and modern volcanic eruptions preserved under arid climate conditions in North American playa lakes, preserve small amounts of volcanic sulfate as gypsum. This gypsum's Δ17O>0, in combination with isotopic variations of δ18O, δ33S and δ34S is distinct from sedimentary sulfate and reveals its original MIF sulfate isotopic signal and the effect of super eruptions on the atmosphere, and ozone consumption in particular. We use linear algebraic equations to resolve volcanic versus sedimentary (MIF=0) sources. We have found that many large volume ignimbrites have very high initial Δ17O in volcanic sulfate that can only be acquired from reaction with stratospheric ozone. We here investigate nine thick (>2 m) ash beds ranging in age from ~33-23 Ma in the John Day Formation of central Oregon, including massive 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff of newly identified Crooked River supercaldera. The 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff (PGT) has the highest measured Δ17O of 3.5‰, and other tuffs (Tin Roof, Biotite, Deep Creek) have +1.3 to 3.4‰ Δ17O excesses. Sulfate from modern smaller tropospheric eruptions studied for comparison have a resolvable 0.4‰ range consistent with liquid-phase based H2O2 oxidation. The PGT is coeval with the ignimbrite flare-up in western N. America, the 28-29 Ma eruption of the 5000 km3 Fish Canyon tuff and the 28 Ma Never Summer Field eruption in Nebraska-Colorado that have the highest measured Δ17O of 6‰ (Bao et al. 2003). We speculate on the climatic/atmospheric effects of these multiple ~28 Ma supereruptions

  18. The production of recombinant cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells induces the formation of protein bodies derived from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; La Paz, José-Luis; Martínez, Sílvia; Rasche, Stefan; Schillberg, Stefan; Montesinos, Emilio; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, are valuable as novel therapeutics and preservatives. However, they tend to be toxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants, and they can be difficult to detect and isolate from complex plant tissues because they are strongly cationic and display low extinction coefficient and extremely limited immunogenicity. We therefore expressed BP100 with a C-terminal tag which preserved its antimicrobial activity and demonstrated significant accumulation in plant cells. We used a fluorescent tag to trace BP100 following transiently expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and showed that it accumulated in large vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) along with typical ER luminal proteins. Interestingly, the formation of these vesicles was induced by BP100. Similar vesicles formed in stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, but the recombinant peptide was toxic to the host during latter developmental stages. This was avoided by selecting active BP100 derivatives based on their low haemolytic activity even though the selected peptides remained toxic to plant cells when applied exogenously at high doses. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing active BP100 derivatives with a yield of up to 0.5% total soluble protein. PMID:24102775

  19. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  20. Dephosphorization when using DRI

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-21

    The increase in high quality steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) requires the use of scrap substitute materials, such as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI). Although DRI and HBI products have lower copper and nickel contents than most scrap materials, they can contain up to ten times more phosphorus. This project, led by Carnegie Mellon University’s Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, improves the understanding of how phosphorus behaves when DRI and HBI melt.

  1. Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry

  2. Dry pressing technical ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.A. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Dry pressing of technical ceramics is a fundamental method of producing high-quality ceramic components. The goals of dry pressing technical ceramics are uniform compact size and green density, consistent part-to-part green density and defect-free compact. Dry pressing is the axial compaction of loosely granulated dry ceramic powders (< 3% free moisture) within a die/punch arrangement. The powder, under pressure, conforms to the specific shape of the punch faces and die. Powder compaction occurs within a rigid-walled die and usually between a top and bottom punch. Press configurations include anvil, rotary, multiple-punch and multiple-action.

  3. Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties.

