Science.gov

Sample records for dry-mill corn starch

  1. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  2. Ethanol production from dry-mill corn starch in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-08-01

    The development of a high-rate process for the production of fuel ethanol from dry-mill corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) technology is discussed. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale FBR using immobilized biocatalysts. Two ethanol production process designs were considered in this study. In the first design, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed at 35 C using {kappa}-carageenan beads (1.5 mm to 1.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis. For dextrin feed concentration of 100 g/L, the single-pass conversion ranged from 54% to 89%. Ethanol concentrations of 23 to 36 g/L were obtained at volumetric productivities of 9 to 15 g/L-h. No accumulation of glucose was observed, indicating that saccharification was the rate-limiting step. In the second design, saccharification and fermentation were carried out sequentially. In the first stage, solutions of 150 to 160 g/L dextrins were pumped through an immobilized glucoamylase packed column maintained at 55 C. Greater than 95% conversion was obtained at a residence time of 1 h, giving a product of 165 to 170 g glucose/L. In the second stage, these glucose solutions were fed to the FBR containing Z. mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carageenan beads. At a residence time of 2 h, 94% conversion and ethanol concentration of 70 g/L was achieved, giving an overall productivity of 23 g/L-h.

  3. 2008 National dry mill corn ethanol survey.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Steffen

    2010-09-01

    Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits. PMID:20473631

  4. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions...

  5. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 406.20 - Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the corn... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.20 Applicability; description of the corn dry milling subcategory. (a) The provisions...

  9. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system. PMID:17964144

  10. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  14. Angiotensin I Converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from commercial wet- and dry-milled corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioprocesses were developed to enhance the value of proteins from de-oiled corn germ. Proteins were hydrolyzed with trypsin, GC106, Flavourzyme or thermolysin in order to free the bioactive peptide sequences. Protein hydrolysis, at an enzyme to substrate ratio of 1:250, was greater for wet- than d...

  15. A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry-milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-Germ)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we reported an aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process that achieved oil yields of 80-90% using corn germ from a commercial corn wet mill. Three commercial cellulases were reported to result in similar oil yields when wet milles corn germ was used as a feedstock in this process. When ...

  16. Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy saving alternative to production of high fructose syrup. Final executive report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to study, test, and demonstrate a process of producing high-fructose corn syrup and protein byproducts from dry milled corn as an energy conserving alternative of the current industrial corn wet-milling process. This final report is divided into 5 sections. Section 1 deals with the process which is the main and, indeed, the final product of the energy conservation study. Section 2 deals with protein Extraction which conditions the dry-milled corn before hydrolysis. Section 3 deals with the analytical technique of GPC developed with the alpha-amylase hydrolysis of starch. Section 4 deals with immobilized glucoamylase hydrolysis. Section 5 deals with the recovery of soluble protein by ion-exchange resins. Each section has been abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  17. Resistant Starch and Starch Thermal Characteristics in Exotic Corn Lines Grown in Temperate and Tropical Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn as a food that is heated and cooled to allow starch retrogradation has higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Increasing the amount of RS can make corn an even healthier food and may be accomplished by breeding and selection, especially by using exotic germplasm. Sixty breeding lines of introg...

  18. A FLOWABLE PASTE FROM HIGH AMYLOSE CORN STARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flow and structural properties of pastes prepared from high amylose corn starch were examined. The starch was cooked in an excess-steam jet cooker in the presence of a fatty acid. The cooked product was rapidly cooled and then freeze dried or drum dried. Amylose is removed from solution by for...

  19. EFFECT OF SAMPLE PROCESSING PROCEDURES ON MEASUREMENT OF STARCH IN CORN SILAGE AND CORN GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods for processing feedstuffs before analysis can affect analytical results. The effects of drying temperature and grinding method on starch analysis of corn silage and of grinding method on corn grain were evaluated. Corn silage samples dried at 55°C or 105°C and grain samples dried at 55°C w...

  20. Cell mediated immunity to corn starch in starch-induced granulomatous peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, R L; Clancy, R L; Davidson, R A; Mullens, J E

    1976-03-01

    Two patients with histologically diagnosed starch induced granulomatous peritonitis (SGP) have been shown to have cell mediated immunity to corn starch using the techniques of macrophage migration inhibition and lymphocyte DNA synthesis. Control groups of normal subjects, patients with uncomplicated laparotomy, and patients with Crohn's disease were negative in both tests. Lymphocytes from two patients with band adhesions, one of whom had biopsy evidence of a granulomatous reaction to starch, were sensitized to starch. Cell mediated immunity to starch may contribute to the pathogenesis of SGP, and some band adhesions may be a chronic low grade manifestation of this disorder. PMID:1269987

  1. Grinding and cooking dry-mill germ to optimize aqueous enzymatic oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The many recent dry grind plants that convert corn to ethanol are potential sources of substantial amounts of corn oil. This report describes an aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method to separate oil from dry-mill corn germ (DMG). The method is an extension of AEE previously developed for wet...

  2. In vitro analyses of resistant starch in retrograded waxy and normal corn starches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-04-01

    Gelatinized waxy and normal corn starches (40% starch) were subjected to temperature cycling between 4 and 30°C (1 day at each temperature) or isothermal storage (4°C) to induce retrogradation. The in vitro analysis methods that are currently used for the measurement of resistant starch (RS), i.e. Englyst, AACC 32-40 and Goni methods, were compared with homogenized retrograded starch gels and freeze-dried powders of the gels. RS contents obtained by the three analysis methods were in the following order: Goni>Englyst>AACC. Although different RS values were obtained among the analysis methods, similar trends in regards to the starch type and storage conditions could be observed. Little or no RS was found in freeze-dried powders of the retrograded starch gels and storage conditions had no effect, indicating that the physical state for RS analysis is important. More RS was found in normal corn starch gels than in waxy corn starch gels under identical storage conditions and in the gels stored under temperature cycling than those under isothermal storage (4°C), indicating that the presence of amylose inhibits starch digestion and the level of crystalline structure of re-crystallized amylopectin also affects the RS formation during retrogradation. PMID:23291029

  3. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  4. Characterisation of corn starch-based films reinforced with taro starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-01

    Taro starch nanoparticles (TSNPs) obtained by hydrolysis with pullulanase and the recrystallisation of gelatinised starch were used as reinforcing agents in corn starch films. The influence of TSNPs contents (0.5-15%) on the physical, mechanical, thermal, and structural properties of starch films was investigated. An increase in the concentration of TSNPs led to a significant decrease in the water vapour permeability (WVP) of films. The addition of TSNPs increased the tensile strength (TS) of films from 1.11 MPa to 2.87 MPa. Compared with pure starch films, the surfaces of nanocomposite films became uneven. The onset temperature (To) and melting temperature (Tm) of films containing TSNPs were higher than those of pure starch films. The addition of TSNPs improved the thermal stability of starch films. PMID:25529655

  5. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in corn starch classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, N.; Wojciechowski, C.; Ta, C. D.; Huvenne, J. P.; Legrand, P.

    1997-06-01

    The authentication of food is a very important issue for both the consumer and the food industry at all levels of the food chain from raw materials to finished products. Corn starch can be used in a wide variety of food preparations such as bakery cream fillings, sauces, salad dressings, frozen foods etc. Many modifications are made to corn starch in connection with its use in agrofood. The value of the product increases with the degree of modification. Some chemical and physical tests have been devised to solve the problem of identifying these modifications but all the methods are time consuming and require skilled operators. We separate corn starches into groups related to their modification on the basis of the infrared spectra.

  6. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  7. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) Compare the differences of ethanol production between normal and waxy corn representing a diverse set of racial germplasm using a cold-fermentation process; 2) Understand the effects of starch structure and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields po...

  8. Effects of amylose, corn protein and corn fiber contents on production of ethanol from starch-rich media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of amylose: amylopectin ratio, and protein and fiber contents on ethanol yields were evaluated by using artificially formulated media made from commercial corn starches with different contents of amylose, corn protein, and corn fiber, as well as different cereal sources, including corn, ...

  9. Effects of Kernel Composition and Starch Structure on Ethanol Yield Produced from Dry-Grind Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of kernels (i.e., starch, protein, and lipid contents) and the starch structure of dry-grind corn affected the enzyme hydrolysis of starch and the ethanol yield during yeast fermentation. Four lines of corn, designated, 05GEM06031, 06G...

  10. Film forming capacity of chemically modified corn starches.

    PubMed

    López, Olivia V; García, María A; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2008-09-01

    Native starch can be chemically modified to improve its functionality and to expand its uses. Modified starches were characterized and the rheological behavior of filmogenic suspensions was analyzed. The film forming capacity of different chemical modified corn starches was evaluated. Acetylated starch was selected by the characteristics of the resulted films; its optimum concentration was 5% w/w since their films exhibited the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP, 1.26×10(-10)g/msPa). The effect of glycerol as plasticizer on film properties depend on its concentration, being 1.5% w/w those that allows to obtain the lowest WVP value (1.64×10(-11)g/msPa), low film solubility in water and a more compact structure than those of unplasticized films. Mechanical behavior of plasticized acetylated starch films depends on glycerol concentration, being rigid and brittle the unplasticized ones, ductile those containing 1.5% w/w of glycerol and very flexible those with a higher plasticizer content. PMID:26048223

  11. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules. PMID:26642841

  12. Potassium sorbate controlled release from corn starch films.

    PubMed

    López, Olivia V; Giannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemí E; García, M Alejandra

    2013-04-01

    Active starch films with glycerol and potassium sorbate were obtained by casting. Native and acetylated corn starches, as well as the mixture of them in equal proportions were used and filmogenic suspensions with pH 4.5 were also prepared. Sorbate concentration decreased during film storage due to its oxidative degradation. Active films resulted more yellow and less transparent than films without sorbate. The minimum inhibitory concentration of sorbate resulted 0.3%, regardless of the starch type and the formulation pH. The use of antimicrobial package was more effective to prevent microbial growth on food surfaces than the use of conventional methods. Additive kinetic release was neither affected by the starch type nor by the formulation pH. Sorbate diffusion process was mathematically modeled satisfactorily. Active films were able to inhibit Candida spp., Penicillium spp., S. aureus and Salmonella spp. growth. Active films extended 21% the shelf life of refrigerated cheese, regardless of the formulation pH. PMID:23827611

  13. Impact of dry heating on physicochemical properties of corn starch and lysine mixture.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Yu, Jicheng; Xu, Yongbin; Zhang, Yinghui

    2016-10-01

    Corn starch was modified with lysine by dry heat treatment and to investigate how they can affect the pasting and structural properties of the treated starches. Dry heating with lysine reduced the pasting temperature and resulting in viscosity increase. The particle size of heated starch-lysine mixture increased, suggesting that starch granules were cross-linked to lysine. After dry heating, the onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature of corn starch-lysine mixture were lower than those of other starches. The degree of crystallinity decreased for the starch after dry heat treatment while these heated starch samples still have the same X-ray diffraction types as the original starch. PMID:27311503

  14. Effects of corn fiber gum (CFG) on the pasting and thermal behaviors of maize starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid. Recent research showed its considerable potential in food processing. In this study, the interactions of maize starch and CFG were studied. Maize starch/CFG blend gels were prepared from maize starch suspension mixed with 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, ...

  15. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth M. Lenihan

    2003-12-12

    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique ({alpha} < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (T{sub oG}), narrower range of gelatinization (R{sub G}), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization ({Delta}H{sub G}). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower T{sub oG}, wider R{sub G}, and lower {Delta}H{sub G}. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were studied by using DSC

  16. Effects of corn fiber gum with different molecular weights on the gelatinization behaviors of corn and wheat starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid. Recent research has shown that it has a considerable potential in food processing. In our previous study, we reported that CFG could be used to modify the gelling and rheological properties of starch-based food. In this study, starch and CFG...

  17. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the supramolecular structure of corn starch with different amylose contents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Hemar, Yacine; Mo, Guang; Wei, Yanru; Li, Zhihong; Wu, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Corn starches with amylose contents ranging from 0 to 80% were suspended in 60 wt% water or ethanol and subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) up to 600 MPa. The impact of HHP treatment on the granule morphology, lamellae structures, and crystalline characteristics were examined with a combination of SAXS, WAXS and optical microscopy. All starch dispersed in water showed a decrease in area of the lamellar peak in the SAXS data at q∼0.6 nm(-1). The lamellae thickness (d) increased for pressurized waxy, normal, and Gelose80 corn starches, suggesting water is forced into starch lamellae during HHP. However, for Gelose50 corn starch, the d remained constant over the whole pressure range and light microscopy showed no obvious granule swelling. WAXS studies demonstrated that HHP partially converted A-type starches (waxy and normal corn) to starches with a faint B-type pattern while starches with a B+V-type pattern (Gelose50 and Gelose80), were not affected by HHP. All corn starches suspended in ethanol showed no detectable changes in either granule morphology, or the fractal, the lamellae, and the crystalline structures. PMID:26778159

  18. Respiratory failure from corn starch aspiration: a hazard of diaper changing.

    PubMed

    Silver, P; Sagy, M; Rubin, L

    1996-04-01

    Corn starch powder is widely used for routine infant skin care as a substitute for talcum powder, as it is believed to have fewer respiratory hazards. We describe a one-month-old infant who presented to an emergency department with respiratory failure and a severe pneumonitis from aspiration of corn starch powder. The patient recovered after five days of mechanical ventilatory support. We conclude that careless use of corn starch for infant skin care can lead to accidental aspiration of this substance and severe respiratory disease. PMID:8859920

  19. Agro-industrial residue from starch extraction of Pachyrhizus ahipa as filler of thermoplastic corn starch films.

    PubMed

    López, O V; Versino, F; Villar, M A; García, M A

    2015-12-10

    Biocomposites films based on thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) containing 0.5% w/w fibrous residue from Pachyrhizus ahipa starch extraction (PASR) were obtained by melt-mixing and compression molding. PASR is mainly constituted by remaining cell walls and natural fibers, revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition of the residue indicated that fiber and starch were the principal components. Biocomposites thermo-stability was determined by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis. A continuous PASR-TPS interface was observed by SEM, as a result of a good adhesion of the fibrous residue to starch matrix. Likewise, films containing PASR presented fewer superficial cracks than TPS ones, whereas their fracture surfaces were more irregular. Besides, the presence of PASR increased starch films roughness, due to fibers agglomerates. Films reinforced with PASR showed significantly lower water vapor permeability (WVP). In addition, PARS filler increased maximum tensile strength and Young's modulus of TPS films, thus leading to more resistant starch matrixes. PMID:26428131

  20. The Pasting and Gel Textural Properties of Corn Starch in Glucose, Fructose and Maltose Syrup

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations. PMID:24755772

  1. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations. PMID:24755772

  2. Retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenwen; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Qiu, Yijing; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-07-15

    The retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) was investigated using rheometry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Dynamic time sweep analysis confirmed that the storage modulus (G') of corn starch stored at 4 °C decreased with increasing GBE treatment time. PNMR analysis demonstrated that the transverse relaxation times (T2) of corn starches treated with GBE were higher than that of control during the storage at 4 °C. DSC results demonstrated that the retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr) of corn starch was reduced by 22.3% after GBE treatment for 10h. Avrami equation analysis showed that GBE treatment reduced the rate of starch retrogradation. FTIR analysis revealed that GBE treatment led to a decrease in hydrogen bonds within the starch. Overall, these results demonstrate that both short- and long-term retrogradation of corn starch were retarded by GBE treatment. PMID:26948619

  3. PROCESSING WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE AND CORN STARCH USING A TORQUE RHEOMETER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing a combination of starch and protein mixtures for food or nonfood applications involves shearing and heating to produce desired texture, appearance and thermo-mechanical properties. In this study, corn starch and whey protein isolate (WPI) were processed in a torque rheometer at varying ro...

  4. Effect of okra-extract on wheat, corn, and rice starches properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedless okra pods were extracted with 0.05M NaOH. The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant and the precipitate were freeze-dried. Wheat, corn and rice starch blends were prepared by replacing 0, 5, 190, and 15% of the starch with dried supernatant (DSP) or dried precipitate (DPP). The eff...

  5. Aqueous carbon black dispersions prepared with steam jet-cooked corn starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utilization of jet-cooked waxy and normal corn starch to prepare aqueous dispersions of hydrophobic carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) is reported. Blending carbon black (CB) into aqueous jet-cooked dispersions of starch followed by high pressure homogenization produced stable aqueous carbon black di...

  6. Alcohol fermentation of corn starch digested by Chalara paradoxa amylase without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Mikuni, K.; Monma, M.; Kainuma, K.

    1987-04-01

    Alcohol fermentation of corn starch without cooking was performed by using Chalara paradoz glucoamylase preparation, which had stronger raw starch digesting activity than those of the conventionally known glucoamylases. A raw corn starch-enzyme-yeast mixture was fermented optimally at pH 5.0 and 30/sup 0/C for five days and produced ethanol. The yields of ethanol were between 63.5 and 86.8% of the theoretical value by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and between 81.1 and 92.1% of the theoretical value by sake yeast (Saccharomyces sake).

  7. Glycemic Response to Corn Starch Modified with Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase and its Relationship to Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Dura, A; Yokoyama, W; Rosell, C M

    2016-09-01

    Corn starch was modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) below the gelatinization temperature. The porous granules with or without CGTase hydrolysis products may be used as an alternative to modified corn starches in foods applications. The amount and type of hydrolysis products were determined, containing mainly β-cyclodextrin (CD), which will influence pasting behavior and glycemic response in mice. Irregular surface and small holes were observed by microscopic analysis and differences in pasting properties were observed in the presence of hydrolysis products. Postprandial blood glucose in mice fed gelatinized enzymatically modified starch peaked earlier than their ungelatinized counterparts. However, in ungelatinized enzymatically modified starches, the presence of β- CD may inhibit the orientation of amylases slowing hydrolysis, which may help to maintain lower blood glucose levels. Significant correlations were found between glycemic curves and viscosity pattern of starches. PMID:27277075

  8. Amyloglucosidase hydrolysis of high-pressure and thermally gelatinized corn and wheat starches.

    PubMed

    Selmi, B; Marion, D; Perrier Cornet, J M; Douzals, J P; Gervais, P

    2000-07-01

    The study of glucose production using amyloglucosidase as a biocatalyst was carried out using high-pressure and thermally gelatinized corn and wheat starches. For corn starch, the measured initial rate of glucose production obtained from thermal gelatinization is faster than that obtained from the two high-pressure treatments, but the equilibrium yield of glucose was found to be similar for the three treatments. High-pressure treatments of wheat starch significantly improve the equilibrium yield of glucose compared with those obtained from the thermally gelatinized wheat starch. This difference has been related to the formation of amylose-lipid complexes during heating and could also explain previous physicochemical differences observed between high-pressure and thermally gelatinized starch. PMID:11032475

  9. Enzymatic modification of corn starch with 4-α-glucanotransferase results in increasing slow digestible and resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan; Miao, Ming; Ye, Fan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    In this study, partial 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT) treatment was used to modulate the fine structure responsible for the slow digestion and resistant property of starch. Normal corn starch modified using 4αGT for 4h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 9.40% to 20.92%, and resistant starch from 10.52 to 17.63%, respectively. The 4αGT treatment decreased the content of amylose from 32.6% to 26.8%. The molecular weight distribution and chain length distribution of 4αGT-treated starch showed a reduction of molecular weight and a great number of short (DP<13) and long (DP>30) chains through cleaving and reorganization of starch molecules. Both the short and long chain fractions of modified amylopectin were attributed to the low in vitro digestibility. The viscosity was inversely related to the digestibility of the 4αGT-treated starch. These results suggested that the 4αGT modified starch synthesized the novel amylopectin clusters with slow digestible and resistant character. PMID:24463262

  10. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Analysis of the Interaction Between Corn Starch and an Exogenous Lipid During Hydrothermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    E Hernandez-Hernandez; C Avila-Orta; B Hsiao; j Castro-Rosas; J Gallegos-Infante; J Morales-Castro; L Ochoa-Martinez; C Gomez-Aldapa

    2011-12-31

    Lipids have an important effect on starch physicochemical properties. There exist few reports about the effect of exogenous lipids on native corn starch structural properties. In this work, a study of the morphological, structural and thermal properties of native corn starch with L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, the main phospholipid in corn) was performed under an excess of water. Synchrotron radiation, in the form of real-time small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), was used in order to track structural changes in corn starch, in the presence of LPC during a heating process from 30 to 85 C. When adding LCP, water absorption decreased within starch granule amorphous regions during gelatinization. This is explained by crystallization of the amylose-LPC inclusion complex during gelatinization, which promotes starch granule thermal stability at up to 95 C. Finally, a conceptual model is proposed for explaining the formation mechanism of the starch-LPC complex.

  11. Corn starch ferulates with antioxidant properties prepared by N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole-mediated grafting procedure.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu; Ye, Fayin; Zhu, Jianfei; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    This work presents novel synthesis processes and properties of corn starch ferulates. First, N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole, a green activating reagent, was used to transform ferulic acid into ferulate-imidazolide. The ferulate-imidazolide was then further reacted with corn starch to produce corn starch ferulates. The grafting reaction of ferulic acid onto corn starch was confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR. The degree of substitution (DS), relating products and reaction parameters, depended on the molar ratio of the anhydroglucose unit to ferulic acid (nAGU/FA), the temperature of the reaction, and the time that elapsed. The dependence of the degree of substitution was optimized by response surface methodology. Results implied the greatest DS (0.389) was obtained under the conditions of nAGU/FA 1:3.6, 90°C and 7.12h. The morphological, crystalline, and in vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing power of the corn starch ferulates showed potential for antioxidant properties. PMID:27132817

  12. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources. PMID:18292269

  13. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  14. Temperature Related Structural Changes in Wheat and Corn Starch Granules and Their Effects on Gels and Dry Foam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of processing temperature on structural changes in wheat, corn, and high amylose corn starch granules was investigated and related to the mechanical properties of gels and microcellular foam (MCF). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed that wheat starch granules form ghosts with thic...

  15. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  16. Physico-chemical properties of corn starch modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Dura, Angela; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-06-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) has been used to produce cyclodextrins (CDs) from starches, but their ability to modify starches has been barely explored. The effect of CGTase on corn starch at sub-gelatinization temperature (50°C) and at different pH conditions, pH 4.0 and pH 6.0, was evaluated. Biochemical features, thermal and structural analysis, oligosaccharides and CDs content were studied. Microscopic analysis of the granules confirmed the enzymatic modification of the starches obtaining structures with irregular surface and small pinholes. The extent of the starch modification was largely dependent on the pHs, being higher at pH 6.0. This was also confirmed by the low viscosity of the resulting pastes during a heating and cooling cycle. Thermal parameters were not affected due to enzymatic treatment. Modified starches were less susceptible to undergo α-amylase hydrolysis. CDs released were higher for samples treated at pH 4.0. Therefore, CGTase modification of corn starches at sub-gelatinization temperature offers an attractive alternative for obtaining porous starches with different properties depending on the pH conditions. PMID:26970178

  17. Gelatinization and freeze-concentration effects on recrystallization in corn and potato starch gels.

    PubMed

    Ronda, Felicidad; Roos, Yrjö H

    2008-04-01

    Freeze-concentration of starch gels was controlled by temperature and gelatinization with glucose and lactose. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of freezing temperature and gel composition on starch recrystallization behaviour of corn and potato starch gels (water content 70%, w/w) in water or glucose or lactose (10%, w/w) solutions. Starch gels were obtained by heating in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples of starch gels were frozen at -10 degrees C, -20 degrees C and -30 degrees C for 24h and, after thawing, stored at +2 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. The extent of starch recrystallization was taken from the enthalpy of melting of the recrystallized starch by DSC. Freezing temperatures, glucose, lactose and the origin of the starch affected the recrystallization behaviour greatly. The recrystallization of amorphous starch during storage was enhanced by freeze-concentration of gels at temperatures above T'(m). Molecular mobility was enhanced by unfrozen water and consequently molecular rearrangements for nucleation could take place. Further storage at a higher temperature enhanced the growth and the maturation of crystals. In particular, glucose decreased the T'(m) of the gels and consequently lower freezing temperatures were needed to reduce enhanced recrystallization during storage. Freeze-concentration temperatures also showed a significant effect on the size and the perfection of crystals formed in starch recrystallization. PMID:18267318

  18. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25 °C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25 °C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS. PMID:26593546

  19. Robust and biodegradable elastomers based on corn starch and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    PubMed

    Ceseracciu, Luca; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Dante, Silvia; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bayer, Ilker S

    2015-02-18

    Designing starch-based biopolymers and biodegradable composites with durable mechanical properties and good resistance to water is still a challenging task. Although thermoplastic (destructured) starch has emerged as an alternative to petroleum-based polymers, its poor dimensional stability under humid and dry conditions extensively hinders its use as the biopolymer of choice in many applications. Unmodified starch granules, on the other hand, suffer from incompatibility, poor dispersion, and phase separation issues when compounded into other thermoplastics above a concentration level of 5%. Herein, we present a facile biodegradable elastomer preparation method by incorporating large amounts of unmodified corn starch, exceeding 80% by volume, in acetoxy-polyorganosiloxane thermosets to produce mechanically robust, hydrophobic bioelastomers. The naturally adsorbed moisture on the surface of starch enables autocatalytic rapid hydrolysis of polyorganosiloxane to form Si-O-Si networks. Depending on the amount of starch granules, the mechanical properties of the bioelastomers can be easily tuned with high elastic recovery rates. Moreover, starch granules considerably lowered the surface friction coefficient of the polyorganosiloxane network. Stress relaxation measurements indicated that the bioelastomers have strain energy dissipation factors that are lower than those of conventional rubbers, rendering them as promising green substitutes for plastic mechanical energy dampeners. Corn starch granules also have excellent compatibility with addition-cured polysiloxane chemistry that is used extensively in microfabrication. Regardless of the starch concentration, all of the developed bioelastomers have hydrophobic surfaces with lower friction coefficients and much less water uptake capacity than those of thermoplastic starch. The bioelastomers are biocompatible and are estimated to biodegrade in Mediterranean seawater within three to six years. PMID:25622232

  20. Ethanol production from starch-rich crops other than corn and the composition and value of the resulting DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because corn (maize, Zea mays) is the predominant feedstock for fuel ethanol in the US and in many other countries, most of the chapters in this book focus on ethanol production and DDGS composition from corn. However, corn is not the only starch-rich crop that has been used as a feedstock for fuel...

  1. Influence of ensiling time and inoculation on alteration of the starch-protein matrix in high-moisture corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fates of hydrophobic zein proteins, which encapsulate corn starch creating vitreous endosperm, have not been investigated in high moisture corn (HMC). To assess influences of ensiling time and inoculation on hydrophobic zein proteins in HMC, quadruplicate samples of two random corns (A and B) co...

  2. Mechanical-Acoustic and Sensory Evaluations of Corn Starch-Whey Protein Isolate Extrudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the mechanism that relates sensory perception of brittle food foams to their mechanical and acoustic properties during crushing, corn starch was extruded with four levels (0, 6, 12, and 18%) of whey protein isolate (WPI) and two levels of in-barrel moisture (23 and 27%). Texture of the exp...

  3. Gelatinisation kinetics of corn and chickpea starches using DSC, RVA, and dynamic rheometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gelatinisation kinetics (non-isothermal) of corn and chickpea starches at different heating rates were calculated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid visco analyser (RVA), and oscillatory dynamic rheometry. The data obtained from the DSC thermogram and the RVA profiles were fitt...

  4. Effects of Ingredients and Extrusion Parameters on Aquafeeds Containing DDGS and Corn Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isocaloric (3.05 kcal/g) ingredient blends were factorially formulated using three levels each of DDGS (20, 25, and 30% db), protein (30, 32.5, and 35% db), and feed moisture content (25, 35, and 45% db), along with appropriate quantities of corn starch, soybean meal, fish meal, whey, vitamin, and m...

  5. Dosage effects of Waxy gene on the structures and properties of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Blanco, Michael; Gardner, Candice; Li, Xuehong; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2016-09-20

    The objective of this study was to understand dosage effects of the Waxy gene on the structures of amylose and amylopectin and on the properties of corn starch. Reciprocal crossing of isogenic normal and waxy corn lines was conducted to develop hybrids with different dosages (0, 1, 2, 3) of Waxy gene in the endosperm. The amylose content of starch and proportions of branch chains of DP 17-30 and extra-long branch chains (DP>100) of amylopectin were positively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage. Proportions of short (DP<17) and long branch-chains (DP 30-80), however, were negatively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage. The gelatinization conclusion-temperature and temperature-range of the starch were negatively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage, indicating that amylose facilitated dissociation of the surrounding crystalline regions. These results helped us understand the function of granule-bound starch synthase I in the biosynthesis of amylose and amylopectin and impacts of Waxy-gene dosages on the properties of corn starch. PMID:27261752

  6. Effects of corn fiber gum (CFG) on the pasting and thermal behaviors of maize starch.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Yadav, Madhav P; Chen, Hao; Liu, Yan; Tatsumi, Eizo; Yin, Lijun

    2015-01-22

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) was a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid and recent researches showed its considerable potential in food processing. In this study, the interactions of maize starch and CFG were studied. Maize starch/CFG blend gels were prepared from maize starch suspension mixing with 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0% (w/w) CFG. The pasting and thermal properties, rheological properties, microstructure, leached amylose and swelling power characteristics were evaluated. Compared with the reference, CFG addition lowered peak viscosity and breakdown of the composite system, but increased final viscosity in RVA measurement. The swelling power and the amount of leached amylose of maize starch gels were reduced as the addition concentration of CFG increased. The thermal characteristics of maize starch/CFG mixtures varied insignificantly as determined in DSC heating process. Rheological parameters, such as storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G"), of the maize starches were observed to increase when CFG was present, supporting the hypothesis that the interaction between CFG and amylose could happen in the composite system. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirmed changes in gels microstructure as starch components tended to be inhibited from leaching out of the granules when CFG was added, and the morphology of starch granule was more compact when CFG was added. PMID:25439892

  7. A novel amylose corn-starch dispersion as an aqueous film coating for tablets.

    PubMed

    Krogars, Karin; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Antikainen, Osmo; Karjalainen, Milja; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-08-01

    A novel aqueous coating dispersion of amylose-rich corn starch (Hylon VII) was evaluated in an aqueous film-coating process of tablets using an instrumented laboratory-scale pan-coating apparatus. The influence of two independent process variables, the coating temperature and the atomizing air pressure, on the properties of the coated tablets were investigated. The preuse stability of aqueous coating dispersion (i.e., amylose corn-starch precipitate) was studied using a powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The crystallinity of amylose starch in the coating dispersion was found to increase slightly during 9 months of storage (in a refrigerator 6 +/- 2 degrees C). The film coatings of an aqueous amylose-rich starch dispersion were successfully applied onto tablets without any significant drawbacks, such as nozzle blockage or related problems. It was found that the temperature in the coating pan had a significant influence on the film surface roughness, mechanical strength, and drug release in vitro. When the lowest coating temperature (30 degrees C) was used, rougher film coatings were obtained due to overwetting. At higher temperatures (up to 50-60 degrees C), lower surface roughness and higher mechanical strength values for the coated tablets were obtained. With the present amylose starch dispersion, the atomizing air pressure had a minor influence on the quality of the coating. Under appropriate coating conditions, a smooth tablet film coating was produced with this new, natural, and inexpensive amylose starch dispersion. PMID:12901687

  8. Preparation of hydroxypropyl corn and amaranth starch hydrolyzate and its evaluation as wall material in microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Amol C; Singhal, Rekha S

    2008-06-01

    Hydroxypropylation of starches lends it useful physicochemical and functional properties that are industrially important. The literature on hydroxypropylation using organic solvents for obtaining higher molar substitution (MS) is scantily available. The present work reports on hydroxypropylation of corn and a waxy amaranth starch to different MS with propylene oxide in an alkaline-organic medium (isopropanol). The synthesis was followed in terms of MS. The parameters optimized were starch:isopropanol ratio (w/w), reaction temperature, reaction time and the quantity of alkali required in the process. A maximal MS of 0.180 and 0.162 were obtained for hydroxypropyl corn starch (HPSC) and hydroxypropyl amaranth starch (HPSA), respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the HPSC and HPSA of the above MS was carried out on a 30% (w/v) solution at a pH of 6.5 and 95°C for varying time periods using 0.1% (w/w based on starch) bacterial α-amylase, termamyl. The hydrolysis was terminated by adjusting the pH to 3.5 using 0.1N HCl. The hydrolyzates were characterized in terms of dextrose equivalent and viscosity. The hydrolyzate obtained after 3h of hydrolysis was spray dried and compared to gum arabic with respect to encapsulation of model flavourings, orange oil and lemon oil. PMID:26065758

  9. Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose addition and homogenization conditions on properties and ageing of corn starch based films.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Alberto; Fabra, María José; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2012-06-20

    Edible films based on corn starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and their mixtures were prepared by using two different procedures to homogenize the film forming dispersions (rotor-stator and rotor-stator plus microfluidizer). The influence of both HPMC-starch ratio and the homogenization method on the structural, optical, tensile and barrier properties of the films was analysed. The ageing of the films was also studied by characterizing them after 5 weeks' storage. Starch re-crystallization in newly prepared and stored films was analysed by means of X-ray diffraction. HPMC-corn starch films showed phase separation of polymers, which was enhanced when microfluidization was applied to the film forming dispersion. Nevertheless, HPMC addition inhibited starch re-crystallization during storage, giving rise to more flexible films at the end of the period. Water barrier properties of starch films were hardly affected by the addition of HPMC, although oxygen permeability increased due to its poorer oxygen barrier properties. PMID:24750773

  10. Modification of flow and compressibility of corn starch using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method

    PubMed Central

    Akhgari, Abbas; Sadeghi, Hasti; Dabbagh, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to improve flowability and compressibility characteristics of starch to use as a suitable excipient in direct compression tabletting. Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion was used as a crystal modification method. Materials and Methods: Corn starch was dissolved in hydrochloric acid at 80°C and then ethanol as a non-solvent was added with lowering temperature until the formation of a precipitate of modified starch. Flow parameters, particle size and thermal behavior of the treated powders were compared with the native starch. Finally, the 1:1 mixture of naproxen and each excipient was tabletted, and hardness and friability of different tablets were evaluated. Results: Larger and well shaped agglomerates were formed which showed different thermal behavior. Treated starch exhibited suitable flow properties and tablets made by the treated powder had relatively high hardness. Conclusion: It was found that recrystallization of corn starch by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method could improve its flowability and compressibility characteristics. PMID:25422746

  11. Effect of acid hydrolysis combined with heat moisture treatment on structure and physicochemical properties of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Zhu, Xiaolei; Si, Fumei; Xiong, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Modification of starch led to new products with new desirable properties. Corn starch samples modified by acid hydrolysis combined with heat moisture treatment (AH-HMT) were made by changing pH, moisture content and treated temperature. After modification, swelling power at temperature higher than 75 °C of corn starches decreased while solubility of the starches increased. After AH-HMT, pasting temperature (PT) of all treated starch samples increased. But lower peak viscosity (PKV), trough viscosity (TV) and break down (BD) of most treated starch samples were observed. AH-HMT increased the gel hardness of all treated starches. And the biggest hardness of modified starch gel was 148.419 g, improving 93.471 g compared with native starch gel. The melting temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) of modified starch increased, but the melting range and △H decreased. The X-ray pattern remained practically unchanged with or without AH-HMT. Acid hydrolysis combined with heat moisture treatment (AH-HMT) improved the functional properties of corn starch. PMID:25593372

  12. Preparation and characterization of corn starch-β-carotene composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C

    2016-01-20

    Starch-β-carotene composites were generated by drop-wise addition of ethanol comprising varying β-carotene contents (5, 10, or 20mg) into starch pastes (1, 3, or 5% w/v) to improve water-dispersibility and stability of β-carotene. The mean diameter of the composites was less than 900 nm, allowing particles to be homogeneously dispersed in aqueous media for over two weeks without sedimentation. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis confirmed the composite mainly consisted of Vh-amylose, amorphous starch matrices, and starch-β-carotene ordered structures. Both amorphous matrices and Vh-amylose structures in the composite were readily digested within 20 min in vitro digestion, while highly ordered structures, which melted between 132 and 159 °C, exhibited inhibited and/or delayed enzymatic digestion. As more β-carotene was incorporated into the composite, the β-carotene content of the ordered structure was increased. Formation of starch-β-carotene composites also appeared to enhance the stability of β-carotene against chemical oxidation. PMID:26572369

  13. Gamma irradiation of corn starches with different amylose-to-amylopectin ratio.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kok-Heung; Othman, Zainon; Lee, Jau-Shya

    2015-10-01

    Corn starches with different amylose-to-amylopectin ratio (waxy, normal, Hylon V, and Hylon VII) were treated with five doses of gamma irradiation (1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 kGy). The effects of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of starch samples were investigated. Waxy samples showed an increase of amylose-like fractions when irradiated at 10 kGy. The reduction in apparent amylose content increased with amylose content when underwent irradiation at 25 and 50 kGy. Low amylose starches lost their pasting ability when irradiated at 25 and 50 kGy. Results from thermal behavior and pasting profile suggested that low level of cross-linking occurred in Hylon VII samples irradiated at 5 kGy. Severe reduction in pasting properties, gelatinization temperatures and relative crystallinity with increasing irradiation intensity revealed that waxy samples were affected more by gamma irradiation; this also indicated amylopectin was the starch fraction most affected by gamma irradiation. Alteration level was portrayed differently when different kind of physicochemical properties were investigated, in which the pasting properties and crystallinity of starches were more immensely influenced by gamma irradiation while thermal behavior was less affected. Despite the irradiation level, the morphology and crystal pattern of starch granules were found remain unchanged by irradiation. PMID:26396368

  14. Conductivity and electrical properties of corn starch-chitosan blend biopolymer electrolyte incorporated with ammonium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Y. M.; Shukur, M. F.; Illias, H. A.; Kadir, M. F. Z.

    2014-03-01

    This work focuses on the characteristics of polymer blend electrolytes based on corn starch and chitosan doped with ammonium iodide (NH4I). The electrolytes were prepared using the solution cast method. A polymer blend comprising 80 wt% starch and 20 wt% chitosan was found to be the most amorphous blend and suitable to serve as the polymer host. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis proved the interaction between starch, chitosan and NH4I. The highest room temperature conductivity of (3.04 ± 0.32) × 10-4 S cm-1 was obtained when the polymer host was doped with 40 wt% NH4I. This result was further proven by field emission scanning electron microscopy study. All electrolytes were found to obey the Arrhenius rule. Dielectric studies confirm that the electrolytes obeyed non-Debye behavior. The temperature dependence of the power law exponent s for the highest conducting sample follows the quantum mechanical tunneling model.

  15. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products. PMID:9839814

  16. Analysis of the pasting profile in corn starch: Structural, morphological, and thermal transformations, Part I.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Vega-Rojas, Lineth J; Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Acosta-Osorio, A A; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2016-10-01

    This work is focused on the understanding of the apparent viscosity profile of corn starch, in terms of the physicochemical and morphological changes that take place during the thermal profile of starch-water suspension to its respective gel formation. A mathematical model was used to obtain the experimental operating conditions that satisfy the Froude number. Freeze drying samples are studied in different stages along the pasting profile. Changes in the structural properties of the samples are studied using X-ray diffraction, and the morphological changes are followed using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze the thermal changes in starch. The changes in the pasting profile are associated with structural, thermal,and morphological changes of the system and the analysis of the physicochemical transformation that occur during the pasting profile are explained. The finding in this work does not show evidence of gel retrogradation at the end of the cooling process. PMID:27211296

  17. Preparation and characterization of acetylated corn starch-(PVOH)/clay nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Katerinopoulou, Katerina; Giannakas, Aris; Grigoriadi, Kalouda; Barkoula, Nektaria M; Ladavos, Athanasios

    2014-02-15

    Acetylated corn starch (ACS)-based clay (NaMMT) nanocomposite films, with or without addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), were prepared by casting with glycerol as a plasticizer. The obtained nanocomposite structure was ascertained by XRD study for all polymer-clay nanocomposites. XRD patterns are indicative of an intercalated nanocomposite structure. Mechanical and thermomechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites were studied. The addition of clay induces significant reinforcing effects in the thermoplastic ACS systems. Replacement of glycerol with PVOH in the ACS-NaMMT system results in superior mechanical strength, due to the creation of hydrogen bonds between the ACS and the PVOH chains. Enhancement in water barrier properties was observed for all nanocomposite films, which reaches up to 67% for acetylated starch-PVOH-clay nanocomposites in comparison to acetylated thermoplastic starch, as indicated by water vapor transmission measurements. PMID:24507275

  18. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  19. Changes in physicochemical properties of waxy corn starches after harvest, and in mechanical properties of fresh cooked kernels during storage.

