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Sample records for dry powder aerosols

  1. Combination Chemotherapeutic Dry Powder Aerosols via Controlled Nanoparticle Agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Berkland, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop an aerosol system for efficient local lung delivery of chemotherapeutics where nanotechnology holds tremendous potential for developing more valuable cancer therapies. Concurrently, aerosolized chemotherapy is generating interest as a means to treat certain types of lung cancer more effectively with less systemic exposure to the compound. Methods Nanoparticles of the potent anticancer drug, paclitaxel, were controllably assembled to form low density microparticles directly after preparation of the nanoparticle suspension. The amino acid, L-leucine, was used as a colloid destabilizer to drive the assembly of paclitaxel nanoparticles. A combination chemotherapy aerosol was formed by assembling the paclitaxel nanoparticles in the presence of cisplatin in solution. Results Freeze-dried powders of the combination chemotherapy possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. In addition, the dissolution rates of dried nanoparticle agglomerate formulations (~60% to 66% after 8 h) were significantly faster than that of micronized paclitaxel powder as received (~18% after 8 h). Interestingly, the presence of the water soluble cisplatin accelerated the dissolution of paclitaxel. Conclusions Nanoparticle agglomerates of paclitaxel alone or in combination with cisplatin may serve as effective chemotherapeutic dry powder aerosols to enable regional treatment of certain lung cancers. PMID:19415471

  2. Improving aerosolization of drug powders by reducing powder intrinsic cohesion via a mechanical dry coating approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of coating on the aerosolization of three model micronized powders. Three model powder materials (salbutamol sulphate, salmeterol xinafoate, triamcinolone acetonide) were chosen not only for their different chemical properties but also for their different physical properties such as shape and size distribution. Each powder was coated with 5% (w/w) magnesium stearate using two different dry mechanofusion approaches. After mechanofusion, both poured and tapped densities for all three model drug powders significantly increased. There were significant improvements in aerosolization behavior from an inhaler device for all model powders after mechanofusion. Such improvements in aerosolization were attributed to the reduction in agglomerate strength caused by decreasing powder intrinsic cohesion via surface modification. The work also indicated that the effect of the coating was dependant on the initial particle properties. PMID:20435112

  3. Nifedipine Nanoparticle Agglomeration as a Dry Powder Aerosol Formulation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Plumley, Carl; Gorman, Eric M.; Munson, Eric J.; Berkland, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Efficient administration of drugs represents a leading challenge in pulmonary medicine. Dry powder aerosols are of great interest compared to traditional aerosolized liquid formulations in that they may offer improved stability, ease of administration, and simple device design. Particles 1–5 µm in size typically facilitate lung deposition. Nanoparticles may be exhaled as a result of their small size; however, they are desired to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Nanoparticles of the hypertension drug nifedipine were co-precipitated with stearic acid to form a colloid exhibiting negative surface charge. Nifedipine nanoparticle colloids were destabilized by using sodium chloride to disrupt the electrostatic repulsion between particles as a means to achieve the agglomerated nanoparticles of a controlled size. The aerodynamic performance of agglomerated nanoparticles was determined by cascade impaction. The powders were found to be well suited for pulmonary delivery. In addition, nanoparticle agglomerates revealed enhanced dissolution of the drug species suggesting the value of this formulation approach for poorly water soluble pulmonary medicines. Ultimately, nifedipine powders are envisioned as an approach to treat pulmonary hypertension. PMID:19015016

  4. Pulmonary Delivery of Vancomycin Dry Powder Aerosol to Intubated Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Bradley P; El-Gendy, Nashwa; Kuehl, Christopher; Berkland, Cory

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic multiresistant pneumonia is a risk associated with long-term mechanical ventilation. Vancomycin is commonly prescribed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections; however, current formulations of vancomycin are only given intravenously. High doses of vancomycin have been associated with severe renal toxicity. In this study, we characterized dry powder vancomyin as a potential inhaled therapeutic aerosol and compared pharmacokinetic profiles of iv and pulmonary administered vancomycin in intubated rabbits through an endotracheal tube system. Cascade impaction studies indicated that using an endotracheal tube, which bypasses deposition in the mouth and throat, increased the amount of drug entering the lung. Bypassing the endotracheal tube with a catheter further enhanced drug deposition in the lung. Interestingly, intubated rabbits administered 1 mg/kg vancomycin via inhalation had similar AUC to rabbits that were administered 1 mg/kg vancomycin via a single bolus iv infusion; however, inhalation of vancomycin reduced Cmax and increased Tmax, indicating that inhaled vancomycin resulted in more sustained pulmonary levels of vancomycin. Collectively, these results suggested that dry powder vancomycin can successfully be delivered by pulmonary inhalation in intubated patients. Furthermore, as inhaled vancomycin is delivered locally to the site of pulmonary infection, this delivery route could reduce the total dose required for therapeutic efficacy and simultaneously reduce the risk of renal toxicity by eliminating the high levels of systemic drug exposure required to push the pulmonary dose to therapeutic thresholds during iv administration. PMID:25915095

  5. Pulmonary delivery of vancomycin dry powder aerosol to intubated rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Bradley P.; El-Gendy, Nashwa; Kuehl, Christopher; Berkland, Cory

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic multi-resistant pneumonia is a risk associated with long term mechanical ventilation. Vancomycin is commonly prescribed for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus infections; however, current formulations of vancomycin are only given intravenously. High doses of vancomycin have been associated with severe renal toxicity. In this study we characterized dry powder vancomyin as a potential inhaled therapeutic aerosol and compared pharmacokinetic profiles of i.v. and pulmonary administered vancomycin in intubated rabbits using a novel endotracheal tube catheter system. Cascade Impaction studies indicated that using an endotracheal tube, which bypasses deposition the mouth and throat, increased the amount of drug entering the lung. Drug deposition in the lung was further enhanced by using an endotracheal tube catheter, which did not alter the aerosol fine particle fraction. Interestingly, intubated rabbits administered 1 mg/kg vancomycin via inhalation had similar AUC to rabbits that were administered 1 mg/kg vancomycin via a single bolus i.v. infusion; however, inhalation of vancomycin reduced Cmax and increased Tmax, suggesting that inhaled vancomycin resulted in more sustained pulmonary levels of vancomycin. Collectively, these results suggested that dry powder vancomycin can successfully be delivered by pulmonary inhalation in intubated patients. Furthermore, as inhaled vancomycin is delivered locally to the site of pulmonary infection, this delivery route could reduce the total dose required for therapeutic efficacy and simultaneously reduce the risk of renal toxicity by eliminating the high levels of systemic drug exposure required to push the pulmonary dose to therapeutic thresholds during i.v. administration. PMID:25915095

  6. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency. PMID:23196863

  7. Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451

  8. Physicochemical characterization and aerosol dispersion performance of organic solution advanced spray-dried cyclosporine A multifunctional particles for dry powder inhalation aerosol delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Weifen; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    In this systematic and comprehensive study, inhalation powders of the polypeptide immunosuppressant drug – cyclosporine A – for lung delivery as dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were successfully designed, developed, and optimized. Several spray drying pump rates were rationally chosen. Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and imaging was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, Karl Fischer titration, laser size diffraction, and gravimetric vapor sorption. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using a next generation impactor with a Food and Drug Administration-approved DPI device. These DPIs displayed excellent aerosol dispersion performance with high values in emitted dose, respirable fraction, and fine particle fraction. In addition, novel multifunctional inhalation aerosol powder formulations of cyclosporine A with lung surfactant-mimic phospholipids were also successfully designed and developed by advanced organic solution cospray drying in closed mode. The lung surfactantmimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-snglycero- 3-(phosphor-rac-1-glycerol). These cyclosporine A lung surfactant-mimic aerosol powder formulations were comprehensively characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid state was preserved following advanced organic solution spray drying in closed mode. These novel multifunctional inhalation powders were optimized for DPI delivery with excellent aerosol dispersion performance and high aerosol performance parameters. PMID:23569375

  9. Nanoparticle agglomerates of fluticasone propionate in combination with albuterol sulfate as dry powder aerosols

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Pornputtapitak, Warangkana; Berkland, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Particle engineering strategies remain at the forefront of aerosol research for localized treatment of lung diseases and represent an alternative for systemic drug therapy. With the hastily growing popularity and complexity of inhalation therapy, there is a rising demand for tailor-made inhalable drug particles capable of affording the most proficient delivery to the lungs and the most advantageous therapeutic outcomes. To address this formulation demand, nanoparticle agglomeration was used to develop aerosols of the asthma therapeutics, fluticasone or albuterol. In addition, a combination aerosol was formed by drying agglomerates of fluticasone nanoparticles in the presence of albuterol in solution. Powders of the single drug nanoparticle agglomerates or of the combined therapeutics possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. Powders were efficiently aerosolized (~75% deposition determined by cascade impaction) with high fine particle fraction and rapid dissolution. Nanoparticle agglomeration offers a unique approach to obtain high performance aerosols from combinations of asthma therapeutics. PMID:21964203

  10. Aerosolization characteristics of dry powder inhaler formulations for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application: effect of spray drying process conditions on aerosol performance.

    PubMed

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Worth Longest, P; Hindle, Michael

    2013-02-25

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20%, v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF(1 μm/ED)) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

  11. Aerosolization Characteristics of Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations for the Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Application: Effect of Spray Drying Process Conditions on Aerosol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF1μm/ED) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

  12. Effects of formulation and operating variables on zanamivir dry powder inhalation characteristics and aerosolization performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Ziwei; Ren, Yufeng; Mei, Xingguo

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of formulation and operating variables on the physical characteristics and aerosolization performance of zanamivir spary-dried powders for inhalation. Spray-dried samples of zanamivir, zanamivir/mannitol and zanamivir/mannitol/leucine were prepared from their corresponding aqueous solutions under the same conditions to study the influence of the composition, and zanamivir/mannitol/leucine (1/1/3 by weight) formulation was used for investigation of the effect of the preparation process. Dry powders were characterized afterwards for different physical properties, including morphology, particle size, flowability, density and moisture absorption. The in vitro deposition was also evaluated after the aerosolization of powders at 100 L min(-1) via the Aerolizer® into a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The highest FPF of 41.40 ± 1.1% was obtained with a zanamivir/mannitol/leucine ratio of 1/1/3, which had an average Dg of 3.11 ± 0.13 μm and an angle of repose of 36°( )± 1. It was found that the influence of the preparation process on zanamivir spary-dried powders characteristics and aerosolization properties was relatively small, but the influence of the composition was relatively large. Optimization of DPI can be achieved by selecting the most appropriate formulation and preparation process. PMID:24491208

  13. Influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride dry powder inhalation characteristics and aerosolization properties.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yachao; Yu, Chaoqun; Meng, Kangkang; Tang, Xing

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride (AH) dry powder inhalation (DPI) characteristics and aerosolization properties. Spray-dried samples of AH, AH/leucine, and AH/leucine/mannitol were prepared from their corresponding water solutions under the same conditions to study the influence of the composition, and the AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) formulation was used for investigation of the effect of the preparation process. Following spray-drying, the resulting powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, tapped density, and angle of repose measurements, and the aerosolization performance was determined using a twin-stage liquid impinger. AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) obtained by cospray-drying improved the AH aerosolization properties. The AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) preparation exhibited the following properties: 62.34% yield, 0.34 g/cm(3) tap density, 2.71 microm d(ae), 33.45 degrees angle of repose, and 30.93% respirable fraction. The influence of the preparation process on DPI characteristics and aerosolization properties was relatively small, but the influence of the composition was relatively large. Optimization of DPI can be achieved by selecting the most appropriate formulation and preparation process. PMID:18800258

  14. Spray-drying performance of a bench-top spray dryer for protein aerosol powder preparation.

    PubMed

    Maa, Y F; Nguyen, P A; Sit, K; Hsu, C C

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this work was to improve a bench-top spray dryer's efficiency in both production recovery and throughput for preparing protein aerosol powders. A Büchi mini-spray dryer was used to prepare the powders of recombinant humanized anti-IgE antibody. The resulting powder's physical properties such as particle size, residual moisture, and morphology, along with its recovery and production rate was the basis of this development work. Mass balance suggests that approximately 10-20% of powder was lost in the exhaust air, consisting primarily of particles less than 2 micrometer. Also, significant loss (20-30%) occurred in the cyclone. Attempts were made to improve product recovery in the receiving vessel using dual-cyclone configurations, different cyclone designs, cyclones with anti-static treatment, and different receiver designs. System modifications such as replacing the original bag-filter unit with a vacuum system effectively reduced drying air flow resistance, allowing the protein to be dried at a lower inlet air temperature and the production scale to be increased. We concluded that the modified spray-drying system is advantageous over the original bench-top spray dryer. This improvement will be beneficial to early-stage research and development involving high-valued protein powders. PMID:10099432

  15. Minimal amounts of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine improve aerosol performance of spray-dried temocillin powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, Brieuc; Eloy, Pierre; Loira-Pastoriza, Cristina; Ucakar, Bernard; Sanogo, Abdoul Aziz; Dupont-Gillain, Christine; Vanbever, Rita

    2015-11-30

    Administration of antibiotics by inhalation can greatly improve drug targeting to the site of respiratory infections. In addition, dry powder inhalers are particularly convenient for the patients. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the interest of pulmonary temocillin delivery to reach high temocillin concentrations locally in the lungs as well as to prepare a spray-dried temocillin powder for inhalation using a minimal amount of generally recognized as safe excipients. Intratracheal instillation of a temocillin solution allowed to reach higher and more sustained drug concentrations in the lungs than intravenous injection in mice, although a 10-fold lower temocillin dose was delivered intratracheally than systemically. A spray-dried powder of pure temocillin presented a fine particle fraction of 9% of the dose loaded in the inhaler. However, the incorporation of 0.5% to 20% of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the powder increased the fine particle fraction 4- to 5-fold. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that DPPC concentrated at the particle surface with its aliphatic chains laterally packed. The minimal amount of DPPC needed to improve the aerosol performance of temocillin supports the use of this excipient in the formulation of cohesive antibiotic powders for inhalation. PMID:26456267

  16. Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jinghua; Vogt, Frederick G; Li, Xiaojian; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI) hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX) microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water) from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was rendered noncrystalline (amorphous) following organic solution advanced spray drying. This was in contrast to spray-dried OFLX, which retained partial crystallinity, as did OFLX:DPPC powders at certain compositions. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using inertial impaction with a dry powder inhaler device approved for human use. The present study demonstrates that the use of DPPC offers improved aerosol delivery of MOXI as cospray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders, whereas residual partial crystallinity influenced aerosol dispersion of OFLX and most of the compositions of OFLX:DPPC inhalation powders. PMID:24092972

  17. Dry powder aerosols of polyethylenimine (PEI)-based gene vectors mediate efficient gene delivery to the lung.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Corinna; Hasenpusch, Guenther; Uezguen, Senta; Aneja, Manish Kumar; Reinhardt, Dietrich; Kirch, Julian; Schneider, Marc; Claus, Sarah; Friess, Wolfgang; Rudolph, Carsten

    2011-08-25

    Aerosol gene delivery holds great therapeutical potential for many inherited and acquired pulmonary diseases. The physical instability of aqueous suspensions of non-viral vector complexes is a major limitation for their successful application. In this study, we investigated dry powder aerosols as novel gene vector formulations for gene transfer in vitro and murine lungs in vivo. Lyophilization was used to produce dry powder cakes followed by powderization to produce dry powder aerosols. Different sugars, namely lactose, sucrose and trehalose, were tested as lyoprotectants for gene delivery complexes consisting of branched polyethylenimine 25 kDa and plasmid DNA. Biophysical particle characterization demonstrated that lyophilization and powderization in the presence of lyoprotectants were well tolerated. In vitro transfection efficiency remained unaffected by the choice of lyoprotectant and subsequent lyophilization and/or powderization. In vivo screening of powderized samples, by applying the powder with an insufflator, resulted in highest gene expression with lactose as lyoprotectant. Delivering a plasmid coding for murine erythropoietin together with lactose as lyoprotectant resulted in increased blood hematocrit values post application thereby demonstrating the potential of dry powder aerosol as a promising method for pulmonary gene delivery. PMID:21600251

  18. Efficient Nose-to-Lung (N2L) Aerosol Delivery with a Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Golshahi, Laleh; Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Tian, Geng; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Delivering aerosols to the lungs through the nasal route has a number of advantages, but its use has been limited by high depositional loss in the extrathoracic airways. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nose-to-lung (N2L) delivery of excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation aerosols generated with a new inline dry powder inhaler (DPI). The device was also adapted to enable aerosol delivery to a patient simultaneously receiving respiratory support from high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy. Methods: The inhaler delivered the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, which was formulated as submicrometer combination particles containing a hygroscopic excipient prepared by spray-drying. Nose-to-lung delivery was assessed using in vitro and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods in an airway model that continued through the upper tracheobronchial region. Results: The best performing device contained a 2.3 mm flow control orifice and a 3D rod array with a 3-4-3 rod pattern. Based on in vitro experiments, the emitted dose from the streamlined nasal cannula had a fine particle fraction <5 μm of 95.9% and mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.4 μm, which was considered ideal for nose-to-lung EEG delivery. With the 2.3-343 device, condensational growth in the airways increased the aerosol size to 2.5–2.7 μm and extrathoracic deposition was <10%. CFD results closely matched the in vitro experiments and predicted that nasal deposition was <2%. Conclusions: The developed DPI produced high efficiency aerosolization with significant size increase of the aerosol within the airways that can be used to enable nose-to-lung delivery and aerosol administration during HFNC therapy. PMID:25192072

  19. Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from alternative sugar blends: 3. Trehalose dihydrate and D-mannitol carriers.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Heidi M; Xu, Zhen; Hickey, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between physicochemical properties of drug/carrier blends and aerosol drug powder delivery was evaluated. Four pulmonary drugs each representing the major pulmonary therapeutic classes and with a different pharmacological action were employed. Specifically, the four pulmonary drugs were albuterol sulfate, ipratropium bromide monohydrate, disodium cromoglycate, and fluticasone propionate. The two carrier sugars, each representing a different sugar class, were D-mannitol and trehalose dihydrate. Dry powder aerosols (2%, w/w, drug in carrier) delivered using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) were characterized by twin-stage liquid impinger. The fine particle fraction (FPF) was correlated with SET shear stress, tau(s), and the maximum fine particle fraction (FPF(max)) was correlated with a deaggregation constant, k(d), by using a powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE) by nonlinear and linear regression analyses applied to pharmaceutical inhalation aerosol systems in the solid state. For the four pulmonary drugs representing the major pulmonary therapeutic classes and two chemically distinct pulmonary sugar carriers (non-lactose types) aerosolized with SETs having well-defined shear stress values, excellent correlation and predictive relationships were demonstrated for the novel and rigorous application of PADE for dry powder inhalation aerosol dispersion within a well-defined shear stress range, in the context of pulmonary drug/sugar carrier physicochemical and interfacial properties. PMID:20229601

  20. L-Leucine as an excipient against moisture on in vitro aerosolization performances of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Sun, Siping; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Denman, John A; Gengenbach, Thomas; Tang, Patricia; Mao, Shirui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-05-01

    L-Leucine (LL) has been widely used to enhance the dispersion performance of powders for inhalation. LL can also protect powders against moisture, but this effect is much less studied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LL could prevent moisture-induced deterioration in in vitro aerosolization performances of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) was chosen as a model drug and different amounts of LL (2-40% w/w) were added to the formulation, with the aim to explore the relationship between powder dispersion, moisture protection and physicochemical properties of the powders. The powder formulations were prepared by spray drying of aqueous solutions containing known concentrations of DSCG and LL. The particle sizes were measured by laser diffraction. The physicochemical properties of fine particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). The surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In vitro aerosolization performances were evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI) after the powders were stored at 60% or 75% relative humidity (RH), and 25°C for 24h. Spray-dried (SD) DSCG powders were amorphous and absorbed 30-45% (w/w) water at 70-80% RH, resulting in deterioration in the aerosolization performance of the powders. LL did not decrease the water uptake of DSCG powders, but it could significantly reduce the effect of moisture on aerosolization performances. This is due to enrichment of crystalline LL on the surface of the composite particles. The effect was directly related to the percentage of LL coverage on the surface of particles. Formulations having 61-73% (molar percent) of LL on the particle surface (which correspond to 10-20% (w

  1. Effects of ramp-up of inspired airflow on in vitro aerosol dose delivery performance for certain dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Ung, Keith T; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-03-10

    This study investigated the effect of airflow ramp-up on the dose delivery performance of seven dry powder inhalers, covering a broad range of powder formulations and powder dispersion mechanisms. In vitro performance tests were performed at a target pressure drop of 4kPa, using two inspiratory flow ramp-up conditions, representing slow and fast ramp-up of airflow, respectively. The fluidization of bulk powder and aerosol clearance from the inhaler was assessed by laser photometer evaluation of aerosol emission kinetics and measurement of the delivered dose (DD). The quality of aerosol dispersion (i.e. de-agglomeration) and associated lung targeting performance was assessed by measuring the total lung dose (TLD) using the Alberta idealized mouth-throat model. The ratio of DD and TLD under slow/fast ramp conditions was used as a metric to rank-order flow ramp effects. Test results show that the delivered dose is relatively unaffected by flow ramp (DD ratio ~1 for all dry powder inhalers). In contrast, the total lung dose showed significantly more variation as a function of flow ramp and inhaler type. Engineered (spray dried) powder formulations were associated with relatively high TLD (>50% of nominal dose) compared to lactose blend and agglomerate based formulations, which had a lower TLD (7-40% of nominal dose), indicative of less efficient targeting of the lung. The TLD for the Tobi Podhaler was the least influenced by flow ramp (TLD ratio ~1), while the TLD for the Asmanex Twisthaler was the most sensitive to flow ramp (TLD ratio ≪1). The relatively high sensitivity of the Asmanex Twisthaler to flow ramp is attributed to rapid aerosol clearance (from the inhaler) combined with a strong effect of flow-rate on particle de-agglomeration and resulting size distribution. PMID:26780380

  2. Development of dry powder inhaler formulation loaded with alendronate solid lipid nanoparticles: solid-state characterization and aerosol dispersion performance.

    PubMed

    Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Alendronate sodium is a bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis and acts as a specific inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Inhalable solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of the alendronate were successfully designed and developed by spray-dried and co-spray dried inhalable mannitol from aqueous solution. Emulsification technique using a simple homogenization method was used for preparation of SLNs. In vitro deposition of the aerosolized drug was studied using a Next Generation Impactor at 60 L/min following the methodology described in the European and United States Pharmacopeias. The Carr's Index, Hausner ratio and angle of repose were calculated as suitable criteria for estimation of the flow behavior of solids. Scanning electron microscopy showed spherical particle morphology of the respirable particles. The proposed spray-dried nanoparticulate-on-microparticles dry powders displayed good aerosol dispersion performance as dry powder inhalers with high values in emitted dose, fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter. These results indicate that this novel inhalable spray-dried nanoparticulate-on-microparticles aerosol platform has great potential in systemic delivery of the drug. PMID:25220930

  3. Polymer coating of carrier excipients modify aerosol performance of adhered drugs used in dry powder inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Traini, Daniela; Scalia, Santo; Adi, Handoko; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Young, Paul M

    2012-11-15

    The potential of excipient coating to enhance aerosol performance of micronized drugs in carrier excipient-drug blends, used in dry powder inhalers, was investigated. Both EC (ethyl cellulose) and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) were used as coating agents. Carriers were prepared via sieve fractioning followed by spray drying, with and without polymer additive. Each uncoated and coated carrier salbutamol sulphate (SS) blended systems were evaluated for particle size, morphology, drug carrier adhesion and aerosolisation performance, after blending and storage for 24h. All carrier-based systems prepared had similar particle sizes and morphologies. The surface chemistries of the carriers were significantly different, as was drug-carrier adhesion and aerosolisation performance. Particle adhesion between SS and aerosol performance (fine particle fraction; FPF) followed the rank: PVP coated>un-coated>EC coated lactose. This rank order could be attributed to the surface energy measured by contact goniometry and related to the chemistry of lactose and each polymer. Storage did not significantly affect aerosol performance, however a rank increase in mean FPF value was observed for uncoated and EC coated lactose. Finally, the net electrostatic charge across the aerosol cloud indicated that the EC coated lactose transferred less charge to SS particles. The performance of each carrier system could be attributed to the carrier surface chemistry and, in general, by careful selection of the coating polymer, drug-carrier adhesion, electrostatic charge and aerosol performance could be controlled. PMID:22964399

  4. Evaluation and Modification of Commercial Dry Powder Inhalers for the Aerosolization of a Submicrometer Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and modify commercial dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for the aerosolization of a submicrometer excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation. The optimized device and formulation combination was then tested in a realistic in vitro mouth-throat - tracheobronchial (MT-TB) model. An optimized EEG submicrometer powder formulation, consisting of albuterol sulfate (drug), mannitol (hygroscopic excipient), L-leucine (dispersion enhancer) and poloxamer 188 (surfactant) in a ratio of 30:48:20:2 was prepared using a Büchi Nano spray dryer. The aerosolization performance of the EEG formulation was evaluated with 5 conventional DPIs: Aerolizer, Novolizer, HandiHaler, Exubera and Spiros. To improve powder dispersion, the HandiHaler was modified with novel mouth piece (MP) designs. The aerosol performance of each device was assessed using a next generation impactor (NGI) at airflow rates generating a pressure drop of 4 kPa across the DPI. In silico and in vitro deposition and hygroscopic growth of formulations was studied using a MT-TB airway geometry model. Both Handihaler and Aerolizer produced high emitted doses (ED) together with a significant submicrometer aerosol fraction. A modified HandiHaler with a MP including a three-dimensional (3D) array of rods (HH-3D) produced a submicrometer particle fraction of 38.8% with a conventional fine particle fraction (% <5µm) of 97.3%. The mass median diameter (MMD) of the aerosol was reduced below 1 µm using this HH-3D DPI. The aerosol generated from the modified HandiHaler increased to micrometer size (2.8 µm) suitable for pulmonary deposition, when exposed to simulated respiratory conditions, with negligible mouth-throat (MT) deposition (2.6 %). PMID:23608613

  5. Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from drug blends with lactose monohydrate: 1. Albuterol sulfate and disodium cromoglycate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Mansour, Heidi M; Mulder, Tako; McLean, Richard; Langridge, John; Hickey, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    The major objective of this study was: discriminatory assessment of dry powder aerosol performance using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) and lactose-based formulations with two model drugs. Drug/lactose interactive physical mixtures (2%w/w) were prepared. Their properties were measured: solid-state characterization of phase behavior and molecular interactions by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction; particle morphology and size by scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction; aerosol generation by SETs and characterization by twin-stage liquid impinger and Andersen cascade impactor operated at 60 L/min. The fine particle fraction (FPF) was correlated with SET shear stress (tau(s)), using a novel powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE). Drug particles were <5 microm in volume diameter with narrow unimodal distribution (Span <1). The lowest shear SET (tau(s) = 0.624 N/m(2)) gave a higher emitted dose (ED approximately 84-93%) and lower FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 7-25%). In contrast, the highest shear SET (tau(s) = 13.143 N/m(2)) gave a lower ED (ED approximately 75-89%) and higher FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 15-46%). The performance of disodium cromoglycate was superior to albuterol sulfate at given tau(s), as was milled with respect to sieved lactose monohydrate. Excellent correlation was observed (R(2) approximately 0.9804-0.9998) when pulmonary drug particle release from the surface of lactose carriers was interpreted by PADE linear regression for dry powder formulation evaluation and performance prediction. PMID:20198688

  6. Nanoliposomal Dry Powder Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Gaurang; Chougule, Mahavir; Singh, Mandip; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2013-01-01

    Liposomal dry powder formulations (DPFs) have proven their superiority over conventional DPFs due to favorably improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of entrapped drugs, and thus, reduced local and systemic toxicities. Nanoliposomal DPFs (NLDPFs) provide stable, high aerosolization efficiency to deep lung, prolonged drug release, slow systemic dilution, and avoid macrophage uptake of encapsulated drug by carrier-based delivery of nano-range liposomes. This chapter describes methods of preparation of nanoliposomes (NLs) and NLDPFs, using various techniques, and their characterization with respect to size distribution, flow behavior, in vitro drug release profile, lung deposition, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Some examples have been detailed for better understanding of the methods of preparation and evaluation of NLDPFs by investigators. PMID:19903555

  7. The effect of excipients on the stability and aerosol performance of salmon calcitonin dry powder inhalers prepared via the spray freeze drying process.

    PubMed

    Poursina, Narges; Vatanara, Alireza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Gilani, Kambiz; Najafabadi, Abdolhossein Rouholamini

    2016-06-01

    Spray freeze drying was developed to produce dry powders suitable for applications such as inhalation delivery. In the current study, the spray freeze drying technique was employed to produce inhalable salmon calcitonin microparticles. Effects of the carrier type, concentration of hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin and the presence of Tween 80 on the chemical and structural stability, as well as on the aerosol performance of the particles were investigated. The results indicated that hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin had the most important effect on the chemical stability of the powder and strongly increased its stability by increasing its concentration in the formulation. Chemically stable formulations (over 90 % recovery) were selected for further examinations. Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism suggested that the formulations were structurally stable. Aerosol performance showed that the Tween-free powders produced higher fine particle fraction values than the formulations containing Tween (53.7 vs. 41.92 % for trehalose content and 52.85 vs. 43.06 % for maltose content). PMID:27279064

  8. The influence of drug loading on formulation structure and aerosol performance in carrier based dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Wood, Owen; Ooi, Jesslynn; Traini, Daniela

    2011-09-15

    Previous studies have reported that carrier:drug ratio and carrier size influence the aerosol performance of dry powder inhalation systems. These previous studies were complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the carriers used, making it difficult to define an explicit relationship between parameters and performance. Here, the authors studied the influence of drug loading and carrier size on drug aerosol performance using homogeneous spherical model carriers. Different formulations containing drug (salbutamol sulphate) and carriers (polystyrene beads with median diameters of 82.8μm, 277.5μm and 582.9μm, respectively) were prepared by varying the ratio of carrier to drug (from ∼5:1 to ∼85:1). The surface morphology of the carrier particles and force of adhesion were investigated using atomic force microscopy, while the aerosol performance was evaluated using a multi-stage liquid impinger. The carrier surface morphology for all carrier sizes was homogenous with root-mean square roughness values ≤112nm. No significant difference in the force of adhesion between salbutamol sulphate and the three carrier sizes was observed. Significant differences in aerosol performance of salbutamol sulphate (measured as fine particle dose (FPD) and fraction (FPF)≤5μm) from the carriers were observed. Specifically, as carrier size increased FPF decreased. In comparison, as drug loading increased there was no change in FPF until a critical threshold was exceeded. Such observations suggest that: (A) aerosolisation performance is governed by carrier collisions and (B) when homogeneous carriers are used, the aerosol performance remains constant with respect to drug concentration, until the formulation transitions from an ordered mix to an agglomerated and/or segregated powder bed. PMID:21708238

  9. The effects of loaded carrier mass and formulation mass on aerosolization efficiency in dry powder inhaler devices.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Gill, Charlotte; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that particle-particle impaction may influence aerosolization properties in carrier-based dry powder inhalers, through transfer of kinetic energy from large carriers to surface-deposited active drug. The importance of particle-particle collision has yet to be compared against other mechanisms that could lead to drug liberation, such as particle-wall impaction and turbulence. In particular, particle-particle collisions are difficult to model in silico due to computational restrictions. This study investigated the effects of dry powder inhaler particle-particle collisions in vitro using an established carrier-drug model dry powder inhalation formulation. Spherical polystyrene beads of median size 82.80 μm were chosen as a model carrier as they were of uniform size, shape, surface area, density, porosity and hardness and thus eliminated potential variables that would have conflicted with the study. This model carrier was geometrically blended with micronized salbutamol sulphate (loaded blend). The correlation between the mass of loaded blend (5-40 mg) in the Rotahaler® DPI device and resulting fine particle fraction (FPF) was examined at a constant flow rate of 60 L.min(-1). In a second experiment, the mass of loaded blend was kept constant and a variable amount of blank carrier particles were added to the Rotahaler® device to ascertain if additional "blank" carrier particles affected the final FPF. The efficiency of aerosolization remained constant with varying amounts of blank carrier particles as determined by the fine particle fraction of the emitted dose (FPFED) and fine particle fraction of the loaded dose (FPFLD). No statistical difference in FPFED and FPFLD values were observed for increasing masses of blank carrier. In addition, no statistical difference in FPFED and FPFLD between the two experiments was obtained. These observations suggest that particle-particle collisions are not a driving mechanism responsible for

  10. Pulmonary drug delivery by powder aerosols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Michael Yifei; Chan, John Gar Yan; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-11-10

    The efficacy of pharmaceutical aerosols relates to its deposition in the clinically relevant regions of the lungs, which can be assessed by in vivo lung deposition studies. Dry powder formulations are popular as devices are portable and aerosolisation does not require a propellant. Over the years, key advancements in dry powder formulation, device design and our understanding on the mechanics of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosol have opened up new opportunities in treatment of diseases through pulmonary drug delivery. This review covers these advancements and future directions for inhaled dry powder aerosols. PMID:24818765

  11. A new Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition Device on Cell Cultures (PADDOCC) to evaluate pulmonary drug absorption for metered dose dry powder formulations.

    PubMed

    Hein, Stephanie; Bur, Michael; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2011-01-01

    Absorption studies with aerosol formulation delivered by metered dose inhalers across cell- and tissue-based in vitro models of the pulmonary epithelia are not trivial due to the complexity of the processes involved: (i) aerosol generation and deposition, (ii) drug release from the carrier, and (iii) absorption across the epithelial air-blood barrier. In contrast to the intestinal mucosa, pulmonary epithelia are only covered by a thin film of lining fluid. Submersed cell culture systems would not allow to studying the deposition of aerosol particles and their effects on this delicate epithelial tissue. We developed a new Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition Device on Cell Cultures (PADDOCC) to mimic the inhalation of a single metered aerosol dose and its subsequent deposition on filter-grown pulmonary epithelial cell monolayers exposed to an air-liquid interface. The reproducibility of deposition of these dry powder aerosols and subsequent drug transport across Calu-3 monolayers with commercially available dry powder inhalers containing salbutamol sulphate or budesonide could be demonstrated. In the context of developing new dry powder aerosol formulations, PADDOCC appears as a useful tool, allowing reducing animal testing and faster translation into clinical trials. PMID:20951200

  12. A novel cell compatible impingement system to study in vitro drug absorption from dry powder aerosol formulations.

    PubMed

    Bur, Michael; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Huwer, Hanno; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2009-06-01

    A modified Astra type multistage liquid impinger (MSLI) with integrated bronchial cell monolayers was used to study deposition and subsequent drug absorption on in vitro models of the human airway epithelial barrier. Inverted cell culture of Calu-3 cells on the bottom side of cell culture filter inserts was integrated into a compendial MSLI. Upside down cultivation did not impair the barrier function, morphology and viability of Calu-3 cells. Size selective deposition with subsequent absorption was studied for three different commercially available dry powder formulations of salbutamol sulphate and budesonide. After deposition without size separation the absorption rates from the aerosol formulations differed but correlated with the size of the carrier lactose particles. However, after deposition in the MSLI, simulating relevant impaction and causing the separation of small drug crystals from the carrier lactose, the absorption rates of the three formulations were identical, confirming the bioequivalence of the three formulations. PMID:18771729

  13. The enhanced aerosol performance of salbutamol from dry powders containing engineered mannitol as excipient.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Momin, Mohammed N; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of crystallising mannitol from different binary mixtures of acetone/water on the resultant physical properties and to determine the effects of any changes on in vitro aerosolisation performance, when the different mannitol crystals were used as a carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations containing salbutamol sulphate. Mannitol particles were crystallised under controlled conditions by dissolving the sugar in water and precipitating the sugar using binary mixtures of acetone/water in different percentages as anti-solvent media. For comparison purposes the physical properties and deposition behaviour of commercially available mannitol were also studied. SEM showed that all crystallised mannitol particles were more elongated than the commercial mannitol. Solid state studies revealed that commercial mannitol and mannitol crystallised using acetone in the presence of 10-25% v/v water as anti-solvent was beta-polymorphic form whereas mannitol crystallised in the presence of a small amount of water (0-7.5%) was the alpha-form. All the crystallised mannitol samples showed poor flowability. Nevertheless, the powdered crystallised mannitol and commercial samples were blended with salbutamol in the ratio 67.5:1. The aerosolisation performance of the formulations containing the engineered mannitol (evaluated using Multi Stage Liquid Impinger) was considerably better than that of the commercial mannitol formulation (the fine particle fraction was increased from 15.42% to 33.07-43.99%, for the formulations containing crystallised mannitol). Generally, carriers having a high tapped density and high fraction of fine carrier particles produced a high FPF. The improvement in the DPI performance could be attributed to the presence of elongated carrier particles with smooth surfaces since these are believed to have less adhesive forces between carrier and the drug resulting in easier detachment of the drug during the

  14. Dry powder inhalers: physicochemical and aerosolization properties of several size-fractions of a promising alterative carrier, freeze-dried mannitol.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2015-02-20

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical and inhalation characteristics of different size fractions of a promising carrier, i.e., freeze-dried mannitol (FDM). FDM was prepared and sieved into four size fractions. FDMs were then characterized in terms of micromeritic, solid-state and bulk properties. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were prepared using salbutamol sulphate (SS) and then evaluated in terms of drug content homogeneity and in vitro aerosolization performance. The results showed that the crystalline state of mannitol was maintained following freeze-drying for all size fractions of FDM. All FDM particles showed elongated morphology and contained mixtures of α-, β- and δ-mannitol. In comparison to small FDM particles, FDMs with larger particle sizes demonstrated narrower size distributions, higher bulk and tap densities, lower porosities and better flowability. Regardless of particle size, all FDMs generated a significantly higher (2.2-2.9-fold increase) fine particle fraction (FPF, 37.5 ± 0.9%-48.6 ± 2.8%) of SS in comparison to commercial mannitol. The FPFs of SS were related to the shape descriptors of FDM particles; however, FPFs did not prove quantitative apparent relationships with either particle size or powder bulk descriptors. Large FDM particles were more favourable than smaller particles because they produced DPI formulations with better flowability, better drug content homogeneity, lower amounts of the drug depositing on the throat and contained lower fine-particle-mannitol. Optimized stable DPI formulations with superior physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties can be achieved using larger particles of freeze-dried mannitol (FDM). PMID:25497318

  15. Influence of surface characteristics of modified glass beads as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) on the aerosolization performance.

    PubMed

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of surface characteristics (surface roughness and specific surface area) of surface-modified glass beads as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) on the aerosolization, and thus, the in vitro respirable fraction often referred to as fine particle fraction (FPF). By processing glass beads in a ball mill with different grinding materials (quartz and tungsten carbide) and varying grinding time (4 h and 8 h), and by plasma etching for 1 min, glass beads with different shades of surface roughness and increased surface area were prepared. Compared with untreated glass beads, the surface-modified rough glass beads show increased FPFs. The drug detachment from the modified glass beads is also more reproducible than from untreated glass beads indicated by lower standard deviations for the FPFs of the modified glass beads. Moreover, the FPF of the modified glass beads correlates with their surface characteristics. The higher the surface roughness and the higher the specific surface area of the glass beads the higher is the FPF. Thus, surface-modified glass beads make an ideal carrier for tailoring the performance of DPIs in the therapy of asthma and chronically obstructive pulmonary diseases. PMID:25632978

  16. Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from drug blends with lactose monohydrate: 2. Ipratropium bromide monohydrate and fluticasone propionate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Mansour, Heidi M; Mulder, Tako; McLean, Richard; Langridge, John; Hickey, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were: systematic investigation of dry powder aerosol performance using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) and lactose-based formulations with two model drugs; mechanistic evaluation of performance data by powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE). The drugs (IPB and FP) were prepared in sieved and milled lactose carriers (2% w/w). Aerosol studies were performed using SETs (shear stresses tau(s) = 0.624-13.143 N/m(2)) by twin-stage liquid impinger, operated at 60 L/min. PADE was applied for formulation screening. Excellent correlation was observed when PADE was adopted correlating FPF to tau(s). Higher tau(s) corresponded to higher FPF values followed by a plateau representing invariance of FPF with increasing tau(s). The R(2) values for PADE linear regression were 0.9905-0.9999. Performance described in terms of the maximum FPF (FPF(max): 15.0-37.6%) resulted in a rank order of ML-B/IPB > ML-A/IPB > SV-A/IPB > SV-B/IPB > ML-B/FP > ML-A/FP > SV-B/FP > SV-A/FP. The performance of IPB was superior to FP in all formulations. The difference in lactose monohydrate carriers was less pronounced for the FPF in IPB than in FP formulations. The novel PADE offers a robust method for evaluating aerodynamic performance of dry powder formulations within a defined tau(s) range. PMID:20222025

  17. Effect of device design on the aerosolization of a carrier-based dry powder inhaler--a case study on Aerolizer(®) Foradile (®).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Tong, Zhenbo; Tang, Patricia; Citterio, Mauro; Yang, Runyu; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of device design of the Aerolizer(®) on the aerosolization of a carrier-based dry powder inhaler formulation (Foradile(®)). The Aerolizer was modified by reducing the air inlet size and mouthpiece length to 1/3 of the original dimensions, or by increasing the grid voidage. Aerosolization of the powder formulation was assessed on a multi-stage liquid impinger at air flow rates of 30, 60, and 100 L/min. Coupled CFD-DEM simulations were performed to investigate the air flow pattern and particle impaction. There was no significant difference in the aerosolization behavior between the original and 1/3 mouthpiece length devices. Significant increases in FPF total and FPF emitted were demonstrated when the inlet size was reduced, and the results were explained by the increases in air velocity and turbulence from the CFD analysis. No significant differences were shown in FPF total and FPF emitted when the grid voidage was increased, but more drugs were found to deposit in induction port and to a lesser extent, the mouthpiece. This was supported by the CFD-DEM analysis which showed the particle-device collisions mainly occurred in the inhaler chamber, and the cross-grid design increased the particle-device collisions on both mouthpiece and induction port. The air inlet size and grid structure of the Aerolizer(®) were found to impact significantly on the aerosolization of the carrier-based powder. PMID:23371759

  18. Design, physicochemical characterization, and optimization of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG) microparticles and nanoparticles for targeted respiratory nanomedicine delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Meenach, Samantha A; Vogt, Frederick G; Anderson, Kimberly W; Hilt, J Zach; McGarry, Ronald C; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    Novel advanced spray-dried and co-spray-dried inhalable lung surfactant-mimic phospholipid and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated lipopolymers as microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of biodegradable biocompatible lipopolymers were rationally formulated via an organic solution advanced spray-drying process in closed mode using various phospholipid formulations and rationally chosen spray-drying pump rates. Ratios of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine PEG (DPPE-PEG) with varying PEG lengths were mixed in a dilute methanol solution. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the smooth, spherical particle morphology of the inhalable particles. The size of the particles was statistically analyzed using the scanning electron micrographs and SigmaScan® software and were determined to be 600 nm to 1.2 μm in diameter, which is optimal for deep-lung alveolar penetration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were performed to analyze solid-state transitions and long-range molecular order, respectively, and allowed for the confirmation of the presence of phospholipid bilayers in the solid state of the particles. The residual water content of the particles was very low, as quantified analytically via Karl Fischer titration. The composition of the particles was confirmed using attenuated total-reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and chemical imaging confirmed the chemical homogeneity of the particles. The dry powder aerosol dispersion properties were evaluated using the Next Generation Impactor™ (NGI™) coupled with the HandiHaler® dry powder inhaler device, where the mass median aerodynamic diameter from 2.6 to 4.3 μm with excellent aerosol dispersion performance, as exemplified by high values of emitted dose, fine particle fraction, and respirable fraction. Overall, it was determined that the pump rates defined in the

  19. Formulation Design of Dry Powders for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Weers, Jeffry G; Miller, Danforth P

    2015-10-01

    Drugs for inhalation are no longer exclusively highly crystalline small molecules. They may also be amorphous small molecules, peptides, antibodies, and myriad types of engineered proteins. The evolution of respiratory therapeutics has created a need for flexible formulation technologies to engineer respirable particles. These technologies have enabled medicinal chemists to focus on molecular design without concern regarding compatibility of physicochemical properties with traditional, blend-based technologies. Therapeutics with diverse physicochemical properties can now be formulated as stable and respirable dry powders. Particle engineering technologies have also driven the deployment of new excipients, giving formulators greater control over particle and powder properties. This plays a key role in enabling efficient delivery of drugs to the lungs. Engineered powder and device combinations enable aerosols that largely bypass the mouth and throat, minimizing the inherent variability among patients that arises from differences in oropharyngeal and airway anatomies and in breathing profiles. This review explores how advances among molecules, particles, and powders have transformed inhaled drug product development. Ultimately, this scientific progress will benefit patients, enabling new classes of therapeutics to be formulated as dry powder aerosols with improved efficacy, reduced variability and side effects, and improved patient adherence. PMID:26296055

  20. Inhalable PEGylated Phospholipid Nanocarriers and PEGylated Therapeutics for Respiratory Delivery as Aerosolized Colloidal Dispersions and Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Priya; Mallory, Evan; Malapit, Monica; Hayes Jr., Don; Mansour, Heidi M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine is making groundbreaking achievements in drug delivery. The versatility of nanoparticles has given rise to its use in respiratory delivery that includes inhalation aerosol delivery by the nasal route and the pulmonary route. Due to the unique features of the respiratory route, research in exploring the respiratory route for delivery of poorly absorbed and systemically unstable drugs has been increasing. The respiratory route has been successfully used for the delivery of macromolecules like proteins, peptides, and vaccines, and continues to be examined for use with small molecules, DNA, siRNA, and gene therapy. Phospholipid nanocarriers are an attractive drug delivery system for inhalation aerosol delivery in particular. Protecting these phospholipid nanocarriers from pulmonary immune system attack by surface modification by polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylation, enhancing mucopenetration by PEGylation, and sustaining drug release for controlled drug delivery are some of the advantages of PEGylated liposomal and proliposomal inhalation aerosol delivery. This review discusses the advantages of using PEGylated phospholipid nanocarriers and PEGylated therapeutics for respiratory delivery through the nasal and pulmonary routes as inhalation aerosols. PMID:24955820

  1. The use of colloid probe microscopy to predict aerosolization performance in dry powder inhalers: AFM and in vitro correlation.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Tobyn, Michael J; Price, Robert; Buttrum, Mark; Dey, Fiona

    2006-08-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) colloid probe technique was utilized to measure cohesion forces (separation energy) between three drug systems as a function of relative humidity (RH). The subsequent data was correlated with in vitro aerosolization data collected over the same RH range. Three drug-only systems were chosen for study; salbutamol sulphate (SS), triamcinolone acetonide (TAA), and di-sodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Analysis of the AFM and in vitro data suggested good correlations, with the separation energy being related inversely to the aerosolization performance (measured as fine particle fraction, FPF(LD)). In addition, the relationship between, cohesion, RH, and aerosolization performance was drug specific. For example, an increase in RH between 15% and 75% resulted in increased cohesion and decreased FPF(LD) for SS and DSCG. In comparison, for TAA, a decrease in cohesion and increased FPF(LD) was observed when RH was increased (15-75%). Linear regression analysis comparing AFM with in vitro data indicated R(2) values > 0.80, for all data sets, suggesting the AFM could be used to indicate in vitro aerosolization performance. PMID:16795018

  2. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOEpatents

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  3. Air permeability of powder: a potential tool for Dry Powder Inhaler formulation development.

    PubMed

    Le, V N P; Robins, E; Flament, M P

    2010-11-01

    Dry Powder Inhalers have drawn great attention from pharmaceutical scientists in recent years in particular those consisting of low-dose micronized drug particles associated with larger carrier particles and called interactive mixtures. However, there is little understanding of the relation between bulk powder properties such as powder structure and its aerodynamic dispersion performance. The aim of this work was to develop a simple method to measure the air permeability of interactive mixtures used in Dry Powder Inhalers by using Blaine's apparatus--a compendial permeameter and to relate it to the aerodynamic behaviour. The study was done with fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate as drug models that were blended with several lactoses having different particle size distribution thus containing different percentages of fine particle lactose. The quality of the blends was examined by analysing the drug content uniformity. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle fraction was obtained using a Twin Stage Impinger. A linear correlation between a bulk property--air permeability of packed powder bed--and the fine particle fraction of drug was observed for the tested drugs. The air permeability reflects the quantity of the free particle fraction in the interparticulate spaces of powder bed that leads to fine particle fraction during fluidization in air flow. A theoretical approach was developed in order to link the air permeability of powder bed and drag force acting on powders during aerosolization process. The permeability technique developed in this study provides a potential tool for screening Dry Powder Inhaler formulations at the development stage. PMID:20854906

  4. Development of High Efficiency Ventilation Bag Actuated Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Longest, P. Worth; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70–80% with fine particle fractions <5 μm of 65–85% and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 1.5 μm, which were target conditions for controlled condensational growth aerosol delivery. Decreasing the size of the flow control orifice from 3.6 to 2.3 mm reduced the flow rate through the system with manual bag actuations from an average of 35 to 15 LPM, while improving ED and aerosolization performance. The new devices can be applied to improve aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs. PMID:24508552

  5. Dry powder coating of pharmaceuticals: a review.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Dorothea; Cerea, Matteo; DiNunzio, James; McGinity, James

    2013-12-01

    Over the last half century, film coating technology has evolved significantly in terms of compositions and manufacturing processes, allowing for greater functionality, flexibility and efficiency. Driven by a combination of cost considerations and functionality, a range of dry powder coating technologies have been developed in both academic and industrial settings. These technologies can be generally classified into three major types based on the layer formation process: liquid assisted, thermal adhesion and electrostatic. In addition to specific manufacturing processes that must be implemented to achieve the desired product attributes, many of these techniques also require the use of novel excipients and specific formulations to provide acceptable manufacturability. This review summarizes the current dry powder coating technologies and highlights their industrial applicability with publicly disclosed case studies. Commentary on the future directions of dry powder coating is also provided. PMID:23428881

  6. Experimental investigation of design parameters on dry powder inhaler performance.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Chang, Lusi; Jia, Xinli; Lau, Raymond

    2013-11-30

    The study aims to investigate the impact of various design parameters of a dry powder inhaler on the turbulence intensities generated and the performance of the dry powder inhaler. The flow fields and turbulence intensities in the dry powder inhaler are measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In vitro aerosolization and deposition a blend of budesonide and lactose are measured using an Andersen Cascade Impactor. Design parameters such as inhaler grid hole diameter, grid voidage and chamber length are considered. The experimental results reveal that the hole diameter on the grid has negligible impact on the turbulence intensity generated in the chamber. On the other hand, hole diameters smaller than a critical size can lead to performance degradation due to excessive particle-grid collisions. An increase in grid voidage can improve the inhaler performance but the effect diminishes at high grid voidage. An increase in the chamber length can enhance the turbulence intensity generated but also increases the powder adhesion on the inhaler wall. PMID:24055597

  7. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone aerosol powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Furazolidone aerosol powder. 524.1005 Section 524... Furazolidone aerosol powder. (a) Specifications. The product contains either 4 or 10 percent furazolidone in...) Amount. Hold container about 6 to 12 inches from the eye or affected area and apply only enough powder...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone aerosol powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Furazolidone aerosol powder. 524.1005 Section 524... Furazolidone aerosol powder. (a) Specifications. The product contains either 4 or 10 percent furazolidone in...) Amount. Hold container about 6 to 12 inches from the eye or affected area and apply only enough powder...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1101-18 - Dry powder requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dry powder requirements. 75.1101-18 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-18 Dry powder requirements. Each dry powder chemical system shall contain the following minimum amounts of multipurpose...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1101-18 - Dry powder requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dry powder requirements. 75.1101-18 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-18 Dry powder requirements. Each dry powder chemical system shall contain the following minimum amounts of multipurpose...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone aerosol powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Furazolidone aerosol powder. 524.1005 Section 524.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Furazolidone aerosol powder. (a) Specifications. The product contains either 4 or 10 percent furazolidone...

  12. Weavability of dry polymer powder towpreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hugh, Maylene K.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Maiden, Janice R.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon fiber yarns (3k, 6k, 12k) were impregnated with LARC (tm) thermoplastic polyimide dry powder. Parameters for weaving these yarns were established. Eight-harness satin fabrics were successfully woven from each of the three classes of yarns and consolidated into test specimens to determine mechanical properties. It was observed that for optimum results warp yarns should have flexural rigidities between 10,000 and 100,000 mg-cm. Tow handling minimization, low tensioning, and tow bundle twisting were used to reduce fiber breakage, the separation of filaments, and tow-to-tow abrasion. No apparent effect of tow size or twist was observed on either tension or compression modulus. However, fiber damage and processing costs favor the use of 12k yarn bundles versus 3k or 6k yarn bundles in the weaving of powder-coated towpreg.

  13. Jamming threshold of dry fine powders.

    PubMed

    Valverde, J M; Quintanilla, M A S; Castellanos, A

    2004-06-25

    We report a novel experimental study on the jamming transition of dry fine powders with controlled attractive energy and particle size. Like in attractive colloids dry fine particles experience diffusion-limited clustering in the fluidlike regime. At the jamming threshold fractal clusters crowd in a metastable state at volume fractions depending on attractive energy and close to the volume fraction of hard nonattractive spheres at jamming. Near the phase transition the stress-(volume fraction) relationship can be fitted to a critical-like functional form for a small range of applied stresses sigma approximately (phi-phi(J))(beta) as measured on foams, emulsions, and colloidal systems and predicted by numerical simulations on hard spheres. PMID:15245067

  14. Dry powder inhaler formulation of high-payload antibiotic nanoparticle complex intended for bronchiectasis therapy: Spray drying versus spray freeze drying preparation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Teo, Jeanette; Chew, Jia Wei; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2016-02-29

    Inhaled nano-antibiotics have recently emerged as the promising bronchiectasis treatment attributed to the higher and more localized antibiotic exposure generated compared to native antibiotics. Antibiotic nanoparticle complex (or nanoplex in short) prepared by self-assembly complexation with polysaccharides addresses the major drawbacks of existing nano-antibiotics by virtue of its high payload and cost-effective preparation. Herein we developed carrier-free dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of ciprofloxacin nanoplex by spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). d-Mannitol and l-leucine were used as the drying adjuvant and aerosol dispersion enhancer, respectively. The DPI formulations were evaluated in vitro in terms of the (1) aerosolization efficiency, (2) aqueous reconstitution, (3) antibiotic release, and (4) antimicrobial activity against respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The SFD powders exhibited superior aerosolization efficiency to their SD counterparts in terms of emitted dose (92% versus 66%), fine particle fraction (29% versus 23%), and mass median aerodynamic diameter (3μm versus 6μm). The superior aerosolization efficiency of the SFD powders was attributed to their large and porous morphology and higher l-leucine content. While the SFD powders exhibited poorer aqueous reconstitution that might jeopardize their mucus penetrating ability, their antibiotic release profile and antimicrobial activity were not adversely affected. PMID:26757148

  15. Nutritional composition of ginger powder prepared using various drying methods.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, A; Kawatra, A; Sehgal, S

    2014-09-01

    A study was undertaken to prepare ginger powder using various drying methods and their nutritional evaluation was carried out. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) was dried using shade, solar, oven and microwave drying methods. All the samples were ground in grinder to make fine powder. Sensory analysis indicated that acceptability of all types of ginger powders were in the range of 'liked very much' to 'liked moderately' by the panelists. The mean score obtained for colour was higher in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 8.20 as compared to oven dried (7.60), solar dried (7.70) and microwave dried ginger powder (7.80). Moisture content ranged from 3.55 % in solar dried ginger powder to 3.78 % in shade dried ginger powder. Slightly higher moisture content was found in shade dried ginger powder. Protein, crude fiber, fat and ash contents ranged from 5.02 to 5.82, 4.97 to 5.61, 0.76 to 0.90 and 3.38 to 3.66 %, respectively. β-carotene and ascorbic acid content was found maximum in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 0.81 mg/100 g and 3.83 mg/100 g, respectively. Polyphenol content was almost similar in all the samples whereas calcium was slightly higher in the shade dried ginger powder i.e., 69.21 mg/100 g. Results have shown that ginger powder prepared from various drying methods had good sensory and nutritional profile. PMID:25190894

  16. Carrier free dry powder formulation of sildenafil for potential application in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, S; Saeeneya, Y; Valizadeh, H; Nokhodchi, A; Hamishehkar, H

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to prepare sildenafil carrier free dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulation for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Sildenafil DPI formulations were fabricated by spray drying technique. The ideal formulation was optimized using different solvent type (methanol, dimethyformamide and water), concentration (5 and 50 mg/mL) and pH (2 and 7.4) of feed solution. Particles size distribution, morphology and crystallinity of fabricated microparticles were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods, respectively. The aerosolization efficiency of formulations were assessed by next generation impactor equipped with an Aerolizer. Results indicated that evaluated variables had great impacts on powder characteristics which significantly influenced aerosolization performance of formulations. The aerosolized fraction of formulations was improved from 2 to 70% by changing in solvent type and drug concentration in spray dryer feeding solution. Aerosolization performance of powders were well correlated and interpreted by their morphologies as depicted from SEM images. DSC results also indicated that crystallinity of all formulations were reduced by spray drying procedure. Optimization of spray drying technique for production of Sildenafil carrier free DPI formulation in this study may pave a way for locally treatment of IPAH. PMID:27209696

  17. Multi-breath dry powder inhaler for delivery of cohesive powders in the treatment of bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Salama, Rania O; Zhu, Bing; Phillips, Gary; Crapper, John; Chan, Hak-Kim; Traini, Daniela

    2015-05-01

    A series of co-engineered macrolide-mannitol particles were successfully prepared using azithromycin (AZ) as a model drug. The formulation was designed to target local inflammation and bacterial colonization, via the macrolide component, while the mannitol acted as mucolytic and taste-masking agent. The engineered particles were evaluated in terms of their physico-chemical properties and aerosol performance when delivered via a novel high-payload dry powder Orbital(™) inhaler device that operates via multiple inhalation manoeuvres. All formulations prepared were of suitable size for inhalation drug delivery and contained a mixture of amorphous AZ with crystalline mannitol. A co-spray dried formulation containing 200 mg of 50:50 w/w AZ: mannitol had 57.6% ± 7.6% delivery efficiency with a fine particle fraction (≤6.8 µm) of the emitted aerosol cloud being 80.4% ± 1.1%, with minimal throat deposition (5.3 ± 0.9%). Subsequently, it can be concluded that the use of this device in combination with the co-engineered macrolide-mannitol therapy may provide a means of treating bronchiectasis. PMID:24811055

  18. Development of spray dried liposomal dry powder inhaler of Dapsone.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate practical feasibility of site specific pulmonary delivery of liposomal encapsulated Dapsone (DS) dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as an effective alternative in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) associated with immunocompromised patients. DS encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and resultant liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. DS nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by ultra centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different carriers like lactose, sucrose, and hydrolyzed gelatin, and 15% L-leucine as antiadherent. The resultant dispersion was spray dried and spray dried formulation were characterized to ascertain its performance. In vitro pulmonary deposition was assessed using Andersen Cascade Impactor as per USP. NLs were found to have average size of 137 +/- 15 nm, 95.17 +/- 3.43% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 0.8314 +/- 0.0827 mV. Hydrolyzed gelatin based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 7.9 +/- 1.1 microm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 75.6 +/- 1.6%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 +/- 0.1 microm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 2.3 +/- 0.1. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 16 h, and obeys Higuchi's Controlled Release model. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of DS encapsulated in NLs for site specific controlled and prolonged release behavior at the site of action and hence, may play a promising role in prevention of PCP. PMID:18446460

  19. A statistical approach to optimize the spray drying of starch particles: application to dry powder coating.

    PubMed

    Bilancetti, Luca; Poncelet, Denis; Loisel, Catherine; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the preparation of starch particles, by spray drying, for possible application to a dry powder coating process. Dry powder coating consists of spraying a fine powder and a plasticizer on particles. The efficiency of the coating is linked to the powder morphological and dimensional characteristics. Different experimental parameters of the spray-drying process were analyzed, including type of solvent, starch concentration, rate of polymer feeding, pressure of the atomizing air, drying air flow, and temperature of drying air. An optimization and screening of the experimental parameters by a design of the experiment (DOE) approach have been done. Finally, the produced spray-dried starch particles were conveniently tested in a dry coating process, in comparison to the commercial initial starch. The obtained results, in terms of coating efficiency, demonstrated that the spray-dried particles led to a sharp increase of coating efficiency value. PMID:20706878

  20. Phospholipid-based pyrazinamide spray-dried inhalable powders for treating tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Eedara, Basanth Babu; Tucker, Ian G; Das, Shyamal C

    2016-06-15

    Sterilization of necrotic granulomas containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis is difficult by oral and parenteral drug delivery of antitubercular drugs. Pulmonary delivery of these drugs should increase the concentration of drug in the granulomas and, thereby, improve the sterilization. The current study aimed to develop spray-dried (SD) powders composed of pyrazinamide, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine N-(carbonyl-methoxy polyethylene glycol-2000) (DSPE-PEG2k) and l-leucine to improve drug delivery to the deeper lung. Pyrazinamide SD powders with varying amounts of DPPC (5, 15 and 25% w/w) were produced using a BUCHI B-290 Mini Spray-Dryer. The powders were characterized physicochemically and for their aerosol dispersion performance using a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). All the SD powders had a narrow particle size distribution (1.29-4.26μm) with low residual moisture (<2%). Solid state characterization confirmed that the α-polymorphic crystalline pyrazinamide transformed into the γ-polymorphic form during spray-drying. SD pyrazinamide (PDDL0) without excipients showed very poor aerosolization with a fine particle fraction (FPF%) of 8.5±1.0%. However, the SD powder with 25% w/w DPPC (PDDL3) exhibited the best aerosolization with a FPF of 73.2±4.0%. Incorporating high amounts of DPPC improved aerosolization of SD powders; however further evaluation of the developed inhalation powders is necessary to determine their therapeutic potential for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:27091294

  1. Spray-dried respirable powders containing bacteriophages for the treatment of pulmonary infections.

    PubMed

    Matinkhoo, Sadaf; Lynch, Karlene H; Dennis, Jonathan J; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2011-12-01

    Myoviridae bacteriophages were processed into a dry powder inhalable dosage form using a low-temperature spray-drying process. The phages were incorporated into microparticles consisting of trehalose, leucine, and optionally a third excipient (either a surfactant or casein sodium salt). The particles were designed to have high dispersibility and a respirable particle size, and to preserve the phages during processing. Bacteriophages KS4- M, KS14, and cocktails of phages ΦKZ/D3 and ΦKZ/D3/KS4-M were spray-dried with a processing loss ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 log pfu. The aerosol performance of the resulting dry powders as delivered from an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI) exceeded the performance of commercially available DPIs; the emitted mass and the in vitro total lung mass of the lead formulation were 82.7% and 69.7% of filled capsule mass, respectively. The total lung mass had a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-2.8 µm. The total in vitro lung doses of the phages, delivered from a single actuation of the inhaler, ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) pfu, levels that are expected to be efficacious in vivo. Spray drying of bacteriophages into a respirable dry powder was found to be feasible. PMID:22020816

  2. Low-Flow-Rate Dry-Powder Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Keith E.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus feeds small, precise flow of dry powder through laser beam of optical analyzer, measuring patterns of light created by forward scattering (Fraunhofer diffraction) of laser beam from powder particles. From measurement, statistical distribution of sizes of powder particles computed. Developed for analyzing particle-size distributions of solid-propellant powders. Also adapted to use in pharmaceutical industry, in manufacture of metal powder, and in other applications in which particle-size distributions of materials used to control rates of chemical reactions and/or physical characteristics of processes.