    PubMed

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2012-04-11

    Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products. PMID:22397498

  4. Natural plant products inhibits growth and alters the swarming motility, biofilm formation, and expression of virulence genes in enteroaggregative and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-Heredia, Alam; García, Santos; Merino-Mascorro, José Ángel; Feng, Peter; Heredia, Norma

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of plant products on the growth, swarming motility, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 and a strain of O104:H4 serotype. Extracts of Lippia graveolens and Haematoxylon brassiletto, and carvacrol, brazilin were tested by an antimicrobial microdilution method using citral and rifaximin as controls. All products showed bactericidal activity with minimal bactericidal concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 8.1 mg/ml. Swarming motility was determined in soft LB agar. Most compounds reduced swarming motility by 7%-100%; except carvacrol which promoted motility in two strains. Biofilm formation studies were done in microtiter plates. Rifaximin inhibited growth and reduced biofilm formation, but various concentrations of other compounds actually induced biofilm formation. Real time PCR showed that most compounds decreased stx2 expression. The expression of pic and rpoS in E. coli 042 were suppressed but in E. coli O104:H4 they varied depending on compounds. In conclusion, these extracts affect E. coli growth, swarming motility and virulence gene expression. Although these compounds were bactericidal for pathogenic E. coli, sublethal concentrations had varied effects on phenotypic and genotypic traits, and some increased virulence gene expression. PMID:27375253

  5. Nature and genesis of clay minerals of the Rustler Formation in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sewards, T.; Brearley, A.; Glenn, R. ); MacKinnon, I.D.R. ); Siegel, M.D. )

    1992-08-01

    Detailed mineralogical studies of the matrix and fracture-fill materials of a large number of samples from the Rustler Formation have been carried out using x-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, x-ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These analyses indicate the presence of four clay minerals: interstratified chlorite/saponite, illite, chlorite, and serpentine. Corrensite (regularly stratified chlorite/saponite) is the dominant clay mineral in samples from the Culebra dolomite and two shale layers of the lower unnamed member of the Rustler Formation. Within other layers of the Rustler Formation, disordered mixed chlorite/saponite is usually the most abundant clay mineral. Studies of the morphology and composition of clay crystallites suggest that the corrensite was formed by the alteration of detrital dioctahedral smectite in magnesium-rich pore fluids during early diagenesis of the Rustler Formation. This study provides initial estimates of the abundance and nature of the clay minerals in the Culebra dolomite in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

  6. Degradation of plant cuticles in soils: impact on formation and sorptive ability of humin-mineral matrices.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, Yaniv; Polubesova, Tamara; Chefetz, Benny

    2015-05-01

    Plant cuticles are important precursors for soil organic matter, in particular for soil humin, which is considered an efficient sorbent for organic pollutants. In this study, we examined degradation and transformation of cuticles isolated from fruit and leaves in loamy sand and sandy clay loessial arid brown soils. We then studied sorption of phenanthrene and carbamazepine to humin-mineral matrices isolated from the incubated soils. Low degradation (22%) was observed for agave cuticle in a sandy clay soil system, whereas high degradation (68-78%) was obtained for agave cuticle in a loamy sand soil system and for loamy sand and sandy clay soils amended with tomato cuticle. During incubation, most of the residual organic matter was accumulated in the humin fraction. Sorption of phenanthrene was significantly higher for humin-mineral matrices obtained from soils incubated with plant cuticles as compared with soils without cuticle application. Sorption of carbamazepine to humin-mineral matrices was not affected by cuticle residues. Cooperative sorption of carbamazepine on humin-mineral matrices isolated from sandy clay soil is suggested. Sorption-desorption hysteresis of both phenanthrene and carbamazepine was lower for humin-mineral matrices obtained from soils incubated with plant cuticles as compared with nonamended soils. Our results show that cuticle composition significantly affects the rate and extent of cuticle degradation in soils and that plant cuticle application influences sorption and desorption of polar and nonpolar pollutants by humin-mineral matrices. PMID:26024265

  7. Developing strategies to improve the nutritional quality and production of plant foods through manipulation of calcium oxalate formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of oxalate commonly occurs in numerous organisms. Oxalate negatively affects human health by acting as an antinutrient affecting calcium bioavailability and/or contributing to the pathological condition of urinary stone formation where it is a primary component. In some microbes, ox...