    PubMed

    Ketthaisong, Danupol; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-05-15

    Changes in the physicochemical properties of waxy corn starches after harvest and in the mechanical properties of cooked fresh kernels during storage were investigated. Immature waxy corn ears from four genotypes were stored at ambient temperature, and starches were isolated from kernels removed at 0, 2, 4 and 6 days after harvest. Starch content in the kernels generally increased with storage time, and also significantly differed depending on the genotype. For all the days after harvest, medium granules had the highest contribution to the total starch volume, followed by small and large granules. The average chain length distribution of amylopectin increased in relation to storage time. Starches at harvesting state exhibited the lowest peak viscosity in all four genotypes, which increased relative to postharvest periods. Moreover, the average force behaviours of cooked kernels were greatly affected by storage times after cooking. PMID:24423571

  20. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P < 0.05). An increase in moisture, water, and oil absorption capacity was observed for the acetylated starch and, which was less pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed starch but more pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed acetylated product. The latter product underwent an increase in resistant starch content, which is induced by a rise in hydrolysis time to attain about 67 % after 1 h of reaction. The modified starch samples were added to cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch. PMID:26787967

  1. Glass transitions and physical aging of cassava starch - corn oil blends.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Sandoval, Aleida J; Cova, Aura; Müller, Alejandro J

    2014-05-25

    Glass transition temperatures and physical aging of amorphous cassava starch and their blends with corn oil were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two enthalpic relaxation endotherms, well separated in temperature values, were exhibited by neat amorphous cassava starch with 10.6% moisture content, evidencing two amorphous regions within the starch with different degrees of mobility. The phase segregation of these two amorphous regions was favored by added corn oil at low moisture contents during storage. The presence of amylose-lipid complexes in this matrix, may also affect the molecular dynamics of these two amorphous regions at low moisture contents. Increasing moisture content, leads to a homogeneous amorphous phase, with an aging process characterized by a single enthalpic relaxation peak. In all cases, after deleting the thermal history of the samples only one glass transition temperature was detected (during DSC second heating runs) indicating that a single homogeneous amorphous phase was attained after erasing the effects of physical aging. Trends of the enthalpic relaxation parameters were also different at the two moisture contents considered in this work. PMID:24708977

  2. Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Prateek; Kaur, Birender; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.; Singh, Inderbir

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates. PMID:25328710

  3. Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Prateek; Kaur, Birender; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Singh, Inderbir

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates. PMID:25328710

  4. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating. PMID:27596411

  5. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  6. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A

    2011-10-01

    Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, and low-fat food increases. High-amylose corn starch was cooked in an excess-steam jet cooker in the presence of oleic acid. Amylose formed helical inclusion complexes with the fatty acid. Shortening was added at different levels to jet-cooked starch. The resulting starch-lipid composites (SLC) had 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% fat. The composites were used to substitute shortening in the preparation of cake icings with 1% to 13% fat. SLC icings were formulated by either keeping the total solids constant, or the starch and sugar to water ratio constant as the fat level was reduced. The effect of fat and formulation of shortening and SLC icings on the physical and rheological characteristics were studied. It was found that low-fat SLC icings can be prepared by optimizing the formulation. Practical Application:  This study indicates potential new applications for SLC that benefit the confectionary industry by generating new products offering healthy alternatives to the consumers. PMID:22417587

  7. Release of yerba mate antioxidants from corn starch-alginate capsules as affected by structure.

    PubMed

    López-Córdoba, Alex; Deladino, Lorena; Martino, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) extract in a proper matrix enhances the possible applications of this natural antioxidant in food systems. To start, calcium alginate capsules were used as carriers of yerba mate extract and a filler material (corn starch at 2%) was added to the alginate matrix to improve the structural properties and to modulate the release of the active compounds. Next, kinetics and swelling mechanisms involved in the release of yerba mate polyphenols in simulated digestive fluids were analyzed. A lower rate of release was obtained with calcium alginate-starch capsules as compared to control ones, which was attributed to the lower porosity of filled capsules. The release profiles of both systems were satisfactorily fitted with semi-empirical models, which indicated that a combined mechanism of polymer-chain relaxation and diffusion was taking place. PMID:24274491

  8. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  9. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. PMID:23987453

  10. Determination of the structural changes by Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers

    SciTech Connect

    Cozar, O.; Filip, C.; Tripon, C.; Cioica, N.; Coţa, C.; Nagy, E. M.

    2013-11-13

    The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra.

  11. Effect of guar gum and xanthan gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Singh, Narpinder; Sharma, Parul; Kaur, Seeratpreet

    2015-12-01

    The effect of xanthan and guar-gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches was studied. Mung bean starch showed the highest amylose content (43.4 %) followed by potato (23.2 %) and corn starch (15.5 %). Potato starch showed the highest swelling power (19.0 g/g) and solubility index (17.5 %) and exhibited the highest paste viscosities. Addition of both gums improved peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and final viscosity for mung and corn starches; while for potato starch, guar gum increased peak and final viscosities and decreased hot paste viscosity while xanthan gum increased hot paste and final viscosities and decreased peak viscosity. The noodles made from mung bean starch showed the most desirable characteristics in terms of the lowest-cooking loss and adhesiveness. The gums increased noodle cooking time and decreased cooking loss, firmness and cohesiveness. PMID:26604384

  12. Microstructure and characteristics of high-amylose corn starch-chitosan film as affected by composition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qianqian; Hu, Fei; Qiu, Liping

    2013-06-01

    Edible films composed of high-amylose corn starch and chitosan were developed by casting method. The effects of the ratio of high-amylose corn starch to chitosan, concentration of glycerol and methyl cellulose on the oxygen and carbon dioxide permeation, water vapor transmission, tensile strength and percent elongation at break values of edible composite films were investigated. Film microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the increase of the ratio of chitosan and content of glycerol in the film forming suspensions both made the structure of films flexible, causing the decrease of tensile strength and increase of percent elongation of composite films, while showing poor water vapor barrier properties as the water vapor transmission values increased. The addition of methyl cellulose as to reinforce the structure of matrix improved the water vapor barrier properties of the edible films with the decrease of water vapor transmission from 1946 to 1668 g/(m(2)·24 h), as well as the mechanical properties were improved as expected, which could be attributed to the differentia of the interaction between methyl cellulose and other components in the film preparation as the concentration ranged from 2% (w/w) to 8% (w/w). Films with different compositions, resulting different microstructures, showed variance in barrier and mechanical properties. PMID:23493788

  13. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  14. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products.

    PubMed

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  15. Determining the Cost of Producing Ethanol from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    McAloon, A.; Taylor, F.; Yee, W.; Ibsen, K.; Wooley, R.

    2000-10-25

    The mature corn-to-ethanol industry has many similarities to the emerging lignocellulose-to-ethanol industry. It is certainly possible that some of the early practitioners of this new technology will be the current corn ethanol producers. In order to begin to explore synergies between the two industries, a joint project between two agencies responsible for aiding these technologies in the Federal government was established. This joint project of the USDA-ARS and DOE/NREL looked at the two processes on a similar process design and engineering basis, and will eventually explore ways to combine them. This report describes the comparison of the processes, each producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol. This paper attempts to compare the two processes as mature technologies, which requires assuming that the technology improvements needed to make the lignocellulosic process commercializable are achieved, and enough plants have been built to make the design well-understood. Ass umptions about yield and design improvements possible from continued research were made for the emerging lignocellulose process. In order to compare the lignocellulose-to-ethanol process costs with the commercial corn-to-ethanol costs, it was assumed that the lignocellulose plant was an Nth generation plant, built after the industry had been sufficiently established to eliminate first-of-a-kind costs. This places the lignocellulose plant costs on a similar level with the current, established corn ethanol industry, whose costs are well known. The resulting costs of producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol from each process were determined. The figure below shows the production cost breakdown for each process. The largest cost contributor in the corn starch process is the feedstock; for the lignocellulosic process it is the capital cost, which is represented by depreciation cost on an annual basis.

  16. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF CORN, RICE, WHEAT AND POTATO STARCH DISPERSED IN THE IONIC LIQUID, 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM CHLORIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ionic liquid has gained industry attention, especially in environmentally friendly green chemistry. Researchers have utilized ionic liquid for dispersing cellulose, but no report using ionic liquid for other polysaccharides. In this study, corn, rice, wheat and potato starches were dispersed in ho...

  17. Comparison of raw starch hydrolyzing enzyme with conventional liquefaction and saccharification enzymes in dry-grind corn processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a conventional dry-grind corn process, starch is converted into dextrins using liquefaction enzymes at high temperatures (90–120 deg C) during a liquefaction step. Dextrins are hydrolyzed into sugars using saccharification enzymes during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) step...

  18. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and concentration on fermentation by equine fecal microbiota in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: 1) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and 2) fermentation by equine microflora. Methods and Results: When fecal washed cel...

  19. Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sila Mary Rodrigues; de Mello, Ana Paula; de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos, Mônica; Krüger, Cláudia Carneiro Hecke; Azoubel, Patrícia Moreira; de Oliveira Alves, Márcia Aurelina

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mixture of sorghum-rice-corn flour and potato starch in the development of gluten-free pasta for celiac disease patients. The experiment was designed according to simplex-lattice method and different types of gluten-free flours were used, such as sorghum, rice, corn, and potato starch. The fifteen formulations were subjected to sensory analysis (Mixed Structured Scale - MSS) and seven formulations were selected in respect to taste and grittiness. These formulations were subjected to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), which evaluated the attributes: appearance, color, odor, hardness, elasticity, stickiness, grittiness, taste, residual bitterness and overall quality. Results showed significant difference in appearance, color and hardness. The formulations that showed the best sensory results were submitted to chemical analysis and cooking quality of pasta. It was observed that the best results for mixing is sorghum flour, rice flour and potato starch. PMID:26258714

  20. Analysis of thermal pasting profile in corn starch rich in amylose and amylopectin: Physicochemical transformations, part II.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Millan-Malo, Beatriz; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2016-08-01

    This work focused on the study of the behaviors of the apparent viscosity profiles of isolated corn starches rich in amylose and amylopectin, through the physicochemical and morphological changes that take place during the thermal profile and the gel formation. Frozen dry samples were studied at different stages along the pasting profile. Changes in the structural properties of the samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, and the morphological changes were followed using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze the thermal changes. The changes in the pasting profile (curve of apparent viscosity) were associated with structural, thermal, and morphological changes of the starch-water suspension. From the results obtained, a new interpretation of the parameters measured with the pasting profile is introduced. In this work does not show evidence of retrogradation at the end of the cooling process for starch rich in amylopectin and that starch rich in amylose does not develop viscosity. PMID:27107957

  1. Electrical, structural, thermal and electrochemical properties of corn starch-based biopolymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Liew, Chiam-Wen; Ramesh, S

    2015-06-25

    Biopolymer electrolytes containing corn starch, lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmImPF6) are prepared by solution casting technique. Temperature dependence-ionic conductivity studies reveal Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) relationship which is associated with free volume theory. Ionic liquid-based biopolymer electrolytes show lower glass transition temperature (Tg) than ionic liquid-free biopolymer electrolyte. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrate higher amorphous region of ionic liquid-added biopolymer electrolytes. In addition, the potential stability window of the biopolymer electrolyte becomes wider and stable up to 2.9V. Conclusively, the fabricated electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) shows improved electrochemical performance upon addition of ionic liquid into the biopolymer electrolyte. The specific capacitance of EDLC based on ionic liquid-added polymer electrolyte is relatively higher than that of ionic liquid-free polymer electrolyte as depicted in cyclic voltammogram. PMID:25839815

  2. Gas production and starch degradability of corn and barley meals differing in mean particle size.

    PubMed

    Gallo, A; Giuberti, G; Masoero, F

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of mean particle size (mPS) on both gas production and in vitro rumen starch degradability (IVSD) of corn and barley meals (Cm and Bm, respectively). Batches of the same Cm or Bm were separately processed through 2 different mills (i.e., a cutter mill or a rotor speed mill) equipped with or without different screens to achieve different mPS for each tested meal. Samples were analyzed accordingly to a completely randomized design and the main tested effect of model was mPS (n=11, from 0.46 to 3.50mm mPS for Cm or n=10, from 0.11 to 2.98mm mPS for Bm). For both in vitro assays, the rumen inocula were collected from 2 rumen-fistulated Holstein lactating dairy cows fed a total mixed ration with 16.2% crude protein, 28.5% starch, and 35.0% neutral detergent fiber on a dry matter basis. To fit gas production data, 1-pool exponential model and 1-pool or 2-pool Gompertz models were adopted. The rate of gas production decreased and lag increased by increasing mPS of both Cm and Bm, irrespective of adopted 1-pool models. When the 2-pool Gompertz model was used to fit gas production data, a shift of particles from fast to slow fermentable pools was measured by increasing mPS. In particular, the ratio between fast and slow final volumes ranged from 0.90 at 0.11mm mPS to 0.10 at 2.98mm mPS for Bm. For Cm, the ratio between fast and slow final volumes decreased quadratically by increasing mPS, with the highest value (i.e., 0.58) measured at the lowest tested mPS. Values lower than 0.10 were measured for mPS greater than 1.93mm for Cm. Concerning IVSD data, linear decreases in rate of starch degradation equal to -0.049 or -0.092h(-1) for each 1-mm increase in mPS were achieved for Cm and Bm, respectively. The 7-h IVSD decreased by 6.3 or 6.5% starch for each 1-mm increase in mPS of Cm or Bm, respectively. Present findings supported the hypothesis that different particle sizes within the same starch source represent an important

  3. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  4. Modification of Sodium Release Using Porous Corn Starch and Lipoproteic Matrix.

    PubMed

    Christina, Josephine; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sodium consumption can result in hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, and kidney diseases. Various chips and extruded snacks, where salt is mainly applied on the product surface, accounted for almost 56% of snacks retail sales in 2010. Hence, it is important to target sodium reduction for those snack products. Past studies had shown that modifying the rate-release mechanism of sodium is a promising strategy for sodium reduction in the food industry. Encapsulation of salt can be a possible technique to control sodium release rate. Porous corn starch (PCS), created by enzymatic treatment and spray drying and lipoproteic matrix, created by gelation and freeze drying, were evaluated as carriers for controlled sodium release targeting topically applied salts. Both carriers encapsulated salt and their in vitro sodium release profiles were measured using a conductivity meter. The sodium release profiles of PCS treated with different enzymatic reaction times were not significantly different. Protein content and fat content altered sodium release profile from the lipoproteic matrix. The SEM images of PCS showed that most of the salt crystals coated the starch instead of being encapsulated in the pores while the SEM images and computed tomography scan of lipoproteic matrix showed salt dispersed throughout the matrix. Hence, PCS was found to have limitations as a sodium carrier as it could not effectively encapsulate salt inside its pores. The lipoproteic matrix was found to have a potential as a sodium carrier as it could effectively encapsulate salt and modify the sodium release profile. PMID:26894874

  5. Characterization of Corn Starch Films Reinforced with CaCO3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qingjie; Xi, Tingting; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of corn starch (CS) films impregnated with CaCO3 nanoparticles was investigated. Criteria such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and mechanical properties were the focus of the investigation. It was found that the CaCO3 contents had significant effects on the tensile properties of the nanocomposite films. The addition of CaCO3 nanoparticles to the CS films significantly increased tensile strength from 1.40 to 2.24 MPa, elongation from 79.21 to 118.98%, and Young’s modulus from 1.82 to 2.41 MPa. The incorporation of CaCO3 nanoparticles increased the opacity of films, lowered the degree of WVP and film solubility value compared to those of the CS films. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that with the increase of CaCO3 nanoparticles content in starch films, the roughness of the films increased, and pores or cavities were found on the surface of the films, while small cracks were observed in the structures of the fractured surfaces. X-ray diffraction showed that the addition of nanoparticles increased the peaks in the intensity of films. PMID:25188503

  6. Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, α-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15th day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

  7. Backscattered electron imaging for reduced charging of moisturized corn starch granules: implications for versatile imagery of hygroscopic powder specimens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Choi, Seung Jun; Moon, Tae Wha

    2008-12-01

    Charging artifacts and surface features of corn starch granules were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Three types of industrial waxy corn starch granules with different levels of moisture content (0, 10.3, and 24.2%) were prepared and subjected to both secondary electron imaging and backscattered electron imaging. There were no significant charging artifacts in secondary electron images at 3 or 5 kV. However, imaging at higher magnifications and accelerating voltages much lower than 3 kV ranging from 0.1 to 1 kV did not show well-resolved structures. At higher accelerating voltages than 5 kV, charging was manifested as excessive brightness at specific areas and alteration of bright and dark lines in the direction of the raster pattern in secondary electron images of all the types of specimens tested. As the accelerating voltage increased up to 30 kV in secondary electron images, the charging also increased. Meanwhile, no charging was detected in all the backscattered electron images taken at different accelerating voltages. As the accelerating voltage increased in backscattered electron images, the resolution increased with less depth of focus. Consistent results were found in all the types of corn starch granules assayed in this study. These results suggest that a simple and rapid morphological analysis of moisturized starches can be performed by backscattered electron imaging without considerable heat drying of starches. Concomitantly, it allows for imposing a higher accelerating voltage to ensure better image resolution, facilitating morphological characterization of diverse starch granules as they are in native states. PMID:18586501

  8. Effects of ionic conduction on hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose induced by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2016-02-10

    This study investigated the effects of ionic conduction of electrolytes under microwave field to facilitate hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose (Avicel), typical model biomass substrates. Addition of 0.1M NaCl was effective to improve reducing sugar yield by 1.61-fold at unit energy (kJ) level. Although Avicel cellulose was highly recalcitrant to hydrothermal hydrolysis, addition of 0.1M MgCl2 improved reducing sugar yield by 6.94-fold at unit energy (kJ). Dielectric measurement of the mixture of corn starch/water/electrolyte revealed that ionic conduction of electrolytes were strongly involved in facilitating hydrothermal hydrolysis of polysaccharides. PMID:26686168

  9. Expanded corn starch as a versatile material in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene and methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankushi; Kumar, Arvind; Latha, Patnam Padma; Ray, Siddharth Sankar; Chatterjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Polymerization of styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was performed by surface initiated (SI) and activator generated by electron transfer (AGET) systems of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using renewable expanded corn starch (ECS) as a support. This prepared ECS is found to have V type crystallinity with 50 m(2)g(-1) surface area (<1m(2)g(-1) for corn starch (CS)) and average pore volume of 0.43 cm(3)g(-1) (<0.1cm(3)g(-1) for CS). In SI-ATRP, hydroxyl groups on ECS were converted into macro-initiator by replacing with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB) with a 0.06 degree of substitution determined from NMR. In AGET-ATRP, CuBr2/ligand complex get adsorbed on ECS (Cu(II)/ECS=10 wt.%) to catalyze the polymerization. Synthesized PS/PMMA was characterized by SEM, FT-IR, (1)H NMR. PMID:26076629

  10. Quality Properties of Sausages Made with Replacement of Pork with Corn Starch, Chicken Breast and Surimi during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This effect of replacing pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Five treatments of sausage such as; T1 (10:0:0, %), T2 (10:5:0, %), T3 (10:10:5, %), T4 (10:15:10, %) and T5 (10:20:15, %) were prepared with replacement of pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi. The sausage made with pork meat served as control (C). The sausage in the control had higher moisture and fat contents, but lower protein content than the treatments (p<0.05). The sausages in the T2 and T5 had decreased pH values after 3 wk storage (p<0.05). The lightness value was lowest in the T3, while the yellowness values were lowest in the T5 during the storage. The TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values were lowest in the control in all storage times (p<0.05). However, the sausage in the control had higher VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) value than the treatments during the 1 wk storage (p<0.05). All treatments had significantly higher hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness values (p<0.05) than the control. The results indicated that corn starch, chicken breast and surimi can used as a pork replacer, that it also improves the physicochemical and texture properties of pork sausages. PMID:26761892

  11. [Surface display of phytase on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient bioethanol production from corn starch].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Chen, Xianzhong; Shen, Wei; Yang, Haiquan; Fan, You

    2015-12-01

    Production of bioethanol using starch as raw material has become a very prominent technology. However, phytate in the raw material not only decreases ethanol production efficiency, but also increases phosphorus discharge. In this study, to decrease phytate content in an ethanol fermentationprocess, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered forheterologous expression of phytase on the cell surface. The phy gene encoding phytase gene was fused with the C-terminal-half region of α-agglutinin and then inserted downstream of the secretion signal gene, to produce a yeast surface-display expression vector pMGK-AG-phy, which was then transformed into S. cerevisiae. The recombinant yeast strain, PHY, successfully displayed phytase on the surface of cells producing 6.4 U/g wet cells and its properties were further characterized. The growthrate and ethanol production of the PHY strain were faster than the parent S. cerevisiae strain in the fermentation medium by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Moreover, the phytate concentration decreased by 91% in dry vinasse compared to the control. In summary, we constructed recombinant S. cerevisiae strain displaying phytase on the cell surface, which could effectively reduce the content of phytate, improve the utilization value of vinasse and reduce the discharge of phosphorus. The strain reported here represents a useful novel engineering platform for developing an environment-friendly system for bioethanol production from a corn substrate. PMID:27093833

  12. Greater satiety response with resistant starch and corn bran in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Willis, Holly J; Eldridge, Alison L; Beiseigel, Jeannemarie; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2009-02-01

    Some studies suggest high-fiber foods are more satiating than foods with little or no fiber. However, we hypothesized that certain types of dietary fiber may enhance satiety more than others. Healthy men and women (N = 20) participated in this acute, randomized double-blind, crossover study comparing the effects of 4 fibers and a low-fiber (LF) treatment on satiety. On 5 separate visits, fasting subjects consumed either a LF muffin (1.6 g fiber) or 1 of 4 high-fiber muffins (8.0-9.6 g fiber) for breakfast. The subjects used 4 questions on 100 mm visual analogue scales to rate satiety at baseline and at regular intervals for 180 minutes after muffin consumption. Responses were analyzed as area under the curve and significant differences from baseline. Satiety differed among treatments. Resistant starch and corn bran had the most impact on satiety, whereas polydextrose had little effect and behaved like the LF treatment. Results from this study indicate that not all fibers influence satiety equally. PMID:19285600

  13. Influence of some formulation and process parameters on the stability of lysozyme incorporated in corn flour- or corn starch-based extruded materials prepared by melt blending processing.

    PubMed

    Jbilou, Fouzia; Galland, Sophie; Telliez, Camille; Akkari, Zied; Roux, Roselyne; Oulahal, Nadia; Dole, Patrice; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    In order to obtain an antimicrobial biodegradable material, corn flour was extruded with 1% of lysozyme. Since the limited stability of natural preservatives such as lysozyme is a common bottleneck to the elaboration of active biomaterials by melt blending processes, the influence of formulation and of extrusion processing temperature on its residual enzymatic activity was investigated. To assess the contribution of process parameters such as temperature, shear stress and of related formulation parameters such as glycerol and moisture contents, the stability of lysozyme following its extrusion or its thermoforming with plasticized corn starch or thermal treatments in aqueous glycerol solutions was also studied. Increasing glycerol content from 25% to 30% significantly limited inactivation of lysozyme during extrusion, while increasing initial moisture content of the mixture from 14.5% to 28.5% had the opposite effect. These observations open the possibility to prepare active materials retaining more than 60±7% of initial lysozyme activity. PMID:25442947

  14. Use of dry-milling derived thin stillage for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Strait, Megan; Wen, Zhiyou

    2012-05-01

    This study was to explore the use of thin stillage, a major byproduct in dry milling corn-ethanol plants, for production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare. Thin stillage contains various compounds that were ideal for fungal growth. Thin stillage concentration and temperature played important roles in fungal growth and EPA production. When 50% thin stillage was used in a stepwise temperature shift culture process, the cell density reached 23 g/L at day 9 with EPA yield and productivity of 243 and 27 mg/L day, respectively. The fungal biomass contained 39% lipid, 28% protein, 30% carbohydrate, and 3% ash. The fungal culture also generated a nutrient-depleted liquid by removing organic compounds in the raw thin stillage. The results collectively showed a new use of thin stillage by feeding to the fungus P. irregulare for producing omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:22386467

  15. Properties of Water-Dispersible Carbon Black Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking with Corn Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-lipid composites prepared by steam jet cooking have been developed as an environmentally friendly technology for delivering hydrophobic substances as starch-coated microdroplets into aqueous systems. It has been shown that starch and amylose-fatty acid inclusion complexes adhere to the surfa...

  16. Advanced Biorefinery of Distriller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced via the dry milling process, which converts corn grain to ethanol. The co-product, distiller’s grain (DG), is sold as a low-cost, high-protein feed source for livestock.

  17. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  18. Effects of corn-based reduced-starch diets using alternative carbohydrate sources on performance of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Fredin, S M; Cotanch, K W; Grant, R J; Kokko, C; Ji, P; Fujita, K

    2015-06-01

    Increases in grain prices have led to renewed interest in feeding reduced-starch diets to lactating dairy cows. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of altering carbohydrate sources and reducing dietary starch on lactational performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal measures of Holstein dairy cows. Fifteen multiparous cows (6 ruminally cannulated) were blocked and assigned to 1 of 5 squares and used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a control diet containing 20% brown midrib corn silage, 20% conventional corn silage, and 10% hay crop silage (CON); a reduced-starch high-forage diet containing 53% brown midrib corn silage and 10% hay crop silage (HFOR); and a reduced-starch diet containing the same forages as CON with partial replacement of corn meal by nonforage fiber sources (HNFFS). The CON diet contained (% of dry matter) 26.0% starch and 34.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), whereas the HFOR and HNFFS diets contained 21.4 or 21.3% starch and 38.3 or 38.0% NDF, respectively. Dry matter intake tended to be greater for cows fed the CON diet (28.2 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (27.2 kg/d). Dry matter intake for cows fed the HNFFS diet was intermediate (27.7 kg/d). Milk yield was greater for cows fed the CON diet (51.6 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (48.4 kg/d), but milk fat content tended to increase for cows fed the HFOR diet (3.98%) compared with those fed the CON diet (3.66%). Consequently, fat-corrected and solids-corrected milk yields were unaffected by dietary treatments. Total chewing, eating, and rumination times were similar across all dietary treatments. Rumination time per kilogram of DM was greatest for the HFOR diet, intermediate for the HNFFS diet, and least for the CON diet, whereas rumination time per kilogram of NDF was greatest for the CON diet and least for the HNFFS diet. Mean ruminal pH, NH3-N (mg/dL), and total volatile fatty acid

  19. Effect of storage time on in vitro digestion rate and resistant starch content of tortillas elaborated from commercial corn masas.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Tovar, Juscelino; Trejo-Estrada, Sergio Rubén; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2005-03-01

    Tortilla samples were elaborated by four small commercial factories in Mexico, employing masas prepared with the traditional nixtamalization process. Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 72 hours and their chemical composition and in vitro starch digestibility features were evaluated. Chemical composition did not change with the storage time, but soluble carbohydrates decreased slightly during storage. A significant decrease in available starch content upon storage was observed, concomitant with increased resistant starch (RS) levels. These changes are possibly due to retrogradation. Retrograded resistant starch (RRS) values increased with storage time; in some samples, RRS represented more than 75% of total RS whereas in others it only accounted for 25%. The digestion rate (DR) in the freshly prepared tortillas was similar for the various samples, but after 72 h storage some differences among tortillas were found. Also, when a single tortilla sample was compared throughout the different storage times, lower DRs were determined in samples subjected to prolonged storage, which is related to the concomitant. increase in RRS. The differences found among the various tortilla samples may be due to minor variations in the commercial processing conditions and to the use of different corn varieties. PMID:16187683

  20. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. PMID:20395134

  1. Fomation of corn fiber gum-milk protein conjugates and their molecular characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber arabinoxylan is hemicellulose B isolated from the fibrous portions (pericarp, tip cap, and endosperm cell wall fractions) of corn kernels and is commonly referred to as corn fiber gum (CFG). Our previous studies showed that CFG isolated from corn bran (a byproduct of corn dry milling) co...

  2. Direct Production of Ethanol from Raw Corn Starch via Fermentation by Use of a Novel Surface-Engineered Yeast Strain Codisplaying Glucoamylase and α-Amylase

    PubMed Central

    Shigechi, Hisayori; Koh, Jun; Fujita, Yasuya; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Bito, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Satoh, Eiichi; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    Direct and efficient production of ethanol by fermentation from raw corn starch was achieved by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae codisplaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and Streptococcus bovis α-amylase by using the C-terminal-half region of α-agglutinin and the flocculation functional domain of Flo1p as the respective anchor proteins. In 72-h fermentation, this strain produced 61.8 g of ethanol/liter, with 86.5% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch. PMID:15294847

  3. Direct production of ethanol from raw corn starch via fermentation by use of a novel surface-engineered yeast strain codisplaying glucoamylase and alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Shigechi, Hisayori; Koh, Jun; Fujita, Yasuya; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Bito, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Satoh, Eiichi; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2004-08-01

    Direct and efficient production of ethanol by fermentation from raw corn starch was achieved by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae codisplaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and Streptococcus bovis alpha-amylase by using the C-terminal-half region of alpha-agglutinin and the flocculation functional domain of Flo1p as the respective anchor proteins. In 72-h fermentation, this strain produced 61.8 g of ethanol/liter, with 86.5% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch. PMID:15294847

  4. Direct production of L-lysine from raw corn starch by Corynebacterium glutamicum secreting Streptococcus bovis alpha-amylase using cspB promoter and signal sequence.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Toshihiro; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2007-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important microorganism in the industrial production of amino acids. We engineered a strain of C. glutamicum that secretes alpha-amylase from Streptococcus bovis 148 (AmyA) for the efficient utilization of raw starch. Among the promoters and signal sequences tested, those of cspB from C. glutamicum possessed the highest expression level. The fusion gene was introduced into the homoserine dehydrogenase gene locus on the chromosome by homologous recombination. L-Lysine fermentation was conducted using C. glutamicum secreting AmyA in the growth medium containing 50 g/l of raw corn starch as the sole carbon source at various temperatures in the range 30 to 40 degrees C. Efficient L-lysine production and raw starch degradation were achieved at 34 and 37 degrees C, respectively. The alpha-amylase activity using raw corn starch was more than 2.5 times higher than that using glucose as the sole carbon source during L-lysine fermentation. AmyA expression under the control of cspB promoter was assumed to be induced when raw starch was used as the sole carbon source. These results indicate that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of raw corn starch to L-lysine were achieved by C. glutamicum secreting AmyA using the cspB promoter and signal sequence. PMID:17891388

  5. Physicochemical and Microstructural Characterization of Corn Starch Edible Films Obtained by a Combination of Extrusion Technology and Casting Technique.

    PubMed

    Fitch-Vargas, Perla Rosa; Aguilar-Palazuelos, Ernesto; de Jesús Zazueta-Morales, José; Vega-García, Misael Odín; Valdez-Morales, Jesús Enrique; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando; Jacobo-Valenzuela, Noelia

    2016-09-01

    Starch edible films (EFs) have been widely studied due to their potential in food preservation; however, their application is limited because of their poor mechanical and barrier properties. Because of that, the aim of this work was to use the extrusion technology (Ex T) as a pretreatment of casting technique to change the starch structure in order to obtain EFs with improved physicochemical properties. To this, corn starch and a mixture of plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol, in different ratios) were processed in a twin screw extruder to generate the starch modification and subsequently casting technique was used for EFs formation. The best conditions of the Ex T and plasticizers concentration were obtained using response surface methodology. All the response variables evaluated, were affected significatively by the Plasticizers Ratio (Sorbitol:Glycerol) (PR (S:G)) and Extrusion Temperature (ET), while the Screw Speed (SS) did not show significant effect on any of these variables. The optimization study showed that the appropriate conditions to obtain EFs with the best mechanical and barrier properties were ET = 89 °C, SS = 66 rpm and PR (S:G) = 79.7:20.3. Once the best conditions were obtained, the optimal treatment was characterized according to its microstructural properties (X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy) to determine the damage caused in the starch during Ex T and casting technique. In conclusion, with the combination of Ex T and casting technique were obtained EFs with greater breaking strength and deformation, as well as lower water vapor permeability than those reported in the literature. PMID:27550869

  6. EFFECT OF ENDOSPERM HARDNESS ON AN ETHANOL PROCESS USING A GRANULAR STARCH HYDROLYZING ENZYME

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P; W Liu, D B; Johnston, K D; Rausch, S J; Schmidt, M E; Tumbleson, V Singh

    2010-01-01

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) can hydrolyze starch at low temperature (32°C). The dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process) has fewer unit operations and no changes in process conditions (pH 4.0 and 32°C) compared to the conventional process because it dispenses with the cooking and liquefaction step. In this study, the effects of endosperm hardness, protease, urea, and GSHE levels on GSH process were evaluated. Ground corn, soft endosperm, and hard endosperm were processed using two GSHE levels (0.1 and 0.4 mL per 100 g ground material) and four treatments of protease and urea addition. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from a dry milling pilot plant; classifications were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. During 72 h of simultaneous granular starch hydrolysis and fermentation (GSHF), ethanol and glucose profiles were determined using HPLC. Soft endosperm resulted in higher final ethanol concentrations compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased final ethanol concentrations for soft and hard endosperm. Protease addition increased ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates for soft endosperm, hard endosperm, and ground corn. The effect of protease addition on ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was most predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm, and least for ground corn. Samples (soft endosperm, hard endosperm, or corn) with protease resulted in higher (1.0% to 10.5% v/v) ethanol concentration compared to samples with urea. The GSH process with protease requires little or no urea addition. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Due to nutrients (lipids, minerals, and soluble proteins) present in corn that enhance yeast growth, ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm.

  7. A phenomenological and thermodynamic study of the water permeation process in corn starch/MMT films.

    PubMed

    Slavutsky, Aníbal M; Bertuzzi, María A

    2012-09-01

    Water transport in edible films of starch based products is a complex phenomenon due to the strong interaction of sorbed water molecules with the polymeric structure of starch. Moisture sorption isotherms of starch and starch/MMT films were obtained. The results indicated that nanoclay incorporation produces a decrease of water uptake at all temperatures analysed. Thermodynamic parameters showed that sorption process is less favourable when MMT is incorporated into the starch matrix. Effect of driving force and water activity (aw) values at each side of the film on permeability and diffusivity coefficients were analysed. The effect of the tortuous pathway generated by MMT incorporation was significant only in the middle and lower range of aw. At high aw range the plasticizing effect of water dominated and MMT incorporation had little effect on the water barrier properties of these films. PMID:24751076

  8. Preparation of corn starch-g-polystyrene copolymer in ionic liquid: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Men, Yongjun; Du, Xiyan; Shen, Jianan; Wang, Leli; Liu, Zhengping

    2015-05-01

    The copolymer of starch grafted with polystyrene (starch-g-PS) was synthesized with high grafting percentage by utilizing the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Ac) as solvent and potassium persulfate as initiator. The effect of various parameters upon the polymerization were studied including: initiator concentration, styrene:starch weight ratio, the reaction time and temperature. Grafting percentages were calculated using an FT-IR calibration method, with values up to 114%. The resulting copolymer was characterized using FT-IR, SEM, WAXD and TGA, which demonstrated that polystyrene side chains were evenly distributed on the starch backbone. Our results indicate that ionic liquid dissolution of starch, prior to polystyrene grafting, is a versatile methodology for the synthesis of amphiphilic, polysaccharide-based graft copolymers, having high grafting percent. PMID:25659709

  9. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P < 0.05) when compared with birds fed diets without carbohydrases. Relative to the basal diet, AMEn was increased (P < 0.01) by 70 kcal/kg and 99 kcal/kg when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P < 0.05) by 3.5% and 2.4%, respectively, when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of

  10. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients. PMID:26770915

  11. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients. PMID:26770915

  12. FOAMED ARTICLES BASED ON POTATO STARCH, CORN AND WHEAT FIBRE, AND POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continued research cooperation between USDA Laboratories (USA) and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and either corn or wheat fibres, co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process. Foam trays were prepared by baking the blen...

  13. Effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on physicochemical properties of pregelatinized and granular cold-water swelling corn starches.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Sara; Majzoobi, Mahsa; Shahidi, Fakhri; Koocheki, Arash; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-12-15

    The physicochemical properties of drum dried pregelatinized (PG) and granular cold-water-swelling (GCWS) corn starch pastes were determined in the presence of NaCl and CaCl2 (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200mM). Light micrographs revealed that NaCl roughened the surface of PG starch particles while CaCl2 did not bring about obvious changes on their morphology. In the case of GCWS starch, there were some wrinkles on the surface of starch granules. NaCl increased the wrinkles but CaCl2 softened the surface of granules. GCWS starch had higher water absorption, cold paste viscosity and textural parameters than PG starch and these parameters were enhanced with addition of CaCl2 while NaCl exhibited an opposite trend for all of these factors. The Freeze-thaw (F-T) stability and turbidity of GCWS were also higher than PG starch. In presence of salts F-T stability and turbidity of both modified starches improved and CaCl2 caused more evident changes. PMID:27451224

  14. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. PMID:25465561

  15. Tailoring barrier properties of thermoplastic corn starch-based films (TPCS) by means of a multilayer design.

    PubMed

    Fabra, María José; López-Rubio, Amparo; Cabedo, Luis; Lagaron, Jose M

    2016-12-01

    This work compares the effect of adding different biopolyester electrospun coatings made of polycaprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on oxygen and water vapour barrier properties of a thermoplastic corn starch (TPCS) film. The morphology of the developed multilayer structures was also examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed a positive linear relationship between the amount of the electrospun coatings deposited onto both sides of the TPCS film and the thickness of the coating. Interestingly, the addition of electrospun biopolyester coatings led to an exponential oxygen and water vapour permeability drop as the amount of the electrospun coating increased. This study demonstrated the versatility of the technology here proposed to tailor the barrier properties of food packaging materials according to the final intended use. PMID:27552416

  16. Electrical analysis of amorphous corn starch-based polymer electrolyte membranes doped with LiI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukur, M. F.; Ibrahim, F. M.; Majid, N. A.; Ithnin, R.; Kadir, M. F. Z.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, polymer electrolytes have been prepared by doping starch with lithium iodide (LiI). The incorporation of 30 wt% LiI optimizes the room temperature conductivity of the electrolyte at (1.83 ± 0.47) × 10-4 S cm-1. Further conductivity enhancement to (9.56 ± 1.19) × 10-4 S cm-1 is obtained with the addition of 30 wt% glycerol. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the conductivity enhancement is due to the increase in amorphous content. The activation energy, Ea, of 70 wt% starch-30 wt% LiI electrolyte is 0.26 eV, while 49 wt% starch-21 wt% LiI-30 wt% glycerol electrolyte exhibits an Ea of 0.16 eV. Dielectric studies show that all the electrolytes obey non-Debye behavior. The power law exponent s is obtained from the variation of dielectric loss, ɛi, with frequency at different temperatures. The conduction mechanism of 70 wt% starch-30 wt% LiI electrolyte can be explained by the correlated barrier hopping model, while the conduction mechanism for 49 wt% starch-21 wt% LiI-30 wt% glycerol electrolyte can be represented by the quantum mechanical tunneling model.

  17. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of corn tortilla, black beans, and tortilla-bean mixture: effect of cold storage.

    PubMed

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Tovar, Juscelino; Osorio-Díaz, P; Paredes-López, Octavio; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2005-02-23

    People in the rural areas of Mexico consume corn tortillas and beans as basic components of their diet. However, little is known about the nutritionally relevant features of starch present in such combined meals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro bioavailability of starch in tortilla-bean mixtures stored at 4 degrees C for different times, as compared to that of corn tortilla and boiled black beans kept separately under the same conditions. Available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS), and retrograded resistant starch (RRS) contents were measured. The in vitro starch hydrolysis indices (HI) of freshly cooked and cold-stored samples were evaluated using a chewing/dialysis digestion protocol. HIs were used to predict glycemic indices (pGI) of the samples. AS in tortilla and beans decreased between 3 and 6% after 48-72 h, whereas values in the mixture fell by 3% after 48 h, with no further change by 72 h. Only minor rises in RS contents (1.5-1.6%) were recorded for tortilla and beans after 72 h of storage, and a lower increase (0.4%) was recorded in the mixture. Judging from RRS values, an important proportion of RS is due to starch retrogradation. The HI and pGI were higher in tortilla than in bean and the mixture. Hydrolysis rate values decreased in the stored samples, a pattern that corresponded with RS and RRS changes. The slow digestion features of common beans are largely retained by the legume-tortilla combination. Data support the perceived health beneficial properties of starch in this traditional cereal-legume food. PMID:15713053

  18. Corn

    MedlinePlus

    ... composed of a dense core that presses on sensory nerves, causing extreme pain. Soft corns occur between ... a benign condition and may not require medical evaluation. However, if corns become very painful, evaluation should ...