  3. Low-Flow-Rate Dry-Powder Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Keith E.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus feeds small, precise flow of dry powder through laser beam of optical analyzer measuring patterns of light created by forward scattering (Fraunhofer diffraction) of laser beam from powder particles. From this optical measurement, statistical distribution of sizes of powder particles computed. Rates of flow optimized for measurement of particle-size distributions. Developed for analyzing particle-size distributions of solid-propellant powders. Also adapted to pharmaceutical industry, in manufacture of metal powder, and in other applications where particle-size distributions of materials used to control rates of chemical reactions and/or physical characteristics of processes.

  4. Development of a novel dry powder inhalation formulation for the delivery of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate.

    PubMed

    Simon, Alice; Amaro, Maria Inês; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Healy, Anne Marie; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to prepare engineered particles of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate (RHT) and to characterize the physicochemical and aerodynamic properties, in comparison to a lactose carrier formulation (LCF). Microparticles were prepared from ethanol/water solutions containing RHT with and without the incorporation of l-leucine (Leu), using a spray dryer. Dry powder inhaler formulations prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction particle sizing, ATR-FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, bulk and tapped density, dynamic vapour sorption and in vitro aerosol deposition behaviour using a next generation impactor. The smooth-surfaced spherical morphology of the spray dried microparticles was altered by adding Leu, resulting in particles becoming increasingly wrinkled with increasing Leu. Powders presented low densities. The glass transition temperature was sufficiently high (>90°C) to suggest good stability at room temperature. As Leu content increased, spray dried powders presented lower residual solvent content, lower particle size, higher fine particle fraction (FPF<5μm), and lower mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). The LCF showed a lower FPF and higher MMAD, relative to the spray dried formulations containing more than 10% Leu. Spray dried RHT powders presented better aerodynamic properties, constituting a potential drug delivery system for oral inhalation. PMID:26836711

  5. Development of Biodegradable Polycation-Based Inhalable Dry Gene Powders by Spray Freeze Drying.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Ishii, Takehiko; Uchida, Satoshi; Itaka, Keiji; Kataoka, Kazunori; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two types of biodegradable polycation (PAsp(DET) homopolymer and PEG-PAsp(DET) copolymer) were applied as vectors for inhalable dry gene powders prepared by spray freeze drying (SFD). The prepared dry gene powders had spherical and porous structures with a 5~10-μm diameter, and the integrity of plasmid DNA could be maintained during powder production. Furthermore, it was clarified that PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder could more sufficiently maintain both the physicochemical properties and in vitro gene transfection efficiencies of polyplexes reconstituted after powder production than PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder. From an in vitro inhalation study using an Andersen cascade impactor, it was demonstrated that the addition of l-leucine could markedly improve the inhalation performance of dry powders prepared by SFD. Following pulmonary delivery to mice, both PAsp(DET)- and PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powders could achieve higher gene transfection efficiencies in the lungs compared with a chitosan-based dry gene powder previously reported by us. PMID:26343708

  6. Development of Biodegradable Polycation-Based Inhalable Dry Gene Powders by Spray Freeze Drying

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Ishii, Takehiko; Uchida, Satoshi; Itaka, Keiji; Kataoka, Kazunori; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two types of biodegradable polycation (PAsp(DET) homopolymer and PEG-PAsp(DET) copolymer) were applied as vectors for inhalable dry gene powders prepared by spray freeze drying (SFD). The prepared dry gene powders had spherical and porous structures with a 5~10-μm diameter, and the integrity of plasmid DNA could be maintained during powder production. Furthermore, it was clarified that PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder could more sufficiently maintain both the physicochemical properties and in vitro gene transfection efficiencies of polyplexes reconstituted after powder production than PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder. From an in vitro inhalation study using an Andersen cascade impactor, it was demonstrated that the addition of l-leucine could markedly improve the inhalation performance of dry powders prepared by SFD. Following pulmonary delivery to mice, both PAsp(DET)- and PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powders could achieve higher gene transfection efficiencies in the lungs compared with a chitosan-based dry gene powder previously reported by us. PMID:26343708

  7. Improvement of stability and absorbability of dry insulin powder for inhalation by powder-combination technique.

    PubMed

    Todo, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Iida, Kotaro; Danjo, Kazumi

    2004-03-01

    The effect of pulmonary absorption enhancers on the stability of active ingredients is an important factor for successful inhalation therapy as well as the effect on pharmacological activity and safety. We examined the effect of pulmonary absorption enhancers on the stability of insulin in dry powders prepared by a spray-drying technique. Although the hypoglycemic effect was greatly improved when a dry insulin powder containing citric acid (MIC SD) was administered, insulin in the MIC SD was unstable compared with the other powders examined. Bacitracin and Span 85, which are potent pulmonary absorption enhancers of insulin formulated in solutions, showed no deteriorative effect on the stability of dry insulin powder. However, they did not improve the hypoglycemic effect of insulin in dry powders. We modified the insulin dosage form with citric acid to improve the insulin stability at room temperature without loss of hypoglycemic activity. MIC Mix was formulated as a combination of insulin powder (MI') and citric acid powder (MC). MIC Mix showed hypoglycemic activity comparable to MIC SD while the insulin stability was much better than that of MIC SD at a 60 degrees C/dry condition. However, moisture lowered the insulin stability and changed the particle morphology of MIC Mix with time at a 60 degrees C/75% relative humidity condition, suggesting that a package preventing moisture absorption was necessary for the MIC Mix powder. PMID:15129972

  8. Pharmacoscintigraphic evaluation of lipid dry powder budesonide formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Sebti, Thami; Pilcer, Gabrielle; Van Gansbeke, Bernard; Goldman, Serge; Michils, Alain; Vanderbist, Francis; Amighi, Karim

    2006-08-01

    Lung deposition of new formulations of budesonide, using solid lipid microparticles (SLmP) as a pharmaceutically acceptable filler and carrier for inhalation aerosols, and administered from a dry powder inhaler (Cyclohaler), were compared with that from Pulmicort Turbuhaler. Six healthy volunteers took part in a three-way randomized cross-over study, and inhaled a nominal dose of 400 microg budesonide, labelled with 99mTc, on each study day. Lung deposition was determined by gamma scintigraphy and by a pharmacokinetic method. The percentage of dose (SD) in the whole lung was 49.9 (3.7)% for the lipidic matricial form (M) and 62.8 (4.9)% for the lipidic physical blend formulation (PB). These results corresponded well with the in vitro fine particle assessment. In comparison with data recorded in literature for in vivo deposition obtained with Pulmicort Turbuhaler, it was estimated that lung deposition was 1.5 and 2.0 times higher for the M and PB formulations, respectively. Furthermore, the relative drug availability obtained from the pharmacokinetic evaluation, expressed as the percentage of pulmonary absorption of the comparator product, was 154% and 220% for M and PB, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that pulmonary administration using SLmP gives a prominent and significant increase in budesonide lung deposition. PMID:16697169

  9. Nutritional and rheological characterization of spray dried sweetpotato powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray drying feasibility of sweetpotato puree is enhanced using alpha-amylase treatment to reduce puree viscosity and maltodextrin addition to facilitate drying. To better determine potential applications of powders produced with various levels of amylase and maltodextrin, nutrient composition and ...

  10. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    PubMed

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product. PMID:23871034

  11. Dry powder inhalable formulations for anti-tubercular therapy.

    PubMed

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Chang, Rachel Yoon Kyung; Abdelghany, Sharif; Ye, Tian Tian; Britton, Warwick John; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infectious disease caused by the airborne bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite considerable research efforts, the treatment of TB continues to be a great challenge in part due to the requirement of prolonged therapy with multiple high-dose drugs and associated side effects. The delivery of pharmacological agents directly to the respiratory system, following the natural route of infection, represents a logical therapeutic approach for treatment or vaccination against TB. Pulmonary delivery is non-invasive, avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver and enables targeting of therapeutic agents to the infection site. Inhaled delivery also potentially reduces the dose requirement and the accompanying side effects. Dry powder is a stable formulation of drug that can be stored without refrigeration compared to liquids and suspensions. The dry powder inhalers are easy to use and suitable for high-dose formulations. This review focuses on the current innovations of inhalable dry powder formulations of drug and vaccine delivery for TB, including the powder production method, preclinical and clinical evaluations of inhaled dry powder over the last decade. Finally, the risks associated with pulmonary therapy are addressed. A novel dry powder formulation with high percentages of respirable particles coupled with a cost effective inhaler device is an appealing platform for TB drug delivery. PMID:27212477

  12. [Recent progress of dry powder inhalation of proteins and peptides].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie-yu; Zhang, Lan; Mao, Shi-rui

    2015-07-01

    To provide theoretical and practical basis for the successful formulation design of physically-mixed inhalation dry powder of proteins and peptides, related references were collected, analyzed and summarized. In this review drug micronization technology and commonly used carriers for inhalation dry powder preparation were introduced. For proteins and peptides, supercritical fluid technology and spray-drying are more suitable because of their capabilities of keeping drug activity. Being approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration, lactose has been extensively used as carriers in many inhalation products. Formulation and process factors influencing drug deposition in the lung, including carrier properties, drug-carrier ratio, blending order, mixing methods, mixing time and the interaction between drug and carrier, were elucidated. The size, shape and surface properties of carries all influence the interaction between drug and carrier. Besides, influence of micromeritic properties of the dry powder, such as particle size, shape, density, flowability, charge, dispersibility and hygroscopicity, on drug deposition in the lung was elaborated. Among these particle size plays the most crucial role in particle deposition in the lung. Moreover, based on the mechanisms of powder dispersity, some strategies to improve drug lung deposition were put forward, such as adding carrier fines, adding adhesive-controlling materials and reprocessing micronized drug. In order to design physically-mixed inhalation dry powder for proteins and peptides with high lung deposition, it is essential to study drug-carriers interactions systematically and illustrate the potential influence of formulation, process parameters and micromeritic properties of the powder. PMID:26552141

  13. Sustained delivery by leucine-modified chitosan spray-dried respirable powders.

    PubMed

    Learoyd, Tristan P; Burrows, Jane L; French, Eddie; Seville, Peter C

    2009-05-01

    The controlled co-delivery of multiple agents to the lung offers potential benefits to patients. This study investigated the preparation and characterisation of highly respirable spray-dried powders displaying the sustained release of two chemically distinct therapeutic agents. Spray-dried powders were produced from 30% (v/v) aqueous ethanol formulations that contained hydrophilic (terbutaline sulphate) and hydrophobic (beclometasone dipropionate) model drugs, chitosan (as a drug release modifier) and leucine (aerosolisation enhancer). The influence of chitosan molecular weight on spray-drying thermal efficiency, aerosol performance and drug release profile was investigated. Resultant powders were physically characterised: with in vitro aerosolisation performance and drug release profile investigated by the Multi-Stage Liquid Impinger and modified USP II dissolution apparatus, respectively. It was found that increased chitosan molecular weight gave increased spray-drying thermal efficiency. The powders generated were of a suitable size for inhalation-with emitted doses over 90% and fine particle fractions up to 72% of the loaded dose. Sustained drug release profiles were observed in dissolution tests for both agents: increased chitosan molecular weight associated with increased duration of drug release. The controlled co-delivery of hydrophilic and hydrophobic entities underlines the capability of spray drying to produce respirable particles with sustained release for delivery to the lung. PMID:19429272

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-12-06

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1995-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  17. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1101-14 - Installation of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Installation of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-14 Installation of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Self-contained dry powder chemical systems shall... fire-control components of each dry powder chemical system shall be a type approved by the...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1101-14 - Installation of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Installation of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-14 Installation of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Self-contained dry powder chemical systems shall... fire-control components of each dry powder chemical system shall be a type approved by the...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1101-22 - Inspection of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-22 Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Each dry powder chemical system shall be examined... the dry powder chemical system has been actuated, all components of the system shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1101-22 - Inspection of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-22 Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Each dry powder chemical system shall be examined... the dry powder chemical system has been actuated, all components of the system shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1101-22 - Inspection of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-22 Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Each dry powder chemical system shall be examined... the dry powder chemical system has been actuated, all components of the system shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1101-14 - Installation of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Installation of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-14 Installation of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Self-contained dry powder chemical systems shall... fire-control components of each dry powder chemical system shall be a type approved by the...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1101-22 - Inspection of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-22 Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Each dry powder chemical system shall be examined... the dry powder chemical system has been actuated, all components of the system shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1101-14 - Installation of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-14 Installation of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Self-contained dry powder chemical systems shall... fire-control components of each dry powder chemical system shall be a type approved by the...

  6. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  7. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  8. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  9. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  10. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  11. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  12. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  13. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  14. Phytohemagglutination Activity in Extruded Dry Bean Powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans are a highly nutritious food. Besides making beans palatable, cooking is required to denature lectin, a protein found in beans. If consumed raw or undercooked, lectin poisoning can occur. Symptoms of lectin poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and occur within hours of...

  15. Feasibility study of pollen-shape drug carriers in dry powder inhalation.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Meer Saiful; Lau, Raymond

    2010-03-01

    The feasibility of using pollen-shape carriers in dry powder inhalation is studied. Pollen-shape hydroxyapatite (HA) particles are synthesized with a geometric diameter range from 21.1 to 48.6 microm and effective density range from 0.21 to 0.41 g/cm(3). The flowability of the particles is characterized by the Carr's compressibility index (CI) and angle of slide (theta). The HA carriers are found to have better flowability than commonly used lactose (LA) carrier with similar size range. The HA carriers are also found to be capable of high drug attachment. The aerosolization and deposition properties of a model drug are compared using HA and LA as carriers. Results indicate that pollen-shape HA carriers have good potential to be used as drug carrier in dry powder inhalation. It can give higher drug emission and respirable fraction than traditional LA carriers. PMID:19862802

  16. Effect of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin concentrations on the pulmonary delivery of recombinant human growth hormone dry powder in rats.

    PubMed

    Jalalipour, Monireh; Najafabadi, Abdolhossien Rouholamini; Gilani, Kambiz; Esmaily, Hadi; Tajerzadeh, Hosnieh

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this article is to prepare and characterize inhalable dry powders of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), and assess their efficacy for systemic delivery of the protein in rats. The powders were prepared by spray drying using dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbetaCD) at different molar ratios in the initial feeds. Size exclusive chromatography was performed in order to determine protecting effect of DMbetaCD on the rhGH aggregation during spray drying. By increasing the concentration of DMbetaCD, rhGH aggregation was decreased from 9.67 (in the absence of DMbetaCD) to 0.84% (using DMbetaCD at 1000 molar ratio in the spray solution). The aerosol performance of the spray dried (SD) powders was evaluated using Andersen cascade impactor. Fine particle fraction values of 53.49%, 33.40%, and 23.23% were obtained using DMbetaCD at 10, 100, and 1000 molar ratio, respectively. In vivo studies showed the absolute bioavailability of 25.38%, 76.52%, and 63.97% after intratracheal insufflation of the powders produced after spray drying of the solutions containing DMbetaCD at 10, 100, and 1000 molar ratio, respectively in rat. In conclusion, appropriate cyclodextrin concentration was achieved considering the protein aggregation and aerosol performance of the SD powders and the systemic absorption following administration through the rat lung. PMID:18384154

  17. Co-spray-dried mannitol-ciprofloxacin dry powder inhaler formulation for cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Adi, Handoko; Young, Paul M; Chan, Hak-Kim; Agus, Helen; Traini, Daniela

    2010-06-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of delivering a combination therapy, containing mannitol (a sugar alcohol with osmotic characteristics), and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (an antibacterial fluoroquinolone), as a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for inhalation. Single and combination powders were produced by spray drying ciprofloxacin and mannitol, from aqueous solution, at different ratios and under controlled conditions, as to obtain similar particle size distributions. Each formulation was characterised using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic vapour sorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and colloidal force microscopy. The in vitro aerosol performance of each formulation was studied using an Aerolizer DPI device and a multi-stage liquid impinger (analysed using high performance liquid chromatography). In addition, a disk diffusion test was performed to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of each formulation and starting materials. All formulations had similar particle size distributions, however, the morphology, thermal properties and moisture sorption was dependent on the relative percentages of each component. In general, the combination formulation containing 50% (w/w) mannitol appeared to have the best aerosol performance, good stability and lowest particle cohesion (as measured by colloid probe microscopy). Furthermore, of the formulations tested, mannitol did not appear to alter the effectiveness of the ciprofloxacin antimicrobial activity to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. The combination of co-spray-dried mannitol and ciprofloxacin from a DPI is an attractive approach to promote mucous clearance in the respiratory tract while simultaneously treating local chronic infection, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. PMID:20371286

  18. NASA. Langley Research Center dry powder towpreg system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Dry powder polymer impregnated carbon fiber tows were produced for preform weaving and composite materials molding applications. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. Unit design theory and operating correlations were developed to provide the basis for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed, resin feeder, and quality control system. Bench scale experiments, at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec, demonstrated that process variables can be controlled to produce weavable LARC-TPI carbon fiber towpreg. The towpreg made by the dry powder process was formed into unidirectional fiber moldings and was woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

  19. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. PMID:25172729

  20. Effect of compression pressure on inhalation grade lactose as carrier for dry powder inhalations

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Neha Sureshrao; Jamaiwar, Swapnil; Umekar, Milind Janrao; Kotagale, Nandkishor Ramdas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study focused on the potential effects of compression forces experienced during lactose (InhaLac 70, 120, and 230) storage and transport on the flowability and aerosol performance in dry powder inhaler formulation. Materials and Methods: Lactose was subjected to typical compression forces 4, 10, and 20 N/cm2. Powder flowability and particle size distribution analysis of un-compressed and compressed lactose was evaluated by Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, the angle of repose and by laser diffraction method. Aerosol performance of un-compressed and compressed lactose was assessed in dispersion studies using glass twin-stage-liquid-impenger at flow rate 40-80 L/min. Results: At compression forces, the flowability of compressed lactose was observed same or slightly improved. Furthermore, compression of lactose caused a decrease in in vitro aerosol dispersion performance. Conclusion: The present study illustrates that, as carrier size increases, a concurrent decrease in drug aerosolization performance was observed. Thus, the compression of the lactose fines onto the surfaces of the larger lactose particles due to compression pressures was hypothesized to be the cause of these observed performance variations. The simulations of storage and transport in an industrial scale can induce significant variations in formulation performance, and it could be a source of batch-to-batch variations. PMID:27014618

  1. Preparation and in vivo absorption evaluation of spray dried powders containing salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sinsuebpol, Chutima; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to prepare inhalable co-spray dried powders of salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sCT-CS-NPs) with mannitol and investigate pulmonary absorption in rats. Methods The sCT-CS-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking polyion. Inhalable dry powders were obtained by co-spray drying aqueous dispersion of sCT-CS-NPs and mannitol. sCT-CS-NPs co-spray dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, particle size, powder density, aerodynamic diameter, protein integrity, in vitro release of sCT, and aerosolization. The plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration of sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders to the rats was also determined. Results sCT-CS-NPs were able to be incorporated into mannitol forming inhalable microparticles by the spray drying process. The sCT-CS-NPs/mannitol ratios and spray drying process affected the properties of the microparticles obtained. The conformation of the secondary structures of sCTs was affected by both mannitol content and spray dry inlet temperature. The sCT-CS-NPs were recovered after reconstitution of spray dried powders in an aqueous medium. The sCT release profile from spray dried powders was similar to that from sCT-CS-NPs. In vitro inhalation parameters measured by the Andersen cascade impactor indicated sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders having promising aerodynamic properties for deposition in the deep lung. Determination of the plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration to rats revealed that the inhalable sCT-CS NPs spray dried powders provided higher protein absorption compared to native sCT powders. Conclusion The sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol based spray dried powders were prepared to have appropriate aerodynamic properties for pulmonary delivery. The developed system was able to deliver sCT via a pulmonary route into the systemic circulation. PMID:24039397

  2. Characterization and pharmacokinetic analysis of crystalline versus amorphous rapamycin dry powder via pulmonary administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Simone R; Watts, Alan B; Peters, Jay I; Liu, Sha; Hengsawas, Soraya; Escotet-Espinoza, Manuel S; Williams, Robert O

    2014-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of inhaled rapamycin (RAPA) is compared for amorphous versus crystalline dry powder formulations. The amorphous formulation of RAPA and lactose (RapaLac) was prepared by thin film freezing (TFF) using lactose as the stabilizing agent in the weight ratio 1:1. The crystalline formulation was prepared by wet ball milling RAPA and lactose and posteriorly blending the mixture with coarse lactose (micronized RAPA/micronized lactose/coarse lactose=0.5:0.5:19). While both powders presented good aerosolization performance for lung delivery, TFF formulation exhibited better in vitro aerodynamic properties than the crystalline physical mixture. Single-dose 24h pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats following inhalation of the aerosol mist in a nose-only inhalation exposure system. Lung deposition was higher for the crystalline group than for the TFF group. Despite higher pulmonary levels of drug that were found for the crystalline group, the systemic circulation (AUC₀₋₂₄) was higher for the amorphous group (8.6 ngh/mL) than for crystalline group (2.4 ngh/mL) based on a five-compartmental analysis. Lung level profiles suggest that TTF powder stays in the lung for the same period of time as the crystalline powder but it presented higher in vivo systemic bioavailability due to its enhanced solubility, faster dissolution rate and increased FPF at a more distal part of the lungs. PMID:24859653

  3. Nanospray drying as a novel technique for the manufacturing of inhalable NSAID powders.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Stigliani, Mariateresa; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Mencherini, Teresa; Sansone, Francesca; Russo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of the nanospray drier as a novel apparatus for the manufacturing of a dry powder for inhalation containing ketoprofen lysinate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug able to control the inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients. We produced several ketoprofen lysinate and leucine powder batches by means of nanospray dryer, studying the influence of process parameters on yield, particle properties (size distribution and morphology), and, mainly, aerodynamic properties of powders. Micronized particles were prepared from different hydroalcoholic solutions (alcohol content from 0 to 30% v/v) using ketoprofen in its lysine salt form and leucine as dispersibility enhancer in different ratios (from 5 to 15% w/w) with a total solid concentration ranging from 1 to 7% w/v. Results indicated that the spray head equipped with a 7 µm nozzle produced powders too big to be inhaled. The reduction of nozzle size from 7 to 4 µm led to smaller particles suitable for inhalation but, at the same time, caused a dramatic increase in process time. The selection of process variables, together with the nozzle pretreatment with a surfactant solution, allowed us to obtain a free flowing powder with satisfying aerosol performance, confirming the usefulness of the nanospray drier in the production of powder for inhalation. PMID:25580462

  4. Nanospray Drying as a Novel Technique for the Manufacturing of Inhalable NSAID Powders

    PubMed Central

    Rita Patrizia, Aquino; Mariateresa, Stigliani; Pasquale, Del Gaudio; Teresa, Mencherini; Francesca, Sansone; Paola, Russo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of the nanospray drier as a novel apparatus for the manufacturing of a dry powder for inhalation containing ketoprofen lysinate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug able to control the inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients. We produced several ketoprofen lysinate and leucine powder batches by means of nanospray dryer, studying the influence of process parameters on yield, particle properties (size distribution and morphology), and, mainly, aerodynamic properties of powders. Micronized particles were prepared from different hydroalcoholic solutions (alcohol content from 0 to 30% v/v) using ketoprofen in its lysine salt form and leucine as dispersibility enhancer in different ratios (from 5 to 15% w/w) with a total solid concentration ranging from 1 to 7% w/v. Results indicated that the spray head equipped with a 7 µm nozzle produced powders too big to be inhaled. The reduction of nozzle size from 7 to 4 µm led to smaller particles suitable for inhalation but, at the same time, caused a dramatic increase in process time. The selection of process variables, together with the nozzle pretreatment with a surfactant solution, allowed us to obtain a free flowing powder with satisfying aerosol performance, confirming the usefulness of the nanospray drier in the production of powder for inhalation. PMID:25580462

  5. Development of liposomal salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wu, Heng; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Liu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a formulation of liposomal salbutamol sulfate (SBS) dry powder inhaler (DPI) for the treatment of asthma. Liposomes of high encapsulation efficiency (more than 80%) were prepared by a vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG) technique. SBS VPG liposomes were subjected to lyophilization using different kinds of cryoprotectants in various mass ratios. Coarse lactose (63-106 microm) in different mass ratios was used as a carrier. Magnesium stearate (0.5%) was added as a lubricator. The dry liposomal powders were then crushed by ball milling and sieved through a 400-mesh sieve to control the mean particle size at about 10 microm. The effects of different kinds of cryoprotectants and the amount of lactose carrier on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SBS were investigated. The results showed that the developed formulation of liposomal dry powder inhaler was obtained using lactose as a cryoprotectant with a mass ratio of lyophilized powder to carrier lactose at 1 : 5; 0.5% magnesium stearate was used as a lubricator. The value of FPF for SBS was 41.51+/-2.22% for this formulation. Sustained release of SBS from the VPG liposomes was found in the in vitro release study. The study results offer the promising possibility of localized pulmonary liposomal SBS delivery in the anhydrous state. PMID:20190418

  6. Influence of the lactose grade within dry powder formulations of fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Le, V N P; Bierend, H; Robins, E; Steckel, H; Flament, M P

    2012-01-17

    Dry powder formulations are often composed of fine drug particles and coarser carrier particles, typically alpha-lactose monohydrate. However, the performance of a powder formulation may be highly dependent on the lactose quality and source. This study investigated the characteristics of lactose that influence the drug-to-carrier interaction and the performance of lactose-based dry powder inhaler formulations. The selected lactoses differed in the preparation processes and the content of fine lactose particles. Efficiency testing was done using fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate as model drugs. Inverse gas chromatography was used to determine the surface heterogeneity distribution of different energy sites of the lactose and to understand the mechanism by which the fine carrier particles can improve the performance of dry powder inhalers. To assess the adhesion of respirable-sized drug to carrier particles, a simple method was developed based on aspiration and considering the whole blend as it is used in dry powder inhalers. When the percentage of fine lactose is high, a lower quantity of drug adheres to the lactose and/or the adhesion force is also lower. This was confirmed by the aerosolization assays done in the TSI (twin stage impinger). A correlation was observed between adhesion characteristics and inertial impaction. For both drugs, the fine particle fractions were highest in blends that present a greater proportion of lactose fine particles. A fairly good correlation between the fine particle fractions of both drugs and the peak max value and the AUC (area under curve) were found by inverse gas chromatography. With higher fine particle fraction values, which correspond to higher content of fines, the peak maxima determined by inverse gas chromatography were shifted to higher adsorption potentials, which supports the agglomeration hypothesis. PMID:22036653

  7. Aggregated Nanotransfersomal Dry Powder Inhalation of Itraconazole for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour Aghdam, Mehdi; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Local therapy is a valuable and strategic approach in the treatment of lung associated diseases and dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulations play the key role in this plan. Transfersome has been introduced as a novel biocompatible vesicular system with potential for administration in pulmonary drug delivery. The present study was designed to prepare Itraconazole-loaded nanotrantransfersomal DPI formulation. Methods: Itraconazole-loaded nanotransfersomes with three different types of surfactant in varying concentrations were prepared and characterized in the point of particle size distribution and morphology by laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The optimized transferosomal formulations were co-spray dried with mannitol and the aerosolization efficiency and aerodynamic properties of dry powders were determined by next generation impactor using a validated HPLC technique. Results: The volume mean diameter of optimized nanotransfersomal formulation with lecithin:Span® 60 in the ratio of 90:10 was 171 nm with narrow size distribution pattern which increased up to 518 nm after drug loading. Different types of surfactant did not influence the particle size significantly. SEM images confirmed the formation of aggregated nanoparticles in the suitable range (1-5 µm) for the pulmonary drug delivery. Aerosolization evaluation of co-spray dried formulations with different amounts of mannitol indicated that 2:1 ratio of mannitol:transfersome (w:w) showed the best aerosolization efficiency (fine particle fraction (FPF)=37%). Increasing of mannitol significantly decreased the FPF of the optimized formulations. Conclusion: The results of this study was introduced the potential application of nanotransfersomes in the formulation of DPIs for lung delivery of various drugs. PMID:27123418

  8. Influence of carrier on the performance of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Saint-Lorant, G; Leterme, P; Gayot, A; Flament, M P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study carriers which can become alternatives to monohydrate lactose in dry powder inhalers and to consider particle parameters that influence adhesion between drug and carrier in dry powder inhalers. Different forms of mannitol, lactose and maltitol were mixed with either terbutaline sulphate or formoterol fumarate. The blends were submitted to different adhesion tests where drug detachment from the carrier was obtained either through mechanical vibration or by aspiration. Parameters like particle shape, roughness, amorphous content and cristalline form may affect interactions between drug and carrier. In our case, crystallized forms of the carrier offered lower adhesion but better release of the active ingredient than spray-dried forms. The crystallized mannitol produced maximal fine particle dose. The blends of the mannitols and the two active ingredients gave different results. The two techniques used to assess the adhesion of drugs to carrier particles provide complementary information about drug/carrier interactions and detachment. The mechanical sieving allows to assess blend stability and the air-jet sieving makes it possible to determine how easily the drug separates from carrier. For the drugs tested, the results of fine particle doses are in agreement with the Alpine air-jet sieve results. The tests used are helpful for the choice of a new carrier in the field of the development of new carriers for dry powder inhalers. PMID:17113733

  9. Permanent magnet microstructures using dry-pressed magnetic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Bowers, Benjamin J.; Shetye, Sheetal B.; Wang, Naigang; Arnold, David P.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents microfabrication methods and performance analysis of bonded powder permanent magnets targeting dimensions ranging from 10 µm to greater than 1 mm. For the structural definition and pattern transfer, a doctor blade technique is used to dry press magnetic powders into pre-etched cavities in a silicon substrate. The powders are secured in the cavities by one of the three methods: capping with a polyimide layer, thermal reflow of intermixed wax-binder particles, or conformal coating with a vapor-deposited parylene-C film. A systematic study of micromagnets fabricated using these methods is conducted using three different types of magnetic powders: 50 µm Nd-Fe-B, 5 µm Nd-Fe-B and 1 µm barium ferrite powder. The isotropic magnets are shown to exhibit intrinsic coercivities (Hci) as high as 720 kA m-1, remanences (Br) up to 0.5 T and maximum energy products (BHmax) up to 30 kJ m-3, depending on the magnetic powder used. Process compatibility experiments demonstrate the potential for the magnets to withstand typical microfabrication chemical exposure and thermal cycles, thereby facilitating their integration into more complex process flows. The remanences are also characterized at elevated temperatures to determine thermal sensitivities and maximum operating temperature ranges.

  10. A dry powder stump applicator for a feller-buncher.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.; Cram Michelle; Thistle, Harold

    1998-07-11

    Karsky, D., M. Cram, and H. Thistle. 1998. A dry powder borax stump applicator for a feller-buncher. Presented at the 1998 ASAE Annual International Meeting at Colorado Springs Resort, Orlando, Florida, July 11-16, 1998. Paper No. 987023. ASAE, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659. Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting the roots and eventually killing the trees. An applicator attachment has been developed that mounts to the back of a feller-buncher saw head, that can reduce mortality from Heterobasidion annosum. The attachment applies a borax powder to a stump immediately after the tree has been cut. This document provides information on the design, development and testing of an applicator for applying dry borax on tree stumps at the time of harvesting to reduce future losses due to root rot.

  11. Towards the optimisation and adaptation of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Schmalfuß, S; Zellnitz, S; Sommerfeld, M; Urbanetz, N

    2014-08-15

    Pulmonary drug delivery by dry powder inhalers is becoming more and more popular. Such an inhalation device must insure that during the inhalation process the drug powder is detached from the carrier due to fluid flow stresses. The goal of the project is the development of a drug powder detachment model to be used in numerical computations (CFD, computational fluid dynamics) of fluid flow and carrier particle motion through the inhaler and the resulting efficiency of drug delivery. This programme will be the basis for the optimisation of inhaler geometry and dry powder inhaler formulation. For this purpose a multi-scale approach is adopted. First the flow field through the inhaler is numerically calculated with OpenFOAM(®) and the flow stresses experienced by the carrier particles are recorded. This information is used for micro-scale simulations using the Lattice-Boltzmann method where only one carrier particle covered with drug powder is placed in cubic flow domain and exposed to the relevant flow situations, e.g. plug and shear flow with different Reynolds numbers. Therefrom the fluid forces on the drug particles are obtained. In order to allow the determination of the drug particle detachment possibility by lift-off, sliding or rolling, also measurements by AFM (atomic force microscope) were conducted for different carrier particle surface structures. The contact properties, such as van der Waals force, friction coefficient and adhesion surface energy were used to determine, from a force or moment balance (fluid forces versus contact forces), the detachment probability by the three mechanisms as a function of carrier particle Reynolds number. These results will be used for deriving the drug powder detachment model. PMID:24792975

  12. Crystal coating via spray drying to improve powder tabletability.

    PubMed

    Vanhoorne, V; Peeters, E; Van Snick, B; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2014-11-01

    A continuous crystal coating method was developed to improve both flowability and tabletability of powders. The method includes the introduction of solid, dry particles into an atomized spray during spray drying in order to coat and agglomerate individual particles. Paracetamol was used as a model drug as it exhibits poor flowability and high capping tendency upon compaction. The particle size enlargement and flowability were evaluated by the mean median particle size and flow index of the resulting powders. The crystal coating coprocessing method was successful for the production of powders containing 75% paracetamol with excellent tableting properties. However, the extent of agglomeration achieved during coprocessing was limited. Tablets compressed on a rotary tablet press in manual mode showed excellent compression properties without capping tendency. A formulation with 75% paracetamol, 5% PVP and 20% amorphous lactose yielded a tensile strength of 1.9 MPa at a compression pressure of 288 MPa. The friability of tablets compressed at 188 MPa was only 0.6%. The excellent tabletability of this formulation was attributed to the coating of paracetamol crystals with amorphous lactose and PVP through coprocessing and the presence of brittle and plastic components in the formulation. The coprocessing method was also successfully applied for the production of directly compressible lactose showing improved tensile strength and friability in comparison to a spray dried direct compression lactose grade. PMID:25445306

  13. 30 CFR 75.1101-22 - Inspection of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. 75... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-22 Inspection of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Each dry powder chemical system shall be...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1101-13 - Dry powder chemical systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dry powder chemical systems; general. 75.1101-13 Section 75.1101-13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-13 Dry powder chemical systems; general. Self-contained dry powder chemical systems may be...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1101-17 - Sealing of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sealing of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-17 Section 75.1101-17 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-17 Sealing of dry powder chemical systems. Each dry powder chemical system shall be adequately...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1101-20 - Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems. 75...-20 Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems. Adequate guards shall be provided along all belt conveyors in the vicinity of each dry powder chemical system to protect persons whose vision is...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1101-13 - Dry powder chemical systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dry powder chemical systems; general. 75.1101-13 Section 75.1101-13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-13 Dry powder chemical systems; general. Self-contained dry powder chemical systems may be...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1101-20 - Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems. 75...-20 Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems. Adequate guards shall be provided along all belt conveyors in the vicinity of each dry powder chemical system to protect persons whose vision is...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1101-13 - Dry powder chemical systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dry powder chemical systems; general. 75.1101-13 Section 75.1101-13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-13 Dry powder chemical systems; general. Self-contained dry powder chemical systems may be...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1101-15 - Construction of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Construction of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-15 Section 75.1101-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-15 Construction of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Each self-contained dry powder system shall...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1101-17 - Sealing of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sealing of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-17 Section 75.1101-17 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-17 Sealing of dry powder chemical systems. Each dry powder chemical system shall be adequately...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1101-15 - Construction of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Construction of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-15 Section 75.1101-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-15 Construction of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Each self-contained dry powder system shall...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1101-17 - Sealing of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sealing of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-17 Section 75.1101-17 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-17 Sealing of dry powder chemical systems. Each dry powder chemical system shall be adequately...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1101-15 - Construction of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-15 Section 75.1101-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-15 Construction of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Each self-contained dry powder system shall...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1101-20 - Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems. 75...-20 Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems. Adequate guards shall be provided along all belt conveyors in the vicinity of each dry powder chemical system to protect persons whose vision is...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1101-16 - Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire... Protection § 75.1101-16 Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices. (a) Each self-contained dry powder chemical system shall be equipped with sensing devices which shall be designed...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1101-15 - Construction of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Construction of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-15 Section 75.1101-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-15 Construction of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Each self-contained dry powder system shall...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1101-20 - Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems. 75...-20 Safeguards for dry powder chemical systems. Adequate guards shall be provided along all belt conveyors in the vicinity of each dry powder chemical system to protect persons whose vision is...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1101-17 - Sealing of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sealing of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-17 Section 75.1101-17 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-17 Sealing of dry powder chemical systems. Each dry powder chemical system shall be adequately...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1101-13 - Dry powder chemical systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dry powder chemical systems; general. 75.1101-13 Section 75.1101-13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-13 Dry powder chemical systems; general. Self-contained dry powder chemical systems may be...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1101-13 - Dry powder chemical systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dry powder chemical systems; general. 75.1101-13 Section 75.1101-13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...-13 Dry powder chemical systems; general. Self-contained dry powder chemical systems may be...

  12. Development of an inhaled controlled release voriconazole dry powder formulation for the treatment of respiratory fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sumit; Haghi, Mehra; Loo, Ching-Yee; Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Jain, Sanyog

    2015-06-01

    The present research aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of voriconazole (VRZ) for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The developed formulations were studied for their in vitro release profile, aerosol, and physicochemical properties as well as interactions with lung epithelia in terms of toxicity and transport/uptake. VRZ and VRZ loaded poly lactide microparticles (VLM) were prepared by aqueous/organic cosolvent and organic spray drying, respectively. Powders were characterized using laser diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and electron microscopy. Aerosol performance was evaluated using an RS01 dry powder inhaler and in vitro cascade impaction. Uptake across Calu-3 lung epithelia was studied, using aerosol deposition of the powder onto cells cultured in an air interface configuration, and compared to dissolution using a conventional dialysis membrane. Additionally, toxicity of VRZ and VLM and the potential impact of transmembrane proteins on uptake were investigated. The particle size and the aerosol performance of spray-dried VRZ and VLM were suitable for inhalation purposes. VRZ exhibited a median volume diameter of 4.52 ± 0.07 μm while VLM exhibited 2.40 ± 0.05 μm. Spray-dried VRZ was crystalline and VLM amorphous as evaluated by DSC and XRPD, and both powders exhibited low moisture sorption between 0 and 90% RH (<1.2% w/w) by DVS. The fine particle fraction (FPF) (% aerosol <5 μm) for the VRZ was 20.86 ± 1.98% while the VLM showed significantly improved performance (p < 0.01) with an FPF of 43.56 ± 0.13%. Both VRZ and VLM were not cytotoxic over a VRZ concentration range of 1.2 nM to 30 μM, and the VLM particles exhibited a sustained release over 48 h after being deposited on the Calu-3 cell line or via conventional dialysis-based dissolution measurements. Lastly, VRZ exhibited polarized transport across epithelia with

  13. Stable Dry Powder Formulation for Nasal Delivery of Anthrax Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheena H.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Abraham, Soman N.; Staats, Herman F.; Hickey, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a current biodefense interest in protection against Anthrax. Here we developed a new generation of stable and effective anthrax vaccine. We studied the immune response elicited by rPA delivered intranasally with a novel mucosal adjuvant, a mast cell activator Compound 48/80. The vaccine formulation was prepared in a powder form by spray-freeze-drying (SFD) under optimized conditions to produce particles with a target size of D50=25μm, suitable for delivery to the rabbit nasal cavity. Physicochemical properties of the powder vaccines were characterized to assess their delivery and storage potential. Structural stability of rPA was confirmed by CD and ATR-FTIR, while functional stability of rPA and C48/80 was monitored by cell-based assays. Animal study was performed using a unitdose powder device for direct nasal application. Results showed that C48/80 provided effective mucosal adjuvant activity in rabbits. Freshly prepared SFD powder vaccine formulations or powders stored for over two years at room temperature elicited significantly elevated serum PA-specific and lethal toxin neutralization antibody titers that were comparable to that induced by IM immunization with rPA. Nasal delivery of this vaccine formulation may be a viable alternative to the currently licensed vaccine, or an attractive vaccine platform for other mucosally transmitted diseases. PMID:21905034

  14. Dry Powder Formulation of Plasmid DNA and siRNA for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Michael Y T; Lam, Jenny K W

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid therapeutics has huge potential for the treatment of a wide range of diseases including respiratory diseases. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) are the two most widely investigated nucleic acids for therapeutic development. However, efficient and safe delivery of nucleic acids is still a major hurdle in translating nucleic acid therapy into clinical practice. For the treatment of respiratory diseases, administration via inhalation is the most direct and effective way to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids to the lungs. Although liquid aerosol formulation is investigated in most of the studies, it is not desirable in terms of maintaining the stability of nucleic acid especially during long-term storage. This problem could be circumvented by formulating the therapeutic nucleic acids into dry powder for inhalation, and should be considered as the future direction of developing inhalable nucleic acids. In this review, the three major particle engineering methods investigated for the preparation of inhalable pDNA and siRNA formulations, including spray drying (SD), spray freeze drying (SFD) and supercritical fluid (SFC) drying, are discussed and compared. Moreover, common assessment methods and the challenges of evaluating the biological activities of inhalable nucleic acid powders are also reviewed. PMID:26290202

  15. Aerodynamic properties, solubility and in vitro antibacterial efficacy of dry powders prepared by spray drying: Clarithromycin versus its hydrochloride salt.

    PubMed

    Manniello, Michele Dario; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Porta, Amalia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Russo, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotic therapy for a direct administration to the lung in cystic fibrosis patients has to provide suitable availability, possibly in the lower respiratory tract, characterized by the presence of thick secretions. One of the crucial steps in the therapeutic management of the respiratory disease could be the drug solubilization directly in this site of action. The aim of the study was to prepare respirable powders of clarithromycin, while improving drug aqueous solubility. With this aim, several batches of micronized particles were prepared by spray drying different feed solutions, varying the solvent composition (water/isopropyl alcohol ratio), the drug concentration and pH of the liquid feeds. Particle size distribution of raw materials and engineered particles was determined using a light-scattering laser granulometer while particle morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro deposition of the micronized clarithromycin powders was evaluated by means of a Single-Stage Glass Impinger using the RS01 model7 by Plastiape® as device for the aerosolization. Solubility measurements of raw and spray-dried (SD) drug were carried out at 37°C in phosphate buffer (0.05M, pH 6.8). Results indicate that morphology and aerodynamic properties of SD particles were strongly influenced by organic solvent concentration and pH of the liquid feeds processed, both modifying drug solubility. Spherical particles and crystals were obtained at higher pH and lower organic solvent content, while wrinkled particles with very interesting aerodynamic properties and higher drug solubility were obtained at lower pH values. Thanks to a fine tuning of the process parameters and liquid feed composition, we produced SD powders with good aerodynamic properties, without using any excipients. Furthermore, SD powders of clarithromycin hydrochloric salt showed higher activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, compared to clarithromycin raw material. PMID:27106605

  16. Drying-Induced Evaporation of Secondary Organic Aerosol during Summer.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Marwa M H; Amenumey, Dziedzorm; Hennigan, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    This study characterized the effect of drying on the concentration of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Simultaneous measurements of water-soluble organic carbon in the gas (WSOCg) and particle (WSOCp) phases were carried out in Baltimore, MD during the summertime. To investigate the effect of drying on SOA, the WSOCp measurement was alternated through an ambient channel (WSOCp) and a "dried" channel (WSOCp,dry) maintained at ∼35% relative humidity (RH). The average mass ratio between WSOCp,dry and WSOCp was 0.85, showing that significant evaporation of the organic aerosol occurred due to drying. The average amount of evaporated water-soluble organic matter (WSOM = WSOC × 1.95) was 0.6 μg m(-3); however, the maximum evaporated WSOM concentration exceeded 5 μg m(-3), demonstrating the importance of this phenomenon. The systematic difference between ambient and dry channels indicates a significant and persistent source of aqueous SOA formed through reversible uptake processes. The wide-ranging implications of the work are discussed, and include: new insight into atmospheric SOA formation; impacts on particle measurement techniques; a newly identified bias in PM2.5 measurements using the EPA's Federal Reference and Equivalent Methods (FRM and FEM); atmospheric model evaluations; and the challenge in relating ground-based measurements to remote sensing of aerosol properties. PMID:26910726

  17. Optical extinction of highly porous aerosol following atmospheric freeze drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Gabriela; Haspel, Carynelisa; Moise, Tamar; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-06-01

    Porous glassy particles are a potentially significant but unexplored component of atmospheric aerosol that can form by aerosol processing through the ice phase of high convective clouds. The optical properties of porous glassy aerosols formed from a freeze-dry cycle simulating freezing and sublimation of ice particles were measured using a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS) at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelength. The measured extinction efficiency was significantly reduced for porous organic and mixed organic-ammonium sulfate particles as compared to the extinction efficiency of the homogeneous aerosol of the same composition prior to the freeze-drying process. A number of theoretical approaches for modeling the optical extinction of porous aerosols were explored. These include effective medium approximations, extended effective medium approximations, multilayer concentric sphere models, Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory, and the discrete dipole approximation. Though such approaches are commonly used to describe porous particles in astrophysical and atmospheric contexts, in the current study, these approaches predicted an even lower extinction than the measured one. Rather, the best representation of the measured extinction was obtained with an effective refractive index retrieved from a fit to Mie scattering theory assuming spherical particles with a fixed void content. The single-scattering albedo of the porous glassy aerosols was derived using this effective refractive index and was found to be lower than that of the corresponding homogeneous aerosol, indicating stronger relative absorption at the wavelengths measured. The reduced extinction and increased absorption may be of significance in assessing direct, indirect, and semidirect forcing in regions where porous aerosols are expected to be prevalent.

  18. Lactose Engineering for Better Performance in Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Rahimpour, Yahya; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Dry powder inhaler (DPI) is generally formulated as a powder mixture of coarse carrier particles and micronized drug with aerodynamic diameters of 1-5 μm. Carrier particles are used to improve drug particle flowability, thus improving dosing accuracy, minimizing the dose variability compared with drug alone and making them easier to handle during manufacturing operations. Lactose is the most common and frequently used carrier in DPIs formulations and nowadays various inhalation grades of lactose with different physico-chemical properties are available on the market. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript is to review evolution of lactose as a carrier in inhalable formulations, their production and the impact of its physico-chemical properties on drug dispersion. This review offers a perspective on the current reported studies to modify lactose for better performance in DPIs. PMID:24312791

  19. Soil Amendement by green supplement: dry cowdung powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barot, N. S.; Bagla, H.

    2009-04-01

    Soil is a heavenly resource, a living, breathing and ever changing dynamic ecosystem. Retrogression and degradation of soil system is the result of continuous encroachment done by global anthropogenic activities. Mother earth's monition has increased the local concern to explore solution for the healthy sustainability of soil. At this hour of need it is crucial to regain the health of soil by utilizing eco-friendly solution and the promising one is Dry Cow Dung powder. Cow Dung is bio- organic, complex, polymorphic fecal matter of the bovine species, enriched with ‘Humic acid' (HA), ‘Fulvic Acid' etc. The HA in Cow Dung has been extracted using Neutralization Reaction and its presence is confirmed by comparing it with FTIR spectra of Std HA (IHSS). Property of metal ion adsorption of Standard and Extracted HA has been confirmed using ‘Tracer Technique'. Cow Dung is renewable, easy and freely available with least contaminants as the process of Humification takes place during drying stage hence speciation of any type is not required due to its Biological matrix. Any pre or post conditioning of cow dung powder is not required reducing undesired chemical sink in milieu. It will surely contribute in closing the natural nutrient cycle and increase the fertility as well as carbon pool of soil due to abundance of useful microflora. If compared to present day usage of synthetic and semi- synthetic products, employing Dry Cow Dung powder as agrarian booster will be surely a Green solution! It's rightly said that "The nation which destroys its soil, destroys itself!", hence we need to pursue instant remedies to mitigate our self destruction because healthy soil is the only life line for Survival!

  20. Soil amendement by green supplement : Dry cowdung powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barot, N.; Bagla, H.

    2009-04-01

    Soil is a heavenly resource, a living, breathing and ever changing dynamic ecosystem. Retrogression and degradation of soil system is the result of continuous encroachment done by global anthropogenic activities. Mother earth's monition has increased the local concern to explore solution for the healthy sustainability of soil. At this hour of need it is crucial to regain the health of soil by utilizing eco-friendly solution and the promising one is Dry Cow Dung powder. Cow Dung is bio- organic, complex, polymorphic fecal matter of the bovine species, enriched with ‘Humic acid' (HA), ‘Fulvic Acid' etc. The HA in Cow Dung has been extracted using Neutralization Reaction and its presence is confirmed by comparing it with FTIR spectra of Std HA (IHSS). Property of metal ion adsorption of Standard and Extracted HA has been confirmed using ‘Tracer Technique'. Cow Dung is renewable, easy and freely available with least contaminants as the process of Humification takes place during drying stage hence speciation of any type is not required due to its Biological matrix. Any pre or post conditioning of cow dung powder is not required reducing undesired chemical sink in milieu. It will surely contribute in closing the natural nutrient cycle and increase the fertility as well as carbon pool of soil due to abundance of useful microflora. If compared to present day usage of synthetic and semi- synthetic products, employing Dry Cow Dung powder as agrarian booster will be surely a Green solution! It's rightly said that "The nation which destroys its soil, destroys itself!", hence we need to pursue instant remedies to mitigate our self destruction because healthy soil is the only life line for Survival!

  1. Airmax: a multi-dose dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M; Faulds, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Airmax is a multi-dose dry powder inhaler. An internal pump measures out the drug dose using controlled air pressure. Inhalation transports the drug into a cyclone separator (where active drug is separated from the lactose carrier) and then into the patient airway. In vitro studies indicate that Airmax may be less dependent on airflow than Turbuhaler for drug delivery; greater dose consistency was seen with administration of budesonide via Airmax than via Turbuhaler. At a low flow rate, the lung deposition of budesonide administered via Airmax was greater than that of budesonide administered via Turbuhaler or a pressurised metered dose inhaler in patients with asthma. In cumulative-dose studies, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) achieved with salbutamol (albuterol) or formoterol administered via Airmax was equivalent to that achieved with twice the dose administered via dry powder inhalers. black triangle In randomised, double-blind studies, budesonide administration via Airmax was equivalent to administration via Turbuhaler with regards to FEV(1) and improvement in asthma symptoms in both adults and children with asthma. The concentration of adenosine monophosphate producing a 20% fall in FEV(1) increased from pretreatment levels by a greater extent with budesonide administered via Airmax, compared with Turbuhaler. Both adults and children preferred Airmax to Turbuhaler, and more found Airmax easier to use. In one study, the majority of children found learning how to use Airmax trade mark easier than learning how to use Turbuhaler. PMID:12215059

  2. Synergistic combination dry powders for inhaled antimicrobial therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2013-06-01

    Combination products play an important role in medicine as they offer improved clinical effectiveness, enhanced patient adherence, and reduced administrative costs. In combination antimicrobial therapy, the desired outcome is to extend the antimicrobial spectrum and to achieve a possible synergistic effect. However, adverse antagonistic species may sometimes emerge from such combinations, leading to treatment failure. Therefore, it is crucial to screen the drug candidates for compatibility and possible antagonistic interactions. This work aims to develop a novel synergistic dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for antimicrobial combination therapy via the pulmonary route. Binary and ternary combinations were prepared via spray drying on a BUCHI® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. All powders were within the respirable size range, and were consisted of spherical particles that were slightly corrugated. The powers yielded fine particle fractions (of the loaded dose) of over 40% when dispersed using an Aerolizer® DPI at 60 L/min. Time-kill studies carried out against common respiratory tract pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii at 1x the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) over 24 hours revealed no antagonistic behavior for both combinations. While the interactions were generally found to be indifferent, a favorable synergistic effect was detected in the binary combination when it was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria.

  3. In vitro dry powder inhaler formulation performance considerations.

    PubMed

    Ziffels, Susanne; Bemelmans, Norman L; Durham, Phillip G; Hickey, Anthony J

    2015-02-10

    It has long been desired to match airflow conditions during formulation evaluation to those of relevance to lung deposition. In this context several strategies have been adopted involving sampling at different: flow rate (without consideration of flow conditions, e.g. shear, Reynolds number, work function); pressure drop (with and without consideration of flow conditions) and; flow rate and pressure drop. Performance testing has focused on the influence of these sampling conditions on delivered dose uniformity and aerodynamic particle size distribution. However, in order to be physiologically relevant it is also important to know when the drug was delivered with respect to initiation of airflow as variation in this parameter would influence lung deposition. A light obscuration method of detecting the dose delivered from a dry powder inhaler while sampling for aerodynamic particle size distributions (APSD) by inertial impaction has been developed. Four formulations of albuterol sulfate and budesonide in sieved and milled lactose, respectively, were dispersed and their rate of delivery monitored. The differences observed have the potential to impact the site of delivery in the lungs. The rate of delivery of drug is clearly an important companion measurement to delivered dose and APSD if the intent is to predict the similarity of in vivo performance of dry powder inhaler products. PMID:25497311

  4. Murine pharmacokinetics of rifapentine delivered as an inhalable dry powder.

    PubMed

    Chan, John G Y; Tyne, Anneliese S; Pang, Angel; McLachlan, Andrew J; Perera, Vidya; Chan, Joseph C Y; Britton, Warwick J; Chan, Hak Kim; Duke, Colin C; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    A novel inhalable rifapentine dry powder formulation could improve pulmonary rifapentine concentrations resulting in a significantly shorter time to treat tuberculosis infection. The pharmacokinetics of rifapentine (20mg/kg) in healthy mice was compared following intratracheal (IT) and intraperitoneal (IP) administration. Plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tissue samples were collected and drug levels were quantified at time points up to 24h. Concentration-time data were analysed using a mixed-effects modelling approach to provide model-based estimates of area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞). IT delivery had considerably higher peak rifapentine lung and BAL concentrations and associated AUC0-∞ compared with IP delivery. The plasma AUC0-∞ following IT dry powder delivery was ca. four-fold smaller than the value for IP delivery. Inhaled delivery of rifapentine has the potential to selectively enhance therapeutic efficacy at the pulmonary site of infection whilst minimising systemic exposure and related toxicity. PMID:25554469

  5. Development and Comparison of New High Efficiency Dry Powder Inhalers for Carrier-Free Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Longest, P. Worth; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    High efficiency dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were developed and tested for use with carrier-free formulations across a range of different inhalation flow rates. Performance of a previously reported DPI was compared with two new designs in terms of emitted dose (ED) and aerosolization characteristics using in vitro experiments. The two new designs oriented the capsule chamber (CC) at different angles to the main flow passage, which contained a 3D rod array for aerosol deaggregation. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a previously developed deaggregation parameter, the NDSD, were used to explain device performance. Orienting the CC at 90° to the mouthpiece, the CC90-3D inhaler provided the best performance with an ED=73.4%, fine particle fractions (FPF) less than 5µm and 1µm of 95.1% and 31.4%, respectively, and a MMAD=1.5µm. For the carrier-free formulation, deaggregation was primarily influenced by capsule aperture position and the NDSD parameter. The new CC-3D inhalers reduced the percent difference in FPF and MMAD between low and high flows by 1–2 orders of magnitude compared with current commercial devices. In conclusion, the new CC-3D inhalers produced extremely high quality aerosols with little sensitivity to flow rate and are expected to deliver approximately 95% of the ED to the lungs. PMID:24307605

  6. Influence of physical properties of carrier on the performance of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tingting; Lin, Shiqi; Niu, Boyi; Wang, Xinyi; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xuejuan; Li, Ge; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-07-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) offer distinct advantages as a means of pulmonary drug delivery and have attracted much attention in the field of pharmaceutical science. DPIs commonly contain micronized drug particles which, because of their cohesiveness and strong propensity to aggregate, have poor aerosolization performance. Thus carriers with a larger particle size are added to address this problem. However, the performance of DPIs is profoundly influenced by the physical properties of the carrier, particularly their particle size, morphology/shape and surface roughness. Because these factors are interdependent, it is difficult to completely understand how they individually influence DPI performance. The purpose of this review is to summarize and illuminate how these factors affect drug-carrier interaction and influence the performance of DPIs. PMID:27471671

  7. Atmospheric Aerosols in the Guánica Dry Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón-Cresp, L. J.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Formenti, P.; Mazzei, F.