  8. To Dry Or Not To Dry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, Audrey E.

    1977-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most frustrating problems which confront many teachers is lack of adequate drying space or facilities for prints, paintings and three-dimensional art activities. Suggests requirements necessary for an adequate storage unit and how to construct one. (Author/RK)

  9. Inhibition of Intestinal Adenoma Formation in APCMin/+ Mice by Riccardin D, a Natural Product Derived from Liverwort Plant Dumortiera hirsuta

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shu-Xiang; Sun, De-Fu; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Cui-Rong; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutation of tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), is the primary molecular event in the development of most intestinal carcinomas. Animal model with APC gene mutation is an effective tool for study of preventive approaches against intestinal carcinomas. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound, as a chemopreventive agent against intestinal adenoma formation in APCMin/+ mice. Methods APCMin/+ mice were given Riccardin D by p.o. gavage for 7 weeks. Mice were sacrificed, and the number, size and histopathology of intestinal polyps were examined under a microscope. We performed immunohistochemical staining, western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in intestinal polyps to investigate the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of Riccardin D. Results Riccardin D treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of intestinal adenoma formation, showing a reduction of polyp number by 41.7%, 31.1% and 44.4%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine. The activity of Riccardin D against polyp formation was more profound in colon, wherein Riccardin D decreased polyp number by 79.3%. Size distribution analysis revealed a significant reduction in large-size polyps (2–3 mm) by 40.0%, 42.5% and 33.3%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine, and 77.8% in colon. Histopathological analysis of the intestinal polyps revealed mostly hyperplastic morphology without obvious dysplasia in Riccardin D-treated mice. Molecular analyses of the polyps suggested that the inhibitory effect of Riccardin D on intestinal adenoma formation was associated with its abilities of reduction in cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and suppression of inflammatory mediators in polyps. Conclusions Our results suggested that Riccardin D

  10. A plant virus replication system to assay the formation of RNA pseudotriloop motifs in RNA-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Haasnoot, P C Joost; Bol, John F; Olsthoorn, René C L

    2003-10-28

    A pseudotriloop is formed by transloop base pairing between the first (5') and the fifth nucleotide in a hexanucleotide RNA loop ("hexaloop") to subtend a triloop of nucleotides 2-4. This structure has been found in hairpins involved in the regulation of iron metabolism in mammalian cells and in transcription of plant virus subgenomic RNA. Several hexaloop hairpins, including HIV-transactivation-responsive element and hepatitis B virus , potentially adopt a pseudotriloop conformation. Here we show that an RNA plant virus whose replication depends on a conventional triloop hairpin can be used to verify the existence of pseudotriloop structures in vivo. Our data suggest that the pseudotriloop may represent a common motif in RNA-protein recognition. PMID:14569004

  11. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  12. Tray Drying of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afacan, Artin; Masliyah, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    Describes a drying experiment useful in presenting the concept of simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Background information, equipment requirements, experimental procedures, and results are provided. The reasonably good agreement in the calculated rate of drying and that observed experimentally makes students feel confident in applying…

  13. On Paleozoic plants from marine strata: Trivena arkansana (Lyginopteridaceae) gen. et sp. nov., a lyginopterid from the Fayetteville Formation (middle Chesterian/Upper Mississippian) of Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael T; Rothwell, Gar W; Mapes, Gene