  19. Biodegradable polymer blends based on corn starch and thermoplastic chitosan processed by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Mendes, J F; Paschoalin, R T; Carmona, V B; Sena Neto, Alfredo R; Marques, A C P; Marconcini, J M; Mattoso, L H C; Medeiros, E S; Oliveira, J E

    2016-02-10

    Blends of thermoplastic cornstarch (TPS) and chitosan (TPC) were obtained by melt extrusion. The effect of TPC incorporation in TPS matrix and polymer interaction on morphology and thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. Possible interactions between the starch molecules and thermoplastic chitosan were assessed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses showed a homogeneous fracture surface without the presence of starch granules or chitosan aggregates. Although the incorporation of thermoplastic chitosan caused a decrease in both tensile strength and stiffness, films with better extensibility and thermal stability were produced. PMID:26686150

  20. Improvement of D-Ribose Production from Corn Starch Hydrolysate by a Transketolase-Deficient Strain Bacillus subtilis UJS0717

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhuan; Zhou, Jue; Sun, WenJing; Cui, FengJie; Xu, QinHua; Liu, ChangFeng

    2015-01-01

    D-Ribose is a five-carbon sugar and generally used as an energy source to improve athletic performance and the ability. The culture conditions for maximum D-ribose production performance from cheap raw material corn starch hydrolysate were improved by using one-factor-at-a-time experiments and a three-level Box-Behnken factorial design. The optimal fermentation parameters were obtained as 36°C culture temperature, 10% inoculum volume, and 7.0 initial pH. The mathematical model was then developed to show the effect of each medium composition and their interactions on the production of D-ribose and estimated that the optimized D-ribose production performance with the concentration of 62.13 g/L, yield of 0.40 g/g, and volumetric productivity of 0.86 g/L·h could be obtained when the medium compositions were set as 157 g/L glucose, 21 g/L corn steep liquor, 3.2 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 1 g/L yeast extract, 0.05 g/L MnSO4·H2O, and 20 g/L CaCO3. These findings indicated the D-ribose production performance was significantly improved compared to that under original conditions. PMID:26759810

  1. Improvement of D-Ribose Production from Corn Starch Hydrolysate by a Transketolase-Deficient Strain Bacillus subtilis UJS0717.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhuan; Zhou, Jue; Sun, WenJing; Cui, FengJie; Xu, QinHua; Liu, ChangFeng

    2015-01-01

    D-Ribose is a five-carbon sugar and generally used as an energy source to improve athletic performance and the ability. The culture conditions for maximum D-ribose production performance from cheap raw material corn starch hydrolysate were improved by using one-factor-at-a-time experiments and a three-level Box-Behnken factorial design. The optimal fermentation parameters were obtained as 36°C culture temperature, 10% inoculum volume, and 7.0 initial pH. The mathematical model was then developed to show the effect of each medium composition and their interactions on the production of D-ribose and estimated that the optimized D-ribose production performance with the concentration of 62.13 g/L, yield of 0.40 g/g, and volumetric productivity of 0.86 g/L·h could be obtained when the medium compositions were set as 157 g/L glucose, 21 g/L corn steep liquor, 3.2 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 1 g/L yeast extract, 0.05 g/L MnSO4·H2O, and 20 g/L CaCO3. These findings indicated the D-ribose production performance was significantly improved compared to that under original conditions. PMID:26759810

  2. The effect of partial gelatinization of corn starch on its retrogradation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zong-qiang; Wang, Li-jun; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yu-guang; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-09-12

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of partial gelatinization of starch on its retrogradation using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The Avrami equation was used to predict the evolution of starch retrogradation kinetics. The degree of retrogradation in starch samples partially gelatinized 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and control (S25) increased with storage time. The retrogradation enthalpies of S68 and S70 were almost four times as high as that of S64. The S25 and S64 had dominant A-type crystalline pattern while S68 and S70 showed dominant B-type crystalline pattern. The growth of remainder crystals was faster in S25 and S64, while both the nucleation and growth rates of new crystals were faster in S68 and S70. The Avrami model was found to represent the retrogradation kinetics data of these partially gelatinized starch samples quite satisfactorily (R(2)>0.95). PMID:23911478

  3. Lactobacillus amylovorus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from cattle waste-corn fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    The morphology, physiology and fermentation characteristics of this hitherto unrecognized species are described. The new Lactobacillus species can be differentiated from L. acidophilus, L. jensenii, and L. leichmannii on the basis of starch fermentation, G + C content, vitamin requirements and stereoisomerism of lactic acid produced. The type strain of L. amylovorus is NRRL B-4540. (Refs. 39).

  4. Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill.

    PubMed

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C; Hoover, Amber N

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in the production of pellets is the high cost associated with drying biomass from 30 to 10% (w.b.) moisture content. At Idaho National Laboratory, a high-moisture pelleting process was developed to reduce the drying cost. In this process the biomass pellets are produced at higher feedstock moisture contents than conventional methods, and the high moisture pellets produced are further dried in energy efficient dryers. This process helps to reduce the feedstock moisture content by about 5-10% during pelleting, which is mainly due to frictional heat developed in the die. The objective of this research was to explore how binder addition influences the pellet quality and energy consumption of the high-moisture pelleting process in a flat die pellet mill. In the present study, raw corn stover was pelleted at moistures of 33, 36, and 39% (w.b.) by addition of 0, 2, and 4% pure corn starch. The partially dried pellets produced were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70 °C for 3-4 hr to lower the pellet moisture to less than 9% (w.b.). The high moisture and dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties, such as bulk density and durability. The results indicated that increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved pellet durability and reduced the specific energy consumption by 20-40% compared to pellets with no binder. At higher binder addition (4%), the reduction in feedstock moisture during pelleting was <4%, whereas the reduction was about 7-8% without the binder. With 4% binder and 33% (w.b.) feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed of the dried pellets were >510 kg/m(3) and >98%, respectively, and the percent fine particles generated was reduced to <3%. PMID:27340875

  5. Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill

    PubMed Central

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C.; Hoover, Amber N.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in the production of pellets is the high cost associated with drying biomass from 30 to 10% (w.b.) moisture content. At Idaho National Laboratory, a high-moisture pelleting process was developed to reduce the drying cost. In this process the biomass pellets are produced at higher feedstock moisture contents than conventional methods, and the high moisture pellets produced are further dried in energy efficient dryers. This process helps to reduce the feedstock moisture content by about 5-10% during pelleting, which is mainly due to frictional heat developed in the die. The objective of this research was to explore how binder addition influences the pellet quality and energy consumption of the high-moisture pelleting process in a flat die pellet mill. In the present study, raw corn stover was pelleted at moistures of 33, 36, and 39% (w.b.) by addition of 0, 2, and 4% pure corn starch. The partially dried pellets produced were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70 °C for 3-4 hr to lower the pellet moisture to less than 9% (w.b.). The high moisture and dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties, such as bulk density and durability. The results indicated that increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved pellet durability and reduced the specific energy consumption by 20-40% compared to pellets with no binder. At higher binder addition (4%), the reduction in feedstock moisture during pelleting was <4%, whereas the reduction was about 7-8% without the binder. With 4% binder and 33% (w.b.) feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed of the dried pellets were >510 kg/m3 and >98%, respectively, and the percent fine particles generated was reduced to <3%. PMID:27340875

  6. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model. PMID:27403874

  7. The effects of dry-rolled corn particle size on performance, carcass traits, and starch digestibility in feedlot finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, E F; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Bartle, S J; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D

    2016-03-01

    Crossbred yearling steers ( = 360; 395 ± 33.1 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate the effects of dry-rolled corn (DRC) particle size in diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and starch digestibility. Steers were used in a randomized complete block design and allocated to 36 pens (9 pens/treatment, with 10 animals/pen). Treatments were coarse DRC (4,882 μm), medium DRC (3,760 μm), fine DRC (2,359 μm), and steam-flaked corn (0.35 kg/L; SFC). Final BW and ADG were not affected by treatment ( > 0.05). Dry matter intake was greater and G:F was lower ( < 0.05) for steers fed DRC vs. steers fed SFC. There was a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in DMI in the final 5 wk on feed with decreasing DRC particle size. Fecal starch decreased (linear, < 0.01) as DRC particle size decreased. In situ starch disappearance was lower for DRC vs. SFC ( < 0.05) and linearly increased ( < 0.05) with decreasing particle size at 8 and 24 h. Reducing DRC particle size did not influence growth performance but increased starch digestion and influenced DMI of cattle on finishing diets. No differences ( > 0.10) were observed among treatments for any of the carcass traits measured. Results indicate improved ruminal starch digestibility, reduced fecal starch concentration, and reduced DMI with decreasing DRC particle size in feedlot diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains on a DM basis. PMID:27065280

  8. Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flow Response to Nitrogen-free Diets with Differing Ratios of Corn Starch to Dextrose in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kong, C.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses in the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and amino acid (AA) composition of ileal endogenous flow (IEF) of pigs (initial body weight, 69.1±6.46 kg) fed N-free diets (NFD) formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. Fifteen pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets according to a triplicated 5×2 incomplete Latin-square design. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 12 h on each of d 6 and 7 and between each period, there was a 5-d recovery period to avoid abnormal weight loss. The ratios of corn starch to dextrose investigated were 0:879, 293:586, 586:293, 779:100, and 879:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and chromic oxide (5 g/kg) was used as an indigestible index. Ileal DM digestibility was greater in Diet 1 than that in Diet 4 (89.5% vs 87.3%, p<0.01) but they were not different from Diet 2, 3, or 5. The IEF for most of indispensable AA were not different among diets with the exception of Met, in which a lack of corn starch or dextrose gave lower (p = 0.028) IEF of Met than diets containing corn starch and dextrose. Likewise, the dispensable AA and total AA in the IEF did not differ among diets. The respective IEF of AA (mg/kg of dry matter intake) in pigs fed Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 were 301, 434, 377, 477,or 365 for Lys, 61, 89, 71, 87, or 61 for Met, and 477, 590, 472, 520, or 436 for Thr. Proline was the most abundant AA in the IEF followed by Gly, Glu, and Asp and together accounted for approximately 50% of the total ileal AA flows of pigs fed NFD. In conclusion, the variation in proportion of corn starch and dextrose in a NFD does not largely affect estimates of IEF of N and AA for growing-finishing pigs. PMID:25083106

  9. Effects of ruminal doses of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oba, M; Mewis, J L; Zhining, Z

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate effects of a ruminal dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells. Six ruminally cannulated nonlactating nonpregnant Holstein cows (body weight=725±69.6kg) were assigned to treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design with 7-d periods; 1d for data and sample collection followed by a 6-d washout period. Cows were fed a diet containing whole-crop barley silage and dry ground corn, and dietary neutral detergent fiber and crude protein contents were 41.8 and 13.2% [dry matter (DM) basis], respectively. Treatment was a pulse-dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch (3.0, 3.0, and 2.85kg of DM, respectively; providing similar amounts of hexose across the treatments) through the ruminal cannulas. All treatments were given with alfalfa silage (1.75kg DM) to prevent acute rumen acidosis. Rumen pH was continuously monitored, and rumen fluid was sampled at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after the dose. In addition, ruminal papillae were sampled from the ventral sac at 180min after the dose. Ruminal dosing with sucrose and lactose, compared with corn starch, increased ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportion of butyrate from 60 to 180min after the dose, and expression of genes for sodium hydrogen exchanger isoforms 1 and 2, and ATPase isoform 1 in ruminal epithelial cells. Ruminal dosing with sucrose, compared with lactose and corn starch, decreased rumen pH from 120 to 180min after the dose and molar proportion of acetate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min after the dose, and increased molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min, and expression of genes involved in butyrate metabolism (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase isoform 1) and anion exchange across ruminal apical cell membrane (putative anion transporter isoform 1). These results suggest that replacing dietary starch with sugars may affect ruminal

  10. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    PubMed

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks. PMID:25447553

  11. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  12. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  13. [Starch aspiration].

    PubMed

    Volk, O; Neidhöfer, M; Schregel, W

    1999-06-01

    Starch is a white, neutral smelling, insoluble and harmless powder. The case of a 24-year old worker with a pronounced bronchospasm and arterial hypoxaemia after a collapse and aspiration during working in a silo filled with corn starch will be reported. Medication consisted mainly in mucolytics. Intensive airway clearing consisted of repeated bronchoscopies, bedding, tapotement and vibration massage. The patient has made a complete recovery in 3 days. PMID:10429779

  14. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals. PMID:26142428

  15. Influence of ensiling, exogenous protease addition, and bacterial inoculation on fermentation profile, nitrogen fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fredin, S M; Shaver, R D

    2015-10-01

    Exogenous protease addition may be an option to increase proteolysis of zein proteins and thus starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn (HMC) ensiled for short periods. In addition, microbial inoculation may accelerate fermentation and increase acid production and thus increase solubilization of zein proteins. Four experiments were performed to evaluate the effect on fermentation profile, N fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of the following: (1) rehydration and ensiling of dry ground corn; (2) exogenous protease addition to rehydrated un-ensiled and ensiled corn; (3) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in rehydrated ensiled corn; and (4) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in HMC. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were performed with 7 treatments: dry ground corn (DGC); DGC rehydrated to a targeted dry matter content of 70% (REH); REH treated with exogenous protease (REH+); REH ensiled for 30 d (ENS); ENS treated with exogenous protease (ENS+); ENS treated with a microbial inoculant containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, and Pediococcus sp. (ENSI); and ENS treated with exogenous protease and microbial inoculant (ENSI+). Experiment 1 compared DGC, REH, and ENS with ivSD being greater for ENS (64.9%) than DGC and REH (51.7% on average). Experiment 2 compared REH and ENS without or with exogenous protease addition (REH+ and ENS+, respectively). Ensiling and exogenous protease addition increased ivSD, but exogenous protease addition was more effective in ENS than REH (6.4 vs. 2.6 percentage unit increase). Experiment 3 compared the effects of exogenous protease addition and inoculation in ENS corn (ENS, ENS+, ENSI, and ENSI+). The addition of protease, but not inoculant, increased ivSD. Inoculation reduced pH and acetate, propionate, and ethanol concentrations, and increased lactate and total acid concentrations. In experiment 4, 8 treatments were a combination of HMC noninoculated

  16. Phytosterol and Tocopherol Components in Extracts of Corn Distiller's Dried Grain (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn distiller’s dried grains (DDG) is the major by-product of ethanol fermentation from corn processed by dry-milling. DDG is high in fiber, protein, and fat, and is sold primarily for livestock feed. It is currently valued at approximately $85-110 per ton. The ethanol industry is expected to gr...

  17. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis. PMID:26545758

  18. Effects of partial replacement of dietary starch from barley or corn with lactose on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid absorption, nitrogen utilization, and production performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chibisa, G E; Gorka, P; Penner, G B; Berthiaume, R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2015-04-01

    In cows fed diets based on corn-alfalfa silage, replacing starch with sugar improves milk production. Although the rate of ruminal fermentation of sugar is more rapid than that of starch, evidence has been found that feeding sugar as a partial replacement for starch does not negatively affect ruminal pH despite increasing diet fermentability. The mechanism(s) for this desirable response are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effects of replacing barley or corn starch with lactose (as dried whey permeate; DWP) on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption, and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows. Eight lactating cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and source of starch (barley vs. corn) and level of DWP (0 vs. 6%, DM basis) as treatment factors. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal function, SCFA absorption, and N utilization. Dry matter intake and milk and milk component yields did not differ with diet. The dietary addition of DWP tended to increase ruminal butyrate concentration (13.6 vs. 12.2 mmol/L), and increased the Cl(-)-competitive absorption rates for acetate and propionate. There was no sugar effect on minimum ruminal pH, and the duration and area when ruminal pH was below 5.8. Minimum ruminal pH tended to be lower in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn (5.47 vs. 5.61). The duration when ruminal pH was below pH 5.8 tended to be shorter (186 vs. 235 min/d), whereas the area (pH × min/d) that pH was below 5.8 was smaller (47 vs. 111) on the corn than barley diets. Cows fed the high- compared with the low-sugar diet had lower ruminal NH3-N concentration. Feeding the high-sugar diet tended to increase apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter and organic matters and increased apparent total-tract digestibility of fat. Apparent total-tract digestibility of N tended to be greater in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn

  19. Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy-saving alternative to production of high-fructose syrup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The liquefaction of pre-gelatinized starch was studied with various analytical techniques to determine the effects of starch molecular weight, granule structure, granule size, and mechanical depolymerization. Also, improvements were made in the chromatographic system used to characterize starch hydrolysates. Progress is reported on protein removal. The effects of pH, temperature, and ionic strength were examined for the removal of protein from a syrup stream by adsorption on a phenolic resin. Buffered systems, which maintain more stable pH values, were also examined. Mathematical modeling of the results is in progress. The pilot plant facility is complete and in operation. Starch streams containing 1% protein are being produced by the protein extraction process.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and glutelin. Corn gluten is a... soluble proteins. Corn gluten is also produced as a byproduct during the conversion of the starch in...

  1. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping

    addition were evaluated in the dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process). Addition of proteases resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (15.2 to 18.0% v/v) and lower (DDGS) yields (32.9 to 45.8% db) compared to the control (no protease addition). As level of proteases and GSHE increased, ethanol concentrations increased and DDGS yields decreased. Proteases addition reduced required GSHE dose. Ethanol concentrations with protease addition alone were higher than with urea or with addition of both protease and urea. Corn endosperm consists of soft and hard endosperm. More exposed starch granules and rough surfaces produced from soft endosperm compared to hard endosperm will create more surface area which will benefit the solid phase hydrolysis as used in GSH process. In this study, the effects of protease, urea, endosperm hardness and GSHE levels on the GSH process were evaluated. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from dry milling pilot plant. Soft endosperm resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) for soft and hard endosperm. The effect of protease addition on increasing ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was more predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm and least for ground corn. The GSH process with protease resulted in higher ethanol concentration than that with urea. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm due to the presence of inherent nutrients which enhanced yeast growth.

  2. Thermodynamic study of binary system Propafenone Hydrocloride with Metoprolol Tartrate: solid-liquid equilibrium and compatibility with α-lactose monohydrate and corn starch.

    PubMed

    Marinescu, Daniela-Crina; Pincu, Elena; Meltzer, Viorica

    2013-05-20

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) for binary mixture of Propafenone Hydrocloride (PP) with Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and corresponding activity coefficients were calculated. Simple eutectic behavior for this system was observed. The excess thermodynamic functions: G(E) and S(E) for the pre-, post-, and eutectic composition have been obtained using the computed activity coefficients data of the eutectic phase with their excess chemical potentials μi(E) (i=1, 2). The experimental solid-liquid phase temperatures were compared with predictions obtained from available eutectic equilibrium models. The results indicate non-ideality in this mixture. Also, the compatibility of each component and their eutectic mixture with usual excipients was investigated, and the DSC experiments indicate possible weak interactions with α-lactose monohydrate and compatibility with corn starch. The results obtained were confirmed by FT-IR measurements. PMID:23545398

  3. Feasibility study for co-locating and integrating ethanol production plants from corn starch and lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Robert; Ibsen, Kelly; McAloon, Andrew; Yee, Winnie

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation.

  4. Powder and compaction characteristics of pregelatinized starches.

    PubMed

    Rojas, J; Uribe, Y; Zuluaga, A

    2012-06-01

    Pregelatinized starch is widely used as a pharmaceutical aid, especially as a filler-binder. It is known that the tableting performance of excipients could be affected by their source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the powder and tableting properties of pregelatinized starches obtained from yucca, corn and rice and compare those properties with those of Starch 1500. This material had the lowest particle size, and porosity and largest density and best flow. However, yucca starch and corn starch showed an irregular granule morphology, better compactibility and compressibility than Starch 1500. Their onset of plastic deformation and their strain rate sensitivity was comparable to that of Starch 1500. These two materials showed compact disintegration slower that Starch 1500. Conversely, rice starch showed a high elasticity, and friability, low compactibility, which are undesirable for direct compression. This study demonstrated the potential use of pregelatinized starches, especially those obtained from yucca and corn as direct compression filler-binders. PMID:22822539

  5. Effect of high-pressure treatment on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch/locust bean gum mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Vatankhah, Hamed; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of a 30min high pressure (HP) treatment (200-600MPa) at room temperature on the rheological, thermal and morphological properties of resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with an increase pressure level, and demonstrated a bi-phasic behavior. HP treated RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G'>G'') or viscous (G''>G'), depending on the pressure level and LBG concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the pressurized mixtures showed a major effect on gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp,), and it was observed that RS/LBG mixtures gelatinized completely at ≥400MPa with a 30min holding time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed that at 600MPa, RS/LBG mixtures retained granular structures and their complete disintegration was not observed even at the endpoint of the gelatinization. PMID:27312641

  6. Efficient Production of Optically Pure d-Lactic Acid from Raw Corn Starch by Using a Genetically Modified l-Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene-Deficient and α-Amylase-Secreting Lactobacillus plantarum Strain▿

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kenji; Zhang, Qiao; Shinkawa, Satoru; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve direct and efficient fermentation of optically pure d-lactic acid from raw corn starch, we constructed l-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum and introduced a plasmid encoding Streptococcus bovis 148 α-amylase (AmyA). The resulting strain produced only d-lactic acid from glucose and successfully expressed amyA. With the aid of secreting AmyA, direct d-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished. After 48 h of fermentation, 73.2 g/liter of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.85 g per g of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of 99.6%. Moreover, a strain replacing the ldhL1 gene with an amyA-secreting expression cassette was constructed. Using this strain, direct d-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics. This is the first report of direct d-lactic acid fermentation from raw starch. PMID:19011066

  7. Efficient production of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch by using a genetically modified L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient and alpha-amylase-secreting Lactobacillus plantarum strain.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Zhang, Qiao; Shinkawa, Satoru; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve direct and efficient fermentation of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch, we constructed L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum and introduced a plasmid encoding Streptococcus bovis 148 alpha-amylase (AmyA). The resulting strain produced only D-lactic acid from glucose and successfully expressed amyA. With the aid of secreting AmyA, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished. After 48 h of fermentation, 73.2 g/liter of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.85 g per g of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of 99.6%. Moreover, a strain replacing the ldhL1 gene with an amyA-secreting expression cassette was constructed. Using this strain, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics. This is the first report of direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw starch. PMID:19011066

  8. Centrifugally spun starch-based fibers from amylopectin rich starches.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglong; Chen, Huanhuan; Yang, Bin

    2016-02-10

    Centrifugal spinning and electrospinning have proved to be effective techniques for fabricating micro-to-nanofibers. However, starches of amylopectin content above 65% cannot be fabricated to fiber by electrospinning. This paper is focus on the centrifugal spinnability of amylopectin rich starches. We investigated the amylopectin content of starches by Dual-wavelength colorimetry, studied the rheological properties of starch dopes to determine entanglement concentration (ce) by rotary rheometer. Results indicated that amylopectin rich native corn and potato starches, which with amylopectin content higher than 65%, were suitable for centrifugal spinning to micro-to-nanofibers. Additionally, starch-based fibers were successfully fabricated from the amylose rich corn starch as well. Rheological studies showed that the entanglement concentration (ce) of starch solution was crucial for successful centrifugal spinning. PMID:26686151

  9. Physicochemical and functional properties of ozone-oxidized starch.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui T; Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, Alias A

    2009-07-01

    The effects of oxidation by ozone gas on some physicochemical and functional properties of starch (corn, sago, and tapioca) were investigated. Starch in dry powder form was exposed to ozone for 10 min at different ozone generation times (OGTs). Carboxyl and carbonyl contents increased markedly in all starches with increasing OGTs. Oxidation significantly decreased the swelling power of oxidized sago and tapioca starches but increased that of oxidized corn starch. The solubility of tapioca starch decreased and sago starch increased after oxidation. However, there was an insignificant changed in the solubility of oxidized corn starch. Intrinsic viscosity [eta] of all oxidized starches decreased significantly, except for tapioca starch oxidized at 5 min OGT. Pasting properties of the oxidized starches followed different trends as OGTs increased. These results show that under similar conditions of ozone treatment, the extent of starch oxidation varies among different types of starch. PMID:19489606

  10. RESEARCH CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR CELLULOSE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY IN A DRY MILL PATHWAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the current expansion in ethanol production capacity is attributable to newly constructed dry grind facilities that convert corn into fuel ethanol. These facilities process the corn into ethanol, with the remaining solid material, known as distillers’ grains (DG) or distillers dried grains ...

  11. Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy-saving alternative to production of high-fructose syrup. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1981-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the project to extract starch from corn efficiently. The procedure for removing organic impurities from corn syrup is described. Data are graphically shown of the ultraviolet scan of the dirty and clean syrup. Impurity in the glucose syrup could be reduced from 0.51 gm/ml level using the sedimental method down to 0.23 mg/ml by filtering the syrup through diatomic earth filter. The industrial products contain about 0.37 mg/ml (industrial product also filtered through diatomic earth filter). (MCW)

  12. Feasibility Study for Co-Locating and Integrating Ethanol Production Plants from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.; Ibsen, K.; McAloon, A.; Yee, W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation. Although none of the scenarios identified could produce ethanol at lower cost than a straight grain ethanol plant, several were lower cost than a straight cellulosic ethanol plant.

  13. Microbial Development in Distillers Wet Grains Produced During Fuel Ethanol Production from Corn (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distill...

  14. Friction Properties of Chemically Modified Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is a high molecular weight polyglucose biopolymer that, in its native state, is insoluble in water at room temperature. One way of improving its water solubility is by esterification of its free hydroxyl groups. Waxy maize, normal corn, and high amylose corn starches were esterified with ac...

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF STARCH: APPLICATION TO FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in corn is an important step that determines fermentation efficiency. Corn genetics, post harvest handling and process conditions are factors that affect starch hydrolysis. There is a lack of mathematical models for starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process tha...

  16. TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED STARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is one of the most abundantly available plant-based biopolymer. It is a major component of such high volume commodity crops as corn, potato, and rice. Starch is a highly crystalline, high molecular weight poly(glucose) biopolymer. Starch is insoluble in water in its native state. Various ...

  17. EFFECT OF CORN SILAGE MATURITY AND MECHANICAL PROCESSING ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY BY LACTATING DAIRY COWS OF DIFFERENT LACTATION STAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch digestibility (StarchD) can decrease when corn silage is harvested at advanced stages of maturity. Processing corn silage through rollers during chopping typically increases StarchD. We hypothesized that corn silage processing increases StarchD in lactating dairy cows to a greater extent when...

  18. Effects of granule swelling on starch saccharification by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofeng; Cai, Liming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-08-13

    The effects of granule swelling on enzymatic saccharification of normal corn starch by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme were investigated. After swelling, Km values for the saccharification of granular starch decreased compared with native granular starch, indicating that granule swelling caused granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme to have higher affinity for starch granules. The partial swelling of starch granules enhanced starch saccharification. Furthermore, the enhancement at an earlier stage of enzymatic reaction was much more significant than that at later stages. For granular starch pretreated at 67.5 °C for 30 min, conversions to glucose after incubation with the enzyme at 32 °C for 4 and 24 h were approximately 3-fold and 26% higher than for native granular starch, respectively. As a result, proper heat pretreatment of granular starch before simultaneous saccharification and fermentation has great potential to facilitate industrial production of ethanol by use of granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme. PMID:25039418

  19. Growth, /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake, and metabolites of starch synthesis in apical and basal kernels of corn (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Developing field-grown kernels of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Cornell 175) from the base and apex of the ear were sampled from seven to 70 days after pollination (DAP) an compared with respect to dry weight, ability to take up /sup 14/C-sucrose from solution in vitro, and content of sucrose, glucose, starch, glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), ADP-glucose (ADPG), and UDP-glucose (UDPG). ADPG and UDPG were analyzed by HPLC. All other metabolites were analyzed enzymatically. Simultaneous hand-pollination of all ovaries in an ear did not reduce the difference between apical and basal kernels in dry weight, indicating that the latter fertilization of apical kernels was not responsible for their lesser mature dry weight. Detached kernels took up /sup 14/C-sucrose (0.3-400 mM) and glucose (5-100 mM) at rates linearly proportional to the sugar concentration. Glucose, fructose, and sorbitol did not inhibit uptake of /sup 14/C-sucrose. Uptake was not stimulated by 5 mM CaCl/sup 2/ or the addition of buffers (pH 4.5-6.7) to the medium. Sulfhydryl reagents (PCMBS, NEM) and metabolic inhibitors (TNBS, DNP, NaF) did not reduce uptake. These observations suggest that sucrose is taken up by a non-saturable, non-energy-requiring mechanism. Sucrose uptake increased throughout development, especially at the stage when basal kernels began to accumulate more dry weight than apical kernels (10-20 DAP in freely pollinated ears; 25 DAP in synchronously pollinated ears). Hydrolysis of incorporated sucrose increased from 87% at 14 DAP to 99% by 57 DAP.

  20. Short communication: The effect of an exogenous enzyme with amylolytic activity on gas production and in vitro rumen starch degradability of small and large particles of corn or barley meals.

    PubMed

    Gallo, A; Giuberti, G; Duval, S; Moschini, M; Masoero, F

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous amylase supplementation on gas production and on in vitro rumen starch degradability (IVSD) of different sized particles of corn and barley meals (Cm and Bm, respectively). An aqueous liquid amylase formulation from Bacillus licheniformis was tested at 3 enzyme doses (EnzD; 0, 300 and 1,500 kilo novo units/kg of dry matter) on small (<750 µm) and large (≥750 µm) particle size (PS) of Cm and Bm. Data were analyzed according to a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement of treatments; the main tested effects were PS, EnzD, and their interaction. Fermentation run entered in the model as random effect. The mixed rumen fluid was collected from 2 rumen-fistulated Holstein dry dairy cows fed at maintenance (forage:concentrate ratio of 80:20; 12% crude protein; 55% amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber). Small particles of both Cm and Bm had a greater rate of fermentation and shorter lag time than large particles. The rate of starch degradation was greater for small than for large particles of Bm, being 0.187 and 0.125 1/h, respectively. Conversely, the rate of starch degradation of Cm averaged 0.063 1/h and was similar among treatments. Enzyme supplementation tended to reduce lag time and to increase rate of fermentation for both PS of Cm and Bm, with a more pronounced effect for small PS. A limited EnzD effect was measured for IVSD data and rate of starch degradation; PS influenced fermentation parameters and the magnitude of starch degradation more than EnzD. Supplementation with exogenous amylase influenced the rumen fermentation pattern of small and large PS of Cm and Bm, even if the effect of the enzyme supplementation differed according to the PS of cereal meals. PMID:26947300

  1. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past decade, the demand for ethanol has increased dramatically. Demand for other products of corn milling, such as starches and sweeteners, is also expected to increase. With the increase in demand for industrial and food use of corn, the production of byproducts, such as corn fiber, corn...

  2. Relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate differences among chosen wheat varieties in their bran starch (the starch adherent to bran particles after a dry milling process) quantity, bran particle size, and milled bran thickness, and to investigate the relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch content. The neutral saccharide profile of the wheat bran was dominated by arabinose, xylose, and glucose, whereas mannose and galactose were present in small amounts. Bran thickness was found to have a positive correlation with bran starch content. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio showed positive correlations with percent large bran particles, and negative correlations with bran starch content. Bran characteristics can explain the variation seen in bran starch content and percent large bran particles of various wheat varieties. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio and bran thickness could both play roles in the mechanical properties of bran, and therefore change the percent of large bran particles produced during milling. PMID:26616971

  3. Effect of dry heating with ionic gums on physicochemical properties of starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Si, Fumei; Xiong, Liu; Chu, Lijun

    2013-02-15

    Corn starch, potato starch, pea starch were impregnated with ionic gums (sodium alginate, CMC, and xanthan, 1% based on starch solids) and heat-treated in a dry state for 0, 2, or 4 h at 130°C. Effects of the dry heating on paste viscosity (RVA), microstructure and thermal properties were examined. Dry heat treatment with ionic gums reduced the pasting temperature of the three starches. Heating with xanthan increased the paste viscosity of corn and potato starch. With heat treatment, the paste viscosity of all the starch-sodium alginate mixtures decreased. Heating with CMC increased the paste viscosity of potato starch, but decreased that of corn and pea starch. After dry-heating, To, Tp and Tc of potato starch with ionic gums decreased significantly. SEM of potato starch with CMC showed that the gel structure got compacter after drying-heating. Heat treatment obviously improved the functional properties of the three starches. PMID:23194543

  4. Contribution of protein, starch, and fat to the apparent ileal digestible energy of corn- and wheat-based broiler diets in response to exogenous xylanase and amylase without or with protease1

    PubMed Central

    Romero, L. F.; Sands, J. S.; Indrakumar, S. E.; Plumstead, P. W.; Dalsgaard, S.; Ravindran, V.

    2014-01-01

    The ileal energy contribution of protein, starch, and fat in response to 2 exogenous enzyme combinations was studied in 2 digestibility assays with 21- (experiment 1; 432 birds) and 42-d-old (experiment 2; 288 birds) Ross 308 broiler chickens. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 base grains (corn or wheat), without or with high fiber ingredients (corn distillers dried grains with solubles and canola meal), and 3 enzyme treatments was implemented. Enzyme treatments, fed from 12 to 21 d or 32 to 42 d, were 1) without enzymes, 2) with xylanase from Trichoderma ressei (2,000 U/kg) and amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (200 U/kg; XA), or 3) with XA plus protease from Bacillus subtilis (4,000 U/kg; XAP). All diets contained Escherichia coli phytase (500 FTU/kg). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein, starch, and fat, as well as the apparent ileal digestible energy, were determined using titanium dioxide as inert marker. A generalized mixed model was used to test main effects and 2-way interactions at P < 0.05. An enzyme × grain interaction was detected for AID of starch at 21 and 42 d, and AID of fat at 21 d, with greater effects of enzymes in wheat-based compared with corn-based diets, but significant increments due to enzymes compared with controls in both diet types. Apparent ileal digestibility of fat at 42 d increased with enzyme supplementation compared with the control treatments. The XA and XAP treatments gradually (P < 0.05) increased AID of protein at 21 d, but only XAP increased AID of protein compared with the control at 42 d. Compared with the controls, XA increased AID energy by 52 or 87 kcal, and XAP by 104 or 152 kcal/kg of DM at 21 or 42 d, respectively. The caloric contribution of starch, fat, and protein were affected differentially by base grain and the presence of fibrous ingredients at 21 and 42 d of age. PMID:25071229

  5. Contribution of protein, starch, and fat to the apparent ileal digestible energy of corn- and wheat-based broiler diets in response to exogenous xylanase and amylase without or with protease.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Sands, J S; Indrakumar, S E; Plumstead, P W; Dalsgaard, S; Ravindran, V

    2014-10-01

    The ileal energy contribution of protein, starch, and fat in response to 2 exogenous enzyme combinations was studied in 2 digestibility assays with 21- (experiment 1; 432 birds) and 42-d-old (experiment 2; 288 birds) Ross 308 broiler chickens. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 base grains (corn or wheat), without or with high fiber ingredients (corn distillers dried grains with solubles and canola meal), and 3 enzyme treatments was implemented. Enzyme treatments, fed from 12 to 21 d or 32 to 42 d, were 1) without enzymes, 2) with xylanase from Trichoderma ressei (2,000 U/kg) and amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (200 U/kg; XA), or 3) with XA plus protease from Bacillus subtilis (4,000 U/kg; XAP). All diets contained Escherichia coli phytase (500 FTU/kg). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein, starch, and fat, as well as the apparent ileal digestible energy, were determined using titanium dioxide as inert marker. A generalized mixed model was used to test main effects and 2-way interactions at P < 0.05. An enzyme × grain interaction was detected for AID of starch at 21 and 42 d, and AID of fat at 21 d, with greater effects of enzymes in wheat-based compared with corn-based diets, but significant increments due to enzymes compared with controls in both diet types. Apparent ileal digestibility of fat at 42 d increased with enzyme supplementation compared with the control treatments. The XA and XAP treatments gradually (P < 0.05) increased AID of protein at 21 d, but only XAP increased AID of protein compared with the control at 42 d. Compared with the controls, XA increased AID energy by 52 or 87 kcal, and XAP by 104 or 152 kcal/kg of DM at 21 or 42 d, respectively. The caloric contribution of starch, fat, and protein were affected differentially by base grain and the presence of fibrous ingredients at 21 and 42 d of age. PMID:25071229

  6. Energy determination of corn co-products fed to broiler chicks from 15 to 24 days of age and use of composition analysis to predict AMEn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment (3 trials) was conducted to determine the AMEn of 15 corn co-products obtained from various wet and dry milling plants, and to develop prediction equations for AMEn based upon chemical composition. Co-products included: distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, n = 6), high protein...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  9. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  10. Crude protein, ash, phosphorus, neutral detergent fiber and starch concentrations in particle size distributions of corn steam flaked to varying bulk densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The particle size distribution that results from steam flaking cereal grains could be related to differences in the chemical composition of steam-flaked (SF) vs. unprocessed grain. Particle size distribution and associated crude protein (CP), phosphorus (P), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and starch...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  13. Influence of starch source on sporulation and enterotoxin production by Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Labbe, R; Somers, E; Duncan, C

    1976-03-01

    Of 16 different starch preparations tested, Clostridium perfringes NCTC 8798 yielded maximum sporulation and enterotoxin formation when ICN-soluble starch was included in Duncan and Strong sporulation medium. In general soluble starches were better than potato, corn, or arrowroot starch with regard to these two parameters. PMID:180885

  14. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  15. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of bothmore » ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement

  16. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and

  17. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex. PMID:24338992

  18. STARCH-OIL INTERACTION IN DRY FILM LUBRICANTS WITH CHEMICALLY MODIFIED STARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is one of the most abundant farm-based raw materials. It is a significant component of such high volume commodity crops as corn, potato, rice, wheat, and barley. Because of the large surplus of these crops over demand, there is a great deal of interest in developing new uses for starch-base...

  19. Dry-milling and Fractionation of Transgenic Maize Seed Tissues with Green Fluorescent Protein as a Tissue Marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficiency of fractionating cereal grains (e.g., dry corn milling) can be evaluated and monitored by quantifying the proportions of seed tissues in each of the recovered fractions. The quantities of individual tissues are typically estimated using indirect methods such as quantifying fiber or a...

  20. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  1. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

    1995-10-01

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  2. Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams from a commercial ethanol facility, laboratory hydrolysates were prepared by reproducing starch liquefaction and saccharification ste...

  3. A high amylose (amylomaize) starch raises proximal large bowel starch and increases colon length in pigs.

    PubMed

    Topping, D L; Gooden, J M; Brown, I L; Biebrick, D A; McGrath, L; Trimble, R P; Choct, M; Illman, R J

    1997-04-01

    Young male pigs consumed a diet of fatty minced beef, safflower oil, skim milk powder, sucrose, cornstarch and wheat bran. Starch provided 50% of total daily energy either as low amylose cornstarch, high amylose (amylomaize) cornstarch or as a 50/50 mixture of corn and high amylose starch. Neither feed intake nor body weight gain as affected by dietary starch. Final plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher than initial values in pigs fed the 50/50 mixture of corn and high amylose starch. Biliary concentrations of lithocholate and deoxycholate were lower in pigs fed high amylose starch. Large bowel length correlated positively with the dietary content of high amylose starch. Concentrations of butyrate in portal venous plasma were significantly lower in pigs fed high amylose starch than in those fed cornstarch. Neither large bowel digesta mass nor the concentrations of total or individual volatile fatty acids were affected by diet. However, the pool of propionate in the proximal colon and the concentration of propionate in feces were higher in pigs fed amylose starch. Concentrations of starch were uniformly low along the large bowel and were unaffected by starch type. In pigs with cecal cannula, digesta starch concentrations were higher with high amylose starch than with cornstarch. Electron micrographic examination of high amylose starch granules from these animals showed etching patterns similar to those of granules obtained from human ileostomy effluent. It appears that high amylose starch contributes to large bowel bacterial fermentation in the pig but that its utilization may be relatively rapid. PMID:9109613

  4. Corn fiber utilization for production of Schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber is an abundant coproduct of the corn wet milling process, primarily composed of the seed pericarp and adherent starch. Schizophyllan is a biopolymer composed entirely of glucose, with a ß-1,3-linked backbone and single ß-1,6-linked glucose side chains at every third residue, produced by t...