    2009-05-01

    Aerosols posses a substantial influence over the development and alteration of climate dynamics on the Caribbean. Among the principal sources of particulate matter that influence this region are the North African desert area, from which dust particles are usually transported by the trade winds, and anthropogenic activities that involve the combustion of fossil fuel. These types of aerosols have the potential to alter forests, among other multiple environments. This study focuses on the effects this type of aerosols can exert on Guánica's Dry Forest (GDF) in Puerto Rico. The GDF is one of the most intact mature dry forests in the Caribbean, is a place that has been chosen as the Atlantic Neotropical core site in the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and is an UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve. To chemically characterize the aerosol inputs to the GDF, aerosol samples were collected using Stacked-Filter Units. Samples were analyzed using a thermal-optical analyzer (EC/OC analyzer) to determine the concentrations of organic and elemental carbon. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) were also used to determine the elemental concentrations of different ions species. Preliminary ICP results showed the presence of Al, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca in higher concentrations in the coarse than in the fine fraction, suggesting the influence of mineral dust. This was confirmed by back trajectory analyses using the NOAA HYSPLIT model. The EC/OC analyses showed low organic carbon concentrations during African dust events, which was expected since African dust particles are mainly inorganic. Elemental Carbon concentrations were also very low, showing that the study site had little anthropogenic influence. Results related to the elemental composition as determined using XRF and ICP analyses will also be presented at the meeting.

  8. Effect of drying method on volatile compounds, phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of guava powders.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Juliana C; Lago, Mabel G; Castelo-Branco, Vanessa N; Oliveira, Felipe R; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Perrone, Daniel; Monteiro, Mariana

    2016-04-15

    We studied the chemical composition of oven and freeze dried guava powders for future use as antioxidant-rich flavour enhancers. Among thirty-one volatiles in guava powders, terpenes were predominant, even after both drying processes. In contrast, esters and aldehydes, volatiles characteristic of fresh guava fruit, appeared to have been decreased by drying. Insoluble phenolics were predominant and among the sixteen compounds identified, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and naringenin corresponded to 56% of total phenolics. Drying processes decreased total phenolics contents by up to 44%. Oven drying promoted the release of insoluble flavonoids, generating mainly quercetin. Antioxidant capacity also decreased due to both drying processes, but guava powders still presented similar antioxidant capacity in comparison to other tropical fruit powders. Our results suggest that oven drying is a viable option for the production of a functional ingredient that would improve the phenolic content of cereal foods while adding desirable guava flavour. PMID:26617030

  9. 30 CFR 75.1101-14 - Installation of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-14 Installation of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Self-contained dry powder chemical systems shall be installed to protect each belt-drive, belt takeup, electrical-controls, gear reducing units and 50 feet of fire-resistant belt or 150 feet of non-fire-resistant belt adjacent to the belt drive. (b)...

  10. Dry Powder form of Polymeric Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Shiehzadeh, Farideh; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Delivery to the lungs is an efficient way to deliver drugs directly to the site of action or to the blood circulation. Because of limitations of direct administration of free drugs, particulate drug delivery systems such as DPI formulations based on nanoparticles (NPs) have been of interest for pulmonary drug delivery. The prolonged residence of NPs in the lungs due to ability to escape from the clearance mechanisms such as mucociliary escalator, macrophage uptake (a size of 1-2 µm is ideal for macrophage phagocytosis), and translocation to the systemic circulation is amongst the key advantages of NPs. By this approach, the controlled pulmonary delivery of drugs, peptides, proteins, genes, siRNA, and vaccines is possible. Both natural (albumin, gelatin, alginate, collagen, cyclodextrin, and chitosan) and synthetic (poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), polyacrylates and polyanhydrides) polymers have been used in formulation of pulmonary nanovectors. As direct pulmonary administration of NPs is not feasible, by using the safe excipients, NPs could be converted to dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. These can provide a promising deposition and stability of NPs. In this article, the DPI formulations based on polymeric nanoparticles have been reviewed and categorized based on the polymer type used for preparation of NPs. PMID:26818872

  11. Preparation of High-Grade Powders from Tomato Paste Using a Vacuum Foam Drying Method.

    PubMed

    Sramek, Martin; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; van Kampen, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    We present a rapid and gentle drying method for the production of high-grade tomato powders from double concentrated tomato paste, comparing results with powders obtained by foam mat air drying and freeze dried powders. The principle of this method consists of drying tomato paste in foamed state at low temperatures in vacuum. The formulations were dried at temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C and vacuum of 200 mbar. Foam stability was affected by low serum viscosity and the presence of solid particles in tomato paste. Consequently, serum viscosity was increased by maltodextrin addition, yielding optimum stability at tomato paste:maltodextrin ratio of 2.4:1 (w/w) in dry matter. Material foamability was improved by addition of 0.5% (w/w, fresh weight) egg white. Because of solid particles in tomato paste, foam air filling had to be limited to critical air volume fraction of Φ = 0.7. The paste was first pre-foamed to Φ = 0.2 and subsequently expanded in vacuo. After drying to a moisture content of 5.6% to 7.5% wet base (w.b.), the materials obtained were in glassy state. Qualities of the resulting powders were compared with those produced by freeze and air drying. Total color changes were the least after vacuum drying, whereas air drying resulted in noticeable color changes. Vacuum foam drying at 50 °C led to insignificant carotenoid losses, being equivalent to the time-consuming freeze drying method. In contrast, air drying caused lycopene and β-carotene losses of 18% to 33% and 14% to 19% respectively. Thus, vacuum foam drying enables production of high-grade tomato powders being qualitatively similar to powders obtained by freeze drying. PMID:26189747

  12. Systemic Delivery of Atropine Sulfate by the MicroDose Dry-Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramanan, R.; Hoffman, R.M.; George, M.P.; Petrov, A.; Richards, T.; Zhang, S.; Choi, J.; Gao, Y.Y.; Oakum, C.D.; Cook, R.O.; Donahoe, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Inhaled atropine is being developed as a systemic and pulmonary treatment for the extended recovery period after chemical weapons exposure. We performed a pharmacokinetics study comparing inhaled atropine delivery using the MicroDose Therapeutx Dry Powder Inhaler (DPIA) with intramuscular (IM) atropine delivery via auto-injector (AUTO). Methods The MicroDose DPIA utilizes a novel piezoelectric system to aerosolize drug and excipient from a foil dosing blister. Subjects inhaled a 1.95-mg atropine sulfate dose from the dry powder inhaler on one study day [5 doses×0.4 mg per dose (nominal) delivered over 12 min] and received a 2-mg IM injection via the AtroPen® auto-injector on another. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic response, and safety were studied for 12 hr. Results A total of 17 subjects were enrolled. All subjects completed IM dosing. One subject did not perform inhaled delivery due to a skin reaction from the IM dose. Pharmacokinetic results were as follows: area under the curve concentration, DPIA=20.1±5.8, AUTO=23.7±4.9 ng hr/mL (means±SD); maximum concentration reached, DPIA=7.7±3.5, AUTO=11.0±3.8 ng/mL; time to reach maximum concentration, DPIA=0.25±0.47, AUTO=0.19±0.23 hr. Pharmacodynamic results were as follows: maximum increase in heart rate, DPIA=18±12, AUTO=23±13 beats/min; average change in 1-sec forced expiratory volume at 30 min, DPIA=0.16±0.22 L, AUTO=0.11±0.29 L. The relative bioavailability for DPIA was 87% (based on output dose). Two subjects demonstrated allergic responses: one to the first dose (AUTO), which was mild and transient, and one to the second dose (DPIA), which was moderate in severity, required treatment with oral and intravenous (IV) diphenhydramine and IV steroids, and lasted more than 7 days. Conclusions Dry powder inhalation is a highly bioavailable route for attaining rapid and consistent systemic concentrations of atropine. PMID:22691110

  13. Development of an Inhaled Dry-Powder Formulation of Tobramycin Using PulmoSphere™ Technology

    PubMed Central

    Weers, Jeffry; Heuerding, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract At present, the only approved inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotics for chronic pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are nebulized solutions. However, prolonged administration and cleaning times, high administration frequency, and cumbersome delivery technologies with nebulizers add to the high treatment burden in this patient population. PulmoSphere™ technology is an emulsion-based spray-drying process that enables the production of light porous particle, dry-powder formulations, which exhibit improved flow and dispersion from passive dry powder inhalers. This review explores the fundamental characteristics of PulmoSphere technology, focusing on the development of a dry powder formulation of tobramycin for the treatment of chronic pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infection in CF patients. This dry powder formulation provides substantially improved intrapulmonary deposition efficiency, faster delivery, and more convenient administration over nebulized formulations. The availability of more efficient and convenient treatment options may improve treatment compliance, and thereby therapeutic outcomes in CF. PMID:21395432

  14. Development of liposomal amphotericin B dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Shah, S P; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to prepare and optimize liposomal Amphotericin B (AMB) dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for treatment of invasive lung fungal infection. Liposomes were prepared by reverse phase evaporation technique using ethyl acetate and ethanol (1:1) as organic solvents to avoid a possible risk for human health and to impart adequate stability of the vesicles. Drug lipid ratio was 1:10 with membrane composition of hydrogenated soyaphosphatidylcholine; cholesterol and either saturated soyaphosphatidylglycerol (7:3:0.5) or stearylamine (1:1:0.1) was used to prepare negatively (AMB1) and positively (AMB2) charged liposomes, respectively. Liposomes were extruded through 2 microm polycarbonate membrane, separated from unentrapped drug and subjected to lyophilization using Tris buffer containing cryoprotectants in various mass ratios. Sucrose was found to be the best cryoprotectant for liposomal AMB in a mass ratio of lipid: sucrose at 1:5 for AMB1 and AMB2, respectively. Sorbolac 400 and sieved Pharmatose 325 M (500#) in varying mass ratios were used as carriers to prepare the liposomal DPI formulations and subjected to determination of angle of repose, compressibility index, dispersiblity index, water content, scanning electron microscopy, and fine particle fraction (FPF). Carrier blend of Sorbolac 400 and 10% sieved Pharmatose 325 M (liposome: carrier ratio to be 1:6) resulted in 22.6 +/- 2.2% and 16.8 +/- 2.2% FPF for AMB1 and AMB2, respectively with significantly different (p >.05) device fraction. Percent dug retention studies were conducted at different storage conditions and demonstrated a shelf life over 1 year at refrigerated storage condition (2-8 degrees C). PMID:15371106

  15. Atmospheric freeze drying for the reduction of powder electrostatics of amorphous, low density, high surface area pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, K P; Cai, Z; Schmerler, P; Williams, R O

    2013-02-01

    Amorphous itraconazole (ITZ) was prepared by Thin Film Freezing (TFF) utilizing 1,4-dioxane as the solvent with subsequent solvent removal via conventional tray lyophilization (ITZ LYO) or atmospheric freeze drying (ITZ AFD). ITZ AFD was prepared under various drying conditions to assess the influence of drying parameters on powder properties. XRD analysis confirmed all products were amorphous and DSC analysis revealed both drying processes resulted in the formation of the nematic mesophase of ITZ. SEM revealed a larger pore size and agglomerate size with fewer fine particles (i.e. less than 10 microns in diameter) for ITZ AFD compared to ITZ LYO. Residual solvent analysis revealed a primary drying temperature of -10°C resulted in residual solvent levels above the acceptable limits set by the International Conference on Harmonization as a result of microcollapse. Primary drying temperatures of less than -10°C resulted in acceptable residual solvent levels. The extent of microcollapse did not alter the macrostructure of the resulting powder. Powder flowability was determined to be similar for ITZ AFD and ITZ LYO based on Carr's index and the Hausner ratio, as well as by dynamic angle of repose. All powders displayed poor flowability. Chargeability measurements demonstrated a lower charge transfer for ITZ AFD powders compared to ITZ LYO due to a combination of factors including differences in residual solvent level, particle size, pore size, surface area, and fine particles content. The reduction in chargeability as a result of AFD is highly desirable because it allows for improved powder handling and use post-production. PMID:22612245

  16. Development of inhalable hyaluronan/mannitol composite dry powders for flucytosine repositioning in local therapy of lung infections.

    PubMed

    Costabile, G; d'Angelo, I; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, R; Mitidieri, E; Pompili, B; Del Porto, P; Leoni, L; Visca, P; Miro, A; Quaglia, F; Imperi, F; Sorrentino, R; Ungaro, F

    2016-09-28

    Flucytosine (5-fluorocytosine, 5-FC) is a fluorinated analogue of cytosine currently approved for the systemic treatment of fungal infections, which has recently demonstrated a very promising antivirulence activity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we propose novel inhalable hyaluronic acid (HA)/mannitol composite dry powders for repositioning 5-FC in the local treatment of lung infections, including those affecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Different dry powders were produced in one-step by spray-drying. Powder composition and process conditions were selected after in depth formulation studies aimed at selecting the 5-FC/HA/mannitol formulation with convenient aerosolization properties and drug release profile in simulated lung fluids. The optimized 5-FC/HA/mannitol powder for inhalation (HyaMan_FC#3) was effectively delivered from different breath-activated dry powder inhalers (DPI) already available to CF patients. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic assessment of fine particles suggested that the developed formulation well fit with a low-resistance DPI. HyaMan_FC#3 inhibited the growth of the fungus Candida albicans and the production of the virulence factor pyoverdine by P. aeruginosa at 5-FC concentrations that did not affect the viability of both wild type (16HBE14o-) and CF (CFBE41o-) human bronchial epithelial cells. Finally, pharmacokinetics of HyaMan_FC#3 inhalation powder and 5-FC solution after intratracheal administration in rats were compared. In vivo results clearly demonstrated that, when formulated as dry powder, 5-FC levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were significantly higher and sustained over time as compared to those obtained with the 5-FC solution. Of note, when the same 5-FC amount was administered intravenously, no significant drug amount was found in the lung at each time point from the injection. To realize a 5-FC lung concentration similar to that obtained by using HyaMan_FC#3

  17. Inhibition by sodium cromoglycate of bronchoconstriction stimulated by respiratory heat loss: comparison of pressurised aerosol and powder.

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, K M; Roberts, R; Morris, M M; Hargreave, F E

    1984-01-01

    The protective effect was examined of three doses (2, 10, and 20 mg) of sodium cromoglycate inhaled from a pressurised metered dose inhaler on the response to isocapnic hyperventilation of cold dry air in 10 asthmatic subjects. This was compared with the effect of cromoglycate powder (20 mg) inhaled from a Spincap and with placebo given on two occasions. The medications were inhaled on separate days, in random order and with the use of a double blind double dummy technique, 20 minutes before isocapnic hyperventilation of two fold increasing volumes of air (-15 degrees C, 0% humidity) to produce a 20% fall in the post-treatment FEV1. The response was expressed as the provocative dose of respiratory heat loss required to cause a fall in FEV1 of 15% (PD15, kcal/min). The mean baseline spirometric indices exceeded 85% of predicted normal values on each test day; both placebo treatments reduced the baseline FEV1 by comparison with all active treatments (p less than 0.0001). Comparison of the PD15 on the two placebo days confirmed excellent reproducibility. All doses of cromoglycate shifted the respiratory heat loss dose-response curve to the right of the placebo curve; PD15 after all active treatments exceeded PD15 after placebo (p less than 0.0001). There was no cromoglycate dose-response relationship between the three doses of aerosol (p greater than 0.05), or between any dose of aerosol and powder (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that cromoglycate aerosol inhaled from a pressurised inhaler in a dose of 2 mg gives the same magnitude of protection against bronchoconstriction stimulated by airway cooling as 20 mg of pressurised aerosol or powder from a Spincap. PMID:6426073

  18. Heat-Stable Dry Powder Oxytocin Formulations for Delivery by Oral Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Karine; Curley, Kieran; Guarneri, Joseph; Adamo, Benoit; Laurenzi, Brendan; Grant, Marshall; Offord, Robin; Kraft, Kelly; Leone-Bay, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In this work, heat stable dry powders of oxytocin (OT) suitable for delivery by oral inhalation were prepared. The OT dry powders were prepared by spray drying using excipients chosen to promote OT stability including trehalose, isoleucine, polyvinylpyrrolidone, citrate (sodium citrate and citric acid), and zinc salts (zinc chloride and zinc citrate). Characterization by laser diffraction indicated that the OT dry powders had a median particle size of 2 μm, making them suitable for delivery by inhalation. Aerodynamic performance upon discharge from proprietary dry powder inhalers was evaluated by Andersen cascade impaction (ACI) and in an anatomically correct airway (ACA) model, and confirmed that the powders had excellent aerodynamic performance, with respirable fractions up to 77% (ACI, 30 L/min). Physicochemical characterization demonstrated that the powders were amorphous (X-ray diffraction) with high glass transition temperature (modulated differential scanning calorimetry, MDSC), suggesting the potential for stabilization of the OT in a glassy amorphous matrix. OT assay and impurity profile were conducted by reverse phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) after storage up to 32 weeks at 40°C/75%RH. Analysis demonstrated that OT dry powders containing a mixture of citrate and zinc salts retained more than 90% of initial assay after 32 weeks storage and showed significant reduction in dimers and trisulfide formation (up to threefold reduction compared to control). PMID:25776985

  19. Aerodynamic Factors Responsible for the Deaggregation of Carrier-Free Drug Powders to form Micrometer and Submicrometer Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Longest, P. Worth; Son, Yoen-Ju; Holbrook, Landon; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to employ in vitro experiments combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to determine which aerodynamic factors were most responsible for deaggregating carrier-free powders to form micrometer and submicrometer aerosols from a capsule-based platform. Methods Eight airflow passages were evaluated for deaggregation of the aerosol including a standard constricted tube, impaction surface, 2D mesh, inward radial jets, and newly proposed 3D grids and rod arrays. CFD simulations were implemented to evaluate existing and new aerodynamic factors for deaggregation and in vitro experiments were used to evaluate performance of each inhaler. Results For the carrier-free formulation considered, turbulence was determined to be the primary deaggregation mechanism. A strong quantitative correlation was established between the mass median diameter (MMD) and newly proposed non-dimensional specific dissipation (NDSD) factor, which accounts for turbulent energy, inverse of the turbulent length scale, and exposure time. A 3D rod array design with unidirectional elements maximized NDSD and produced the best deaggregation with MMD<1μm. Conclusions The new NDSD parameter can be used to develop highly effective dry powder inhalers like the 3D rod array that can efficiently produce submicrometer aerosols for next-generation respiratory drug delivery applications. PMID:23471640

  20. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. PMID:27283664

  1. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of spray dried powders of two South Brazilian Passiflora species.

    PubMed

    Reginatto, Flávio H; De-Paris, Fernanda; Petry, Raquel D; Quevedo, João; Ortega, George González; Gosmann, Grace; Schenkel, Eloir P

    2006-05-01

    The Passiflora extracts have been used in folk medicine because of its reputed sedative and anxiolytic properties. The present study aimed to compare the potential anxiolytic activity of two Passiflora spray-dried powders obtained from P. alata and P. edulis, known in Brazil as 'maracujá'. Male adult Swiss rats were treated with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of spray-dried powders p.o. and anxiolytic activity was evaluated using the elevated plus-maze test. The spray-dried powders showed anxiolytic activity in doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg. Our results support the potential anxiolytic effect of Passiflora spray-dried powders (P. alata and P. edulis). PMID:16619361

  2. Effect of carrier particle shape on dry powder inhaler performance.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-12-12

    The aim of this study was to characterise the aerosolisation properties of salbutamol sulphate (SS) from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing different carrier products. The difference in the elongation ratio (ER) of the different carriers was highlighted. Different set of carriers, namely commercial mannitol (CM), commercial lactose (CL), cooling crystallised mannitol (CCM), acetone crystallised mannitol (ACM) and ethanol crystallised mannitol (ECM) were used and inspected in terms of size, shape, density, crystal form, flowability, and in vitro aerosolisation performance using Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and Aerolizer inhaler device. Solid-state and morphological characterization showed that CM product was in pure β-form having particles with smaller ER (CM: ER=1.62 ± 0.04) whereas ACM and ECM mannitol particles were in pure α form with higher ER (ACM: ER=4.83 ± 0.18, ECM: ER=5.89 ± 0.19). CCM product crystallised as mixtures of β-form and δ-form and showed the largest variability in terms of particle shape, size, and DPI performance. Linear relationships were established showing that carrier products with higher ER have smaller bulk density (D(b)), smaller tap density (D(t)), higher porosity (P), and poorer flow properties. In vitro aerosolisation assessments showed that the higher the ER of the carrier particles the greater the amounts of SS delivered to lower airway regions indicating enhanced DPI performance. Yet, DPI performance enhancement by increasing carrier ER reached a "limit" as increasing carrier ER from 4.83±0.18 (ACM) to 5.89±0.19 (ECM) did not significantly alter fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS. Also, carrier particles with higher ER were disadvantageous in terms of higher amounts of SS remained in inhaler device (drug loss) and deposited on throat. Linear relationship was established (r(2)=0.87) showing that the higher the carrier ER the lower the drug emission (EM) upon inhalation. Moreover, poorer flowability for

  3. Development of a High Efficiency Dry Powder Inhaler: Effects of Capsule Chamber Design and Inhaler Surface Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a high efficiency dry powder inhaler (DPI) intended for excipient enhanced growth (EEG) aerosol delivery based on changes to the capsule orientation and surface modifications of the capsule and device. Methods DPIs were constructed by combining newly designed capsule chambers (CC) with a previously developed three-dimensional (3D) rod array for particle deagglomeration and a previously optimized EEG formulation. The new CCs oriented the capsule perpendicular to the incoming airflow and were analyzed for different air inlets at a constant pressure drop across the device. Modifications to the inhaler and capsule surfaces included use of metal dispersion rods and surface coatings. Aerosolization performance of the new DPIs was evaluated and compared with commercial devices. Results The proposed capsule orientation and motion pattern increased capsule vibrational frequency and reduced the aerosol MMAD compared with commercial/modified DPIs. The use of metal rods in the 3D array further improved inhaler performance. Coating the inhaler and capsule with PTFE significantly increased emitted dose (ED) from the optimized DPI. Conclusions High efficiency performance is achieved for EEG delivery with the optimized DPI device and formulation combination producing an aerosol with MMAD < 1.5 µm, FPF<5µm/ED > 90%, and ED > 80%. PMID:23949304

  4. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  5. Investigation into Alternative Sugars as Potential Carriers for Dry Powder Formulation of Budesonide

    PubMed Central

    Momin, Mohammed-Nurul; Hedayati, Atoosa; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations are so far being used for pulmonary drug delivery, mainly for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently most of DPI formulations rely on lactose as a carrier in the drug powder blend. However, due to reducing sugar function of lactose which makes it incompatible with some drugs such as budesonide, it is realistic to investigate for alternative sugars that would overcome the concerned drawback but still have the positive aspects of lactose. Methods The study was conducted by characterizing carriers for their physico-chemical properties and preparing drug/carrier blends with concentration of 5% and 10% drug with the carrier. The mixing uniformity (homogeneity) of Budesonide in the blends was analyzed using spectrophotometer. The blend was then filled into NB7/2 Airmax inhaler device and the deposition profiles of the drug were determined using multi stage liquid impinger (MSLI) after aerosolization at 4 kPa via the inhaler. The morphology of the carriers conducted using the scanning electron microscope. Results The results determined that the mean fine particle fraction (FPF) of 5% and 10% blends of mannitol was 61%, possibly due to fine elongated particles. Dextrose exhibited excellent flowability. Scanning electron microscope illustrated mannitol with fine elongated particles and dextrose presenting larger and coarse particles. It was found out that type of carriers, particle size distribution, and morphology would influence the FPF of budesonide. Conclusion It may be concluded that mannitol could be suitable as a carrier on the basis of its pharmaceutical performance and successful achievement of FPF whereas the more hygroscopic sugars such as sorbitol or xylitol showed poor dispersibility leading to lower FPF. PMID:23678414

  6. The Diskus™: a review of its position among dry powder inhaler devices

    PubMed Central

    Chrystyn, H

    2007-01-01

    The use of dry powder inhalers (DPIs) to administer treatments for respiratory diseases has increased significantly in recent years. There is now a wide range of DPIs available that vary considerably in design, required operational techniques, output characteristics and drug delivery across a range of inhalation patterns. Different patient populations may find individual types of DPI easier to use correctly than others and selecting the right DPI for particular patient requirements will improve compliance with therapy. For example, some DPIs offer a greater resistance against inspirational flow rate than others which affects the total emitted dose and also fine particle mass of the aerosol released. An individual patient may therefore receive different amounts of drug when inhaling from different DPIs. Therefore, it is important that the prescriber is fully aware of the characteristics of the different types of DPI, so that he or she can prescribe the device that is most appropriate to an individual patient's needs. This review explores the characteristics of currently available DPIs and evaluates their efficacy and patient acceptability. The differences in output characteristics, ease of use and patient preferences between available devices is shown to affect treatment efficacy and patient compliance with therapy. Changing the DPI prescribed to a patient to a cheaper or generic device may therefore adversely affect disease control and thereby increase the cost of treatment. PMID:17504364

  7. Inhalable liposomal dry powder of gemcitabine-HCl: Formulation, in vitro characterization and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Manit; Pandya, Tosha; Gandhi, Ravi; Patel, Sagar; Mashru, Rajashree; Misra, Ambikanandan; Tandel, Hemal

    2015-12-30

    Pulmonary drug delivery system facilitates local instillation of anticancer drugs to lungs which has proven to be pioneering approach for treatment of lung cancer. This approach led the groundwork for delivering liposomal formulation directly to lungs. Gemcitabine-HCl is currently considered as most effective drug for management of lung cancer. However, its application is limited owing to its metabolism by enzymes present in plasma resulting in reduced efficacy and higher toxicity. In present study, lyophilisation technique was used to convert liposomes into dry powder inhaler, which was formulated using emulsification solvent evaporation technique. The physicochemical properties including size, morphology, entrapment efficiency, loading efficiency etc. of formulated liposomes were evaluated. The prepared liposomal DPI (LDPI) formulations were then examined for solid state characteristics and aerosol performance using cascade impactor. From all the formulations prepared, the LDPI formulated using trehalose as cryoprotectant presented required properties along with desirable deposition pattern. Finally, the optimized formulation was selected for in vitro cell line studies; in vivo studies and stability study. This formulated inhalable particles offers a promising approach for the management of lung cancer through regional chemotherapy. PMID:26453787

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Pine Needle Powders Prepared by Different Drying Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ha-Sook; Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Systematic study of how different drying methods, namely hot-air drying, vacuum-drying, and freeze-drying, affect color, browning index, degree of rehydration, water solubility, and vitamin C content is critical for utilizing pine needle powders (PNP) as a novel ingredient in functional foods. Samples prepared by vacuum-drying showed a significantly higher L*-value, whereas higher a*- and b*-values were detected in the hot-air dried samples (P<0.05). The browning index was significantly higher in samples prepared by vacuum-drying compared to samples prepared by freeze-drying (P<0.05). Freeze-dried PNP exhibited a significantly higher degree of rehydration than hot-air dried samples (P<0.05). Water solubilities of freeze-dried and hot-air dried samples were significantly higher than that of vacuum-dried sample (P<0.05). Vitamin C was less destroyed during freeze-drying compared to hot-air or vacuum-drying (P<0.05). Freeze-dried samples displayed a clear porous structure and appeared to have a bigger space, whereas hot-air dried samples showed lower porosity than vacuum and freeze-dried samples. PMID:26176003

  9. Submicron silicon powder production in an aerosol reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. J.; Flagan, R. C.; Gregory, O. J.

    1986-01-01

    Powder synthesis by thermally induced vapor phase reactions is described. The powder generated by this technique consists of spherical, nonagglomerated particles of high purity. The particles are uniform in size, in the 0.1-0.2-micron size range. Most of the particles are crystalline spheres. A small fraction of the spheres are amorphous. Chain agglomerates account for less than 1 percent of the spherules.

  10. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2016-09-15

    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders. PMID:27080900

  11. Preparation, characterization and pulmonary pharmacokinetics of a new inhalable zanamivir dry powder.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xingshi; Yang, Yang; Xie, Xiangyang; Yu, Fanglin; Yang, Yanfang; Yang, Zhenbo; Zhang, Tao; Mei, Xingguo

    2016-07-01

    This work describes a new dry powder for inhalation containing zanamivir, which is less hygroscopic than Relenza®. The powders were prepared via a spray-drying technique using mannitol as the carrier. A 5(3) central composite design was used to optimize the formulations. The final optimized powders, characterized with an angle of repose 37.48°, an aerodynamic diameter of 2.346 μm and in vitro deposition of 58.54%, were obtained by using the predicted variable values. Relenza® absorbed a significant amount of water at 66%, 75% and 85% relative humidity (RH; weight changes of approximately 1.38%, 2.18% and 3.72%, respectively). In contrast, the weight change for the zanamivir dry powder inhalation (DPI) was negligible when the RH was increased to 66%. The in vivo potential for the optimized powders was studied further in rats via the endotracheal administration of an 8.4 mg/kg dose. The bioavailability was 116% relative to Relenza®. Fluorescence imaging monitored the zanamivir dry powder inhalers in rats. The results indicated that the zanamivir DPIs were effectively delivered to the lung. These results indicate that the spray-dried zanamivir DPIs were promising for pulmonary delivery. PMID:26066037

  12. Effect of sucrose on physical properties of spray-dried whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ma, U V Lay; Ziegler, G R; Floros, J D

    2008-11-01

    Spray-dried whole milk powders were prepared from whole condensed milk with various sucrose concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% w/w), and their glass transition temperature and some physical properties of importance in chocolate manufacture were evaluated. In milk powder samples, the glass transition temperature and free-fat content decreased in a nonlinear manner with sucrose addition. Moreover, increasing sucrose concentration reduced the formation of dents on the particle surface. Addition of sucrose in whole condensed milk increased linearly the apparent particle density and in a nonlinear manner the particle size of spray-dried milk powders. The particle size volume distribution of milk powders with the highest sucrose concentration differed from the log-normal distribution of the other samples due to the formation of large agglomerates. Neither vacuole volume, nor the amorphous state of milk powders was affected by sucrose addition. PMID:19021798

  13. X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION SYSTEM FOR CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF PARTICULATE AEROSOL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An x-ray powder diffraction system has been developed for the automated measurement and analysis of particulate aerosol samples. The system is optimized to process samples with particle loadings of about 100 micrograms/sq cm which are acquired with dichotomous air samplers. A pos...

  14. A study of inter-particle bonds in dry bauxite waste resulting in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Thompson, Bentley

    1988-02-01

    Bauxite and Alumina production are one of the main activities of several third world countries such as Jamaica, Brazil, India, Guinea, eastern European countries such as Hungary and Rumania and advanced countries such as Australia, West Germany, Japan and the United States. The mining operations lead to dust pollution, but the refining of bauxite to alumina yield large amounts of highly caustic sludge waste, called "Red Mud". Millions of tons of the waste produced in every country are stored in containment dams or natural valleys. This leads to ground water pollution, destruction of plant and bird life and is hazardous to human settlement in earthquake prone regions like Jamaica. As a result several companies have been looking into dry mud stacking which involves thickening the mud in the refining plants and sprying it on the slopes to sun dry it. Typically it involves a drying field of about two hundred acres, which could act as a potential source of caustic dust. In Jamaica one company has started disposing of the mud in this way. The aerosol formation from such areas depends mainly on the integrity of the top dry layers. Presently this is done by studying the approximate parameters such as the friability of the mud. However, following the recent advances in powder technology it has been possible for us to develop an instrument to study the average interparticle forces between the red mud particles. The instrument is based on the principle of a tensometer and a split cell is used to load specimens. A load cell is used to measure the force and a chart recorder is used for plotting separation and the force. The present study reports elemental composition of the dust and its health hazards. It also reports the physical measurement of the average interparticle force as a function of their separation in the Jamaican mud. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the strength of the material is studied to see the effect of sun-drying of the waste. The five-fold increase

  15. Effect of drying treatments and storage stability on quality characteristics of bael powder.

    PubMed

    Sagar, V R; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Dehydration of bael pulp in to powder form is a challenging operation, mainly due to the sticky issue of bael pulp and caking of powder during handling and storage. To overcome on this problem maltodextrin MD (drying aid) and tricalcium phosphate, TCP (anti caking agent) were added to the bael pulp at four levels along with control and dried in a mechanical drier into thin layer at 58 ± 2 °C for 12 h, to obtain a moisture content of 4-5 % in dehydrated pulp. The dehydrated bael pulp was grounded in a laboratory powder mill and sieve with 30 mesh sieve. The powder was packed in 150gauge PP, 400gauge LDPE and 200gauge HDPE pouches and was stored at low temperature (7 °C) and ambient condition (18-35 °C) up to 6 months for storage study. The powder was evaluated for its quality characteristics in respect of acidity, sugars, antioxidant, phenol, ascorbic acid, non- enzymatic browning (NEB) before packaging and during storage. The amount of MD and TCP required to reduce powder stickiness and caking were optimized on the powder properties. The amount of MD (0.25 kg per kg dry bael solids) and TCP (0.15 kg per kg dry bael solids) with the values of degree of caking (19.24 %) and stickiness point temperature (45.4 °C) were found to be optimum for reducing the powder stickiness, caking and nutritional parameters. The adsorption isotherm of bael powder was found to be type-II sigmoid and 200 g HDPE as packaging material followed by storage at low temperature were selected as best process. PMID:25190878

  16. Development of New Formulation Dry Powder for Pulmonary Delivery Using Amino Acids to Improve Stability.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yumiko; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Cationic polymers are being studied as non-viral gene delivery vectors. Poly{N-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} (PAsp(DET)) and their block copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol), PEG-PAsp(DET), have been reported as efficient biodegradable non-viral vectors which form a polyplex with plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the polyplexes are not stable because PAsp(DET) and PEG-PAsp(DET) are easily subjected to hydrolysis; therefore, they need to be prepared on site. In this study, using the biodegradable polycations as non-viral vectors, PAsp(DET) and PEG-PAsp(DET), we investigated the effects of L-leucine (Leu) on the polyplex. We prepared solutions and dry powders with and without Leu. Both dry powders had large and porous particles and Leu acted as a dispersing agent. The transfection activity of the sample solutions decreased within a month. However, the decrease in the transfection activity was partially suppressed by the dry powder with Leu at 5 and 25°C at 3 months. Furthermore, transfection experiments revealed that Leu exhibited a pDNA-stabilizing effect in the solution and dry powder. Similar results were observed for pDNA integrity, where a polyplex was formed in the dry powder. The results suggest that Leu is a candidate stabilizer to protect pDNA from degradation. PMID:26725531

  17. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  18. Cubic phase-forming dry powders for controlled drug delivery on mucosal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Moebus, K; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2012-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to prepare and physicochemically characterize protein-loaded, glycerol monooleate (GMO)-based dry powder systems, which can be used for the controlled mucosal delivery of macromolecules (e.g., nasal, buccal, pulmonary). Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded powders were prepared by spray-drying, freeze-drying and/or spray-freezing using different types of carrier materials, including mannitol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP 25) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs). The systems were characterized by optical and polarized light microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, gel electrophoresis and diffusion studies. The type of carrier material strongly affected the resulting particle size and shape. The presence of GMO effectively slowed down BSA release. Importantly, broad ranges of release patterns could be achieved by varying the type of preparation method and composition of the dry powders. In all cases, the primary structure of the BSA remained intact. GMO, which is a wax solid at room temperature, has been successfully converted into dry powder formulations that offer potential for the controlled mucosal delivery of proteins. PMID:21963767

  19. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract.

    PubMed

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-04-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  20. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  1. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  2. Influence of coating material on the flowability and dissolution of dry-coated fine ibuprofen powders.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li; Zhou, Qi Tony; Denman, John A; Stewart, Peter J; Hapgood, Karen P; Morton, David A V

    2015-10-12

    This study investigates the effects of a variety of coating materials on the flowability and dissolution of dry-coated cohesive ibuprofen powders, with the ultimate aim to use these in oral dosage forms. A mechanofusion approach was employed to apply a 1% (w/w) dry coating onto ibuprofen powder with coating materials including magnesium stearate (MgSt), L-leucine, sodium stearyl fumarate (SSF) and silica-R972. No significant difference in particle size or shape was measured following mechanofusion with any material. Powder flow behaviours characterised by the Freeman FT4 system indicated coatings of MgSt, L-leucine and silica-R972 produced a notable surface modification and substantially improved flow compared to the unprocessed and SSF-mechanofused powders. ToF-SIMS provided a qualitative measure of coating extent, and indicated a near-complete layer on the drug particle surface after dry coating with MgSt or silica-R972. Of particular note, the dissolution rates of all mechanofused powders were enhanced even with a coating of a highly hydrophobic material such as magnesium stearate. This surprising increase in dissolution rate of the mechanofused powders was attributed to the lower cohesion and the reduced agglomeration after mechanical coating. PMID:26215464

  3. Optimization of spray drying process for developing seabuckthorn fruit juice powder using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-12-01

    The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture and vitamin C content, while the maltodextrin concentration showed similar influence on solubility, dispersibility and overall color difference value. Contour plots for each response were used to generate an optimum area by superimposition. The seabuckthorn fruit juice powder was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the second order polynomial model. The experimental values were found to be in close agreement to the predicted values and were within the acceptable limits indicating the suitability of the model in predicting quality attributes of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions for drying 100 g fruit juice slurry were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 162.5 °C and 25 g, respectively. The spray dried juice powder contains higher amounts of antioxidants viz., vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols when compared to commercial fruit juice powders and they are also found to be free flowing without any physical alterations such as caking, stickiness, collapse and crystallization by exhibiting greater glass transition temperature. PMID:25477639

  4. A Dry Powder Process for Preparing Uni-Tape Prepreg from Polymer Powder Coated Filamentary Towpregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Steven P. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs is provided. A plurality of polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs are provided. The towpregs are collimated so that each towpreg is parallel. The sandwich is heated to a temperature wherein the polymer flows and intimately contacts the filaments and pressure is repeatedly applied perpendicularly to the sandwich with a longitudinal oscillating action wherein the filaments move apart and the polymer wets the filaments forming a uni-tape prepreg. The uni-tape prepreg is subsequently cooled.

  5. Dry powder process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Steven P. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs is provided. A plurality of polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs are provided. The towpregs are collimated so that each towpreg is parallel. A material is applied to each side of the towpreg to form a sandwich. The sandwich is heated to a temperature wherein the polymer flows and intimately contacts the filaments and pressure is repeatedly applied perpendicularly to the sandwich with a longitudinal oscillating action wherein the filaments move apart and the polymer wets the filaments forming a uni-tape prepreg. The uni-tape prepreg is subsequently cooled.

  6. Bend strengths of reaction bonded silicon nitride prepared from dry attrition milled silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Dry attrition milled silicon powder was compacted, sintered in helium, and reaction bonded in nitrogen-4 volume percent hydrogen. Bend strengths of bars with as-nitrided surfaces averaged as high as 210 MPa at room temperature and 220 MPa at 1400 C. Bars prepared from the milled powder were stronger than those prepared from as-received powder at both room temperature and at 1400 C. Room temperature strength decreased with increased milling time and 1400 C strength increased with increased milling time.

  7. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-12-17

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  8. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H.; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-01-01

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  9. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Xiaoliang Wang Sheng; Yang Hua; Duan Xinglong; Dong Xuebin

    2008-09-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ({lambda}{sub ex}=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 {mu}m in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 deg. C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature. - Graphical abstract: hBN powder was fabricated prepared by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The results indicated that spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology assisted with high-energy ball-milling process following calcined process was a hopeful way to manufacture hBN powder with high crystallinity in industrial scale.

  10. [Obtainment of pineapple juice powder by foam-mat drying].

    PubMed

    Beristain, C I; Cortés, R; Casillas, M A; Díaz, R

    1991-06-01

    The foam-mat production and stability using pineapple juice concentrate (25, 30 and 40 degrees Brix), adding a surfactants mixture and maltodextrin (DE 10) as co-adjuvant, stirred in a commercial mixer, was studied. Adequate foam formation conditions were as follows: concentrate of 25 degrees Brix using surface active agents (Sorbac 60-Polisorbac 80) 0.285% surface active agent/total solids, HLB = 6, and stirring time, 7 min. The foam was dehydrated in an oven dried with a horizontal air flow circulation set at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C using 3, 5 and 10 mm bed depths. The best conditions were obtained at 60 degrees C and 5 mm bed depth. The product had a particle size of sieve 40-80, and a moisture content of 3%. It was then packaged in multilayer plastic film and stored at environmental conditions. No brown color formation or mold growth was detected during storage. Pineapple juice and a refreshing drink were prepared. The general acceptability in a community indicated that 95% of the population involved accepted the product. PMID:1811453

  11. Improved blend and tablet properties of fine pharmaceutical powders via dry particle coating.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhonghui; Scicolone, James V; Han, Xi; Davé, Rajesh N

    2015-01-30

    The improvements in the flow and packing of fine pharmaceutical powder blends due to dry coating of micronized acetaminophen (mAPAP, ∼11μm), a model poorly flowing drug, are quantified. Poor flow and packing density of fine excipients (∼20μm) allowed testing the hypothesis that dry coating of cohesive API may counteract poor flow and packing of fine pharmaceutical powder blends. Further, fine excipients could improve compaction and reduce segregation tendency. It was found that flow function coefficient (FFC) and bulk density enhancements for 10%, 30%, and 60% (w/w), API loading blends with dry coated API are significantly higher than those without coated silica. At the highest API loading, for which coarser excipients were also used as reference, the flow and packing of dry coated mAPAP blends were significantly increased regardless of the excipient particle size, exceeding those of a well compacting excipient, Avicel 102. In addition, tensile strength of tablets with fine excipients was significantly higher, indicating improved compactibility. These results show for the first time that dry coating of fine, cohesive API powder leads to significantly improved flow and packing of high API loading blends consisting of fine excipients, while achieving improved tablet compactibility, suggesting suitability for direct compaction. PMID:25475016

  12. Effect of vegetable proteins on physical characteristics of spray-dried tomato powders.

    PubMed

    Tontul, Ismail; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozkan, Ceren; Karacan, Merve

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of different vegetable proteins (pea protein isolate, soy protein isolate and zein from maize) at two different ratios (1% and 5%) on product yield and physical properties of spray-dried pulpy tomato juice was investigated. Additionally, these proteins were compared with whey protein concentrate which has a superior effect on spray dried products at the same concentrations. Additionally, plain tomato juice was also spray dried for comparison with vegetable proteins. The product yield of the tomato powders dried with the vegetable proteins was lower than with the whey protein concentrate. Among vegetable proteins, the highest product yield was produced with 1% soy protein isolate. In all products, there was a slight colour difference between the reconstituted tomato powders and the raw tomato juice, which indicated that pulpy tomato juice can be spray dried with minor colour change. All powders had unique free-flowing properties estimated as Carr index and Hausner ratio due to their large particles. PMID:26860489

  13. Particle engineering of materials for oral inhalation by dry powder inhalers. II-Sodium cromoglicate.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Lorraine M; Li, Jianhe; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2011-02-28

    Sodium cromoglicate is an antiasthmatic and antiallergenic drug used in inhalation therapy and commonly administered by a dry powder inhaler. In the present study we sought to examine the feasibility of producing nanoporous microparticles (NPMPs) of this hydrophilic material by adaptation of a spray drying process previously applied to hydrophobic drugs, and to examine the physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of the spray dried particles in comparison to a commercial product. The storage stability of successfully prepared NPMPs was assessed under a number of conditions (4°C with dessicant, 25°C at 60% relative humidity and 25°C with dessicant). Spray dried sodium cromoglicate was amorphous in nature. NPMPs of sodium cromoglicate displayed superior aerodynamic properties resulting in improved in vitro drug deposition, as assessed by Andersen Cascade Impactor and twin impinger studies, in comparison to the commercial product, Intal. Deposition studies indicated that porosity and sphericity were important factors in improving deposition properties. The optimum solvent system for NPMP production was water:methanol:n-butyl acetate, as spherical NPMPs spray dried from this solvent system had a higher respirable fraction than non-spherical NPMPs of sodium cromoglicate (spray dried from methanol:n-butyl acetate), non-porous sodium cromoglicate (spray dried from water) and micronised sodium cromoglicate (Intal). While particle morphology was altered by storage at high humidity (60% RH) and in vitro deposition performance deteriorated, it was possible to maintain NPMP morphology and aerosolisation performance by storing the powder with dessicant. PMID:21129460

  14. A novel aerosol generator for homogenous distribution of powder over the lungs after pulmonary administration to small laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Tonnis, Wouter F; Bagerman, Marieke; Weij, Michel; Sjollema, Jelmer; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate powder formulations for pulmonary administration in pre-clinic research, the powder should be administered to the lungs of small laboratory animals. To do so properly, a device is needed that generates particles small enough to reach deep into the lungs. In this study a newly developed aerosol generator was tested for pulmonary administration of powder to the lungs of mice and its performance was compared to the only currently available device, the Penn-Century insufflator. Results showed that both devices generated powder particles of approximately the same size distribution, but the fine particle fraction needed for deep lung administration was strongly improved when the aerosol generator was used.Imaging studies in mice showed that powder particles from the aerosol generator deposited into the deep lung, where powder from the Penn-Century insufflator did not reach further than the conducting airways.Furthermore, powder administered by using the aerosol generator was more homogenously distributed over the five individual lungs lobes than powder administrated by using the Penn-Century insufflator. PMID:25460152

  15. Aerosol Chemical and Physical Characterization in Central Amazonia during the 2013 Dry Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Stern, R.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.

    2015-12-01

    During the dry season, the central Amazon forest is highly influenced by forest fires transported through large distances, changing drastically the atmospheric composition even in remote places. This work focuses on a physical-chemical characterization of the aerosol population over a pristine site in Central Amazonia during the dry season. The submicrometer organic aerosols were measured with the Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor, Aerodyne Inc). Optical properties, size distribution and other micro-physical characteristics were also analyzed. Other instruments were simultaneously used. The measurements were taken during the dry season of 2013 in the Cuieiras ecological reserve (ZF2), northwest of Manaus. The statistical analysis of the data was done with the PMF (Positive Matrix Factorization) technique, in which the organic aerosol was separated into different factors, and then its sources and forming processes were attributed. Results show that the mean aerosol loading was 5,91 μg m-3, from which 78% are of organic composition, 8.5% are sulfate, 6.5% are equivalent black carbon, 4% are ammonium and 3% are nitrate. The mass spectra variability can be explained by 3 factors only, determined with the PMF technique. They were identified as BBOA (Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol), representing 12% of the total organic mass, OOA (Oxygenated Organic Aerosol), representing 66% of the total organic mass and IEPOX-SOA (Isoprene derived Epoxydiol-Secondary Organic Aerosol), representing 21% of the total organic mass. Even in remote and pristine regions, Central Amazonia is highly impacted by biomass burning. Biogenic secondary organic aerosols are also present during the dry season, and the suppression of its wet deposition processes increases their concentration. The oxidation level and other physical-chemical characteristics indicate that the long range transport is responsible for the regional range of this impact.

  16. Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder.

    PubMed

    Koca, Nurcan; Erbay, Zafer; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2015-05-01

    Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white cheese powder. Composition, color, physical properties, reconstitution, and sensory characteristics of white cheese powders were determined. The results revealed that the white cheese powders produced in this study had low moisture content ratios and water activity values. High outlet air temperatures caused browning and enhanced Maillard reactions. Additionally, high outlet air temperatures increased wettability and dispersibility and decreased the solubility of white cheese powders. Free fat content was positively correlated with inlet air temperature and negatively correlated with outlet air temperature and atomization pressure. Sensory analyses revealed that white cheese powder samples had acceptable sensory characteristics with the exception of the sample produced at an outlet air temperature of 100°C, which had high scores for scorched flavor and color and low scores for cheese flavor. PMID:25771045

  17. Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-05-01

    A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %. PMID:24665070

  18. Non-viral dried powders for respiratory gene delivery prepared by cationic and chitosan loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Colonna, C; Conti, B; Genta, I; Alpar, O H

    2008-11-19

    The aim of this work was to investigate lipid-based dried powders as transfection competent carriers capable of promoting the expression of therapeutic genes. The lipid-based vectors were prepared by combining different cationic lipids 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropane chloride (DOTAP), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 3beta(N(N',N-dimethylaminoethane) carbamoyl) cholesterol hydrochloride (DC-Chol) or by mixing of anionic lipids (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol sodium salt (DMPG) and chitosan salts. Spray drying of the formulations was performed using carbohydrates as thermoprotectant excipients and some amino acids as aerosolisation enhancers. Both the lipidic vectors and the dried powders were characterized for morphology, size, zeta potential (Z-potential) and a yield of the process. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to examine the structural integrity of dehydrated plasmid DNA (pDNA). The biological functionality of the powders was quantified using the in vitro cell transfection. Among the several lipids and lipid-polymer mixtures tested, the best-selected formulations had spherical shape, narrow size distribution (mean diameter<220 nm, P.I.<0.250), a positive zeta-potential (>25 mV) with a good yield of the process (>65%). The set-up spray drying parameters allowed to obtain good yield of the process (>50%) and spherically shaped particles with the volume-weighted mean diameter (d[4,3])<6 microm in the respirable range. The set-up conditions for the preparation of the lipid dried powders did not adversely affect the structural integrity of the encapsulated pDNA. The powders kept a good transfection efficiency as compared to the fresh colloidal formulations. Lipid-based spray dried powders allowed the development of stable and viable formulations for respiratory gene delivery. In vitro dispersibility and

  19. Aerosol dynamics within and above forest in relation to turbulent transport and dry deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Üllar; Zhou, Luxi; Zhou, Putian; Gierens, Rosa; Mammarella, Ivan; Sogachev, Andrey; Boy, Michael

    2016-03-01

    A 1-D atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model coupled with a detailed atmospheric chemistry and aerosol dynamical model, the model SOSAA, was used to predict the ABL and detailed aerosol population (characterized by the number size distribution) time evolution. The model was applied over a period of 10 days in May 2013 to a pine forest site in southern Finland. The period was characterized by frequent new particle formation events and simultaneous intensive aerosol transformation. The aim of the study was to analyze and quantify the role of aerosol and ABL dynamics in the vertical transport of aerosols. It was of particular interest to what extent the fluxes above the canopy deviate from the particle dry deposition on the canopy foliage due to the above-mentioned processes. The model simulations revealed that the particle concentration change due to aerosol dynamics frequently exceeded the effect of particle deposition by even an order of magnitude or more. The impact was, however, strongly dependent on particle size and time. In spite of the fact that the timescale of turbulent transfer inside the canopy is much smaller than the timescales of aerosol dynamics and dry deposition, leading us to assume well-mixed properties of air, the fluxes at the canopy top frequently deviated from deposition inside the forest. This was due to transformation of aerosol concentration throughout the ABL and resulting complicated pattern of vertical transport. Therefore we argue that the comparison of timescales of aerosol dynamics and deposition defined for the processes below the flux measurement level do not unambiguously describe the importance of aerosol dynamics for vertical transport above the canopy. We conclude that under dynamical conditions reported in the current study the micrometeorological particle flux measurements can significantly deviate from the dry deposition into the canopy. The deviation can be systematic for certain size ranges so that the time

  20. Subchronic Oral Dose Toxicity of Freeze-dried Powder of Allomyrina dichotoma Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jung-Ho; Yun, Eun-Young; Park, Heejin; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological information of freeze-dried powder from Allomyrina dichotoma (A. dichotoma) larvae as a food ingredient. The powder, suspended in distilled water, was administered once daily by oral gavage to four groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (vehicle control), 250, 850, and 2500 mg/kg/day. After 13 wks of repeated administration, the standard toxicological parameters such as mortality, clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmologic examination, clinical pathology, organ weights and macro/microscopic examination were applied for assessment of general toxicity. In addition, serum IgE and histamine levels were determined to evaluate allergenicity. The freeze-dried powder from A. dichotoma larvae did not produce treatmentrelated changes or findings in any toxicological parameters in either sex of any dosed groups except for slight increases in serum histamine levels at 2500 mg/kg/day. The changes were considered not to be adverse since the magnitude was minimal. In conclusion, the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) of the freeze-dried powder from A. dichotoma larvae was determined to be 2500 mg/kg/day or more in both sexes of SD rats and it is considered a candidate to be edible material. PMID:25874035

  1. Subchronic Oral Dose Toxicity of Freeze-dried Powder of Allomyrina dichotoma Larvae.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jung-Ho; Yun, Eun-Young; Park, Heejin; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological information of freeze-dried powder from Allomyrina dichotoma (A. dichotoma) larvae as a food ingredient. The powder, suspended in distilled water, was administered once daily by oral gavage to four groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (vehicle control), 250, 850, and 2500 mg/kg/day. After 13 wks of repeated administration, the standard toxicological parameters such as mortality, clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmologic examination, clinical pathology, organ weights and macro/microscopic examination were applied for assessment of general toxicity. In addition, serum IgE and histamine levels were determined to evaluate allergenicity. The freeze-dried powder from A. dichotoma larvae did not produce treatmentrelated changes or findings in any toxicological parameters in either sex of any dosed groups except for slight increases in serum histamine levels at 2500 mg/kg/day. The changes were considered not to be adverse since the magnitude was minimal. In conclusion, the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) of the freeze-dried powder from A. dichotoma larvae was determined to be 2500 mg/kg/day or more in both sexes of SD rats and it is considered a candidate to be edible material. PMID:25874035

  2. Phase Transformation and Magnetic Property of Ni-Mn-Ga Powders Prepared by Dry Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B.; Chen, F.; Tong, Y. X.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the phase transformations and magnetic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga alloy powders prepared by dry ball milling in argon atmosphere. The Fe and Cr elements were found to be introduced in the alloy after ball milling, which should result from the severe collision and friction among the particles, balls, and vial. The x-ray diffraction result indicated that the Fe and Cr elements should have alloyed with the Ni-Mn-Ga matrix. The martensitic transformation temperature and Curie temperature of the 800 °C annealed powders decreased by ~33 °C and increased by ~28 °C, respectively, as compared to that of the bulk alloy. The comprehensive effect of the changing of valence electron concentration of the alloy due to the introduction of Fe and Cr and the grain refinement of the alloy caused by ball milling should be responsible for the reduction of martensitic transformation temperature. The saturation magnetization of the 800 °C annealed powders became larger (~5 emu/g) than that of the bulk alloy. The enhancement of magnetic properties, such as the increase of Curie temperature and enhancement of saturation magnetization of the annealed Ni-Mn-Ga powders, should be attributed to the increase of magnetic exchange caused by introduction of Fe in the alloy. The contaminations of Fe and Cr elements emerging from the dry ball milling process changed the phase transformation and magnetic properties of the Ni-Mn-Ga alloy. Therefore, the dry ball milling process is difficult to control the contamination from the milling medium and not suitable to prepare Ni-Mn-Ga powders. On the contrary, the wet ball milling method under liquid medium should be a better method to prevent the contamination and fabricate pure Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy powders.

  3. Protection of cattle against rinderpest by intranasal immunisation with a dry powder tissue culture vaccine.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Fishbourne, E; Corteyn, A; Donaldson, A I

    2000-11-22

    Dry powder tissue culture rinderpest vaccine containing 10(2.5) TCID(50) of virus per dose administered intranasally to cattle induced high titre circulating antibody responses and protection against challenge with a virulent strain of rinderpest virus. A reduction in the dose of virus to 10(1.1) TCID(50) resulted in a failure to elicit detectable antibody responses and a lack of protection. Intranasal powder vaccine offers several advantages over conventional needle-administered aqueous rinderpest vaccine, including greater stability in the absence of a cold chain, reduced risk of 'needle transfer' of other microbial agents present in the vaccinated herd and lower cost. PMID:11115707

  4. Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-fueled adiabatic diesel engine: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder fueled diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-fueled engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder fuel. The major coal-fueled engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-fueled engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual fuel (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-fueled engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-fueled engine with a glow plug; and coal-fueled-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.