    2003-08-01

    Five permineralized seed fern stems from the Fayetteville Formation (middle Chesterian/Upper Mississippian) of Arkansas conform to the concept of lyginopterid seed ferns. However, these specimens are unlike all previously reported lyginopterids, and the name Trivena arkansana (Lyginopteridaceae) gen. et sp. nov. is proposed. The stems are up to 30 by 19 mm in diameter and have pentagonal pith and eustele of five cryptic sympodia. Secondary tissues include abundant xylem with numerous wide rays and phloem surrounded by a periderm. The cortex is parenchymatous with abundant sclerotic clusters: some clusters are randomly dispersed and some are in discontinuous rows. Sclerenchyma bands form the "Dictyoxylon"-type outer cortex. Leaf traces diverge in a 2/5 phyllotaxy. Traces, accompanied by concentric secondary xylem, increase in size as they extend through the secondary xylem of the stem. The trace assumes a squat C shape at the outer margin of the secondary xylem and in the cortex divides into three discrete bundles, each surrounded by secondary xylem. Galleries within the phloem contain arthropod coprolites and exhibit wound response, suggesting plant-arthropod coevolution. The discovery of this new lyginopterid stem adds to the growing list of unique taxa described from the Fayetteville Formation and further solidifies its reputation as one of the most important Upper Mississippian plant fossil sites in North America. PMID:21659224

  14. Effects of micro electric current load during cooling of plant tissues on intracellular ice crystal formation behavior and pH.

    PubMed

    Ninagawa, Takako; Kawamura, Yukio; Konishi, Tadashi; Narumi, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Cryopreservation techniques are expected to evolve further to preserve biomaterials and foods in a fresh state for extended periods of time. Long-term cryopreservation of living materials such as food and biological tissue is generally achieved by freezing; thus, intracellular freezing occurs. Intracellular freezing injures the cells and leads to cell death. Therefore, a dream cryopreservation technique would preserve the living materials without internal ice crystal formation at a temperature low enough to prevent bacterial activity. This study was performed to investigate the effect of micro electrical current loading during cooling as a new cryopreservation technique. The behavior of intracellular ice crystal formation in plant tissues with or without an electric current load was evaluated using the degree of supercooling, degree of cell deformation, and grain size and growing rate of intracellular ice crystal. Moreover, the transition of intracellular pH during plant tissue cooling with or without electric current loading was also examined using the fluorescence intensity ratio to comprehend cell activity at lower temperatures. The results indicated that micro electric current load did not only decrease the degree of cell deformation and grain size of intracellular ice crystal but also reduced the decline in intracellular pH due to temperature lowering, compared with tissues subjected to the same cooling rate without an electric current load. Thus, the effect of electric current load on cryopreservation and the potential of a new cryopreservation technique using electric current load were discussed based on these results. PMID:27343137

  15. SMALL SCALE ETHANOL DRYING - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program exceeded all key milestones. Using cellulose Waste, CMS demonstrated novel ethanol drying membranes via small scale dephlegmation process that yields fuel grade ethanol (FGE) at a lower cost than large switch grass ethanol plants. This success yields positive valu...

  16. Dry imaging cameras

    PubMed Central

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, Aftab; Sahni, Hirdesh; Bhatia, Mukul; Sahu, Samaresh

    2011-01-01

    Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow. PMID:21799589

  17. Packaged kiln dried firewood

    SciTech Connect

    Cutrara, A.

    1986-07-01

    A process is described for kiln drying firewood consisting of essentially uniform lengths of split firewood pieces, the process comprising splitting essentially uniform lengths of green tree logs to form firewood pieces, placing the firewood pieces in open mesh bags to provide a plurality of bags of firewood, placing the plurality of bags of green firewood pieces in a kiln drying oven, kiln drying the pieces at temperatures in excess of 150/sup 0/F. by moving heated air over the pieces until the pieces have an overall moisture content ranging from 15% up to 30% by weight, operating the kiln at a temperature below a level which would render the structural characteristics of the bag useless and removing the kiln dried firewood pieces in the plurality of bags from the kiln drying oven.

  18. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  19. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have additional levels of coverage as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart...) Fall-planted dry peas more than 25 days after the final planting date for the corresponding spring... section 3 of the Basic Provisions, in counties with both a fall and spring sales closing date for...

  20. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have additional levels of coverage as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart...) Fall-planted dry peas more than 25 days after the final planting date for the corresponding spring... section 3 of the Basic Provisions, in counties with both a fall and spring sales closing date for...