  5. Increasing the value of hominy feed as a coproduct by fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hominy feed is a low value ($83.7/metric ton) coproduct of the corn dry milling process that accounts for nearly 35% of the starting corn quantity. The average composition of hominy feed on a dry basis is 56.9% starch, 25.2% neutral detergent fiber, 11.1% protein, and 5.3% fat. Starch in hominy fe...

  6. Applicability, Commercial Utility and Recent Patents on Starch and Starch Derivative as Pharmaceutical Drug Delivery Carrier.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shreya; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod K

    2015-01-01

    Natural polymers are widely utilized in pharmaceutical and food industries. Starch, a major carbohydrate is a staple food in human and animal diets which is simply extractable from various sources, like potato, maize, corn, wheat, etc. It is widely used as a raw material in various food and non food industries as well as in paper, textile and other industries. This article summarizes the starch and modification of starch and to produce a novel molecule with various applications in industries including number of advances in pharmaceutical industry. The unique characteristics of starch and their modified form can be successfully used as drug delivery carriers in various pharmaceutical preparations. It is widely used as controlled and sustained release polymer, tablet disintegrant, drug delivery carrier, plasma volume expander and also finds its applicability in bone tissue engineering and in artificial red cells. It also includes the patents related to starch and modified starch based products and their commercial utility. PMID:26205680

  7. Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

  8. Hydrolysis of native and heat-treated starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Uthumporn, U; Shariffa, Y N; Karim, A A

    2012-03-01

    The effect of heat treatment below the gelatinization temperature on the susceptibility of corn, mung bean, sago, and potato starches towards granular starch hydrolysis (35°C) was investigated. Starches were hydrolyzed in granular state and after heat treatment (50°C for 30 min) by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme for 24 h. Hydrolyzed heat-treated starches showed a significant increase in the percentage of dextrose equivalent compared to native starches, respectively, with corn 53% to 56%, mung bean 36% to 47%, sago 15% to 26%, and potato 12% to 15%. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the presence of more porous granules and surface erosion in heat-treated starch compared to native starch. X-ray analysis showed no changes but with sharper peaks for all the starches, suggested that hydrolysis occurred on the amorphous region. The amylose content and swelling power of heat-treated starches was markedly altered after hydrolysis. Evidently, this enzyme was able to hydrolyze granular starches and heat treatment before hydrolysis significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis. PMID:22203397

  9. Reinforcement of injectable calcium phosphate cement by gelatinized starches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiling; Guan, Ying; Wei, Donglei; Gao, Chunxia; Yang, Huilin; Yang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Current injectable calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC) encounter the problems of low strength, high brittleness, and low cohesion in aqueous environment, which greatly hinder their clinical applications for loading-bearing bone substitution and minimally invasive orthopedic surgeries. Here, a strategy of using gelatinized starches to reinforce injectable CPC was investigated. Four types of starches, namely corn starch, crosslinked starch, cationic starch, and Ca-modified starch, were studied for their influence on CPC mechanical properties, injectability, setting times, anticollapsibility, and cytocompatibility. Gelatinized starch significantly improved compressive strength and modulus as well as strain energy density of CPC to different extents. Specifically, both corn starch and Ca-modified starch revealed sixfold and more than twofold increases in the compressive strength and modulus of CPC, respectively. The addition of gelatinized starches with proper contents increased the injectability and anticollapsibility of CPC. In addition, osteoblast proliferation tests on leaching solution of modified cements showed that gelatinized starches had no adverse effect on cell proliferation, and all cement samples resulted in better osteoblast proliferation compared to phosphate-buffered solution control. The mechanisms behind the reinforcing effect of different starches were preliminarily studied. Two possible mechanisms, reinforcement by the second phase of gelatinized starch and strong interlocking of apatite crystals, were proposed based on the results of starch zeta potential and viscosity, cement microstructure, and resultant mechanical properties. In conclusion, incorporating gelatinized starches could be an effective, facile, and bio-friendly strategy to reinforce injectable CPC and improve its mechanical stability, and thus, should be further studied and developed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 615-625, 2016. PMID

  10. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  11. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown. PMID:19627148

  12. Effect of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition to whole-plant corn silage of various hybrids, maturities, and chop lengths on nitrogen fractions and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition on soluble CP (% of CP), ammonia-N (% of N), and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) from 3 hybrids, 2 maturities, and 2 chop lengths. Samples from 3 nonisogenic hybrids [brown midrib containing the bm3 gene mutation (BM3), dual-purpose (DP), or floury-leafy (LFY)] at 2 harvest maturities [2/3 kernel milk line (early) or 7d later (late)] with 2 theoretical lengths of cut settings (0.64 or 1.95cm) on a forage harvester were collected at harvest, treated with or without exogenous protease, and ensiled in triplicate in vacuum heat-sealed plastic bags for 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240d. Thus, the experiment consisted of 120 treatments (3 hybrids × 2 maturities × 2 chop lengths × 2 protease treatments × 5 time points) and 360 mini-silos (3 replications per treatment). Vitreousness, measured by dissection on unfermented kernels on the day of harvest, averaged 66.8, 65.0, and 59.0% for BM3, DP, and LFY, respectively. A protease × maturity interaction was observed with protease increasing ivSD in late but not early maturity. Ensiling time × hybrid interactions were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP concentrations with greater values for FLY than other hybrids only after 120d of ensiling. Ensiling time × hybrid or protease × hybrid interactions were not observed for ivSD. Measurements of ivSD were greatest for FLY and lowest for BM3. Length of the ensiling period did not attenuate negative effects of kernel vitreousness or maturity on ivSD in WPCS. Results suggest that the dosage of exogenous protease addition used in the present study may reduce but not overcome the negative effects of maturity on ivSD in WPCS. No interactions between chop length and ensiling time or exogenous protease addition were observed for ivSD. PMID:26433421

  13. Engineering process and cost model for a conventional corn wet milling facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional wet milling of corn is a process designed for the recovery and purification of starch and several coproducts (germ, gluten, fiber and steep liquor). The total starch produced by the wet milling industry in the USA in 2004 equaled 21.5 billion kilograms, including modified starches and ...

  14. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic Corn Wet Milling (E-Milling) is a proposed alternative process to conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and coproducts using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and to decrease the steeping time. In 2005, the total starch production in USA by conven...

  15. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Bae, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-04-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch.

  16. MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-17

    The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

  17. Liquefaction, Saccharification, and Fermentation of Ammoniated Corn to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of non-fermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the...

  18. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41/sup 0/C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  19. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41 degrees C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  20. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  1. Quantification of total iodine in intact granular starches of different botanical origin exposed to iodine vapor at various water activities.

    PubMed

    Manion, Bruce; Ye, Mei; Holbein, Bruce E; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2011-11-01

    Iodine has been used as an effective tool for studying both the structure and composition of dispersed starch and starch granules. In addition to being employed to assess relative amylose contents for starch samples, it has been used to look at the molecular mobility of the glucose polymers within intact starch granules based on exposure to iodine vapor equilibrated at different water activities. Starches of different botanical origin including corn, high amylose corn, waxy corn, potato, waxy potato, tapioca, wheat, rice, waxy rice, chick pea and mung bean were equilibrated to 0.33, 0.75, 0.97 water activities, exposed to iodine vapor and then absorbance spectra and LAB color were determined. In addition, a new iodine quantification method sensitive to <0.1% iodine (w/w) was employed to measure bound iodine within intact granular starch. Amylose content, particle size distribution of granules, and the density of the starch were also determined to explore whether high levels of long linear glucose chains and the surface area-to-volume ratio were important factors relating to the granular iodine binding. Results showed, in all cases, starches complexed more iodine as water content increased and waxy starches bound less iodine than their normal starch counterparts. However, much more bound iodine could be measured chemically with waxy starches than was expected based on colorimetric determination. Surface area appeared to be a factor as smaller rice and waxy rice starch granules complexed more iodine, while the larger potato and waxy potato granules complexed less than would be expected based on measured amylose contents. Corn, high amylose corn, and wheat, known to have starch granules with extensive surface pores, bound higher levels of iodine suggesting pores and channels may be an important factor giving iodine vapor greater access to bind within the granules. Exposing iodine vapor to moisture-equilibrated native starches is an effective tool to explore starch

  2. Co-production of schizophyllan and arabinoxylan from corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Timothy D; Nunnally, Melinda S; Price, Neil P

    2006-05-01

    Schizophyllum commune strain ATCC 38548 grew well on a medium containing alkaline H2O2 -pretreated corn fiber as a sole carbon source, and clarified the culture medium within 7 days. The strain preferentially utilized the starch component of corn fiber for growth and production of schizophyllan. Culture supernatants contained approx. 50 mg schizophyllan and 200 mg arabinoxylan per g corn fiber. These polysaccharides were recovered separately by differential precipitation with ethanol. PMID:16642298

  3. Effects of Plastizers on the Structure and Properties of Starch-Clay Nanocomposites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradable nanocomposites were successfully fabricated from corn starch and montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclays by melt extrusion processing. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and film propertie...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “Dextrose,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 1. Copies... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “Dextrose,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 1. Copies... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  6. Effect of. gamma. -ray irradiation on alcohol production from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.W.; Cho, Y.K.; Ciegler, A.

    1983-11-01

    Cracked corn was irradiated with ..gamma.. rays at 0-100 Mrad and the effects of the irradiation on sugar yield, susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, yeast growth, and alcohol production were studied. Gamma irradiation at 50 Mrad or greater produced a considerable amount of reducing sugar but little glucose. At lower dosages, ..gamma.. irradiation significantly increased the susceptibility of corn starch to enzymatic hydrolysis, but dosages of 50 Mrad or greater decomposed the starch molecules as indicated by the reduction in iodine uptake. About 12.5% reducing sugar was produced by amylase treatment of uncooked, irradiated corn. This amount exceeded the level of sugar produced from cooked (gelatinized) corn by the same enzyme treatment. The yeast numbers in submerged cultivation were lower on a corn substrate that was irradiated at 50 Mrad or greater compared to that on an unirradiated control. About the same level of alcohol was produced on uncooked, irradiated (10/sup 5/ - 10/sup 6/ rad) corn as from cooked (121 degrees C for 30 min) corn. Therefore, the conventional cooking process for gelatinization of starch prior to its saccharification can be eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation also eliminated the necessity of sterilization of the medium and reduced the viscosity of high levels of substrate in the fermentation broth. (Refs. 10).

  7. Heat expanded starch-based compositions.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur K; Holtman, Kevin M; Shey, Justin; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Berrios, Jose; Wood, Delilah; Orts, William J; Imam, Syed H

    2007-05-16

    A heat expansion process similar to that used for expanded bead polystyrene was used to expand starch-based compositions. Foam beads made by solvent extraction had the appearance of polystyrene beads but did not expand when heated due to an open-cell structure. Nonporous beads, pellets, or particles were made by extrusion or by drying and milling cooked starch slurries. The samples expanded into a low-density foam by heating 190-210 degrees C for more than 20 s at ambient pressures. Formulations containing starch (50-85%), sorbitol (5-15%), glycerol (4-12%), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL, 5-15%), and water (10-20%) were studied. The bulk density was negatively correlated to sorbitol, glycerol, and water content. Increasing the EVAL content increased the bulk density, especially at concentrations higher than 15%. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) increased the bulk density more than EVAL. The bulk density was lowest in samples made of wheat and potato starch as compared to corn starch. The expansion temperature for the starch pellets decreased more than 20 degrees C as the moisture content was increased from 10 to 25%. The addition of EVAL in the formulations decreased the equilibrium moisture content of the foam and reduced the water absorption during a 1 h soaking period. PMID:17432870

  8. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  9. Corn transformed

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1990-08-10

    Researchers have produced fertile corn transformed with a foreign gene that makes the plants resistant to the herbicide bialaphos. This achievement, is the first report of fertile transgenic corn in the reviewed literature, and it is the capstone of almost a decade's efforts to genetically engineer this country's most important crop. The only other major crop to be so manipulated is rice. The ability produce transgenic corn gives biologists a valuable tool to probe the whys and hows of gene expression and regulation. It may also give plant breeders a way to develop new corn varieties with a speed and predictability that would be impossible with classical breeding techniques.

  10. Measurement of resistant starch by enzymatic digestion in starch and selected plant materials: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; McNally, Marian; Rossiter, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Interlaboratory performance statistics was determined for a method developed to measure the resistant starch (RS) content of selected plant food products and a range of commercial starch samples. Food materials examined contained RS (cooked kidney beans, green banana, and corn flakes) and commercial starches, most of which naturally contain, or were processed to yield, elevated RS levels. The method evaluated was optimized to yield RS values in agreement with those reported for in vivo studies. Thirty-seven laboratories tested 8 pairs of blind duplicate starch or plant material samples with RS values between 0.6 (regular maize starch) and 64% (fresh weight basis). For matrixes excluding regular maize starch, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values ranged from 1.97 to 4.2%, and reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) values ranged from 4.58 to 10.9%. The range of applicability of the test is 2-64% RS. The method is not suitable for products with <1% RS (e.g., regular maize starch; 0.6% RS). For such products, RSDr and RSDR values are unacceptably high. PMID:12374410

  11. Conversion of starch from dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated for potential conversion of starch to ethanol. Eight varieties of beans with average starch content of 46% (db) were assayed in a laboratory-scaled process based upon the commercial corn dry grind fermentation process. Ethanol yield was 0.43-0....

  12. Structure-function properties of starch graft poly(methyl acrylate)copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  13. Structure-function properties of starch spherulites grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  14. Effect of Starch Sources and Protein Content on Extruded Aquaculture Feed Containing DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3x3 completely randomized design was used to investigate the extrusion cooking and product characteristics of DDGS, protein levels, and various starch sources in a laboratory scale single screw extruder. Cassava, corn, and potato starches with varying levels of DDGS (20, 30, and 40% wb) were extru...

  15. Extruded foams prepared from high amylose starch with sodium stearate to form amylose inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch foams were prepared from high amylose corn starch in the presence and absence of sodium stearate and PVOH to determine how the formation of amylose-sodium stearate inclusion complexes and the addition of PVOH would affect foam properties. Low extrusion temperatures were used, and X-ray diffra...

  16. Role of Glassy and Crystalline Transitions in the Responses of Corn Starches to Heat and High Pressure Treatments: Prediction of solute-induced Barostability from solute-induced Thermostability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to explore the effects of heat and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on glassy and crystalline transitions of starches, and the distinctive contributions of amylopectin and amylose, with respect to: annealing, gelatinization, pasting, and retrogradation, an experimental design with dent and w...

  17. New strategy for enhancement of microbial viability in simulated gastric conditions based on display of starch-binding domain on cell surface.

    PubMed

    Tarahomjoo, Shirin; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-05-01

    The C-terminal region of the peptidoglycan hydrolase (CPH) of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 fused to the linker region and the starch-binding domain (SBD) of the *-amylase of Streptococcus bovis 148 was produced intracellularly in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein (CPH-SBD) was able to bind to the cell surface of Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 and to corn starch. Therefore, adhesion of cells to corn starch was mediated by the fusion protein. At a cell density of 10(9) cfu/ml and a starch concentration of 5 mg/ml, CPH-SBD-displaying L. casei cells aggregated with corn starch, whereas the free cells of L. casei did not form any aggregates with corn starch. After incubation in simulated gastric juice (pH 3.0, 1 h), the survival percentages of free cells, amylose-coated free cells, and free cells mixed with corn starch were 0.074%, 7.2%, and 3.1% respectively. When CPH-SBD-displaying bacteria aggregated with corn starch, their survival percentage was 8% higher than that of free cells mixed with corn starch. The survival of the amylose-coated CPH-SBD-displaying L. casei cells was comparable to that of amylose-coated free cells, whereas the survival percentage of amylose-coated aggregates of CPH-SBD-displaying bacteria with corn starch was 28% higher than that of amylose-coated mixture of free cells with corn starch. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the cell-surface display technique for enhancement of the delivery of viable microorganisms to the intestinal tract. PMID:18558341

  18. Dynamic measurement of starch granule swelling during microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Casasnovas, Johnny; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C

    2016-10-20

    The size of starch granules in dilute aqueous suspension was measured in-line during gelatinization in a microwave-heated, well-mixed system. The results were compared with those of a previous study conducted with conventional heating. For the starches used (common corn, waxy maize, and cross-linked waxy maize), no significant difference was found between microwave and conventional heating in terms of maximum diameter, temperature of maximum rate of diameter increase, or diameter vs. temperature behavior. These results suggest that there are no differences in the swelling behavior of common and modified maize starches between microwave and conventional heating. PMID:27474654

  19. Ethanol production waste as rubber composite filler: examining the pyrolysis of dried distillers grains and other dry milling byproducts as potential rubber reinforcement materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current push for corn-based ethanol is creating a large surplus of affordable by-products that can potentially serve as filler material for rubber composites. Biomaterial fillers can help replace carbon black and reduce dependence on petroleum. This research examines the reinforcement behavior...

  20. Wet-milling characteristics of ten lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Project compared to five Corn Belt lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of corn (Zea mays L.) by the processing industry has steadily increased and adapted Corn Belt hybrids with high grain yield and higher starch content and extractability are available to growers. In light of widespread participation of the corn seed industry in the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize...

  1. Effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crude extracts on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (Rs) contents of porridges.

    PubMed

    Lemlioglu-Austin, Dilek; Turner, Nancy D; McDonough, Cassandra M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-01-01

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content. PMID:22986923

  2. Flaking corn: processing mechanics, quality standards, and impacts on energy availability and performance of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Owens, F N; Ware, R A

    2002-05-01

    Based on performance of feedlot cattle, steam flaking increases the value of corn by 18%, considerably more than is suggested by tabular values. Tabular values underestimate the energy availability of flaked corn by failing to account for digestibility of the nonstarch OM that is increased by flaking by the same magnitude (10%) as starch. Correcting for improvement in digestibility of nonstarch OM increases the NEg value of steam-flaked corn to 1.70 Mcal/kg, a value very close to values calculated from cattle performance trials. Digestibility of starch from corn grain is limited by the protein matrix that encapsulates starch granules, and by the compact nature of the starch itself. Disruption of the protein matrix (by shear forces on hot grain during flaking) is the first limiting step toward optimizing starch digestion. Five critical production factors influence the quality of steam-flaked corn: steam chest temperature, steaming time, roll corrugation, roll gap, and roll tension. For optimal shear, it is important that rolls be hot and that kernels be hot when flaked. Steam chests should be designed to allow a steaming time of at least 30 min at maximum roller mill capacity producing a flake of 0.31 kg/L (24 lb/bushel). As little as 5% moisture uptake during steaming appears adequate. The rate of flaking and distribution of kernels across the rolls also are critical. Quality standards for steam-flaked corn include measurements of flake thickness, flake density, starch solubility, and enzyme reactivity. Flake density, the most common quality standard, closely associated with starch solubility (r2 = 0.87) and enzyme reactivity (r2 = 0.79), still explains only 63% of the variability in percentage fecal starch and 52% of the variability in starch digestibility. Direct determination of fecal starch can explain 91% of the variability in starch digestion. The NEg value of corn can be predicted from fecal starch: NEg= 1.78 - 0.0184FS. Starch digestion is a Kappa Curve

  3. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  4. The effects of physical and chemical preprocessing on the flowability of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Nathan C.; Nagle, Nick; Sievers, David A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-12-20

    Continuous and reliable feeding of biomass is essential for successful biofuel production. However, the challenges associated with biomass solids handling are commonly overlooked. In this study, we examine the effects of preprocessing (particle size reduction, moisture content, chemical additives, etc.) on the flow properties of corn stover. Compressibility, flow properties (interparticle friction, cohesion, unconfined yield stress, etc.), and wall friction were examined for five corn stover samples: ground, milled (dry and wet), acid impregnated, and deacetylated. The ground corn stover was found to be the least compressible and most flowable material. The water and acid impregnated stovers had similar compressibilities. Yet, the wet corn stover was less flowable than the acid impregnated sample, which displayed a flow index equivalent to the dry, milled corn stover. The deacetylated stover, on the other hand, was the most compressible and least flowable examined material. However, all of the tested stover samples had internal friction angles >30°, which could present additional feeding and handling challenges. All of the ''wetted'' materials (water, acid, and deacetylated) displayed reduced flowabilities (excluding the acid impregnated sample), and enhanced compressibilities and wall friction angles, indicating the potential for added handling issues; which was corroborated via theoretical hopper design calculations. All of the ''wetted'' corn stovers require larger theoretical hopper outlet diameters and steeper hopper walls than the examined ''dry'' stovers.

  5. The effects of physical and chemical preprocessing on the flowability of corn stover

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crawford, Nathan C.; Nagle, Nick; Sievers, David A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-12-20

    Continuous and reliable feeding of biomass is essential for successful biofuel production. However, the challenges associated with biomass solids handling are commonly overlooked. In this study, we examine the effects of preprocessing (particle size reduction, moisture content, chemical additives, etc.) on the flow properties of corn stover. Compressibility, flow properties (interparticle friction, cohesion, unconfined yield stress, etc.), and wall friction were examined for five corn stover samples: ground, milled (dry and wet), acid impregnated, and deacetylated. The ground corn stover was found to be the least compressible and most flowable material. The water and acid impregnated stovers had similar compressibilities.more » Yet, the wet corn stover was less flowable than the acid impregnated sample, which displayed a flow index equivalent to the dry, milled corn stover. The deacetylated stover, on the other hand, was the most compressible and least flowable examined material. However, all of the tested stover samples had internal friction angles >30°, which could present additional feeding and handling challenges. All of the ''wetted'' materials (water, acid, and deacetylated) displayed reduced flowabilities (excluding the acid impregnated sample), and enhanced compressibilities and wall friction angles, indicating the potential for added handling issues; which was corroborated via theoretical hopper design calculations. All of the ''wetted'' corn stovers require larger theoretical hopper outlet diameters and steeper hopper walls than the examined ''dry'' stovers.« less

  6. Variation among Physical, Compositional, and Wet-Milling Characteristics of the F1 Generation of Corn Hybrids of Introgressed Exotic and Adapted Inbred Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea Mays L.) is the main cereal crop in the United States and starch yield is the most important recovered fraction from the wet milling processing of corn. Starch yield represents an indication of the millability, or ease with which kernel components are separated. New hybrids with high gra...

  7. Factors affecting the alkaline cooking performance of selected corn and sorghum hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dent corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) sample sets representative of commonly grown hybrids and diverse physical attributes were analyzed for nixtamalization performance. The influence of kernel characteristics including hardness, density, starch properties (thermal, pasting...

  8. Effect of starch sources on extruded aquaculture feed containing DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly growing sectors of agriculture, and is a reliable growth market for the prepared feeds. A Brabender laboratory-scale single screw extruder was used to study the effect of various starch sources (cassava, corn, and potato), DDGS levels (20, 30, and 40% (wb)), an...

  9. Clearance and metabolism of starch foods in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Birkenfeld, L H

    1999-01-01

    The presence of carbohydrates and organic acids was monitored in the oral cavity over a 3-hour period following the ingestion of six foods containing cooked starch (popcorn, potato chips, corn flakes, bread stick, hard pretzel and wheat cracker) and compared to a food containing sugar (chocolate-covered candy bar). Oral fluid samples were collected at 30-min intervals from five different tooth sites from 7 volunteers using absorbent paper points. Samples were analyzed for carbohydrates and organic acids using high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical data for each food were pooled and compared to the results of the sugar food. The amount of lactic acid produced 30 min after ingestion was highest with the potato chips and lowest with the corn flakes. Potato starch contributed more readily to oral lactic acid production than wheat or corn starch. A direct linear relationship existed between lactic acid production and the presence of oral glucose produced from starch, which occurred via the metabolites maltotriose and maltose. Oral clearance of foods containing cooked starch proceeded significantly slower than that of the sugar food, thus contributing to a prolonged period of lactic acid production. PMID:10545668

  10. A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial α-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with α-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial α-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of α-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail. PMID:25053042

  11. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Bothast, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  12. Starch addition in renneted milk gels: partitioning between curd and whey and effect on curd syneresis and gel microstructure.

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2012-12-01

    Milk gels were made by renneting and acidifying skim milk containing 5 different starches, and then compressed by centrifugation to express whey and simulate curd syneresis during the manufacture of low-fat cheese. A series of 17 starches were examined, with 5 starches being selected for in-depth analysis: a modified waxy corn starch (WC), a waxy rice starch (WR), an instant tapioca starch (IT), a modified tapioca starch (MT), and dextrin (DX). Milks containing WC, WR, and DX were given a 72°C heat treatment, whereas those containing IT and MT had a 30-min treatment at 66°C that matched their optimum gelatinization treatments. Curd yields were calculated by weight, estimated starch content in whey was measured gravimetrically by alcohol precipitation, and starch retention in curd was calculated. Curd yields were 13.1% for the control milk (no added starch) and 18.4, 20.7, 21.5, 23.5, and 13.2% for the gels containing starches WC, WR, IT, MT, and DX, respectively. Estimated starch retentions in the curd were, respectively, 71, 90, 90, 21, and 1%. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to determine the location of the starches in the curd and their interaction with the protein matrix. Waxy corn, WR, and IT starches have potential to improve texture of low-fat cheese because they had high retention in the curd and they generated interruptions in the protein matrix network that may have helped limit extensive protein-protein interactions. Modified tapioca starch interfered with formation of the protein structure of the curd and produced a soft noncohesive gel, even though most (79%) of the MT starch was lost in the whey. Few distinct starch particles were present in the MT curd network. Dextrin was not retained in the curd and did not disrupt the protein network, making it unsuitable for use in low-fat cheese. PMID:23040026

  13. Thermal characterization of starch-water system by photopyroelectric technique and adiabatic scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Orea, A.; Bentefour, E. H.; Jamée, P.; Chirtoc, M.; Glorieux, C.; Pitsi, G.; Thoen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important carbohydrate sources in human nutrition. For the thermal analysis of starch, techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry have been extensively used. As an alternative, we have applied a photopyroelectric (PPE) configuration and adiabatic scanning calorimetry (ASC) to study the thermal properties of starch-water systems. For this study we used nixtamalized corn flour and potato starch with different quantities of distilled water, in order to obtain samples with different moisture content. By using PPE and ASC methods we have measured, for each technique separately, the heat capacity by unit volume (ρcp) at room temperature for a corn flour sample at 90% moisture. The obtained values agree within experimental uncertainty. By using these techniques we also studied the thermal behavior of potato starch, at 80% moisture, in the temperature range where phase transitions occur. In this case the PPE signal phase could be used as a sensitive and versatile monitor for phase transitions.

  14. Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Brittany E.; Lawrence, Laurie M.; Hayes, Susan H.; Crum, Andrea; Flythe, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only), HC (high corn), HO (high oats), LC (low corn), LO (low oats), and LW (low pelleted wheat middlings). Horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1) before the treatment diets (2 wk; d 1 to 14). Starch was introduced gradually so that horses received 50% of the assigned starch amount (high = 2 g starch/kg BW; low = 1 g starch/kg BW) by d 4 and 100% by d 11. Fecal samples were obtained at the end of the forage-only period (S0; d -2), and on d 6 (S1) and d 13 (S2) of the treatment period. Cellulolytics, lactobacilli, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactate-utilizers and amylolytics were enumerated. Enumeration data were log transformed and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. There were sample day × treatment interactions (P < 0.0001) for all bacteria enumerated. Enumerations from control horses did not change during the sampling period (P > 0.05). All treatments except LO resulted in increased amylolytics and decreased cellulolytics, but the changes were larger in horses fed corn and wheat middlings (P < 0.05). Feeding oats resulted in increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC (P < 0.05), while corn had the opposite effects. LW had increased lactobacilli and GPC (P < 0.05). The predominant amylolytic isolates from HC, LC and LW on S2 were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing as Enterococcus faecalis, but other species were found in oat fed horses. These results demonstrate that starch source can have a differential effect on the equine fecal microbiota. PMID:27128793

  15. Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Brittany E; Lawrence, Laurie M; Hayes, Susan H; Crum, Andrea; Flythe, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only), HC (high corn), HO (high oats), LC (low corn), LO (low oats), and LW (low pelleted wheat middlings). Horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1) before the treatment diets (2 wk; d 1 to 14). Starch was introduced gradually so that horses received 50% of the assigned starch amount (high = 2 g starch/kg BW; low = 1 g starch/kg BW) by d 4 and 100% by d 11. Fecal samples were obtained at the end of the forage-only period (S0; d -2), and on d 6 (S1) and d 13 (S2) of the treatment period. Cellulolytics, lactobacilli, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactate-utilizers and amylolytics were enumerated. Enumeration data were log transformed and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. There were sample day × treatment interactions (P < 0.0001) for all bacteria enumerated. Enumerations from control horses did not change during the sampling period (P > 0.05). All treatments except LO resulted in increased amylolytics and decreased cellulolytics, but the changes were larger in horses fed corn and wheat middlings (P < 0.05). Feeding oats resulted in increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC (P < 0.05), while corn had the opposite effects. LW had increased lactobacilli and GPC (P < 0.05). The predominant amylolytic isolates from HC, LC and LW on S2 were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing as Enterococcus faecalis, but other species were found in oat fed horses. These results demonstrate that starch source can have a differential effect on the equine fecal microbiota. PMID:27128793

  16. Continuous enzymatic liquefaction of starch for saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.; Black, L.T.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A process was explored for continuous enzymatic liquefaction of corn starch at high concentration and subsequent saccharification to glucose. The process appears to be quite efficient for conversion of starch to glucose and enzymatic liquefaction and should be readily adaptable to industrial fermentation processes. Preliminary work indicated that milled corn or other cereal grains also can be suitably converted by such a process. Essentially, the process involved incorporation of a thermostable, bacterial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and, subsequently, of a glucoamylase into the continuous mixer under conditions conductive to rapid enzymatic hydrolyses. Also studied was the effect on substrate liquefaction of variables such as starch concentration (40-70%), level of alpha-amylase (0.14-0.4%, dry starch basis), temperature (70-100 degrees C), pH (5.8-7.1), and residence time (6 and 12 minutes). The degree of liquefaction was assessed by determining 1) the Brookfield viscosity, 2) the amount of reducing groups, and 3) the rate and extent of glucose formed after glucoamylase treatment. Best liquefaction processing conditions were achieved by using 50-60% starch concentration, at 95 degrees C, with 0.4% alpha-amylase, and a 6 minute residence period in the mixer. Under these conditions, rates and extents of glucose obtained after glucoamylase treatment approached those obtained in longer laboratory batch liquefactions. The amount of glucose formed in 24 hours with the use of 0.4% glucoamylase was 86% of theory after a 6-min continuous liquefaction, compared to 90% for a 30-min laboratory batch liquefaction (95 degrees C, 0.4% alpha-amylase). (Refs. 15).

  17. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants. PMID:18787712

  18. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  19. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  20. Effect of green tea catechins on the postprandial glycemic response to starches differing in amylose content.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Mingzhu; Peng, Shanli; Zhang, Genyi

    2011-05-11

    The effect of tea polyphenols (TPLs), specifically tea catechins, on the postprandial glycemic response to cooked starches differing in amylose contents was investigated. The in vivo test using a mouse model showed a moderate reduction of the postprandial glycemic response to co-cooked normal (containing 27.8% amylose) or waxy corn starch with 10% TPLs (dry weight of starch), while an augmented glycemic response with a delayed blood glucose peak was observed when high amylose corn starch (HAC, containing 79.4% amylose) was used as the starch component. Enzyme kinetics results demonstrated that TPLs noncompetitively inhibit the digestion of waxy or normal corn starch, while the digestion rate of HAC starch was increased in the presence of TPLs, which supports the observed postprandial glycemic responses. Further studies using X-ray powder diffraction showed that the diffraction intensity (area under the diffraction curves) of normal and HAC starch was increased by 45% and 74%, respectively, whereas no change was observed for waxy corn starch. Consistently, dynamic laser light scattering studies using a solution of pure amylose showed an increased hydrodynamic radius of amylose molecules from ∼54 nm to ∼112 nm in the presence of TPLs. These experimental results indicate that there might exist an interaction between TPLs and amylose, which facilitates the association of amylose molecules to form a special nonordered structure that can produce a high and sustained postprandial glycemic response. Thus, a combination of tea polyphenols and specific starches could be used to manipulate postprandial glycemic response for glycemic control and optimal health. PMID:21401210

  1. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of technologies to use cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production was recognized as an important research focus because cellulose is a more widely-available feedstock than corn starch. Our objective was to compare various corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies to ...

  2. Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) loose-fill foam: preparation, properties and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gordon, S H; Imam, S H

    2004-01-01

    Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) (S-g-PMA) was prepared by ceric ion initiation of methyl acrylate in an aqueous corn starch slurry (prime starch) which maximized the accessibility of the starch for graft polymerization. A new ceric ion reaction sequence was established as starch-initiator-methyl acrylate followed by addition of a small amount of ceric ion solution when the graft polymerization was almost complete to quench the reaction. As a result of this improved procedure, no unreacted methyl acrylate monomer remained, and thus, essentially no ungrafted poly(methyl acrylate) homopolymer was formed in the final grafted product. Quantities of the high purity S-g-PMA so prepared in pilot scale were converted to resin pellets and loose-fill foam by single screw and twin screw extrusion. The use of prime starch significantly improved the physical properties of the final loose-fill foam, in comparison to foam produced from regular dry corn starch. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam had compressive strength and resiliency comparable to expanded polystyrene but higher bulk density. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam also had better moisture and water resistance than other competitive starch-based materials. Studies indicated that the starch portion in S-g-PMA loose-fill foam biodegraded rapidly, whereas poly(methyl acrylate) remained relatively stable under natural environmental conditions. PMID:14715032

  3. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Mani, Sudhagar; Togore, Sam; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2010-01-01

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam3 dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, preprocessing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 $ Mg-1 for bales, 86 $ Mg-1 for pellets and 84 $ Mg-1 for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized.

  4. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches.

    PubMed

    Prestes, R C; Silva, L B; Torri, A M P; Kubota, E H; Rosa, C S; Roman, S S; Kempka, A P; Demiate, I M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded as MOD2 (2.5 % of Thermtex) were studied. The following tests were performed: physicochemical characterization (moisture, ash, protein, starch and lipid contents, and water activity); cooling, freezing and reheating losses; texture (texture profile test); color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C and h); microbiological evaluation; sensory evaluation (multiple comparison and preference test); and histological evaluation (light microscopy). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) for ash, protein, cooling loss, cohesiveness or in the preference test for the tested samples. The other evaluated parameters showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Histological study allowed for a qualitative evaluation between the physical properties of the food and its microscopic structure. The best results were obtained for formulation MOD2 (2.5 % Thermtex). The addition of modified starch resulted in a better performance than the native starch in relation to the evaluated technological parameters, mainly in relation to reheating losses, which demonstrated the good interaction between the modified starch in the structure of the product and the possibility of the application of this type of starch in other types of functional meat products. PMID:26139901

  5. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  6. Handling of co-products in life cycle analysis in an evolving co-product market: A case study with corn stover removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover (cobs and residue) is an important part of the life cycle of corn, either as fuel or as animal feed, but most life cycle analysis (LCA) models treat them separately from starch ethanol. This paper compares four stover and corn grain based ethanol pathways to show how the greenhouse gas (...

  7. Analysis of starch in food systems by high-performance size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Simsek, Senay

    2013-02-01

    Starch has unique physicochemical characteristics among food carbohydrates. Starch contributes to the physicochemical attributes of food products made from roots, legumes, cereals, and fruits. It occurs naturally as distinct particles, called granules. Most starch granules are a mixture of 2 sugar polymers: a highly branched polysaccharide named amylopectin and a basically linear polysaccharide named amylose. The starch contained in food products undergoes changes during processing, which causes changes in the starch molecular weight and amylose to amylopectin ratio. The objective of this study was to develop a new, simple, 1-step, and accurate method for simultaneous determination of amylose and amylopectin ratio as well as weight-averaged molecular weights of starch in food products. Starch from bread flour, canned peas, corn flake cereal, snack crackers, canned kidney beans, pasta, potato chips, and white bread was extracted by dissolving in KOH, urea, and precipitation with ethanol. Starch samples were solubilized and analyzed on a high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system. To verify the identity of the peaks, fractions were collected and soluble starch and beta-glucan assays were performed additional to gas chromatography analysis. We found that all the fractions contain only glucose and soluble starch assay is correlated to the HPSEC fractionation. This new method can be used to determine amylose amylopectin ratio and weight-averaged molecular weight of starch from various food products using as low as 25 mg dry samples. PMID:23330715

  8. Corn kernel oil and corn fiber oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most edible plant oils that are obtained directly from oil-rich seeds by either pressing or solvent extraction, corn seeds (kernels) have low levels of oil (4%) and commercial corn oil is obtained from the corn germ (embryo) which is an oil-rich portion of the kernel. Commercial corn oil cou...

  9. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 81.9% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); of neutral detergent fibre from 41.0% (control) to 57.8% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 60.0% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (2) improved average daily gain from 786 g (control) to 829 g (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 846 g (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); and numerical increases in feed intake from 1.96 kg/pig/day (control) to 2.01 (Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (3) there was a dose response but no significant differences were observed in enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM. PMID:17615009

  10. Feasibility study for production of anhydrous alcohol from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The feasibility of establishing a facility to produce fuel grade alcohol from corn to be located within an existing soybean processing plant in Mexico, Missouri has been studied. The alcohol producing industries, technical literature, various available process technologies, and industry consultants were surveyed. A process consisting of dry milling corn, continuous cooking, batch fermentation and azeotropic distillation was selected as the most suitable technique for the MFA's venture. It was determined that a production rate of 6288 bushels of corn per day yielding 5,200,000 gallons per year of fuel grade ethanol plus the capability to up grade an additional 500,000 gallons per year of low grade alcohol from off-site production facilities was the best design for the space and facilities available within the existing Mexico, Missouri soybean plant while economically utilizing existing buildings and plant area to the best advantage. A factored estimate of expected capital costs for the gasohol demonstration plant was made based on surveys of the plant site and furnished plant drawings, approximate prices for major items of process equipment and estimated construction and erection costs. This cost, with a plus or minus 20% accuracy, was determined to be $8,852,000.00. Revenues were estimated based on the selling price of 200 proof fuel grade alcohol and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A number of cases were reviewed to demonstrate the sensitivity of plant operating income to various prices for corn, alcohol and DDGS and to assess the effect of inflation over the useful life of the plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

  11. Molecular fractionation of starch by density-gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jae Wook; Lim, Seung Taik

    2003-03-28

    Amylose and amylopectin in corn and potato starches were fractionated by centrifugation at 124,000g for 3-72 h at 40 degrees C in a gradient media, Nycodenz, based on their sedimentation rate differences. The fractions were collected from a centrifuge tube, and then analyzed by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and iodine-binding test. Amylopectin, a large and highly branched starch molecule, migrated faster than amylose and quickly reached its isopycnic point with a buoyant density of about 1.25 g/mL, exhibiting a sharp and stable carbohydrate peak. Amylose, which is a relatively small and linear molecule, however, migrated slowly in a broad density range and continued moving to higher density regions, eventually overlapping with amylopectin peak as the centrifugation continued. This could indicate that the buoyant density of amylose is similar to that of amylopectin. Under centrifugal conditions of 3 h and 124,000g, amylose and amylopectin molecules were clearly separated, and the presence of intermediate starch molecules (11.5 and 7.7% for corn and potato starch, respectively) was also observed between amylose and amylopectin fractions. The amylose content of corn and potato starches was 22.6 and 21.1%, respectively, based on the total carbohydrate analysis after the ultracentrifugation for 3 h. In alkaline gradients (pH 11 or 12.5), the sedimentation rate of starch molecules and the buoyant density of amylopectin were reduced, possibly due to the structural changes induced by alkali. PMID:12644374

  12. Troubleshooting fermentation in corn wet milling ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To convert starch to ethanol, continuous fermentation processes are employed by corn wet milling plants all over world. Contaminations by bacterial microorganisms like Lactobacillus and wild yeasts like Brettanomyces are common and result in lower ethanol yields (Abbott and Ingledew 2005, Skinner an...