  5. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Yinon; Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven; Haspel, Carynelisa

    2014-05-01

    In cold high altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and mid-latitudes, ice partciles that are exposed to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. In this talk we will describe experiements that simulate the atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols. We find that aerosols with high organic content can form highly porous particles (HPA) with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogenous aerosol following ice subliation. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure follwoing ice sublimation. We find that the highly porous aerosol scatter solar light less efficiently than non-porous aerosol particles. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

  6. Dry powder cationic lipopolymeric nanomicelle inhalation for targeted delivery of antitubercular drug to alveolar macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Vadakkan, Mithun Varghese; Annapoorna, K; Sivakumar, KC; Mundayoor, Sathish; Kumar, GS Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Excipients having self-assembling properties are less explored in the field of dry powder inhalation (DPI) technology. An amphiphilic lipopolymer system was developed using stearic acid (SA) and branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) (1800 Dalton), at different proportions by covalent conjugation. A molecular dynamic (MD) simulation tool was employed for predicting the carrier behavior in a polar in vivo condition. The structural characterization was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The physical nature of the lipopolymer was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Determination of zeta potential and diameter of the micelles showed existence of cationic particles in the nano size range when a lower number of primary amino groups of BPEI was grafted with SA. The rifampicin (RIF)-loaded lipopolymer was also formulated further into spray-dried microparticles. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies revealed that the RIF API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) exists as molecular dispersion in spray-dried microparticles. Topological analysis of the spray-dried nanomicelle was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A large population of the drug-carrying particles were found to be under the inhalable size range (fine particle fraction 67.88% ± 3%). In vitro drug release kinetics from spray-dried nanomicelles were carried out at lung fluid pH. PMID:23990716

  7. Development of an Inhaled Sustained Release Dry Powder Formulation of Salbutamol Sulphate, an Antiasthmatic Drug.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, C; Sathishkumar, K

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of salbutamol sulphate. The salbutamol sulphate microparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polymer poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) to produce salbutamol sulphate microparticle mixed with carrier respirable grade lactose for oral inhalation of dry powder. The drug content were estimated to produce 1 mg sustained release salbutamol sulphate per dose. Total four formulations K1, K2, K3 and K4 were prepared with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid). The developed formulations were studied for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug relase and Anderson cascade impaction studies. The prepared formulations effectively releases drug for 12 h in diffusion bag studies. Based on dissolution performance the 1:1 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) produces in vitro release 92.57% at 12 h and having particle size of microparticles (D0.5μm) 5.02±0.6 and the pulmonary deposition of dry powder 34.5±3.21 (respiratory fraction in percentage). PMID:27168692

  8. Development of an Inhaled Sustained Release Dry Powder Formulation of Salbutamol Sulphate, an Antiasthmatic Drug

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, C.; Sathishkumar, K.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of salbutamol sulphate. The salbutamol sulphate microparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polymer poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) to produce salbutamol sulphate microparticle mixed with carrier respirable grade lactose for oral inhalation of dry powder. The drug content were estimated to produce 1 mg sustained release salbutamol sulphate per dose. Total four formulations K1, K2, K3 and K4 were prepared with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid). The developed formulations were studied for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug relase and Anderson cascade impaction studies. The prepared formulations effectively releases drug for 12 h in diffusion bag studies. Based on dissolution performance the 1:1 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) produces in vitro release 92.57% at 12 h and having particle size of microparticles (D0.5μm) 5.02±0.6 and the pulmonary deposition of dry powder 34.5±3.21 (respiratory fraction in percentage). PMID:27168692

  9. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin. PMID:24729702

  10. Formulation development and rheological studies of palatable cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride dry powder suspension

    PubMed Central

    Sateesha, SB.; Rajamma, AJ.; Shekar, HS.; Divakar, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Because of its intense bitter taste and susceptibility to moisture Cefetamet Pivoxil (CPH) is presently available only in the form of tablet. The aim of this study was to develop taste masked CPH dry powder suspension. Methods Methods employed for formulations were: a) Film coating of CPH using Eudragit E100 and subsequent adsorption on different carriers such as spray-dried lactose, sodium starch glycolate and spray-dried mannitol and b) Complexation of CPH with three different ion exchange resins indion 234 amberlite IRP64 and amberlite IRP69. Results Taste viz evaluation as recognized by volunteers revealed that coating with Eudragit E100 and subsequent adsorption on different carriers do not mask the bitter taste of the drug. Suspensions prepared using amberlite IRP64 and amberlite IRP69 were extremely palatable with no bitter after taste. They showed pseudoplastic flow behavior and were too viscous even after shearing for sufficient duration of time and exhibited poor pourability. The suspension made with indion 234 was palatable with slight or no bitter after taste. It demonstrated plastic flow with negligible thixotropy. It had moderate viscosity at rest and could be poured after a reasonable amount of shaking. CPH dry powder suspensions were very unstable under different conditions except under refrigeration. A 5% degradation of drug was occurred in reconstituted suspension in 4 days period when stored at room temperature. Conclusion Dry powder suspension prepared with indion 234 having 5% overages was stable even after 4th day of reconstitution and palatable with slight or no bitter after taste. PMID:22615648

  11. Coating of pellets with micronized ethylcellulose particles by a dry powder coating technique.

    PubMed

    Pearnchob, Nantharat; Bodmeier, Roland

    2003-12-11

    Pellets were coated with ethylcellulose powder to achieve extended release. The film forming ability of ethylcellulose powder and the effect of formulation factors (plasticizer type and concentration) and curing conditions (curing temperature and time) were investigated. The coating formulation was divided into two components consisting of a powder mixture (polymer plus talc) and a mixture of liquid materials (plasticizer plus binder solution), which were sprayed separately into the coating chamber of a fluidized bed coater (Glatt GPCG-1, Wurster insert). The coated pellets were oven-cured under different conditions (60-80 degrees C, 2-24 h) without and with humidity (100% relative humidity). Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug, and drug release was studied in 0.1 N HCl at 37 degrees C (USP XXV paddle method). Despite the high glass transition temperature of ethylcellulose (133.4 degrees C), micronized ethylcellulose powder can be used for dry powder coating by adjusting the coating temperature, amount and type of plasticizer applied, and curing conditions. 40% plasticizer and a curing step (80 degrees C, 24 h) were required to achieve complete coalescence of the polymer particles and extended drug release of coated pellets. Although ethylcellulose-coated pellets had an uneven surface, extended drug release could be obtained with coating level of 15%. Because of its high glass transition temperature, ethylcellulose-coated pellets showed unchanged drug release profiles upon storage at room temperature for 3 years. PMID:14643971

  12. Fluorescence properties of biochemicals in dry NaCl composite aerosol particles and in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putkiranta, M.; Manninen, A.; Rostedt, A.; Saarela, J.; Sorvajärvi, T.; Marjamäki, M.; Hernberg, R.; Keskinen, J.

    2010-06-01

    Several fluorophores, such as tryptophan, NADH, NADPH, and riboflavin are found in airborne micro-organisms. In this work, the fluorescence properties of these biochemicals were studied both in dry NaCl composite aerosol particles and in saline solutions by means of laser-induced fluorescence. Fluorescence spectra were measured from individual, airborne aerosol particles and from solutions in cuvette. The excitation wavelength was varied in steps from 210 nm to 419 nm and the fluorescence was detected within a wavelength band of 310-670 nm. For each sample, the measured fluorescence emission spectra were combined into fluorescence maps. The fluorescence maximum of riboflavin in a dry NaCl composite particle is 20 nm red-shifted compared with the solution, whereas the maxima are blue-shifted by about 25 nm for tryptophan and 15 nm for NADH and NADPH. The molecular fluorescence cross sections have significant differences between the aerosol particles and the solutions, except for tryptophan. For NADH and NADPH the cross sections are over 20 times larger in the aerosol particles than in the solutions probably as a result of partial quenching of fluorescence in solution caused by the collision or stacking with the adenine moiety. The fluorescence cross section of riboflavin is almost 60 times larger in the solution than in the dry NaCl composite aerosol. This is probably caused by the different microenvironment around the fluorophore molecule and by the concentration quenching in the particles where the fluorescing molecules are relatively close to each other.

  13. Air classifier technology (ACT) in dry powder inhalation Part 3. Design and development of an air classifier family for the Novolizer multi-dose dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    de Boer, A H; Hagedoorn, P; Gjaltema, D; Goede, J; Frijlink, H W

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the design of a multifarious classifier family for different applications is described. The main design and development steps are presented as well as some special techniques that have been applied to achieve preset objectives. It is shown by increasing the number of air supply channels to the classifier chamber (from 2 to 8), that the fine particle losses from adhesion onto the classifier walls can be reduced from 75% to less than 5% of the real dose for soft (spherical) agglomerates. By applying a bypass flow that is arranged as a co-axial sheath of clean air around the aerosol cloud from the classifier, the airflow resistance of the classifier can be controlled over a relatively wide range of values (0.023-0.041 kPa(0.5) min l(-1)). This, without affecting the fine particle dose or increasing the fine particle losses in the inhaler. Moreover, the sheath flow can be modelled to reduce the depositions in the induction port to the cascade impactor or in the patient's mouth, which are the result of back flows in these regions. The principle of powder induced pressure drop reduction across a classifier enables assessment of the amount of powder in the classifier at any moment during inhalation, from which classifier loading (from the dose system) and discharge rates can be derived. This principle has been applied to study the residence time of a dose in the classifier as function of the carrier size fraction and the flow rate. It has been found that this residence time can be controlled in order to obtain an optimal balance between the generated fine particle fraction and the inhalation manoeuvre of the patient. A residence time between 0.5 and 2 s at 60 l/min is considered favourable, as this yields a high fine particle dose (depending on the type of formulation used) and leaves sufficient inhaled volume for particle transport into the deep lung. PMID:16442248

  14. Preparation of high emissivity NiCr2O4 powders with a spinel structure by spray drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Min, Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Qi; Ye, Wei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Spray-drying was used to produce the high emissivity NiCr2O4 powders with a spinel structure. Preliminary investigations focused on fabricating the high emissivity powders for infrared radiation coatings and finding the relationship between microstructure and emissivity. The NiCr2O4 powders were characterized for composition, microstructure, and infrared emissivity by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared radiant instrument, and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR). Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis show that the appropriate baking temperature for NiCr2O4 powder preparation is about 1200°C. The emissivity measurement and FT-IR spectra show that, because of the special spinel structure, the NiCr2O4 powders have a high emissivity about 0.91. Spray-drying is a suitable method to produce the high emissivity ceramic powders.

  15. Hazardous Waste Water Remediation by Ecoresin-Dry Cow Dung Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    Water, the matter, matrix, medium and the mother of our life, is indeed one of the drivers of Nature. Through water cycle only the intra and inter equilibrium is maintained constantly between entire 'green' and 'blue'. Unfortunately, with each successive epoch of industrialization and urbanization, human societies have produced non-biodegradable waste hulk with far beyond handling capacities of mankind. At this juncture the very need is to appreciate and move towards the cost as well as time effective scientific alternatives for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutants. Green chemistry advocates the utilization of naturally available bio-resins which are environmentally benign alternative to current synthetic materials and technologies employed for waste water treatment. This explicit investigation aims to explore Dry Cow dung powder, DCP, a natural biosorbent as a green and clean alternative for the aqueous waste water treatment. It is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid'(HA). The HA has been successfully extracted by authors from DCP and this piece of work has been published in the International Journal [1]. We have developed simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutant such as Cr(VI) [2], Cd(II), Cr(III) [3] and Hg(II) as well radiotoxic 90Sr(II) [4], employing DCP. DCP is employed without any pre or post treatment. Being freely and easily available DCP has an edge over processed natural adsorbent considering their cost, time and energy efficiency. In nutshell we have to remember that prevention is better than the cure. If we fail to meet this, the situation will surely augment which will drain our water, our life, to slaughters knife..! Reference: 1. H.K.Bagla, N.S.Barot, Soil Amendement by Green Supplement: Dry Cowdung powder, EGUGA - 11

  16. Effects of process variables on the powder yield of spray-dried trehalose on a laboratory spray-dryer.

    PubMed

    Maury, Michael; Murphy, Keith; Kumar, Sandeep; Shi, Lei; Lee, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    A systematic examination is presented of the effects of process variables on the powder yield of amorphous trehalose obtained from the Buchi Model 191 laboratory-scale mini spray dryer. By using a specially made, narrow cyclone the powder yield could be greatly improved at all process temperatures examined. Calculations of the separation efficiencies of the improved cyclone and the manufacturer's standard cyclone are given, which show that the former's higher tangential particle velocity at the radius of the exit duct is responsible for the improved performance. The powder yield increases with higher process temperatures, owing to improved droplet drying and reduced droplet/particle deposition on the walls of the drying chamber. A maximum in the powder yield is reached, however, after which it decreases sharply. This is caused by heating of the cyclone wall to >10 degrees C above the so-called 'sticky point' of the trehalose, causing increased particle deposits on the walls of the tower and cyclone. Increasing liquid feed flow rate or decreasing atomizing air flow rate too extensively were both detrimental to powder yield. The drying air flow rate should be as high as possible to ensure sufficient enthalpy throughput to dry the trehalose adequately to give a high powder yield. The enthalpy balance calculation for drying trehalose with the new cyclone was used successfully to interpret the results obtained. Some recommendations for optimizing powder yield of an amorphous material are given. PMID:15760738

  17. Can Patients with Parkinson's Disease Use Dry Powder Inhalers during Off Periods?

    PubMed

    Luinstra, M; Rutgers, A W F; Dijkstra, H; Grasmeijer, F; Hagedoorn, P; Vogelzang, J M J; Frijlink, H W; de Boer, A H

    2015-01-01

    Because of its rapid onset of action, pulmonary administration of levodopa is an interesting alternative to oral administration for the rescue treatment of Parkinson's disease patients in an off period. We studied the ability of Parkinson's disease patients to operate a dry powder inhaler (DPI) correctly during an off period. We used an instrumented test inhaler with three different resistances to air flow to record flow curves and computed various inhalation parameters. We observed that all (13) patients were able to generate pressure drops > 2 kPa over the highest resistance and 10 out of 13 patients achieved at least 4 kPa. Inhaled volumes (all resistances) varied from 1.2 L to 3.5 L. Total inhalation time and the time to peak inspiratory flow rate both decreased with decreasing inhaler resistance. Twelve out of thirteen patients could hold their breath for at least five seconds after inhalation and nine could extend this time to ten seconds. The data from this study indicate that patients with Parkinson's disease will indeed be able to use a dry powder inhaler during an off period and they provide an adequate starting point for the development of a levodopa powder inhaler to treat this particular patient group. PMID:26173114

  18. Evaluation of a dry powder delivery system for laninamivir in a ferret model of influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Panozzo, Jacqueline; Oh, Ding Yuan; Margo, Kenneth; Morton, David A; Piedrafita, David; Mosse, Jennifer; Hurt, Aeron C

    2015-08-01

    Laninamivir is a long-acting antiviral requiring only a single dose for the treatment of influenza infection, making it an attractive alternative to existing neuraminidase inhibitors that require multiple doses over many days. Like zanamivir, laninamivir is administered to patients by inhalation of dry powder. To date, studies investigating the effectiveness of laninamivir or zanamivir in a ferret model of influenza infection have administered the drug in a solubilised form. To better mimic the delivery action of laninamivir in humans, we assessed the applicability of a Dry Powder Insufflator™ (DPI) as a delivery method for laninamivir octanoate (LO) in ferrets to determine the effectiveness of this drug in reducing influenza A and B virus infections. In vitro characterisation of the DPI showed that both the small particle sized LO (0.7-6.0μm diameter) and the large particle sized lactose carrier (20-100μm diameter) were effectively discharged. However, LO delivered to ferrets via the DPI prior to infection with either A(H1N1)pdm09 or B viruses had a limited effect on nasal inflammation, clinical symptoms and viral shedding compared to placebo. Our preliminary findings indicate the feasibility of administering powder drugs into ferrets, but a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LO in ferrets following delivery by the DPI is warranted prior to further studies. PMID:26022199

  19. Can Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Use Dry Powder Inhalers during Off Periods?

    PubMed Central

    Luinstra, M.; Rutgers, A. W. F.; Dijkstra, H.; Grasmeijer, F.; Hagedoorn, P.; Vogelzang, J. M. J.; Frijlink, H. W.; de Boer, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Because of its rapid onset of action, pulmonary administration of levodopa is an interesting alternative to oral administration for the rescue treatment of Parkinson’s disease patients in an off period. We studied the ability of Parkinson’s disease patients to operate a dry powder inhaler (DPI) correctly during an off period. We used an instrumented test inhaler with three different resistances to air flow to record flow curves and computed various inhalation parameters. We observed that all (13) patients were able to generate pressure drops > 2 kPa over the highest resistance and 10 out of 13 patients achieved at least 4 kPa. Inhaled volumes (all resistances) varied from 1.2 L to 3.5 L. Total inhalation time and the time to peak inspiratory flow rate both decreased with decreasing inhaler resistance. Twelve out of thirteen patients could hold their breath for at least five seconds after inhalation and nine could extend this time to ten seconds. The data from this study indicate that patients with Parkinson’s disease will indeed be able to use a dry powder inhaler during an off period and they provide an adequate starting point for the development of a levodopa powder inhaler to treat this particular patient group. PMID:26173114

  20. Hydrophilicity Characteristic of Thermal Sprayed Coating Produced Using Calcination Powders Recovered from Waste Dry Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futamata, Masami; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Nakanishi, Kimio; Itoh, Hidenobu; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro

    The powders called IZC(Itomuka Zinc Calcine) that are obtained from waste dry battery by roast processing mainly consist of oxides of zinc and manganese. Part of IZC is used as a raw material of the ferrite but the majority is unused. Authors considered its application to the thermal spray material. Thermal sprayed coating made by IZC powders possesses excellent light absorption, heat absorption, electromagnetic wave absorption and hydrophilicity characteristics. Hydrophilicity characteristic of IZC coating is especially remarkable, and IZC coating is expected to be applied for various heat exchangers such as evaporators. In this study, control test was done on two kinds of thermal sprayed coatings made by IZC powders decreased in zinc oxide and manganese dioxide powders without containing zinc oxide, and hydrophilicity characteristic of the IZC coatings were experimentally considered from the viewpoint of structure of coating and chemical composition. As a result of this study, the following useful findings were acquired to the clarification of the hydrophilicity appearance mechanism. Contact angle as an evaluation indicator of hydrophilicity characteristic is effected by manganese oxide stronger than zinc oxide, while not strongly effected by the roughness of the structure. The diameter of waterdrop spread is not necessarily the same even if the contact angle is the same as θ=0°.

  1. Effects of Whey Powder Supplementation on Dry-Aged Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with whey powder (WP, 1g/kg feed) from weaning to slaughter (150 d) on dry-aged loin quality of pigs. Fifty-eight pigs were randomly divided into two dietary treatment groups (seven replications of four pigs per treatments). Basal diet with 0.1% whey powder was supplied to the WP group. Basal diet was used for the control group (CON). Diet whey protein did not appear to influence the moisture or protein contents. However, ash and fat contents were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the WP group compared to the control group. Drip loss was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the WP group than that of the control group. Increasing redness with decreasing lightness was found in the inner loin of the WP group. Calcium and iron contents in the WP group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Protein degradation was higher in the WP group than that in the control group (p<0.05), whereas shear force was lower in the WP group than that in the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% whey powder influence negatively the lipid oxidation of meat whereas the texture property and mineral composition of meat from whey powder fed pigs are developed. PMID:27433111

  2. Performance of Dry Powder Inhalers with Single Dosed Capsules in Preschool Children and Adults Using Improved Upper Airway Models

    PubMed Central

    Lindert, Sandra; Below, Antje; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary administration of pharmaceutical aerosols to patients is affected by age-dependent variations in the anatomy of the upper airways and the inhalation pattern. Considering this aspect, different upper airway models, representing the geometries of adults and preschool children, and a conventional induction port according to the European Pharmacopeia were used for in vitro testing of dry powder inhalers with single dosed capsules (Cyclohaler®, Handihaler® and Spinhaler®). Deposition measurements were performed using steady flow rates of 30 and 60 L/min for the Handihaler®/Spinhaler® and 30, 60 and 75 L/min for the Cyclohaler®. The inhalation volume was set at 1 L. For the Cyclohaler®, the in vitro testing was supplemented by a pediatric inhalation profile. Slight differences of pulmonary deposition between the idealized adult (11%–15%) and pediatric (9%–11%) upper airway model were observed for the Cyclohaler®. The applied pediatric inhalation profile resulted in a reduction of pulmonary deposition by 5% compared to steady conditions and indicated the influence of the inhalation pattern on the amount of pulmonary deposited particles. The comparison of two pediatric upper airway models showed no differences. The performance of the Handihaler® was similar to the Cyclohaler®. The Spinhaler® showed an insufficient performance and limited reproducibility in our investigations. PMID:24514766

  3. Optimisation of spray-drying process variables for dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulations of corticosteroid/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Marques, Helena; Almeida, Rita

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to develop and characterise a beclomethasone diproprionate:gamma-cyclodextrin (BDP:gamma-CYD) complex and to optimise the variables on the spray-drying process, in order to obtain a powder with the most suitable characteristics for lung delivery. The spray-dried powder--in a mass ratio of 2:5 (BDP:gamma-CYD)--was physically mixed with three carriers of different particle sizes and in different ratios. Particle-size distribution, shape and morphology, moisture content, and uniformity in BDP content of formulations were studied. In vitro aerolisation behaviour of the formulations was evaluated using the Rotahaler, and the performance was characterised based on the uniformity of emitted dose and aerodynamic particle-size distribution (respirable fraction (RF), as a percentage of nominal dose (RFN) and emitted dose (RFE)). The most suitable conditions for the preparation of BDP:gamma-CYD complexes were obtained with the solution flow of 5 ml/min, T(in) of 70 degrees C and T(out) of 50 degrees C. Statistically significant differences in the aerodynamic performances were obtained for formulations containing BDP:gamma-CYD complexes prepared using different solution flows and different T(in) (p<0.05). RFN and RFE vary in direct proportion with T(in), while an inverse relationship was observed for the solution flow. A direct correlation between the RFE and the T(out) was identified. Performance of the formulations was compared with an established commercial product (Beclotaide Rotacaps 100 microg) with improved performance of RF: formulations with respitose carrier attained RFN and RFE twofold greater, and formulations based on 63-90 microm fraction lactose and trehalose achieved a threefold improvement; also, all formulations showed that the percentage of dose of BDP deposited in the "oropharynx" compartment was reduced to half. PMID:19446024

  4. Stabilization of IgG1 in spray-dried powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Schüle, S; Schulz-Fademrecht, T; Garidel, P; Bechtold-Peters, K; Frieb, W

    2008-08-01

    The protein stabilizing capabilities of spray-dried IgG1/mannitol formulations were evaluated. The storage stability was tested at different residual moisture levels prepared by vacuum-drying or equilibration prior to storage. Vacuum-drying at 32 degrees C/0.1mbar for 24h reduced the moisture level below 1%, constituting an optimal basis for improved storage stability. The crystalline IgG1/mannitol powders with a weight ratio of 20/80 up to 40/60 failed to prevent the antibody aggregation as assessed by size exclusion chromatography during storage. Ratios of 60/40 up to 80/20 IgG1/mannitol provided superior stability of the antibody and the powders could be produced with high yields. The lower the residual moisture, the better was the stabilizing capability. An amount of 20% mannitol provided the best stabilization. Storage stability of 60/40, 70/30, and 80/20 IgG1/mannitol formulations over one year was adequate at 2-8 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Closed storage (sealed in vials) at 40 degrees C/75% RH and open storage at 25 degrees C/60% RH revealed that the stability still required optimization. The lower the protein content, the better was the powder flowability. The aerodynamic properties of powders spray-dried with 10% solids content were inadequate, as the particle size ranged between 5.1 and 7.2 microm and the fine particle fraction accounted for only 4-11%. Reduction of the solids content to 2.5% did improve the aerodynamic properties as the mass mean aerodynamic diameter was reduced to 3.6 microm and the fine particle fraction was increased to about 14%. The reduction of the solids content did not influence the storage stability significantly. Also spray-drying at higher temperatures had no significant impact on the storage stability, despite a higher tendency to form amorphous systems. In order to improve the storage stability and to maintain the good flowability of 70/30 IgG1/mannitol powder or to keep the storage stability but to improve the flowability

  5. Particulate contamination in solutions of antibiotics packed as dry powders in vials.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D M; Veltman, A M

    1988-05-01

    The particulate contamination in 12 formulations of antibiotic solutions in vials packed as dry powders from five South African sources has been analysed quantitatively using a HIAC PC 320 light blockage particle analyser linked to a CMB 60 sensor. Results showed that the level of particulate contamination fell well within the limits set by the USP XXIst Edition for Small Volume Parenterals although four formulations contained some particles greater than or equal to 50 micron. There was no apparent difference between the quality of the same antibiotics from different sources or between vials of the same antibiotics packed in different strengths. PMID:2899632

  6. Tolerability and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Inhaled Dry Powder Tobramycin Free Base in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hagedoorn, Paul; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Boer, Anne H.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Bronchiectasis is a condition characterised by dilated and thick-walled bronchi. The presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bronchiectasis is associated with a higher hospitalisation frequency and a reduced quality of life, requiring frequent and adequate treatment with antibiotics. Objectives To assess local tolerability and the pharmacokinetic parameters of inhaled excipient free dry powder tobramycin as free base administered with the Cyclops dry powder inhaler to participants with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. The free base and absence of excipients reduces the inhaled powder dose. Methods Eight participants in the study were trained in handling the device and inhaling correctly. During drug administration the inspiratory flow curve was recorded. Local tolerability was assessed by spirometry and recording adverse events. Serum samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 min; 4, 8 and 12 h after inhalation. Results and Discussion Dry powder tobramycin base was well tolerated and mild tobramycin-related cough was reported only once. A good drug dose-serum concentration correlation was obtained. Relatively small inhaled volumes were computed from the recorded flow curves, resulting in presumably substantial deposition in the central airways—i.e., at the site of infection. Conclusions In this first study of inhaled dry powder tobramycin free base in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients, the free base of tobramycin and the administration with the Cyclops dry powder device were well tolerated. Our data support further clinical studies to evaluate safety and efficacy of this compound in this population. PMID:26959239

  7. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process. PMID:26084164

  8. Particle morphology of various SiC-based nanocomposite powders made by the aerosol-assisted synthesis method.

    PubMed

    Czosnek, Cezary; Janik, Jerzy F

    2008-02-01

    Herein, we present a part of a study on the preparation of SiC-based composite nanopowders by the two-stage Aerosol-Assisted Vapor Phase Synthesis (AAVS) method from organosilicon precursors (neat hexamethyldisiloxane, neat tetramethoxysilane, ethanol solutions of polydimethylsiloxane). Upon generation, liquid aerosol droplets were transported in a stream of argon through a ceramic reactor tube maintained at 1200 degrees C. The resulting solid by-products were collected on a nylon filter as bulk powders. Each raw powder was, subsequently, pyrolyzed in a furnace reactor heated to 1650 degrees C under a flow of argon. After the final pyrolysis at 1650 degrees C, mostly nanocrystalline silicon carbide powder with small quantities of free excess carbon was obtained from the neat hexamethyldisiloxane system, composite powder of not fully converted silica and SiC was prepared from the neat tetramethoxysilane system, and C-rich/SiC composite was made from the ethanol/polydimethylsiloxane solution system. The prevailing phase of the SiC component was the regular beta-SiC polytype. Most of the powders were composed of spheroidal particles--morphology imprinted during aerosol generation at 1200 degrees C and not much affected by the second-stage bulk pyrolysis at 1650 degrees C. The specifics of spheroidal morphology were characteristic of the applied precursor system. PMID:18464426

  9. [Effect of inhaled terbutaline sulphate (dry powder, Turbuhaler and nebulizer solution) in children with acute asthma].

    PubMed

    Solé, D; Rizzo, M C; Pimentel, A F; Sano, F; Barreto, B A; Wandalsen, N F; Naspitz, C K

    1995-01-01

    Forty seven children (6-14 years), with an acute mild or moderate attack of asthma (clinical score 3 or FEV1 > 50% of the predicted), were treated with terbutaline sulphate, by inhalation route with a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler - 0,5 mg - group T; N=27, or by a nebulizer 1% solution-in saline-compressed air (6 l/min.) group S; N=20. The children were evaluated at 5, 15, 25 and 30 minutes after the initial treatment. In both groups a significant fall of the clinical score (starting at 15 minutes) (p < 0.05) and a significant improvement of the FEV(1), VC and FEF25-75% (starting at 5 minutes), were observed (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in heart rates, respiratory rates and blood pressure (p > 0.05). At the end of the first treatment, the number of patients with a FEV(1) < 80% was similar in both groups (T = 13/27 and S = 10/20). The same treatment was repeated, and all the children showed a marked improvement, except for one boy of the group T was hospitalized. In conclusion, children with mild or moderate acute attacks of asthma can be treated up to a week with an inhalation of dry powder, resulting in adequate bronchodilatation without important side effects. PMID:14689023

  10. Development of a Freeze-Dried Fungal Wettable Powder Preparation Able to Biodegrade Chlorpyrifos on Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaohua; Xiao, Ying; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Continuous use of the pesticide chlorpyrifos has resulted in harmful contaminations in environment and species. Based on a chlorpyrifos-degrading fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides strain Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711), a fungal wettable powder preparation was developed aiming to efficiently remove chlorpyrifos residues from vegetables. The formula was determined to be 11.0% of carboxymethyl cellulose-Na, 9.0% of polyethylene glycol 6000, 5.0% of primary alcohol ethoxylate, 2.5% of glycine, 5.0% of fucose, 27.5% of kaolin and 40% of freeze dried fungi by response surface methodology (RSM). The results of quality inspection indicated that the fungal preparation could reach manufacturing standards. Finally, the degradation of chlorpyrifos by this fungal preparation was determined on pre-harvest cabbage. Compared to the controls without fungal preparation, the degradation of chlorpyrifos on cabbages, which was sprayed with the fungal preparation, was up to 91% after 7 d. These results suggested this freeze-dried fungal wettable powder may possess potential for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos residues on vegetables and provide a potential strategy for food and environment safety against pesticide residues. PMID:25061758

  11. Tetrachloroethene recovery and hazard reduction of spent powders from dry cleaning process.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Elisabetta; Scarsella, Marco; De Filippis, Paolo; Di Palma, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Dry cleaning facilities using perchloroethylene produce a solid waste consisting of spent filtering powders with a high content of residual perchloroethylene, together with dyes and non-volatile residues. Untreated spent powders, classified as hazardous waste, cannot be disposed in landfill and incineration represents the only viable alternative. In this study, together with a full characterisation of the waste, the removal and recovery of the residual perchloroethylene by means of different heat treatments was investigated. In particular, tests of distillation and stripping with air and steam were carried out, evaluating the effectiveness of the treatments by quantifying the residual perchloroethylene in the samples treated. The results obtained show that the spent filtering powders contained about 25% wt. of perchloroethylene and that the maximum perchloroethylene recovery was obtained by steam stripping; approximately 98% after only 50 minutes. However, this treatment accounted for the production of a liquid mixture containing perchloroethylene and of a solid waste that required a further washing with boiling water to decrease the residual organic content below the eligibility criteria for landfill disposal. PMID:25690329

  12. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining nitriding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoliang; Wang, Sheng; Yang, Hua; Duan, Xinglong; Dong, Xuebin

    2008-09-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ( λex=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 °C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dried powder formulations of Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Andreia A J; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dueñas, Montserrat; Barros, Lillian; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2013-06-15

    Several mushroom species have been pointed out as sources of antioxidant compounds, in addition to their important nutritional value. Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes are among the most studied species all over the world, but those studies focused on their fruiting bodies instead of other presentations, such as powdered preparations, used as supplements. In the present work the chemical composition (nutrients and bioactive compounds) and antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) of dried powder formulations of the mentioned mushroom species (APF and LPF, respectively) were evaluated. Powder formulations of both species revealed the presence of essential nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, they present a low fat content (<2g/100g) and can be used in low-calorie diets, just like the mushrooms fruiting bodies. APF showed higher antioxidant activity and higher content of tocopherols and phenolic compounds (124 and 770 μg/100g, respectively) than LPF (32 and 690 μg/100g). Both formulations could be used as antioxidant sources to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:23497872

  14. Engineered mannitol ternary additives improve dispersion of lactose-salbutamol sulphate dry powder inhalations.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of novel engineered fine mannitol particles (4.7%, w/w) on the performance of lactose-salbutamol sulphate dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations to obtain promising aerosolisation properties. The results showed that the more elongated the fine mannitol particles, the weaker the drug-carrier adhesion, the better the drug content homogeneity, the higher the amount of drug expected to be delivered to the lower airways and the higher the total DPI formulation desirability. Linear relationships were established showing that mannitol particles with a more elongated shape generated powders with broader size distributions and that were less uniform in shape. The weaker the drug-carrier adhesion, the higher the fine particle fraction of the drug is upon aerosolisation. It is believed that more elongated fine mannitol particles reduce the number of drug-carrier and drug-drug physical contact points and increase the ability of the drug particles to travel into the lower airways. Additionally, a lower drug-carrier contact area, lower drug-carrier press-on forces and easier drug-carrier detachment are suggested in the case of formulations containing more elongated fine mannitol particles. Ternary 'drug-coarse carrier-elongated fine ternary component' DPI formulations were more favourable than both 'drug-coarse carrier' and 'drug-elongated coarse carrier' binary formulations. This study provides a comprehensive approach for formulators to overcome the undesirable properties of dry powder inhalers, as both improved aerosolisation performance and reasonable flow characteristics were obtained using only a small amount of elongated engineered fine mannitol particles. PMID:23591748

  15. Relationship between surface concentration of L-leucine and bulk powder properties in spray dried formulations.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Sharad; Meiser, Felix; Tan, Geoffrey; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John; Rowles, Matthew R; Larson, Ian; Morton, David A V

    2015-08-01

    The amino acid L-leucine has been demonstrated to act as a lubricant and improve the dispersibility of otherwise cohesive fine particles. It was hypothesized that optimum surface L-leucine concentration is necessary to achieve optimal surface and bulk powder properties. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was spray dried with different concentration of L-leucine and the change in surface composition of the formulations was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The formulations were also subjected to powder X-ray diffraction analysis in order to understand the relationship between surface concentration and solid-state properties of L-leucine. In addition, the morphology, surface energy and bulk cohesion of spray dried formulations were also assessed to understand the relation between surface L-leucine concentration and surface and bulk properties. The surface concentration of L-leucine increased with higher feed concentrations and plateaued at about 10% L-leucine. Higher surface L-leucine concentration also resulted in the formation of larger L-leucine crystals and not much change in crystal size was noted above 10% L-leucine. A change in surface morphology of particles from spherical to increasingly corrugated was also observed with increasing surface l-leucine concentration. Specific collapsed/folded over particles were only seen in formulations with 10% or higher l-leucine feed concentration suggesting a change in particle surface formation process. In addition, bulk cohesion also reduced and approached a minimum with 10% L-leucine concentration. Thus, the surface concentration of L-leucine governs particle formation and optimum surface L-leucine concentration results in optimum surface and bulk powder properties. PMID:26007290

  16. Formulation of pH responsive peptides as inhalable dry powders for pulmonary delivery of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wanling; Kwok, Philip C.L.; Chow, Michael Y.T.; Tang, Patricia; Mason, A. James; Chan, Hak-Kim; Lam, Jenny. K.W.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acids have the potential to be used as therapies or vaccines for many different types of disease but delivery remains the most significant challenge to their clinical adoption. pH responsive peptides containing either histidine or derivatives of 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap) can mediate effective DNA transfection in lung epithelial cells with the latter remaining effective even in the presence of lung surfactant containing bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), making this class of peptides attractive candidates for delivering nucleic acids to lung tissues. To further assess the suitability of pH responsive peptides for pulmonary delivery by inhalation, dry powder formulations of pH responsive peptides and plasmid DNA, with mannitol as carrier, were produced by either spray drying (SD) or spray freeze drying (SFD). The properties of the two types of powders were characterised and compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), next generation impaction (NGI), gel retardation and in vitro transfection via a twin-stage impinger (TSI) following aerosolisation by a dry powder inhaler (Osmohaler™). Although the aerodynamic performance and transfection efficacy of both powders were good, the overall performance revealed SD powders to have a number of advantages over SFD powders and are the more effective formulation with potential for efficient nucleic acid delivery through inhalation. PMID:23702276

  17. Spray-dried powders enhance vaginal siRNA delivery by potentially modulating the mucus molecular sieve structure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Na; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Tao; Gan, Yong; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery provides a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal diseases. However, the densely cross-linked mucus layer on the vaginal wall severely restricts nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery to the vaginal epithelium. In order to overcome this barrier and enhance vaginal mucus penetration, we prepared spray-dried powders containing siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Powders with Pluronic F127 (F127), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and mannitol as carriers were obtained using an ultrasound-assisted spray-drying technique. Highly dispersed dry powders with diameters of 5–15 μm were produced. These powders showed effective siRNA protection and sustained release. The mucus-penetrating properties of the powders differed depending on their compositions. They exhibited different potential of opening mesh size of molecular sieve in simulated vaginal mucus system. A powder formulation with 0.6% F127 and 0.1% HPMC produced the maximum increase in the pore size of the model gel used to simulate vaginal mucus by rapidly extracting water from the gel and interacting with the gel; the resulting modulation of the molecular sieve effect achieved a 17.8-fold improvement of siRNA delivery in vaginal tract and effective siRNA delivery to the epithelium. This study suggests that powder formulations with optimized compositions have the potential to alter the steric barrier posed by mucus and hold promise for effective vaginal siRNA delivery. PMID:26347257

  18. Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% +/- 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 +/- 0.8 microm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 +/- 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 +/- 0.1 microm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 +/- 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchi's Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection. PMID:18203434

  19. Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: Preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% ± 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 ± 0.8 μm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 ± 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 ± 0.1 μm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 ± 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchi’s Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection. PMID:18203434

  20. Investigation of the potential for direct compaction of a fine ibuprofen powder dry-coated with magnesium stearate.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li; Zhou, Qi Tony; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A; Stewart, Peter J; Hapgood, Karen P; Gamlen, Michael; Morton, David A V

    2015-05-01

    Intensive dry powder coating (mechanofusion) with tablet lubricants has previously been shown to give substantial powder flow improvement. This study explores whether the mechanofusion of magnesium stearate (MgSt), on a fine drug powder can substantially improve flow, without preventing the powder from being directly compacted into tablets. A fine ibuprofen powder, which is both cohesive and possesses a low-melting point, was dry coated via mechanofusion with between 0.1% and 5% (w/w) MgSt. Traditional low-shear blending was also employed as a comparison. No significant difference in particle size or shape was measured following mechanofusion. For the low-shear blended powders, only marginal improvement in flowability was obtained. However, after mechanofusion, substantial improvements in the flow properties were demonstrated. Both XPS and ToF-SIMS demonstrated high degrees of a nano-scale coating coverage of MgSt on the particle surfaces from optimized mechanofusion. The study showed that robust tablets were produced from the selected mechanofused powders, at high-dose concentration and tablet tensile strength was further optimized via addition of a Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) binder (10% w/w). The tablets with the mechanofused powder (with or without PVP) also exhibited significantly lower ejection stress than those made of the raw powder, demonstrating good lubrication. Surprisingly, the release rate of drug from the tablets made with the mechanofused powder was not retarded. This is the first study to demonstrate such a single-step dry coating of model drug with MgSt, with promising flow improvement, flow-aid and lubrication effects, tabletability and also non-inhibited dissolution rate. PMID:24738790

  1. Effects of Drying Temperature on Antioxidant Activities of Tomato Powder and Storage Stability of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of oven-dried tomato powder (OTP) as affected by drying temperature and the effect of OTP on the product quality of pork patties. Three OTP products were obtained by drying of fresh tomato at 60, 80 and 100℃ oven until constant weight was obtained. Total phenolic content of three kinds of OTPs ranged from 1.95 to 5.94 g/100 g. The highest amount of total phenolic compound was observed in OTP dried at 100℃. Antioxidant activity of three kinds of OTPs was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity, iron chelating ability, reducing power and measurement of lipid peroxide in linoleic acid emulsion system. In all parameters, OTP at 100℃ showed the higher antioxidant activity than other temperatures (p<0.05). Based on the model study, the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pork patties containing 1% OTP were measured. Redness of pork patties were increased with the addition of OTPs (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw pork patties containing OTPs were lower than those of control (CTL) until 7 d of storage, regardless of drying temperatures (p<0.05). Peroxide values of pork patties made with OTP (1%) were lower than those of CTL until the end of storage time (p<0.05). However, no antimicrobial activities were observed among the treatments (p>0.05). Therefore, OTPs could be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products. PMID:27499664

  2. Effects of Drying Temperature on Antioxidant Activities of Tomato Powder and Storage Stability of Pork Patties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of oven-dried tomato powder (OTP) as affected by drying temperature and the effect of OTP on the product quality of pork patties. Three OTP products were obtained by drying of fresh tomato at 60, 80 and 100℃ oven until constant weight was obtained. Total phenolic content of three kinds of OTPs ranged from 1.95 to 5.94 g/100 g. The highest amount of total phenolic compound was observed in OTP dried at 100℃. Antioxidant activity of three kinds of OTPs was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity, iron chelating ability, reducing power and measurement of lipid peroxide in linoleic acid emulsion system. In all parameters, OTP at 100℃ showed the higher antioxidant activity than other temperatures (p<0.05). Based on the model study, the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pork patties containing 1% OTP were measured. Redness of pork patties were increased with the addition of OTPs (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw pork patties containing OTPs were lower than those of control (CTL) until 7 d of storage, regardless of drying temperatures (p<0.05). Peroxide values of pork patties made with OTP (1%) were lower than those of CTL until the end of storage time (p<0.05). However, no antimicrobial activities were observed among the treatments (p>0.05). Therefore, OTPs could be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products. PMID:27499664

  3. Effects of drying methods on the physicochemical and compressional characteristics of Okra powder and the release properties of its metronidazole tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Bakre, L G; Jaiyeoba, K T

    2009-02-01

    A study has been made of the effects of sun and oven drying methods on the physicochemical characteristics and compressibility of Okra powder and the release properties of its metronidazole tablet formulation. Corn starch was used as the reference standard. The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated using crushing strength and friability, while the release properties were determined using the disintegration times and dissolution rates. The results obtained showed that sun-dried Okra powder had smaller particle size, exhibited good flow and possessed higher hydration and swelling capacities compared to the oven dried samples. The compressibility of Okra powders assessed by the indices of plasticity from Heckel (Py) and Kawakita plots (Pk) showed that sun dried Okra powders had higher Py but lower Pk values than the oven-dried Okra powder. Metronidazole tablets formulated with oven dried Okra powder formed stronger tablets than tablets containing sun dried Okra powder. Generally, tablets containing sun dried Okra powders had faster disintegration and dissolution than tablets formulated with oven-dried powder. The results suggest that the choice of drying method during the processing of pharmaceutical raw materials is critical to its physicochemical properties and the release properties of its tablet formulations. PMID:19280157

  4. Aerosol dry deposition on vegetative canopies. Part II: A new modelling approach and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Alexandre; Mailliat, Alain; Amielh, Muriel; Anselmet, Fabien

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the modelling of aerosol dry deposition on vegetation. It follows a companion article, in which a review of the current knowledge highlights the need for a better description of the aerosol behaviour within the canopy [Petroff, A., Mailliat, A., Amielh, M., Anselmet, F., 2008. Aerosol dry deposition on vegetative canopies. Part I: Review of present knowledge. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.09.043]. Concepts from multi-phase flow studies are used for describing the canopy medium and deriving a time and space-averaged aerosol balance equation and the associated deposition terms. The closure of the deposition terms follows an up-scaling procedure based on the statistical distribution of the collecting elements. This aerosol transport model is then applied in a stationary and mono-dimensional configuration and takes into account the properties of the vegetation, the aerosol and the turbulent flow. Deposition mechanisms are Brownian diffusion, interception, inertial and turbulent impactions, and gravitational settling. For each of them, a parameterisation of the particle collection is derived and the quality of their predictions is assessed by comparison with wind-tunnel deposition measurements on coniferous twigs [Belot, Y., Gauthier, D., 1975. Transport of micronic particles from atmosphere to foliar surfaces. In: De Vries, D.A., Afgan, N.H. (Eds.), Heat and Mass Transfer in the Biosphere. Scripta Book, Washington, DC, pp. 583-591; Belot, Y., 1977. Etude de la captation des polluants atmosphériques par les végétaux. CEA, R-4786, Fontenay-aux-Roses; Belot, Y., Camus, H., Gauthier, D., Caput, C., 1994. Uptake of small particles by canopies. The Science of the Total Environment 157, 1-6]. Under a real canopy configuration, the predictions of the aerosol transport model compare reasonably well with detailed on-site deposition measurements of Aitken mode particles [Buzorius, G., Rannik, Ü., M

  5. Plasma spray coating of spray-dried Cr2O3/wt.% TiO2 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. K.; Lee, D. W.; Ha, G. H.

    2001-03-01

    An agglomerated Cr2O3/wt.%TiO2 powder has been fabricated by the spray drying process under different parameters. The spray-dried powder has well-agglomerated particles of spherical shape. In the conditions of the high slurry feed rate and low binder concentration in the slurry, the powder has large cavities inside some particles and ruggedness over their surface. The optimum plasma spray feed rate has been found by examining the spraying behavior of the powder and melted state of particles. The plasma spray coating has been performed under different process variables such as spraying distance and plasma power. These parameters strongly affect the characteristics of the coated layer: microstructure, hardness, and bond strength.

  6. Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.

    PubMed

    Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5 × 2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others. PMID:25190840

  7. The ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler: Design, Functionality, In Vitro Dosing Performance and Critical Task Compliance by Patients and Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andrew C; Walker, Richard; Hamilton, Melanie; Garrill, Karl

    2015-12-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used for the delivery of inhaled medications, and should provide consistent, efficient dosing, be easy to use correctly, and be liked by patients; these attributes can all affect patient compliance and therefore treatment efficacy. The ELLIPTA(®) DPI was developed for the delivery of once-daily therapies for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has moderate resistance to airflow and can hold one or two blister strips, with each blister containing a sealed single dose of medication. Monotherapies can be delivered by the single-strip configuration and, in the two-strip configuration, one dose from each strip can be aerosolized simultaneously to allow combination therapies to be delivered, which enables the formulations for each product to be developed individually, since they are stored separately until the point of administration. There are three principal operating steps to administer a dose: open, inhale, close. This article summarizes the design, functionality, and in vitro dose-delivery characteristics of the ELLIPTA inhaler, and describes the results of human factors validation tests, designed to assess the performance of critical tasks required to use the inhaler. Results from the in vitro studies indicate that the ELLIPTA inhaler performs consistently with respect to in vitro dose delivery characteristics at a range of flow rates that can be achieved by the target population (≥30 L/min) and over its 30-day in-use life. Data from the human factors validation tests demonstrated that almost all participants (≥97%) were able to complete each of the steps required to prepare a dose for inhalation without error. Overall, the ELLIPTA inhaler has a versatile single- or two-strip design that allows it to be used for the delivery of a range of treatment options. It also improves patient ease-of-use when compared with the DISKUS(®) DPI. PMID:26372466

  8. The ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler: Design, Functionality, In Vitro Dosing Performance and Critical Task Compliance by Patients and Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Andrew C.; Hamilton, Melanie; Garrill, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used for the delivery of inhaled medications, and should provide consistent, efficient dosing, be easy to use correctly, and be liked by patients; these attributes can all affect patient compliance and therefore treatment efficacy. The ELLIPTA® DPI was developed for the delivery of once-daily therapies for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has moderate resistance to airflow and can hold one or two blister strips, with each blister containing a sealed single dose of medication. Monotherapies can be delivered by the single-strip configuration and, in the two-strip configuration, one dose from each strip can be aerosolized simultaneously to allow combination therapies to be delivered, which enables the formulations for each product to be developed individually, since they are stored separately until the point of administration. There are three principal operating steps to administer a dose: open, inhale, close. This article summarizes the design, functionality, and in vitro dose-delivery characteristics of the ELLIPTA inhaler, and describes the results of human factors validation tests, designed to assess the performance of critical tasks required to use the inhaler. Results from the in vitro studies indicate that the ELLIPTA inhaler performs consistently with respect to in vitro dose delivery characteristics at a range of flow rates that can be achieved by the target population (≥30 L/min) and over its 30-day in-use life. Data from the human factors validation tests demonstrated that almost all participants (≥97%) were able to complete each of the steps required to prepare a dose for inhalation without error. Overall, the ELLIPTA inhaler has a versatile single- or two-strip design that allows it to be used for the delivery of a range of treatment options. It also improves patient ease-of-use when compared with the DISKUS® DPI. PMID:26372466

  9. A proposed definition of the 'activity' of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Floris; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-06-01

    A new definition of the activity of surface sites on lactose carriers for dry powder inhalation is proposed which relates to drug detachment during dispersion. The new definition is expected to improve the understanding of 'carrier surface site activity', which stimulates the unambiguous communication about this subject and may aid in the rational design and interpretation of future formulation studies. In contrast to the currently prevailing view on carrier surface site activity, it follows from the newly proposed definition that carrier surface site activity depends on more variables than just the physicochemical properties of the carrier surface. Because the term 'active sites' is ambiguous, it is recommended to use the term 'highly active sites' instead to denote carrier surface sites with a relatively high activity. PMID:24613490

  10. Hydrophilicity Characteristics of Thermal Sprayed Coating Produced Using Calcination Powders Recovered from Waste Dry Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futamata, Masami; Nakanishi, Kimio; Itoh, Hidenobu; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro

    A ceramic coating with super hydrophilicity characteristics (the contact angle θ=0°) was prepared by the thermal spraying technique using calcinations powders recovered from the waste dry batteries (IZC). Evaporation behavior and evaporation time of a water droplet for the IZC coatings on a mild steel substrate were examined. It was found that the water droplet did not show the Leidenfrost phenomenon on the IZC coatings surface, and the evaporation time remarkably shortened compared with those on the grinding or blasted surfaces of the mild steel substrate. On the other hand, the cooling speed in soaking the heated test piece in boiling water was examined. The cooling speed of the IZC coated substrate remarkably increases in the initial stage, since it changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling. These facts suggest that the IZC coatings are effective for improvement in the evaporation and cooling speed.

  11. Sustained mechanical and clinical functionality of the flexhaler dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Lööf, Thomas; Elfman, Peter; Ström, Pelle; Törngren, Anders; Borgström, Lars

    2008-12-01

    Flexhaler is a multiple-dose, inspiratory flow-driven dry powder inhaler that is a newer version of Turbuhaler, and is identical to the Symbicort Turbuhaler. Sustained performance is of the utmost importance to ensure consistent drug delivery throughout the lifespan of the inhaler. We report functionality testing results of Flexhaler inhalers used in two large-scale 12-week studies of budesonide (Pulmicort) and returned for testing. Functionality tests included measurement of airflow resistance and inspection of vital parts for the mechanical functionality of the inhaler, including visual inspection of the indicator wheel and function check of dose loading. In addition, delivered dose, particle size distribution, moisture content, and microbial counts were evaluated. Seven hundred sixteen out of 720 units were returned. Airflow resistance was not affected by the handling of the Flexhaler inhalers during use (prior to use, average airflow resistance: 67 Pa(0.5)*s*L(-1); returned inhalers: 66 and 67 Pa(0.5)*s*L(-1) in each study, respectively. The average dose delivered remained as intended after prolonged clinical use [95% (range 88 -103%) vs. reference of 99% (range 93-104%) before issue]. Relative fine particle dose ( <5 mum) after use was 107% (range 96-111%) of the reference value before issue. Moisture content in the inhaler desiccant was 3-25%, suggesting variability in storage conditions. Among the 28 inhalers randomly selected for microbiological testing there was no or very limited microbial growth. All 14 inhalers returned with functionality issues operated as intended and no reported functionality issues could be confirmed. Flexhaler inhalers operated as intended during these two clinical trials. These results should reassure both clinicians and patients with respect to the consistent quality of this unit for the delivery of dry powder formulations for inhalation. PMID:18823260

  12. Nanosized rods agglomerates as a new approach for formulation of a dry powder inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Salem, HF; Abdelrahim, ME; Eid, K Abo; Sharaf, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nanosized dry powder inhalers provide higher stability for poorly water-soluble drugs as compared with liquid formulations. However, the respirable particles must have a diameter of 1–5 μm in order to deposit in the lungs. Controlled agglomeration of the nanoparticles increases their geometric particle size so they can deposit easily in the lungs. In the lungs, they fall apart to reform nanoparticles, thus enhancing the dissolution rate of the drugs. Theophylline is a bronchodilator with poor solubility in water. Methods: Nanosized theophylline colloids were formed using an amphiphilic surfactant and destabilized using dilute sodium chloride solutions to form the agglomerates. Results: The theophylline nanoparticles thus obtained had an average particle size of 290 nm and a zeta potential of −39.5 mV, whereas the agglomerates were 2.47 μm in size with a zeta potential of −28.9 mV. The release profile was found to follow first-order kinetics (r2 > 0.96). The aerodynamic characteristics of the agglomerated nanoparticles were determined using a cascade impactor. The behavior of the agglomerate was significantly better than unprocessed raw theophylline powder. In addition, the nanoparticles and agglomerates resulted in a significant improvement in the dissolution of theophylline. Conclusion: The results obtained lend support to the hypothesis that controlled agglomeration strategies provide an efficient approach for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs into the lungs. PMID:21383856

  13. Optimization of process parameters for the production of spray dried Ber (Ziziphus jujube L.) powder.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Pandey, Sheela; Pare, Akash; Singh, R B

    2014-12-01

    The study covers effect of operating variables of spray dryer i.e. inlet temperature (170, 180, 190, 200 and 210 °C,), aspirator blower capacity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 %) and feed pump capacity (9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 %) and processing parameters of feed i.e. total soluble solid (TSS) of feed (7.5 %) and encapsulating material, maltodextrin (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 %), aerosil (1.0 %), citric acid (0.25 %) upon the physical properties (colour, packed density and hygroscopicity) of powder were observed. After complete evaluation and analysis of all the attributes for physical properties i.e. colour, packed density (0.45 g/cc) and hygroscopicity (0.17 g/g dry matter), it was concluded that best quality of Ber powder were obtained at inlet air temperature 190 °C, aspirator blower capacity 60 %, feed pump capacity 15 %, encapsulating material 8 %. PMID:25477666

  14. Functional effects of dried okra powder on reconstituted dried yam flake and sensory properties of ojojo-a fried yam (Dioscorea alata L.) snack.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi; Olaitan, Ololade Funke

    2014-02-01

    Processing of raw yam (D. alata) tuber (RY) to more stable and instant form could ease the tedium in preparation, increase popularity and commercial potential of ojojo-a fried yam snack. In this study, the potential of dried okra powder (1%-5%) to reduce the sensory quality impairment in ojojo made from instant yam (D. alata) flake (YF) was tested. Inclusion of okra powder significantly increased the viscosity and increased dispersibility of reconstituted yam flour. Addition of okra powder significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the fat and increased the moisture content of ojojo. Furthermore, increasing addition of okra consistently improved the sensory acceptability of ojojo by increasing the product's moistness and fluffiness with reduced crispiness and roughness. In conclusion, addition of 0%-2% of okra powder to reconstituted YF produced ojojo samples which compared favourably with those made from RY in terms of colour, flavour and taste. PMID:24493896

  15. Vertical distribution of optical and micro-physical properties of ambient aerosols during dry haze periods in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yonghang; Liu, Qiong; Geng, Fuhai; Zhang, Hua; Cai, Changjie; Xu, Tingting; Ma, Xiaojun; Li, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Based on the lidar data obtained from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), the vertical distributions of aerosols are revealed during dry haze periods in the Shanghai vicinity by analyzing the optical and micro-physical parameters including total attenuated backscatter coefficient (TABC), volume depolarization ratio (VDR) and total attenuated color ratio (TACR). The preliminary conclusion is that when dry haze occurs in the Shanghai vicinity, smoke and maritime aerosols are the major types in summer and autumn and aerosols might be affected by long-distance transport of dust in spring; lower troposphere below 2 km is the layer polluted most severely and aerosol scattering with relatively irregular shape is much stronger than that of aerosols with relatively regular shape within 2-10 km in middle and upper troposphere; relatively large aerosols appear more frequently in lower (0-2 km) and middle troposphere (2-6 km) than those in upper troposphere (6-10 km). In addition, HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model is applied to analyze the aerosol sources during two typical episodes. The results indicate that the middle and upper troposphere in the Shanghai vicinity are affected by the long-distance transport of dusts from northwest of China or other upstream regions. The high aerosol concentrations in the Shanghai vicinity are mainly caused not only by local human activities but also by the long-distance transport from other places.

  16. Soluble Nutrient and Trace Metal Fluxes from Aerosol Dry Deposition to Elkhorn Slough, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, E. T.; Paytan, A.; Haskins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition has been widely recognized as a source of pollutants and nutrients to coastal ecosystems. Specifically, deposition includes nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, mercury, pesticides, phosphate, trace metals and other toxic compounds that can travel great distances in aerosols. These components can come from both natural (volcanoes, mineral dust, forest fires) and anthropogenic (fossil fuels, chemical byproducts, incineration of waste) sources. These pollutants may affect ecosystem health and water quality with environmental impacts such as eutrophication, contaminated fish and harmful algal blooms. In this study we focus on dry deposition to Elkhorn Slough, California. Size fractionated aerosol samples (PM 2.5 and PM 10) collected continuously over a seven day period using a cascade impactor are used along with a deposition model to determine the soluble nutrient and trace metal fluxes on the Elkhorn Slough ecosystem. Atmospheric deposition inputs will be compared to other sources and their potential impact evaluated.

  17. New aspects of developing a dry powder inhalation formulation applying the quality-by-design approach.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, Edina; Karimi, Keyhaneh; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó

    2016-09-10

    The current work outlines the application of an up-to-date and regulatory-based pharmaceutical quality management method, applied as a new development concept in the process of formulating dry powder inhalation systems (DPIs). According to the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology and Risk Assessment (RA) thinking, a mannitol based co-spray dried formula was produced as a model dosage form with meloxicam as the model active agent. The concept and the elements of the QbD approach (regarding its systemic, scientific, risk-based, holistic, and proactive nature with defined steps for pharmaceutical development), as well as the experimental drug formulation (including the technological parameters assessed and the methods and processes applied) are described in the current paper. Findings of the QbD based theoretical prediction and the results of the experimental development are compared and presented. Characteristics of the developed end-product were in correlation with the predictions, and all data were confirmed by the relevant results of the in vitro investigations. These results support the importance of using the QbD approach in new drug formulation, and prove its good usability in the early development process of DPIs. This innovative formulation technology and product appear to have a great potential in pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:27386791

  18. Dispersibility of lactose fines as compared to API in dry powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Thalberg, Kyrre; Åslund, Simon; Skogevall, Marcus; Andersson, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    This work investigates the dispersion performance of fine lactose particles as function of processing time, and compares it to the API, using Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) as model API. The total load of fine particles is kept constant in the formulations while the proportions of API and lactose fines are varied. Fine particle assessment demonstrates that the lactose fines have higher dispersibility than the API. For standard formulations, processing time has a limited effect on the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF). For formulations containing magnesium stearate (MgSt), FPF of BDP is heavily influenced by processing time, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease at longer mixing times. An equation modeling the observed behavior is presented. Surprisingly, the dispersibility of the lactose fines present in the same formulation remains unaffected by mixing time. Magnesium analysis demonstrates that MgSt is transferred to the fine particles during the mixing process, thus lubrication both BDP and lactose fines, which leads to an increased FPF. Dry particle sizing of the formulations reveals a loss of fine particles at longer mixing times. Incorporation of fine particles into the carrier surfaces is believed to be behind this, and is hence a mechanism of importance as regards the dispersion performance of dry powders for inhalation. PMID:26965200

  19. Electrochemical properties of MnS-C and MnO-C composite powders prepared via spray drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kyung Min; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-11-01

    Spherical micron-sized MnS-C and MnO-C composite powders are successfully prepared by post-treating the spray-dried precursor powders. Dextrin, which is used as the carbon source material, plays a key role in the preparation of the composite powders with regular morphologies; the bare MnS and MnO powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin have irregular morphologies. The MnS-C composite powders prepared from the spray solution containing 17 g L-1 of dextrin have mixed crystal structures of α- and γ-MnS phases. These powders exhibit superior electrochemical properties compared with those of their MnS and MnO-C counterparts. For example, at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, the MnO-C powders have a 100th-cycle discharge capacity of 321 mA h g-1; the corresponding discharge capacities of the MnS powders prepared from spray solutions containing 0, 17, and 50 g L-1 of dextrin are 501, 786, and 636 mA h g-1, respectively.

  20. Limited influence of dry deposition of semivolatile organic vapors on secondary organic aerosol formation in the urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Karl, T.; Camredon, M.; Mouchel-Vallon, C.

    2013-06-01

    The dry deposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its impact on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are investigated in the Mexico City plume. Gas-phase chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of oxygenated VOCs are modeled with the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) from C3 to C25 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics. Results show that dry deposition of oxidized gases is not an efficient sink for SOA, as it removes <5% of SOA within the city's boundary layer and ~15% downwind. Dry deposition competes with the gas-particle uptake, and only gases with fewer than ~12 carbons dry deposit while longer species partition to SOA. Because dry deposition of submicron aerosols is slow, condensation onto particles protects organic gases from deposition, thus increasing their atmospheric burden and lifetime. In the absence of this condensation, ~50% of the regionally produced mass would have been dry deposited.

  1. Application of spray granulation for conversion of a nanosuspension into a dry powder form.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sonali; Schenck, Daniel; Ghosh, Indrajit; Hollywood, Al; Maulit, Ester; Ruegger, Colleen

    2012-08-30

    The in vivo effect of particle agglomeration after drying of nanoparticles has not been extensively studied till date based on current literature review. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of spray granulation as a processing method to convert a nanosuspension of a poorly water soluble drug into a solid dosage form and to evaluate the effect of the transformation into a solid powder on the in vivo exposure in beagle dogs. Formulation variables like the level of stabilizer in the nanosuspension formulation, granulation substrate and drug loading in the granulation were evaluated. The granules were characterized for moisture content, drug content, particle size, crystallinity and in vitro dissolution rate. Granulations with 10% drug loading showed dissolution profiles comparable to the nanosuspension, slightly slower dissolution profiles were observed at 20% drug loading. This can be attributed to an increase in the surface hydrophobicity at a higher drug loading and the formation of agglomerates that were harder to disintegrate, thereby compromising the dissolution rate. An in vivo PK study in beagle dogs showed an 8-fold increase and a 6-fold increase in the AUC(0-48) from the nanosuspension and dried nanosuspension formulations respectively compared to the coarse suspension. Also, the nanosuspension and dried nanosuspension formulations showed a 12-fold and 8-fold increase in the C(max) respectively compared to the coarse suspension. This shows the feasibility of using spray granulation as a processing method to convert a nanosuspension into a solid dosage form with improved in vivo exposure compared to the coarse suspension formulation. PMID:22565066

  2. Development of the aerosol generation system for simulating the dry deposition behavior of radioaerosol emitted by the accident of FDNPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A large amount of radioactivity was discharged by the accident of FDNPP. The long half-life radionuclide, 137Cs was transported through the atmosphere mainly as the aerosol form and deposited to the forests in Fukushima prefecture. After the dry deposition of the 137Cs, the foliar uptake process would occur. To evaluate environmental transfer of radionuclides, the dry deposition and following foliar uptake is very important. There are some pioneering studies for radionuclide foliar uptake with attaching the solution containing stable target element on the leaf, however, cesium oxide aerosols were used for these deposition study [1]. In the FDNPP case, 137Cs was transported in sulfate aerosol form [2], so the oxide aerosol behaviors could not represent the actual deposition behavior in this accident. For evaluation of whole behavior of 137Cs in vegetation system, fundamental data for deposition and uptake process of sulfate aerosol was desired. In this study, we developed aerosol generation system for simulating the dry deposition and the foliar uptake behaviors of aerosol in the different chemical constitutions. In this system, the method of aerosol generation based on the spray drying. Solution contained 137Cs was send to a nozzle by a syringe pump and spraying with a high speed air flow. The sprayed mist was generated in a chamber in the relatively high temperature. The solution in the mist was dried quickly, and micro size solid aerosols consisting 137Cs were generated. The aerosols were suctioned by an ejector and transported inside a tube by the dry air flow, then were directly blown onto the leaves. The experimental condition, such as the size of chamber, chamber temperature, solution flow rate, air flow rate and so on, were optimized. In the deposition experiment, the aerosols on leaves were observed by a SEM/EDX system and the deposition amount was evaluated by measuring the stable Cs remaining on leaf. In the presentation, we will discuss the detail

  3. Physical and Nutritional Properties of Catfish Roe Spray Dried Protein Powder and its Application in an Emulsion System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble spray dried protein powder (CRP) was made from catfish roe and its physical and nutritional properties evaluated. An emulsion system (CRPE) was developed using CRP and rheological properties compared with two commercial mayonnaises (RME and RVE). CRP contained 67 % protein, 4.5% moisture, ...

  4. Effect of pre-treatments and drying methods on quality attributes of sweet bell-pepper (Capsicum annum) powder.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Joshi, V K; Kaushal, M

    2015-06-01

    Pre-treatments and methods of drying for producing good quality dried bell pepper powder for use in the ready-to-eat (RTE) food products were optimized. Out of various pre-treatments used (blanching in boiling water, KMS, CA and combination of KMS + CA at different concentrations), soaking of bell pepper shreds in KMS@ 0.20 % + CA@ 0.50 % after blanching fasten the drying process (19.75 h) compared to control (22.60 h), when dried in mechanical dehydrator at 58 ± 2 °C. Blanching prior to drying improved the rate of drying and produced product with lower acidity (1.25 %). The samples (T7) treated with KMS@ 0.20 % + CA@ 0.50 % significantly (p < 0.05) retained the ascorbic acid content (47.75 mg/100 g) and also attained highest score for colour (8.0), texture (7.5) and overall acceptability (7.5) compared to rest of the treatments. Among different methods of drying, pre-treated bell peppers dried in solar poly tunnel drier produced bright red coloured powder with relatively higher amounts of sugars and ascorbic acid content, hence was optimized. Visual lump formation was observed at 19.75 % and 18.50 % critical moisture contents, which equilibrated at 42 % and 45 % RH for bell pepper powders dried in a mechanical dehydrator and solar poly tunnel drier, respectively. PMID:26028724

  5. Coprocessing of powdered cellulose and magnesium carbonate: direct tableting versus tableting after roll compaction/dry granulation.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Franziska; Runge, Jürgen; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mixtures of magnesium carbonate (MC) with three types of powdered cellulose (M80, P290, A300) were tableted directly or after roll compaction/dry granulation. The fraction of powdered cellulose in the mixture was varied from 0% to 25% (w/w). The properties of the granules, blends, and their corresponding tablets were analyzed. Granules with a low amount of A300 showed the best flow properties, whereas the fibrous shape of the binding agents M80 and P290 impaired the free flow. Heckel plots showed clearly the different behavior of powdered cellulose in blends and granules during the tableting process. The Heckel-Plots for pure MC powder and granulated MC (MCgr) were similar. Increasing the fraction of powdered cellulose resulted in a fan-shaped set of curves, which is a reflection of an increased densification. Physical mixtures of all three powdered celluloses and granulated mixtures of M80 resulted in a higher densification compared with pure MC. In contrast, the granulated mixtures of P290 and A300 resulted in a diminished densification during tableting, which means that the coprocessed mixtures behaved differently during tableting compared with the physical mixtures. The curves were lower than those of pure MC and MCgr most pronounced at a fraction of 5% powdered cellulose. The tablet pore structure was evaluated by mercury porosimetry. The addition of P290 and A300 to the dry granules resulted in tablets with a higher fraction of smaller pores. Comparably high values for tablet tensile strength and low friability resulted from this special tablet structure. Roll compacted/dry granulated MC, coprocessed with 5% of P290 or A300, seems to be a promising excipient for direct compression. This coprocessed product combines good flow and tablet properties, and is superior to pure MC or a physical mixture of MC and PC. PMID:16176015

  6. Preclinical dose-ranging studies of a novel dry powder norovirus vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Springer, Michael J; Ni, Yawei; Finger-Baker, Isaac; Ball, Jordan P; Hahn, Jessica; DiMarco, Ashley V; Kobs, Dean; Horne, Bobbi; Talton, James D; Cobb, Ronald R

    2016-03-14

    Norovirus is the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans with multiple genotypes currently circulating worldwide. The development of a successful norovirus vaccine is contingent on its ability to induce both systemic and mucosal antibody responses against a wide range of norovirus genotypes. Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) are known to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered intranasally. Incorporation of these VLPs into an intranasal powder vaccine offers the advantage of simplicity and induction of neutralizing systemic and mucosal antibodies. Nasal immunization, which provides the advantage of ease of administration and a mucosal delivery mechanism, faces the real issue of limited nasal residence time due to mucociliary clearance. Herein, we describe a novel dry powder (GelVac™) formulation of GI or GII.4 norovirus VLPs, two dominant circulating genotypes, to identify the optimal antigen dosages based on systemic and mucosal immune responses in guinea pigs. Systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of each of the VLPs was observed in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, a boosting effect was observed after the second dosing of each VLP antigen. With the GelVac™ formulation, a total antigen dose of ≥ 15 μg was determined to be the maximally immunogenic dose for both GI and GII.4 norovirus VLPs based on evaluation for 56 days. Taken together, these results indicate that norovirus VLPs could be used as potential vaccine candidates without using an immunostimulatory adjuvant and provide a basis for the development of a GelVac™ bivalent GI/GII.4 norovirus VLP vaccine. PMID:26873053

  7. Short inhalation exposures of the isolated and perfused rat lung to respirable dry particle aerosols; the detailed pharmacokinetics of budesonide, formoterol, and terbutaline.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Per; Eirefelt, Stefan J; Andersson, Paul; Blomgren, Anders; Ryrfeldt, Ake; Gerde, Per

    2008-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in using the lung as a route of entry for both local and systemic administration of drugs. However, because adequate technologies have been missing in the preclinical setting, few investigators have addressed the detailed disposition of drugs in the lung following short inhalation exposures to highly concentrated dry powder aerosols. New methods are needed to explore the disposition of drugs after short inhalation exposures, thus mimicking a future clinical use. Our aim was to study the pulmonary disposition of budesonide, formoterol, and terbutaline, which are clinically used for the treatment of bronchial asthma. Using the recently developed DustGun aerosol technology, we exposed by inhalation for approximately 1 min the isolated and perfused rat lung (IPL) to respirable dry particle aerosols of the three drugs at high concentrations. The typical aerosol concentration was 1 mug/mL, and the particle size distribution of the tested substances varied with a MMAD ranging from 2.3 to 5.3 mum. The IPL was perfused in single pass mode and repeated samples of the perfusate were taken for up to 80 min postexposure. The concentration of drug in perfusate and in lung extracts was measured using LC-MS/MS. The deposited dose was determined by adding the amounts of drug collected in perfusate to the amount extracted from the tissues at 80 min. Deposited amounts of budesonide, formoterol fumarate, and terbutaline sulphate were 23 +/- 17, 36 +/- 8, and 60 +/- 3.2 mug (mean +/- SD, n = 3), respectively. Retention in lung tissues at the end of the perfusion period expressed as fraction of deposited dose was 0.19 +/- 0.05, 0.19 +/- 0.06, and 0.04 +/- 0.01 (mean +/- SD, n = 3) for budesonide, formoterol, and terbutaline, respectively. Each short inhalation exposure to the highly concentrated aerosols consumed 1-3 mg powder. Hence, this system can be particularly useful for obtaining a detailed pharmacokinetic characterization of inhaled compounds in

  8. Green ambrosia for Soil- Dry Cow Dung Powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    "Greener ambrosia for Soil - Dry cow dung powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy" Pedosphere, the soil with its biotic and abiotic component, is produced by lithosphere`s interactions with atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The theory of Biorhexistasy proposed by pedologist H. Erhart [1], describes two crucial climatic phases of soil i.e. Biostasy, period of soil formation and Rhexistasy, periods of soil erosion. Humus, the organic matter in soil, permits better aeration, enhances the absorption and releases nutrients, and makes the soil less susceptible to leaching and erosion [2], thus the agent of soil`s vitality. Mismanagement of soil, leads to the degradation of millions of acres of land through erosion, compaction, salinization and acidification. Among these threats salinity is a major abiotic stress reducing the yield of wide variety of crops all over the world [3]. It is been proved that Humic Acid (HA) treatment can ameliorate the deleterious effects of salt stress by increasing root growth, altering mineral uptake, and decreasing membrane damage, thus inducing salt tolerance in plants [4]. HA can be inexpensively incorporated into soils via different biowastes. Dry cow dung powder (DCP), is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as HA, Fulvic Acid (FA) etc [5]. The microbial consortium enables DCP with considerable potentials for biodegradation and biotransformation of even saline soil and further contributes to many biogeochemical processes, boosting humus content of soil. Due to unambiguous biological, microbiological as well as chemical inert properties of DCP, it has been successfully utilized as a fertilizer and soil conditioner since ages in India, one of the leading agrarian countries of the world. Thus we summarize that DCP is one of the best contenders for the biostasy and desaliner of soil, aptly, soil

  9. Airborne Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosols in Southern Africa during the Dry Biomass Burning Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Magi, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Particulate matter collected aboard the University of Washington's (UW) Convair-580 research aircrafi over southem Afiica during the dry biomass burning season was analyzed for total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) contents using thermal and optical methods. Samples were collected in smoke plumes of burning savanna and in regional haze. A known artifact, produced by the adsorption of organic gases on the quartz filter substrates used to collect the particulate matter samples, comprised a significant portion of the TC collected. Consequently, conclusions derived from the data are greatly dependent on whether or not OC concentrations are corrected for this artifact. For example, the estimated aerosol coalbedo (1 - single scattering albedo (SSA)), which is a measure of aerosol absorption, of the biomass smoke samples is 60% larger using corrected OC concentrations. Thus, the corrected data imply that the biomass smoke is 60% more absorbing than do the uncorrected data. The BC to (corrected) OC mass ratio (BC/OC) of smoke plume samples (0.18 plus or minus 0.06) is lower than that of samples collected in the regional haze (0.25 plus or minus 0.08). The difference may be due to mixing of biomass smoke with background air characterized by a higher BC/OC ratio. A simple source apportionment indicates that biomass smoke contributes about three quarters of the aerosol burden in the regional haze, while other souxes (e.g., fossil fuel burning) contribute the remainder.

  10. Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Magi, Brian

    2002-06-17

    Particulate matter collected aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season was analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, and black carbon contents using thermal and optical methods. Samples were collected in smoke plumes of burning savanna and in regional haze. A known artifact, produced by the adsorption of organic gases on the quartz filter substrates used to collect the particulate matter samples, comprised a significant portion of the total carbon collected. Consequently, conclusions derived from the data are greatly dependent on whether or not organic carbon concentrations are corrected for this artifact. For example, the estimated aerosol co-albedo (1 - single scattering albedo), which is a measure of aerosol absorption, of the biomass smoke samples is 60 percent larger using corrected organic carbon concentrations. Thus, the corrected data imply that the biomass smoke is 60 percent more absorbing than do the uncorrected data. The black carbon to (corrected) organic carbon mass ratio (BC/OC) of smoke plume samples (0.18/2610.06) is lower than that of samples collected in the regional haze (0.25/2610.08). The difference may be due to mixing of biomass smoke with background air characterized by a higher BC/OC ratio. A simple source apportionment indicates that biomass smoke contributes about three-quarters of the aerosol burden in the regional haze, while other sources (e.g., fossil fuel burning) contribute the remainder.

  11. Dry Lung as a Physical Model in Studies of Aerosol Deposition.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Victor N; Kanev, Igor L

    2015-10-01

    A new physical model was developed to evaluate the deposition of micro- and nanoaerosol particles (NAPs) into the lungs as a function of size and charges. The model was manufactured of a dry, inflated swine lung produced by Nasco company (Fort Atkinson, WI). The dry lung was cut into two lobes and a conductive tube was glued into the bronchial tube. The upper 1-2-mm-thick layer of the lung lobe was removed with a razor blade to expose the alveoli. The lobe was further enclosed into a plastic bag and placed within a metalized plastic box. The probability of aerosol deposition was calculated by comparing the size distribution of NAPs passed through the lung with that of control, where aerosol passed through a box bypassing the lung. Using this new lung model, it was demonstrated that charged NAPs are deposited inside the lung substantially more efficiently than neutral ones. It was also demonstrated that deposition of neutral NAPs well fits prediction of the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model developed by the Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA). PMID:26267596

  12. Dry Deposition of Fine Aerosol Nitrogen to an Agricultural Field Measured by Eddy-Correlation Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, D. A.; Allen, J. O.

    2005-12-01

    In urban areas high emissions of reactive nitrogen species cause an increase in atmospheric aerosol nitrogen formation and deposition. This nitrogen is eventually removed from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition, with dry deposition often accounting for more than half of the total deposition of particulate nitrate. Total N deposition is not adequately characterized, in part because dry deposition is difficult to measure or model. For example measured fine particle deposition to a forest canopy differs from predicted values by an order of magnitude. The eddy-correlation technique is a micrometeorological method used to directly measure fluxes from measurements made above the surface. Eddy-correlation mass spectrometry (ECMS) has been developed to directly measure aerosol particle deposition velocities from fast response aerosol concentration and wind velocity measurements. Using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), the size and composition of ambient aerosols were measured at 10~Hz. The AMS signal is proportional to non-refractory PM1.0 mass. Aerosol deposition fluxes for a given averaging period are then calculated directly as the covariance of the vertical wind velocity with the AMS signal (F = -\\overline{w'S'}). A field study was conducted to measure aerosol nitrogen dry deposition to an agricultural field immediately downwind of the Phoenix metropolitan area using eddy-correlation mass spectrometry. The study was supplemented with aerosol composition measurements including bulk deposition collectors and filter bank samplers. Here we compare the results of the flux estimates from bulk collection with inferential measurements (filter samples and modeled deposition velocities) and direct micrometeorological measurements (ECMS) in order to improve nitrogen deposition estimates.

  13. Dry Deposition of Fine Aerosol Nitrogen to an Agricultural Field Measured by Eddy-Correlation Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, D. A.; Allen, J. O.; Smith, K. A.; Hope, D.

    2004-12-01

    In urban areas high emissions of reactive nitrogen species cause an increase in atmospheric aerosol nitrogen formation and deposition. This nitrogen is eventually removed from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition, with dry deposition often accounting for more than half of the total deposition of particulate nitrate (Lovett, 1994). Total N deposition is not adequately characterized, in part because dry deposition is difficult to measure or model. For example measured fine particle deposition to a forest canopy differs from predicted values by an order of magnitude (Gallagher et al., 1997). The eddy-correlation technique is a micrometeorological method used to directly measure fluxes from measurements made above the surface (Wesely and Hicks, 2000). Eddy-correlation mass spectrometry (ECMS) has been developed to directly measure aerosol particle deposition velocities from fast response aerosol concentration and wind velocity measurements. Using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) (Jayne et al., 2000), the size and composition of ambient aerosols is measured at a high frequency. The AMS signal is proportional to non-refractory PM1.0 mass. Aerosol deposition fluxes for a given averaging period are then calculated directly as the covariance of the vertical wind velocity with the AMS signal (F = -/line{w'S'}). A field study was conducted to measure aerosol nitrogen dry deposition to an agricultural field immediately downwind of the Phoenix metropolitan area using eddy-correlation mass spectrometry. The study was supplemented with aerosol composition measurements including bulk deposition collectors and filter bank samplers. Bulk deposition samples and 24-hour filter samples were analyzed for ammonia and nitrogen. Here we compare the results of the flux estimates from bulk collection with inferential measurements (filter samples and modeled deposition velocities) and direct micrometeorological measurements (ECMS) in order to improve N deposition estimates.

  14. A GCM investigation of impact of aerosols on the precipitation in Amazon during the dry to wet transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Fu, R.; Lu, Sarah; Xue, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The climatic effects of aerosols on the precipitation over the Amazon during the dry to wet transition period have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/AGCM, and the aerosol climatology data. We found increased instability during the dry season and delayed wet season onset with aerosols included in the model simulation, leading to the delay of the maximum precipitation over the Amazon by about half a month. In particular, our GCM simulations show that surface solar flux is reduced in the Amazon due to the absorption and scattering of the solar radiation by aerosols, leading to decreased surface temperature. Reduced surface solar flux is balanced by decreases in both surface sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. During the wet season, the subtropical system over the Amazon has a shallower convection. With the inclusion of aerosols in the simulation, precipitation in the rainy season over the Amazon decreases in the major rainfall band, which partially corrects the overestimate of the simulated precipitation in that region. The reduced surface temperature by aerosols is also coupled with a warming in the middle troposphere, leading to increased atmosphere stability and moisture divergence over the Amazon. However, during the dry season when the convective system is stronger over the Amazon, rainfall increases in that region due to the warming of the air over the upper troposphere produced by biomass burning aerosols, which produces an anomalous upward motion and a convergence of moisture flux over the Amazon and draws the moisture and precipitation further inland. Therefore, aerosol effects on precipitation depend on the large-scale atmospheric stability, resulting in their different roles over the Amazon during the dry and wet seasons.

  15. The development of a sensitive methodology to characterise hard shell capsule puncture by dry powder inhaler pins.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, Barbara M; Birchall, James C; Jones, Brian E; Díez, Fernando; Coulman, Sion A

    2013-11-18

    In order for hard-shell capsules to function effectively as drug reservoirs in dry powder inhalers, the capsule must be punctured with sharpened pins to release the powdered medicament upon inspiration. Capsule performance in this setting is poorly understood. This study aims to develop a methodology to characterise hard shell capsule penetration by needles from commercial dry powder inhalers, to determine whether changes to capsule materials impact on their performance. Two pin types from two commercial dry powder inhalers were mounted in a material-testing machine, equipped with a 500 N load cell. A stainless steel bush was used to secure a capsule directly below the steel pin. Hypromellose (n=10) and gelatin capsules (n=10) were conditioned in 'normal' or low humidity conditions and were subsequently punctured with both types of pin. Each puncture event was recorded on a load-displacement curve. The force required for puncture was 2.82±0.26 N for hypromellose capsules and 4.54±0.26 N for gelatin capsules, stored in normal humidity. Different capsule materials possessed distinguishable signature profiles but repeated force-displacement profiles were highly reproducible i.e. intra-individual variability was minimal. A rapid, robust yet sensitive methodology has therefore been developed that is able to characterise hard shell capsule materials based on the puncture performance. PMID:23965433

  16. Coordinated Airborne, Spaceborne and Ground-based Measurements of Massive Thick Aerosol Layers during the Dry Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Torres, O.

    2003-01-01

    During the dry season airborne campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), coordinated observations were made of massive thick aerosol layers. These layers were often dominated by aerosols from biomass burning. We report on airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (lambda = 0.354- 1.557 microns), columnar water vapor, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density that were obtained aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft. We compare these with ground-based AERONET Sun/sky radiometer results, with ground based lidar data (MPL-Net), and with measurements from a downward pointing lidar aboard the high-flying NASA ER-2 aircraft. Finally, we show comparisons between aerosol optical depths fiom the Sun photometer and those retrieved over land and over water using four spaceborne sensors (TOMS, MODIS, MISR, and ATSR-2).

  17. Coordinated Airborne, Spaceborne, and Ground-Based Measurements of Massive, Thick Aerosol Layers During the Dry Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J.; Torres, O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the dry-season airborne campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), unique coordinated observations were made of massive, thick aerosol layers. These layers were often dominated by aerosols from biomass burning. We report on airborne Sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (lambda=354-1558 nm), columnar water vapor, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density that were obtained aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft. We compare these with ground-based AERONET Sun/sky radiometer results, with ground based lidar data MPL-Net), and with measurements from a downward-pointing lidar aboard the high-flying NASA ER-2 aircraft. Finally, we show comparisons between aerosol optical depths from the Sunphotometer and those retrieved over land and over water using four spaceborne sensors (TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), MISR (Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ATSR-2 (Along Track Scanning Radiometer)).

  18. Preparation and characterization of physically modified glass beads used as model carriers in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Redlinger-Pohn, Jakob Dominik; Kappl, Michael; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is the physical modification and characterization of the surface topography of glass beads used as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). By surface modification the contact area between drug and carrier and thereby interparticle forces may be modified. Thus the performance of DPIs that relies on interparticle interactions may be improved. Glass beads were chosen as model carriers because various prospects of physical surface modification may be applied without affecting other factors also impacting interparticle interactions like particle size and shape. To generate rough surfaces glass beads were processed mechanically by friction and impaction in a ball mill with different grinding materials that were smaller and harder with respect to the glass beads. By varying the grinding time (4 h, 8 h) and by using different grinding media (tungsten carbide, quartz) surfaces with different shades of roughness were generated. Depending on the hardness of the grinding material and the grinding time the surface roughness was more or less pronounced. Surface roughness parameters and specific surface area were determined via several complementary techniques in order to get an enhanced understanding of the impact of the modifying procedure on the surface properties of the glass beads. PMID:23470233

  19. Computer-aided design of dry powder inhalers using computational fluid dynamics to assess performance.

    PubMed

    Suwandecha, Tan; Wongpoowarak, Wibul; Srichana, Teerapol

    2016-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are gaining popularity for the delivery of drugs. A cost effective and efficient delivery device is necessary. Developing new DPIs by modifying an existing device may be the simplest way to improve the performance of the devices. The aim of this research was to produce a new DPIs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The new DPIs took advantages of the Cyclohaler® and the Rotahaler®. We chose a combination of the capsule chamber of the Cyclohaler® and the mouthpiece and grid of the Rotahaler®. Computer-aided design models of the devices were created and evaluated using CFD. Prototype models were created and tested with the DPI dispersion experiments. The proposed model 3 device had a high turbulence with a good degree of deagglomeration in the CFD and the experiment data. The %fine particle fraction (FPF) was around 50% at 60 L/min. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was around 2.8-4 μm. The FPF were strongly correlated to the CFD-predicted turbulence and the mechanical impaction parameters. The drug retention in the capsule was only 5-7%. In summary, a simple modification of the Cyclohaler® and Rotahaler® could produce a better performing inhaler using the CFD-assisted design. PMID:25265389

  20. Moisture Sorption and Thermodynamic Properties of Vacuum-Dried Capsosiphon fulvescens Powder

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Li; Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    The moisture sorption isotherms of vacuum-dried edible green alga (Capsosiphon fulvescens) powders were determined at 25, 35, and 45°C and water activity (aw) in the range of 0.11~0.94. An inversion effect of temperature was found at high water activity (>0.75). Various mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller model was found to be the most suitable model describing the relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity (<0.45). Henderson model could also provide excellent agreement between the experimental and predicted values despite of the intersection point. Net isosteric heat of adsorption decreased from 15.77 to 9.08 kJ/mol with an increase in equilibrium moisture content from 0.055 to 0.090 kg H2O/kg solids. The isokinetic temperature (Tβ) was 434.79 K, at which all the adsorption reactions took place at the same rate. The enthalpy-entropy compensation suggested that the mechanism of the adsorption process was shown to be enthalpy-driven. PMID:26451360

  1. Moisture Sorption and Thermodynamic Properties of Vacuum-Dried Capsosiphon fulvescens Powder.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    The moisture sorption isotherms of vacuum-dried edible green alga (Capsosiphon fulvescens) powders were determined at 25, 35, and 45°C and water activity (a w) in the range of 0.11~0.94. An inversion effect of temperature was found at high water activity (>0.75). Various mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller model was found to be the most suitable model describing the relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity (<0.45). Henderson model could also provide excellent agreement between the experimental and predicted values despite of the intersection point. Net isosteric heat of adsorption decreased from 15.77 to 9.08 kJ/mol with an increase in equilibrium moisture content from 0.055 to 0.090 kg H2O/kg solids. The isokinetic temperature (T β) was 434.79 K, at which all the adsorption reactions took place at the same rate. The enthalpy-entropy compensation suggested that the mechanism of the adsorption process was shown to be enthalpy-driven. PMID:26451360

  2. Pulmonary selectivity and local pharmacokinetics of ambroxol hydrochloride dry powder inhalation in rat.

    PubMed

    Ren, Y C; Wang, L; He, H B; Tang, X

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the local pharmacokinetics and site-specific target efficiency of ambroxol hydrochloride (AH) dry powder inhalation (DPI) by comparing lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and plasma AH levels after tracheal administration (TA) with those after intravenous administration. Twelve rats were divided into two groups, one of which was given AH DPI (20 mg/kg) via the trachea and the other was given the same dose AH by intravenous injection (i.v.). Afterwards, each group was subdivided into two groups. The concentration of AH in the ELF was determined by microdialysis in one group while the concentration of AH in plasma was determined in the other group. After AH DPI (20 mg/kg) was given via the trachea, AH achieved a high local concentration in ELF and reached a C(max) at 1.5 h in plasma. After the same dose AH was given by i.v., AH reached a C(max) in ELF at 1.25 h. The (AUC(0-t))(ELF)/(AUC(0-t))(plasma) ratio (1.05-2.25) after TA differed significantly from the ratio (0.029-0.039) observed after intravenous administration (p < 0.05). All these results indicate that AH DPI can be delivered to a specific targeted site and achieve high target efficiency in ELF. DPI could be a useful drug delivery system for AH therapy of pulmonary diseases. PMID:18837427

  3. The relationship between drug concentration, mixing time, blending order and ternary dry powder inhalation performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew D; Santo, João G F; Yakub, Bilal; Dennison, Mansa; Master, Husein; Buckton, Graham

    2010-05-31

    Some studies have shown that the mixing order of drug, fines and coarse carrier in a ternary dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation affects fine particle delivery; others have seen no difference. This was investigated by examining the influence of salbutamol sulphate concentration (0.5-4.5%(w)/(w)), mixing time and blending order (drug and lactose carrier first, then lactose fines; versus fines and carrier first, then drug) on formulation in vitro fine particle delivery. With 15 min of mixing, there was no effect of drug concentration or blending order on fine particle fraction (FPF). With 30 min of mixing, lower drug concentrations produced larger FPFs with the fines and carrier first blending order. Higher drug concentrations resulted in equal performance between the blending orders. With 60 min of mixing, the drug and carrier first blending order resulted in larger a FPF at 0.5%(w)/(w) salbutamol sulphate. The previous conflicting studies used a mixing time of 30 min; these results suggest that their conflicting results may have been due to the use of different drug concentrations. The complexity in the whole dataset suggests that blending order studies are of limited use for the investigation of the mechanism behind the effects of fines. PMID:20211715

  4. Freeze-dried grape powder attenuates mitochondria- and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yumin; Khaoustov, Vladimir I; Wang, Hui; Yu, Jing; Tabassam, Fazal; Yoffe, Boris

    2009-10-14

    The beneficial effects of grape consumption have been attributed to the antioxidant activity of its polyphenols. This study was conducted to investigate the cytoprotective effects of a freeze-dried grape powder (FDGP) on liver cells. FDGP treatment of primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cells revealed increased metabolic activity of cells and phosphorylation of Akt and IkappaBalpha, as well as up-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) level. To study the molecular mechanisms of FDGP effects, cells were treated with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL); taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA); thapsigargin (TG), to induce cell apoptosis through death receptor-, mitochondria-, or ER-mediated pathway; and H(2)O(2), to induce oxidative stress, respectively. TDCA-induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, and Bax was dramatically decreased with cotreatment of FDGP. Furthermore, FDGP reduced levels of annexin V positive cells by 4-fold. Also, FDGP pretreatment restored cellular glutathione content by 71% in cells treated with H(2)O(2). However, FDGP did not inhibit ER-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, FDGP increased the viability and metabolic activity of liver cells and attenuated oxidative stress- and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These data may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in protective effects of grape in a variety of liver conditions associated with cellular stress. PMID:19754144

  5. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model. PMID:27403874

  6. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE OXIDATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE PRESENCE OF DRY SUBMICRON AMMONIUM SULFATE AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine formation of secondary organic aerosols. A smog chamber system was developed for studying gas-aerosol interactions in a dynamic flow reactor. These experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of gas and aerosol phase compounds ...

  7. Dry powder pulmonary delivery of cationic PGA-co-PDL nanoparticles with surface adsorbed model protein.

    PubMed

    Kunda, Nitesh K; Alfagih, Iman M; Dennison, Sarah R; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Merchant, Zahra; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Saleem, Imran Y

    2015-08-15

    Pulmonary delivery of macromolecules has been the focus of attention as an alternate route of delivery with benefits such as; large surface area, thin alveolar epithelium, rapid absorption and extensive vasculature. In this study, a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adsorbed onto cationic PGA-co-PDL polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by a single emulsion solvent evaporation method using a cationic surfactant didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) at 2% w/w (particle size: 128.64±06.01 nm and zeta-potential: +42.32±02.70 mV). The optimum cationic NPs were then surface adsorbed with BSA, NP:BSA (100:4) ratio yielded 10.01±1.19 μg of BSA per mg of NPs. The BSA adsorbed NPs (5 mg/ml) were then spray-dried in an aqueous suspension of L-leucine (7.5 mg/ml, corresponding to a ratio of 1:1.5/NP:L-leu) using a Büchi-290 mini-spray dryer to produce nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs) containing cationic NPs. The aerosol properties showed a fine particle fraction (FPF, dae<4.46 μm) of 70.67±4.07% and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 2.80±0.21 μm suggesting a deposition in the respiratory bronchiolar region of the lungs.The cell viability was 75.76±03.55% (A549 cell line) at 156.25 μg/ml concentration after 24 h exposure. SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism (CD) confirmed that the primary and secondary structure of the released BSA was maintained. Moreover, the released BSA showed 78.76±1.54% relative esterolytic activity compared to standard BSA. PMID:26169146

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dry powder endotracheal insufflator device for use in dose-dependent preclinical studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Duret, Christophe; Wauthoz, Nathalie; Merlos, Romain; Goole, Jonathan; Maris, Calliope; Roland, Isabelle; Sebti, Thami; Vanderbist, Francis; Amighi, Karim

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Penn-Century Dry Powder Insufflator for mice (DP-4M) to reproducibly, uniformly, and deeply deliver dry powders for inhalation in the mouse lung. Itraconazole-based dry powder formulations produced by spray-drying were different in terms of composition (different ratios of drug and mannitol, with or without phospholipids), but relatively similar in terms of particle size and mass median aerodynamic diameter. The ability of the dry powder insufflator to disaggregate each formulation was the same, indicated by the absence of a statistically significant difference between the particle size distribution parameters, as measured by laser scattering. The emitted fraction varied in vivo compared to the in vitro condition. Fluorescent particle distribution in the lungs was uniform and reached the alveolar spaces, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. In terms of drug recovery in lung tissue, a minimum administered powder mass (in this case ∼1 mg) was necessary to recover at least 30% of the emitted dose in the lung and to obtain reproducible pulmonary concentrations. To reduce the dose administered in the lung, it was preferable to dilute the active ingredient within the carrier instead of reducing the dry powder mass inserted in the sampling chamber. Dry powder insufflators are devices usable in dose-dependent preclinical trials but have critical parameters to efficiently deliver reproducible doses depending on the type of formulation. PMID:22538097

  9. Carrier-free combination for dry powder inhalation of antibiotics in the treatment of lung infections in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pilcer, Gabrielle; De Bueger, Véronique; Traina, Karl; Traore, Hamidou; Sebti, Thami; Vanderbist, Francis; Amighi, Karim

    2013-07-15

    The aim of the study was to develop an efficient combination antibiotic formulation containing tobramycin and clarithromycin as a dry powder for inhalation. A carrier-free formulation of the two drugs was produced by spray-drying and characterised for its aerodynamic behaviour by impaction tests with an NGI and release profiles. The particle size distribution, morphological evaluation and crystallinity state were determined by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. Drug deposition profiles were similar for the two antibiotics, which has a synergistic effect, allowing them to reach the target simultaneously at the expected dose. The release profiles show that tobramycin and clarithromycin should probably dissolve without any difficulties in vivo in the lung as 95% of tobramycin and 57% of clarithromycin mass dissolved in 10min for the spray-dried formulation. The FPF increased from 35% and 31% for the physical blend for tobramycin and clarithromycin, respectively, to 65% and 63% for the spray-dried formulation. The spray-dried formulation shows particularly high deposition results, even at sub-optimal inspiratory flow rates, and therefore, represents an attractive alternative in the local treatment of lung infection such as in cystic fibrosis. PMID:23643509

  10. Genuair(®) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a novel, user-friendly, multidose, dry-powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    der Palen, Job van

    2014-07-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators, which are pivotal to the management of respiratory diseases, are delivered by numerous devices, including pressurized metered-dose inhalers and dry-powder inhalers. However, patient adherence to these medications is suboptimal and incorrect inhaler technique is endemic, meaning that insufficient drug quantities are frequently delivered to the lungs. Genuair(®) (Almirall SA, Spain) is a novel, breath-actuated, multidose dry-powder inhaler designed to achieve reliable and effective delivery of inhaled medicines - including aclidinium bromide - to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition to describing Genuair's design, which incorporates multiple feedback mechanisms in order to confirm effective medication uptake, this article discusses the performance characteristics of the inhaler, its efficiency in terms of drug deposition and the results of recent patient preference and satisfaction studies. PMID:25287386

  11. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)

    PubMed Central

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions. PMID:25071922

  12. Gamma scintigraphic evaluation of a novel budesonide dry powder inhaler using a validated radiolabeling technique.

    PubMed

    Warren, Simon; Taylor, Glyn; Smith, Jeffrey; Buck, Helen; Parry-Billings, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A scintigraphic study was carried out to compare the lung deposition of budesonide delivered via Clickhaler and Turbuhaler dry powder inhalers in healthy volunteers. Validation of Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radiolabeling of the budesonide/lactose blend used in the Clickhaler and excipient-free budesonide used in the Turbuhaler was carried out using a multistage liquid impinger, and compared with reference unlabeled devices. Budesonide was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and (99m)Tc by scintillation counting. The percentages (SD) of fine particles (<5.5 microm diameter) from radiolabeled and unlabeled devices were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Mean values for drug and radiolabel, respectively, were 34.6% (2.5) and 31.6% (3.8) for the Clickhaler, and 29.8% (5.5) and 31.4% (5 6) for the Turbuhaler. Fifteen healthy male volunteers received a single dose (2 x 200 microg actuations) from both devices in a double-blinded, double dummy, crossover study. During dosing, each inhalation maneuver was recorded using a computer-linked pressure transducer. To permit accurate determination of radiolabeled drug deposition, the lung margins of each volunteer were determined by Krypton-81m ((81m)Kr) gas imaging. Mean [SD] lung deposition for the Clickhaler (26.8% [6.8], RSD 25.2) was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than for the Turbuhaler (15.8% [6.6], RSD 42.2). Inspiratory flow rate parameters were similar for both devices with peak and mean values of 73 and 51 L/min for the Clickhaler, and 73 and 47 L/min for the Turbuhaler, respectively. These results indicate that, in healthy volunteers, budesonide lung deposition was higher and more consistent with the Clickhaler than with the Turbuhaler. PMID:12006142

  13. Twelve- and 52-week safety of albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler in patients with persistent asthma

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Gordon; Taveras, Herminia; Iverson, Harald; O’Brien, Christopher; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Evaluate the safety of albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI), a novel, inhalation-driven device that does not require coordination of actuation with inhalation, in patients with persistent asthma. Methods: We report pooled safety data from two 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, repeat-dose, parallel-group studies and the 12-week double-blind phase of a 52-week multicenter safety study as well as safety data from the 40-week open-label phase of the 52-week safety study. In each study, eligible patients aged ≥12 years with persistent asthma received placebo MDPI or albuterol MDPI 180 µg (2 inhalations × 90 µg/inhalation) 4 times/day for 12 weeks. In the 40-week open-label phase of the 52-week safety study, patients received albuterol MDPI 180 μg (2 inhalations × 90 μg/inhalation) as needed (PRN). Results: During both 12-week studies and the 12-week double-blind phase of the 52-week study, adverse events were more common with placebo MDPI (50%; n = 333) than albuterol MDPI (40%; n = 321); most frequent were upper respiratory tract infection (placebo MDPI 11%, albuterol MDPI 10%), nasopharyngitis (6%, 5%), and headache (6%, 4%). Incidences of β2-agonist-related events (excluding headache) during the pooled 12-week dosing periods were low (≤1%) in both groups. The safety profile with albuterol MDPI PRN during the 40-week open-label phase [most frequent adverse events: nasopharyngitis (12%), sinusitis (11%), upper respiratory tract infection (9%)] was similar to that observed during the 12-week pooled analysis. Conclusions: The safety profile of albuterol MDPI 180 μg in these studies was comparable with placebo MDPI and consistent with the well-characterized profile of albuterol in patients with asthma. PMID:26369589

  14. Spiromax, a New Dry Powder Inhaler: Dose Consistency under Simulated Real-World Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Arp, Jan; Keegstra, Johan René

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Spiromax® is a novel dry powder inhaler for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The studies presented here provide further data on attributes (in vitro dosing consistency with budesonide–formoterol (DuoResp) Spiromax; flow rates through empty versions of the Spiromax and Turbuhaler inhaler) of importance to patients with asthma or COPD. Methods: Dose-delivery studies were performed using low-, middle-, and high-strength DuoResp Spiromax. Dose consistency was assessed over inhaler life. Total emitted doses (TEDs) were measured at various flow rates, after exposure to high and low temperature or humidity, at different inhaler orientations, and after dropping the inhaler. The criterion for evaluating dose uniformity was whether mean TEDs were within the product specification limits. In separate studies, flow rates were measured after training, using the patient information leaflets, and again after enhanced training as part of a randomized, open-label, cross-over study. Results: Mean values for both budesonide and formoterol were within 85%–115% of the label claim for each strength of DuoResp Spiromax for initial dose uniformity and for the other investigated conditions (temperature, humidity, orientation, dropping, knocking), with the exception of approximately an 80% increase in first dose after dropping the inhaler (subsequent doses not affected). In the flow rate patient study, two patients' inhalations with Spiromax and six with Turbuhaler were <30 L/min. The majority of asthma patients [91% (Spiromax) versus 82% (Turbuhaler)] achieved the preferred flow rate of >60 L/min. Conclusions: DuoResp Spiromax consistently meets dose uniformity criteria, under controlled laboratory conditions and with variations intended to mimic real-world use. Following enhanced training, all patients in the flow study were able to achieve the minimal inspiratory flow rate of >30 L/min, which is required for effective

  15. Liposomal amikacin dry powder inhaler: effect of fines on in vitro performance.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shrenik P; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate the influence of adding fines on the in vitro performance of liposomal amikacin dry powder inhaler (AMK LDPI) formulations. Liposomes composed of hydrogenated soyaphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and saturated soyaphosphatidylglycerol (AMK 1), or stearylamine (AMK 2) were prepared by a reverse phase evaporation technique, extruded to reduce size and separated from unentrapped drug. Purified liposomal dispersion was subjected to lyophilization using optimized cryoprotectant to achieve maximum percentage drug retention (PDR). Lactose carrier in varying mass ratios with or without addition of fines in different mixing sequences was used to formulate AMK LDPI formulations. AMK LDPI formulations were characterized for angle of repose, compressibility index, dispersibility index, scanning electron microscopy, and fine particle fraction (FPF). PDR was found to be 97.6% +/- 2.2% for AMK1 and 98.5% +/- 1.9% for AMK2 using sucrose as optimized cryoprotectant in lipid:sucrose ratio of 1:4. Lactose carrier containing 10% fines (wt/wt) was found to be the optimum blend at 1:5 mass ratio of liposome:lactose. The addition of fines and the order of mixing of fines were found to influence the FPF with significantly different device fractions. FPF of AMK LDPI formulations using Rotahaler as the delivery device at 30, 60, and 90 L/min were found to be 21.85% +/- 2.2% and 24.6% +/- 2.4%, 25.9% +/- 1.8% and 29.2% +/- 2.1%, and 29.5% +/- 2.6% and 34.2% +/- 2.0% for AMK1 and AMK2, respectively. From the studies performed in this investigation, it was observed that liposomal charge, addition of fines and order of mixing fines, has a significant effect (P < .05) on in vitro deposition of drug from LDPI formulation. PMID:15760062

  16. Effect of Inhaler Design Variables on Paediatric Use of Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Lexmond, Anne J.; Kruizinga, Tonnis J.; Hagedoorn, Paul; Rottier, Bart L.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Boer, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    Age appropriateness is a major concern of pulmonary delivery devices, in particular of dry powder inhalers (DPIs), since their performance strongly depends on the inspiratory flow manoeuvre of the patient. Previous research on the use of DPIs by children focused mostly on specific DPIs or single inspiratory parameters. In this study, we investigated the requirements for a paediatric DPI more broadly using an instrumented test inhaler. Our primary aim was to assess the impact of airflow resistance on children’s inspiratory flow profiles. Additionally, we investigated children’s preferences for airflow resistance and mouthpiece design and how these relate to what may be most suitable for them. We tested 98 children (aged 4.7–12.6 years), of whom 91 were able to perform one or more correct inhalations through the test inhaler. We recorded flow profiles at five airflow resistances ranging from 0.025 to 0.055 kPa0.5.min.L−1 and computed various inspiratory flow parameters from these recordings. A sinuscope was used to observe any obstructions in the oral cavity during inhalation. 256 flow profiles were included for analysis. We found that both airflow resistance and the children’s characteristics affect the inspiratory parameters. Our data suggest that a medium-high resistance is both suitable for and well appreciated by children aged 5–12 years. High incidences (up to 90%) of obstructions were found, which may restrict the use of DPIs by children. However, an oblong mouthpiece that was preferred the most appeared to positively affect the passageway through the oral cavity. To accommodate children from the age of 5 years onwards, a DPI should deliver a sufficiently high fine particle dose within an inhaled volume of 0.5 L and at a peak inspiratory flow rate of 25–40 L.min−1. We recommend taking these requirements into account for future paediatric inhaler development. PMID:24901338

  17. Consumption of Dried Apple Peel Powder Increases Joint Function and Range of Motion

    PubMed Central

    Attridge, Victoria L.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Beaman, Joni L.; Carter, Steve G.; Ager, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of dried apple peel powder (DAPP) on joint function and range of motion (ROM). Additional in vitro and clinical testing was performed to suggest specific mechanisms of action. An open-label clinical pilot study involved 12 healthy people with moderate loss of joint ROM and associated chronic pain. The subjects consumed 4.25 g DAPP daily for 12 weeks, with evaluations at baseline, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. ROM was evaluated at each visit using dual digital inclinometry. Pain scores were collected using Visual Analogue Scales. Blood draws enabled testing of serum antioxidant protective capacity using the cellular antioxidant protection (CAP-e) bioassay. Additional in vitro testing involved testing of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and lipoxygenase inhibition, cellular antioxidant protection by the CAP-e bioassay, and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells by flow cytometry. Twelve weeks of consumption of DAPP was associated with improved ROM. DAPP provided antioxidants that were available to enter into and protect cells from oxidative damage in vitro, and consumption of DAPP for 12 weeks was associated with a statistically significant improvement in serum antioxidant protective status. DAPP inhibited both COX-2 and lipoxygenase enzymes, and pretreatment of inflammatory PMN cells with DAPP before inflammatory stimulus resulted in reduced ROS formation. This suggests multifaceted anti-inflammatory properties of DAPP. Consumption of DAPP was associated with improved joint function and improved serum antioxidant protection status. The observed pain reduction may be associated with the improved antioxidant status and linked to the apple polyphenols' anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25271471

  18. Dry deposition and concentration of marine aerosols in a coastal area, SW Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Mats E. R.; Franzén, Lars G.

    The present paper introduces a model for the dry deposition of marine aerosols in a coastal area of SW Sweden. The model, incorporating wind speed and distance from shore, is based on repeated measurements of salt impingement on specially designed salt traps in dense profiles from the shore and inland. The measurements show that the deposited salts include two significantly different components, one dynamic containing large droplets, with short residence time in the air, deposited close to the shore, the other one being microscopic droplets, with long residence time in the air and with a low deposition velocity (principally, the system is similar to that of mineral particles, i.e. saltating dune sand vs loess). The deposition of marine aerosols has various effects on the terrestrial environments. Aside from those associated to human activities, i.e. technical effects on outdoor electrical installations, increased corrosion of cars, etc. there are others associated to natural ecosystems. Hence, salts are important contributors to major and trace elements for plant growth. On the other hand, the deposition of windborne salt spray is believed to form an important stress factor on forests and especially to exposed stands of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L.). In this latter sense it is the authors' opinion that the rising number of westerly gales reported on the Swedish west coast during the last two decades might give an important contribution to the increasing amounts of damage observed from coniferous forests in SW Sweden.

  19. SURVIVAL AND ENUMERATION OF AEROSOLIZED AND FREEZE-DRIED GENETICALLY ENGINEERED E. COLI, UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol survival of a genetically engineered strain of Escherichia coli demonstrated a more rapid die-off (i.e., death rate) compared to its parental wildtype. p to 77% of a freeze-dried and air-exposed genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and wildtype bacteria could be res...

  20. Enhancing the Thermotolerance of Entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 Conidial Powder by Controlling the Moisture Content Using Drying and Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are promising pest-control agents but their industrial applicability is limited by their thermosusceptibility. With an aim to increase the thermotolerance of Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198, moisture absorbents were added to dried conidial powder, and the relationship between its water potential and thermotolerance was investigated. Mycotized rice grains were dried at 10℃, 20℃, 30℃, and 40℃ and the drying effect of each temperature for 24, 48, 96, and 140 hr was determined. Drying for 48 hr at 10℃ and 20℃ reduced the moisture content to < 5% without any significant loss of conidial thermotolerance, but drying at 30℃ and 40℃ reduced both moisture content and conidial thermotolerance. To maintain thermotolerance during storage, moisture absorbents, such as calcium chloride, silica gel, magnesium sulfate, white carbon, and sodium sulfate were individually added to previously dried-conidial powder at 10% (w/w). These mixtures was then stored at room temperature for 30 days and subjected to 50℃ for 2 hr. The white carbon mixture had the highest conidial thermotolerance, followed by silica gel, magnesium sulfate, and then the other absorbents. A significant correlation between the water potential and conidial thermotolerance was observed in all conidia-absorbent mixtures tested in this study (r = -0.945). Conidial thermotolerance in wet conditions was evaluated by adding moisturized white carbon (0~20% H2O) to conidia to mimic wet conditions. Notably, the conidia still maintained their thermotolerance under these conditions. Thus, it is evident that conidial thermotolerance can be maintained by drying mycotized rice grains at low temperatures and adding a moisture absorbent, such as white carbon. PMID:24808736

  1. Pulmonary Delivery of an Ultra-Fine Oxytocin Dry Powder Formulation: Potential for Treatment of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Jibriil P.; Bischof, Robert J.; Nassta, Gemma C.; Olerile, Livesey D.; Russell, Adrian S.; Meiser, Felix; Parkington, Helena C.; Coleman, Harold A.; Morton, David A. V.; McIntosh, Michelle P.

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the most effective uterotonic for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. The requirement for parenteral administration by trained healthcare providers and the need for the drug solution to be maintained under cold-chain storage limit the use of oxytocin in the developing world. In this study, a spray-dried ultrafine formulation of oxytocin was developed with an optimal particle size diameter (1-5 µm) to facilitate aerosolised delivery via the lungs. A powder formulation of oxytocin, using mannitol, glycine and leucine as carriers, was prepared with a volume-based median particle diameter of 1.9 µm. Oxytocin content in the formulation was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and was found to be unchanged after spray-drying. Ex vivo contractility studies utilising human and ovine uterine tissue indicated no difference in the bioactivity of oxytocin before and after spray-drying. Uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity in postpartum ewes following pulmonary (in vivo) administration of oxytocin closely mimicked that observed immediately postpartum (0-12 h following normal vaginal delivery of the lamb). In comparison to the intramuscular injection, pulmonary administration of an oxytocin dry powder formulation to postpartum ewes resulted in generally similar EMG responses, however a more rapid onset of uterine EMG activity was observed following pulmonary administration (129 ± 18 s) than intramuscular injection (275 ± 22 s). This is the first study to demonstrate the potential for oxytocin to elicit uterine activity after systemic absorption as an aerosolised powder from the lungs. Aerosolised oxytocin has the potential to provide a stable and easy to administer delivery system for effective prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor settings in the developing world. PMID:24376618

  2. Pulmonary delivery of an ultra-fine oxytocin dry powder formulation: potential for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prankerd, Richard J; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Ibrahim, Jibriil P; Bischof, Robert J; Nassta, Gemma C; Olerile, Livesey D; Russell, Adrian S; Meiser, Felix; Parkington, Helena C; Coleman, Harold A; Morton, David A V; McIntosh, Michelle P

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the most effective uterotonic for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. The requirement for parenteral administration by trained healthcare providers and the need for the drug solution to be maintained under cold-chain storage limit the use of oxytocin in the developing world. In this study, a spray-dried ultrafine formulation of oxytocin was developed with an optimal particle size diameter (1-5 µm) to facilitate aerosolised delivery via the lungs. A powder formulation of oxytocin, using mannitol, glycine and leucine as carriers, was prepared with a volume-based median particle diameter of 1.9 µm. Oxytocin content in the formulation was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and was found to be unchanged after spray-drying. Ex vivo contractility studies utilising human and ovine uterine tissue indicated no difference in the bioactivity of oxytocin before and after spray-drying. Uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity in postpartum ewes following pulmonary (in vivo) administration of oxytocin closely mimicked that observed immediately postpartum (0-12 h following normal vaginal delivery of the lamb). In comparison to the intramuscular injection, pulmonary administration of an oxytocin dry powder formulation to postpartum ewes resulted in generally similar EMG responses, however a more rapid onset of uterine EMG activity was observed following pulmonary administration (129 ± 18 s) than intramuscular injection (275 ± 22 s). This is the first study to demonstrate the potential for oxytocin to elicit uterine activity after systemic absorption as an aerosolised powder from the lungs. Aerosolised oxytocin has the potential to provide a stable and easy to administer delivery system for effective prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor settings in the developing world. PMID:24376618

  3. Preparation of the YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x powders by emulsion drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Woo Sik; Kim, Ho Gi

    1989-12-01

    The superconducting powders of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x were easily prepared from water-in oil type emulsion by loading the yttrium, barium, and copper ions into the aqueous phase. The superconducting orthorhombic phase was formed by calcining at 750°C for 10 h in O 2. The size of the superconducting phase powders was submicron. The density of the sintered specimen using this powders was about 95% of the theoretical density and the resistance sharply decreases at transition temperature.

  4. Characterisation of Sol-Gel Synthesis of Phase Pure CaTiO3 Nano Powders after Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, P. K.; Biswal, G.; Patnaik, S. C.; Senapati, S. K.

    2015-02-01

    According to a few recent studies, calcium titanate (CT) is a material that is similar to hydroxyapatite in biological properties. However, calcium titanate is not currently being used in the biomedical applications as to hydroxyapatite. The objective is to prepare nano calcium titanate powders from the equimolar solution of calcium oxide, ethanol and Titanium (IV) isopropoxide via sol-gel synthesis. The phase analysis and morphology of powder particles were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the composition and size of powder particles were determined by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) attached with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS). As results, XRD confirm the presence of phase pure crystalline CaTiO3 after drying at 100°C for 24 hours, while TEM analysis confirms about 13 nm sizes of CaTiO3 particles and some agglomerated particle of 20-30 nm. Moreover, EDS analysis indicates that the approximately stoichiometric Ca/Ti ratio 1:1 was obtained in the CaTiO3 powders. Finally, it can be concluded that described sol-gel synthesis could be novel method for the production of nano CaTiO3 particles at lower temperature compared to any other methods of production.

  5. Effects of Chemical Conjugation of l-Leucine to Chitosan on Dispersibility and Controlled Release of Drug from a Nanoparticulate Dry Powder Inhaler Formulation.

    PubMed

    Muhsin, Mohammad D A; George, Graeme; Beagley, Kenneth; Ferro, Vito; Wang, Hui; Islam, Nazrul

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated l-leucine-conjugated chitosan as a drug delivery vehicle in terms of dispersibility and controlled release from a nanoparticulate dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for pulmonary delivery using diltiazem hydrochloride (DH) as the model drug. DH-loaded nanoparticles of chitosan and conjugate were prepared by water-in-oil emulsification followed by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering for particle size, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for surface composition, and twin stage impinger for drug dispersibility. The controlled release of DH was studied in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.3 ± 0.2, 37 °C) using UV spectrophotometry. The fine particle fractions of conjugated chitosan with and without drug were higher than those of nonconjugated chitosan nanoparticles. The conjugate nanoparticles were superior to those of unmodified chitosan in drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and controlled release profile. The higher dispersibility was attributed to the amphiphilic environment of the l-leucine conjugate and hydrophobic cross-links, and the release profile reflects the greater swelling. The conjugated chitosan nanoparticles could be useful, after appropriate testing for biodegradability and toxicity, as an alternative carrier for lung drug delivery with enhanced aerosolization and prolonged drug release from nanoparticulate DPI formulations. PMID:26998555

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Commercially Available Freeze Dried Powdered Probiotics on Mutans Streptococci Count: A Randomized, Double Blind, Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anup; Ganta, Shravani; Sidiq, Mohsin; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti; Acharya, Siddharth; Singh, Kushpal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Probiotic approaches are being considered to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and are an alternative and promising way to combat infections by using harmless bacteria to displace pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available freeze dried powdered probiotics on mutans streptococci count among 12–15 year-old Indian schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases of in-vitro (phase I) and in-vivo (phase II) study, which was a double blind, randomized and placebo controlled clinical trial. A total of 33 schoolchildren between 12–15 years were included in the study. They were randomly allocated to three groups. Group A included 11 children using freeze dried Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium lactis. Group B included 11 children using freeze dried lactic acid bacillus only. Group C included 11 children using placebo powder. The study was conducted over a period of three weeks and examination and sampling of the subjects were done on days 0 (baseline), seven, 14 and 21. Results: For both the intervention groups A and B, statistically significant reduction (P<0.05) in salivary mutans streptococci counts was recorded up to the second week. Conclusion: Oral administration of probiotics showed a short-term effect on reduction of mutans streptococci count and showed a preventive role in caries development. PMID:27252756

  7. Lidar Observations of Tropospheric Aerosols Over Northeastern South Africa During the ARREX and SAFARI-2000 Dry Season Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ji, Qiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Piketh, Stuart J.; Barenbrug, Marguerite; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the ARREX-1999 and SAFARI-2000 Dry Season experiments a micropulse lidar (523 nm) instrument was operated at the Skukuza Airport in northeastern South Africa. The Mar was collocated with a diverse array of passive radiometric equipment. For SAFARI-2000 the processed Mar data yields a daytime time-series of layer mean/derived aerosol optical properties, including extinction-to-backscatter ratios and vertical extinction cross-section profile. Combined with 523 run aerosol optical depth and spectral Angstrom exponent calculations from available CIMEL sun-photometer data and normalized broadband flux measurements the temporal evolution of the near surface aerosol layer optical properties is analyzed for climatological trends. For the densest smoke/haze events the extinction-to-backscatter ratio is found to be between 60-80/sr, and corresponding Angstrom exponent calculations near and above 1.75. The optical characteristics of an evolving smoke event from SAFARI-2000 are extensively detailed. The advecting smoke was embedded within two distinct stratified thermodynamic layers, causing the particulate mass to advect over the instrument array in an incoherent manner on the afternoon of its occurrence. Surface broadband flux forcing due to the smoke is calculated, as is the evolution in the vertical aerosol extinction profile as measured by the Han Finally, observations of persistent elevated aerosol during ARREX-1999 are presented and discussed. The lack of corroborating observations the following year makes these observation; both unique and noteworthy in the scope of regional aerosol transport over southern Africa.