  13. Starch nanoparticles: a review.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2010-05-10

    Starch is a natural, renewable, and biodegradable polymer produced by many plants as a source of stored energy. It is the second most abundant biomass material in nature. The starch structure has been under research for years, and because of its complexity, an universally accepted model is still lacking (Buleon, A.; et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1998, 23, 85-112). However, the predominant model for starch is a concentric semicrystalline multiscale structure that allows the production of new nanoelements: (i) starch nanocrystals resulting from the disruption of amorphous domains from semicrystalline granules by acid hydrolysis and (ii) starch nanoparticles produced from gelatinized starch. This paper intends to give a clear overview of starch nanoparticle preparation, characterization, properties, and applications. Recent studies have shown that they could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging, continuously looking for innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems, is being investigated. Therefore, recently, starch nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop biocomposites by blending starch nanoparticles with different biopolymeric matrices. To our knowledge, this topic has never been reviewed, despite several published strategies and conclusions. PMID:20405913

  14. Effect of the mode of incorporation on the disintegrant properties of acid modified water and white yam starches

    PubMed Central

    Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.; Akinwande, Babatunde L.

    2011-01-01

    Acid modified starches obtained from two species of yam tubers namely white yam – Dioscorearotundata L. and water yam – D. alata L. DIAL2 have been investigated as intra- and extra-granular disintegrants in paracetamol tablet formulations. The native starches were modified by acid hydrolysis and employed as disintegrant at concentrations of 5 and 10% w/w and their disintegrant properties compared with those of corn starch BP. The tensile strength and drug release properties of the tablets, assessed using the disintegration and dissolution (t50 and t80 – time required for 50% and 80% of paracetamol to be released) times, were evaluated. The results showed that the tensile strength and the disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets decreased with increase in the concentration of the starch disintegrants. The acid modified yam starches showed better disintegrant efficiency than corn starch in the tablet formulations. Acid modification appeared to improve the disintegrant efficiency of the yam starches. Furthermore, tablets containing starches incorporated extragranularly showed faster disintegration but lower tensile strength than those containing starches incorporated intragranularly. This emphasizes the importance of the mode of incorporation of starch disintegrant. PMID:23960789

  15. A low energy continuous reactor separator for the production of ethanol from corn grits/starch and biomass streams. 3rd Quarterly report, October 15, 1994--January 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This project is an attempt to develop and demonstrate an improved reactor for the production of ethanol from starch and ligno-cellulosic streams. Bio-Process Innovations holds a patent of this reactor technology, and is directing the project. A Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) is being built on a pilot plant scale for testing at a small Iowa ethanol plant (Permeate Refining) while bench scale tests on the reactor system are being performed at Purdue University. The project involves two industrial partners, Permeate Refining of Hopkinton, IA who will site and operate the pilot scale unit, and Lamont Sign Co, who are building the pilot scale unit. The CSRS is expected to allow the continuous conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The CSRS unit combines several operations within the confines of the reactor vessel; (1) complex carbohydrates are reduced to simple sugars by enzymatic breakdown; (2) sugars are converted to ethanol by yeast or bacteria; and (3) the ethanol is separated by a stripping gas stream. The ethanol is removed from the stripping gas in an absorber, and then taken to an extractive distillation column. This unit should allow concentrated feeds to be converted to ethanol, and the use of bottoms recycle will be extensively tested to establish the limits of minimizing net bottoms water production leaving the plant. Progress during this quarter is described.

  16. Development and characterisation of composite films made of kefiran and starch.

    PubMed

    Motedayen, Ali Akbar; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Salehi, Esmail Atai

    2013-02-15

    In this study, new edible composite films were prepared by blending kefiran with corn starch. Film-forming solutions of different ratios of kefiran to corn starch (100/0, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70) were cast at room temperature. The effects of starch addition on the resulting films' physical, mechanical and water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties were investigated. Increasing starch content from 0% to 50% (v/v) decreased the WVP of films; however, with further starch addition the WVP increased. Also, this increase in starch content increased the tensile strength and extensibility of the composite films. However, these mechanical properties decreased at higher starch contents. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) curves showed that addition of starch at all levels increased the glass transition temperature of films. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. Thus, it was observed that these two film-forming components were compatible, and that an interaction existed between them. PMID:23194518

  17. Isolation and characterization of starch obtained from Brosimum alicastrum Swarts seeds.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pacheco, E; Moo-Huchin, V M; Estrada-León, R J; Ortiz-Fernández, A; May-Hernández, L H; Ríos-Soberanis, C R; Betancur-Ancona, D

    2014-01-30

    In this paper, the Ramon starch was isolated and its chemical composition and physical and microscopic characteristics were determined. Corn starch was used as reference. In general, the proximal composition was similar between starches studied. Ramon starch granules were oval-spherical and rounded with sizes between 6.5 and 15 μm. Starch purity was high (92.57%) with amylose content of 25.36%. The gelatinization temperature was 83.05°C and transition enthalpy was 21.423 J/g. At 90°C, solubility was 20.42%, swelling power 17.64 g water/gstarch and water absorption capacity was 13 gwater/gstarch. The pH, clarity and color (Hue angle) of Ramon starch were higher to those reported for corn starch. The results achieved suggest that Ramon starch has potential for application in food systems requiring high processing temperatures and it is also a promising option for use in the manufacture of biodegradable materials. PMID:24299857

  18. Analysis of Resistant Starches in Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Ai, Yongfeng; Jones, Roger W.; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-01-29

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch fit the ideal curve with a R2 of 0.997. A principal component analysis plot of components 1 and 2 showed that spectra from diets clustered significantly from each other. This study clearly showed that FTIR-PAS can accurately quantify starch content and identify the form of starch in complex matrices.

  19. Hot-melt extrusion of sugar-starch-pellets.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi-Wah; Rein, Hubert

    2015-09-30

    Sugar-starch-pellets (syn. sugar spheres) are usually manufactured through fluidized bed granulation or wet extrusion techniques. This paper introduces hot-melt extrusion (HME) as an alternative method to manufacture sugar-starch-pellets. A twin-screw extruder coupled with a Leistritz Micro Pelletizer (LMP) cutting machine was utilized for the extrusion of different types (normal-, waxy-, and high-amlyose) of corn starch, blended with varying amounts of sucrose. Pellets were characterized for their physicochemical properties including crystallinity, particle size distribution, tensile strength, and swelling expansion. Furthermore, the influence of sugar content and humidity on the product was investigated. Both sucrose and water lowered the Tg of the starch system allowing a convenient extrusion process. Mechanical strength and swelling behavior could be associated with varying amylose and amylopectin. X-ray powder diffractometric (XRPD) peaks of increasing sucrose contents appeared above 30%. This signified the oversaturation of the extruded starch matrix system with sucrose. Otherwise, had the dissolved sucrose been embedded into the molten starch matrix, no crystalline peak could have been recognized. The replacement of starch with sucrose reduced the starch pellets' swelling effect, which resulted in less sectional expansion (SEI) and changed the surface appearance. Further, a nearly equal tensile strength could be detected for sugar spheres with more than 40% sucrose. This observation stands in good relation with the analyzed values of the commercial pellets. Both techniques (fluidized bed and HME) allowed a high yield of spherical pellets (less friability) for further layering processes. Thermal influence on the sugar-starch system is still an obstacle to be controlled. PMID:26248144

  20. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA. PMID:24315947

  1. Production and Characteristics of Raw-Starch-Digesting α-Amylase from a Protease-Negative Aspergillus ficum Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Shinsaku; Teramoto, Yuji

    1986-01-01

    Mutational experiments were carried out to decrease the protease productivity of Aspergillus ficum IFO 4320 by using N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. A protease-negative mutant, M-33, exhibited higher α-amylaseactivity than the parent strain under submerged culture at 30°C for 24 h. About 70% of the total α-amylase activity in the M-33 culture filtrate was adsorbed onto starch granules. The electrophoretically homogeneous preparation of raw-starch-adsorbable α-amylase (molecular weight, 88,000), acid stable at pH 2, showed intensive raw-starch-digesting activity, dissolving corn starch granules completely. The preparation also exhibited a high synergistic effect with glucoamylase I. A mutant, M-72, with higher protease activity produced a raw cornstarch-unadsorbable α-amylase. The purified enzyme (molecular weight, 54,000), acid unstable, showed no digesting activity on raw corn starch and a lower synergistic effect with glucoamylase I in the hydrolysis of raw corn starch. The fungal α-amylase was therefore divided into two types, a novel type of raw-starch-digesting enzyme and a conventional type of raw-starch-nondigesting enzyme. Images PMID:16347204

  2. And so can plants with high starch contents. [Cereal grains conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-08

    Researchers at Miles Laboratories are looking into the hydrolysis of starch using two enzymes - alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, as high concentrations of starch like those found in cereal grains can be converted into ethanol by way of sugars. It is estimated that to produce 1 gallon of ethanol requires about 56 lb of corn and with 85% fermentation efficiency, the enzyme cost per gallon of ethanol would be 6-7 cents.

  3. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  4. Effect of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to determine the influence of cereal grain type and corn grain harvesting and processing methods, dietary starch, rumen-digestible starch, and forage NDF concentrations on intake, digestion, and lactation performance by dairy cows using a data set comprising 414 treatment means from 102 peer-reviewed journal reports from 2000 to 2011. Categories for corn processing were dry ground, cracked or rolled corn (DRY), high-moisture shelled or ear corn (ENS), and steam-flaked or -rolled corn (STM); categories for kernel mean particle size were 500 to 1,000, 1,000 to 1,500, 1,500 to 2,000, 3,000 to 3,500, and 3,500 to 4,000 µm for dry corn and <2,000 and ≥2,000 µm for ensiled corn. Dietary starch and forage NDF concentrations were used as continuous variables. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), with treatment as fixed and trial as random effects. Total-tract starch digestibility was reduced and milk fat content was greater for DRY compared with ENS or STM. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was reduced for both DRY and ENS as particle size increased. Increased dietary starch concentrations increased milk yield and protein content, but decreased ruminal and total-tract NDF digestibilities and milk fat content. Dry matter intake, total-tract starch digestibility, and milk protein concentration decreased as forage NDF in the diet increased. Total-tract starch digestibility was positively related to ruminal (percentage of starch intake) and postruminal (percentage of duodenal flow) starch digestibilities. PMID:23164230

  5. Affect of corn germ meal inclusion in pig diets bacterial ecology in the cecum and proximal colon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of bio-fuel co-products in swine diets is becoming more common due to greater availability and increasing cereal grain costs. These co-products have lower starch and higher fiber concentrations. Twenty-four pigs were adapted to diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (...

  6. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p < 0.05) by 5.0 and 2.6 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn increased (p < 0.05) by 3.1 percentage unit with enzyme complex addition. As the effect of enzyme complex was the greatest in corn digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p < 0.05) by 16.0, 2.8 and 1.2 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn starch and hull also increased (p < 0.05) by 8.6 and 0.9 percentage unit, respectively, with enzyme complex addition. In conclusion, the enzyme complex increases in vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch. PMID:27247894

  7. Gelatinization kinetic of waxy starches under pressure according to ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonin, Hélène; Guyon, Claire; de Lamballerie, Marie; Lebail, Alain

    2010-12-01

    High pressure is a potential technology for the texturization of food products at ambient temperature. In this area, waxy starches are particularly interesting because they gelatinize quickly under sufficient pressure. However, gelatinization may be influenced by other components in the food matrix. Here, we investigate the influence of increasing ionic strength on gelatinization rate and kinetics at 500 MPa for waxy corn and waxy rice starches. We show that increasing ionic strength strongly retards and inhibits starch gelatinization under pressure and leads to heterogeneous gels with remnant granules.

  8. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  9. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  10. Does viscosity or structure govern the rate at which starch granules are digested?

    PubMed

    Hardacre, Allan K; Lentle, Roger G; Yap, Sia-Yen; Monro, John A

    2016-01-20

    The rates of in vitro digestion of incompletely or fully gelatinised potato and corn starch were measured at 37 °C over 20 min in a rheometer fitted with cup and vane geometry at shear rates of 0.1, 1 and 10 s(-1). Shear rate did not influence the rate of starch digestion provided it was close to physiological levels. However, rates of digestion were significantly reduced when shear rates were below the physiological range (0.1 s(-1)) or when gelatinisation was incomplete. At physiological shear rates the relationship between starch digestion and viscosity was sigmoid in form and following a short initial slow phase a rapid decline in viscosity occurred as starch was digested and the structural integrity of the granules was lost. Conversely, when shear rate was reduced below physiological levels or gelatinisation was incomplete, digestion was hindered, granule integrity was maintained and the relationship between starch and viscosity became linear. PMID:26572399

  11. Production of Cyclodextrins by CGTase from Bacillus clausii Using Different Starches as Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves-Prado, H. F.; Carneiro, A. A. J.; Pavezzi, F. C.; Gomes, E.; Boscolo, M.; Franco, C. M. L.; da Silva, R.

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligasaccharides composed by d-glucose monomers joined by α-1,4-d glicosidic linkages. The main types of CDs are α-, β- and γ-CDs consisting of cycles of six, seven, and eight glucose monomers, respectively. Their ability to form inclusion complexes is the most important characteristic, allowing their wide industrial application. The physical property of the CD-complexed compound can be altered to improve stability, volatility, solubility, or bio-availability. The cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an enzyme capable of converting starch into CD molecules. In this work, the CGTase produced by Bacillus clausii strain E16 was used to produce CD from maltodextrin and different starches (commercial soluble starch, corn, cassava, sweet potato, and waxy corn starches) as substrates. It was observed that the substrate sources influence the kind of CD obtained and that this CGTase displays a β-CGTase action, presenting a better conversion of soluble starch at 1.0%, of which 80% was converted in CDs. The ratio of total CD produced was 0:0.89:0.11 for α/β/γ. It was also observed that root and tuber starches were more accessible to CGTase action than seed starch under the studied conditions.

  12. Acrylic bone cement and starch: Botanical variety impact on curing parameters and degradability.

    PubMed

    Aubrun-Fillâtre, Céline; Monchau, Francine; Hivart, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Acrylic bone cements are a conventional solution to heal bone defects. Starch is often added to the cement to improve its degradability and resorbability. The most used botanical variety is corn starch; few studies or applications deal with other varieties. This study focuses on classical formulations based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate but incorporating different starches: waxy maize, corn, amylo maize, wheat, pea or potato, with or without enzyme (α-amylase). A thermocouple is used to determine the curing parameters: setting time and maximal temperature. The water uptake depends on the cement immersion time in a biological fluid and it is studied through sample mass variation analysis. The weight loss is determined after immersion (function of the time) and drying. Starch botanical variety and enzyme presence do not impact curing parameters and water uptake but strongly influence degradability. Water uptake involves advantageous swelling in situ filling the defect. This study shows that starch accessibility by the enzyme explains this impact. Grain spatial configuration, specific surface area and starch distribution in cement give a complementary explanation of the well-known influence of the ratio amylopectin/amylose. Acrylic cements incorporating starch can be classified according to their degradability. PMID:27612833

  13. Production of cyclodextrins by CGTase from Bacillus clausii using different starches as substrates.

    PubMed

    Alves-Prado, H F; Carneiro, A A J; Pavezzi, F C; Gomes, E; Boscolo, M; Franco, C M L; da Silva, R

    2008-03-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligasaccharides composed by D-glucose monomers joined by alpha-1,4-D glicosidic linkages. The main types of CDs are alpha-, beta- and gamma-CDs consisting of cycles of six, seven, and eight glucose monomers, respectively. Their ability to form inclusion complexes is the most important characteristic, allowing their wide industrial application. The physical property of the CD-complexed compound can be altered to improve stability, volatility, solubility, or bio-availability. The cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an enzyme capable of converting starch into CD molecules. In this work, the CGTase produced by Bacillus clausii strain E16 was used to produce CD from maltodextrin and different starches (commercial soluble starch, corn, cassava, sweet potato, and waxy corn starches) as substrates. It was observed that the substrate sources influence the kind of CD obtained and that this CGTase displays a beta-CGTase action, presenting a better conversion of soluble starch at 1.0%, of which 80% was converted in CDs. The ratio of total CD produced was 0:0.89:0.11 for alpha/beta/gamma. It was also observed that root and tuber starches were more accessible to CGTase action than seed starch under the studied conditions. PMID:18421582

  14. Enzymatic acylation of starch.

    PubMed

    Alissandratos, Apostolos; Halling, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    Starch a cheap, abundant and renewable natural material has been chemically modified for many years. The popular modification acylation has been used to adjust rheological properties as well as deliver polymers with internal plasticizers and other potential uses. However the harsh reaction conditions required to produce these esters may limit their use, especially in sensitive applications (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.). The use of enzymes to catalyse acylation may provide a suitable alternative due to high selectivities and mild reaction conditions. Traditional hydrolase-catalysed synthesis in non-aqueous apolar media is hard due to lack of polysaccharide solubility. However, acylated starch derivatives have recently been successfully produced in other non-conventional systems: (a) surfactant-solubilised subtilisin and suspended amylose in organic media; (b) starch nanoparticles dispersed in organic medium with immobilised lipase; (c) aqueous starch gels with lipase and dispersed fatty acids. We attempt a systematic review that draws parallels between the seemingly unrelated approaches described. PMID:22138593

  15. Resistant starches and health.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Emam, Azadeh; Augustin, Livia S A; Jenkins, David J A

    2004-01-01

    It was initially hypothesized that resistant starches, i.e., starch that enters the colon, would have protective effects on chronic colonic diseases, including reduction of colon cancer risk and in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have confirmed the ability of resistant starch to increase fecal bulk, increase the molar ratio of butyrate in relation to other short-chain fatty acids, and dilute fecal bile acids. However the ability of resistant starch to reduce luminal concentrations of compounds that are damaging to the colonic mucosa, including fecal ammonia, phenols, and N-nitroso compounds, still requires clear demonstration. As such, the effectiveness of resistant starch in preventing or treating colonic diseases remains to be assessed. Nevertheless, there is a fraction of what has been termed resistant (RS1) starch, which enters the colon and acts as slowly digested or lente carbohydrate in the small intestine. Foods in this class are low glycemic index and have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They have been associated with systemic physiological effects such as reduced postprandial insulin levels and higher HDL cholesterol levels. Consumption of low glycemic index foods has been shown to be related to reductions in risk of coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has in turn been related to a higher risk of colon cancer. If carbohydrates have a protective role in colon cancer prevention this may lie partly in the systemic effects of low glycemic index foods. The colonic advantages of different carbohydrates, varying in their glycemic index and resistant starch content, therefore, remain to be determined. However, as recent positive research findings continue to mount, there is reason for optimism over the possible health advantages of those resistant starches, which are slowly digested in the small intestine. PMID:15287678

  16. Nutritional Performance of Cattle Grazing during Rainy Season with Nitrogen and Starch Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, Ísis; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Batista, Erick Darlisson; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Dos Reis, William Lima Santiago; de Oliveira Franco, Marcia

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogen and starch on the nutritional performance of grazing cattle during the rainy season. Five rumen cannulated Nellore steers, averaging 211 kg of body weight (BW), were used. Animals grazed on five signal grass paddocks. Five treatments were evaluated: control (forage only), ruminal supplementation with nitrogen at 1 g of crude protein (CP)/kg BW, ruminal supplementation with starch at 2.5 g/kg BW, supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and starch (2.5 g/kg BW), and supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and a mixture of corn starch and nitrogenous compounds (2.5 g/kg BW), thereby resulting in an energy part of the supplement with 150 g CP/kg of dry matter (DM). This last treatment was considered an additional treatment. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 ×5 Latin square design following a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement (with or without nitrogen, with or without starch, and the additional treatment). Nitrogen supplementation did not affect (p>0.10) forage intake. Starch supplementation increased (p<0.10) total intake but did not affect (p<0.10) forage intake. There was an interaction between nitrogen and starch (p<0.10) for organic matter digestibility. Organic matter digestibility was increased only by supplying starch and nitrogen together. Nitrogen balance (NB) was increased (p<0.10) by the nitrogen supplementation as well as by starch supplementation. Despite this, even though a significant interaction was not observed (p>0.10), NB obtained with nitrogen plus starch supplementation was greater than NB obtained with either nitrogen or starch exclusive supplementation. Supplementation with starch and nitrogen to beef cattle grazing during the rainy season can possibly improve digestion and nitrogen retention in the animal.. PMID:26954147

  17. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  18. Effect of amylopectin on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of normal and high-amylose corn starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to form amylose inclusion complexes. Partial conversion of complexed sodium palmitate to palmitic acid by addition of acetic acid led to the formation of gels. Bl...

  19. Organocatalytic route for the synthesis of propionylated starch.

    PubMed

    Di Filippo, S; Tupa, M V; Vázquez, A; Foresti, M L

    2016-02-10

    In recent years acetylated, propionylated and butyrylated starches have received special attention due to their capacity to deliver specific short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to the colon in a sustained and predictable manner, and thus contribute to maintaining the normal physiologic function of the large bowel and preventing specific diseases. In the current contribution a non-conventional organocatalytic solventless route for the eco-friendly propionylation of corn starch is proposed. The catalyst used in the acylation is a naturally occurring α-hydroxy acid (l-tartaric acid). Propionylated starches with degree of substitution (DS) in the 0.05-1.59 interval were obtained and characterized in terms of chemical structure, morphology, crystallinity, thermal stability and hydrophilicity. Results showed that by the proposed methodology propionylated starch with the DS required for clinical use (i.e. 0.2-0.3) could be obtained within 2-3h of reaction. Characterization results evidenced the progressive loss of crystallinity of starch granules as higher substitution levels were conferred. PMID:26686121

  20. Physicochemical properties of Venezuelan breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) starch.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Alicia Mariela; Padilla, Fanny C

    2004-12-01

    Artocarpus altilis, seedless variety, is a fruit-producing plant which is cultived in Margarita Island, Venezuela, and is consumed by the inhabitants of the region. Its chemical composition and physical characteristics were determined. The chemical (AOAC and AACC methods), physicochemical, morphometric characteristics, viscoamylographic properties and digestibility in vitro of starch from Artocarpus were studied. The starch yield was 18.5 g/100 g (dw)w with a purity of 98.86%, 27.68 and 72.32% of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed irregular-rounded granules. Swelling power, water absorption and solubility values were determined and found to be higher than that of corn and amaranth starch. The amylographic study showed a gelatinization temperature at 73.3 degrees C, with high stability during heating and cooling cycles. Artocarpus starch could also be categorized in the group of mixed short chain branched/long chain branched glucan starches, this agrees with digestibility results that showed a high degree of digestibility in vitro. These results might be advantageous in medical and food use. PMID:15969272

  1. Developing gelatin-starch blends for use as capsule materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nuozi; Liu, Hongsheng; Yu, Long; Liu, Xingxun; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Ling; Shanks, Robert

    2013-01-30

    Blends of gelatin with up to 50% hydroxypropylated high amylose (80%) corn starch were developed as capsule materials. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used as both a plasticizer and a compatibilizer in the blends. In order to prepare hard capsules for pharmaceutical applications using the well-established method of dipping stainless steel mold pins into solution, solutions with higher solids concentrations (up to 30%) were developed. The solutions, films and capsules of the different gelatin-starch blends were characterized by viscosity, transparency, tensile testing, water contact angle and SEM. The linear microstructure of the high amylose starch, and the flexible and more hydrophilic hydroxylpropylene groups grafted onto the starch improved the compatibility between the gelatin and starch. SEM revealed a continuous phase of gelatin on the surface of films from all blends. The water contact angle of pure gelatin and the different blends were similar, indicating a continuous phase of gelatin. By optimizing temperature and incubation time to control viscosity, capsules of various blends were successfully developed. PEG increased the transparency and toughness of the various blends. PMID:23218320

  2. Variation among Physical, Compositional, and Wet-Milling Characteristics of the F1 Generation of Corn Hybrids of Introgressed Exotic and Adapted Inbred Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kernels from corn (Zea Mays L.) are one of the most economical sources of metabolizable energy used in livestock feeding and starch used for the processing industry for food and industrial products. Starch is the most important fraction from the wet-milling process and indicates the ease with which...

  3. Gluten-free bread formulated with Prosopis ruscifolia (vinal) seed and corn flours.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, C; Sánchez, H; Freyre, M; Osella, C

    2010-05-01

    Vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) is a wild leguminous tree found widely in the north of Argentina. Like other Prosopis, vinal can grow under extreme temperatures, in poor soils and can tolerate high saline conditions. Taking into account the high protein and gums contents of vinal seeds, a gluten-free bread was developed including them and corn flour. A central composite design involving vinal seed flour/corn starch ratio (X1) and corn flour/corn starch ratio (X2) was used, and second-order models for specific volume (Y1) and bread score (Y2), evaluated by an expert panel, were employed to generate response surfaces. In the optimum zone of response surfaces, a product with higher protein content (5.2 g/100 g) than gluten-free breads found in local commercial markets was obtained. Also, an interesting antioxidant activity (115 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g) was found in optimized gluten-free bread. PMID:20109128

  4. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants. PMID:26585483

  5. Size-controlled starch nanoparticles prepared by self-assembly with different green surfactant: The effect of electrostatic repulsion or steric hindrance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-05-15

    To study the control effect of surfactants in the process of formation of starch nanoparticles by self-assembly, different surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), and sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) were added during the fabrication of waxy corn starch nanoparticles (WCSNPs) and potato starch nanoparticles (PSNPs), and their characteristics were determined and compared. The results showed that WCSNPs with SDS and Tween 80 had smaller particle size (28-35 nm and 15-24 nm, respectively) than that of WCSNPs (50-120 nm). The surfactants significantly increased the dispersion and thermal stability of nanoparticles. Short-chain amylose debranched from waxy corn starch had a lower degree of polymerization than that debranched from potato starch and were easier to retrograde, resulting in higher gelatinization enthalpy of WCSNPs. However, PSNPs were smaller in size and achieved better stability than WCSNPs due to stronger electrostatic repulsion caused by a higher absolute value of zeta potential. PMID:26775982

  6. Glycemic index of starch affects nitrogen retention in grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Drew, M D; Schafer, T C; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-04-01

    Three studies were performed to examine the effect of starch and protein digestion rates on N retention in grower pigs. In Exp. 1, the glycemic index (GI) of corn, a malting barley, and a slow-rumen-degradable barley (SRD-barley) were measured using 6 barrows (BW = 18.0 ± 0.5 kg). The GI of malting barley was greater (P < 0.05) than that of SRD-barley (71.1 vs. 49.4), and the GI of both barley cultivars was less (P < 0.05) than that of corn (104.8). In Exp. 2, the standardized ileal digestibility of AA and DE content of the 3 ingredients were determined using 5 ileal-cannulated barrows (BW = 20.7 ± 2.3). The apparent total-tract energy digestibility values of corn (86.1%) and malting barley (85.7%) were greater (P < 0.05) than that of SRD-barley (82.3%). The standardized ileal digestibility of Lys was 94.0, 92.6, and 92.4% for corn, malting barley, and SRD-barley, respectively, and did not differ among grains. In Exp. 3, 6 diets were formulated to equal DE (3.40 Mcal/kg), standardized ileal digestibility of Lys (8.6 g/kg), starch (424.9 g/kg), and digestible CP (180.0 g/kg) using the values obtained in Exp. 2. Three GI [high (corn), medium (malting barley), and low (SRD-barley)] and 2 rates of protein digestion [rapid (soy protein hydrolysate) and slow (soy protein isolate)] were tested in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with 36 barrows (BW = 32.2 ± 2.5 kg). Pigs were fed 3.0 times the maintenance energy requirement daily in 2 meals for 2 wk and were housed in metabolic crates to collect feces and urine separately. At the end of the study, intestinal contents were collected from 4 equal-length segments of the small intestine. The percentage of unabsorbed CP in segment 1 relative to dietary CP was greater (P < 0.05) for the soy protein isolate diet than for the soy protein hydrolysate diet (170.3 vs. 116.5%). The percentages of unabsorbed starch in segments 1 and 2 were greater (P < 0.05) for the SRD-barley diet than for the malting barley or corn diet. Nitrogen

  7. Glucoamylase starch-binding domain of Aspergillus niger B1: molecular cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Paldi, Tzur; Levy, Ilan; Shoseyov, Oded

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are protein domains located within a carbohydrate-active enzyme, with a discrete fold that can be separated from the catalytic domain. Starch-binding domains (SBDs) are CBMs that are usually found at the C-terminus in many amylolytic enzymes. The SBD from Aspergillus niger B1 (CMI CC 324262) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as an independent domain and the recombinant protein was purified on starch. The A. niger B1 SBD was found to be similar to SBD from A. kawachii, A. niger var. awamori and A. shirusami (95-96% identity) and was classified as a member of the CBM family 20. Characterization of SBD binding to starch indicated that it is essentially irreversible and that its affinity to cationic or anionic starch, as well as to potato or corn starch, does not differ significantly. These observations indicate that the fundamental binding area on these starches is essentially the same. Natural and chemically modified starches are among the most useful biopolymers employed in the industry. Our study demonstrates that SBD binds effectively to both anionic and cationic starch. PMID:12646045

  8. Improved yields of cyclic nigerosylnigerose from starch by pretreatment with a thermostable branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Aga, Hajime; Okamoto, Iwao; Taniguchi, Mituki; Kawashima, Akira; Abe, Hiroko; Chaen, Hiroto; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2010-04-01

    Cyclic nigerosylnigerose (CNN) is produced enzymatically from starch by the combined action of 6-alpha-glucosyltransferase and 3-alpha-isomaltosyltransferase. In our previous study, alpha-1,6-branching chains found in the structure of amylopectin and glycogen were shown to be favorable for CNN formation by the two enzymes. Therefore, we examined whether the introduction of alpha-1,6-branch points into starch using the action of branching enzyme (BE) could improve the yield of CNN from starch. Thermostable BE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91 was prepared as a purified recombinant protein. Pretreatment of amylose with BE considerably increased the CNN yield from 5% to 38%. When BE acted on tapioca starch, the CNN yield was elevated from 47% to 60%. Conversely, BE treatment of waxy corn starch containing very little amylose resulted in a negligible increase in CNN yield. In addition, BE exerted a beneficial effect when starch with a lower degree of hydrolysis was used as a substrate. The present results indicate that the addition of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages to starch using BE is an effective strategy to improve the yield of CNN from starch. PMID:20226381

  9. Effects of dry method esterification of starch on the degradation characteristics of starch/polylactic acid composites.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ying Feng; Gu, Jiyou; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Maleic anhydride esterified corn starch was prepared by dry method. Esterified starch/polylactic acid (PLA) biodegradable composite was produced via melt extrusion method with blending maleic anhydride esterified corn starch and PLA. The influence of the dry method esterification of starch on the degradation characteristics of starch/PLA composites was investigated by the natural aging degradation which was soil burial method. Test results of mass loss rate showed that the first 30 days of degradation was mainly starch degradation, and the degradation rate of esterified starch/PLA (ES/PLA) was slower than that of native starch/PLA (NS/PLA). Therefore, the damage degree of ES/PLA on the surface and inside was smaller than that of NS/PLA, and the infrared absorption peak intensities of C-O, C=O and C-H were stronger than that of NS/PLA. With the increasing time of soil burial degradation, the damage degree of NS/PLA and ES/PLA on the exterior and interior were gradually increased, whereas the infrared absorption peak intensities of C-O, C=O and C-H were gradually decreased. The XRD diffraction peak intensity of PLA in composites showed an increased trend at first which was then followed by a decreased one along with the increasing time of soil burial degradation, indicating that the degradation of amorphous regions of PLA was earlier than its crystalline regions. When the soil burial time was the same, the diffraction peak intensity of PLA in ES/PLA was stronger than that of NS/PLA. If the degradation time was the same, T0, Ti and residual rate of thermal decomposition of NS/PLA were larger than those of ES/PLA. The tensile strength and bending strength of composites were decreased gradually with soil burial time increasing. Both the tensile strength and bending strength of ES/PLA were stronger than those of NS/PLA. PMID:25192854

  10. Development of maize starch granules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize kernels of self-pollinated inbred line B73 harvested on various days after pollination (DAP) were subjected for starch granule development studies. Starch in endosperms was first observed on 6 DAP. A small amount of starch granules (<2% of dry weight) was found in the endosperm on 12 DAP. S...

  11. FIBER SEPARATED FROM DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES AS A FEEDSTOCK FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION TO INCREASE OUTPUT FROM DRY GRIND CORN PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the dry grind process, corn starch is converted into sugars which are fermented into ethanol. The remaining corn components (protein, fiber, fat, and ash) form coproduct, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification), known as elus...

  12. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

  13. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control). PMID:24659046

  14. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Edna C; Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J; Singh, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling) is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production [1]. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day). These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer®) and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process was found to be cost

  15. Influence of mechanical processing on utilization of corn silage by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bal, M A; Wu, Z; Moreira, V R; Shaver, R D; Satter, L D; Shinners, K J; Walgenbach, R P

    2000-11-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the influence of mechanical processing on corn silage utilization by lactating dairy cows. Total mixed rations contained either unprocessed or processed corn silage harvested between 1/4 and 3/4 milk line. In trial 1, 12 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated double switchback design with 21-d periods. Intake of dry matter (DM) was increased 1.2 kg/d by processing, but milk yield was unaffected. Processing did not affect apparent total-tract DM digestibility, but processing tended to lower starch and corn excretion in feces and reduced concentration of sieved corn kernel particles in feces. In trial 2, 42 Holstein cows were used in an 18-wk randomized complete-block design. Intake of DM and milk yield were unaffected by processing, but milk fat percent was increased 0.35 percentage units by processing. Processing tended to increase total-tract digestibility of starch, but reduced organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities. In trial 3, 30 Holstein cows were used in a 15-wk randomized complete block design. There was no influence of mechanical processing on intake or lactation performance in this trial. Despite indications of increased starch digestion in two trials and increased DM intake in one trial, effects of processing corn silage on lactation performance were minimal with corn silage at the maturity and moisture contents used in these trials. PMID:11104271

  16. Preparation and characterization of acetylated starch nanoparticles as drug carrier: Ciprofloxacin as a model.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi Najafi, Seyed Heydar; Baghaie, Maryam; Ashori, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize in-vitro the potential of acetylated corn starch (ACS) particles as a matrix for the delivery of ciprofloxacin (CFx). ACS was successfully synthesized and optimized by the reaction of native corn starch using acetic anhydride and acetic acid with low and high degrees of substitution (DS). The nanoprecipitation method was applied for the formation of the ACS-based nanoparticles, by the dropwise addition of water to acetone solution of ACS under stirring. The effects of acetylation and nanoprecipitation on the morphology and granular structure of ACS samples were examined by the FT-IR, XRD, DSL and SEM techniques. The efficiency of CFx loading was also evaluated via encapsulation efficiency (EE) in ACS nanoparticles. The average degree of acetyl substitution per glucose residue of corn starch was 0.33, 2.00, and 2.66. The nanoparticles size of the ACS and ACS-loaded with CFx were measured and analyzed relative to the solvent:non-solvent ratio. Based on the results, ACS nanoparticles with DS of 2.00 and water:acetone of 3:1 had 312nm diameter. Increasing DS in starch acetate led to increase in the EE from 67.7 to 89.1% and with increasing ratio of water/acetone from 1:1 to 3:1, the EE raised from 48.5 to 89.1%. X-ray diffraction indicated that A-type pattern of native starch was completely transformed into the V-type pattern of acetylated starch. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the different sizes of pores formed on the acetylated starch granules were utterly converted into the uniform-sized spherical nanoparticles after the nanoprecipitation. PMID:26893054

  17. The effect of an exogenous protease on the fermentation and nutritive value of high-moisture corn.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Windle, M C; Walker, N

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if treating high-moisture corn at harvest with an exogenous protease could accelerate the increase in in vitro ruminal starch degradation that is normally found with advancing times of ensiling. Ground high-moisture corn (HMC; 73% dry matter) was untreated or treated with an exogenous protease to achieve a final concentration of 2,000 mg of protease/kg of fresh corn. Corn was ensiled in laboratory-scale bags (approximately 500 g) that were evacuated of air, heat-sealed, and stored at 22 to 23°C for 70 and 140 d. Samples of freshly treated corn samples were collected to represent d 0 samples. Treatment of HMC with protease did not affect the gross populations of lactic acid bacteria or yeasts throughout the ensiling period. Treatment of HMC with protease resulted in higher concentrations of lactic acid and ethanol after 70 but not 140 d of ensiling. Concentrations of crude protein, water-soluble carbohydrates, and starch were unaffected by treatment with protease within each sampling day. After 70 or 140 d of ensiling, HMC that was treated with protease had higher concentrations of soluble protein (as a % of crude protein) and NH3-N, and had lower concentrations of prolamin protein, compared with untreated corn. In vitro rumen degradability (7-h incubation) of starch was greater in protease-treated versus untreated corn at all sampling days but the difference was more pronounced after 70 and 140 d compared with d 0. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N were positively correlated with in vitro starch degradation. Conversely, the concentrations of prolamin protein in HMC were negatively correlated with in vitro starch degradation. Treating HMC with an exogenous protease could be a method to obtain greater potential for ruminal starch fermentation after a relatively short period of ensiling. PMID:24440257

  18. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  19. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  20. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF WATER SOLUBLE STARCH, STARCH ACETATES AND STARCH ACETATES/ALKENYLSUCCINATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface and interfacial tensions with hexadecane were measured for starch and water soluble starch ester solutions in order to determine their potential as stabilizers or emulsifiers. The surface tension for an acid hydrolysed starch (maltodextrin) initially declined with concentration and then rea...

  1. Development of an analytical method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane and sweet sorghum products.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marsha R; Eggleston, Gillian; Gilbert, Audrey; Chung, Yoo Jin

    2016-01-01

    A rapid research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to quantify total, insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar crop products. Several variables affecting starch solubilisation were evaluated, (1) heating method, (2) boiling time, (3) probe ultrasonication time, (4) water loss, (5) concentration, (6) sample colour, and (7) sample. The optimised method solubilises < 40,000 ppm insoluble starch with microwave-assisted sonication in 6 min, has acceptable precision (<6% CV), accuracy (⩾ 95%), uses a corn starch reference, and incorporates a colour blank to remove contribution from natural colourants found in industrial samples. This method was validated using factory samples and found applicable to sugarcane and sweet sorghum bagasse (3% CV), mixed juices (2%), massecuites (4%), molasses (7%), and raw sugars (12%), 100% satisfactory performance z-scores were also obtained. Total starch values obtained with this method were significantly higher than those measured using other methods presently accepted by the sugar industry. PMID:26212940

  2. Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 α-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 and the semi-industrial strain, S. cerevisiae Mnuα1. The recombinant AmyA and GlaA displayed protein sizes of 110–150 kDa and 90 kDa, respectively, suggesting significant glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. The Mnuα1[AmyA-GlaA] and Y294[AmyA-GlaA] strains were able to utilise 20 g l-1 raw corn starch as sole carbohydrate source, with ethanol titers of 9.03 and 6.67 g l-1 (0.038 and 0.028 g l-1 h-1), respectively, after 10 days. With a substrate load of 200 g l-1 raw corn starch, Mnuα1[AmyA-GlaA] yielded 70.07 g l-1 ethanol (0.58 g l-1 h-1) after 120 h of fermentation, whereas Y294[AmyA-GlaA] was less efficient at 43.33 g l-1 ethanol (0.36 g l-1 h-1). Conclusions In a semi-industrial amylolytic S. cerevisiae strain expressing the A. tubingensis α-amylase and glucoamylase genes, 200 g l-1 raw starch was completely hydrolysed (saccharified) in 120 hours with 74% converted to released sugars plus fermentation products and the remainder presumably to biomass. The single-step conversion of raw starch represents significant progress towards the realisation of CBP without the need for any heat pretreatment. Furthermore, the amylases were produced and secreted by the host strain, thus circumventing the need for exogenous amylases. PMID:24286270

  3. Glyphosate effect on shikimate, nitrate reductase activity, yield, and seed composition in corn.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna N; Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M

    2010-03-24

    When glyphosate is applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, drift to nonglyphosate-resistant (non-GR) crops may cause significant injury and reduce yields. Tools are needed to quantify injury and predict crop losses. In this study, glyphosate drift was simulated by direct application at 12.5% of the recommended label rate to non-GR corn (Zea mays L.) at 3 or 6 weeks after planting (WAP) during two field seasons in the Mississippi delta region of the southeastern USA. Visual plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition were evaluated. Effects were also evaluated in GR corn and GR corn with stacked glufosinate-resistant gene at the recommended label rate at 3 and 6 WAP. Glyphosate at 105 g ae/ha was applied once at 3 or 6 weeks after planting to non-GR corn. Glyphosate at 840 (lower label limit) or 1260 (upper label limit) g ae/ha was applied twice at 3 and 6 WAP to transgenic corn. Glyphosate caused injury (45-55%) and increased shikimate levels (24-86%) in non-GR compared to nontreated corn. In non-GR corn, glyphosate drift did not affect starch content but increased seed protein 8-21% while reducing leaf nitrogen reductase activity 46-64%, leaf nitrogen 7-16%, grain yield 49-54%, and seed oil 18-23%. In GR and GR stacked with glufosinate-resistant corn, glyphosate applied at label rates did not affect corn yield, leaf and seed nitrogen, or seed composition (protein, oil, and starch content). Yet, nitrate reductase activity was reduced 5-19% with glyphosate at 840 + 840 g/ha rate and 8-42% with glyphosate at 1260 + 1260 g/ha rate in both GR and GR stacked corn. These results demonstrate the potential for severe yield loss in non-GR corn exposed to glyphosate drift. PMID:20180575

  4. Starch modification with microbial alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes.

    PubMed

    van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Leemhuis, Hans

    2013-03-01

    Starch is an agricultural raw material used in many food and industrial products. It is present in granules that vary in shape in the form of amylose and amylopectin. Starch-degrading enzymes are used on a large scale in the production of sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and concentrated glucose syrups as substrate for the fermentative production of bioethanol and basic chemicals. Over the last two decades α-glucanotransferases (EC 2.4.1.xx), such as branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18) and 4-α-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25), have received considerable attention. These enzymes do not hydrolyze the starch as amylases do. Instead, α-glucanotransferases remodel parts of the amylose and amylopectin molecules by cleaving and reforming α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic bond. Here we review the properties of α-glucanotransferases and discuss the emerging use of these enzymes in the generation of novel starch derivatives. PMID:23465909

  5. RHEOLOGY OF STARCH-LIPID COMPOSITES YOGURTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yogurt is traditionally made by fermenting liquid milk. The ability of starches to thicken, gel, and hold water has been exploited in yogurt manufacture. The addition of starch increases the viscosity of yogurt, but some starches impart an undesirable taste and promote phase separation. Starch-li...