  8. Spray dried melon seed milk powder: physical, rheological and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Zungur Bastıoğlu, Aslı; Tomruk, Dilara; Koç, Mehmet; Ertekin, Figen Kaymak

    2016-05-01

    Melon seed milk (MSM) powder was produced by aiming to get alternative vegetable milk from crushed Kırkağaç (Cucumis melo subsp. melo cv. Kırkağaç) and Çeşme (C. melo subsp. melo cv. Çeşme) type melon seeds. MSM was converted to powder form via spray dryer at inlet air temperature of 150 °C, air flow rate of 473 l · h(-1), aspiration ratio of 24 m(3) · h(-1)and feed flow rate of 8 ml · min(-1) in order to extend the shelf life and usage area. The moisture content and water activity of samples changed in range of 2.1 to 2.4 % and 0.260 to 0.310, respectively. Bulk densities and the tapped densities of powders were ranged from 340 to 360 kg · m(-3) and 730 and 740 kg · m(-3). MSM powders showed poor flow behavior as determined from Carr Index. The particle densities of powders ranged between and 1069 kg · m(-3). Wettability time of powders was found as 7 s. The Bingham model was the best model fitted to rheological data of MSM beverages. Sensory evaluation test results showed that, the beverage obtained from reconstituted Kırkağaç powder achieved the highest score by panelists. PMID:27407206

  9. Dry powders based on PLGA nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery of antibiotics: modulation of encapsulation efficiency, release rate and lung deposition pattern by hydrophilic polymers.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Francesca; d'Angelo, Ivana; Coletta, Ciro; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Perfetto, Brunella; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Miro, Agnese; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2012-01-10

    Although few experimental studies have been handled so far to exploit the potential of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) in the production of dry powders for antibiotic inhalation, there has been no comprehensive study on the role played by NP composition. In this work, we try to shed light on this aspect by designing and developing a pulmonary delivery system for antibiotics, such as tobramycin (Tb), based on PLGA NPs embedded in an inert microcarrier made of lactose, referred to as nano-embedded micro-particles (NEM). At nanosize level, helper hydrophilic polymers were used to impart the desired surface, bulk and release properties to PLGA NPs prepared by a modified emulsion-solvent diffusion technique. Results showed that poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (CS) are essential to optimise the size and modulate the surface properties of Tb-loaded PLGA NPs, whereas the use of alginate (Alg) allows efficient Tb entrapment within NPs and its release up to one month. Optimized formulations display good in vitro antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa planktonic cells. Furthermore, spray-drying of the NPs with lactose yielded NEM with peculiar but promising flow and aerosolization properties, while preserving the peculiar NP features. Nonetheless, in vivo biodistribution studies showed that PVA-modified Alg/PLGA NPs reached the deep lung, while CS-modified NPs were found in great amounts in the upper airways, lining lung epithelial surfaces. In conclusion, PLGA NP composition appears to play a crucial role in determining not only the technological features of NPs but, once processed in the form of NEM, also their in vitro/in vivo deposition pattern. PMID:21864595

  10. Automated Measurements of Ambient Aerosol Chemical Composition and its Dry and Wet Size Distributions at Pittsburgh Supersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A. Y.; Stanier, C.; Chun, W.; Vayenas, D.; Mandiro, M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2001-12-01

    Ambient aerosol particles change size with changes in ambient relative humidity. The magnitude of the size change depends on the hygroscopic properties of the particles, which is determined by their chemical composition. Hygroscopic properties of particles influence many environmentally important aerosol qualities, such as light scattering and partitioning between the gas and particle phases of semivolitile compounds. Studying the hygroscopic growth of ambient particles is thus of paramount importance. The highroscopic growth of ambient particles and their chemical composition are measured continuously within the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (EPA supersite program). The hygroscopic size changes are measured using an automated system built for this study. The system consists of two Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers (SMPS, TSI Inc.) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS, TSI Inc.). The three instruments measure aerosol size distribution between 5 nanometers and 10 micrometers in diameter. The inlets of the instruments and the sheath air lines of the SMPS systems are equipped with computer controlled valves that direct air through Nafion dryers (PermaPure Inc.) or bypass them. The Nafion dryers are drying the air stream below 40% RH at which point ambient particles are expected to lose most or all water and thus be virtually dry. To avoid changes in relative humidity and evaporation of volatile particles due to temperature differences the system is kept at ambient temperature. The system measures alternatively dry (below 40% RH) and wet (actual ambient RH) aerosol size distributions every 6 minutes. The hygroscopic growth observed with the size-spectrometer system is compared with theoretic predictions based on the chemical composition of aerosol particles. A modified semi-continuous Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector provides the total available budget (particles and gas) of water-soluble species, which is used as an input to the thermodynamic model. The model calculates

  11. Profile of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol dry powder inhaler combination therapy as a potential treatment for COPD.

    PubMed

    Caramori, Gaetano; Chung, Kian Fan; Adcock, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The limited efficacy of current therapies for COPD indicates a pressing need to develop new treatments to prevent the progression of the disease, which consumes a significant amount of health care resources and is an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current national and international guidelines for the management of stable COPD patients recommend the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and their combination for maintenance treatment of moderate to severe stable COPD. Once-daily fluticasone furoate/vilanterol dry powder inhaler combination therapy has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency as a new regular treatment for patients with stable COPD. Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol dry powder inhaler combination therapy has been shown to be effective in many controlled clinical trials involving thousands of patients in the regular treatment of stable COPD. This is the first once-daily combination of ultra-long-acting inhaled β2-agonists and inhaled glucocorticoids that is available for the treatment of stable COPD and has great potential to improve compliance to long-term regular inhaled therapy and hence to improve the natural history and prognosis of COPD patients. PMID:24596460

  12. Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ji, Qiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Piketh, Stuart J.; Barenbrug, Marguerite; Holben, Brent N.

    2003-07-01

    During the Aerosol Recirculation and Rainfall Experiment (ARREX 1999) and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) dry season experiments, a micropulse lidar (523 nm) instrument was operated at the Skukuza Airport in northeastern South Africa. The lidar was colocated with a diverse array of passive radiometric equipment. For SAFARI 2000, a daytime time series of layer mean aerosol optical properties, including layer mean extinction-to-backscatter ratios and vertical extinction cross-section profiles are derived from the synthesis of the lidar data and aerosol optical depths from available AERONET Sun photometer data. Combined with derived spectral Angstrom exponents, normalized broadband flux measurements, and calculated air mass back-trajectories, the temporal evolution of the surface aerosol layer optical properties is analyzed for climatological trends. For dense biomass smoke events the extinction-to-backscatter ratio is between 50 and 90 sr, and corresponding spectral Angstrom exponent values are between 1.50 and 2.00. Observations of an advecting smoke event during SAFARI 2000 are shown. The smoke was embedded within two distinct stratified thermodynamic layers causing the particulate mass to advect over the instrument array in an incoherent manner on the afternoon of 1 September 2000. Significant surface broadband flux forcing of over -50 W/m2 was measured in this event. The evolution of the vertical aerosol extinction profile is profiled using the lidar data. Finally, observations of persistent elevated aerosol layers during ARREX 1999 are presented and discussed. Back-trajectory analyses combined with lidar and Sun photometer measurements indicate the likelihood for these aerosols being the result of long-range particulate transport from the southern and central South America.

  13. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  14. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, John D.

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  15. The effect of acidification of liquid whey protein concentrate on the flavor of spray-dried powder.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    which the solutions were adjusted after spray drying. Preacidification to pH 3.5 increased recovery of D₁₂-hexanal in liquid WPC and decreased recovery of D₁₂-hexanal in the resulting powder when evaluated at pH 6.5 or 5.5. These results demonstrate that acidification of liquid WPC80 to pH 3.5 before spray drying decreases off-flavors in spray-dried WPC and suggest that the mechanism for off-flavor reduction is the decreased protein interactions with volatile compounds at low pH in liquid WPC or the increased interactions between protein and volatile compounds in the resulting powder. PMID:24792804

  16. Is dry deposition of semi-volatile organic gases a significant loss of secondary organic aerosols (SOA)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Aumont, B.; Knote, C. J.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Madronich, S.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition removal of semi-volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere and its impact on organic aerosol mass is currently under-explored and not well represented in chemistry-climate models, especially for the many complex partly oxidized organics involved in particle formation. The main reason for this omission is that current models use simplified SOA mechanisms that lump precursors and their products into volatility bins, therefore losing information on important properties of individual molecules (or groups) that are needed to calculate dry deposition. In this study, we apply the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to simulate SOA formation and estimate the influence of dry deposition of gas-phase organics on SOA concentrations downwind of an urban area (Mexico City), as well as over a pine forest. SOA precursors considered here include short- and long-chain alkanes (C3-25), alkenes, light aromatics, isoprene and monoterpenes. We show that dry deposition of oxidized gases is not an efficient sink for anthropogenic SOA, as it removes <5% of SOA within the city's boundary layer and ~15% downwind. The effect on biogenic SOA is however significantly larger. We discuss reasons for these differences, and investigate separately the impacts on short and long-chain species. We show that the dry deposition is competing with the uptake of gases to the aerosol phase. In the absence of this condensation, ~50% of the regionally produced mass downwind of Mexico City would have been dry-deposited. However, because dry deposition of submicron aerosols is slow, condensation onto particles protects organic gases from deposition and therefore increases their atmospheric burden and lifetime. We use the explicit GECKO-A model to build an empirical parameterization for use in 3D models. Removal (dry and wet) of organic vapors depends on their solubility, and required Henry's law solubility coefficients were estimated for

  17. Photoluminescent properties of nanostructured Y 2O 3:Eu 3+ powders obtained through aerosol synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinkovic, K.; Mancic, L.; Gomez, L. S.; Rabanal, M. E.; Dramicanin, M.; Milosevic, O.

    2010-10-01

    Red emitting Y 2O 3:Eu 3+ (5 and 10 at.%) submicronic particles were synthesized through ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method from the pure nitrate solutions at 900 °C. The employed synthesis conditions (gradual increase of temperature within triple zone reactor and extended residence time) assured formation of spherical, dense, non-agglomerated particles that are nanostructured (crystallite size ˜20 nm). The as-prepared powders were additionally thermally treated at temperatures up to 1200 °C. A bcc Ia-3 cubic phase presence and exceptional powder morphological features were maintained with heating and are followed with particle structural changes (crystallite growth up to 130 nm). Emission spectra were studied after excitation with 393 nm wavelength and together with the decay lifetimes for Eu 3+ ion 5D0 and 5D1 levels revealed the effect of powder nanocrystalline nature on its luminescent properties. The emission spectra showed typical Eu 3+5D0 → 7F i ( i = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) transitions with dominant red emission at 611 nm, while the lifetime measurements revealed the quenching effect with the rise of dopant concentration and its more consistent distribution into host lattice due to the thermal treatment.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nucleation and aerosol processing in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges: powders production, coatings and filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, Jean-Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This review addresses the production of nano-particles and the processing of particles injected in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges (APED). The mechanisms of formation and the evolution of particles suspended in gases are first presented, with numerical and experimental facilities. Different APED and related properties are then introduced for dc corona, streamer and spark filamentary discharges (FD), as well as for ac filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). Two mechanisms of particle production are depicted in APED: when FD interact with the surface of electrodes or dielectrics and when filamentary and homogeneous DBD induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. In both cases, condensable gaseous species are produced, leading to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation. The evolution of the so-formed nano-particles, i.e. the growth by coagulation/condensation, the charging and the collection are detailed for each APED, with respect to fine powders production and thin films deposition. Finally, when particles are injected in APED, they undergo interfacial processes. Non-thermal plasmas charge particles for electro-collection and trigger heterogeneous chemical reactions for organic and inorganic films deposition. Heat exchanges in thermal plasmas enable powder purification, shaping, melting for hard coatings and fine powders production by reactive evaporation.

  19. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality. PMID:26213075

  20. A Method of Lyophilizing Vaccines Containing Aluminum Salts into a Dry Powder Without Causing Particle Aggregation or Decreasing the Immunogenicity Following Reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinran; Thakkar, Sachin G.; Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Williams, Robert O.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    Many currently licensed and commercially available human vaccines contain aluminum salts as vaccine adjuvants. A major limitation with these vaccines is that they must not be exposed to freezing temperatures during transport or storage such that the liquid vaccine freezes, because freezing causes irreversible coagulation that damages the vaccines (e.g., loss of efficacy). Therefore, vaccines that contain aluminum salts as adjuvants are formulated as liquid suspensions and are required to be kept in cold chain (2–8°C) during transport and storage. Formulating vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum salts into dry powder that can be readily reconstituted before injection may address the limitation. Spray freeze-drying of vaccines with low concentrations of aluminum salts and high concentrations of trehalose alone, or a mixture of sugars and amino acids, as excipients can convert vaccines containing aluminum salts into dry powder, but fails to preserve the particle size and/or immunogenicity of the vaccines. In the present study, using ovalbumin as a model antigen adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate, a commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccine adjuvanted with potassium alum, a human hepatitis B vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, and a human papillomavirus vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, it was shown that vaccines containing a relatively high concentration of aluminum salts (i.e., up to ~1%, w/v, of aluminum hydroxide) can be converted into a dry powder by thin-film freezing followed by removal of the frozen solvent by lyophilization while using low levels of trehalose (i.e., as low as 2% w/v) as an excipient. Importantly, the thin-film freeze-drying process did not cause particle aggregation, nor decreased the immunogenicity of the vaccines. Moreover, repeated freezing-and-thawing of the dry vaccine powder did not cause aggregation. Thin-film freeze-drying is a viable platform technology to produce dry powders of

  1. New data for aerosols generated by releases of pressurized powders and solutions in static air

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Sutter, S.L.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1987-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop radioactive source-term estimation methods. Experiments measuring the mass airborne and particle size distribution of aerosols produced by pressurized releases were run. Carbon dioxide was used to pressurize uranine solutions to 50, 250, and 500 psig before release. The mass airborne from these experiments was higher than for comparable air-pressurized systems, but not as great as expected based on the amount of gas dissolved in the liquid and the volume of liquid ejected from the release equipment. Flashing sprays of uranine at 60, 125, and 240 psig produced a much larger source term than all other pressurized releases performed under this program. Low-pressure releases of depleted uranium dioxide at 9, 17.5, and 24.5 psig provided data in the energy region between 3-m spills and 50-psig pressurized releases.

  2. Dry stress and survival time of Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae in dehydrated powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Barron, Juncal Caubilla; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2007-09-01

    Powdered infant formula is not a sterile product, and opportunistic pathogens could multiply in the reconstituted product, resulting in neonatal infections. In this study, the generation of sublethally injured Enterobacteriaceae during desiccation and their persistence in dehydrated powdered infant formula was assessed during a 2.5-year period. The study included 27 strains of Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella Enteritidis, Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Escherichia vulneris, Pantoea spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The number of sublethally injured cells generated during desiccation was lower for K. oxytoca, Pantoea spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and capsulated strains of E. sakazakii than for the other Enterobacteriaceae. The Enterobacteriaceae could be divided into three groups with respect to their long-term survival in the desiccated state. C. freundii, C. koseri, and E. cloacae were no longer recoverable after 6 months, and Salmonella Enteritidis, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli could not be recovered after 15 months. Pantoea spp., K. oxytoca, and E. vulneris persisted over 2 years, and some capsulated strains of E. sakazakii were still recoverable after 2.5 years. PMID:17900090

  3. Does carrier size matter? A fundamental study of drug aerosolisation from carrier based dry powder inhalation systems.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Traini, Daniela; Hoe, Susan; Wong, William; Young, Paul M

    2011-07-15

    There is plenty of evidence supporting the notion that the size of the carrier influences the aerosolisation performance of drug from a drug-carrier blend. Interestingly, that evidence is contradictory in places and the study of such mechanisms is fraught by the compounding variables associated with comparing crystalline powders (e.g. as size is varied so may the shape, surface chemistry, roughness and the amount of fine excipients). To overcome these limitations, a series of model polystyrene spheres were used to study the influence of size on aerosol performance. Three polystyrene sphere carriers (TS-80, TS-250 and TS-500, describing their approximate diameters) were characterised using laser diffraction, atomic force microscopy, colloid probe microscopy, electron microscopy, true density and dynamic vapour sorption. The model carriers were blended with micronized salbutamol sulphate (67.5:1 ratios) and the aerosolisation performance was tested using a multistage liquid impinger at a range of flow rates (40-100 lmin(-1)). Physico-chemical analysis of the carriers indicated that all carriers were spherical with similar roughness and densities. Furthermore, the adhesion force of drug to the carrier surfaces was independent of carrier size. Significant differences in drug aerosolisation were observed with both flow rate and carrier size. In general, as carrier size was increased, aerosol performance decreased. Furthermore, as flow rate was increased so did performance. Such observations suggest that higher energy processes drive aerosolisation, however this is likely to be due to the number of impaction events (and associated frictional and rotational forces) rather than the actual collision velocity (since the larger carriers had increased momentum and drag forces). This study shows that, in isolation of other variables, as carrier size increases, a concurrent decrease in drug aerosolisation performance is observed. PMID:21501674

  4. A dry powder formulation from silk fibroin microspheres as a topical auto-gelling device.

    PubMed

    Faragò, Silvio; Lucconi, Giulia; Perteghella, Sara; Vigani, Barbara; Tripodo, Giuseppe; Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura; Boschi, Alessandra; Faustini, Massimo; Vigo, Daniele; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Marazzi, Mario; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of establishing the formulation of a new hydrophilic auto-gelling medical device for biomedical applications, fibroin-based microspheres were prepared. The proposed microspheres were produced by a cost-effective and industrially scalable technique, such as the spray-drying. Spray-dried silk fibroin microspheres were obtained and the effects of different hydrophilic polymer on the process yield, microsphere morphology and conformation transition of fibroin were evaluated. The final auto-gelling formulations were obtained by adding calcium gluconate (as a calcium source for alginate crosslinking) to the prepared microspheres and tested by an in vitro gelling test. This study showed that the combination of fibroin with sodium alginate and poloxamer produced the most promising auto-gelling formulation for specific biomedical applications, such as the treatment of pressure ulcers. PMID:25757645

  5. Effect of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel powder (DPPP) on textural, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Prateeti; Indrani, D; Singh, R P

    2014-11-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and β-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits. PMID:25019979

  6. Airborne in situ characterization of dry urban aerosol optical properties around complex topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targino, Admir Créso; Noone, Kevin J.

    2006-02-01

    In situ data from the 1997 Southern California Ozone Study—NARSTO were used to describe the aerosol optical properties in an urban area whose aerosol distribution is modified as the aerosols are advected over the surrounding topography. The data consist of measurements made with a nephelometer and absorption photometer onboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Pelican aircraft. The cases investigated in this study include vertical profiles flown over coastal sites as well as sites located along some important mountain ranges in southern California. The vertical distribution of the aerosol in the Los Angeles Basin showed a complex configuration, directly related with the local meteorological circulations and the surrounding topography. High spatial and temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations within a relatively small area was found, as indicated by the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficient data. The results suggest that in areas with such complex terrain, a high spatial resolution is required in order to adequately describe the aerosol optical quantities. Principal components analysis (PCA) has been applied to aerosol chemical samples in order to identify the major aerosol types in the Los Angeles Basin. The technique yielded four components that accounted for 78% of the variance in the data set. These were indicative of marine aerosols, urban aerosols, trace elements and secondary aerosol components of traffic emissions and agricultural activities. A Monte Carlo radiation transfer model has been employed to simulate the effects that different aerosol vertical profiles have on the attenuation of solar energy. The cases examined were selected using the results of the PCA and in situ data were used to describe the atmospheric optical properties in the model. These investigations comprise a number of sensitivity tests to evaluate the effects on the results of the location of the aerosol layers as well as

  7. Separation of particles precipitated from (U,RE){sub 3}O{sub 8} powder oxidation by dry process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Jae Won; Lee Jung Won; Yang Myung Seung; Song Kee Chan; Park Geun Il

    2007-07-01

    The phase separation characteristics of RE elements from SIMFUEL (simulated spent fuel) was investigated by a high temperature oxidation at 1174{approx}1673 K using a fuel powder of (U,RE){sub 3}O{sub 8} in a single RE element system. A typical oxidation and reduction treatment followed by a dry milling process was introduced and investigated for a separation of the precipitated RE-rich (U{sub 1-y}RE{sub y})O{sub 2+z} particles and RE-poor U{sub 3}O{sub 8} particles formed by a high temperature oxidation. The XRD and SEM results indicate that an increase of the oxidation temperature increases the amount of the (U{sub 1-y}RE{sub y})O{sub 2+z} phase, while decreasing that of the RE-poor U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-type phase. Since the solubility of RE in the U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-type phase was almost constant regardless of the oxidation temperature, the decrease of the RE concentration in the RE-rich (U{sub 1-y}RE{sub y})O{sub 2+z} phase with an increasing oxidation temperature seems to be due to a diffusion of the U ion from the RE-poor U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-type phase to the RE-rich (U{sub 1-y}RE{sub y})O{sub 2+z} phase. The RE-rich (U{sub 1-y}RE{sub y})O{sub 2+z} particle precipitated from the RE-poor U{sub 3}O{sub 8} particle is mostly separated by a reduction and oxidation treatment at a typical temperature of the powdering process of uranium dioxide and completely separated by a dry milling. (authors)

  8. Storage stability of a commercial hen egg yolk powder in dry and intermediate-moisture food matrices.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Fisher, Mary Catherine; Guo, Mufan; Labuza, Theodore P

    2013-09-11

    Quality loss in intermediate-moisture foods (IMF) such as high-protein nutrition bars (HPNB) in the form of hardening, nonenzymatic browning, and free amino group loss is a general concern for the manufacturers. To measure the extent of quality loss over time in terms of these negative attributes, through changing the ratio by weight between two commercial spray-dried hen egg powders, egg white (DEW) and egg yolk (DEY), the storage stability of 10 IMF systems (water activity (aw) ∼ 0.6) containing 5% glycerol, 10% shortening, 35% protein, and 50% sweetener (either maltitol or 50% high-fructose corn syrup/50% corn syrup (HFCS/CS)) were studied. Additionally, the storage stability of the DEY powder itself was investigated. Overall, during storage at different temperatures (23, 35, and 45 °C), the storage stability of DEY in dry and IMF matrices was mainly controlled by the coaction of three chemical reactions (disulfide bond interaction, Maillard reaction, and lipid oxidation). The results showed that by replacing 25% of DEW in an IMF model system with DEY, the rate of bar hardening was significantly lower than that of the models with only DEW at all temperatures due to the softening effect of the fat in DEY. Furthermore, the use of maltitol instead of HFCS/CS in all bar systems not only resulted in decreased hardness but also drastically decreased the change in the total color difference (ΔE*). Interestingly, there was no significant loss of free amino groups in the maltitol systems at any DEW/DEY ratio. PMID:23947616

  9. Interaction of Formulation and Device Factors Determine the In Vitro Performance of Salbutamol Sulphate Dry Powders for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Muddle, Joanna; Murnane, Darragh; Parisini, Irene; Brown, Marc; Page, Clive; Forbes, Ben

    2015-11-01

    A variety of capsule-based dry powder inhalers were used to evaluate formulation-device interaction. The in vitro deposition of salbutamol sulphate (SS) was compared directly to published data for salmeterol xinafoate (SX). A 3(2) factorial design was used to assess the effect of SS formulations with three blends of different grade coarse lactose supplemented with different levels of fine lactose. These formulations were tested for homogeneity and evaluated for their in vitro deposition using Aeroliser, Handihaler and Rotahaler devices. The performance of the SS-lactose formulations differed across the grade of lactose and amount of fine lactose used compared to the same powder compositions blended with SX. SX had a greater fine particle fraction than SS for most of the comparable formulations, probably because of the different cohesiveness of the drugs. A head-to-head comparison of 'matched' SX and SS formulations when aerosolised from the same three devices demonstrated that formulation-device interactions are as critical in determining the in vitro deposition of drug-lactose blends as the identity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. This work has revealed the limitations of the interpretative value of published in vitro performance data generated with a single device (even at equivalent aerosolisation force), when designing formulations for a different device. PMID:26220184

  10. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity. PMID:22878390

  11. Physicochemical characterization of nopal pads (Opuntia ficus indica) and dry vacuum nopal powders as a function of the maturation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garcia, M E; de Lira, C; Hernández-Becerra, E; Cornejo-Villegas, M A; Palacios-Fonseca, A J; Rojas-Molina, I; Reynoso, R; Quintero, L C; Del-Real, A; Zepeda, T A; Muñoz-Torres, C

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents the physicochemical and nutrimental characterization of fresh nopal (Opuntia ficus indica, Redonda variety) and nopal powder produced at different stages of development. Nopal powder was obtained by dry vacuum technique using 10(2) Torr and low temperature (40 degrees C). The results showed that the nutrimental and mineral composition of nopal changes as a function of the maturation as follow: The ash content increases from 18.41 for nopalitos (60 g of weight) to 23.24% (nopal pads 200 g); calcium content increases from 1.52 to 3.72%, while phosphorous exhibits an opposite trend: 0.43 to 0.27%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was determined by X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy and quantified by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Calcium oxalate decreases from 7.95 to 3.47 mg/g and the Ca/P ratio varies from 3.6 to 11. The soluble fibre decreases from 25.22 to 14.91%, while insoluble fibre increases from 29.87 to 41.65%. These results suggest that nopal could be an important source of minerals within the diets of people in Mexico and the rest of Latin America. PMID:17674207

  12. Evaluation of protective effect of freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder on acrylamide toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengyao; Liu, Xin; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Huan; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Berries are dietary plants with high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of berries (strawberry, grape, and blueberry) against the acrylamide (AA)-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice model, respectively. Mice were treated with 50 mg/kg b.w./day AA intraperitoneal injection for 5 d after feeding control diet or diet containing freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder. The results showed that AA induced a significant general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice. Compared with the control diet, the diets containing berries could reverse the AA-induced alterations in liver antioxidant enzymes activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, the AA-induced genotoxicity could be prevented by the diet containing berries. The DNA damage in the lymphocyte and liver cells and the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cell were significantly alleviated (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mice fed with diets containing berries showed a recovery in the sperm count, the sperm activity rate, sperm motility parameters, and the abnormal sperm rate (P < 0.05). Berry powders have remarkable intervention against the AA-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity. Abundant phenolics, especially anthocyanins, may contribute to the intervention. PMID:25754417

  13. Importance of dry and wet deposition of condensable organic vapors on the budget of secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, S.; Knote, C. J.; Hodzic, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the lifecycle of organic aerosols, removal processes must balance formation but have received considerably less attention. An important loss process, that has not yet been fully characterized, is the removal by wet and dry deposition of the gas phase organics that partition dynamically with the particle phase of the aerosol. Approaches like the volatility basis set (VBS) assume that these intermediate-volatility organic compounds exist in a dynamic equilibrium between gas and particle phases, and make up a considerable fraction of observed SOA. Parameterizing their deposition velocities is challenging, but recent studies with detailed chemical models have allowed the estimation of the required Henry's law solubility coefficients, with high values confirming the susceptibility to dry and wet deposition. We included these removal processes into the respective modules of the regional chemistry transport model WRF-chem and conducted month-long simulations covering the continental United States in different seasons. Sets of simulations without any deposition of organic vapors, with only dry or wet deposition, or with both turned on allow us to evaluate the effects of these removal processes on the continental SOA budget, and to assess their relative importance.

  14. Development and validation of a size-resolved particle dry deposition scheme for application in aerosol transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, A.; Zhang, L.

    2010-12-01

    A size-resolved particle dry deposition scheme is developed for inclusion in large-scale air quality and climate models where the size distribution and fate of atmospheric aerosols is of concern. The "resistance" structure is similar to what is proposed by Zhang et al. (2001), while a new "surface" deposition velocity (or surface resistance) is derived by simplification of a one-dimensional aerosol transport model (Petroff et al., 2008b, 2009). Compared to Zhang et al.'s model, the present model accounts for the leaf size, shape and area index as well as the height of the vegetation canopy. Consequently, it is more sensitive to the change of land covers, particularly in the accumulation mode (0.1-1 micron). A drift velocity is included to account for the phoretic effects related to temperature and humidity gradients close to liquid and solid water surfaces. An extended comparison of this model with experimental evidence is performed over typical land covers such as bare ground, grass, coniferous forest, liquid and solid water surfaces and highlights its adequate prediction. The predictions of the present model differ from Zhang et al.'s model in the fine mode, where the latter tends to over-estimate in a significant way the particle deposition, as measured by various investigators or predicted by the present model. The present development is thought to be useful to modellers of the atmospheric aerosol who need an adequate parameterization of aerosol dry removal to the earth surface, described here by 26 land covers. An open source code is available in Fortran90.

  15. Dry powder inhalers: mechanistic evaluation of lactose formulations containing salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Ticehurst, Martyn; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between physicochemical properties and aerosolisation performance of different grades of lactose. In order to get a wide range of physicochemical properties, various grades of lactose namely Flowlac 100 (FLO), Lactopress anhydrous 250 (LAC), Cellactose 80 (CEL), Tablettose 80 (TAB), and Granulac 200 (GRA) were used. The different lactose grades were carefully sieved to separate 63-90 μm particle size fractions and then characterised in terms of size, shape, density, flowability, and solid state. Formulations were prepared by blending each lactose with salbutamol sulphate (SS) at ratio of 67.5:1 (w/w), and then evaluated in terms of SS content uniformity, lactose-SS adhesion properties, and in vitro aerosolisation performance delivered from the Aerolizer. Sieved lactose grades showed similar particle size distributions (PSDs) and good flow properties but different particle shape, particle surface texture, and particle solid state. Content uniformity assessments indicated that lactose particles with rougher surface produced improved SS homogeneity within DPI formulation powders. Lactose-SS adhesion assessments indicated that lactose particles with more elongated shape and the rougher surface showed smaller adhesion force between lactose and salbutamol sulphate. Lactose powders with higher bulk density and higher tap density produced smaller emission (EM) and higher drug loss (DL) of SS. In vitro aerosolisation for various lactose grades followed the following rank order in terms of deposition performance: GRA>TAB>LAC ≈ CEL>FLO. Linear relationships were established showing that in order to maximize SS delivery to lower airway regions, lactose particles with more elongated shape, more irregular shape, and rougher surface are preferred. Therefore, considerable improvement in DPI performance can be achieved by careful selection of grade of lactose included within DPI formulations. PMID:22197772

  16. Encapsulation of mixtures of tuna oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in a spray dried powder formulation.

    PubMed

    Sanguansri, Luz; Day, Li; Shen, Zhiping; Fagan, Peter; Weerakkody, Rangika; Cheng, Li Jiang; Rusli, Jenny; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2013-12-01

    Spray dried emulsions are effective for carrying and stabilising combinations of fish oil and tributyrin, fish oil and resveratrol, or fish oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in one formulation. The encapsulation efficiencies were >99% for all three bioactives when a heated mixture of sodium caseinate: glucose: dried glucose syrup matrix (Encapsulant matrix 1) was used. When a heated sodium caseinate: glucose: processed starch matrix (Encapsulant matrix 2) was used, the encapsulation efficiencies were 90-92% for tributyrin and approximately 98% for resveratrol for all formulations but 79-91% for tuna oil where the efficiency was more formulation dependent. There was 84-86% remaining EPA, 85-87% remaining DHA, 85% remaining tributyrin and 94-96% remaining resveratrol after 18 months at 25 °C storage of the spray dried emulsions using Encapsulant matrix 1 across all formulations. In comparison, there was 83-87% remaining EPA and 84-89% remaining DHA, 80-82% remaining tributyrin, and 81-100% remaining resveratrol across all formulations with Encapsulant matrix 2. In vitro studies showed that on sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, <5% tuna oil was found as triglycerides, but all the tributyrin had been lipolysed. The presence of diglycerides, monoglycerides and free fatty acids in the in vitro digests suggested that lipolysis of tuna oil had occurred. The type of matrix used for encapsulating the bioactives had little effect on the lipolysis of the oils but affected the amount of solvent extractable resveratrol. The ability of delivering mixtures of bioactives within one formulation was demonstrated. PMID:24121865

  17. Application of spray granulation for conversion of mixed phospholipid-bile salt micelles to dry powder form: influence of drug hydrophobicity on nanoparticle reagglomeration

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qingyuan; Li, Xianyi; Shen, Baode; Xu, He; Shen, Chengying; Dai, Ling; Bai, Jinxia; Yuan, Hailong; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using spray granulation as a drying method to convert phospholipid (PL)-sodium deoxycholate (SDC)-mixed micelles (MMs) containing a water-insoluble drug to a solid dosage form and to evaluate how drugs with significantly different physicochemical properties affect the spray granulation process and subsequent in vitro and in vivo processes. Cucurbitacin B (Cu B) and glycyrrhizin (GL) were used as the model drugs. After spray granulation, the dried Cu B-PL/SDC-MM powder was completely redispersible within 15 minutes in vitro. Meanwhile, the area under the curve during 24 hours (AUC0–24) and peak serum concentration from the dried powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the values from Cu B-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo. However, a better result was obtained for GL, ie, the drug was redispersed completely within 5 minutes in vitro. Further, absorption from the dried GL-PL/SDC-MM powder was increased to the same level as that for GL-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo compared with the control group. The difference in these results can be found in Cu B and GL. Cu B nanoparticles reagglomerated when released, resulting in slower redispersibility and less absorption compared with the original PL-SDC-MMs. However, no agglomeration or delay was observed for GL. A possible explanation is the difference in surface hydrophobicity between Cu B and GL. The results of this study not only show that spray granulation is an effective drying technique that can complement spray-drying and freeze-drying, but also confirm that the physicochemical properties of a drug have a significant influence on the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dried powder obtained after spray granulation. PMID:24531119

  18. Application of spray granulation for conversion of mixed phospholipid-bile salt micelles to dry powder form: influence of drug hydrophobicity on nanoparticle reagglomeration.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qingyuan; Li, Xianyi; Shen, Baode; Xu, He; Shen, Chengying; Dai, Ling; Bai, Jinxia; Yuan, Hailong; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using spray granulation as a drying method to convert phospholipid (PL)-sodium deoxycholate (SDC)-mixed micelles (MMs) containing a water-insoluble drug to a solid dosage form and to evaluate how drugs with significantly different physicochemical properties affect the spray granulation process and subsequent in vitro and in vivo processes. Cucurbitacin B (Cu B) and glycyrrhizin (GL) were used as the model drugs. After spray granulation, the dried Cu B-PL/SDC-MM powder was completely redispersible within 15 minutes in vitro. Meanwhile, the area under the curve during 24 hours (AUC0-24) and peak serum concentration from the dried powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the values from Cu B-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo. However, a better result was obtained for GL, ie, the drug was redispersed completely within 5 minutes in vitro. Further, absorption from the dried GL-PL/SDC-MM powder was increased to the same level as that for GL-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo compared with the control group. The difference in these results can be found in Cu B and GL. Cu B nanoparticles reagglomerated when released, resulting in slower redispersibility and less absorption compared with the original PL-SDC-MMs. However, no agglomeration or delay was observed for GL. A possible explanation is the difference in surface hydrophobicity between Cu B and GL. The results of this study not only show that spray granulation is an effective drying technique that can complement spray-drying and freeze-drying, but also confirm that the physicochemical properties of a drug have a significant influence on the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dried powder obtained after spray granulation. PMID:24531119

  19. Technological Characterization and Stability of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Aquifoliaceae (Maté) Spray-Dried Powder

    PubMed Central

    Yatsu, Francini K.J.; Borghetti, Greice S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The present work was designed to produce an Ilex paraguariensis spray-dried powder (SDP), in semi-industrial scale, in order to characterize its technological and chemical properties as well as to evaluate the thermal stability and photostability of the main polyphenol constituents. The yield of the spray-drying process was satisfactory (67%). The resulting SDP showed to be a material presenting spherical particles with a mean size of 19.6 μm, smooth surface, and good flow properties. The four polyphenol compounds previously reported for the species—neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and rutin—were identified. Regarding the photostability test, the polyphenols present in the SDP proved to be stable against ultraviolet C radiation for 48 hours, independently of the packaging material. In the thermal stability test, the polyphenols were demonstrated to be hygroscopic and responsive to temperature (40°C) under an atmosphere of high relative humidity (75%) for 4 months, especially when the SDP was conditioned in permeable flasks. These findings demonstrate that heat and residual moisture content play an important role in the stability of the polyphenols and reinforce the relevance of conditioning SDP in humid tight packages under low temperatures. PMID:21370969

  20. Aqueous worm gels can be reconstituted from freeze-dried diblock copolymer powder.

    PubMed

    Kocik, M K; Mykhaylyk, O O; Armes, S P

    2014-06-14

    Worm-like diblock copolymer nanoparticles comprising poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) as a stabilizer block and poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA) as a core-forming block were readily synthesized at 10% w/w solids via aqueous dispersion polymerization at 70 °C using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) chemistry. On cooling to 20 °C, soft transparent free-standing gels are formed due to multiple inter-worm interactions. These aqueous PGMA-PHPMA diblock copolymer worms were freeze-dried, then redispersed in water with cooling to 3-5 °C before warming up to 20 °C; this protocol ensures molecular dissolution of the copolymer chains, which aids formation of a transparent aqueous gel. Rheology, SAXS and TEM studies confirm that such reconstituted gels comprise formed PGMA-PHPMA copolymer worms and they possess essentially the same physical properties determined for the original worm gels prior to freeze-drying. Such worm gel reconstitution is expected to be highly beneficial in the context of various biomedical applications, since it enables worm gels to be readily prepared using a wide range of cell growth media as the continuous aqueous phase. PMID:24733440

  1. Physical and immunogenic stability of spray freeze-dried influenza vaccine powder for pulmonary delivery: comparison of inulin, dextran, or a mixture of dextran and trehalose as protectants.

    PubMed

    Murugappan, Senthil; Patil, Harshad P; Kanojia, Gaurav; ter Veer, Wouter; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Frijlink, Henderik W; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2013-11-01

    One of the advantages of dry influenza vaccines over conventional liquid influenza vaccines is that they can be used for alternative routes of administration. Previous studies showed that spray freeze-drying is an excellent technique to prepare vaccine containing powders for pulmonary delivery (J.P. Amorij, V. Saluja, A.H. Petersen, W.L.J. Hinrichs, A. Huckriede, H.W. Frijlink, Pulmonary delivery of an inulin-stabilized influenza subunit vaccine prepared by spray-freeze drying induces systemic, mucosal humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses in BALB/c mice, Vaccine 25 (2007) 8707-8717; S.A. Audouy, G. van der Schaaf, W.L.J. Hinrichs, H.W. Frijlink, J. Wilschut, A. Huckriede. Development of a dried influenza whole inactivated virus vaccine for pulmonary immunization, Vaccine (2011)). The aim of this study was to investigate the physical and immunogenic stability of spray freeze-dried whole inactivated virus influenza vaccine prepared by using inulin, dextran, and a mixture of dextran and trehalose as protectants. Physical and biochemical characteristics of the vaccine powder were maintained at temperatures up to 30 °C for 3 months. In addition, in vivo data indicate that also, the immunogenic properties of the vaccine were maintained under these storage conditions. On the other hand, in vivo results also revealed that subtle changes in powder characteristics were induced during storage at 30 °C. However, laser diffraction measurements showed that problems associated with these subtle changes can be overcome by using dry powder inhalers with an efficient powder dispersing capacity. PMID:23933147

  2. New inhalation-optimized itraconazole nanoparticle-based dry powders for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Duret, Christophe; Wauthoz, Nathalie; Sebti, Thami; Vanderbist, Francis; Amighi, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Itraconazole (ITZ) dry powders for inhalation (DPI) composed of nanoparticles (NP) embedded in carrier microparticles were prepared and characterized. Methods DPIs were initially produced by reducing the ITZ particle size to the nanometer range using high-pressure homogenization with tocopherol polyethylene 1000 succinate (TPGS, 10% w/w ITZ) as a stabilizer. The optimized nanosuspension and the initial microsuspension were then spray-dried with different proportions of or in the absence of mannitol and/or sodium taurocholate. DPI characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy for morphology, laser diffraction to evaluate the size-reduction process, and the size of the dried NP when reconstituted in aqueous media, impaction studies using a multistage liquid impactor to determine the aerodynamic performance and fine-particle fraction that is theoretically able to reach the lung, and dissolution studies to determine the solubility of ITZ. Results Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the DPI particles were composed of mannitol microparticles with embedded nano- or micro-ITZ crystals. The formulations prepared from the nanosuspension exhibited good flow properties and better fine-particle fractions, ranging from 46.2% ± 0.5% to 63.2% ± 1.7% compared to the 23.1% ± 0.3% that was observed with the formulation produced from the initial microsuspension. Spray-drying affected the NP size by inducing irreversible aggregation, which was able to be minimized by the addition of mannitol and sodium taurocholate before the drying procedure. The ITZ NP-based DPI considerably increased the ITZ solubility (58 ± 2 increased to 96 ± 1 ng/mL) compared with that of raw ITZ or an ITZ microparticle-based DPI (<10 ng/mL). Conclusion Embedding ITZ NP in inhalable microparticles is a very effective method to produce DPI formulations with optimal aerodynamic properties and enhanced ITZ solubility. These formulations could be applied to other

  3. Dry-powder form of chitosan nanospheres containing influenza virus and adjuvants for nasal immunization.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, S; Tavassoti Kheiri, M; Tabatabaiean, M; Darzi, S; Tafaghodi, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and statistically optimize chitosan nanospheres. For this purpose chitosan powder was turned into nanospheres using tripolyphosphate as a crosslinker and through ionic gelation. D-optimal response surface design was applied to optimize the nanospheres. Their size and polydispersity index (PDI) were measured as the dependant variables. Then the inactivated influenza virus and/or CpG ODN or Quillaja saponin (QS) were incorporated into the chitosan nanospheres. The release profiles of the antigen and both adjuvants were obtained. The toxicity of the formulations was tested by XTT using Calu 6 cell lines. The size distribution and PDI of plain chitosan nanospheres was 581.1 ± 32.6 and 0.478 ± 0.04. After 4 h the release of antigen, QS and CpG from the chitosan matrix were 33, 36 and 62%, respectively. The inactivated virus remained intact during preparation, as revealed by the SDS-PAGE method. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy indicated no serious structural changes in the chitosan carrier in the presence of either the antigen or the immunoadjuvants. Although the antigen loaded into chitosan nanospheres showed slight cytotoxicity on lung-cancer cells, co-encapsulation of the adjuvant (especially CpG) lowered this effect. The results demonstrated that chitosan as a carrier and immunostimulator, along with CpG or QS adjuvants, creates a potential influenza vaccine delivery system which can be administered nasally. PMID:23568383

  4. Drying of sweet whey using drum dryer technique and utilization of the produced powder in French-type bread and butter cookies.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, L; Alsaed, A K; Al-Domi, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to dry sweet liquid whey using drum dryer and to utilize the whey powder in French-type bread and cookies as a sugar substitute. The sweet whey powder was characterized chemically for ash, moisture, water activity, protein, salt, acidity and lactose contents. Optimization parameters including drying temperature, drum speed and starch addition for whey drying by drum dryer were tested to produce the best powder characteristics. The optimum temperature was 140°C at a drum speed of 20 rpm with a corn starch level of 2% (weight per weight). Sweet whey powder produced was used as a sugar replacer in French-type bread and butter cookies at substitution levels of 25, 50 and 75% of total sugars. The developed products were analyzed chemically and sensorially. The two developed products were relatively high in protein, ash, lactose and salts compared to the control samples. Regarding the sensory evaluation, the results showed that the sugar substitution of 25 and 50% in bread and cookies were significantly (p<0.05) better than the control. It can be concluded that sweet whey powder can significantly improve the quality of the studied bakery items. PMID:26035954

  5. Design of sustained release fine particles using two-step mechanical powder processing: particle shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with polymer nanoparticle agglomerate.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keita; Ito, Natsuki; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2013-09-10

    We attempted to prepare sustained release fine particles using a two-step mechanical powder processing method; particle-shape modification and dry particle coating. First, particle shape of bulk drug was modified by mechanical treatment to yield drug crystals suitable for the coating process. Drug crystals became more rounded with increasing rotation speed, which demonstrates that powerful mechanical stress yields spherical drug crystals with narrow size distribution. This process is the result of destruction, granulation and refinement of drug crystals. Second, the modified drug particles and polymer coating powder were mechanically treated to prepare composite particles. Polymer nanoparticle agglomerate obtained by drying poly(meth)acrylate aqueous dispersion was used as a coating powder. The porous nanoparticle agglomerate has superior coating performance, because it is completely deagglomerated under mechanical stress to form fine fragments that act as guest particles. As a result, spherical drug crystals treated with porous agglomerate were effectively coated by poly(meth)acrylate powder, showing sustained release after curing. From these findings, particle-shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with nanoparticle agglomerate using a mechanical powder processor is expected as an innovative technique for preparing controlled-release coated particles having high drug content and size smaller than 100 μm. PMID:23796831

  6. Cationic, amphiphilic dextran nanomicellar clusters as an excipient for dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Vadakkan, Mithun Varghese; Binil Raj, S S; Kartha, Chandrasekharan C; Vinod Kumar, G S

    2015-09-01

    Effective delivery of drugs to alveoli in a controlled manner using hydrophobic polymers as carriers has already been reported. Preclinical studies revealed that toxicity and hydrophobicity are related to each other in pulmonary delivery. Here, we are reporting a chemically modified dextran having amphiphilicity and cationicity achieved by controlled grafting of stearyl amine. Two proportions of lipopolymers were synthesized and physico-chemical characterization was carried out. In vivo evaluation of sub-acute toxicity of the synthesized lipopolymer in Sprague-Dawley rats was carried out for three months. This was followed by a histological evaluation of the sacrificed animal's lung. Further, the synthesized lipopolymer was formulated with drug (Rifampicin) loaded inhalable microparticles through spray drying. The final drug formulation was tested for toxicity and proinflammatory responses in human cell lines. Dose deposition efficiency of the formulation was determined using Anderson Cascade Impactor. PMID:26013041

  7. Comparison of bronchodilator responses and deposition patterns of salbutamol inhaled from a pressurised metered dose inhaler, as a dry powder, and as a nebulised solution.

    PubMed Central

    Zainudin, B M; Biddiscombe, M; Tolfree, S E; Short, M; Spiro, S G

    1990-01-01

    The lung dose and deposition patterns of drug delivered by dry powder inhaler are not known. The effects of inhaling 400 micrograms salbutamol delivered by dry powder inhaler (two 200 micrograms salbutamol Rotacaps), by pressurised metered dose inhaler, and by Acorn nebuliser were studied in nine subjects with chronic stable asthma. Technetium-99m labelled Teflon particles were mixed with micronised salbutamol in the pressurised metered dose inhaler and in the capsules; technetium-99m labelled human serum albumin was mixed with the salbutamol solution for the nebuliser study. The pressurised metered dose inhaler deposited 11.2% (SEM 0.8%) of the dose within the lungs; this was significantly more than the dose deposited by the dry powder inhaler (9.1% (0.6%], but did not differ significantly from the dose delivered by the nebuliser (9.9% (0.7%]. Distribution within the peripheral third of the lung was significantly greater with the nebuliser than with the other two systems; FEV1 improved to a significantly greater extent after inhalation of 400 micrograms salbutamol from the pressurised metered dose inhaler (35.6% from baseline) than from the nebuliser (25.8%) or dry powder inhaler (25.2%). Thus after inhalation of similar doses of salbutamol a larger proportion of drug was deposited within the lungs when it was inhaled from a metered dose inhaler than from a dry powder system; the nebuliser achieved the greatest peripheral deposition. The bronchodilator response seems to depend on the amount of drug within the lungs rather than its pattern of distribution. Images PMID:2392793

  8. Effects of drying control chemical additive on properties of Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    High-density Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders comprising spherical particles are prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing dimethylacetamide (drying control chemical additive) and citric acid and ethylene glycol (organic additives). The prepared powders have high discharge capacities and good cycle properties. The optimum concentration of dimethylacetamide is 0.5 M. The addition of dimethylacetamide to the polymeric spray solutions containing citric acid and ethylene glycol helps in the effective control of the morphology of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. At a constant current density of 0.17 mA g -1, the initial discharge capacities of the powders obtained from the spray solution with and without the organic additives are 171 and 167 mAh g -1, respectively.

  9. Sodium-ion storage properties of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide composite powders prepared by a spray drying process and the nanoscale Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G. D.; Cho, J. S.; Kang, Y. C.

    2015-10-01

    Spray-drying and the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process are used to prepare nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders with excellent Na-ion storage properties. Metallic Ni nanopowder-decorated rGO powders, formed as intermediate products, are transformed into composite powders of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO with mixed crystal structures of Ni3S2 and Ni9S8 phases by the sulfidation process under H2S gas. Nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders with the main crystal structure of Ni3S2 are also prepared as comparison samples by the direct sulfidation of nickel acetate-graphene oxide (GO) composite powders obtained by spray-drying. In electrochemical properties, the discharge capacities at the 150th cycle of the nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders prepared by sulfidation of the Ni/rGO composite and nickel acetate/GO composite powders at a current density of 0.3 A g-1 are 449 and 363 mA h g-1, respectively; their capacity retentions, calculated from the tenth cycle, are 100 and 87%. The nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO composite powders possess structural stability over repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes, and also show excellent rate performance for Na-ion storage.Spray-drying and the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process are used to prepare nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders with excellent Na-ion storage properties. Metallic Ni nanopowder-decorated rGO powders, formed as intermediate products, are transformed into composite powders of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO with mixed crystal structures of Ni3S2 and Ni9S8 phases by the sulfidation process under H2S gas. Nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders with the main crystal structure of Ni3S2 are also prepared as comparison samples by the direct sulfidation of nickel acetate-graphene oxide (GO) composite powders obtained by spray-drying. In electrochemical properties, the discharge capacities at the

  10. The influence of physical properties and morphology of crystallised lactose on delivery of salbutamol sulphate from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Larhrib, Hassan; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Kolosionek, Ewa; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanistic evaluation of physicochemical properties of new engineered lactose on aerosolisation performance of salbutamol sulphate (SS) delivered from dry powder inhaler (DPI). Different crystallised lactose particles were obtained from binary mixtures of butanol:acetone. The sieved fractions (63-90 μm) of crystallised lactose were characterised in terms of size, shape, flowability, true density and aerosolisation performance (using multiple twin stage impinger (MSLI), Aerolizer(®) inhaler device, and salbutamol sulphate as a model drug). Compared to commercial lactose, crystallised lactose particles were less elongated, covered with fine lactose particles, and had a rougher surface morphology. The crystallised lactose powders had a considerably lower bulk and tap density and poorer flow when compared to commercial lactose. Engineered carrier with better flow showed improved drug content homogeneity, reduced amounts of drug "deposited" on the inhaler device and throat, and a smaller drug aerodynamic diameter upon inhalation. Aerodynamic diameter of salbutamol sulphate increased as lactose aerodynamic diameter decreased (linear, R(2)=0.9191) and/or as fine particle lactose content increased (linear, R(2)=0.8653). Improved drug aerosolisation performance in the case of crystallised lactose particles was attributed to lower drug-carrier adhesion forces due to a rougher surface and higher fine particle content. In conclusion, this work proved that using binary combinations of solvents in crystallisation medium is vital in modification of the physicochemical and micromeritic properties of carriers to achieve a desirable aerosolisation performance from DPI formulations. Among all lactose samples, lactose particles crystallised from pure butanol generated the highest overall DPI formulations desirability. PMID:21962946

  11. Preparation and body distribution of freeze-dried powder of ursolic acid phospholipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao Ju; Hu, Xian Ming; Yi, Yi Mu; Wan, Jing

    2009-03-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a poor soluble natural triterpenoid. It has a wide variety of antitumor activities. We extracted it from Crataegus pinnatifida for the first time. To achieve a high bioavailability, targeting effect, stability, and an intravenous (i.v.) administration, the UA phospholipid nanopowders (UA-PL-NP) were prepared, characterized, and evaluated. With soybean phospholipid as the carrier and poloxamer 188 as emulsifier, the UA nanoparticle suspension was prepared by solvent emulsification-evaporation and ultrasonic dispersion. The UA-PL-NP was obtained by freeze drying. The body distribution in mice was studied after i.v. administration of UA-PL-NP and an UA control solution (UA-Sol). The entrapment efficiency (EE) and UA concentration in vitro and in vivo were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the UA-PL-NP had an average diameter of 273.8 nm with a zeta potential of -23.2 mV. The EE was up to 86.0%, and the drug loading (DL) was 12.8%. After i.v. administration of UA-PL-NP with low, middle and high doses, UA concentration in the livers of mice obviously increased during tested period and was highest in tested organs at 4 h. The AUC(0-12) ratio of UA-PL-NP in liver to that in plasma was much higher than that of UA-Sol, and the liver AUC(0-12) ratio of UA-PL-NP to UA-Sol was 8.6. These results indicate the UA-PL-NP have a good targeting to the liver after i.v. administration. Therefore, the UA-PL-NP is demonstrated to be available as an i.v. and liver targeting system for lipophilic antitumor triterpenoids. PMID:18798089

  12. Aerosol Therapy for Obstructive Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Inhaled aerosol therapies are the mainstay of treatment of obstructive lung diseases. Aerosol devices deliver drugs rapidly and directly into the airways, allowing high local drug concentrations while limiting systemic toxicity. While numerous clinical trials, literature reviews, and expert panel guidelines inform the choice of inhalational drugs, deciding which aerosol device (ie, metered-dose inhaler, nebulizer, or dry powder inhaler) best suits a given patient and clinical setting can seem arbitrary and confusing. Similar confusion regarding Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) coding for administration of aerosol therapies can lead to lost revenue from underbilling and wasted administrative effort handling denied claims. This article reviews the aerosol devices currently available, discusses their relative merits in various clinical settings, and summarizes appropriate CPT coding for aerosol therapy. PMID:21896522

  13. The Effect of Solvent Treatment on the Performance of Various Carriers in Dry Powder Inhalations Containing Salbutamol Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Siahai Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Millen, Leonie; Momin, MN; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : It has been suggested that the efficiency of dry poder inhaler (DPI) is generally low. Therefore, the aim of the present research work was to use the solvent treatment of the carrier in DPIformulations to see the possibility of inducing desirable characteristics. Materials and Methods: Lactose sieve fractions of 63-90 µm were submerged in ethanol or 80% v/v ethanol, methanol or propanol. Lactose crystals were then blended with either 1% w/w or 4% w/w salbutamol sulphate using a Turbula mixer. Drug detachment was studied using a multistage liquid. Laser particle size analyzer, DSC, and pycnometer were used to characterize the treated lactose and mannitol samples. SEM was used to study surface morphologies. In case of mannitol as a carrier only ethanol was used as a solvent. Results: SEM images displayed less rugosities and increased surface smoothness after submersion. Although the tomahawk like shape remained fairly constant in most lactose samples, the solvent treatment changed the shape of mannitol particles which was proved by SEM results. Deposition results showed that the type of solvent had an influence on fine particle fraction. In addition, the payload had also a big impact on fine particle fraction values. Generally, treated samples showed better performance compared to untreated samples. Solid state analysis by DSC showed that no major changes occurred in the treated samples compared to untreated samples. Conclusion: The solvent treated method can be used as an approach to improve the performance of carriers such as lactose and mannitol in dry powder inhaler. PMID:23997919

  14. Pharmaceutical aerosols for the treatment and prevention of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Shumaila N. M.; Garcia-Contreras, Lucila

    2012-01-01

    Historically, pharmaceutical aerosols have been employed for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but in the past decades their use has been expanded to treat lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other respiratory diseases. Tuberculosis (TB) is acquired after inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the bacilli from the cough of infected individuals. Even though TB affects other organs, the lungs are the primary site of infection, which makes the pulmonary route an ideal alternative route to administer vaccines or drug treatments. Optimization of formulations and delivery systems for anti-TB vaccines and drugs, as well as the proper selection of the animal model to evaluate those is of paramount importance if novel vaccines or drug treatments are to be successful. Pharmaceutical aerosols for patient use are generated from metered dose inhalers, nebulizers, and dry powder inhalers (DPIs). In addition to the advantages of providing more efficient delivery of the drug, low cost, and portability, pharmaceutical dry powder aerosols are more stable than inhalable liquid dosage forms and do not require refrigeration. Methods to manufacture dry powders in respirable sizes include micronization, spray drying, and other proprietary technologies. Inhalable dry powders are characterized in terms of their drug content, particle size, and dispersibility to ensure deposition in the appropriate lung region and effective aerosolization from the device. These methods will be illustrated as they were applied for the manufacture and characterization of powders containing anti-tubercular agents and vaccines for pulmonary administration. The influence of formulation, selection of animal model, method of aerosol generation, and administration on the efficacy demonstrated in a given study will be illustrated by the evaluation of pharmaceutical aerosols of anti-TB drugs and vaccines in guinea pigs by our

  15. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Hot Dogs by Surface Application of Freeze-Dried Bacteriocin-Containing Powders from Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Gülhan; Nielsen, Barbara; Ionita, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactococcus lactis BFE 920, L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, L. lactis subsp. cremoris ATCC 14365, Lactobacillus curvatus L442, Lact. curvatus LTH 1174, and Lact. bavaricus MN, were grown in cheddar cheese whey supplemented with complex nutrient sources. Cell-free culture supernatants were freeze-dried, and the resulting bacteriocin-containing powders were applied on the surface of hot dogs that were inoculated (~4 log cfu/hot dog) with a five-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail. Hot dogs were vacuum-sealed and stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks. L. monocytogenes was enumerated, using both tryptic soy agar (TSA) and oxford listeria agar (OXA), on day 0 and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of the refrigerated storage. In hot dogs containing only the L. monocytogenes inoculum, L. monocytogenes counts increased from 4 up to 7 log cfu/hot dog. All samples containing freeze-dried bacteriocin-containing powders exhibited significantly lowered (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes populations on the surface of hot dogs throughout the 4-week study except for bavaricin MN powder. Bacterial counts on hot dogs packed without any powder were statistically equal on day 0 when enumerated on OXA. Freeze-dried bacteriocin-containing powders from Lact. curvatus L442 and L. lactis subsp. cremoris ATCC 14365 decreased L. monocytogenes populations on the surface of hot dogs by greater than 2 log cfu/hot dog throughout the 4-week study. For the powdered bacteriocin preparations from L. lactis BFE 920, L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, and Lact. curvatus LTH 1174, L. monocytogenes populations were determined to be approximately 3-log cfu/hot dog after 4 weeks of storage. PMID:27094263

  16. Bioethanol production from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Shan-Mei; He, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2015-04-01

    It has been found that recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6525 can produce high concentration of ethanol in one-step fermentation from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers or inulin. However, the utilization rate of raw materials was low and the fermentation process was costly and complicated. Therefore, in this study, after the optimum processing conditions for ethanol production in fed-batch fermentation were determined in flask, the recombinant S. cerevisiae 6525 was first used to produce ethanol from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in 5-L agitating fermentor. After 72 h of fermentation, around 84.3 g/L ethanol was produced in the fermentation liquids, and the conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 0.453, or 88.6 % of the theoretical value of 0.511. This study showed high feasibility of bioethanol industrial production from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers and provided a basis for it in the future. PMID:25605047

  17. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  18. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant. PMID:25875447

  19. Removal of Co(II) from waste water using dry cow dung powder : a green ambrosia to soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    Co(II) is one of the hazardous products found in the waste streams. The anthropogenic activities are major sources of Co(II) in our environment. Some of the well-established processes such as chemical precipitation, membrane process, liquid extraction and ion exchange have been applied as a tool for the removal of this metal ion [1]. All the above methods are not considered to be greener due to some of their shortcomings such as incomplete metal ion removal, high requirement of energy and reagents, generation of toxic sludge or other waste materials which in turn require further treatments for their cautious disposal. The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous medium. DCP, is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic-aromatic species such as 'Humic acid' (HA), Fulvic acid, Ulmic acid [2,3]. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 60Co(II) as a tracer and effect of various process parameters such as pH (1-8), temperature (283-363K), amount of biosorbent (5-40 g/L), time of equilibration (0-30 min), agitation speed (0-4000 rpm), concentration of initial metal ions (0.5-20 mg/mL) and interfering effect of different organic as well as inorganic salts were studied. The Kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model [4] with high correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.999 and adsorption capacity of 2.31 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were also evaluated which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Co(II). Many naturally available materials are used for biosorption of hazardous metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research

  20. Mathematical Model for Determinating the Efficiency of Separation of Aerosols in Dry and Sprayed Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A. G.; Iskhakov, A. R.

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent fl ow of aerosols in a cylindrical channel has been investigated. Differential equations of transfer of dispersed particles have been considered, and a two-dimensional equation with a mass source has been solved. Different numerical experiments have been conducted on the basis of the model proposed. Air with water droplets was used as a gas-liquid mixture in the calculations. The influence of the spraying of the channel, the fl ow velocity, the diameter of dispersed particles, and the water concentration on the separation efficiency of an aerosol have been studied. Agreement with experimental data has been shown. A mathematical model has been developed that can be used in designing gas-cleaning apparatuses for enterprises of various industries.

  1. Effect of Flow Rate on In Vitro Aerodynamic Performance of NEXThaler® in Comparison with Diskus® and Turbohaler® Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Buttini, Francesca; Brambilla, Gaetano; Copelli, Diego; Sisti, Viviana; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Bettini, Ruggero; Pasquali, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: European and United States Pharmacopoeia compendial procedures for assessing the in vitro emitted dose and aerodynamic size distribution of a dry powder inhaler require that 4.0 L of air at a pressure drop of 4 kPa be drawn through the inhaler. However, the product performance should be investigated using conditions more representative of what is achievable by the patient population. This work compares the delivered dose and the drug deposition profile at different flow rates (30, 40, 60, and 90 L/min) of Foster NEXThaler® (beclomethasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate), Seretide® Diskus® (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate), and Symbicort® Turbohaler® (budesonide/formoterol fumarate). Methods: The delivered dose uniformity was tested using a dose unit sampling apparatus (DUSA) at inhalation volumes either 2.0 or 4.0 L and flow rates 30, 40, 60, or 90 L/min. The aerodynamic assessment was carried out using a Next Generation Impactor by discharging each inhaler at 30, 40, 60, or 90 L/min for a time sufficient to obtain an air volume of 4 L. Results: Foster® NEXThaler® and Seretide® Diskus® showed a consistent dose delivery for both the drugs included in the formulation, independently of the applied flow rate. Contrary, Symbicort® Turbohaler® showed a high decrease of the emitted dose for both budesonide and formoterol fumarate when the device was operated at airflow rate lower that 60 L/min. The aerosolizing performance of NEXThaler® and Diskus® was unaffected by the flow rate applied. Turbohaler® proved to be the inhaler most sensitive to changes in flow rate in terms of fine particle fraction (FPF) for both components. Among the combinations tested, Foster NEXThaler® was the only one capable to deliver around 50% of extra-fine particles relative to delivered dose. Conclusions: NEXThaler® and Diskus® were substantially unaffected by flow rate through the inhaler in terms of both delivered dose and

  2. Weather and climate impacts of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolusu, Seshagirirao; Marsham, John; Spracklen, Dominic; Parker, Douglas; Dalvi, Mohit; Johnson, Ben; Mann, Graham

    2016-04-01

    Amazonia is a major global source of biomass burning aerosols (BBA) with impacts on weather and climate. BBA can be represented in weather models, with satellite-observed fires used to provide emissions fields, but such emissions normally require tuning to give realistic aerosol fields in models. Here, we investigate the two-way coupling between BBA and regional weather during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign, using both a set of short-range (2-day) forecasts and nested 20-day runs with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM). Short-range forecasts with parametrised convection show that BBA exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth-atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation: BBA reduce the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m‑2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere radiation by 8 ± 1 W m‑2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m‑2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude, but of the same sign. The differences in heating induced by BBA lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa. BBA cools the boundary layer, but warms air above, reducing the BL depth by around 19 m. Locally, on a 150 km scale, changes in precipitation reach around 4 mm day‑1 due to changes in the location of convection, with BBA leading to fewer rain events that are more intense, which may be linked to the BBA changing the vertical profile of stability in the lower atmosphere. The localised changes in rainfall tend to average out to give a 5 % (0.06 mm day‑1) decrease in total precipitation, but the change in regional water budget is dominated by decreased evapotranspiration from the reduced net surface fluxes (0.2 to 0.3 mm day‑1). The results show that although including BBA either prognostoically, or through a climatology, improves forecasts, but differences between the impacts of prognostic and climatological aerosol

  3. Influence of small amorphous amounts in hydrophilic and hydrophobic APIs on storage stability of dry powder inhalation products.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorsten; Krehl, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different manufacturing methods to induce formation of amorphous content, changes of physico-chemical characteristics of powder blends and changes of aerodynamic properties over storage time (6months) analyzed with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) are investigated. Earlier studies have shown that standard pharmaceutical operations lead to structural disorders which may influence drug delivery and product stability. In this investigation, fully amorphous drug samples produced by spray-drying (SD) and ball-milling (BM) as well as semi-crystalline samples (produced by blending and micronization) are studied and compared to fully crystalline starting material. The amorphous content of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was determined using a validated one-step DVS-method. For the conducted blending and micronization tests, amorphous amounts up to a maximum of 5.1% for salbutamol sulfate (SBS) and 17.0% for ciclesonide (CS) were measured. In order to investigate the impact of small amorphous amounts, inhalable homogenous powder mixtures with very high and low amorphous content and a defined particle size were prepared with a Turbula blender for each API. These blends were stored (6months, 45% RH, room temperature) to evaluate the influence of amorphous amounts on storage stability. The fine particle fraction (FPF: % of emitted dose<5μm) was determined with the NGI at defined time points. The amorphous amounts showed a major effect on dispersion behavior, the mixtures of the two APIs showed differences at the beginning of the study and significant differences in storage stability. The FPF values for SBS decreased during storage (FPF: from 35% to <27%) for the blend with high amorphous amounts, in contrast the initially re-crystallized sample achieved a comparable constant level of about 25%. For the hydrophobic CS a constantly increasing FPF (from 6% to >15%) over storage time for both types of blends was

  4. Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbert, W.; Taylor, P. E.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2007-09-01

    (~25 ng m-3), we have also calculated a value of ~17 Tg yr-1 as a first estimate for the global average emission rate of ABS over land surfaces, which is consistent with the typically observed concentrations of ABS (~10³-104 m-3; ~0.1-1 μg m-3). The global average atmospheric abundance and emission rate of total fungal spores, including wet and dry discharged species, are estimated to be higher by a factor of about three, i.e. 1 μg m-3 and ~50 Tg yr-1. Comparisons with estimated rates of emission and formation of other major types of organic aerosol (~47 Tg yr-1 of anthropogenic primary organic aerosol; 12-70 Tg yr-1 of secondary organic aerosol) indicate that emissions from fungi should be taken into account as a significant global source of organic aerosol. The effects of fungal spores and related chemical components might be particularly important in tropical regions, where both physicochemical processes in the atmosphere and biological activity at the Earth's surface are particularly intense, and where the abundance of fungal spores and related chemical compounds are typically higher than in extratropical regions.

  5. Fabrication of LiCoO 2 cathode powder for thin film battery by aerosol flame deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taewon; Cho, Kihyun; Oh, Jangwon; Shin, Dongwook

    Crystalline LiCoO 2 nano-particles for thin film battery were synthesized and deposited by aerosol flame deposition (AFD). The aqueous precursor solution of the lithium nitrate and cobalt acetate was atomized with an ultrasonic vibrator and subsequently carried into the central tube of the torch by flowing dry Ar gas. LiCoO 2 were formed by oxy-hydrogen flame and deposited on a substrate placed in a heating stage. The deposited soot film composed of nano-sized particles was subsequently consolidated into a dense film by high temperature heat treatment at 500-800 °C for 5 h and characterized by SEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline carbonates and oxide were first formed by the deposition and the subsequent heat treatment converted those to LiCoO 2. The FWHMs of the XRD peaks were reduced and their intensity increased as the heat treatment temperature increased, which is due to improved crystallinity. When judged from the low enough cation mixing and well-developed layered structure, it is believed that the LiCoO 2 film satisfied the quality standard for the real application. SEM measurements showed that LiCoO 2 were nano-crystalline structure with the average particle size <70 nm and the particle size increased with the increase of heat treatment temperature. The thickness of thin film LiCoO 2 before the consolidation process was about 15 μm and reduced to about 4 μm after sintering.

  6. Spray-freeze-drying of nanosuspensions: the manufacture of insulin particles for needle-free ballistic powder delivery

    PubMed Central

    Schiffter, Heiko; Condliffe, Jamie; Vonhoff, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of preparing microparticles with high insulin loading suitable for needle-free ballistic drug delivery by spray-freeze-drying (SFD) was examined in this study. The aim was to manufacture dense, robust particles with a diameter of around 50 µm, a narrow size distribution and a high content of insulin. Atomization using ultrasound atomizers showed improved handling of small liquid quantities as well as narrower droplet size distributions over conventional two-fluid nozzle atomization. Insulin nanoparticles were produced by SFD from solutions with a low solid content (<10 mg ml−1) and subsequent ultra-turrax homogenization. To prepare particles for needle-free ballistic injection, the insulin nanoparticles were suspended in matrix formulations with a high excipient content (>300 mg ml−1) consisting of trehalose, mannitol, dextran (10 kDa) and dextran (150 kDa) (abbreviated to TMDD) in order to maximize particle robustness and density after SFD. With the increase in insulin content, the viscosity of the nanosuspensions increased. Liquid atomization was possible up to a maximum of 250 mg of nano-insulin suspended in a 1.0 g matrix. However, if a narrow size distribution with a good correlation between theoretical and measurable insulin content was desired, no more than 150 mg nano-insulin could be suspended per gram of matrix formulation. Particles were examined by laser light diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and tap density testing. Insulin stability was assessed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), reverse phase chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Densification of the particles could be achieved during primary drying if the product temperature (Tprod) exceeded the glass transition temperature of the freeze concentrate (Tg′) of −29.4°C for TMDD (3∶3∶3∶1) formulations. Particles showed a collapsed and wrinkled morphology owing to viscous flow of the freeze concentrate. With increasing insulin

  7. Assessment of satisfaction with different dry powder inhalation devices in Greek patients with COPD and asthma: the ANASA study

    PubMed Central

    Zervas, Eleftherios; Samitas, Konstantinos; Gaga, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to inhaled therapy is common in patients with asthma and COPD. An inhaler selection based on patients’ preference could be beneficial to adherence and treatment effectiveness. Properly designed questionnaires can assess patients’ satisfaction with their medication devices. The aim of this study was to estimate, using the Feeling of Satisfaction with Inhaler (FSI-10) questionnaire, the ease of use and satisfaction of patients regarding three different marketed dry powder inhalers (DPIs): Diskus® (DK), Elpenhaler® (EH), and Turbuhaler® (TH). The FSI-10 is a self-completed questionnaire to assess patients’ opinions regarding ease of use, portability, and usability of devices, irrespective of the drug used. Patients and methods We performed a 4-week, open, noninterventional, multicenter, parallel clinical study in 560 asthmatic and 561 COPD patients. During the first visit, patients were classified into three groups according to the DPI they were already using. Patients were regularly receiving their treatments (Seretide DK, Rolenium EH, and Symbicort TH) and agreed to complete the FSI-10 questionnaire in the second visit. Results A total of 517 COPD and 523 asthma patients completed the study. All DPIs tested received satisfactory results, while the EH obtained consistently higher scores in the FSI-10 in both COPD and asthma patients (44.7 and 44.1 vs 41.5 and 43 for TH, 40.8 and 41.4 for DK, P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). TH was rated better than DK by asthma patients. Patients suffering with severe COPD tended to express higher feeling of satisfaction than those with moderate or mild disease, irrespective of the device used. Conclusion All DPIs tested were highly acceptable by asthma and COPD patients of different ages; nevertheless, EH received significantly higher ratings in most of the questionnaire domains. COPD patients in advanced stages of the disease generally expressed higher level of satisfaction with their devices

  8. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Shim, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

  9. Engineered mannitol as an alternative carrier to enhance deep lung penetration of salbutamol sulphate from dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Momin, Mohammed N; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Murphy, John; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-09-01

    In this research mannitol particles were prepared by recrystallisation using non-solvent precipitation technique to investigate the effect of engineered carrier particles on their physicochemical properties and the in vitro deposition profiles of a model drug (salbutamol sulphate (SS)) from a dry powder inhaler (DPI). To this end, mannitol aqueous solution (15%, w/v) was added to different ratios of ethanol:water (100:0, 95:5, 90:10 and 85:15) to obtain mannitol particles. These crystallised mannitol particles were analysed in terms of micromeritic properties, morphology, DSC, FT-IR, and in vitro fine particle fraction (FPF) and emitted dose (ED) of SS. The results showed that the elongation ratio of all the recrystallised mannitol batches was higher than the original material giving them a needle-shaped morphology. Salbutamol sulphate deposition profiles from DPI formulation containing recrystallised needle-shaped mannitol showed enhanced performance and better delivery to the lower MSLI stages. The FPF increased from 15.4+/-1.1 to 45.8+/-0.7% when the commercial mannitol was replaced by mannitol crystallised from ethanol:water (90:10). This improvement could be due to the presence of elongated mannitol crystals in formulation blends. Solid state characterisation of engineered mannitol showed that the commercial mannitol was beta-form, mannitol recrystallised from ethanol:water (85:15) was alpha-form and that samples recrystallised in presence of pure ethanol or other ratios of ethanol:water (95:5 and 90:10) were the mixtures of alpha-, beta- and delta-forms. Multi-solvent recrystallisation technique was proved to have potential to produce mannitol crystals suitable for enhanced aerosolisation efficiency. Comparing different crystallised mannitol formulations showed that the final form (the type of polymorph) of the crystallised mannitol does not have a substantial effect on salbutamol sulphate aerosolisation performance. PMID:20537870

  10. Comparison of the clinical effects of combined salmeterol/fluticasone delivered by dry powder or pressurized metered dose inhaler.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Masayuki; Shirai, Toshihiro; Hirashima, Junko; Iikura, Motoyasu; Sugiyama, Haruhito

    2016-04-01

    The salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC) inhaler is currently the most widely used maintenance drug for asthmatics worldwide. Although the effectiveness of SFC as either a dry powder inhaler (DPI) or a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) is well documented, there is limited data comparing the clinical efficacies of the two devices. To address this issue, we carried out a randomized crossover trial in which asthmatic patients (n = 47; mean age, 62.5 ± 16.5 years old) received a 12-week treatment of SFC DPI (50/250 μg twice daily) or SFC pMDI (four puffs of 25/125 μg daily). After a 4-week washout period, patients received another crossover treatment for 12 weeks. Respiratory resistance and reactance were measured by forced oscillation technique (MostGraph-01), spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and an asthma control test (ACT) every 4 weeks. The mean forced expiratory volume1.0 at the baseline was 2.16 ± 0.86 (L). Respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (R5), the difference between R5 and R at 20 Hz (R5 - R20), and FeNO improved in both treatment groups, while reactance at 5 Hz (X5) and ACT score improved only in the pMDI group. In patients >70 years old (n = 21), R5, R5 - R20, ΔX5, and FeNO improved only in the pMDI group. These results suggest that SFC by pMDI produces a stronger anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory effect even in patients whose asthma is well controlled by SFC delivered by DPI. PMID:26898348

  11. Delivery characteristics and patients’ handling of two single-dose dry-powder inhalers used in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kenneth R; Fogarty, Charles M; Peckitt, Clare; Lassen, Cheryl; Jadayel, Dalal; Dederichs, Juergen; Dalvi, Mukul; Kramer, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    For optimal efficacy, an inhaler should deliver doses consistently and be easy for patients to use with minimal instruction. The delivery characteristics, patients’ correct use, and preference of two single-dose dry powder inhalers (Breezhaler and HandiHaler) were evaluated in two complementary studies. The first study examined aerodynamic particle size distribution, using inhalation profiles of seven patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The second was an open-label, two-period, 7-day crossover study, evaluating use of the inhalers with placebo capsules by 82 patients with mild to severe COPD. Patients’ correct use of the inhalers was assessed after reading written instructions on Day 1, and after training and 7 days of daily use. Patients’ preference was assessed after completion of both study periods. Patient inhalation profiles showed average peak inspiratory flows of 72 L/minute through Breezhaler and 36 L/minute through HandiHaler. For Breezhaler and HandiHaler, fine particle fractions were 27% and 10%, respectively. In the second study, correct use of Breezhaler and HandiHaler was achieved by >77% of patients for any step after 7 days; 61% of patients showed an overall preference for Breezhaler and 31% for HandiHaler (P = 0.01). Breezhaler is a low-resistance inhaler suitable for use by patients with a range of disease severities. Most patients used both inhalers correctly after 7 days, but more patients showed an overall preference for the Breezhaler compared with the HandiHaler. These are important factors for optimum dose delivery and successful COPD management. PMID:21760722

  12. Effect of Device Design and Formulation on the In Vitro Comparability for Multi-Unit Dose Dry Powder Inhalers.

    PubMed

    Shur, Jagdeep; Saluja, Bhawana; Lee, Sau; Tibbatts, James; Price, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The focus of this investigation was to understand the design space to achieve comparable in vitro performance of two multi-unit dose dry powder inhalers (DPIs)—Flixotide® Accuhaler® (reference product) and MultiHaler® (test product). Flow field, pressure drop and particle trajectories within the test and reference DPI devices were modelled via computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Micronized fluticasone propionate (FP) was characterized to determine particle size distribution (PSD), specific surface area (SSA) and surface interfacial properties using cohesive-adhesive balance (CAB). CFD simulations suggested that the pressure drop and airflow velocity in the MultiHaler® were greater than Accuhaler®. Two modified test devices (MOD MH 1 and MOD MH 2) were manufactured with the introduction of by-pass channels in the airflow path, which achieved comparable specific resistance and airflow path between the test and reference devices. Assessment of reference product formulation in modified test devices suggested that MOD MH 2 achieved comparable in vitro performance to the reference product. CAB analysis suggested that adhesion of all FP batches to lactose was different, with batch D showing greatest and batch A least adhesion to lactose. Test DPI formulations were manufactured using four different batches of FP with milled or sieved lactose, and showed that batch A FP formulated with sieved lactose in MOD MH 2 device demonstrated the highest degree of similarity to the Accuhaler® in vitro deposition. Application of CFD modelling and material characterization of formulation raw materials enabled the modification of device and formulation critical material attributes to create an in vitro comparable device/formulation system to the reference product. PMID:25956383

  13. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the gas phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the WRF-Chem regional chemistry transport model, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48 and 63% respectively over the continental US. Dry deposition of gas-phase SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (-40 vs. -8% for anthropogenics, and -52 vs. -11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas phase (61% for anthropogenics and 76% for biogenics). Results are sensitive to assumptions made in the dry deposition scheme, but gas-phase deposition of SVOCs remains crucial even under conservative estimates. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We consider this a lower bound for the effect of gas-phase SVOC removal on SOA concentrations. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm-1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility of SVOCs made in

  14. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-01-06

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the gas phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the WRF-Chem regional chemistry transport model, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48 and 63% respectively over the continental US. Dry deposition ofmore » gas-phase SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (−40 vs. −8% for anthropogenics, and −52 vs. −11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas phase (61% for anthropogenics and 76% for biogenics). Results are sensitive to assumptions made in the dry deposition scheme, but gas-phase deposition of SVOCs remains crucial even under conservative estimates. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We consider this a lower bound for the effect of gas-phase SVOC removal on SOA concentrations. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm−1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility

  15. Freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder rich in anthocyanins did not reduce weight gain and lipid content in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Marques, Anne Y Castro; Dragano, Nathalia Romanelli; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Batista, Angela Giovana; Palazzo, Carina Carlucci; Maróstica, Mário Roberto

    2012-03-01

    Jaboticaba, a native fruit from Brazilian Atlantic Forest, is an important source of anthocyanins. Anthocyanins have been recently identified as modulators of lipid metabolism and energy expenditure 'in vivo'. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder on obesity treatment in different experimental models. Obese Swiss mice and obese Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 1, 2 and 4% freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder for 6 weeks. Energy intake, weight gain and body composition were determined, and the results were analyzed using variance and Tukey's tests (p < 0.05). The energy intake was higher in mice groups supplemented with 2% and 4% of jaboticaba peel. In relation to weight gain, the mice supplemented with 2% of jaboticaba peel had higher total weight gain than the other experimental groups, while no significant difference in the fat mass accumulation was observed among the groups. The rats did not show significant differences in the evaluated parameters. These results suggest that the supplementation with freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder, at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4%, was not effective in the reduction of energy intake, weight gain and body fat both in mice and in rats. PMID:23477206

  16. Direct observations of shortwave aerosol radiative forcing at surface and its diurnal variation during the Asian dry season at southwest Indian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj Kumar; Rajeev, K.

    2016-08-01

    The Arabian Sea witnesses consistent occurrence of a large-scale aerosol plume transported by the northerlies from the Asian region during the dry season (December-April). This paper presents direct observations of the diurnal variation (and dependence on solar zenith angle, SZA) of instantaneous aerosol direct radiative forcing efficiency (IADRFE) and aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) at surface during the period from December to March of 2010-2013 at Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N, 77°E), an Indian peninsular station adjoining the Arabian Sea coast, which resides well within this aerosol plume. Magnitude of the IADRFE increases with SZA from -75 ± 20 W m-2 τ 500 -1 at SZA of ~80° to attain a peak value of -170 ± 30 W m-2 τ 500 -1 at SZA ~60° in March (~3 h before and after the local noon). Absolute magnitudes and SZA dependence of the observed seasonal mean IADRFE are in agreement (within 16 % of the absolute magnitudes) with those estimated using radiation transfer computations employing an aerosol model with visible band single-scattering albedo of ~0.90 ± 0.03. Observed values of the diurnal mean aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ADRFE) averaged during the season (December-March) vary between -71 and -76.5 W m-2 τ 500 -1 , which is in agreement with the model estimate of -71 W m-2 τ 500 -1 . The present observations show that the seasonal mean ADRF at surface (-25 to -28 W m-2) is about 10 % of the diurnal mean downwelling shortwave flux reaching the surface (in the absence of aerosols) during dry season at this location, indicating the major role of aerosols in regulating surface energetics.

  17. Direct observations of shortwave aerosol radiative forcing at surface and its diurnal variation during the Asian dry season at southwest Indian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj Kumar; Rajeev, K.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian Sea witnesses consistent occurrence of a large-scale aerosol plume transported by the northerlies from the Asian region during the dry season (December-April). This paper presents direct observations of the diurnal variation (and dependence on solar zenith angle, SZA) of instantaneous aerosol direct radiative forcing efficiency (IADRFE) and aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) at surface during the period from December to March of 2010-2013 at Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N, 77°E), an Indian peninsular station adjoining the Arabian Sea coast, which resides well within this aerosol plume. Magnitude of the IADRFE increases with SZA from -75 ± 20 W m-2 τ {500/-1} at SZA of ~80° to attain a peak value of -170 ± 30 W m-2 τ {500/-1} at SZA ~60° in March (~3 h before and after the local noon). Absolute magnitudes and SZA dependence of the observed seasonal mean IADRFE are in agreement (within 16 % of the absolute magnitudes) with those estimated using radiation transfer computations employing an aerosol model with visible band single-scattering albedo of ~0.90 ± 0.03. Observed values of the diurnal mean aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ADRFE) averaged during the season (December-March) vary between -71 and -76.5 W m-2 τ {500/-1}, which is in agreement with the model estimate of -71 W m-2 τ {500/-1}. The present observations show that the seasonal mean ADRF at surface (-25 to -28 W m-2) is about 10 % of the diurnal mean downwelling shortwave flux reaching the surface (in the absence of aerosols) during dry season at this location, indicating the major role of aerosols in regulating surface energetics.

  18. On the effects of blending, physicochemical properties, and their interactions on the performance of carrier-based dry powders for inhalation - A review.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem

    2016-09-01

    Blending drug and carrier powders to produce homogeneous drug-carrier adhesive mixtures is a key step in the production of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Although the blending conditions can result in different conclusions or probably change the outcome of a study entirely if being selected differently, there is a scarcity of data on the influence of blending processes on the physicochemical properties of bulk powder formulations and the follow-on effects on DPI performance. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between variables related to blending conditions (e.g. blending equipment, time, speed and sequence as well as environmental humidity) and powder physicochemical properties (e.g. size distribution, shape distribution, density, anomeric composition, electrostatic charge, surface, and bulk properties), and their effects on the performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation in terms of drug content homogeneity, drug-carrier adhesion, and drug aerosolisation behaviour. The relevance of carrier payload, batch size and segregation was also discussed. Challenges and future directions were identified. This review therefore contributes towards a better understanding of the blending process, powder physicochemical properties, and their interlinked effects on the fundamental understanding of adhesive mixtures for inhalation. The knowledge gained is essential to ensure optimum blending and thereby controlled functionality of DPIs. PMID:27291646

  19. Measurements of Refractory Black Carbon (rBC) Aerosols in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. L.; McMeeking, G. R.; Lyons, W. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Welch, K. A.; McKnight, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of light absorbing particles in the boundary layer of the high southern latitudes are scarce. During the 2013-2014 austral summer field season refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols were quantified by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The dark rBC particles absorb more radiation thereby increasing atmospheric heating, as well as reducing surface albedo and enhancing hydrologic melt when deposited on highly reflective surfaces such as snow and ice. Quantifying both local and long-range atmospheric transport of rBC to this region of a remote continent mostly covered by ice and snow would be useful in understanding meltwater generation as climate changes. Although the Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region of Antarctica, they contain many alpine glaciers, some of which are fed from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Continuous rBC measurements were collected at Lake Hoare Camp in the Taylor Valley for two months, along with shorter periods at more remote locations within the Dry Valleys. Conditions at the Lake Hoare Camp were dominated by up-valley winds from McMurdo Sound, however, winds also brought air down-valley from the EAIS polar plateau. Here we investigated periods dominated by both up and down-valley winds to explore differences in rBC concentrations, size distributions, and scattering properties. The average background rBC mass concentration was 1ng/m3, though concentrations as high as 50 ng/m3 were observed at times, likely due to local sources.

  20. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the gas-phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the regional chemistry transport model WRF-Chem, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48% and 63% respectively over the continental US Dry deposition of gas-phase SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (-40% vs. -8% for anthropogenics, -52% vs. -11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas-phase (61% for anthropogenics, 76% for biogenics). A number of sensitivity studies shows that this is a robust feature of the modeling system. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility of SVOCs made in some current modeling systems (H* = 105 M atm-1; H* = H* (HNO3)) still lead to an overestimation of 25% / 10% compared to our best estimate. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm-1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We consider this a lower

  1. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2014-05-26

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the gas-phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the regional chemistry transport model WRF-Chem, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48% and 63% respectively over the continental US Dry deposition of gas-phasemore » SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (−40% vs. −8% for anthropogenics, −52% vs. −11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas-phase (61% for anthropogenics, 76% for biogenics). A number of sensitivity studies shows that this is a robust feature of the modeling system. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility of SVOCs made in some current modeling systems (H* = 105 M atm−1; H* = H* (HNO3)) still lead to an overestimation of 25% / 10% compared to our best estimate. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm−1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We

  2. Field measurements of aerosol particle dry deposition on tropical foliage at an urban site.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjit; Kumari, K Maharaj; Srivastava, S S

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents dry deposition of major ions on tropical foliage (leaves of Ashok (Polyalthia longifolia) and Cassia (Cassia siamea)) at St. John's, Agra, an urban site of tropical India on nonrainy, nondewy, and nonfoggy days. The deposition flux was higher on Cassia leaf than Ashok leaf probably due to a rougher surface as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Dry deposition of cations varies from 0.46 to 12.16 mg m(-2) day(-1) while anions vary from 0.04 to 3.24 mg m(-2) day(-1). The percentage contribution of alkaline components is greater than that of acidic components, indicating the alkaline nature of dry deposition. Two-way analysis of variance results reveal significant seasonal variation only for K+, SO4(2-), and F-; however, values varied season to season for Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, and NH4+ also. The large seasonal variation in deposition flux may be due to meteorological conditions, diameter of particles, and variation in atmospheric level. SO42- and NO3- show significant correlation, indicating their origin from similar sources while significant correlation between Ca2+ and Mg2+ implies their origin from soil. Poor correlation between Ca2+ and SO4(2-), Ca2+ and NO3-, and Mg2+ and SO4(2-) indicates that in addition to soil other sources also contribute to dry deposition. Low dry deposition fluxes of SO2- and NO3- compared to Ca2+ and Mg2+ may be due to low mass medium diameters of SO4(2-) and NO3- and may be due to uptake through the stomatal pores abundant on leaf surfaces. Factor analysis was employed to identify the sources. F-, Cl, SO4(2-), NO3-, and K+ are grouped together in the first factor, indicating their probable contribution from combustion, Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4+ are grouped in factor II, which may be attributed to road dust and soil, and factor III includes mainly Na+ and F-, probably contributed from brick-kiln industries. Atmospheric concentrations of F-, Cl-, NOs-, SO4(2-), Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4+ were found to be 0.38, 2

  3. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  4. Influence of dry deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC) on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the Mexico City plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, Alma; Madronich, Sasha; Aumont, Bernard; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Karl, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The dry deposition removal of organic compounds from the atmosphere and its impact on organic aerosol mass is currently unexplored and unaccounted for in chemistry-climate models. The main reason for this omission is that current models use simplified SOA mechanisms that lump precursors and their products into volatility bins, therefore losing information on other important properties of individual molecules (or groups) that are needed to calculate dry deposition. In this study, we apply the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to simulate SOA formation and estimate the influence of dry deposition of VOCs on SOA concentrations downwind of Mexico City. SOA precursors considered here include short- and long-chain alkanes (C3-25), alkenes, and light aromatics. The results suggest that 90% of SOA produced in Mexico City originates from the oxidation and partitioning of long-chain (C>12) alkanes, while the regionally exported SOA is almost equally produced from long-chain alkanes and from shorter alkanes and light aromatics. We show that dry deposition of oxidized gases is not an efficient sink for SOA, as it removes <5% of SOA within the city's boundary layer and ~15% downwind. We discuss reasons for this limited influence, and investigate separately the impacts on short and long-chain species. We show that the dry deposition is competing with the uptake of gases to the aerosol phase, and because dry deposition of submicron aerosols is slow, condensation onto particles protects organic gases from deposition and therefore increases their atmospheric burden and lifetime. In the absence of this condensation, ~50% of the regionally produced mass would have been dry-deposited.

  5. Electrochemical properties of yolk-shell structured ZnFe2O4 powders prepared by a simple spray drying process as anode material for lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Min; Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Ko, You Na; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-01-01

    ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders were prepared by applying a simple spray-drying process. Dextrin was used as a drying additive and carbon source material, and thus played a key role in the preparation of the powders. The combustion of precursor powders consisting of zinc and iron salts and dextrin obtained by a spray-drying process produced the yolk-shell-structured ZnFe2O4 powders even at a low post-treatment temperature of 350 °C. The ZnFe2O4 powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin had a filled and pockmarked structure. The initial discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell and filled powders post-treated at 450 °C at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) were 1226 and 993 mA h g(-1), respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiencies were 74 and 58%. The discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 powders with yolk-shell and filled structures post-treated at 450 °C after 200 cycles were 862 and 332 mA h g(-1), respectively. The ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders with high structural stability during cycling had superior electrochemical properties to those of the powders with filled structure. PMID:25168407

  6. Electrochemical properties of yolk-shell structured ZnFe2O4 powders prepared by a simple spray drying process as anode material for lithium-ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Min; Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Ko, You Na; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-01-01

    ZnFe2O4 yolk–shell powders were prepared by applying a simple spray-drying process. Dextrin was used as a drying additive and carbon source material, and thus played a key role in the preparation of the powders. The combustion of precursor powders consisting of zinc and iron salts and dextrin obtained by a spray-drying process produced the yolk–shell-structured ZnFe2O4 powders even at a low post-treatment temperature of 350°C. The ZnFe2O4 powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin had a filled and pockmarked structure. The initial discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 yolk–shell and filled powders post-treated at 450°C at a current density of 500 mA g−1 were 1226 and 993 mA h g−1, respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiencies were 74 and 58%. The discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 powders with yolk–shell and filled structures post-treated at 450°C after 200 cycles were 862 and 332 mA h g−1, respectively. The ZnFe2O4 yolk–shell powders with high structural stability during cycling had superior electrochemical properties to those of the powders with filled structure. PMID:25168407

  7. Electrochemical properties of yolk-shell structured ZnFe2O4 powders prepared by a simple spray drying process as anode material for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jong Min; Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Ko, You Na; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-08-01

    ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders were prepared by applying a simple spray-drying process. Dextrin was used as a drying additive and carbon source material, and thus played a key role in the preparation of the powders. The combustion of precursor powders consisting of zinc and iron salts and dextrin obtained by a spray-drying process produced the yolk-shell-structured ZnFe2O4 powders even at a low post-treatment temperature of 350°C. The ZnFe2O4 powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin had a filled and pockmarked structure. The initial discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell and filled powders post-treated at 450°C at a current density of 500 mA g-1 were 1226 and 993 mA h g-1, respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiencies were 74 and 58%. The discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 powders with yolk-shell and filled structures post-treated at 450°C after 200 cycles were 862 and 332 mA h g-1, respectively. The ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders with high structural stability during cycling had superior electrochemical properties to those of the powders with filled structure.

  8. Calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for the quantitative analysis of solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, J.

    1999-02-12

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become the method of choice for elemental and isotopic analysis. Several factors contribute to its success. Modern instruments are capable of routine analysis at part per trillion levels with relative detection limits in part per quadrillion levels. Sensitivities in these instruments can be as high as 200 million counts per second per part per million with linear dynamic ranges up to eight orders of magnitude. With standards for only a few elements, rapid semiquantitative analysis of over 70 elements in an individual sample can be performed. Less than 20 years after its inception ICP-MS has shown to be applicable to several areas of science. These include geochemistry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, clinical chemistry, the semiconductor industry, and forensic chemistry. In this introduction, the general attributes of ICP-MS will be discussed in terms of instrumentation and sample introduction. The advantages and disadvantages of current systems are presented. A detailed description of one method of sample introduction, laser ablation, is given. The paper also gives conclusions and suggestions for future work. Chapter 2, Quantitative analysis of solids by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for calibration, has been removed for separate processing.

  9. Development of a dry, stable and inhalable acyl-homoserine-lactone-acylase powder formulation for the treatment of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Wahjudi, Mariana; Murugappan, Senthil; van Merkerk, Ronald; Eissens, Anko C; Visser, Marinella R; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Quax, Wim J

    2013-03-12

    In the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa commonly causes chronic infections. It has been shown that the P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) system controls the expression of virulence factors during invasion and infection to host cells. PvdQ is an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) acylase able to degrade the signal molecule of P. aeruginosa QS. The role of PvdQ in inhibiting the QS and its successive virulence determinants has been established in in vitro as well as in in vivo, the latter in a Caenorabdhitis elegans model. For the treatment of pulmonary P. aeruginosa infections, we propose that PvdQ can be best administered directly to the lungs of the patients as a dry powder because this is expected to give specific advantages in delivery as compared to nebulizing. Therefore in this study we investigated the production of a PvdQ powder by spray-freeze drying using mannitol, trehalose and inulin as excipient. The activity of PvdQ in the powder was determined immediately after production and after subsequent storage during 4 weeks at 20°C and 55°C. We found that the enzymatic activity of PvdQ is fully maintained during spray-freeze drying using mannitol, trehalose or inulin as excipient. However, mannitol was not able to stabilize the protein during storage, while PvdQ incorporated in trehalose or inulin was fully stabilized even during storage at 55°C for at least 4 weeks. The poor stabilizing capacities of mannitol during storage could be related to its crystalline nature while the excellent stabilizing capacities of trehalose and inulin during storage could be related to their amorphous nature. The trehalose and inulin-based particles consisted of porous spheres with a volume average aerodynamical diameter of ∼1.8 μm implying that they are suitable for pulmonary delivery. This is the first study in which an AHL-degrading enzyme is processed into spray-freeze-dried powder suitable for inhalation. PMID:23277289

  10. Role of HSAB concept in understanding biosorptive behaviour of various metal ions employing green biosorbent - Dry Cow Dung Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2016-04-01

    Hard & Soft Acid Base concept, HSAB theory given by Pearson, elucidates the crucial role of HSAB characteristics of both pollutants as well as the aqueous milieu. This theory can also explain the biosorptive behaviour of Dry Cow dung Powder, which helps in governing the success of process. The various metal ionic species exhibit a preference for the ligand binding on the biomass based on its chemical coordination characteristics. A comparative batch equilibration biosorptive assay has been carried out employing radiotracer technique for uptake of Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Hg(II), Sr(II), Cs(I) and Co(II) at optimum biosorption parameters. To study the effect of interference of different salts on the percentage biosorption of metal ions on DCP, different organic as well as inorganic salts with varying proportion of 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg have been studied. The dynamics of the biosorption in terms of the order of the rate constant was studied applying different kinetic models. The best fitting model was Lagergren pseudo second order model. DCP, an eco-friendly humiresin, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid', Fulvic acid and many naturally present functional group such as carboxyl, phenols, quinols, amide etc. of both hard and soft nature, making it 'combo' in nature sorbs both concerned metal ions as well as ligands present in the system. Thus the ligands which were masking the biosorption process of heavy metal ions in this study were treated by mere increase in the dose of DCP, which successfully solves the problem without affecting efficiency of the process. This is exemplified by three very basic interactions happening in multicomponent system i.e. Synergism: Mutual enhancement; Antagonism: Mutual decrement; Non-interaction: Neutral effect. Thus DCP has a great potential in the field of water decontamination, industrial water treatment and in abatement of water pollution. So

  11. Distributions of Trace Gases and Aerosols during the Dry Biomass Burning Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Vertical profiles in the lower troposphere of temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), condensation nuclei (CN), and carbon monoxide (CO), and horizontal distributions of twenty gaseous and particulate species, are presented for five regions of southern Africa during the dry biomass burning season of 2000. The regions are the semiarid savannas of northeast South Africa and northern Botswana, the savanna-forest mosaic of coastal Mozambique, the humid savanna of southern Zambia, and the desert of western Namibia. The highest average concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), CO, methane (CH4), O3, black particulate carbon, and total particulate carbon were in the Botswana and Zambia sectors (388 and 392 ppmv, 369 and 453 ppbv, 1753 and 1758 ppbv, 79 and 88 ppbv, 2.6 and 5.5 micrograms /cubic meter and 13.2 and 14.3 micrograms/cubic meter). This was due to intense biomass burning in Zambia and surrounding regions. The South Africa sector had the highest average concentrations of SO2, sulfate particles, and CN (5.1 ppbv, 8.3 micrograms/cubic meter, and per 6400 cubic meter , respectively), which derived from biomass burning and electric generation plants and mining operations within this sector. Air quality in the Mozambique sector was similar to the neighboring South Africa sector. Over the arid Namibia sector there were polluted layers aloft, in which average SO2, O3, and CO mixing ratios (1.2 ppbv, 76 ppbv, and 3 10 ppbv, respectively) were similar to those measured over the other more polluted sectors. This was due to transport of biomass smoke from regions of widespread savanna burning in southern Angola. Average concentrations over all sectors of CO2 (386 +/- 8 ppmv), CO (261 +/- 81 ppbv), SO2 (2.5 +/- 1.6 ppbv), O3 (64 +/- 13 ppbv), black particulate carbon (2.3 +/- 1.9 microgram/cubic meter), organic particulate carbon (6.2 +/- 5.2 microgram/cubic meter), total particle mass (26.0 +/- 4.7 microgram/cubic meter), and potassium particles (0

  12. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P < 0.01) than in the other protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P < 0.01) than those offered FM and DPS. AP decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli counts in the cecum. DPS decreased (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase compared with SPE. In conclusion, AP and SPE are competitive with traditional animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. PMID:25827306

  13. Distributions of trace gases and aerosols during the dry biomass burning season in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2003-09-01

    Vertical profiles in the lower troposphere of temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), condensation nuclei (CN), and carbon monoxide (CO), and horizontal distributions of twenty gaseous and particulate species, are presented for five regions of southern Africa during the dry biomass burning season of 2000. The regions are the semiarid savannas of northeast South Africa and northern Botswana, the savanna-forest mosaic of coastal Mozambique, the humid savanna of southern Zambia, and the desert of western Namibia. The highest average concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), CO, methane (CH4), O3, black particulate carbon, and total particulate carbon were in the Botswana and Zambia sectors (388 and 392 ppmv, 369 and 453 ppbv, 1753 and 1758 ppbv, 79 and 88 ppbv, 2.6 and 5.5 μg m-3, and 13.2 and 14.3 μg m-3). This was due to intense biomass burning in Zambia and surrounding regions. The South Africa sector had the highest average concentrations of SO2, sulfate particles, and CN (5.1 ppbv, 8.3 μg m-3, and 6400 cm-3, respectively), which derived from biomass burning and electric generation plants and mining operations within this sector. Air quality in the Mozambique sector was similar to the neighboring South Africa sector. Over the arid Namibia sector there were polluted layers aloft, in which average SO2, O3, and CO mixing ratios (1.2 ppbv, 76 ppbv, and 310 ppbv, respectively) were similar to those measured over the other more polluted sectors. This was due to transport of biomass smoke from regions of widespread savanna burning in southern Angola. Average concentrations over all sectors of CO2 (386 ± 8 ppmv), CO (261 ± 81 ppbv), SO2 (2.5 ± 1.6 ppbv), O3 (64 ± 13 ppbv), black particulate carbon (2.3 ± 1.9 μg m-3), organic particulate carbon (6.2 ± 5.2 μg m-3), total particle mass (26.0 ± 4.7 μg m-3), and potassium particles (0.4 ± 0.1 μg m-3) were comparable to those in polluted, urban air. Since the majority of the measurements

  14. The bronchodilator response from inhaled terbutaline is influenced by the mass of small particles: a study on a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler).

    PubMed

    Persson, G; Wirén, J E

    1989-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate if particles approximately less than 5 microns are optimal when delivered from a dry powder inhaler. It was performed as a cumulative dose response study of twelve asthmatic adults. Three different versions of a dry powder inhaler, Bricanyl Turbuhaler, were studied. Each inhaler delivered 0.5 mg of pure terbutaline sulphate with each dose. Out of this 0.5 mg, they delivered 90 micrograms, 40 micrograms and 5 micrograms, respectively, of particles approximately less than 5 microns with each dose at an inspiratory flow rate of 28 l.min-1. Terbutaline 0.5 mg, 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg was inhaled with a 30 min interval between the doses. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured 5 and 20 min after each dose. The bronchodilator response was greater with the inhaler delivering 90 micrograms of small particles with each dose than with the inhaler delivering 5 micrograms, thus confirming the importance of small (approximately less than 5 microns) particles. PMID:2731603

  15. Effects of freeze-dried cranberry powder on serum lipids and inflammatory markers in lipopolysaccharide treated rats fed an atherogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Joung; Ohn, Jeong; Kim, Jung Hee

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of freeze-dried cranberry powder on anti-inflammation and lipid profiles of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet for 6 weeks. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats (6-weeks-old) were equally divided into the following five groups: 1) normal diet group + saline (NC); 2) atherogenic diet + saline (HFC); 3) atherogenic diet + LPS (HL); 4) atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry power + LPS (C5); 5) atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry power + LPS (C10). LPS (0.5 mg/kg) was injected into the abdominal cavities of rats 18 hours prior to sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, we measured serum lipid profiles as well as levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide (NO), and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. The mean serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level in C5 rats was significantly higher than that in NC and HL rats (P < 0.05). The mean serum levels of CRP and IL-1β were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the cranberry powder groups compared to those in HL rats. Additionally, mean serum IL-6 levels tended to be lower in the cranberry groups than that in the HL group, whereas serum IL-10 and NO showed 29% and 88% higher mean values in the C5 group and 49% and 24% higher in the C10 group than those in the HL group, respectively. These results suggest that freeze-dried cranberry powder may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases by modifying serum lipids and the early inflammatory response. PMID:22125677

  16. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  17. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  18. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  19. Effects of starting powder and thermal treatment on the aerosol deposited BaTiO3 thin films toward less leakage currents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To prepare high-density integrated capacitors with low leakage currents, 0.2-μm-thick BaTiO3 thin films were successfully deposited on integrated semiconductor substrates at room temperature by the aerosol deposition (AD) method. In this study, the effects of starting powder size were considered in an effort to remove macroscopic defects. A surface morphology of 25.3 nm and an interface roughness of less than 50 nm were obtained using BT-03B starting powder. The nano-crystalline thin films achieved after deposition were annealed at various temperatures to promote crystallization and densification. Moreover, the influence of rapid thermal annealing process on the surface morphology and crystal growth was evaluated. As the annealing temperature increased from room temperature to 650°C, the root mean square (RMS) roughness decreased from 25.3 to 14.3 nm. However, the surface was transformed into rough performance at 750°C, which agreed well with the surface microstructure trend. Moreover, the crystal growth also reveals the changes in surface morphology via surface energy analysis. PMID:25246860

  20. Development and evaluation of well-tolerated and tumor-penetrating polymeric micelle-based dry powders for inhaled anti-cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rosière, Rémi; Van Woensel, Matthias; Mathieu, Véronique; Langer, Ingrid; Mathivet, Thomas; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Amighi, Karim; Wauthoz, Nathalie

    2016-03-30

    Despite the direct access to the lung offered by the inhalation route, drug penetration into lung tumors could remain an important issue. In this study, folate-polyethylene glycol-hydrophobically-modified dextran (F-PEG-HMD) micelles were developed as an effective pulmonary drug delivery system to reach and penetrate lung tumors and cancer cells. The F-PEG-HMD micelles were able to enter HeLa and M109-HiFR, two folate receptor-expressing cancer cell lines, in vitro, and in vivo after administration by inhalation to orthotopic M109-HiFR lung tumor grafted mice. Paclitaxel-loaded F-PEG-HMD micelles characterized in PBS by a Z-average diameter of ∼50nm and a zeta potential of ∼-4mV were prepared with an encapsulation efficiency of ∼100%. The loaded micelles reduced HeLa and M109-HiFR cell growth, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations of 37 and 150nM, respectively. Dry powders embedding the paclitaxel-loaded F-PEG-HMD micelles were developed by spray-drying. In vitro, good deposition profiles were obtained, with a fine particle fraction of up to 50% and good ability to re-disperse the micelles in physiological buffer. A polymeric micelle-based dry powder without paclitaxel was well-tolerated in vivo, as assessed in healthy mice by determination of total protein content, cell count, and cytokine IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. PMID:26850313

  1. Airborne characterization of subsaturated aerosol hygroscopicity and dry refractive index from the surface to 6.5 km during the SEAC4RS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, Taylor; Crosbie, Ewan; Ortega, Amber; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Zuend, Andreas; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ziemba, Luke; Anderson, Bruce; Thornhill, Lee; Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Campazano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin; Sorooshian, Armin

    2016-04-01

    In situ aerosol particle measurements were conducted during 21 NASA DC-8 flights in the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys field campaign over the United States, Canada, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. For the first time, this study reports rapid, size-resolved hygroscopic growth and real refractive index (RI at 532 nm) data between the surface and upper troposphere in a variety of air masses including wildfires, agricultural fires, biogenic, marine, and urban outflow. The Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe (DASH-SP) quantified size-resolved diameter growth factors (GF = Dp,wet/Dp,dry) that are used to infer the hygroscopicity parameter κ. Thermokinetic simulations were conducted to estimate the impact of partial particle volatilization within the DASH-SP across a range of sampling conditions. Analyses of GF and RI data as a function of air mass origin, dry size, and altitude are reported, in addition to κ values for the inorganic and organic fractions of aerosol. Average RI values are found to be fairly constant (1.52-1.54) for all air mass categories. An algorithm is used to compare size-resolved DASH-SP GF with bulk scattering f(RH = 80%) data obtained from a pair of nephelometers, and the results show that the two can only be reconciled if GF is assumed to decrease with increasing dry size above 400 nm (i.e., beyond the upper bound of DASH-SP measurements). Individual case studies illustrate variations of hygroscopicity as a function of dry size, environmental conditions, altitude, and composition.

  2. Electrochemical properties of micron-sized, spherical, meso- and macro-porous Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders prepared by a two-step spray drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-04-01

    Micron-sized, spherical, meso- and macro-porous Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders were prepared via a simple two-step spray drying process. The CoO-carbon composite powders, in which homogeneous mixing of the metal oxide and carbon components was achieved using the first spray drying process, were wet milled to produce the slurry for the second spray drying process. Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders with mean particle sizes of 4.4 and 4.7 μm were respectively obtained by spray-drying the slurry after post-treatment at 400 °C under air and nitrogen atmospheres. Meso- and macro-pores were uniformly distributed inside the Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders. The CoO-carbon composite powders exhibited discharge capacities of 882 and 855 mA h g-1 at a high constant current density of 1400 mA g-1 for the 2nd and 100th cycles. The discharge capacities of the Co3O4 powders at the 2nd and 100th cycles were 970 and 644 mA h g-1. With stepwise increment in the current density from 500 to 5000 mA g-1, the discharge capacities of the CoO-carbon composite powders decreased slightly from 985 to 698 mA h g-1. The superior rate and cycling performances of the CoO-carbon composite powders are ascribed to their meso- and macro-porous structures and carbon components.Micron-sized, spherical, meso- and macro-porous Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders were prepared via a simple two-step spray drying process. The CoO-carbon composite powders, in which homogeneous mixing of the metal oxide and carbon components was achieved using the first spray drying process, were wet milled to produce the slurry for the second spray drying process. Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders with mean particle sizes of 4.4 and 4.7 μm were respectively obtained by spray-drying the slurry after post-treatment at 400 °C under air and nitrogen atmospheres. Meso- and macro-pores were uniformly distributed inside the Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders. The CoO-carbon composite powders

  3. Spray washing, absorbent cornstarch powder, and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled transport cage flooring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler transport cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Allowing feces to dry is an effective but slow and logistically impractical means to kill Campylobacter in soiled transport cages. ...

  4. Spray washing, absorbent corn starch powder and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled boiler transport cage flooring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most broilers in the U.S. are transported live to slaughter facilities in cages with fiberglass floors. Cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Drying feces out between uses is an effectiv...

  5. Carrier-based dry powder inhalation: Impact of carrier modification on capsule filling processability and in vitro aerodynamic performance.

    PubMed

    Faulhammer, Eva; Wahl, Verena; Zellnitz, Sarah; Khinast, Johannes G; Paudel, Amrit

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of carrier characteristics and dosator capsule filling operation on the in vitro deposition of mixtures containing salbutamol sulphate (SS) and lactose and mannitol as model carrier materials. The carrier surfaces of lactose and mannitol were modified via wet decantation. The impact of the decantation process on the properties of carriers was investigated by laser diffraction, density and powder flow measurements, N2 physisorption, small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differences in carrier type and untreated and decanted materials were identified and the SAXS measurements proved to be a promising technology confirming the successful removal of fines. Adhesive carrier API mixtures with carrier-to-API ratio of 99:1 wt% were prepared, mixture homogeneity was tested and subsequently the mixtures were filled into capsules at different process settings. Finally, the influence of the decantation process on the in vitro performance of the adhesive mixtures was tested with a next generation impactor. For lactose, the decantation decreased the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS, whereas the FPF of mannitol as a carrier was only affected by the capsule filling process. In summary, the DPI formulation based on untreated lactose, especially by capsule filling using a dosing chamber to powder layer (compression) ratio of 1:2, proved to be superior in terms of the dosing accuracy (RSD<0.8%) and the in vitro aerodynamic performance (FPF of 12%). PMID:26136200

  6. A novel approach for lung delivery of rifampicin-loaded liposomes in dry powder form for the treatment of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Jagadevappa S.; Devi, V. Kusum; Devi, Kshama; Sarasija, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung administration of antibiotics by nebulization is promising for improved treatment efficiency for pulmonary infections, as it increases drug concentration at sites of infection while minimizing systemic side effects. For poorly soluble molecules like rifampicin, lipid particulate system may improve lung delivery. Materials and Methods: We investigated rifampicin-loaded freeze-dried liposomes. Various formulations were prepared with different drug lipid ratios and one formulation was optimized. Optimized colloidal liposome formulation was freeze-dried and subsequently subjected for various evaluation and characterization parameters such as in-vitro dissolution, in-vitro antitubercular activity, aerodynamic characters, surface morphology, and thermal behavior. The optimized formulation of rifampicin-loaded freeze-dried liposome and free rifampicin was subjected for the in-vivo drug disposition study in Wister rat model by intra-tracheal instillation in comparison with an oral route of administration. Results: The results of pharmacokinetic study for both free drug and the formulation suggested that liposomes released the drug in a controlled manner for a longer period of time. The enhanced efficiency of drug incorporated into liposomes suggested that the delivery of encapsulated drugs to macrophages was more rapid than that of free drug. Conclusion: Therefore, the pharmacokinetic and drug disposition studies provided a sound basis for predicting the successful treatment for tuberculosis. PMID:26180381

  7. Spray-dried powders of starch and crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) as carriers for nasal delivery of inactivated influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Coucke, D; Schotsaert, M; Libert, C; Pringels, E; Vervaet, C; Foreman, P; Saelens, X; Remon, J P

    2009-02-18

    Mucosal vaccination has several advantages over parenteral vaccination. In this study, viscosity-enhancing mucosal delivery systems for the induction of an adaptive immune response against viral antigen were investigated. Powder formulations based on spray-dried mixtures of starch (Amioca)/poly(acrylic acid) (Carbopol 974P) in different ratios were used as carriers of the viral antigen. A comparison of these formulations for intranasal delivery of heat-inactivated influenza virus combined with LTR192G adjuvant was made in vivo in a rabbit model. Individual rabbit sera were tested for seroconversion against hemagglutinin (HA), the major surface antigen of influenza. The powder vaccine formulations were able to induce systemic anti-HA IgG responses. The presence of Carbopol 974P improved the kinetics of the immune responses and the level of IgG titers in a dose-dependent way which was correlated with moderately irritating capacities of the formulation. In contrast, mucosal IgA responses were not detected. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the use of bioadhesive carriers based on Amioca starch and poly(acrylic acid) facilitates the induction of a systemic anti-HA antibody response after intranasal vaccination with a whole virus influenza vaccine. PMID:19114075

  8. The radiative effect of aerosols from biomass burning on the transition from dry to wet season over the Amazon as tested by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan

    2008-10-01

    I have carried out a set of ensemble simulations of a regional climate model with observed radiative forcing for smoke aerosols over the Amazon to investigate the radiative effects of aerosols on clouds, rainfall, and circulation from dry to wet season. I first modified the land surface scheme such that the modeled daily mean and diurnal cycle of the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are much more realistic over the Amazon rainforest. The results of the ensemble simulations suggest that the radiative effect of the smoke aerosols can reduce daytime surface radiative and sensible fluxes, the depth and instability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), consequently the clouds in the lower troposphere in early afternoon in the smoke center, where the aerosols optical depth, AOD, exceeds 0.3. The aerosol radiative forcing also appears to weaken moisture transport into the smoke center and increase moisture transport and cloudiness in the region upwind to the smoke center, namely, the northern Amazon. In particular, the absorption of solar radiation by smoke aerosols reduces cloudiness in early afternoon. This reduction of cloud partially compensates for the reduction of surface solar flux by aerosol scattering, shifting the strongest changes of surface flux and the PBL to late morning. The reduction of net solar radiation at the surface by smoke is locally largely compensated by reduction of surface sensible flux; with reduction of latent flux only about 30% as large. This is because, in model, transpiration of the forest canopy response favorably to the reduced leaf temperature by aerosols at local noon, which compensates the reduction of evapotranspiration (ET) in morning and later afternoon. Strong aerosol absorption in the top 1 km of the aerosol layer stabilizes the 2 to 3 km layer immediately above the daytime PBL and consequently cloudiness decreases. This reduced surface solar flux and more stable lapse rate at the top of the PBL stabilize the lower

  9. Characterization of near infrared spectral variance in the authentication of skim and nonfat dry milk powder collection using ANOVA-PCA, Pooled-ANOVA, and partial least squares regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-one samples of skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) from 8 suppliers, 13 production sites, and 3 processing temperatures were analyzed by NIR diffuse reflectance spectrometry over a period of three days. NIR reflectance spectra (1700-2500 nm) were converted to pseudo-absorbance ...

  10. Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the Amazon Basin during the wet and dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Beck, V.; Bela, M.; Freitas, S.; Gerbig, C.; Longo, K.; Munger, J. W.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of airborne measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol particle number concentration (CN) made during the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) program. The primary goal of BARCA is to address the question of basin-scale sources and sinks of CO2 and other atmospheric carbon species, a central issue of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA) program. The experiment consisted of two aircraft campaigns during November-December 2008 (BARCA-A) and May 2009 (BARCA-B), which covered the altitude range from the surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned most of the Amazon Basin. Based on meteorological analysis and measurements of the tracer, SF6, we found that airmasses over the Amazon Basin during the late dry season (BARCA-A, November 2008) originated predominantly from the Southern Hemisphere, while during the late wet season (BARCA-B, May 2009) low-level airmasses were dominated by northern-hemispheric inflow, and mid-tropospheric airmasses were of mixed origin. In BARCA-A we found strong influence of biomass burning emissions on the composition of the atmosphere over much of the Amazon Basin, with CO enhancements up to 300 ppb and CN concentrations approaching 10 000 cm-3; the highest values were in the southern part of the Basin at altitudes of 1-3 km. The ΔCN/ΔCO ratios were diagnostic for biomass burning emissions, and were lower in aged than in fresh smoke. Fresh emissions indicated CO/CO2 and CN/CO emission ratios in good agreement with previous work, but our results also highlight the need to consider the residual smoldering combustion that takes place after the active flaming phase of deforestation fires. During the late wet season, in contrast, there was little evidence for a significant presence of biomass smoke. Low CN concentrations (300-500 cm-3) prevailed basinwide, and CO mixing ratios were enhanced by only ~10 ppb above the mixing line between Northern and Southern Hemisphere air. There was no

  11. Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the Amazon Basin during the wet and dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Beck, V.; Bela, M.; Freitas, S.; Gerbig, C.; Longo, K.; Munger, J. W.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-07-01

    We present the results of airborne measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol particle number concentration (CN) made during the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) program. The primary goal of BARCA is to address the question of basin-scale sources and sinks of CO2 and other atmospheric carbon species, a central issue of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA) program. The experiment consisted of two aircraft campaigns during November-December 2008 (BARCA-A) and May-June 2009 (BARCA-B), which covered the altitude range from the surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned most of the Amazon Basin. Based on meteorological analysis and measurements of the tracer, SF6, we found that airmasses over the Amazon Basin during the late dry season (BARCA-A, November 2008) originated predominantly from the Southern Hemisphere, while during the late wet season (BARCA-B, May 2009) low-level airmasses were dominated by northern-hemispheric inflow and mid-tropospheric airmasses were of mixed origin. In BARCA-A we found strong influence of biomass burning emissions on the composition of the atmosphere over much of the Amazon Basin, with CO enhancements up to 300 ppb and CN concentrations approaching 10 000 cm-3; the highest values were in the southern part of the Basin at altitudes of 1-3 km. The ΔCN/ΔCO ratios were diagnostic for biomass burning emissions, and were lower in aged than in fresh smoke. Fresh emissions indicated CO/CO2 and CN/CO emission ratios in good agreement with previous work, but our results also highlight the need to consider the residual smoldering combustion that takes place after the active flaming phase of deforestation fires. During the late wet season, in contrast, there was little evidence for a significant presence of biomass smoke. Low CN concentrations (300-500 cm-3) prevailed basinwide, and CO mixing ratios were enhanced by only ~10 ppb above the mixing line between Northern and Southern Hemisphere air. There was no

  12. PBL Aerosols SE of Mexico City in the dry Season: Biomass Burning and Windblown Dust and its Impact on Photolysis Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Grutter, M.; Baumgardner, D.; Steinbrecher, R.