  6. Enhancement of thermoplastic starch final properties by blending with poly(ɛ-caprolactone).

    PubMed

    Ninago, Mario D; López, Olivia V; Lencina, M M Soledad; García, María A; Andreucetti, Noemí A; Ciolino, Andrés E; Villar, Marcelo A

    2015-12-10

    Final properties of two thermoplastic corn starch matrices were improved by adding poly(ɛ-caprolactone), PCL, at 2.5, 5, and 10% w/w. One of the thermoplastic starch matrices was processed using water and glycerol as plasticizers (SG) and the other one was plasticized with a mixture of glycerol and sodium alginate (SGA). Blends were suitably processed by melt mixing and further injected. Films obtained by thermo-compression were flexible and easy to handle. Microstructure studies (SEM and FTIR) revealed a nice distribution of PCL within both matrices and also a good starch-PCL compatibility, attributed to the lower polyester concentration. The crystalline character of PCL was the responsible of the increment in the degree of crystallinity of starch matrices, determined by XRD. Moreover, it was demonstrated by TGA that PCL incorporation did not affect the thermal stability of these starch-based materials. In addition, a shift of Tg values of both glycerol and starch-rich phases to lower values was determined by DSC and DMA tests, attributed to the PCL plasticizing action. Besides, PCL blocking effect to visible and UV radiations was evident by the incremented opacity and the UV-barrier capacity of the starch films. Finally, water vapor permeability and water solubility values were reduced by PCL incorporation. PMID:26428117

  7. Properties of starch-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose based films obtained by compression molding.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Toro, Rodrigo; Jiménez, Alberto; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2014-08-30

    Corn starch-glycerol (1:0.3) films, containing or not citric acid (1g/100g starch) and HPMC (10 and 20g/100g starch), are obtained by compression molding. The microstructure of the films, the thermal behavior, the X-ray diffraction spectra and the physical properties (mechanical, barrier and optical) were analyzed after 1 and 5 storage weeks at 25°C and 53% relative humidity. The bonded citric acid and film solubility were also determined. Starch-HPMC blend films showed a dispersed phase of HPMC in a continuous, starch-rich phase with lower glass transition than HPMC-free films. The addition of citric acid also provoked a decrease in glass transition in line with the partial hydrolysis of starch chains. Both components implied a decrease in the water vapour permeability while the oxygen permeability slightly increased. Although citric acid only provoked a small hardening effect in the films, it greatly decreased their extensibility (weak cross-linking effect), which seems to increase during film storage. Starch crystallization during storage was inhibited by both citric acid and HPMC. PMID:24815412

  8. Localization and dynamics of amylose-lipophilic molecules inclusion complex formation in starch granules.

    PubMed

    Manca, Marianna; Woortman, Albert J J; Mura, Andrea; Loos, Katja; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-03-28

    Inclusion complex formation between lipophilic dye molecules and amylose polymers in starch granules is investigated using laser spectroscopy and microscopy. By combining confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with spatial resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, we are able to discriminate the presence of amylose in the peripheral region of regular and waxy granules from potato and corn starch, associating a clear optical fingerprint with the interaction between starch granules and lipophilic dye molecules. We show in particular that in the case of regular starch the polar head of the lipophilic dye molecules remains outside the amylose helix experiencing a water-based environment. The measurements performed on samples that have been extensively washed provide a strong proof of the specific interaction between lipid dye molecules and amylose chains in regular starch. These measurements also confirm the tendency of longer amylopectin chains, located in the hilum of waxy starch granules, to form inclusion complexes with ligands. Through real-time recording of CLSM micrographs, within a time frame of tens of seconds, we measured the dynamics of occurrence of the inclusion process between lipids and amylose located at the periphery of starch granules. PMID:25715960

  9. A green approach for starch modification: Esterification by lipase and novel imidazolium surfactant.

    PubMed

    Adak, Sunita; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-10-01

    Starch being one of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature has been subjected to modification to enhance its applicability. Modification by esterification involves acylation of hydroxyl groups of glucose units to form starch esters. Lipases, as catalysts have emerged as a promising alternative to chemical processes. Although ionic liquids and microwave assisted heating are emerging as green technology yet their use along with lipases for starch modification has not been probed. In the present study esterification of corn starch employing Rhizopus oryzae lipase, microwave irradiation and novel imidazolium surfactants has been attempted. At 80% irradiation, 1:3 starch/oleic acid molar ratio, 150 IU enzyme, and 50μmol of [C16-3-C16im]Br2 maximum degree of substitution (DS=2.75) was attained. The modified starch showed better hydrophobicity and thermoplasticity with corresponding structural changes depicted by FTIR, XRD and SEM. These properties advocate the usefulness of the modified starch in food and biopolymer sectors. PMID:27312646

  10. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis. PMID:25439920

  11. Neurotoxicity of intrathecal 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 injection in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Vassal, O; Del Carmine, P; Beuriat, P-A; Desgranges, F-P; Gadot, N; Allaouchiche, B; Timour-Chah, Q; Stewart, A; Chassard, D

    2015-09-01

    Epidural blood patch is the gold standard treatment for post-dural puncture headache, although hydroxyethyl starch may be a useful alternative to blood if the latter is contraindicated. The aim of this experimental study was to assess whether hydroxyethyl starch given via an indwelling intrathecal catheter resulted in clinical or histopathological changes suggestive of neurotoxicity. The study was conducted in rats that were randomly allocated to receive three 10-μl injections on consecutive days of either saline or hydroxyethyl starch administered via the intrathecal catheter. Eight rats were given injections of saline 0.9% and 11 were given 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 derived from thin boiling waxy corn starch in 0.9% sodium chloride (Voluven). Daily clinical evaluation, activity measured by actimetry and neuropathological analysis of the spinal cord were subsequently performed to assess for signs of neurotoxicity. No clinical or actimetric changes were observed in either group following intrathecal saline or hydroxyethyl starch administration. Histopathological examination showed non-specific changes with no differences between the two groups. This experimental study in the rat suggests that repeated intrathecal injection of hydroxyethyl starch is not associated with neurotoxicity. PMID:25907209

  12. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  13. Effects of amylose content on property and microstructure of starch-graft-sodium acrylate copolymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Chen, Peirong; Du, Xianfeng; Xue, Zhonghua; Chen, Shanshan; Yang, Baojun

    2014-02-15

    Starch-graft-sodium acrylate (St-g-SA) copolymers were synthesized with ammonium persulfate as an initiator. This work focused on the effects of amylose content of corn starch on the water absorbent capacity and microstructure of the St-g-SA copolymers. The water absorbent capacity of waxy, maize and high amylose St-g-SA copolymers was 1800 g/g, 1300 g/g and 1100 g/g respectively. The grafted copolymers were characterized by FTIR and solid state (13)C NMR confirming that the graft reaction had taken place between sodium acrylate and corn starch. The surfaces and cross sections of St-g-SA copolymers were observed by SEM. Incomplete gelatinized starch aggregates increased with increasing amylose content on surfaces and cross sections of copolymers, which accorded with the water absorbent capacity and grafting ratio. DMTA results showed that the waxy St-g-SA copolymer had the highest transition temperature which indicated waxy starch had high grafting ratio. PMID:24507305

  14. Hydrolysis by commercial enzyme mixtures of AFEX-treated corn fiber and isolated xylans

    SciTech Connect

    Hespell, R.B.; O`Bryan, P.J.; Bothast, R.J.; Moniruzzaman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Corn fiber is a coproduct produced during the corn wet-milling process and is similar to other high hemicellulose/cellulose-containing biomass such as grasses, straws, or bagasse, all of which represent potential fermentation feedstock for conversion into biofuels or other products. Corn fiber was subjected to ammonia-explosion (AFEX) treatment to increase degradability and then enzymatically digested with a combined mixture of commercial amylase, xylanase, and cellulose enzyme preparations. Whereas the starch and cellulose components were converted solely to glucose, oligosaccharides represented 30-40% of the xylan degradation products. This enzyme mixture also produced substantial oligosaccharides with xylans purified from corn fiber, corn germ, beech-wood, oatspelt, or wheat germ. Commercial xylan-degrading enzyme preparations containing xylanase, xylosidase, and arabinosidase activities were then used alone or in varying combinations to attempt to maximize degradation of these isolated xylans of differing chemical compositions. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Relationship between structural and biochemical characteristics and texture of corn grains.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R C; Davide, L C; Pedrozo, C A; Carneiro, N P; Souza, I R P; Paiva, E

    2008-01-01

    The texture of corn grains is a fundamental characteristic for the industry as well as for grain producers and processors. To further understand the mechanisms involved in grain hardness, contrasting corn cultivars for grain hardness and protein quality were evaluated. The cultivars were Cateto L237/67 (hard endosperm and low protein value), QPM BR 451 (semi-hard endosperm and high protein value); Bolivia-2 (floury endosperm and low protein value), and Opaque-2 (floury endosperm and high protein value). Evaluations were carried out at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days after pollination in developing corn grains and in the mature grain. In developing grains, evaluation consisted in the determination of the area, percentage of starch granules, distribution of starch granules, and protein bodies in the endosperm. In mature corn grains, the parameters evaluated were: density, percentage of total proteins, levels of lysine and tryptophan, and banding pattern of zeins. The results indicate that the higher physical resistance of corn grains from the cultivars analyzed is influenced by the high percentage of total proteins, high synthesis of 27-kDa zeins, presence of protein bodies, and perfect organization of starch granules in the endosperm, independent of their sizes. PMID:18561383

  16. Preparation and characterization of starch-based loose-fill packaging foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qi

    Regular and waxy corn starches were blended in various ratios with biodegradable polymers including polylactic acid (PLA), Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 (EBC) and Mater-Bi ZF03U (MBI) and extruded with a C. W. Brabender laboratory twin screw extruder using a 3-mm die nozzle at 150°C and 150 rev/min. Physical characteristics including radial expansion, unit density and bulk density and water solubility index, water absorption characteristics, mechanical properties including compressibility, Young's modulus, spring index, bulk compressibility and bulk spring index and abrasion resistance were investigated as affected by the ingredient formulations, i.e. type of polymers, type of starches, polymer to starch ratio and starch moisture content. A completely randomized factorial blocking experimental design was used. Fifty-four treatments resulted. Each treatment was replicated three times. SAS statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Foams made of waxy starch had better radial expansion, lower unit density and bulk density than did foams made of regular starch. Regular starch foams had significantly lower water solubility index than did the waxy starch foams. PLA-starch foams had the lowest compressibility and Young's modulus. MBI-starch foams were the most rigid. All foams had excellent spring indices and bulk spring indices which were comparable to the spring index of commercial expanded polystyrene foam. Correlations were established between the foam mechanical properties and the physical characteristics. Foam compressibility and Young's modulus decreased as increases in radial expansion and decreases in unit and bulk densities. Their relationships were modeled with power law equations. No correlation was observed between spring index and bulk spring index and foam physical characteristics. MBI-starch foams had the highest equilibrium moisture content. EBC-starch and PLA-starch foams had similar water absorption characteristics. No significant

  17. Identifying resistance in corn to southwestern corn borer, fall armyworm, and corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith); and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, are major insect pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Corn germplasm with resistance to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer a...

  18. Comparison of microwave processing and excess steam jet cooking for spherulite production of from starch:palmitic acid inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was previously shown that toroid and spherical/lobed spherulites were formed upon slow cooling of aqueous dispersions of corn starch and palmitic acid after passing through an excess steam jet cooker. Spherulite yield was 86% based on amylose. In order to determine whether excess steam jet cookin...

  19. Influence of pH and temperature on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of high-amylose corn starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to form amylose inclusion complexes. The rheology of dispersions of these complexes was examined. Acetic acid was added to reduce the pH, converting complexed sodium palmita...

  20. Starch Suspensions with Different Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Melody; Melville, Audrey; Dijksman, Joshua; Behringer, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A suspension made of starch particles dispersed in water displays significant non-Newtonian behavior for high enough particulate concentration. This surprising behavior has recently inspired a series of experiments that have shed much light on the possible mechanism behind this phenomenon. In our studies we assess the role of the fluid phase in these suspensions. We find that using fluids other than water can significantly alter the behavior of starch suspensions. Through mechanical tests of various kinds, we assess the interaction between starch particles and different liquids, and how this interaction affects the non-Newtonian behavior of starch suspensions.

  1. Use of a corn milling product in diets for dairy cows to alleviate milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P

    2012-04-01

    Various diet formulation strategies were evaluated to alleviate milk fat depression using a corn milling product (CMP) that contained approximately 28% crude protein, 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 12% starch (dry basis). The control diet comprised mostly corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn grain, and soybean meal and contained approximately 22% forage NDF (fNDF), 28% total NDF, and 33% starch. Another diet included 25% CMP that replaced corn grain and soybean meal and contained 27% starch and 33% NDF. Two other diets included 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate and contained 19 and 17% fNDF, 31 and 32% total NDF, and 30 and 28% starch, respectively. Diets were fed to 16 mid-lactation Holstein cows in 4 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Milk fat percentage was low for the control diet (2.9%) but increased to 3.5% when cows were fed the diet with 25% CMP that replaced concentrate. Cows fed diets with 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate also had low milk fat percentages (3.0 and 2.9%, respectively). Intake was lowest for cows fed the control diet. Milk yield was reduced when CMP replaced only concentrate but because of the substantial increase in milk fat, the yield of energy-corrected milk was greater. Calculated energy use (maintenance+milk+body weight change) divided by dry matter intake was similar for the control and for the diet in which CMP replaced only concentrate, but it decreased linearly as increasing amounts of CMP replaced both forage and concentrate. A quadratic equation using the ratio of dietary starch to fNDF was the best predictor of milk fat percentage (ratios >1.4 were associated with reduced milk fat). Overall, CMP was effective at alleviating milk fat depression when it replaced corn grain but not when it replaced forage and concentrate. PMID:22459853

  2. New approach to study starch gelatinization applying a combination of hot-stage light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Xie, Qin; Yu, Shujuan; Gao, Qunyu

    2013-02-13

    To overcome the difficulty of the original polarizing microscope-based method in monitoring the gelatinization of starch, a new method for dynamically monitoring the gelatinization process, integral optical density (IOD), which was based on the digital image analysis technique, was proposed. Hot-stage light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were coupled to study the dynamic changes of three types of starches: type A (corn starch), type B (potato starch), and type C (pea starch), during the gelatinization process in an excess water system. A model of response difference change of crystallite could represent the responding intensity of crystallization changes in the process of starch gelatinization. Results demonstrated that three crystalline types of starch underwent a process of swelling, accompanied with gradual disappearing of the crystallite. This difference was mainly associated with the diversity and composition of the starch structure. The IOD method was of advantage compared to the previous traditional methods that are based on a polarization microscope, such as counting the particle number and calculating polarization area methods, because it was the product of two parameters: optical density and area, which would be a response of both light intensity and area of birefringence light. The single peak in DSC corresponded to the combination of crystalline helix-helix dissociation and the reduction of the molecule helix-coil transition, while the gelatinization degree measured by the IOD method mainly corresponded to the helix-helix dissociation. The gelatinization mechanism could be revealed clearer in this study. PMID:23339369

  3. Slow digestion property of octenyl succinic anhydride modified waxy maize starch in the presence of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanli; Xue, Lei; Leng, Xue; Yang, Ruobing; Zhang, Genyi; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-03-18

    The in vivo slow digestion property of octenyl succinic anhydride modified waxy corn starch (OSA-starch) in the presence of tea polyphenols (TPLs) was studied. Using a mouse model, the experimental results showed an extended and moderate postprandial glycemic response with a delayed and significantly decreased blood glucose peak of OSA-starch after cocooking with TPLs (5% starch weight base). Further studies revealed an increased hydrodynamic radius of OSA-starch molecules indicating an interaction between OSA-starch and TPLs. Additionally, decreased gelatinization temperature and enthalpy and reduced viscosity and emulsifiability of OSA-starch support their possible complexation to form a spherical OSA-starch-TPLs (OSAT) complex. The moderate and extended postprandial glycemic response is likely caused by decreased activity of mucosal α-glucosidase, which is noncompetitively inhibited by tea catechins released from the complex during digestion. Meanwhile, a significant decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased DPPH free radical scavenging activity in small intestine tissue demonstrated the antioxidative functional property of the OSAT complex. Thus, the complex of OSAT, acting as a functional carbohydrate material, not only leads to a flattened and prolonged glycemic response but also reduces the oxidative stress, which might be beneficial to health. PMID:25715909

  4. Responsive starch-based materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch, a low-cost, annually renewable resource, is naturally hydrophilic and its properties change with relative humidity. Starch’s hygroscopic nature can be used to develop materials which change shape or volume in response to environmental changes (e.g. humidity). For example, starch-based graf...

  5. Starch-filled polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the development of degradable polymer composites that can be made at room temperature without special equipments. The developed composites are made from ethyl cyanoacrylate and starch. The polymer composites produced by this procedure contain 60 wt% of starch with compressive s...

  6. Brucite nanoplate reinforced starch bionanocomposites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper the mechanical reinforcement in a series of bionanocomposites films based on starch and nano-sized brucite, Mg(OH)2, was investigated. Brucite nanoplates with an aspect ratio of 9.25 were synthesized by wet precipitation and incorporated into starch matrices at different concentrations...

  7. Starch-Lignin Baked Foams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-kraft lignin foams were prepared by a baking process. Replacing up to 20% of the starch with lignin has no effect on foam density or overall morphology. At 10% replacement, lignin marginally increases water resistance and modulus of elasticity but decreases strain at maximum stress. At 20% re...

  8. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  9. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  10. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  11. Life cycle assessment of corn-based ethanol production in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pieragostini, Carla; Aguirre, Pío; Mussati, Miguel C

    2014-02-15

    The promotion of biofuels as energy for transportation in the world is mainly driven by the perspective of oil depletion, the concerns about energy security and global warming. In Argentina, the legislation has imposed the use of biofuels in blend with fossil fuels (5 to 10%) in the transport sector. The aim of this paper is to assess the environmental impact of corn-based ethanol production in the province of Santa Fe in Argentina based on the life cycle assessment methodology. The studied system includes from raw materials production to anhydrous ethanol production using dry milling technology. The system is divided into two subsystems: agricultural system and refinery system. The treatment of stillage is considered as well as the use of co-products (distiller's dried grains with solubles), but the use and/or application of the produced biofuel is not analyzed: a cradle-to-gate analysis is presented. As functional unit, 1MJ of anhydrous ethanol at biorefinery is chosen. Two life cycle impact assessment methods are selected to perform the study: Eco-indicator 99 and ReCiPe. SimaPro is the life cycle assessment software used. The influence of the perspectives on the model is analyzed by sensitivity analysis for both methods. The two selected methods identify the same relevant processes. The use of fertilizers and resources, seeds production, harvesting process, corn drying, and phosphorus fertilizers and acetamide-anillide-compounds production are the most relevant processes in agricultural system. For refinery system, corn production, supplied heat and burned natural gas result in the higher contributions. The use of distiller's dried grains with solubles has an important positive environmental impact. PMID:24295743

  12. NutriDense corn grain and corn silage for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benefield, B C; Liñeiro, M; Ipharraguerre, I R; Clark, J H

    2006-05-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of them surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas, were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square to compare the effects of whole-plant silage and grain produced from NutriDense (ND), leafy NutriDense (LND), or a conventional yellow dent (YD) hybrid on ruminal fermentation, total tract nutrient digestibility, and performance of lactating dairy cows. On a DM basis, diets contained 30.6% corn silage and 27.7% corn grain provided from the 3 hybrids according to the following combinations: 1) YD grain and YD silage, 2) YD grain and LND silage, 3) ND grain and YD silage, and 4) ND grain and LND silage. The average concentrations of crude protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber, and ether extract of LND silage and ND grain were higher, but the contents of nonfibrous carbohydrates and starch were lower than those of their YD counterparts. Although DM intake was similar among treatments, feeding ND grain, LND silage, or both reduced the intakes of nonfibrous carbohydrates and starch but increased the intake of ether extract. Apparent digestibility of starch in the total tract was highest for the diet that contained LND silage and YD grain, whereas the amount and percentage of ether extract that were apparently digested in the total tract was increased and tended to be increased, respectively, by the addition of ND grain, LND silage, or both to the diets. Ruminal fermentation parameters were unaffected by treatments except for the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the ruminal fluid, which tended to be increased by the feeding of ND grain, LND silage, or both. Production of milk, crude and true protein, fat, lactose, and total solids did not differ among diets. Concentration of milk urea nitrogen increased when the ND grain, LND silage, or both were fed to the cows. Results indicate that ND grain and LND silage were similar to the conventional grain and silage for the feeding of lactating dairy cows. PMID:16606727

  13. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  14. Assessment of potential life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission effects from using corn-based butanol as a transportation fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2008-01-01

    Since advances in the ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation process in recent years have led to significant increases in its productivity and yields, the production of butanol and its use in motor vehicles have become an option worth evaluating. This study estimates the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. It employs a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis tool: the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The estimates of life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are based on an Aspen Plus(reg. sign) simulation for a corn-to-butanol production process, which describes grain processing, fermentation, and product separation. Bio-butanol-related WTW activities include corn farming, corn transportation, butanol production, butanol transportation, and vehicle operation. In this study, we also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. Our study shows that driving vehicles fueled with corn-based butanol produced by the current ABE fermentation process could result in substantial fossil energy savings (39%-56%) and avoid large percentage of the GHG emission burden, yielding a 32%-48% reduction relative to using conventional gasoline. On energy basis, a bushel of corn produces less liquid fuel from the ABE process than that from the corn ethanol dry mill process. The coproduction of a significant portion of acetone from the current ABE fermentation presents a challenge. A market analysis of acetone, as well as research and development on robust alternative technologies and processes that minimize acetone while increase the butanol yield, should be conducted.

  15. Assessment of potential life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission effects from using corn-based butanol as a transportation fuel.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Wang, Michael; Liu, Jiahong; Huo, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Since advances in the ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation process in recent years have led to significant increases in its productivity and yields, the production of butanol and its use in motor vehicles have become an option worth evaluating. This study estimates the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. It employs a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis tool: the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The estimates of life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are based on an Aspen Plus(R) simulation for a corn-to-butanol production process, which describes grain processing, fermentation, and product separation. Bio-butanol-related WTW activities include corn farming, corn transportation, butanol production, butanol transportation, and vehicle operation. In this study, we also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. Our study shows that driving vehicles fueled with corn-based butanol produced by the current ABE fermentation process could result in substantial fossil energy savings (39%-56%) and avoid large percentage of the GHG emission burden, yielding a 32%-48% reduction relative to using conventional gasoline. On energy basis, a bushel of corn produces less liquid fuel from the ABE process than that from the corn ethanol dry mill process. The coproduction of a significant portion of acetone from the current ABE fermentation presents a challenge. A market analysis of acetone, as well as research and development on robust alternative technologies and processes that minimize acetone while increase the butanol yield, should be conducted. PMID:19194933

  16. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  18. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  19. Rapid authentication of starch adulterations in ultrafine granular powder of Shanyao by near-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Liang; Wang, Ji-Wen; Chen, Yong-Jun; Cheng, Jin-le; Lai, Zhi-Tian

    2017-01-15

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques was developed for classification and quantification of cheaper starches (corn and wheat starch) in ultrafine granular powder of Shanyao (UGPSY). By performing orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA), NIR could efficiently distinguish among authentic UGPSY and UGPSY adulterated with cornstarch and wheat starch. In addition, the starch content in adulterated UGPSY was determined by NIR coupled with an appropriate multivariate calibration method. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were performed comparatively to calibrate the regression model. Experimental results showed that the performance of the siPLS model is the best compared to PLS and iPLS. These results show that the combination of NIR spectroscopy and chemometric methods offers a simple, fast and reliable method for the classification and quantification of the ultrafine granular powder of the herb. PMID:27542456

  20. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Van Laar, H; Pellikaan, W F; Ellis, J L; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 blocks of 4 cows each. Cows received diets consisting of 60% grass silage and 40% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows within block were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 different diets composed of concentrates that varied in rate of starch fermentation [slowly (S) vs. rapidly (R) rumen fermentable; native vs. gelatinized corn grain] and level of starch (low vs. high; 270 vs. 530g/kg of concentrate dry matter). Results of rumen in situ incubations confirmed that the fractional rate of degradation of starch was higher for R than S starch. Effective rumen degradability of organic matter was higher for high than low starch and also higher for R than S starch. Increased level of starch, but not starch fermentability, decreased dry matter intake and daily CH4 production. Milk yield (mean 24.0±1.02kg/d), milk fat content (mean 5.05±0.16%), and milk protein content (mean 3.64±0.05%) did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, per kilogram of dry matter intake, or as a fraction of gross energy intake did not differ between diets. Methane expressed per kilogram of estimated rumen-fermentable organic matter (eRFOM) was higher for S than R starch-based diets (47.4 vs. 42.6g/kg of eRFOM) and for low than high starch-based diets (46.9 vs. 43.1g/kg of eRFOM). Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein were not affected by diets, but starch digestibility was higher for diets based on R starch (97.2%) compared with S starch (95.5%). Both total volatile fatty acid concentration (109.2 vs. 97.5mM) and propionate proportion (16.5 vs. 15.8mol/100mol) were higher for R starch- compared with S starch

  1. Kinetics of enzymatic starch liquefaction: simulation of the high molecular weight product distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Rollings, J.E.; Thompson, R.W.

    1984-12-01

    Enzymatic corn starch liquefaction with alpha-amylase was carried out. Molecular weight distributions of the resulting hydrolysates are presented using aqueous size exclusion chromatographic techniques. It is demonstrated that despite the fact that the enzyme employed reacts in a random endoacting manner, the product distributions are nonrandom. The results are explained in part by a multimerization process whereby the polymeric substrate molecules preferentially associate, forming intermolecular aggregates. These aggregates are either a consequence of the manner in which the material is deposited into the native granular structure of starch or due to intrinsic physical chemical properties of the polysaccharide. In the latter case, the results are shown to correspond to known multimerized amylose, although complete characterization of the polysaccharide is currently not available. The results presented are used to develop a simplified kinetic model of starch liquefaction and shown to simulate the product distributions accurately. 44 references.

  2. Mixed biopolymer systems based on starch.

    PubMed

    Abd Elgadir, M; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque; Ferdosh, Sahena; Mehrnoush, Amid; Karim, Alias A; Noda, Takahiro; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam

    2012-01-01

    A binary mixture of starch-starch or starch with other biopolymers such as protein and non-starch polysaccharides could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products. In the context of food processing, a specific adjustment in the rheological properties plays an important role in regulating production processing and optimizing the applicability, stability, and sensory of the final food products. This review examines various biopolymer mixtures based on starch and the influence of their interaction on physicochemical and rheological properties of the starch-based foods. It is evident that the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of the biopolymers mixture are highly dependent on the type of starch and other biopolymers that make them up mixing ratios, mixing procedure and presence of other food ingredients in the mixture. Understanding these properties will lead to improve the formulation of starch-based foods and minimize the need to resort to chemically modified starch. PMID:22231495

  3. Evaluation of starches obtained from four Dioscorea species as binding agent in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations

    PubMed Central

    Okunlola, Adenike; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-01-01

    Starches obtained from four Dioscorea species namely Dioscorea dumetorum (Bitter), Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese), Dioscorea alata (Water), and Dioscorea rotundata (White) have been evaluated as binding agents in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch. The compressional properties of the formulations were analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita equations. The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using tensile strength, brittle fracture index (BFI), and friability tests while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results indicate that the four starches vary considerably in their physicochemical properties. The ranking for the tensile strength and the disintegration and dissolution times for the formulations was Chinese > Bitter > Corn > White > Water while the ranking was reversed for BFI and friability. The results suggest that Water, White, and Corn could be useful when faster disintegration time of tablets is desired while Chinese and Bitter could be more useful when bond strength is of concern and in minimizing the problems of lamination and capping in tablet formulation. PMID:23960747

  4. Genetic diversity of maize kernel starch-synthesis genes with SNAPs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Soon-Jae; Lee, Ju Kyong; Min, Hwang-Kee; Kim, Nam-Soo

    2006-10-01

    Measuring genetic diversity in populations of a crop species is very important for understanding the genetic structure of and subsequently improving the crop species by genetic manipulation. Single-nucleotide amplified polymorphisms (SNAPs) among and within maize populations of waxy, dent, and sweet corns at 25 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in 6 kernel starch-synthesis genes (sh2, bt2, su1, ae1, wx1, and sh1) were determined. Because of the intensive selection of some favorable alleles in starch-synthesis genes during the breeding process, and the resultant strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), the number of haplotypes in each population was far less than expected. Subsequent phenetic clustering analysis with the SNAPs indicated that the dent, waxy, and sweet corns formed distinct subclusters, except in a few incidences. LD was surveyed among SNAPs of intragenic, intergenic, and intrachromosomal SNPs in whole and subpopulations, which revealed that some SNAPs showed high LD with many other SNAPs, but some SNAPs showed low or no significant LD with others, depending on the subpopulation, indicating that these starch genes have undergone different selection in each subpopulation during the breeding process. Because the starch synthesis genes used in this study are important in maize breeding, the genetic diversity, LD, and accessions having rare SNAP alleles might be valuable in maize improvement programs. PMID:17213911

  5. Properties of starch subjected to partial gelatinization and beta-amylolysis.

    PubMed

    Hickman, B Elliot; Janaswamy, Srinivas; Yao, Yuan

    2009-01-28

    The overall objective of this research is to understand the impact of partial gelatinization and beta-amylase hydrolysis (beta-amylolysis) on the physicochemical properties of starch. Three starches (normal corn, waxy corn, and wheat) were chosen as test examples and thermally treated at 40% moisture content to up to 95 degrees C and then subjected to beta-amylolysis. The enzyme treatment resulted in over 10% maltose yield. Subsequent debranching analysis showed the production of chain stubs as short as having the degree of polymerization of 2 and 3, suggesting a thorough beta-amylolysis at certain branch locations. For starch samples subjected to partial gelatinization, polarized light microscopy shows reduced intensity of birefringence and differential scanning calorimetry shows reduced enthalpy change associated with gelatinization. Both indicate the reduced chain organization due to the treatment. Further, a substantial transformation of initial A-type crystalline structure to B- and V-types upon treatments is noticed from X-ray powder diffraction measurements. In addition, the rapid viscosity analysis (RVA) indicated a drastic viscosity reduction, increased peak temperature, and improved stability of pasting behavior due to hydrothermal treatments and beta-amylolysis. Overall, our results point out the possibility of obtaining modified starches having desirable stable pasting behavior by using a combined partial gelatinization and beta-amylolysis approach. PMID:19154167

  6. Solid-state and mechanical properties of aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with polyols.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Krogars, Karin; Jörgensen, Anna C; Karjalainen, Milja; Colarte, Antonio Iraizoz; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2004-03-01

    The film-forming ability of chitosan and binary mixtures of chitosan and native amylose corn starch (Hylon VII) was evaluated with free films prepared by a casting/solvent evaporation method. Unplasticized and plasticized free chitosan films in aqueous acetic acid and respective films containing a mixture of chitosan and native amylose starch in acetic acid were prepared. Glycerol, sorbitol, and i-erythritol were used as plasticizers. Solid-state and mechanical properties of the films were studied by powder x-ray diffractometry (XPRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and a materials testing machine. The films composed of a mixture of chitosan and native amylose starch in acetic acid were clear and colorless. A plasticizer concentration of 20% wt/wt (of the polymer weight) was sufficient to obtain flexible films with all samples tested. X-ray diffraction patterns and DSC thermograms indicated an amorphous state of the films independent of the type of plasticizer used. In conclusion, incorporation of native amylose corn starch into chitosan films improves the consistency and the mechanical properties of the films. PMID:15198536

  7. Thermoplastic starch plasticized with alginate-glycerol mixtures: Melt-processing evaluation and film properties.

    PubMed

    López, Olivia V; Ninago, Mario D; Lencina, M M Soledad; García, María A; Andreucetti, Noemí A; Ciolino, Andrés E; Villar, Marcelo A

    2015-08-01

    Corn starch melt-processing in the presence of a commonly used plasticizer mixture (water/glycerol) and a non-conventional alternative (alginate/glycerol) was evaluated. All assayed formulations were successfully processed by melt-mixing and injected in circular probes. It was determined that all samples presented a typical viscoelastic behavior, observing a decrease in storage and loss modulus with water and alginate concentration, which facilitated samples processability. Concerning to thermal stability, it was not affected neither for water nor alginate presence. From injected probes, flexible films were obtained by thermo-compression. Films with the highest assayed water content presented a sticky appearance, whereas those containing alginate were non-tacky. Plasticizing action of water and alginate was evidenced by the occurrence of homogeneous fracture surfaces, without the presence of unmelted starch granules. Besides, the shift of glass transition temperature to lower values also corroborated the plasticizing effect of both additives. In conclusion, obtained results demonstrated the well-plasticizing action of sodium alginate on starch matrix, turning this additive into a promissory alternative to replace water during melt-processing of thermoplastic corn-starch. PMID:25933526

  8. Slow glucose release property of enzyme-synthesized highly branched maltodextrins differs among starch sources.

    PubMed

    Kittisuban, Phatcharee; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Suphantharika, Manop; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-07-17

    Seven types of starch (waxy corn, normal corn, waxy rice, normal rice, waxy potato, normal potato, and tapioca) were selected to produce slowly digestible maltodextrins by enzymatic modification using a previously developed procedure. Branching enzyme (BE) alone and in combination with β-amylase (BA) were used to increase the amount of α-1,6 branching points, which are slowly hydrolyzed by mucosal α-glucosidases in the small intestine. The enzymatic treatments of all starches resulted in a reduction of the debranched linear chain length distribution and weight-average molecular weight. After α-amylolysis of the enzymatically synthesized-maltodextrins, the proportion of branched α-limit dextrins increased, and consequently a reduction in rate of glucose release by rat intestinal α-glucosidases in vitro. Among the samples, enzyme-modified waxy starches had a more pronounced effect on an increase in the slow digestion property than normal starches. These enzyme-modified maltodextrins show potential as novel functional foods by slowing digestion rate to attain extended glucose release. PMID:24702934

  9. Short communication: in vitro ruminal fermentability of a modified corn cultivar expressing a thermotolerant α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Persia, M E; Kung, L

    2010-10-01

    The fermentability of a corn cultivar that expresses a thermostable α-amylase (CA3272) was evaluated under various in vitro conditions. The CA3272 corn was developed as a replacement to microbial enzyme additions during the high-temperature processing of corn to produce ethanol. The α-amylase activity in the corn might have the potential for positive effects on ruminant performance if incorporated into the ration. Four corn cultivars were evaluated in an in vitro ruminal fermentation where the digestion of starch was measured after 6 h. The cultivars included a flint corn, an opaque corn, CA3272, and its near-isogenic counterpart (IC). The flint corn produced less total volatile fatty acids (18.4 mM) than the other 3 corns (average of 25.3 mM), supporting the fact that it had the highest concentration of prolamins, which are negatively associated with starch availability. A second 6-h in vitro ruminal fermentation evaluated mixtures of the CA3272 and IC corns (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% concentrations of CA3272). Total volatile fatty acid production was not different among treatments for any proportions of CA3272. In a third in vitro experiment, there was a small but significant difference in starch degradation of CA3272 compared with IC (90.6 vs. 89.7%) but this difference is most likely not biologically relevant. In a fourth in vitro experiment, CA3272 and IC were incubated in water at 40 and 65°C for 24 h. Degradation of starch from native amylase activity at 40°C was 1.99 and 1.60% for CA3272 and IC, respectively, but when they were incubated at 65°C, starch degradation was 10.56 and 0.85% for CA3272 and IC, respectively. These data demonstrate that amylase activity in CA3272 is expressed at a high temperature (65°C) but at the physiological temperature expected in a rumen of a cow (39-40°C), expression of amylase activity does not appear to be sufficient to have any positive (or negative) effects on ruminal metabolism. PMID:20855018

  10. Production of gluten and germ by ethanol fermentation of raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Illinois ethanol fuel industry has grown to be an important part of our state's economy over the past 10 years. It provides an additional market for Illinois' abundant corn production, provides many industrial jobs, and substitutes a home-grown renewable energy resource for imported oil. More than 30 percent of all gasoline sold in Illinois contains 10 percent ethanol. The economics of producing ethanol from corn is strongly affected by the byproduct value and by the energy required in the production process. This document reports on efforts to research a new microbial process that would improve the ethanol fermentation process in both these areas. The new process allows direct fermentation of corn starch to ethanol without the usual requirement of cooking the corn. This reduces the amount of energy needed for production and recovers the protein-containing gluten and oil-containing germ with all of the original food value intact.

  11. Cassava peel as a replacement for corn in the diet of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Santos, Viviany Lúcia Fernandes dos; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Santos, Geraldo Tadeu dos; Damasceno, Julio Cesar; Oliveira, Kelly de; Agostino, Bruna Calvo; Olivo, Paula Martins; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the replacement of corn with cassava peel in the diets of dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows were used. The experimental treatments consisted of four replacement levels of corn with cassava peel (0, 33, 66, and 100 %). The replacement of corn with cassava peel linearly decreased the intake and digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, but did not alter the intake of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein. In addition, there was a linear decrease in milk production. The milk components (g/kg) of fat, protein, lactose, and total solids were not altered. Although cassava peel decreased intake, digestibility, and milk production, the replacement of corn with cassava peel may be advantageous in locations close to the starch industry. PMID:25686553

  12. Direct fermentation of raw starch using a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain that expresses glucoamylase and alpha-amylase to produce ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongliang; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as α-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66.52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79.75 g/L ethanol with a 78.3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137.11 and 87.71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55.36 and 32.16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178.52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69.73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166.07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date. PMID:24478139

  13. The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plevin, R. J.; Mueller, S.

    2008-04-01

    To explore the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates financial and emissions accounting for dry-mill corn ethanol plants. Three policy options are modeled: (1) a charge per unit of life cycle CO2 emissions, (2) a charge per unit of direct biorefinery emissions only, and (3) a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). A CO2 charge on life cycle emissions increases production costs by between 0.005 and 0.008 l-1 per 10 Mg-1 CO2 price increment, across all modeled plant energy systems, with increases under direct emissions somewhat lower in all cases. In contrast, a LCFS increases the cost of production for selected plant energy systems only: a LCFS requiring reductions in average fuel global warming intensity (GWI) with a target of 10% below the 2005 baseline increases the production costs for coal-fired plants only. For all other plant types, the LCFS operates as a subsidy. The findings depend strongly on the magnitude of a land use change adder. Some land use change adders currently discussed in the literature will push the GWI of all modeled production systems above the LCFS target, flipping the CO2 price from a subsidy to a tax.

  14. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  15. TQM at Corning.

    PubMed

    Houghton, J

    1992-01-01

    Houghton has been with Corning for 30 years, up through the ranks. Now, as chairman and CEO, his individual leadership stamp is TQM. It's a major turn-around story with Total Quality at its center. PMID:10117839

  16. Effects of dietary starch source on electrophysiological intestinal epithelial properties and intestinal glucose uptake in growing goats.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Stefanie; Zurich, Meike; Schröder, Bernd; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-08-01

    In ruminants, the potential benefit of by-pass starch to improve energy supply is under discussion. As efficient intestinal starch digestion and monosaccharide absorption are important prerequisites for an energetic benefit compared to ruminal fermentation, this study was conducted to characterise potential adaptations of intestinal tissues to different dietary starch sources qualitatively. The Ussing chamber technique was used to determine electrophysiological parameters of jejunal tissues and glucose flux rates. Kinetics of sodium-dependent glucose uptake into isolated brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were calculated, and the expression level of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) was determined. Samples were collected from goats that were assigned to three dietary treatments differing in starch content (hay/concentrate) and starch source (wheat/corn). Additionally, ingesta samples were analysed for starch and glucose contents. Jejunal tissues from hay-fed animals showed higher tissue conductances (G t) and numerically higher short-circuit currents (I sc). Unidirectional glucose flux rates were higher for hay-fed animals, whereas net flux rates were unaffected. The maximal glucose transport capacity into BBMV was increased for concentrate-fed animals, but the affinity and SGLT1 expression were not affected. Our results may indicate an adaptation of glucose uptake via SGLT1 to variations in dietary starch but it could not be excluded that intestinal uptake capacity was saturated under the given conditions or that the measured capacity was sufficient for absorption of available glucose. PMID:23879718

  17. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  18. Crop processing and chop length of corn silage: effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Jirovec, A G; Shinners, K J; Coors, J G

    2000-06-01

    Effects of corn silage crop processing and chop length on intake, digestion, and milk production were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at one-half milkline stage of maturity (65% whole-plant moisture content) and at 0.95-cm theoretical length of cut without processing (control) or 0.95-, 1.45-, or 1.90-cm theoretical length of cut with processing at a 1-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 71 d in milk at trial initiation were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods; one square was comprised of ruminally cannulated cows for rumen measurements. Corn silage treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 50% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 50% corn and soybean meal based concentrate (dry matter basis). Dry matter intake (25.9 vs. 25.3 kg/d) and milk (46.0 vs. 44.8 kg/ d) and fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d) yields were higher for the processed corn silage treatments compared with the control corn silage. Within the processed corn silage treatments, there were no chop length effects on intake, milk production, or milk composition. Chewing activity was not different among the four corn silage treatments averaging 12 h/d. Total tract digestion of dietary starch was lower for control corn silage (95.1%) compared with fine, medium, and coarse processed corn silage treatments, which averaged 99.3%. Total tract digestion of dietary NDF was reduced for fine-processed corn silage compared with control corn silage and coarse-processed corn silage (28.4% vs. 33.9 and 33.7%, respectively). Processing corn silage improved dry matter intake, starch digestion, and lactation performance. Under the conditions of this study and with theoretical lengths of cut ranging from 0.95 to 1.90 cm, length of chop effects were minimal in processed corn silage. PMID:10877392

  19. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients. PMID:21605774

  20. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, Joachim

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  1. Properties of extruded starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers prepared from spherulites formed from amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of high amylose corn starch and oleic acid were processed by steam jet-cooking, and the dispersions were rapidly cooled to yield amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes as sub-micron spherulites and spherulite aggregates. Dispersions of these spherulite particles were then graft polymerized ...

  2. Agro-industrial residues and starch for growth and co-production of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer and α-amylase by Bacillus sp. CFR-67

    PubMed Central

    Shamala, T. R.; Vijayendra, S.V.N; Joshi, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and α-amylase (α-1,4 glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1) were co-produced by Bacillus sp. CFR-67 using unhydrolysed corn starch as a substrate. Bacterial growth and polymer production were enhanced with the supplementation of hydrolysates of wheat bran (WBH) or rice bran (RBH) individually or in combination (5–20 g L-1, based on weight of soluble substrates-SS). In batch cultivation, a mixture of WBH and RBH (1:1, 10 g L-1 of SS) along with ammonium acetate (1.75 g L-1) and corn starch (30 g L-1) produced maximum quantity of biomass (10 g L-1) and PHA (5.9 g L-1). The polymer thus produced was a copolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate of 95:5 to 90:10 mol%. Presence of WBH and corn starch (10–50 g L-1) in the medium enhanced fermentative yield of α-amylase (2–40 U mL-1 min-1). The enzyme was active in a wide range of pH (4–9) and temperature (40–60°C). This is the first report on simultaneous production of copolymer of bacterial PHA and α-amylase from unhydrolysed corn starch and agro-industrial residues as substrates. PMID:24031933

  3. Sorption and vapor transmission properties of uncompressed and compressed microcellular starch foam.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur P; Takeoka, Gary; Orts, William J; Wood, Delilah; Widmaier, Robert

    2002-11-20

    Microcellular starch foams (MCFs) are made by a solvent-exchange process and consist of a porous matrix with pores generally ranging from approximately 2 microm to submicrometer size. MCF may potentially be useful as a slow-release agent for volatile compounds because of its ability to sorb chemicals from the atmosphere and to absorb liquids into its porous structure, and because it can be compressed to form a starch plastic. MCF made of high-amylose corn and wheat starches was prepared with or without 2% (w/w) silicone oil (SO) or palmitic acid (PA). The MCF was loaded with 1% of various volatile compounds with vapor pressures ranging from 0.02 to 28 mm. The MCF depressed the vapor pressure from 0.37 to 37% compared to a control containing no MCF. Incorporating SO or PA in the matrix of the MCF had little effect on sorption of volatiles. Compressing MCF at 1.4, 6.9, and 69 MPa made a starch plastic with varying porosity. The vapor transmission rate of various volatile compounds through MCF was positively correlated to the vapor pressure of the test compound but was inversely proportional to the compression force used to form the starch plastic. The results indicate that uncompressed and compressed MCFs could be effective slow-release agents for a variety of volatile compounds, especially if used together. PMID:12428966

  4. Starch-degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van V; Marletta, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Polysaccharide degradation by hydrolytic enzymes glycoside hydrolases (GHs) is well known. More recently, polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs, also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs) were found to oxidatively degrade various polysaccharides via a copper-dependent hydroxylation. PMOs were previously thought to be either GHs or carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), and have been re-classified in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZY) database as auxiliary activity (AA) families. These enzymes include cellulose-active fungal PMOs (AA9, formerly GH61), chitin- and cellulose-active bacterial PMOs (AA10, formerly CBM33), and chitin-active fungal PMOs (AA11). These PMOs significantly boost the activity of GHs under industrially relevant conditions, and thus have great potential in the biomass-based biofuel industry. PMOs that act on starch are the latest PMOs discovered (AA13), which has expanded our perspectives in PMOs studies and starch degradation. Starch-active PMOs have many common structural features and biochemical properties of the PMO superfamily, yet differ from other PMO families in several important aspects. These differences likely correlate, at least in part, to the differences in primary and higher order structures of starch and cellulose, and chitin. In this review we will discuss the discovery, structural features, biochemical and biophysical properties, and possible biological functions of starch-active PMOs, as well as their potential application in the biofuel, food, and other starch-based industries. Important questions regarding various aspects of starch-active PMOs and possible economical driving force for their future studies will also be highlighted. PMID:27170366

  5. Cracked dry or finely ground high moisture shelled corn as a supplement for grazing cows.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Massingill, L J; Walgenbach, R P; Satter, L D

    2001-10-01

    Feeding shelled corn as the primary supplement in cracked dry form or ground high moisture form to grazing cows was studied in an experiment using 32 cows in late lactation. Each of the two forms of corn accounted for 74.7% of the concentrate supplement, which was fed at 9 kg/d (DM). The experiment was 13 wk, during which cows grazed permanent native pasture containing mostly grasses and some clover. Milk yield was 2.4 kg/d higher for cows fed ground high moisture shelled corn than for those fed dry cracked shelled corn. Milk fat content was lower (3.28 vs. 3.67%), but protein content was higher (3.26 vs. 3.15%) for the high moisture corn supplement. Results suggest that high moisture corn can serve as a better supplement for grazing cows than dry corn, likely by providing more metabolizable energy and microbial protein due to more fermentable and digestible starch. PMID:11699454

  6. Impact of recycling stillage on conversion of dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghi, Ali; Schell, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    Both the current corn starch to ethanol industry and the emerging lignocellulosic biofuels industry view recycling of spent fermentation broth or stillage as a method to reduce fresh water use. The objective of this study was to understand the impact of recycling stillage on conversion of corn stover to ethanol. Sugars in a dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate were fermented to ethanol by the glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Three serial fermentations were performed at two different initial sugar concentrations using either 10% or 25% of the stillage as makeup water for the next fermentation in the series. Serial fermentations were performed to achieve near steady state concentration of inhibitors and other compounds in the corn stover hydrolysate. Little impact on ethanol yields was seen at sugar concentrations equivalent to pretreated corn stover slurry at 15% (w/w) with 10% recycle of the stillage. However, ethanol yields became progressively poorer as the sugar concentration increased and fraction of the stillage recycled increased. At an equivalent corn stover slurry concentration of 20% with 25% recycled stillage the ethanol yield was only 5%. For this microorganism with dilute-acid pretreated corn stover, recycling a large fraction of the stillage had a significant negative impact on fermentation performance. Although this finding is of concern for biochemical-based lignocellulose conversion processes, other microorganism/pretreatment technology combinations will likely perform differently. PMID:19998277

  7. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid

  8. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid

  9. Amylolysis of raw corn by Aspergillus niger for simultaneous ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, I.Y.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The novelty of this approach was hydrolysis of the raw starch in ground corn to fermentable sugars that are simultaneously fermented to ethanol by yeast in a nonsterile environment. Thus, the conventional cooking step can be eliminated for energy conservation. A koji of Aspergillus niger grown on whole corn for 3 days was the crude enzyme source. A ratio of 0.2 g dry koji/g total solids was found sufficient. Optimum pH was 4.2. Ethanol concentration was 7.7% (w/w) in the aqueous phase with 92% raw starch conversion. Agitation increased rate. Sacharification was the rate-limiting step. The initial ethanol concentration preventing fermentation was estimated to be 8.3% by weight. (Refs. 96).

  10. Fuel ethanol from raw corn by Aspergilli hydrolysis with concurrent yeast fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Steinberg, M.P.; Rodda, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.9%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 g of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 h. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41/sup 0/C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield. 41 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Conversion of corn milling low-value co-products to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Dien, B.S.; Hespell, R.B.; Bothast, R.J.; Ingram, L.O.

    1996-12-31

    Most of the fuel ethanol produced in the United States is derived from corn starch. The ethanol yield can be significantly increased if the hemicellulose fraction of the corn kernel is also fermented. The hemicellulose and cellulose fractions are presently marketed as cattle feed. Conversion of the hemicellulose fraction to ethanol is problematic because, in addition to glucose from the residual starch, hydrolysis of the hemicellulose gives a mixture of pentoses (arabinose and xylose) and traditional industrial yeast do not ferment pentoses. We have evaluated non-traditional recombinant microorganisms for conversion of the hemicellulose fractions into ethanol. The hemicellulose were hydrolyzed with weak acid solutions and resulting sugar mixtures fermented using recombinant Escherichia coli strains K011 and SL40. Results of the fermentation are discussed in terms of volumetric ethanol production rates, ethanol yields, and effect of inhibitors produced during hydrolysis. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Corn silage hybrid effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Al-Jobeile, H; Coors, J G; Lauer, J G

    2000-12-01

    Three corn hybrids harvested as whole-plant silage were evaluated in three separate feeding trials with lactating dairy cows. In trial 1, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods. Treatments were conventional (Pioneer 3563) and leafy (Mycogen TMF 106) corn silage hybrids, each planted at low (59,000 plants/ha) and high (79,000 plants/ha) plant populations. There were no milk production differences between treatments. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was higher for leafy compared with conventional corn hybrids. In trial 2, 26 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to diets containing either conventional (48% forage diet) or brown-midrib (60% forage diet) corn silage in a crossover design with 8-wk periods. Milk yield was lower, but milk fat percentage and yield were higher, for the high-forage diet containing brown-midrib corn silage. In trial 3, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods. Treatments were corn silage at two concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (Garst 8751, 39.2% NDF; Cargill 3677, 32.8% NDF) each fed in normal- (53% of dry matter) and high- (61 to 67% of dry matter) forage diets. Milk production was not different between corn hybrids. Increased concentrate supplementation increased DMI and milk production. There were minimal benefits to the feeding of leafy or low-fiber corn silage hybrids. Feeding brown-midrib corn silage in a high-forage diet increased milk fat percentage and yield compared with conventional corn silage fed in a normal-forage diet. PMID:11132857

  13. Rheological properties of reactive extrusion modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide copolymer gels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymers prepared by reactive extrusion were investigated. Both materials can absorb huge amount of water and form gels. The modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymer gels all exhibite...

  14. Comparison of Cationic and Unmodified Starches in Reactive Extrusion of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of starch and polyacrylamide (PAAm) were prepared using reactive extrusion in a corotating twin screw extruder. The effect of cationic starch modification was examined using unmodified and cationic dent starch (approximately 23% amylose) and waxy maize starch (approximately 2% amyl...

  15. Starch phosphorylation: insights and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mahlow, Sebastian; Orzechowski, Sławomir; Fettke, Joerg

    2016-07-01

    During starch metabolism, the phosphorylation of glucosyl residues of starch, to be more precise of amylopectin, is a repeatedly observed process. This phosphorylation is mediated by dikinases, the glucan, water dikinase (GWD) and the phosphoglucan, water dikinase (PWD). The starch-related dikinases utilize ATP as dual phosphate donor transferring the terminal γ-phosphate group to water and the β-phosphate group selectively to either C6 position or C3 position of a glucosyl residue within amylopectin. By the collaborative action of both enzymes, the initiation of a transition of α-glucans from highly ordered, water-insoluble state to a less order state is realized and thus the initial process of starch degradation. Consequently, mutants lacking either GWD or PWD reveal a starch excess phenotype as well as growth retardation. In this review, we focus on the increased knowledge collected over the last years related to enzymatic properties, the precise definition of the substrates, the physiological implications, and discuss ongoing questions. PMID:27147464

  16. Quality of Spelt Wheat and its Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flours from 5 spelt cultivars grown over 3 years were evaluated as to their bread baking quality and isolated starch properties. The starch properties included amylose contents, gelatinization temperatures (differential scanning calorimetry), granule size distributions and pasting properties. Mill...

  17. Permeability of starch gel matrices and select films to solvent vapors.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur P; Ludvik, Charles; Shey, Justin; Imam, Syed H; Chiou, Bor-Sen; McHugh, Tara; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Orts, William; Wood, Delilah; Offeman, Rick

    2006-05-01

    Volatile agrochemicals such as 2-heptanone have potential in safely and effectively controlling important agricultural pests provided that they are properly delivered. The present study reports the permeability of starch gel matrices and various coatings, some of which are agricultural-based, that could be used in controlled release devices. Low-density, microcellular starch foam was made from wheat, Dent corn, and high amylose corn starches. The foam density ranged from 0.14 to 0.34 g/cm3, the pore volume ranged from 74 to 89%, and the loading capacity ranged from 2.3 to 7.2 times the foam weight. The compressive properties of the foam were not markedly affected by saturating the pore volume with silicone oil. The vapor transmission rate (VTR) and vapor permeability (VP) were measured in dry, porous starch foam and silicone-saturated starch gels. VTR values were highest in foam samples containing solvents with high vapor pressures. Silicone oil-saturated gels had lower VTR and VP values as compared to the dry foam. However, the silicone oil gel did not markedly reduce the VP for 2-heptanone and an additional vapor barrier or coating was needed to adequately reduce the evaporation rate. The VP of films of beeswax, paraffin, ethylene vinyl alcohol, a fruit film, and a laminate comprised of beeswax and fruit film was measured. The fruit film had a relatively high VP for polar solvents and a very low VP for nonpolar solvents. The laminate film provided a low VP for polar and nonpolar solvents. Perforating the fruit film portion of the laminate provided a method of attaining the target flux rate of 2-heptanone. The results demonstrate that the vapor flux rate of biologically active solvents can be controlled using agricultural materials. PMID:16637688

  18. One-Pot Biosynthesis of High-Concentration α-Glucose 1-Phosphate from Starch by Sequential Addition of Three Hyperthermophilic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; You, Chun; Ma, Hongwu; Ma, Yanhe; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2016-03-01

    α-Glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) is synthesized from 5% (w/v) corn starch and 1 M phosphate mediated by α-glucan phosphorylase (αGP) from the thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima at pH 7.2 and 70 °C. To increase G1P yield from corn starch containing branched amylopectin, a hyper-thermostable isoamylase from Sulfolobus tokodaii was added for simultaneous starch gelatinization and starch-debranching hydrolysis at 85 °C and pH 5.5 before αGP use. The pretreatment of isoamylase increased G1P titer from 120 mM to 170 mM. To increase maltose and maltotriose utilization, the third thermostable enzyme, 4-glucanotransferase (4GT) from Thermococcus litoralis, was added during the late stage of G1P biotransformation, further increasing G1P titer to 200 mM. This titer is the highest G1P level obtained on starch or its derived products (maltodextrin and soluble starch). This study suggests that in vitro multienzyme biotransformation has an advantage of great engineering flexibility in terms of space and time compared with microbial fermentation. PMID:26832825

  19. Starch Granule Variability in Wild Solanum Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because most of the dry matter of potato tubers is starch, an understanding of starch properties is important in potato improvement programs. Starch granule size is considered to influence tuber processing quality parameters such as gelatinization temperature, viscosity, and water holding capacity. ...

  20. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  1. Structure of Porous Starch Microcellular Foam Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new starch product with various novel applications is a porous microcellular foam. The foam product is made by dehydrating a starch hydrogel in a solvent such as ethanol and then removing the solvent to form a foam product. The process involves heating an aqueous slurry of starch (8% w/...

  2. Rice functionality, starch structure and the genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through collaborative efforts among USDA scientists at Beaumont, Texas, we have gained in-depth knowledge of how rice functionality, i.e. the texture of the cooked rice, rice processing properties, and starch gelatinization temperature, are associated with starch-synthesis genes and starch structure...

  3. Esterification of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We shall discuss the use of various ionic liquids in the preparation of starch esters. Starch was reacted with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim) salts as solvents in an effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution (DS) w...

  4. Starch in the Wet-End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Clerck, Peter

    Starch has been used in papermaking almost since the invention of paper. The global paper industry consumes almost 5 million tonnes of starch per year, making starch the third most important raw material in papermaking. Roughly 20% of this is used in the wet-end.

  5. Properties of retrograded and acetylated starch produced via starch extrusion or starch hydrolysis with pullulanase.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Styczyńska, M; Wilczak, A

    2013-09-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of serial modifications of starch, including firstly starch extrusion or hydrolysis with pullulanase, followed by retrogradation (through freezing and defrosting of pastes) and acetylation (under industrial conditions), on its susceptibility to amylolysis. The method of production had a significant effect on properties of the resultant preparations, whilst the direction and extent of changes depended on the type of modification applied. In the produced starch esters, the degree of substitution, expressed by the per cent of acetylation, ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 g/100 g. The acetylation had a significant impact on contents of elements determined with the atomic emission spectrometry, as it contributed to an increased Na content and decreased contents of Ca and K. The DSC thermal characteristics enabled concluding that the modifications caused an increase in temperatures and a decrease in heat of transition (or its lack). The acetylation of retrograded starch preparations increased their solubility in water and water absorbability. The modifications were found to exert various effects on the rheological properties of pastes determined based on the Brabender's pasting characteristics and flow curves determined with the use of an oscillatory-rotating viscosimeter. All starch acetates produced were characterized by ca. 40% resistance to amylolysis. PMID:23911484

  6. Influence of corn silage hybrid type on lactation performance by Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Shaver, R D

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed nutridense (ND), dual-purpose (DP), or brown midrib (BM) corn silage hybrids at the same concentration in the diets. A secondary objective was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed NutriDense corn silage at a higher concentration in the diet. One hundred twenty-eight Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows (105 ± 38 d in milk) were stratified by breed and parity and randomly assigned to 16 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Three treatment total mixed rations (TMR; DP40, BM40, and ND40) contained 40% of dry matter (DM) from the respective corn silage hybrid and 20% of DM from alfalfa silage. The fourth treatment TMR had ND corn silage as the sole forage at 65% of DM (ND65). A 2-wk covariate adjustment period preceded the treatment period, with all pens receiving a TMR with equal proportions of DP40, BM40, and ND40. Following the covariate period, cows were fed their assigned treatment diets for 11 wk. nutridense corn silage had greater starch and lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content than DP or BM, resulting in ND40 having greater energy content (73.2% of total digestible nutrients, TDN) than DP40 or BM40 (71.9 and 71.4% TDN, respectively). Cows fed BM40 had greater milk yield than DP40, whereas ND40 tended to have greater milk yield and had greater protein and lactose yields compared with DP40. No differences in intake, component-corrected milk yields, or feed efficiency were detected between DP40, BM40, and ND40. Milk yield differences may be due to increased starch intake for ND40 and increased digestible NDF intake for BM40 compared with DP40. Intake and milk yield and composition were similar for ND40 compared with BM40, possibly due to counteracting effects of higher starch intake for ND40 and higher digestible NDF intake for BM40. Feeding ND65 reduced intake, and thus milk and component yields, compared with

  7. Compositional and physicochemical factors governing the viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG embedded in starch-protein based edible films

    PubMed Central

    Soukoulis, Christos; Singh, Poonam; Macnaughtan, William; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic incorporation in edible films and coatings has been shown recently to be an efficient strategy for the delivery of probiotics in foods. In the present work, the impact of the compositional, physicochemical and structural properties of binary starch-protein edible films on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG viability and stability was evaluated. Native rice and corn starch, as well as bovine skin gelatine, sodium caseinate and soy protein concentrate were used for the fabrication of the probiotic edible films. Starch and protein type both impacted the structural, mechanical, optical and thermal properties of the films, and the process loss of L. rhamnosus GG during evaporation-dehydration was significantly lower in the presence of proteins (0.91–1.07 log CFU/g) compared to solely starch based systems (1.71 log CFU/g). A synergistic action between rice starch and proteins was detected when monitoring the viability of L. rhamnosus GG over four weeks at fridge and room temperature conditions. In particular, a 3- to 7-fold increase in the viability of L. rhamnosus GG was observed in the presence of proteins, with sodium caseinate – rice starch based films offering the most enhanced stability. The film's shelf-life (as calculated using the FAO/WHO (2011) basis of 6 log viable CFU/g) ranged between 27-96 and 15–24 days for systems stored at fridge or room temperature conditions respectively. PMID:26726280

  8. Starch characteristics influencing resistant starch content of cooked buckwheat groats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzyme resistant starch (RS), owing to its health benefits such as colon cancer inhibition, reduced glycemic response, reduced cholesterol level, prevention of gall stone formation and obesity, has received an increasing attention from consumers and food manufacturers, whereas intrinsic and extrinsi...

  9. Foliar diseases of corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  10. Effect of anthocyanin-rich corn silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Kenji; Eruden, Bayaru; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Shioya, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Anthocyanin in purple corn (Zea mays L.) has been reported to show several functional and biological attributes, displaying antioxidant, antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in monogastric animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays L., Choko C922) silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows. The cows were fed diets based on the control corn or the anthocyanin-rich corn silage (AR treatment) in a crossover design. The anthocyanin-rich corn silage-based diet had a lower starch content, nutrient digestibility and total digestible nutrients content when compared to the control diet. The milk yield, lactose and solids-not-fat contents in the AR-treatment cows were lower than in the control cows. The feeding of the anthocyanin-rich corn silage led to a reduction in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the plasma. These data suggest that the anthocyanin-rich corn has a lowering effect on AST activity with concomitant enhancement of SOD activity in lactating dairy cows. However, a new variety of anthocyanin-rich corn with good nutritional value is needed for practical use as a ruminant feed. PMID:22694328

  11. Use of dried waste of cassava starch extraction for feeding lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Tatiane; Zambom, Maximiliane A; Castagnara, Deise D; Souza, Leiliane C; Damasceno, Daiane O; Schmidt, Emerson L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best level of utilization of dried waste of cassava starch extraction (WCSEd) as a substitute for corn for lactating cows. Four lactating cows were fed diets with increasing levels (0%, 33%, 66% and 100%) of WCSEd as a substitute for corn. The intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, milk production and composition, blood parameters of glucose and urea and microbial synthesis of the diets were evaluated. There was a reduction in dry matter intake, organic matter, ether extract and total carbohydrate, and increased intake of acid detergent fiber. Nutrient digestibility was not affected while the synthesis of microbial protein increased. These changes resulted in reduced milk production, without altering the efficiency of production or the constituents of milk, with a decreasing effect on daily production of lactose, solids and minerals. Metabolic parameters, glucose and urea nitrogen in plasma, remained within appropriate levels. The dried residue from the extraction of cassava starch can be used as feed for dairy cows to replace up to 100% of the corn ration. However, its use promotes a reduction in intake of dry matter and nutrients as well as a reduction in the production of milk, with impacts on the profitability of the product. PMID:25860971

  12. Bioavailability of starch based hot stage extrusion formulations.

    PubMed

    Henrist, D; Lefebvre, R A; Remon, J P

    1999-10-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a starch based hot stage extrusion formulation for controlled drug delivery and to evaluate its in vivo behavior. The extrusion mixture consisted of 53% corn starch as the matrix forming agent, 15% sorbitol as a plasticizer, 30% theophylline monohydrate as the model drug and 2% glyceryl monostearate as a lubricant. The extrudates were produced by means of a corotating twin screw extruder of APV Baker equipped with a twin screw powder feeder and a 3-mm cylindrical die. During extrusion 20% water (based on the wet mass) was added to the powder mixture. The extrudates were dried in an oven at 60 degrees C during 48 h, cut and filled out in hard gelatine capsules, in a way that the content of two capsules corresponded with a dose of 300 mg anhydrous theophylline. The dissolution profile of the experimental dosage form was retarded with a drug release of around 80% in 8 h. The in vivo behavior of the experimental formulation was evaluated in a randomized crossover design study (n=8) with a commercially available multiple unit sustained release product as the reference formulation. The plasma samples were analyzed by a validated HPLC-UV method with solid phase extraction for the sample preparation. It was clear that the experimental formulation exhibited sustained release behavior, but that it performed less well than the multiple unit dosage form. PMID:10502624

  13. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    PubMed

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  14. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA. PMID:26876996

  15. Annealing properties of rice starch.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of starch can be modified by annealing, i.e., a pre-treatment in excessive amounts of water at temperatures below the gelatinization temperatures. This treatment is known to improve the crystalline properties, and is a useful tool to gain a better control of the functional proper...

  16. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  17. The effect of amino acids on lipid production and nutrient removal by Rhodotorula glutinis cultivation in starch wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the components of amino acids in mixed starch wastewater (corn steep water/corn gluten water=1/3, v/v) were analyzed by GC-MS. Effects of amino acids on lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis and COD removal were studied. The results showed that mixed starch wastewater contained 9 kinds of amino acids and these amino acids significantly improved the biomass (13.63g/L), lipid yield (2.48g/L) and COD removal compared to the basic medium (6.23g/L and 1.56g/L). In a 5L fermentor containing mixed starch wastewater as substrate to culture R. glutinis, the maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid yield reached 26.38g/L, 28.90% and 7.62g/L, with the associated removal rates of COD, TN and TP reaching 77.41%, 69.12% and 73.85%, respectively. The results revealed a promising approach for lipid production with using amino acids present in starch wastewater as an alternative nitrogen source. PMID:27420158

  18. High titer gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger from dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover without detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongsen; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study reported a high titer gluconic acid fermentation using dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover (DDAP) hydrolysate without detoxification. The selected fermenting strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M276 was capable of inhibitor degradation thus no detoxification on pretreated corn stover was required. Parameters of gluconic acid fermentation in corn stover hydrolysate were optimized in flasks and in fermentors to achieve 76.67 g/L gluconic acid with overall yield of 94.91%. The sodium gluconate obtained from corn stover was used as additive for extending setting time of cement mortar and similar function was obtained with starch based sodium gluconate. This study provided the first high titer gluconic acid production from lignocellulosic feedstock with potential of industrial applications. PMID:26724553

  19. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover: current production methods, economic viability and commercial use.

    PubMed

    Baral, Nawa R; Slutzky, Lauren; Shah, Ajay; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Cornish, Katrina; Christy, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol is a next-generation liquid biofuel with properties akin to those of gasoline. There is a widespread effort to commercialize biobutanol production from agricultural residues, such as corn stover, which do not compete with human and animal foods. This pursuit is backed by extensive government mandates to expand alternative energy sources. This review provides an overview of research on biobutanol production using corn stover feedstock. Structural composition, pretreatment, sugar yield (following pretreatment and hydrolysis) and generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) from corn stover are discussed. The review also discusses different Clostridium species and strains employed for biobutanol production from corn stover-derived sugars with respect to solvent yields, tolerance to LDMICs and in situ solvent recovery (integrated fermentation). Further, the economics of cellulosic biobutanol production are highlighted and compared to corn starch-derived ethanol and gasoline. As discussed herein, the economic competitiveness of biobutanol production from corn stover largely depends on feedstock processing and fermentation process design. PMID:26872494

  20. Changes in fermentation and biohydrogenation intermediates in continuous cultures fed low and high levels of fat with increasing rates of starch degradability.

    PubMed

    Lascano, G J; Alende, M; Koch, L E; Jenkins, T C

    2016-08-01

    Excessive levels of starch in diets for lactating dairy cattle is a known risk factor for milk fat depression, but little is known about how this risk is affected by differences in rates of starch degradability (Kd) in the rumen. The objective of this study was to compare accumulation of biohydrogenation intermediates causing milk fat depression, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), when corn with low or high Kd were fed to continuous cultures. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 50% forage (alfalfa pellets and grass hay) and 50% concentrate, with either no added fat (LF) or 3.3% added soybean oil (HF). Within both the LF and HF diets, 3 starch degradability treatments were obtained by varying the ratio of processed (heat and pressure treatments) and unprocessed corn sources, giving a total of 6 dietary treatments. Each diet was fed to dual-flow continuous fermenters 3 times a day at 0800, 1600, and 2400h. Diets were fed for four 10-d periods, with 7d for adaptation and 3d for sample collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used in the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS to test the effects of fat, starch degradability, and their interaction. Acetate and acetate:propionate were lower for HF than for LF but daily production of trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA were higher for HF than for LF. Increasing starch Kd from low to high increased culture pH, acetate, and valerate but decreased butyrate and isobutyrate. Changes in biohydrogenation intermediates (expressed as % of total isomers) from low to high starch Kd included reductions in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA but increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA. The results show that increasing the starch Kd in continuous cultures while holding starch level constant causes elevation of biohydrogenation intermediates linked to milk fat depression. PMID:27265165

  1. Synchrotron Infrared Confocal Microspectroscopical Detection of Heterogeneity Within Chemically Modified Single Starch Granules

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.; Shi, Y; Reffner, J

    2010-01-01

    This reports the first detection of chemical heterogeneity in octenyl succinic anhydride modified single starch granules using a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopical technique that combines diffraction-limited infrared microspectroscopy with a step size that is less than the mask projected spot size focused on the plane of the sample. The high spatial resolution was achieved with the combination of the application of a synchrotron infrared source and the confocal image plane masking system of the double-pass single-mask Continuum{reg_sign} infrared microscope. Starch from grains such as corn and wheat exists in granules. The size of the granules depends on the plant producing the starch. Granules used in this study typically had a median size of 15 {micro}m. In the production of modified starch, an acid anhydride typically is reacted with OH groups of the starch polymer. The resulting esterification adds the ester carbonyl (1723 cm{sup -1}) organic functional group to the polymer and the hydrocarbon chain of the ester contributes to the CH{sub 2} stretching vibration to enhance the intensity of the 2927 cm{sup -1} band. Detection of the relative modifying population on a single granule was accomplished by ratioing the baseline adjusted peak area of the carbonyl functional group to that of a carbohydrate band. By stepping a confocally defined infrared beam as small as 5 {micro}m x 5 {micro}m across a starch granule 1 {micro}m at a time in both the x and y directions, the heterogeneity is detected with the highest possible spatial resolution.

  2. Autoclave and beta-amylolysis lead to reduced in vitro digestibility of starch.

    PubMed

    Hickman, B Elliot; Janaswamy, Srinivas; Yao, Yuan

    2009-08-12

    In this study, a combination of autoclave and beta-amylolysis was used to modulate the digestibility of normal corn starch (NCS) and wheat starch (WS). The modification procedure comprised three cycles of autoclave at 35% moisture content and 121 degrees C, beta-amylolysis, and one additional cycle of autoclave. Starch materials were sampled at each stage and characterized. The fine structure of starch was determined using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, the micromorphology of starch dispersion was imaged using cryo-SEM, the crystalline pattern was evaluated using wide-angle X-ray powder diffraction, and the digestibility was measured using Englyst assay. After beta-amylolysis, amylose was enriched (from 25.4 to 33.2% for NCS and from 27.5 to 32.8% for WS) and the branch density was increased (from 5.2 to 7.7% for NCS and from 5.3 to 7.9% for WS). Cryo-SEM images showed that the autoclave treatment led to the formation of a low-swelling, high-density gel network, whereas beta-amylolysis nearly demolished the network structure. The loss of A-type crystalline structure and the formation of B- and V-type structures resulted from autoclave, which suggests the formation of amylose-based ordered structure. Englyst assay indicated that, due to beta-amylolysis, the resistant starch (RS) content was increased to 30 from 11% of native NCS and to 23 from 9% of native WS. In contrast, autoclave showed only minor impact on RS levels. The increase of RS observed in this study is associated with enhanced branch density, which is different from the four types of RS commonly defined. PMID:19572519

  3. In vitro assessment of the enzymatic degradation of several starch based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Helena S; Gama, Francisco M; Reis, Rui L

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility of starch-based biomaterials to enzymatic degradation by amylolytic enzymes (glucoamylase and alpha-amylase) was investigated by means of incubating the materials with a buffer solution, containing enzymes at different concentrations and combinations, at 37 degrees C for 6 weeks. Two polymeric blends of corn starch with poly(ethylene-vinyl alcohol) copolymer and poly(epsilon-caprolactone), designated by SEVA-C and SPCL, respectively, were studied. The material degradation was characterized by gravimetry measurements, tensile mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourrier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). The degradation liquors were analyzed for determination of reducing sugars, as a result of enzyme activity, and high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was used to identify the degradation products. All of the analysis performed showed that starch polymeric blends are susceptible to enzymatic degradation, as detected by increased weight loss and reducing sugars in solution. alpha-Amylase caused significant changes on the overall mechanical properties of the materials, with a decrease of about 65% and 58% being observed in the moduli for SEVA-C and SPCL, respectively, when compared with the control (samples incubated in buffer only). SEM analysis detected the presence of fractures and pores at the material's surface as a result of starch degradation by amylolytic enzymes. FTIR spectra confirmed a decrease on the band corresponding to glycosidic linkage (-C-O-C-) of starch after incubation of the materials with alpha-amylase. In contrast, the incubation of the polymers in buffer only, did not cause significant changes on the material's properties and morphology. Comparing the two materials, SEVA-C exhibited a higher degradability, which is related to the physicochemical structure of the materials and also to the fact that the starch concentration

  4. Effects of various roughage levels with whole flint corn grain on performance of finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Marques, R S; Chagas, L J; Owens, F N; Santos, F A P

    2016-01-01

    Performance responses to steam flaking flint corn as well as to the addition of roughage to finishing diets composed of whole flint corn were evaluated. Ninety-six Nellore bulls were stratified by initial BW (373 ± 11 kg) and randomly allotted to 16 feedlot pens (6 bulls/pen) in a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates/treatment. Dietary treatments for the 86-d feeding trial consisted of (DM basis) 1) 78.8% steam-flaked flint corn with 6% sugarcane bagasse and 0.20% urea, 2) 85% whole flint corn without sugarcane bagasse, 3) 81.9% whole flint corn with 3% sugarcane bagasse and 0.10% urea, and 4) 78.8% whole flint corn with 6% sugarcane bagasse and 0.20% urea. All diets contained 15% (DM basis) of a pelleted protein, mineral, and vitamin supplement. Compared with whole flint corn grain, flaking of flint grain decreased ( < 0.01) DMI but did not alter ADG ( = 0.86), so G:F was increased ( = 0.02). Although steam flaking did not alter final BW and carcass characteristics ( > 0.47), it increased energy content of the diet ( < 0.03) and total tract starch digestibility ( < 0.01). In addition, flaking increased ( < 0.01) NEg of flint corn when compared with whole corn. Increasing the roughage content of WC-based diets resulted in quadratic ( < 0.02) responses in DMI, NEm and NEg intakes, ADG, and final BW but had no effect ( > 0.47) on G:F or on observed energy content of the diet. In summary, steam flaking of flint corn when fed in diets containing 6% sugarcane bagasse decreased DMI by 17% but increased G:F by 20% and NEg of corn calculated from feedlot performance by 23%; these responses markedly exceed those typically observed with dent corn grain. Moreover, adding 3% sugarcane bagasse to a flint whole corn grain diet optimized feedlot performance of Nellore bulls. PMID:26812339

  5. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol...

  6. Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis protect corn from corn rootworms.

    PubMed

    Moellenbeck, D J; Peters, M L; Bing, J W; Rouse, J R; Higgins, L S; Sims, L; Nevshemal, T; Marshall, L; Ellis, R T; Bystrak, P G; Lang, B A; Stewart, J L; Kouba, K; Sondag, V; Gustafson, V; Nour, K; Xu, D; Swenson, J; Zhang, J; Czapla, T; Schwab, G; Jayne, S; Stockhoff, B A; Narva, K; Schnepf, H E; Stelman, S J; Poutre, C; Koziel, M; Duck, N

    2001-07-01

    Field tests of corn co-expressing two new delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have demonstrated protection from root damage by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte). The level of protection exceeds that provided by chemical insecticides. In the bacterium, these proteins form crystals during the sporulation phase of the growth cycle, are encoded by a single operon, and have molecular masses of 14 kDa and 44 kDa. Corn rootworm larvae fed on corn roots expressing the proteins showed histopathological symptoms in the midgut epithelium. PMID:11433280

  7. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  8. Continuous bioconversion of starch to ethanol by calcium-alginate immobilized enzymes and yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, J.E.; Carr, M.E.; St. Julian, G.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous bioconversion of starch to EtOH by immobilized enzymes and yeasts was studied. Commercial corn starch (10%) was 1st batch-liquefied with bacterial alpha-amylase. In continuous-flow systems, liquefied starch was then converted to glucose with Ca alginate-entrapped fungal glucoamylase, and the resulting glucose was fermented to EtOH by Ca alginate-entrapped active dry yeast. The continuous-flow saccharification-fermentation processes were performed in either 2-stage (sequential) or single-stage (simultaneous) operations. In the single-stage operation, immobilized glucoamylase produced glucose from liquefied starch continuously for 11 days. In the simultaneous saccharification technique using immobilized glucoamylase and yeast mixture in a single-stage column, EtOH production was 69% of theoretical for 5 days. In the 2-stage operation, in which immobilized glucoamylase and yeast were contained in separate columns connected in tandem, EtOH production averaged 97% of theoretical for 5 days. The overall alcoholic production efficiency was significantly greater in the 2-stage system than in the single-stage system.