    2007-05-01

    During the dry season in March 2006 airborne investigations on aerosol distributions, ultraviolet actinic radiation and ozone profiles were performed southeast of Mexico City using an ultralight aircraft as a mobile platform. The area investigated covered the rural area southeast of Mexico City, the Chalco Valley, Huexca and Atlixco south of the volcano Popocatepetl, east of Paso de Cortés to the airport of Puebla and the pass between Puebla and Mexico City north of the volcano Ixtachiuatl. The Chalco valley is the main venting valley of the Mexico City basin to the south. Intense biomass burning was observed on both slopes of the volcanoes leading to strong pyrocumulus cloud production in the northern part of the national reserve and above the motorway Puebla-Mexico. Fine particle (> 10 nm) numbers reached up to 80000/cm3 close to the burning plumes with significant reduction to ~ 30-40000/cm3 in the Chalco valley where coarse particles (> 300 nm) dominated the total mass. Dust devils transporting coarse soil particles up to elevations of more than 4000 m a.s.l. were frequently observed. Particles and air masses of pollution sources in the area can be characterized by aerosol size distributions and/or spectral absorption from multi-wavelength aethalometer measurements as well as from ozone mixing ratios and meteorological data measured onboard. The aerosol impact on photolysis rates and air chemistry is derived from vertical profiles of actinic radiation in the JO1D and JNO2 spectral regimes at 300 nm and 380 nm, respectively. Profiles were flown on both sides of the volcano ridge, south of Popocatepetl and above Tenango del Aire where aircraft measurements were supported by ceilometer aerosol vertical profiles.

  13. Characterisation and deposition studies of recrystallised lactose from binary mixtures of ethanol/butanol for improved drug delivery from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Royall, Paul; Mohammad, Mohammad A; Murphy, John; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-03-01

    Dry powder inhaler formulations comprising commercial lactose-drug blends can show restricted detachment of drug from lactose during aerosolisation, which can lead to poor fine particle fractions (FPFs) which are suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the crystallisation of lactose from different ethanol/butanol co-solvent mixtures could be employed as a method of altering the FPF of salbutamol sulphate from powder blends. Lactose particles were prepared by an anti-solvent recrystallisation process using various ratios of the two solvents. Crystallised lactose or commercial lactose was mixed with salbutamol sulphate and in vitro deposition studies were performed using a multistage liquid impinger. Solid-state characterisation results showed that commercial lactose was primarily composed of the α-anomer whilst the crystallised lactose samples comprised a α/β mixture containing a lower number of moles of water per mole of lactose compared to the commercial lactose. The crystallised lactose particles were also less elongated and more irregular in shape with rougher surfaces. Formulation blends containing crystallised lactose showed better aerosolisation performance and dose uniformity when compared to commercial lactose. The highest FPF of salbutamol sulphate (38.0 ± 2.5%) was obtained for the lactose samples that were crystallised from a mixture of ethanol/butanol (20:60) compared to a FPF of 19.7 ± 1.9% obtained for commercial lactose. Engineered lactose carriers with modified anomer content and physicochemical properties, when compared to the commercial grade, produced formulations which generated a high FPF. PMID:21057906

  14. Alginate-whey protein dry powder optimized for target delivery of essential oils to the intestine of chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Gong, J; Yu, H; Guo, Q; Defelice, C; Hernandez, M; Yin, Y; Wang, Q

    2014-10-01

    In poultry production, there is a lack of effective and convenient approaches to deliver bioactive compounds such as some essential oils, which have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The objective of this research was to develop a method for target delivery of essential oils in feed to the lower intestines of chickens. Carvacrol was used as a model essential oil, and 2 food-grade biopolymers, alginate and whey protein, were selected to encapsulate carvacrol in microparticles. The effects of a medium molecular weight alginate, a low molecular weight alginate (LBA), and whey protein concentrations on the properties of carvacrol-loaded microparticles were investigated using response surface methodology. The encapsulation efficiencies for all the tested formulations were ≥ 98% and carvacrol content in the dry microparticles was 72 ± 2% (wt/wt). The microparticles showed good gastric resistance and rapid intestinal release under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Alginate concentrations had the strongest influence on the gastric resistance of microparticles, whereas whey protein was the dominant parameter in controlling the intestinal release. The concentration of LBA was found to be the critical factor affecting the mechanical strength of the microparticles. A predicted optimum formulation from in vitro optimization was tested in chickens. It was found that a negligible amount of carvacrol was detected in the intestines of chickens fed with unencapsulated carvacrol. Microparticles of predicted optimum formulation delivered a remarkably higher concentration of carvacrol to the jejunum and ileum regions. The high concentration was sustained for more than 3 h after oral administration. The in vivo release of carvacrol from the microparticles appeared faster than release from in vitro simulation. Nonetheless, the in vitro simulation provided good indications of the in vivo performance, and thus may serve as a useful tool for formula

  15. Heterogeneous Reduction Pathways for Hg(II) Species on Dry Aerosols: A First-Principles Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Tacey, Sean A; Xu, Lang; Mavrikakis, Manos; Schauer, James J

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric lifetime of mercury is greatly impacted by redox chemistry resulting from the high deposition rate of reactive mercury (Hg(II)) compared to elemental mercury (Hg(0)). Recent laboratory and field studies have observed the reduction of Hg(II), but the chemical mechanism for this reaction has not been identified. Recent experimental work has shown that the reduction reaction is heterogeneous and can occur on iron and sodium chloride aerosol surfaces. This study explores the use of density functional theory calculations to discern the reduction pathways of HgCl2, HgBr2, Hg(NO3)2, and HgSO4 on clean Fe(110), NaCl(100), and NaCl(111)(Na) surfaces. Potential energy surfaces were prepared for the various reduction pathways, indicating that the reduction pathway leading to the production of gas-phase elemental mercury is highly favorable on Fe(110) and NaCl(111)(Na). Moreover, the Fe(110) surface requires an external energy source of ∼0.5 eV to desorb the reduced mercury, whereas the NaCl(111)(Na) surface requires no energy input. The results indicate that a number of mercury species can be reduced on metallic iron and sodium chloride surfaces, which are known aerosol components, and that a photochemical reaction involving the aerosol surface is likely needed for the reaction to be catalytic. PMID:27014805

  16. Effects, side effects and plasma concentrations of terbutaline in adult asthmatics after inhaling from a dry powder inhaler device at different inhalation flows and volumes.

    PubMed

    Engel, T; Scharling, B; Skovsted, B; Heinig, J H

    1992-04-01

    1. The efficacy of a metered dose inhaler (MDI) is highly dependent on the mode of inhalation. The relatively high built-in resistance in the Turbohaler (TBH), a new dry powder inhaler device for inhalation of terbutaline sulphate and budesonide, reduces the flow during inhalation. We compared five different modes of inhalation using the terbutaline TBH in 10 stable asthmatic subjects, who were tested on 5 consecutive days. 2. Measurement of 10 different parameters of pulmonary function indicated that the full bronchodilatory effect of an inhaled dose was already achieved at 5 min after the inhalation. Inspiratory flows through the TBH varying from 34 to 88 l min-1 resulted in comparable bronchodilation, and a previous exhalation to residual volume proved of no value. However, if, prior to inhalation, an exhalation through the device was performed, a substantially reduced effect was seen. 3. Reducing the inspiratory flow to approximately 34 l min-1 produced slightly reduced side effects and lower plasma terbutaline concentrations. PMID:1576070

  17. Evaluating the sensitivity, reproducibility and flexibility of a method to test hard shell capsules intended for use in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Chong, Rosalind H E; Jones, Brian E; Díez, Fernando; Birchall, James C; Coulman, Sion A

    2016-03-16

    Pharmaceutical tests for hard shell capsules are designed for orally administered capsules. The use of capsules in dry powder inhalers is widespread and increasing and therefore more appropriate tests are required to ensure quality and determine if these capsules are fit for purpose. This study aims to determine the flexibility, reproducibility and sensitivity of a quantitative method that is designed to evaluate the puncture characteristics of different capsule shell formulations under different climatic conditions. A puncture testing method was used to generate force displacement curves for five capsule formulations that were stored and tested at two different temperatures (5°C and 19°C). Force-displacement puncture profiles were reproducible for individual capsule shell formulations. The methodology was able to discriminate between capsules produced using different primary materials i.e. gelatin versus hypromellose, as well as more minor changes to capsule formulation i.e. different material grades and excipients. Reduced temperature increased the forces required for capsule puncture however further work is required to confirm its significance. Results indicate the method provides a reproducible and sensitive means of evaluating capsule puncture. Future studies should validate the methodology at different test sites, using different operators and with different capsule shell formulations. PMID:26806464

  18. Three-dimensional DEM-CFD analysis of air-flow-induced detachment of API particles from carrier particles in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Air flow and particle-particle/wall impacts are considered as two primary dispersion mechanisms for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Hence, an understanding of these mechanisms is critical for the development of DPIs. In this study, a coupled DEM-CFD (discrete element method-computational fluid dynamics) is employed to investigate the influence of air flow on the dispersion performance of the carrier-based DPI formulations. A carrier-based agglomerate is initially formed and then dispersed in a uniformed air flow. It is found that air flow can drag API particles away from the carrier and those in the downstream air flow regions are prone to be dispersed. Furthermore, the influence of the air velocity and work of adhesion are also examined. It is shown that the dispersion number (i.e., the number of API particles detached from the carrier) increases with increasing air velocity, and decreases with increasing the work of adhesion, indicating that the DPI performance is controlled by the balance of the removal and adhesive forces. It is also shown that the cumulative Weibull distribution function can be used to describe the DPI performance, which is governed by the ratio of the fluid drag force to the pull-off force. PMID:26579364

  19. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. PMID:26993751

  20. Three-dimensional DEM–CFD analysis of air-flow-induced detachment of API particles from carrier particles in dry powder inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Air flow and particle–particle/wall impacts are considered as two primary dispersion mechanisms for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Hence, an understanding of these mechanisms is critical for the development of DPIs. In this study, a coupled DEM–CFD (discrete element method–computational fluid dynamics) is employed to investigate the influence of air flow on the dispersion performance of the carrier-based DPI formulations. A carrier-based agglomerate is initially formed and then dispersed in a uniformed air flow. It is found that air flow can drag API particles away from the carrier and those in the downstream air flow regions are prone to be dispersed. Furthermore, the influence of the air velocity and work of adhesion are also examined. It is shown that the dispersion number (i.e., the number of API particles detached from the carrier) increases with increasing air velocity, and decreases with increasing the work of adhesion, indicating that the DPI performance is controlled by the balance of the removal and adhesive forces. It is also shown that the cumulative Weibull distribution function can be used to describe the DPI performance, which is governed by the ratio of the fluid drag force to the pull-off force. PMID:26579364

  1. Evaluation of dry powder inhalers with a focus on ease of use and user preference in inhaler-naïve individuals.

    PubMed

    von Schantz, Sofia; Katajavuori, Nina; Antikainen, Osmo; Juppo, Anne

    2016-07-25

    Inhaler errors are common amongst inhaler users. Therefore, in the development work of new inhalation devices, it is important to characterize the ease of use of the inhalers. In this study four dry powder inhalers, Diskus, Easyhaler, Ellipta and Turbuhaler, were evaluated, focusing on ease of use and patient preference. The study used a triangular methodology. The sample consisted of 31 inhaler naïve individuals. Educational videos for all inhalers were watched, and afterwards, the use of all four inhalers was demonstrated in a random order. The demonstrations were videotaped. Thereafter they were checked against a predefined checklist and all mistakes were recorded. Only 33% of inhaler demonstrations were completed without the participants making any mistakes. The proportions of subjects who used the devices correctly were as follows: Diskus 48%, Easyhaler 19%, Ellipta 55% and Turbuhaler 16%. When comparing correct and incorrect inhaler technique for each inhaler pair the following differences were statistically significant: Diskus vs. Easyhaler (p<0.05), Ellipta vs. Easyhaler (p<0.01), Diskus vs. Turbuhaler (p<0.01), Ellipta vs. Turbuhaler (p<0.01). In the participants' ranking, the inhalers Ellipta, followed by Turbuhaler, were most often ranked as most preferred. Participants' preference of Ellipta over Easyhaler (p<0.01) and over Diskus (p<0.001) were statistically significant. PMID:27208655

  2. Effect of E-beam treatment on the chemistry and on the antioxidant activity of lycopene from dry tomato peel and tomato powder.

    PubMed

    Gámez, M Carmen; Calvo, Marta M; Selgas, M Dolores; García, M Luisa; Erler, Katrin; Böhm, Volker; Catalano, Assunta; Simone, Rossella; Palozza, Paola

    2014-02-19

    Tomato powder (TP) and dry tomato peel (DTP) have been previously used in our laboratory as a source of lycopene to manufacture meat products ready-to-eat (RTE) submitted to E-beam irradiation with good technological and sensory results. Present work describes the studies performed in order to investigate the effect of radiation on chemical changes and antioxidant properties of lycopene. DTP and TP were irradiated (4 kGy). Changes on lycopene were analyzed by HPLC; inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS), possible modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NP-κB) activation and expression of proteins involved in oxidation stress were analyzed in RAT-1 fibroblasts cell culture. Radiation reduced the content of all-E-lycopene and increased (Z)-lycopene, lycopene isomerization, and degradation being higher in DTP than in TP. E-Beam treatment increased the antioxidant ability of both DTP and TP in inhibiting spontaneous and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in cultured fibroblasts. Antioxidant activity was higher in DTP than in TP samples. PMID:24475969

  3. Effects of N,N-Dimethylacetamide as Drying Control Chemical Additive on Characteristics of Zn2SiO4:Mn,Ba Phosphor Powders Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hye Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2008-09-01

    Zn2SiO4:Mn,Ba phosphor powders were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis from spray solutions with and without a drying control chemical additive (DCCA). N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) used as the DCCA affected the morphology, surface area, mean crystallite size, and photoluminescence intensity of Zn2SiO4:Mn,Ba phosphor powders. The phosphor powders prepared from a spray solution with an optimum concentration of DMA of 1 M had a finer size and narrower size distribution than those prepared from a spray solution without DMA. The mean crystallite size of the phosphor powders was changed from 37 to 44 nm depending on the concentration of DMA added to the spray solutions. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of the phosphor powders prepared from spray solutions with concentrations of DMA of 0.5, 1, and 3 M were 5.1, 3.2, and 2.1 m2/g, respectively. The phosphor powders prepared from the spray solution with an optimum concentration of DMA of 1 M had an 8% higher photoluminescence intensity than the commercial product.

  4. Inhaled antibiotics: dry or wet?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Bos, Aukje C; Mouton, Johan W; Devadason, Sunalene; Janssens, Hettie M

    2014-11-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) delivering antibiotics for the suppressive treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients were developed recently and are now increasingly replacing time-consuming nebuliser therapy. Noninferiority studies have shown that the efficacy of inhaled tobramycin delivered by DPI was similar to that of wet nebulisation. However, there are many differences between inhaled antibiotic therapy delivered by DPI and by nebuliser. The question is whether and to what extent inhalation technique and other patient-related factors affect the efficacy of antibiotics delivered by DPI compared with nebulisers. Health professionals should be aware of the differences between dry and wet aerosols, and of patient-related factors that can influence efficacy, in order to personalise treatment, to give appropriate instructions to patients and to better understand the response to the treatment after switching. In this review, key issues of aerosol therapy are discussed in relation to inhaled antibiotic therapy with the aim of optimising the use of both nebulised and DPI antibiotics by patients. An example of these issues is the relationship between airway generation, structural lung changes and local concentrations of the inhaled antibiotics. The pros and cons of dry and wet modes of delivery for inhaled antibiotics are discussed. PMID:25323242

  5. Qualitative assessment of attributes and ease of use of the ELLIPTA™ dry powder inhaler for delivery of maintenance therapy for asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medications for respiratory disorders including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are typically delivered to the lung by means of a handheld inhaler. Patient preference for and ability to use the inhaler may influence their adherence to maintenance therapy, and adherence may affect treatment outcomes. In this study, patient experience of using a dry powder inhaler (DPI), the ELLIPTA™ DPI, in clinical trials of a new maintenance therapy for asthma and COPD was investigated. The ELLIPTA DPI has been designed to contain two separate blister strips from which inhalation powder can be delivered, and to be simple to use with a large, easy-to-read dose counter. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews were carried out 2–4 weeks after patients had completed one of six phase IIIa clinical trials using the ELLIPTA DPI. Interview participants were asked about their satisfaction with various attributes of the inhaler and their preference for the ELLIPTA DPI relative to currently-prescribed inhalers, and responses were explored using an inductive content analysis approach. Participants also rated the performance of the inhaler on several criteria, using a subjective 1–10 scale. Results Participants with asthma (n = 33) and COPD (n = 42) reported high levels of satisfaction with the ELLIPTA DPI. It was frequently described as straightforward to operate and easy to use by interview participants. Ergonomic design, mouthpiece fit, and dose counter visibility and ease of interpretation emerged as frequently cited drivers of preference for the ELLIPTA DPI compared with their current prescribed inhaler. Of participants with asthma, 71% preferred the ELLIPTA DPI to DISKUS™ and 60% to metered dose inhalers. Of participants with COPD, 86% preferred the ELLIPTA DPI to DISKUS, 95% to HandiHaler™, and 85% to metered dose inhalers. Overall average performance scores were >9 (out of 10) in participants with asthma and COPD

  6. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. PMID:25596347

  7. Characteristics of patients making serious inhaler errors with a dry powder inhaler and association with asthma-related events in a primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    Westerik, Janine A. M.; Carter, Victoria; Chrystyn, Henry; Burden, Anne; Thompson, Samantha L.; Ryan, Dermot; Gruffydd-Jones, Kevin; Haughney, John; Roche, Nicolas; Lavorini, Federico; Papi, Alberto; Infantino, Antonio; Roman-Rodriguez, Miguel; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Lisspers, Karin; Ställberg, Björn; Henrichsen, Svein Høegh; van der Molen, Thys; Hutton, Catherine; Price, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Correct inhaler technique is central to effective delivery of asthma therapy. The study aim was to identify factors associated with serious inhaler technique errors and their prevalence among primary care patients with asthma using the Diskus dry powder inhaler (DPI). Methods: This was a historical, multinational, cross-sectional study (2011–2013) using the iHARP database, an international initiative that includes patient- and healthcare provider-reported questionnaires from eight countries. Patients with asthma were observed for serious inhaler errors by trained healthcare providers as predefined by the iHARP steering committee. Multivariable logistic regression, stepwise reduced, was used to identify clinical characteristics and asthma-related outcomes associated with ≥1 serious errors. Results: Of 3681 patients with asthma, 623 (17%) were using a Diskus (mean [SD] age, 51 [14]; 61% women). A total of 341 (55%) patients made ≥1 serious errors. The most common errors were the failure to exhale before inhalation, insufficient breath-hold at the end of inhalation, and inhalation that was not forceful from the start. Factors significantly associated with ≥1 serious errors included asthma-related hospitalization the previous year (odds ratio [OR] 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–3.40); obesity (OR 1.75; 1.17–2.63); poor asthma control the previous 4 weeks (OR 1.57; 1.04–2.36); female sex (OR 1.51; 1.08–2.10); and no inhaler technique review during the previous year (OR 1.45; 1.04–2.02). Conclusions: Patients with evidence of poor asthma control should be targeted for a review of their inhaler technique even when using a device thought to have a low error rate. PMID:26810934

  8. Delivery characteristics of a low-resistance dry-powder inhaler used to deliver the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium*

    PubMed Central

    Colthorpe, Paul; Voshaar, Thomas; Kieckbusch, Thomas; Cuoghi, Erika; Jauernig, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) glycopyrronium (NVA237) has recently been approved as a once-daily treatment for COPD. The objectives of this study were to determine the dose delivery characteristics of glycopyrronium and compare them with those of the LAMA tiotropium, both delivered by their respective capsule-based dry-powder inhalers (DPIs). Research design and methods Seven inhalation profiles derived from patients with moderate and severe COPD were reproduced to determine the aerodynamic particle size distribution of glycopyrronium delivered by the Breezhaler device, a low-resistance DPI†. Theoretical respiratory tract deposition was estimated using a semi-empirical model for healthy lungs. These results were compared with those of tiotropium delivered by the high-resistance HandiHaler‡ device obtained in a previous study using the same set of inhalation profiles. Study limitations are that fine particle fraction (FPF) and particle size are generated by the inhalers are not a direct measure of lung deposition, and the bronchodilator effect of inhaled drugs does not depend solely upon the percentage of the total dose that reaches the lung. Results The mean FPF (≤4.7 µm) was 42.6% of the nominal dose (which refers to the content of the capsule) for glycopyrronium and 9.8% for tiotropium while the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was 2.8 µm and 3.9 µm for glycopyrronium and tiotropium, respectively. The mean estimated intrathoracic drug deposition as a percentage of the mean dose delivered to the Next Generation Impactor was 39% for glycopyrronium and 22% for tiotropium. Conclusions The glycopyrronium capsule-based DPI delivered a higher FPF and greater and more consistent intrathoracic deposition irrespective of age and disease severity compared to the tiotropium capsule-based DPI, suggesting that it may be suitable for use by patients with a wide range of COPD severities.

  9. Comparing Usability of NEXThaler® with Other Inhaled Corticosteroid/Long-Acting β2-Agonist Fixed Combination Dry Powder Inhalers in Asthma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Voshaar, Thomas; Linnane, Patrick; Campanini, Alice; Lock, Daniel; Lafratta, Anthony; Scuri, Mario; Ronca, Barbara; Melani, Andrea S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Inhaler mishandling is a common issue among patients suffering from asthma and is associated with poor clinical outcomes and greater consumption of health-care resources. Ease of use can improve inhaler technique and, possibly, patients' preference for their inhaler device, which in turn may lead to better adherence to therapy. Methods: This study investigated usability characteristics of NEXThaler® versus two other dry powder inhalers (DPIs; Diskus® and Turbuhaler®). Sixty-six adult patients with asthma (mean age 42.9±17.7 years) and with no previous experience of using a DPI were included in a randomized crossover comparison of the three devices. The main measures of usability were the number of steps failed for each device and the number of people who were able to use the device successfully (effectiveness), the time it took patients to set up the device and the time to read the instructions for use (IFU; efficiency), and patient preferences (satisfaction). Inhaler technique was evaluated after the IFU leaflet was read. Results: NEXThaler was found to be superior to the other two DPIs in terms of the number of device use failures (p<0.001), time to set up (p<0.001), and time to read IFU (p<0.001). Additionally, the proportion of participants who completed a successful inhalation without any errors at all was significantly higher for NEXThaler than for Diskus and Turbuhaler (p<0.001). Patients rated NEXThaler as the easiest to use and most preferred inhaler to own (p<0.001). Conclusions: NEXThaler displayed better usability compared with Diskus and Turbuhaler. The improved usability and higher satisfaction with the device may contribute to increased patient adherence to asthma treatment. PMID:24299501

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Dried Pomegranate Concentration Powder on Melanogenesis in B16F10 Melanoma Cells; Involvement of p38 and PKA Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Song, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Plants rich in antioxidant substances may be useful for preventing skin aging. Pomegranates, containing flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds, are widely consumed due to their beneficial properties. We examined the underlying mechanisms of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) on melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. The antioxidant effects of PCP were determined by measuring free radical scavenging capacity and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes. To explore the inhibitory effects of PCP on melanin synthesis, we measured tyrosinase activity and melanin content in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16F10 cells. In addition, the levels of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, tyrosinase, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression were determined by Western blotting. Changes in the phosphorylation status of protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase Akt, and glycogen kinase 3β (GSK3β) were also examined. The free radical scavenging activity of PCP increased in a dose-dependent manner. In PCP-treated B16F10 cells, transcript levels of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) were increased compared with α-MSH-stimulated cells. In addition, PCP led to the down-regulation of phospho-p38, phospho-PKA, phospho-CREB, phospho-GSK3β, MITF, and TRP-1 compared with α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. We believe this effect may be associated with PCP activity, which leads to the inhibition of melanin production and tyrosinase activity. These results suggest that PCP decreases tyrosinase activity and melanin production via inactivation of the p38 and PKA signaling pathways, and subsequently decreases phosphorylation of CREB, MITF, and melanogenic enzymes. These observations provided new insights on the molecular mechanisms of the skin-whitening property of PCP. PMID:26473849

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Dried Pomegranate Concentration Powder on Melanogenesis in B16F10 Melanoma Cells; Involvement of p38 and PKA Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Song, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Plants rich in antioxidant substances may be useful for preventing skin aging. Pomegranates, containing flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds, are widely consumed due to their beneficial properties. We examined the underlying mechanisms of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) on melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. The antioxidant effects of PCP were determined by measuring free radical scavenging capacity and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes. To explore the inhibitory effects of PCP on melanin synthesis, we measured tyrosinase activity and melanin content in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16F10 cells. In addition, the levels of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, tyrosinase, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression were determined by Western blotting. Changes in the phosphorylation status of protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase Akt, and glycogen kinase 3β (GSK3β) were also examined. The free radical scavenging activity of PCP increased in a dose-dependent manner. In PCP-treated B16F10 cells, transcript levels of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) were increased compared with α-MSH-stimulated cells. In addition, PCP led to the down-regulation of phospho-p38, phospho-PKA, phospho-CREB, phospho-GSK3β, MITF, and TRP-1 compared with α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. We believe this effect may be associated with PCP activity, which leads to the inhibition of melanin production and tyrosinase activity. These results suggest that PCP decreases tyrosinase activity and melanin production via inactivation of the p38 and PKA signaling pathways, and subsequently decreases phosphorylation of CREB, MITF, and melanogenic enzymes. These observations provided new insights on the molecular mechanisms of the skin-whitening property of PCP. PMID:26473849

  12. Correct usage, ease of use, and preference of two dry powder inhalers in patients with COPD: analysis of five phase III, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Riley, John H; Tabberer, Maggie; Richard, Nathalie; Donald, Alison; Church, Alison; Harris, Stephanie S

    2016-01-01

    Background Handheld inhalers are used to deliver treatment for COPD. Incorrect usage leads to suboptimal disease control. Complex treatment regimens and use of multiple inhalers may reduce patient compliance. The Anoro Ellipta™ dry powder inhaler (DPI) simultaneously delivers umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) and vilanterol (VI) without coformulation being required. Aim To assess the correct usage and ease of use of the Ellipta™ DPI administering UMEC/VI and to compare patient preference for Ellipta™ with the HandiHaler® through exploratory analyses of patient and observer questionnaires in five Phase III studies. Methods Two Phase III, 3-month double-blind, placebo-controlled studies assessed the correct usage of the Ellipta™ DPI at Day 1 and after 6 weeks, and ease of use of the Ellipta™ DPI using a nonvalidated patient questionnaire after 6 weeks or early withdrawal. In three 6-month, blinded double-dummy, active comparator studies (two Phase IIIa and one Phase IIIb), patients completed a COPD device preference questionnaire between the Ellipta™ DPI and the Handi-Haler® at Day 168 (Week 24) or early withdrawal. Results In the 3-month placebo-controlled studies, ≥98% of patients used the Ellipta™ DPI correctly and 99% of patients found the inhaler easy/very easy-to-use and the dose counter easy/very easy to read. Across the two Phase IIIa active comparator studies, patients consistently stated a preference for the Ellipta™ DPI over HandiHaler® regarding the number of steps to use (59% vs 17%), time taken to use (62% vs 14%), and ease of use (63% vs 15%) regardless of which inhaler contained active drug. Results were consistent in the Phase IIIb active comparator study. Conclusion Delivery of UMEC/VI via the Ellipta™ DPI was considered easy-to-use, and patients with COPD demonstrated clear preference for this inhaler compared with HandiHaler®. PMID:27578968

  13. Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol: the significance of soluble material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, S.; Huang, Y.-w.; Seewald, J. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2013-11-01

    This study examines the interaction of clay mineral particles and water vapor to determine the conditions required for cloud droplet formation. Droplet formation conditions are investigated for three clay minerals: illite, sodium-rich montmorillonite, and Arizona Test Dust. Using wet and dry particle generation coupled to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and cloud condensation nuclei counter, the critical activation of the clay mineral particles as cloud condensation nuclei is characterized. Electron microscopy (EM) is used to determine non-sphericity in particle shape. EM is also used to determine particle surface area and account for transmission of multiply charged particles by the DMA. Single particle mass spectrometry and ion chromatography are used to investigate soluble material in wet-generated samples and demonstrate that wet and dry generation yield compositionally different particles. Activation results are analyzed in the context of both κ-Köhler theory and Frenkel, Halsey, and Hill (FHH) adsorption activation theory. This study has two main results: (1) κ-Köhler is a suitable framework, less complex than FHH theory, to describe clay mineral nucleation activity despite apparent differences in κ with respect to size. For dry-generated particles the size dependence is likely an artifact of the shape of the size distribution: there is a sharp drop-off in particle concentration at ~300 nm, and a large fraction of particles classified with a mobility diameter less than ~300 nm are actually multiply charged, resulting in a much lower critical supersaturation for droplet activation than expected. For wet-generated particles, deviation from κ-Köhler theory is likely a result of the dissolution and redistribution of soluble material. (2) Wet-generation is found to be unsuitable for simulating the lofting of fresh dry dust because it changes the size-dependent critical supersaturations by fractionating and re-partitioning soluble material.

  14. Study of particulate matter from Primary/Secondary Marine Aerosol and anthropogenic sources collected by a self-made passive sampler for the evaluation of the dry deposition impact on built heritage.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Héctor; Maguregui, Maite; García-Florentino, Cristina; Marcaida, Iker; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-04-15

    Dry deposition is one of the most dangerous processes that can take place in the environment where the compounds that are suspended in the atmosphere can react directly on different surrounding materials, promoting decay processes. Usually this process is related with industrial/urban fog and/or marine aerosol in the coastal areas. Particularly, marine aerosol transports different types of salts which can be deposited on building materials and by dry deposition promotes different decay pathways. A new analytical methodology based on the combined use of Raman Spectroscopy and SEM-EDS (point-by-point and imaging) was applied. For that purpose, firstly evaporated seawater (presence of Primary Marine Aerosol (PMA)) was analyzed. After that, using a self-made passive sampler (SMPS), different suspended particles coming from marine aerosol (transformed particles in the atmosphere (Secondary Marine Aerosol (SMA)) and metallic airborne particulate matter coming from anthropogenic sources, were analyzed. Finally in order to observe if SMA and metallic particles identified in the SMPS can be deposited on a building, sandstone samples from La Galea Fortress (Getxo, north of Spain) located in front of the sea and in the place where the passive sampler was mounted were analyzed. PMID:26820932

  15. Tailored Antibiotic Combination Powders for Inhaled Rotational Antibiotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Ng, Wai Kiong; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Reginald B H

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory lung infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs are on a global upsurge and have very grim clinical outcomes. Their MDR profile makes therapeutic options extremely limited. Although a highly toxic antibiotic, colistin, is favored today as a "last-line" therapeutic against these hard-to-treat MDR pathogens, it is fast losing its effectiveness. This work therefore seeks to identify and tailor-make useful combination regimens (that are potentially rotatable and synergistic) as attractive alternative strategies to address the rising rates of drug resistance. Three potentially rotatable ternary dry powder inhaler constructs (each involving colistin and 2 other different-classed antibiotics chosen from rifampicin, meropenem, and tigecycline) were identified (with distinct complementary killing mechanisms), coformulated via spray drying, evaluated on their aerosol performance using a Next-Generation Impactor and tested for their efficacies against a number of MDR pathogens. The powder particles were of respirable size (d50, 3.1 ± 0.3 μm-3.4 ± 0.1 μm) and predominantly crumpled in morphology. When dispersed via a model dry powder inhaler (Aerolizer(®)) at 60 L/min, the powders showed concomitant in vitro deposition with fine particle fractions of ∼53%-70%. All formulations were successfully tested in the laboratory to be highly effective against the MDR pathogens. In addition, a favorable synergistic interaction was detected across all 3 formulations when tested against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27019964

  16. Dry pressing technical ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.A. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Dry pressing of technical ceramics is a fundamental method of producing high-quality ceramic components. The goals of dry pressing technical ceramics are uniform compact size and green density, consistent part-to-part green density and defect-free compact. Dry pressing is the axial compaction of loosely granulated dry ceramic powders (< 3% free moisture) within a die/punch arrangement. The powder, under pressure, conforms to the specific shape of the punch faces and die. Powder compaction occurs within a rigid-walled die and usually between a top and bottom punch. Press configurations include anvil, rotary, multiple-punch and multiple-action.

  17. Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol: the significance of soluble material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, S.; Huang, Y.-W.; Seewald, J. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the interaction of clay mineral particles and water vapor for determining the conditions required for cloud droplet formation. Droplet formation conditions are investigated for two common clay minerals, illite and sodium-rich montmorillonite, and an industrially derived sample, Arizona Test Dust. Using wet and dry particle generation coupled to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and cloud condensation nuclei counter, the critical activation of the clay mineral particles as cloud condensation nuclei is characterized. Electron microscopy (EM) is used in order to determine non-sphericity in particle shape. It is also used in order to determine particle surface area and account for transmission of multiply charged particles by the DMA. Single particle mass spectrometry and ion chromatography are used to investigate soluble material in wet-generated samples and demonstrate that wet and dry generation yield compositionally different particles. Activation results are analyzed in the context of both κ-Köhler theory (κ-KT) and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption activation theory. This study has two main results: (1) κ-KT is the suitable framework to describe clay mineral nucleation activity. Apparent differences in κ with respect to size arise from an artifact introduced by improper size-selection methodology. For dust particles with mobility sizes larger than ~300 nm, i.e., ones that are within an atmospherically relevant size range, both κ-KT and FHH theory yield similar critical supersaturations. However, the former requires a single hygroscopicity parameter instead of the two adjustable parameters required by the latter. For dry-generated particles, the size dependence of κ is likely an artifact of the shape of the size distribution: there is a sharp drop-off in particle concentration at ~300 nm, and a large fraction of particles classified with a mobility diameter less than ~300 nm are actually multiply charged, resulting in a much

  18. Three air quality studies: Great Lakes ozone formation and nitrogen dry deposition; and Tucson aerosol chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Theresa

    (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, and nickel) in the southern Tucson metropolitan area. A Tucson company that uses beryllium oxide to manufacture thermally conductive ceramics has prompted strong citizen concern. This study found that the study area has good air quality with respect to PM10 and metals, with ambient concentrations meeting US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization standards. Beryllium was detected only once (during a dust storm) and was ascribed to naturally-occurring beryllium in the suspended soil. The third paper (to be submitted to the Journal of Great Lakes Research) studies nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Numerous studies have shown that wet and dry deposition of nitrogen has contributed to the eutrophication of coastal waters and declining productivity of marine fisheries. Nitrogen dry deposition over the Great Lakes themselves, as opposed to the shorelines, has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature. This paper calculates nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, using aircraft measurements from the LADCO Aircraft Study, and finds that over-water, nitrogen dry deposition is a significant source of nitrogen to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.

  19. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. Results: For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8–110.6 L/min (range: 41.6–142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p < 0.05) strong correlations (R > 0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. Conclusions: All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma

  20. In Vitro Dosing Performance of the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler Using Asthma and COPD Patient Inhalation Profiles Replicated with the Electronic Lung (eLung™)

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Richard; Pang, Cheng; Charles, Stephen; Gillett, Ben; Prime, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the in vitro dose delivery characteristics of approved asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA® dry powder inhaler across inhalation endpoints representative of the target patient population, using the Electronic Lung (eLung™) to replicate inhaler-specific patient inhalation profiles that were previously recorded in vivo. Methods: Selected profiles, representative of the range of inhalation endpoints achieved by patients with all severities of asthma and COPD, were replicated using the eLung breathing simulator in conjunction with an oropharyngeal cast. A Next Generation Impactor was coupled to the eLung to determine the aerodynamic particle size distribution of the ex-throat dose (ETD) of asthma and COPD therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA inhaler. Delivered dose (DD), ETD, and fine particle dose (FPD; defined as a mass of active substance less than 5 μm) were determined for fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) 100/25 μg and 200/25 μg (asthma and COPD), umeclidinium (UMEC)/VI 62.5/25 μg (COPD only), FF 100 μg and 200μg monotherapy (asthma only), and UMEC 62.5 μg monotherapy (COPD only). Results: Inhalation profiles replicated by eLung covered a wide range of peak inspiratory flow rates (41.6–136.9 L/min), pressure drops (1.2–13.8 kPa), and inhaled volumes through the inhaler (0.7–4.2L). DD was consistent across the range of patient representative inhalation parameters for all components (FF, VI, and UMEC) of each therapy assessed; although ETD and FPD were also generally consistent, some small variation was observed. Dose delivery was consistent for each of the components, whether delivered as mono- or combination therapy. Conclusions: The in vitro performance of the ELLIPTA inhaler has been demonstrated for the delivery of FF/VI, UMEC/VI, FF monotherapy, and UMEC monotherapy. Across a range of inspiratory profiles, DD was consistent, while ETD

  1. Size distribution of organic and inorganic species in Hong Kong aerosols during the wet and dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Mei; Kester, Dana R.; Wang, Fu; Shi, Xinmei; Guo, Zhigang

    2008-08-01

    Organic compounds including alkanes, fatty acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace and major elements in four size fractions (<0.49 μm, 0.49-0.95 μm, 0.95-2.5 μm, and 2.5-10 μm) collected from June 1998 to January 1999 in Hong Kong were physically and chemically characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to study their size distributions, seasonal variations, and sources. SEM micrographs show that abundances and shapes of particles in each size fraction exhibit distinct difference between wet and dry seasons. Solvent extractable organic compounds (SEOC) investigated in this study were significantly enriched in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) since 97% of PAH, 88% of alkane, and 69% of fatty acids in PM10 were actually from PM2.5. The pollution elements and SEOC showed a change from a maxima in the finest fraction (<0.49 μm) in the wet season, to an obvious increase in the 0.49-2.5 μm fraction in September and October, and to a maxima in the finest fraction again in November and December. This corresponds to a change from a strong local emission from pollution sources, to possibly aged materials in the transition period of Asian monsoon, and to the pollution emissions dominated by those transported from the continent. The distinct difference of particle size distributions between wet and dry seasons suggests that the health effects of particles in Hong Kong may be different in those seasons.

  2. Colistin powders with high aerosolisation efficiency for respiratory infection: preparation and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Morton, David A V; Yu, Heidi H; Jacob, Jovan; Wang, Jiping; Li, Jian; Chan, Hak Kim

    2013-10-01

    In many respiratory infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, colistin is often the last-line drug for treatment despite its nephrotoxicity when administered parenterally. Inhalation therapy of colistin has great potential to improve the efficacy while reducing adverse effects. In this study, inhalable powder formulations of colistin (sulphate) were produced via spray drying. The colistin powders were found to have intact antimicrobial activity against Acinetobacter baumannii measured by broth micro-dilution. Both the raw material and spray-dried formulations were amorphous and absorbed significant amount of water up to 30% (w/w) at relative humidity (RH) of at least 70%. The spray-dried formulations were physically stable in the amorphous form at 60% RH and 25°C, having a high aerosol efficiency (emitted dose >86% and fine particle fraction total >83%) which remained unchanged after a 3-month storage. Storage at an elevated RH of 75% resulted in the aerosolisation performance significantly decreased, and at RH 90%, the formulation particles fused together (but without re-crystallisation). Although spray drying has been extensively used for generating inhalable drug particles, this is the first report that colistin powder can be physically stable in the amorphous form at ambient conditions, indicating that spray-drying approach is suitable for producing inhalable colistin powder formulation. PMID:23904207

  3. The grinding behavior of ground copper powder for Cu/CNT nanocomposite fabrication by using the dry grinding process with a high-speed planetary ball mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Heekyu; Bor, Amgalan; Sakuragi, Shiori; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Hyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of ground copper powder for copper-carbon nanotube (copper-CNT) nanocomposite fabrication during high-speed planetary ball milling was investigated because the study of the behavior characteristics of copper powder has recently gained scientific interest. Also, studies of Cu/CNT composites have widely been done due to their useful applications to enhanced, advanced nano materials and components, which would significantly improve the properties of new mechatronics-integrated materials and components. This study varied experimental conditions such as the rotation speed and the grinding time with and without CNTs, and the particle size distribution, median diameter, crystal structure and size, and particle morphology were monitored for a given grinding time. We observed that pure copper powders agglomerated and that the morphology changed with changing rotation speed. The particle agglomerations were observed with maximum experiment conditions (700 rpm, 60 min) in this study of the grinding process for mechanical alloys in the case of pure copper powders because the grinding behavior of Cu/CNT agglomerations was affected by the addition of CNTs. Indeed, the powder morphology and the crystal size of the composite powder could be changed by increasing the grinding time and the rotation speed.

  4. The Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition Device on Cell Cultures (PADDOCC) in vitro system: design and experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    Hein, Stephanie; Bur, Michael; Kolb, Tobias; Muellinger, Bernhard; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2010-08-01

    The development of aerosol medicines typically involves numerous tests on animals, due to the lack of adequate in vitro models. A new in vitro method for testing pharmaceutical aerosol formulations on cell cultures was developed, consisting of an aerosolisation unit fitting a commercial dry powder inhaler (HandiHaler(c), Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany), an air-flow control unit (Akita(c), Activaero, Germany) and a custom-made sedimentation chamber. This chamber holds three Snapwell(c) inserts with monolayers of pulmonary epithelial cells. The whole set-up, referred to as the Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition Device On Cell Cultures (PADDOCC) system, aims to mimic the complete process of aerosol drug delivery, encompassing aerosol generation, aerosol deposition onto pulmonary epithelial cells and subsequent drug transport across this biological barrier, to facilitate the investigation of new aerosol formulations in the early stages of development. We describe here, the development of the design and the protocol for this device. By testing aerosol formulations of budesonide and salbutamol sulphate, respectively, reproducible deposition of aerosol particles on, and the integrity of, the pulmonary cell monolayer could be demonstrated. PMID:20822321

  5. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of...

  6. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of...

  7. Aerosol survival of Pasteurella tularensis and the influence of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Cox, C S; Goldberg, L J

    1972-01-01

    The aerosol survival in air was determined for Pasteurella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) as a function of relative humidity (RH). Three different preparations of bacteria were used: (i) liquid suspension of P. tularensis LVS in spent culture medium; (ii) powders of P. tularensis LVS freeze-dried in spent culture fluid; (iii) P. tularensis LVS freeze-dried in spent culture fluid and then reconstituted with distilled water and disseminated as a liquid suspension. Preparation (i) gave greatest survival at high RH and lowest survival at intermediate RH. Preparation (ii), in contrast, gave greatest survival at low RH and minimum survival at 81% RH. Preparation (iii) was the same as preparation (i), i.e., the process of freeze-drying and reconstituting with distilled water before aerosol formation had little or no effect upon aerosol survival as a function of RH. Hence, control of aerosol survival appears to be through the water content of P. tularensis LVS at the moment of aerosol generation rather than the water content of the bacteria in the aerosol phase. PMID:4551041

  8. Ceramic powder compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Mahoney, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

  9. Predicting the dry deposition of aerosol-sized particles using layer-resolved canopy and pipe flow analogy models: Role of turbophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katul, G. G.; GröNholm, T.; Launiainen, S.; Vesala, T.

    2010-06-01

    A number of synthesis activities, mathematical modeling, and experiments on dry deposition of aerosol-sized particles over forested surfaces point to three disjointed findings: (1) deposition velocities measured over tall forests do not support a clearly defined minimum for particle sizes in the range of 0.1-2 μm; (2) when measurements of the normalized deposition velocity (Vd+) are presented as a function of the normalized particle timescale (τp+), where the normalizing variables are the friction velocity and air viscosity, a power law scaling in the form of Vd+ ˜ (τp+)2 emerges in the so-called inertial-impaction regime for many laboratory and crop experiments, but none of the forest measurements fall on this apparent scaling law; and (3) two recent models with entirely different assumptions about the representation of the particle deposition process reproduce common data sets for forests. We show that turbophoresis, when accounted for at the leaf scale in vertically resolved or multilayer models (MLMs), provides a coherent explanation for the first two findings and sheds light on the third. The MLM resolves the canopy vertical structure and its effects on both the flow statistics and the leaf particle collection mechanisms. The proposed MLM predictions agree with a recent two-level particle-resolving data set collected over 1 year duration for a Scots pine stand in Hyytiälä (southern Finland). Such an approach can readily proportion the particle deposition onto foliage and forest floor and can take advantage of recent advances in measurements of canopy structural properties derived from remote sensing platforms.

  10. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies. PMID:20039220

  11. Effect of humidity on aerosolization of micronized drugs.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Price, Robert; Tobyn, Michael J; Buttrum, Mark; Dey, Fiona

    2003-10-01

    The variation of aerosolization with humidity for three micronized drugs used in the treatment of asthma was evaluated by using in vitro methods. Micronized samples of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), salbutamol sulphate, and triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) were stored for 12hr at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75% relative humidity (RH). A suitable "reservoir" dry powder inhaler was loaded and tested by using a twin-stage impinger at each specific humidity. The aerosolization efficiency of all three micronized drugs was affected by variations in humidity. The percentage of the delivered dose and the fine particle fraction of the loaded dose (FPFLD) for both DSCG and salbutamol sulphate decreased with increasing humidity; with the largest decrease in FPFLD occurring between 45% and 60% RH for DSCG and 60% to 75% RH for salbutamol sulphate. These observations suggest that the adhesion properties for both DSCG and salbutamol sulphate, which govern the aerosolization efficiency, are predominately influenced by capillary interactions. In contrast, the FPFLD for TAA significantly increased as the humidity increased over the range 15% to 75% RH, suggesting that triboelectric forces predominate particle-particle interactions. These variations in drug particulate behavior highlight the importance of an individual formulation approach when developing dry powder inhalation systems. PMID:14606660

  12. Influences of process and formulation parameters on powder flow properties and immunogenicity of spray dried polymer particles entrapping recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A.

    PubMed

    Anish, Chakkumkal; Upadhyay, Arun K; Sehgal, Devinder; Panda, Amulya Kumar

    2014-05-15

    Particle size, antigen load and its release characteristic are the three the main attributes of polymer particles based vaccine delivery systems. The present studies focus on the formulation of spray dried polylactide microparticles entrapping pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). Influence of process variables during polymer particle formation were optimized by using half-factorial design. Feed rate and atomization pressure during spray drying were found to be the most important parameters for achieving uniform size particles. Spray drying of preformed particles from different stages of solvent evaporation method resulted in formation of particle having different porosity and protein release profile. Presence of polyvinyl alcohol in the external aqueous phase not only contributed towards regulating the size of particles but also influenced the burst release of protein from particles. Polymer particles entrapping PspA elicited robust IgG responses both in mice and in rats. Antigen load in microparticles correlated with the antibody titer indicating the maintenance of protein integrity during particle formation using spray drying. Both, process engineering and formulation parameters during spray drying influenced the particles in terms of size, load and antigen release characteristics. PMID:24631054

  13. Vertical Profiles of Light Scattering, Light Absorption, and Single Scattering Albedo during the Dry, Biomass Burning Season in Southern Africa and Comparisons of In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, Brian I.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Schmid, Beat; Redermann, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0)) are presented for a number of locations in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season. Features of the profiles include haze layers, clean air slots, and marked decreases in light scattering in passing from the boundary layer into the free troposphere. Frequency distributions of omega (sub 0) reflect the strong influence of smoke from biomass burning. For example, during a period when heavy smoke was advected into the region from the north, the mean value of omega (sub 0) in the boundary layer was 0.81 +/- 0.02 compared to 0.89 +/- 0.03 prior to this intrusion. Comparisons of layer aerosol optical depths derived from the in situ measurements with those measured by a Sun photometer aboard the aircraft show excellent agreement.

  14. Computer modeling of airway deposition distribution of Foster(®) NEXThaler(®) and Seretide(®) Diskus(®) dry powder combination drugs.

    PubMed

    Jókay, Ágnes; Farkas, Árpád; Füri, Péter; Horváth, Alpár; Tomisa, Gábor; Balásházy, Imre

    2016-06-10

    Asthma is a serious global health problem with rising prevalence and treatment costs. Due to the growing number of different types of inhalation devices and aerosol drugs, physicians often face difficulties in choosing the right medication for their patients. The main objectives of this study are (i) to elucidate the possibility and the advantages of the application of numerical modeling techniques in aerosol drug and device selection, and (ii) to demonstrate the possibility of the optimization of inhalation modes in asthma therapy with a numerical lung model by simulating patient-specific drug deposition distributions. In this study we measured inhalation parameter values of 25 healthy adult volunteers when using Foster(®) NEXThaler(®) and Seretide(®) Diskus(®). Relationships between emitted doses and patient-specific inhalation flow rates were established. Furthermore, individualized emitted particle size distributions were determined applying size distributions at measured flow rates. Based on the measured breathing parameter values, we calculated patient-specific drug deposition distributions for the active components (steroid and bronchodilator) of both drugs by the help of a validated aerosol lung deposition model adapted to therapeutic aerosols. Deposited dose fractions and deposition densities have been computed in the entire respiratory tract, in distinct anatomical regions of the airways and at the level of airway generations. We found that Foster(®) NEXThaler(®) deposits more efficiently in the lungs (average deposited steroid dose: 42.32±5.76% of the nominal emitted dose) than Seretide(®) Diskus(®) (average deposited steroid dose: 24.33±2.83% of the nominal emitted dose), but the variance of the deposition values of different individuals in the lung is significant. In addition, there are differences in the required minimal flow rates, therefore at certain patients Seretide(®) Diskus(®) or pMDIs could be a better choice. Our results show that

  15. Vacuum powder injector and method of impregnating fiber with powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus uniformly impregnate stranded material with dry powder such as low solubility, high melt flow polymer powder to produce, for example, composite prepregs. The stranded material is expanded in an impregnation chamber by an influx of air so that the powder, which may enter through the same inlet as the air, penetrates to the center of the stranded material. The stranded material then is contracted for holding the powder therein. The stranded material and powder may be pulled through the impregnation chamber in the same direction by vacuum. Larger particles of powder which do not fully penetrate the stranded material may be combed into the stranded material and powder which does not impregnate the stranded material may be collected and reused.

  16. Predicting the dry deposition of atmospheric aerosol particles onto forests using a size-resolved multi-layer second-order closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Launianen, S.; Gronholm, T.; Katul, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Biological aerosol particles are now receiving significant attention given their role in air quality, climate change, and spreading of allergens and other communicable diseases. A major uncertainty in their quantification is associated with complex transport processes governing their generation and removal inside canopies. It has been known for some time now that the commonly used first-order closure to link mean concentration gradients with turbulent fluxes is problematic. The presence of a mean counter-gradient momentum transport in an open trunk space exemplifies such failure. Here, instead of employing K-theory, a size-resolved second-order multilayer model for dry particle deposition is proposed. The starting point of the proposed model is a particle flux budget in which the production, transport, and dissipation terms are modeled. Because these terms require higher-order velocity statistics, this flux budget is coupled with a conventional second-order closure scheme for the flow field within the canopy sub-layer. The failure of conventional K-theory for particle fluxes are explicitly linked to the onset of a mean counter or zero - gradient flow attributed to a significant particle flux transport term. The relative importance of these terms in the particle flux budget and their effects on the foliage particle collection terms for also discussed for each particle size. The proposed model is evaluated against published multi-level measurements of sized-resolved particle fluxes and mean concentration profiles collected within and above a tall Scots pine forest in Hyytiala, Southern Finland. The main findings are that (1) first-order closure schemes may be still plausible for modeling particle deposition velocity, especially in the particle size range smaller than 1 μm when the turbulent particle diffusivity is estimated from higher order flow statistics; (2) the mechanisms leading to the increased trend of particle deposition velocity with increasing friction

  17. Effect of Dry-Ice Blasting on Structure and Magnetic Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Fe-40Al Coating from Nanostructured Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Dong, Shujuan; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials have attracted much interest in the field of new materials design because of their excellent mechanical and physical properties as well as their magnetic properties. In this work, Fe-40Al coatings were prepared from a nanostructured feedstock by atmospheric plasma spray combined with dry-ice blasting. The scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, tensile test, and magnetic measurements were used to investigate microstructure, phase structure, adhesion, and magnetic properties of the deposited coatings. The results showed that after using dry-ice blasting, the oxidation and porosity decreased and the atmospheric plasma-sprayed Fe-40Al coatings exhibited a soft ferromagnetic character with lower coercivity and higher saturation magnetization due to their lower degree of order. The plasma-sprayed Fe-40Al coating from the nanostructured feedstock has a very high adhesive strength.

  18. In vitro aerosol characterization of Staccato(®) Loxapine.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Khe; Myers, Dan J; Glazer, Marc; Shmidt, Tamara; Devereaux, Caitlin; Simis, Kathleen; Noymer, Peter D; He, Min; Choosakul, Corinna; Chen, Qiang; Cassella, James V

    2011-01-17

    Medicinal aerosol products (metered dose and dry powder inhalers) require characterization testing over a wide range of use and pre-operating stress scenarios in order to ensure robust product performance and support submissions for regulatory approval. Aerosol characterization experiments on Staccato(®) Loxapine for inhalation (Staccato Loxapine) product (emitted dose, particle size, and purity) were assessed at different operating settings (flow rates, ambient temperature and humidity, altitude, and orientation) and at nominal test conditions following exposure to various stresses on the device (mechanical shock, vibration, drop, thermal cycling, and light exposure). Emitted dose values were approximately 90% of the coated dose at every condition, meeting target specifications in each case. Aerosol purity was consistently >99.5% for every test setting, with no reportable impurities according to ICH standards (>0.1%). Particle size averaged 2μm (MMAD) and was independent of the different test conditions with the exception of different airflow rates. Particle size decreased slightly with airflow, which may assist in maintaining constant deep lung deposition. The combination of high emitted dose efficiency and a particle size range ideally suited for lung deposition, along with the consistency of these key aerosol attributes, suggests that the Staccato system has distinct advantages over more traditional aerosol systems. PMID:20971174

  19. Asthma control in patients receiving inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist fixed combinations. A real-life study comparing dry powder inhalers and a pressurized metered dose inhaler extrafine formulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although patients have more problems using metered dose inhalers, clinical comparisons suggest they provide similar control to dry powder inhalers. Using real-life situations this study was designed to evaluate asthma control in outpatients with moderate to severe persistent asthma and to compare efficacy of fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long acting beta-agonists (LABA). Methods This real-life study had a cross-sectional design. Patients using fixed combinations of ICS and LABA had their asthma control and spirometry assessed during regular visits. Results 111 patients were analyzed: 53 (47.7%) received maintenance therapy of extrafine beclomethasone-formoterol (BDP/F) pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), 25 (22.5%) fluticasone-salmeterol (FP/S) dry powder inhaler (DPI), and 33 (29.7%) budesonide-formoterol (BUD/F) DPI. Severity of asthma at time of diagnosis, assessed by the treating physician, was comparable among groups. Asthma control was achieved by 45.9% of patients; 38.7% were partially controlled and 15.3% were uncontrolled. In the extrafine BDF/F group, asthma control total score, daytime symptom score and rescue medication use score were significantly better than those using fixed DPI combinations (5.8 ± 6.2 vs. 8.5 ± 6.8; 1.4 ± 1.8 vs. 2.3 ± 2.1; 1.8 ± 2.2 vs. 2.6 ± 2.2; p = 0.0160; p = 0.012 and p = 0.025, respectively) and the mean daily ICS dose were significantly lower. Conclusions pMDI extrafine BDP/F combination demonstrated better asthma control compared to DPIs formulated with larger particles. This could be due to the improved lung deposition of the dose or less reliance on the optimal inhalation technique or both. PMID:21762500

  20. System Applies Polymer Powder To Filament Tow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Snoha, John J.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer powder applied uniformly and in continuous manner. Powder-coating system applies dry polymer powder to continuous fiber tow. Unique filament-spreading technique, combined with precise control of tension on fibers in system, ensures uniform application of polymer powder to web of spread filaments. Fiber tows impregnated with dry polymer powders ("towpregs") produced for preform-weaving and composite-material-molding applications. System and process valuable to prepreg industry, for production of flexible filament-windable tows and high-temperature polymer prepregs.

  1. Trends in powder processing equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    Spray drying is the most widely used process for producing particles. It is used in industries other than ceramics including food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical. The process involves the atomization of a liquid feed stock into a spray of droplets and contacting the droplets with hot air in a drying chamber. The sprays are produced by either rotary or nozzle atomizers. Evaporation of moisture from the droplets and formation of dry particles proceed under controlled temperature and airflow conditions. Powder is then discharged continuously from the drying chamber. Spray drying equipment is being improved to handle an ever-increasing number of applications. Several developments in particle-size reduction equipment are also described.

  2. Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

  3. Formulation and characterization of inhalable magnetic nanocomposite microparticles (MnMs) for targeted pulmonary delivery via spray drying.

    PubMed

    Stocke, Nathanael A; Meenach, Samantha A; Arnold, Susanne M; Mansour, Heidi M; Hilt, J Zach

    2015-02-20

    Targeted pulmonary delivery facilitates the direct application of bioactive materials to the lungs in a controlled manner and provides an exciting platform for targeting magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to the lungs. Iron oxide MNPs remotely heat in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) providing unique opportunities for therapeutic applications such as hyperthermia. In this study, spray drying was used to formulate magnetic nanocomposite microparticles (MnMs) consisting of iron oxide MNPs and d-mannitol. The physicochemical properties of these MnMs were evaluated and the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance of the dry powders was measured by the Next Generation Impactor(®). For all powders, the mass median aerosol diameter (MMAD) was <5μm and deposition patterns revealed that MnMs could deposit throughout the lungs. Heating studies with a custom AMF showed that MNPs retain excellent thermal properties after spray drying into composite dry powders, with specific absorption ratios (SAR)>200W/g, and in vitro studies on a human lung cell line indicated moderate cytotoxicity of these materials. These inhalable composites present a class of materials with many potential applications and pose a promising approach for thermal treatment of the lungs through targeted pulmonary administration of MNPs. PMID:25542988

  4. [Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets. PMID:24754170

  5. The expanding role of aerosols in systemic drug delivery, gene therapy, and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Laube, Beth L

    2005-09-01

    Aerosolized medications have been used for centuries to treat respiratory diseases. Until recently, inhalation therapy focused primarily on the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the pressurized metered-dose inhaler was the delivery device of choice. However, the role of aerosol therapy is clearly expanding beyond that initial focus. This expansion has been driven by the Montreal protocol and the need to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from traditional metered-dose inhalers, by the need for delivery devices and formulations that can efficiently and reproducibly target the systemic circulation for the delivery of proteins and peptides, and by developments in medicine that have made it possible to consider curing lung diseases with aerosolized gene therapy and preventing epidemics of influenza and measles with aerosolized vaccines. Each of these drivers has contributed to a decade or more of unprecedented research and innovation that has altered how we think about aerosol delivery and has expanded the role of aerosol therapy into the fields of systemic drug delivery, gene therapy, and vaccination. During this decade of innovation, we have witnessed the coming of age of dry powder inhalers, the development of new soft mist inhalers, and improved pressurized metered-dose inhaler delivery as a result of the replacement of CFC propellants with hydrofluoroalkane. The continued expansion of the role of aerosol therapy will probably depend on demonstration of the safety of this route of administration for drugs that have their targets outside the lung and are administered long term (eg, insulin aerosol), on the development of new drugs and drug carriers that can efficiently target hard-to-reach cell populations within the lungs of patients with disease (eg, patients with cystic fibrosis or lung cancer), and on the development of devices that improve aerosol delivery to infants, so that early intervention in disease processes with aerosol

  6. Ultrafine calcium aerosol: Generation and use as a sorbent for sulfur in coal combustion. Volume 1, Experimental work: Final report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Alam