  9. Effects of montmorillonite addition on the performance of starch-based wood adhesive.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan

    2015-01-22

    Effects of montmorillonite (MMT) addition on the performance of corn starch-based wood adhesive were investigated. It was found that MMT addition could enhance the shear strength of the starch-based wood adhesive. The shear strength of the adhesive with 5% (w/w, dry starch basis) MMT reached 10.6 MPa in the dry state, which was almost twice that of the same adhesive without MMT. Addition of 5% MMT also produced an approximately 1.2-fold increase in the shear strength in the wet state. Although this addition caused an increase in the viscosity, the resulting adhesive retained both good mobility and viscosity stability during storage. MMT also enhanced the shear-thinning and solid-like behaviors of the adhesive, compared with the adhesive without MMT. Finally, MMT addition improved the thermal stability of the adhesive. In conclusion, addition of MMT to starch-based wood adhesives can improve their overall performance, enhancing their value as alternatives for traditional petrochemical-based wood adhesives. PMID:25439910

  10. Gamma radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride onto starch.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohua; Song, Weiqiang; Ti, Yongzhou; Qu, Lingbo; Zhao, Zhiwei; Zheng, Hongjuan

    2013-01-30

    Corn starch graft copolymers were prepared from acrylamide/dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride binary monomers (AM/DMDAAC) by a simultaneous radiation grafting method, and were characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques, weight measurement and titration method. The copolymers with high grafting ratio and high grafting efficiency of binary monomers were achieved at absorbed doses of 2 kGy and 3 kGy using a 6:9.8:4.2 (w/w/w) ratio of starch/AM/DMDAAC, but their cationic degrees were low. Grafting ratio, grafting efficiency and cationic degree of the copolymers increased with increasing AM content in comonomer mixtures and then decreased at 3kGy using a 6:14 ratio of starch:total comonomers, but their cationic degrees generally decreased with increasing AM content. The grafting ratio, the grafting efficiency and the cationic degree of the copolymers increased, but the grafting efficiency of DMDAAC decreased with varying starch/(AM+DMDAAC) ratio from 6:3 to 6:18 at 3 kGy by using a fixed 7:3 ratio of AM:DMDAAC. PMID:23218310

  11. Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Bracken (Pteridium aquilinim) Rhizome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xurun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. PMID:26551243

  12. Rheological and textural properties of pulse starch gels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The properties of starch gels from black beans, chickpeas, lentils and navy beans were investigated. Differences were shown between starch sources, and effect of starch concentration was studied. Navy bean starch had the highest peak and final viscosities in pasting tests, while black bean starch h...

  13. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.; Bentley, G.; Trevino, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:8646101

  14. Lycopene bioaccessibility and starch digestibility for extruded snacks enriched with tomato derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dehghan-Shoar, Zeinab; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Hardacre, Allan K; Reynolds, Gordon W; Brennan, Charles S

    2011-11-23

    To improve the nutritional value of energy-dense extruded snacks, corn grits were replaced with tomato paste and/or tomato skin powder at ratios of 5, 10, and 20% and extruded to make expanded snack foodlike products. Using a model digestion system, lycopene bioaccessibility and uptake from the snacks into Caco-2 cells were determined. The digestibility of the starch, the main nutrient component of the snacks, was also investigated. While extrusion cooking reduced the lycopene content of the snacks, the proportion of bioaccessible lycopene increased. Lycopene uptake by the Caco-2 cells from the extruded snacks exceeded that of the control in which the lycopene was not extruded, by 5% (p < 0.05). The digestibility of starch in the snacks varied depending on the type of tomato derivative and its concentration. Optimization of the extrusion cooking process and the ingredients can yield functional extruded snack products that contain bioavailable lycopene. PMID:21981281

  15. Stability of immobilized amyloglucosidase in the process of Cassava starch saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Zanin, G.M.; De Moraes, F.F.

    1995-12-31

    The half-life of immobilized amyloglucosidase was determined in a fluidized-bed reactor operating continuously with a 30% w/v liquefied cassava starch solution at pH 4.5 and temperatures from 50 to 70{degrees}C. For the higher temperatures: 60, 65, and 70{degrees}C, thermal deactivation gives half-lives of 127, 38 and 7.3 h, respectively, in close agreement with corn starch data. For the lower temperatures: 55 and 60{degrees}C, the deposition of impurities over the immobilized enzyme particle contributes significantly to deactivation, lowering expected half-lives to 32.6 and 13.2 d, respectively. Commercial exploitation of this process would then require low temperature of operation, thorough purification of the substrate solution, and control of microbial contamination to achieve sufficiently long half-lives.

  16. The Simultaneous Abolition of Three Starch Hydrolases Blocks Transient Starch Breakdown in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Eicke, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which enzymes are involved in debranching amylopectin during transient starch degradation. Previous studies identified two debranching enzymes, isoamylase 3 (ISA3) and limit dextrinase (LDA), involved in this process. However, plants lacking both enzymes still degrade substantial amounts of starch. Thus, other enzymes/mechanisms must contribute to starch breakdown. We show that the chloroplastic α-amylase 3 (AMY3) also participates in starch degradation and provide evidence that all three enzymes can act directly at the starch granule surface. The isa3 mutant has a starch excess phenotype, reflecting impaired starch breakdown. In contrast, removal of AMY3, LDA, or both enzymes together has no impact on starch degradation. However, removal of AMY3 or LDA in addition to ISA3 enhances the starch excess phenotype. In plants lacking all three enzymes, starch breakdown is effectively blocked, and starch accumulates to the highest levels observed so far. This provides indirect evidence that the heteromultimeric debranching enzyme ISA1-ISA2 is not involved in starch breakdown. However, we illustrate that ISA1-ISA2 can hydrolyze small soluble branched glucans that accumulate when ISA3 and LDA are missing, albeit at a slow rate. Starch accumulation in the mutants correlates inversely with plant growth. PMID:23019330

  17. Development of yeast strains for the efficient utilisation of starch: evaluation of constructs that express alpha-amylase and glucoamylase separately or as bifunctional fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, L M; Astolfi-Filho, S; Oliver, S G

    1995-11-01

    Eight constructions involving the Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase gene (amyE), a mouse pancreatic alpha-amylase cDNA (AMY2) and an Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase cDNA (glaA) were prepared: three fusion genes, involving one alpha-amylase and the glucoamylase, two double-cassette plasmids (expressing one or other alpha-amylase and the glucoamylase) and three single-cassette plasmids, expressing the individual coding sequences. Following transformation of each plasmid into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a plate test revealed that the largest starch hydrolysis halo was produced by the strain bearing the B. subtilis alpha-amylase/glucoamylase fusion (BsAAase/GAase), and the smallest halo by the one expressing the mouse pancreatic alpha-amylase/glucoamylase fusion (MAAase/GAase). When assayed for enzymatic activity in liquid medium, the strains bearing the fusion and the double-cassette plasmids involving B. subtilis alpha-amylase and the glucoamylase exhibited both enzymic activities. Moreover, the BsAAase/GAase hybrid was able to adsorb and digest raw starch. The MAAse/GAase fusion protein was found to exhibit only alpha-amylase activity. Finally, the capacity to grow on soluble and corn starch was tested in liquid medium for the strains bearing plasmids coding for the fusion proteins and the separate enzymes. The strain carrying the double-cassette BsAAase + GAase, which produced one of the smallest hydrolysis haloes in the place test, showed the best performance, not only in digesting soluble and corn starch but also in using all of the hydrolysis products for growth. The transformant bearing the BsAAase/GAase fusion was able to grow on soluble starch, but not on corn starch. PMID:8590658

  18. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2016-02-10

    Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications. PMID:26686137

  19. Biosynthesis of starch in chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Nakayama, N; Murata, T; Akazawa, T

    1967-03-01

    The enzymic synthesis of ADP-glucose and UDP-glucose by chloroplastic pyrophosphorylase of bean and rice leaves has been demonstrated by paper chromatographic techniques. In both tissues, the activity of UDP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase was much higher than ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase. Glycerate-3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate did not stimulate ADP-glucose formation by a pyrophosphorylation reaction. The major metabolic pathway for UDP-glucose utilization appears to be the synthesis of either sucrose or sucrose-P. On the other hand, a specific precursor role of ADP-glucose for synthesizing chloroplast starch by the ADP-glucose-starch transglucosylase reaction is supported by the coupled enzyme system of ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase and transglucosylase, isolated from chloroplasts. None of the glycolytic intermediates stimulated the glucose transfer in the enzyme sequence of reaction system employed. PMID:4292567

  20. Formation of nanoporous aerogels from wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Ubeyitogullari, Ali; Ciftci, Ozan N

    2016-08-20

    Biodegradable nanoporous aerogels were obtained from wheat starch using a simple and green method based on supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) drying. Effects of processing parameters (temperature, wheat starch concentration and mixing rate during gelatinization; temperature, pressure, and flow rate of CO2, during SC-CO2 drying) on the aerogel formation were investigated, and optimized for the highest surface area and smallest pore size of the aerogels. At the optimized conditions, wheat starch aerogels had surface areas between 52.6-59.7m(2)/g and densities ranging between 0.05-0.29g/cm(3). The average pore size of the starch aerogels was 20nm. Starch aerogels were stable up to 280°C. Due to high surface area and nanoporous structure, wheat starch aerogels are promising carrier systems for bioactives and drugs in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27178916

  1. The diurnal metabolism of leaf starch.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Samuel C; Smith, Steven M; Smith, Alison M

    2007-01-01

    Starch is a primary product of photosynthesis in leaves. In most plants, a large fraction of the carbon assimilated during the day is stored transiently in the chloroplast as starch for use during the subsequent night. Photosynthetic partitioning into starch is finely regulated, and the amount of carbohydrate stored is dependent on the environmental conditions, particularly day length. This regulation is applied at several levels to control the flux of carbon from the Calvin cycle into starch biosynthesis. Starch is composed primarily of branched glucans with an architecture that allows the formation of a semi-crystalline insoluble granule. Biosynthesis has been most intensively studied in non-photosynthetic starch-storing organs, such as developing seeds and tubers. Biosynthesis in leaves has received less attention, but recent reverse-genetic studies of Arabidopsis (thale cress) have produced data generally consistent with what is known for storage tissues. The pathway involves starch synthases, which elongate the glucan chains, and branching enzymes. Remarkably, enzymes that partially debranch glucans are also required for normal amylopectin synthesis. In the last decade, our understanding of starch breakdown in leaves has advanced considerably. Starch is hydrolysed to maltose and glucose at night via a pathway that requires recently discovered proteins in addition to well-known enzymes. These sugars are exported from the plastid to support sucrose synthesis, respiration and growth. In the present review we provide an overview of starch biosynthesis, starch structure and starch degradation in the leaves of plants. We focus on recent advances in each area and highlight outstanding questions. PMID:17150041

  2. Structural and functional properties of C-type starches.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinwen; Cai, Canhui; Man, Jianmin; Zhou, Weidong; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-01-30

    This study investigated the structural and functional properties of C-type starches from pea seeds, faba bean seeds, yam rhizomes and water chestnut corms. These starches were mostly oval in shape with significantly different sizes and contents of amylose, damaged starch and phosphorus. Pea, faba bean and water chestnut starches had central hila, and yam starch had eccentric hilum. Water chestnut and yam starches had higher amylopectin short and long chain, respectively. Water chestnut and faba bean starches showed CA-type crystallinities, and pea and yam starches had C-type crystallinities. Water chestnut starch had the highest swelling power, granule swelling and pasting viscosity, lowest gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy. Faba bean starch had the lowest pasting viscosity, whereas yam starch had the highest gelatinization temperatures. Water chestnut and yam starches possessed significantly higher and lower susceptibility to acid and enzyme hydrolysis, the highest and lowest RDS contents, and the lowest and highest RS contents, respectively. PMID:24299776

  3. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  4. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  5. Sucrose-to-Starch Metabolism in Tomato Fruit Undergoing Transient Starch Accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, A. A.; Petreikov, M.

    1997-01-01

    Immature green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits undergo a period of transient starch accumulation characterized by developmental changes in the activities of key enzymes in the sucrose (Suc)-to-starch metabolic pathway. Activities of Suc synthase, fructokinase, ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase, and soluble and insoluble starch synthases decline dramatically in parallel to the decrease in starch levels in the developing fruit. Comparison of "maximal" in vitro activities of the enzymes in the Suc-to-starch pathway suggests that these same enzymes are limiting to the rate of starch accumulation. In contrast, activities of invertase, UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, and phosphoglucomutase do not exhibit dramatic decreases in activity and appear to be in excess of starch accumulation rates. Starch accumulation is spatially localized in the inner and radial pericarp and columella, whereas the outer pericarp and seed locule contain little starch. The seed locule is characterized by lower activities of Suc synthase, UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase, and soluble and insoluble starch synthases. The outer pericarp exhibits comparatively lower activities of ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase and insoluble starch synthase only. These data are discussed in terms of the developmental and tissue-specific coordinated control of Suc-to-starch metabolism. PMID:12223639

  6. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch.

    PubMed

    Wokadala, Obiro Cuthbert; Emmambux, Naushad Mohammad; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2014-11-01

    In this study, waxy and high amylose starches were modified through butyl-etherification to facilitate compatibility with polylactide (PLA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and wettability tests showed that hydrophobic butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starches were obtained with degree of substitution values of 2.0 and 2.1, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated improved PLA/starch compatibility for both waxy and high amylose starch after butyl-etherification. The PLA/butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starch composite films had higher tensile strength and elongation at break compared to PLA/non-butyl-etherified composite films. The morphological study using SEM showed that PLA/butyl-etherified waxy starch composites had a more homogenous microstructure compared to PLA/butyl-etherified high amylose starch composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PLA/starch composite thermal stability decreased with starch butyl-etherification for both waxy and high amylose starches. This study mainly demonstrates that PLA/starch compatibility can be improved through starch butyl-etherification. PMID:25129738

  7. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-06-15

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had β-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the β-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends. PMID:24491720

  8. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  9. Coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules as a basis for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper production.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Fan, Jun; Chen, Wensen; Shu, Jiayan; Qian, Xueren; Wei, Haifeng; Wang, Qingwen; Shen, Jing

    2016-09-20

    The sustainable, efficient use of renewable bio-based additives in the production of various materials fits well into the concept of sustainability. Here, the concept of coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper-based cellulosic networks is presented. Coaggregation of precipitated calcium carbonate filler particles and uncooked, unmodified corn starch granules by cationic polyacrylamide (a cationic high molecular weight polymer flocculant) in combination with bentonite (an anionic microparticle) prior to addition to cellulosic fiber slurry delivered enhanced filler bondability with cellulosic fibers. For instance, under the conditions studied, preaggregation resulted in an increase in filler bondability factor from 9.24 to 15.21 at starch dosage of 1% (on the basis of the dry weight of papermaking stock). The swelling and gelatinization of the starch granules in starch-filler preaggregates or hybrids enabled the "bridging" of the gaps in cellulosic networks, leading to structural consolidation and strength enhancement. PMID:27261726

  10. Microalgae--novel highly efficient starch producers.

    PubMed

    Brányiková, Irena; Maršálková, Barbora; Doucha, Jiří; Brányik, Tomáš; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Vítová, Milada

    2011-04-01

    The freshwater alga Chlorella, a highly productive source of starch, might substitute for starch-rich terrestrial plants in bioethanol production. The cultivation conditions necessary for maximizing starch content in Chlorella biomass, generated in outdoor scale-up solar photobioreactors, are described. The most important factor that can affect the rate of starch synthesis, and its accumulation, is mean illumination resulting from a combination of biomass concentration and incident light intensity. While 8.5% DW of starch was attained at a mean light intensity of 215 µmol/(m2 s1), 40% of DW was synthesized at a mean light intensity 330 µmol/(m2 s1). Another important factor is the phase of the cell cycle. The content of starch was highest (45% of DW) prior to cell division, but during the course of division, its cellular level rapidly decreased to about 13% of DW in cells grown in light, or to about 4% in those kept in the dark during the division phase. To produce biomass with high starch content, it is necessary to suppress cell division events, but not to disturb synthesis of starch in the chloroplast. The addition of cycloheximide (1 mg/L), a specific inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis, and the effect of element limitation (nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus) were tested. The majority of the experiments were carried out in laboratory-scale photobioreactors, where culture treatments increased starch content to up to about 60% of DW in the case of cycloheximide inhibition or sulfur limitation. When the cells were limited by phosphorus or nitrogen supply, the cellular starch content increased to 55% or 38% of DW, respectively, however, after about 20 h, growth of the cultures stopped producing starch, and the content of starch again decreased. Sulfur limited and cycloheximide-treated cells maintained a high content of starch (60% of DW) for up to 2 days. Sulfur limitation, the most appropriate treatment for scaled-up culture of starch-enriched biomass

  11. Improved method for detection of starch hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohawale, M.R.; Wilson, J.J.; Khachatourians, G.G.; Ingledew, W.M.

    1982-09-01

    A new starch hydrolysis detection method which does not rely on iodine staining or the use of color-complexed starch is described. A linear relationship was obtained with agar-starch plates when net clearing zones around colonies of yeasts were plotted against enzyme levels (semilogarithm scale) produced by the same yeast strains in liquid medium. A similar relationship between starch clearing zones and alpha-amylase levels from three different sources was observed. These observations suggest that the method is useful in mutant isolations, strain improvement programs, and the prediction of alpha-amylase activities in culture filtrates or column effluents. (Refs. 18).

  12. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    testing laboratories analyzed 10 homogenous test materials representing animal feedstuffs and pet foods in duplicate using the dietary starch assay. The test samples ranged from 1 to 70% in dietary starch content and included moist canned dog food, alfalfa pellets, distillers grains, ground corn grain, poultry feed, low starch horse feed, dry dog kibbles, complete dairy cattle feed, soybean meal, and corn silage. The average within-laboratory repeatability SD (sr) for percentage dietary starch in the test samples was 0.49 with a range of 0.03 to 1.56, and among-laboratory repeatability SDs (sR) averaged 0.96 with a range of 0.09 to 2.69. The HorRat averaged 2.0 for all test samples and 1.9 for test samples containing greater than 2% dietary starch. The HorRat results are comparable to those found for AOAC Method 996.11, which measures starch in cereal products. It is recommended that the dietary starch method be accepted for Official First Action status. PMID:25905746

  13. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed

  14. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications. PMID:18026225

  15. Structural and molecular basis of starch viscosity in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Ral, J-P; Cavanagh, C R; Larroque, O; Regina, A; Morell, M K

    2008-06-11

    Wheat starch is considered to have a low paste viscosity relative to other starches. Consequently, wheat starch is not preferred for many applications as compared to other high paste viscosity starches. Increasing the viscosity of wheat starch is expected to increase the functionality of a range of wheat flour-based products in which the texture is an important aspect of consumer acceptance (e.g., pasta, and instant and yellow alkaline noodles). To understand the molecular basis of starch viscosity, we have undertaken a comprehensive structural and rheological analysis of starches from a genetically diverse set of wheat genotypes, which revealed significant variation in starch traits including starch granule protein content, starch-associated lipid content and composition, phosphate content, and the structures of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. Statistical analysis highlighted the association between amylopectin chains of 18-25 glucose residues and starch pasting properties. Principal component analysis also identified an association between monoesterified phosphate and starch pasting properties in wheat despite the low starch-phosphate level in wheat as compared to tuber starches. We also found a strong negative correlation between the phosphate ester content and the starch content in flour. Previously observed associations between internal starch granule fatty acids and the swelling peak time and pasting temperature have been confirmed. This study has highlighted a range of parameters associated with increased starch viscosity that could be used in prebreeding/breeding programs to modify wheat starch pasting properties. PMID:18459791

  16. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Jones, Roger W.; Ai, Yongfeng; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-12-04

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  17. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  18. Quantitative trait loci influencing chemical and sensory characteristics of eating quality in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Azanza, F; Tadmor, Y; Klein, B P; Rocheford, T R; Juvik, J A

    1996-02-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain the chromosomal location and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the chemical and sensory properties of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) eating quality. Eighty-eight RFLPs, 3 cloned genes (sh1, sh2, and dhn1), and 2 morphological markers (a2 and se1) distributed throughout the sweet corn genome were scored in 214 F2:3 families derived from a cross between the inbreds W6786su1Se1 and IL731Asu1se1. Kernel properties associated with eating quality (kernel tenderness and starch, phytoglycogen, sucrose, and dimethyl sulfide concentrations) were quantified on F2:3 sib-pollinated ears harvested at 20 days after pollination. Sensory evaluation was conducted on a subset of 103 F2:3 families to determine intensity of attributes associated with sweet corn eating quality (corn aroma, grassy aroma, sweetness, starchiness, grassy flavor, crispness, tenderness, and juiciness) and overall liking. Single factor analysis of variance revealed significant QTL for all these traits, which accounted for from 3 to 42% of the total phenotypic variation. A proportion of the RFLP markers associated with human sensory response were also found to be associated with kernel characteristics. To our knowledge this is the first report of the identification of QTL associated with human flavor preferences in any food crop. Key words : sweet corn, RFLP, quantitative trait loci, eating quality, sensory evaluation. PMID:18469876

  19. Characterization of co-products from producing ethanol by sequential extraction processing of corn

    SciTech Connect

    Hojilla-Evangelista, M.P.; Johnson, L.A.; Pometto, A.L. III; Svendsen, L.K.

    1996-12-31

    Sequential Extraction Processing (SEP) is a new process for ethanol production that has potential to produce more valuable co-products than alternative processes. Previous work determined the yields of oil and protein and evaluated their chemical and functional properties. The properties of the crude fiber and spent solids, however, have yet to be studied. This research was conducted to evaluate the potential of SEP corn fiber to increase ethanol conversion and as replacement for gum arabic, and evaluate the potential of SEP starch and fiber to be fermented to ethanol. SEP hemicellulose from crude fiber was readily dispersible in water and its solution (5%) gave low viscosity despite having high solids content. These properties indicated potential utilization as stabilizers, thickeners, and adhesive for coatings and batters in food and industrial products. Enzyme hydrolysis studies and batch fermentation of SEP starch/fiber indicated that SEP crude fiber was more readily accessible to the action of cellulases. More ethanol (about 10%) was produced from the fermentation of SEP starch/fiber than from undegermed or degermed soft dent corn, particularly when the hemicellulose fraction was absent from the SEP fiber.

  20. Rheology and pressurised gyration of starch and starch-loaded poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, S; Ren, G G; Edirisinghe, M J

    2014-12-19

    This work investigates the rheology and spinning of starch and starch-loaded poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) by pressurised gyration in order to prepare nanofibres. The spinning dope's rheological properties played a crucial role in fibre formation. Newtonian behaviour is observed in 1-20 wt% starch suspensions and non-Newtonian behaviour is found in all the PEO-starch mixtures. Pressurised gyration of the starch suspensions produced beads only but PEO-starch mixtures generated fibres. The fibre diameter of the PEO-starch samples is shown to be a function of polymer concentration and rotating speed of the gyration system. Fibre formation can only be facilitated below a certain working pressure. The concentration of starch in the PEO-starch mixtures is crucial in defining whether beaded or continuous fibres were generated and this is related to the composition of the spinning dope. FT-IR, XRD and microscopy studies indicated very good miscibility of starch and PEO in the nanofibres. The storage modulus of the PEO-starch were also studied as a function of temperature (30-150°C) and showed interesting results but it was not possible to deduce general trends valid for the entire temperature range. PMID:25263892

  1. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) with the protein content and negatively correlated (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05) with the carbohydrate content. For T. castaneum, the suitable diets were ranked as follows: atta flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P < 0.05) than in the other diets, and the greatest number of progeny was produced from beetles reared on atta flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth. PMID:22299375

  2. Functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) starch.

    PubMed

    Mélo, E A; Stamford, T L M; Silva, M P C; Krieger, N; Stamford, N P

    2003-08-01

    The study was carried out in order to determine and establish the functional characters of starch extracted from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L) Urban) compared with cassava starch. Yam bean is a tropical tuber legume easily grown and holds a great potential as a new source of starch. Yam bean starch shows functional properties which are peculiar to those of most starch root crops. Gelatinization temperature (53-63 degrees C) and the pasting temperature (64.5 degrees C) are less than those of cereal starch, however, the swelling power is high (54.4 g gel/g dried starch). Yam bean starch paste presents a high viscosity profile, high retrogradation tendency and low stability on cooking. The functional properties of yam bean starch, similar to those of cassava starch, allows yam bean to be used as a potential new source of starch. PMID:12676508

  3. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides. PMID:12020008

  4. Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...

  5. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  6. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  7. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  8. Pasting characteristics of starch-lipid composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-lipid composites (SLC) have been used as fat replacers and stabilizers in beef patties, dairy products, and baked goods. The SLC are produced by mixing aqueous starch slurry with a lipid source, and steam jet-cooking. The SLC may be dried using a drum drier and then milled in a Retch mill. ...

  9. Antimicrobial nanostructured starch based films for packaging.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana S; Oliveira, M; de Sá, Arsénio; Rodrigues, Rui M; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Vicente, António A; Machado, A V

    2015-09-20

    Montmorillonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt C30B/starch nanocomposite (C30B/ST-NC), silver nanoparticles/starch nanocomposite (Ag-NPs/ST-NC) and both silver nanoparticles/C30B/starch nanocomposites (Ag-NPs/C30B/ST-NC) films were produced. The nanoclay (C30B) was dispersed in a starch solution using an ultrasonic probe. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs (0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0mM) were synthesized directly in starch and in clay/starch solutions via chemical reduction method. Dispersion of C30B silicate layers and Ag-NPs in ST films characterized by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy showed that the presence of Ag-NPs enhanced clay dispersion. Color and opacity measurements, barrier properties (water vapor and oxygen permeabilities), dynamic mechanical analysis and contact angle were evaluated and related with the incorporation of C30B and Ag-NPs. Films presented antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans without significant differences between Ag-NPs concentrations. The migration of components from the nanostructured starch films, assessed by food contact tests, was minor and under the legal limits. These results indicated that the starch films incorporated with C30B and Ag-NPs have potential to be used as packaging nanostructured material. PMID:26050897

  10. Production of PLA-Starch Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites of polylactic acid (PLA) with starch have been prepared previously in an effort to reduce cost as well as to modify other properties such as biodegradation rate. However, strength and elongation both decrease on addition of starch due to poor adhesion and stress concentration at the inte...

  11. Characterization and Functionality of Corn Germ Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of protein extracted from wet-milled corn germ and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Corn germ comprises 12% of the total weight of normal dent corn and about 29% of the corn protein (moisture-free and oil- free ...

  12. Diapause in northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticite corn rootworms are prominent pests of maize and have adapted to both cultural and chemical management methods. In response to a widely used corn-soybean crop rotation in the U.S. Corn Belt over several years, northern corn rootworm (NCR) populations adapted by increasing the proportion ...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and....1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by... dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis, corn syrup may contain,...

  14. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  15. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy. PMID:26470183

  16. Synthesis and characterization of multi-active site grafting starch copolymer initiated by KMnO4 and HIO4/H2SO4 systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiaoxia; Wang, Yanqing; Fan, Ya; Liu, Xiwen; Ren, Shenyong; Wen, Yuanzhen; Shen, Baojian

    2015-03-01

    A novel initiator system containing KMO4, HIO4, and H2SO4 for synthesizing grafting starch copolymers is reported. In this system, KMnO4 was used to oxidize the primary hydroxyl group to aldehyde group of glucose in the starch, and the formed aldehyde group reacted with Mn(4+), Mn(3+) to afford starch free radical. At the same time HIO4 perform as the oxidant to open the C2C3 bond of glucose ring in starch to form two more aldehyde groups, and then two more free radicals are generated. As a result one glucose unit could provide ultimately three active sites for starch grafting reaction. Graft copolymers with a higher grafting ratio and grafting efficiency could be obtained by using the composite initiation system than the KMnO4/H2SO4 initiation system. The grafting of polyacrylamide onto the corn starch backbone was confirmed by viscometry, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25498632

  17. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  18. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  19. Feeding high-moisture corn instead of dry-rolled corn reduces odorous compound production in manure of finishing beef cattle without decreasing performance.

    PubMed

    Archibeque, S L; Miller, D N; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that feeding steers ground high-moisture ensiled corn (HMC) in lieu of dry-rolled corn (DRC) would reduce the amount of starch being excreted in the manure and the associated odorous compound production. One hundred forty-eight crossbred steers (363 +/- 33 kg of BW) were fed a DRC-or HMC-based diet in a feeding trial, and 8 Charolais-sired steers (447 +/- 22 kg of BW) were used in a nutrient balance study. Steers fed HMC tended to have a slightly lower DMI (P = 0.09), ADG (P = 0.06), and yield grade, but G:F, final HCW, and quality grade did not differ (P > or = 0.23) between treatments. Compared with feeding DRC, feeding HMC decreased (P = 0.02) starch intake from 5,407 to 4,846 g/d, decreased (P < 0.01) fecal excretion of starch from 448 to 292 g/d, and increased (P = 0.03) starch digestibility from 91.7 to 94.1%. Nitrogen intake was greater (P < 0.01) for steers fed DRC than HMC in both studies, but N retention did not differ (P = 0.55). Heat production and energy retention did not differ between the 2 treatments (P > or = 0.55). In manure slurries incubated for 35 d with soil and water, total VFA concentration was lower (P < 0.01) in manure from steers fed HMC (1,625 micromol/g of DM) compared with steers fed DRC (3,041 micromol/g of DM). Lower initial (d 0) starch concentrations and greater initial pH was also observed in the slurries from the HMC manure. By d 3 of slurry incubation, there was an increase (P < 0.01) in free glucose and l-lactic acid in the DRC slurries but not in the HMC slurries. During manure incubation, alcohol and VFA content increased (P < 0.01) and pH declined, but to a lesser extent (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries. However, branched-chain VFA increased more (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries than in the DRC slurries. These data suggest that feeding HMC instead of DRC decreased fecal starch and production of some potentially odorous compounds in a finishing cattle system but had little impact on animal productivity. PMID

  20. Starch derivative-based superabsorbent with integration of water-retaining and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kang; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Zheng, Xi-Liang; Jiang, Gang-Biao; Fang, Yu-Sheng; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Liao, Zong-Wen

    2013-02-15

    Phosphate rock (PHR), a traditional fertilizer, is abundant, but is hard to be utilized by plants. To improve the utilization of PHR, and to integrate water-retaining and controlled-release fertilizers, an agricultural superabsorbent polymer based on sulfonated corn starch/poly (acrylic acid) embedding phosphate rock (SCS/PAA/PHR) was prepared. PHR can be suspended and well-dispersed in SCS/PAA by sulfonated corn starch (SCS). PHR and KOH were mixed in acrylic acid solution to provide phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, respectively. Impacts on water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent were investigated. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water or 0.9 wt.% (weight percent) NaCl solution reached 498 g g(-1) and 65 g g(-1) (water/prepared dry superabsorbent) respectively. Moreover, release behaviours of P and K in SCS/PAA/PHR were also investigated. The results showed that SCS/PAA/PHR possessed excellent sustained-release property of plant nutrient, and the SCS/PAA could improve the P release greatly. Besides, the XPS analysis was employed to study the relationship between PHR and superabsorbent polymer. PMID:23399166

  1. Effect of starch-based supplementation level combined with oil on intake, performance, and methane emissions of growing Nellore bulls on pasture.

    PubMed

    Neto, A Jose; Messana, J D; Ribeiro, A F; Vito, E S; Rossi, L G; Berchielli, T T

    2015-05-01

    Intake of tropical grass forages alone is generally insufficient to avoid nutrition imbalances and reduced animal performance; therefore, supplementation is often recommended. The hypothesis of the present study is that when combined with fat, soybean hulls (SH) could replace corn as a source of energy, reducing methane production without affecting animal performance. This study evaluated the effects of starch-based supplementation level combined with oil on intake, digestibility, performance, and methane emissions of growing Nellore bulls (P = 44; initial BW = 250.69 ± 27 kg) fed cv. Xaraés during the rainy season. There were no interactions between starch level and oil supplementation with regard to intake of DM (P = 0.67), forage DM (P = 0.55), supplement DM (P = 0.14), OM (P = 0.66), CP (P = 0.74), NDF (P = 0.50), ether extract (EE; = 0.47), and GE ( P= 0.68). The intake of EE was greater for animals supplemented with oil than those fed supplements without oil (P < 0.01). There were no interactions between starch level and oil supplementation on digestibility of DM (P= 0.18), OM (P = 0.11), NDF (P= 0.42), and EE (P = 0.14). Moreover, there was interaction between starch and oil supplementation on GE (P < 0.01). Independent of starch level used, the addition of oil decreased the digestibility of OM (P = 0.04) and NDF (P = 0.03). There were no main effects of starch level, oil, or interaction between starch and oil for initial BW (P = 0.10), final BW (P = 0.94), ADG (P = 0.40), feed efficiency (P= 0.37), and carcass gain (P = 0.38). There was no interaction between starch-based supplementation level and oil on methane emissions when expressed in grams per day (P = 0.77), kilograms per year (P = 0.77), grams per kilogram DMI (P = 0.53), and grams per kilogram carcass gain (P= 0.31). There was, however, an interaction (P = 0.04) between starch level and oil on methane emissions when corrected for NDF intake. Additionally, oil decreased enteric methane emission

  2. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  3. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  4. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  5. Molecular disassembly of rice and lotus starches during thermal processing and its effect on starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-02-01

    The molecular disassembly of starch during thermal processing is a major determinant for the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion. In the present study, the effects of thermal processing on the disassembly of the granular structure and the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of rice and lotus starches were investigated. After heating at 50 °C, rice and lotus starches did not show significant changes in granular morphology, long-range crystallinity and short-range molecular order. As the temperature increased to 60 °C, rice starch underwent a partial gelatinization followed by an incomplete disruption of granular morphology, crystallites and molecular order. In contrast, lotus starch was almost completely gelatinized at 60 °C. At 70 °C or higher, both starches were fully gelatinized with complete disruption of the micro and macro structures. Our results show that gelatinization greatly increased the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of both starches, but that the degree of disassembly of the starch structure during thermal processing was not a major determinant of the digestibility of gelatinized starch. PMID:26829664

  6. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  7. [Effects of cooking and steep time of nixtamalized corn grain (sea mayz L.) on the physicochemical, rheological, structural and textural characteristics of grain, mass and tortillas].

    PubMed

    Arámbula Villa, G; Barrón Avila, L; González Hernández, J; Moreno Martínez, E; Luna Bárcenas, G

    2001-06-01

    The corn tortilla is elaborated using corn grain masa processed by the traditional nixtamalization method, which consists of two steps: cooking and steeping. In these steps the physicochemical and structural properties are strongly affected, resulting in changes in the textural characteristics of the tortilla produced. In this work the effects of cooking and steeping time on the moisture content, amylographic profiles, crystallinity, weigh loss from masa to tortilla, starch damage, rollability, elasticity and cutting force for grain, masa and corn tortillas, were evaluated. The milling of the nixtamalized grain and the cooking of tortilla conditions were the same in all treatments. All tortillas samples showed a good rollability. The results show that the moisture content of corn grain was increased up to 42 g/100 g during the total cooking time (45 min), and it further increased to 52-53 g/100 g after when the cooked grain was steeped for 4 h. All evaluated parameters showed high correlation coefficients with the texture properties of tortillas. The starch damage was the variable with the best correlation among all evaluated parameters. The correlation coefficients between starch damage and moisture content, weigh loss and maximum viscosity for corn grain, masa and tortillas were larger than 0.92 (p < 0.01). The best tortillas were produced using nixtamal with the follow characteristics: moisture content of nixtamal, 42-44 g/100 g and tortilla, 43-44 g/100 g; adhesiveness of masa, 30-50 g; maximum viscosity of nixtamal, 860-880 cp and tortilla 490-510 cp; starch damage of nixtamal, 14 g/100 g and tortilla, 35-37 g/100 g, and weigh loss of tortilla during cooking, 16 g/100 g. PMID:11678051

  8. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch-modified may be safely used as a component of..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified...

  9. Formation of Elongated Starch Granules in High-amylose Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 maize starch contains up to 32% elongated starch granules much higher than amylose-extender (ae) single-mutant maize starch (~7%) and normal (non-mutant) maize starch (0%). These elongated granules are highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis at 95-100 C, which function as resistant starc...

  10. Adsorption of Polyethylene from Solution onto Starch Film Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since starch adsorbs onto polyethylene (PE) surfaces from cooled solutions of jet cooked starch, this study was carried out to determine whether adsorption of PE onto hydrophilic starch film surfaces would also take place if starch films were placed in hot solutions of PE in organic solvents, and th...

  11. Plant-crafted starches for bioplastics production.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Leroy, Eric; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Guilois, Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Mortensen, Kell; Lourdin, Denis; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Transgenically-produced amylose-only (AO) starch was used to manufacture bioplastic prototypes. Extruded starch samples were tested for crystal residues, elasticity, glass transition temperature, mechanical properties, molecular mass and microstructure. The AO starch granule crystallinity was both of the B- and Vh-type, while the isogenic control starch was mainly A-type. The first of three endothermic transitions was attributed to gelatinization at about 60°C. The second and third peaks were identified as melting of the starch and amylose-lipid complexes, respectively. After extrusion, the AO samples displayed Vh- and B-type crystalline structures, the B-type polymorph being the dominant one. The AO prototypes demonstrated a 6-fold higher mechanical stress at break and 2.5-fold higher strain at break compared to control starch. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed a significant increase in the storage modulus (E') for AO samples compared to the control. The data support the use of pure starch-based bioplastics devoid of non-polysaccharide fillers. PMID:27516287

  12. Processing and characterization of porous structures from chitosan and starch for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Nakamatsu, Javier; Torres, Fernando G; Troncoso, Omar P; Min-Lin, Yuan; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2006-12-01

    Natural biodegradable polymers were processed by different techniques for the production of porous structures for tissue engineering scaffolds. Potato, corn, and sweet potato starches and chitosan, as well as blends of these, were characterized and used in the experiments. The techniques used to produce the porous structures included a novel solvent-exchange phase separation technique and the well-established thermally induced phase separation method. Characterization of the open pore structures was performed by measuring pore size distribution, density, and porosity of the samples. A wide range of pore structures ranging from 1 to 400 microm were obtained. The mechanisms of pore formation are discussed for starch and chitosan scaffolds. Pore morphology in starch scaffolds seemed to be determined by the initial freezing temperature/freezing rate, whereas in chitosan scaffolds the shape and size of pores may have been determined by the processing route used. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were assessed by indentation tests, showing that the indentation collapse strength depends on the pore geometry and the material type. Bioactivity and degradation of the potential scaffolds were assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid. PMID:17154462

  13. Thermal properties of thermoplastic starch/synthetic polymer blends with potential biomedical applicability.

    PubMed

    Mano, J F; Koniarova, D; Reis, R L

    2003-02-01

    Previous studies shown that thermoplastic blends of corn starch with some biodegradable synthetic polymers (poly(epsilon-caprolactone), cellulose acetate, poly(lactic acid) and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer) have good potential to be used in a series of biomedical applications. In this work the thermal behavior of these structurally complex materials is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical interactions between the different components. The endothermic gelatinization process (or water evaporation) observed by DSC in starch is also observed in the blends. Special attention was paid to the structural relaxation that can occur in the blends with poly(lactic acid) at body temperature that may change the physical properties of the material during its application as a biomaterial. At least three degradation mechanisms were identified in the blends by means of using TGA, being assigned to the mass loss due to the plasticizer leaching, and to the degradation of the starch and the synthetic polymer fractions. The non-isothermal kinetics of the decomposition processes was analyzed using two different integral methods. The analysis included the calculation of the activation energy of the correspondent reactions. PMID:15348484

  14. 75 FR 879 - National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ..., applicable to workers of National Starch and Chemical Company, Specialty Starches Division, Island Falls, Maine. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 31, 2007 (72 FR 74343). At the... Employment and Training Administration National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches...

  15. Influence of prepelleting inclusion of whole corn on performance, nutrient utilization, digestive tract measurements, and cecal microbiota of young broilers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Molan, A L; Ravindran, G

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of prepelleting inclusion of graded levels of whole corn on performance, digestive tract measurements, nutrient utilization, and cecal microbiota in broiler starters. Five diets, containing 600 g/kg of ground corn or 150, 300, 450, and 600 g/kg of whole corn replacing (wt/wt) ground corn, were formulated and cold-pelleted at 65°C. Each diet was offered ad libitum to 6 replicates (8 birds per replicate cage) from d 1 to 21 posthatch. The proportion of coarse particles (>1 mm) increased with increasing prepelleting inclusion of whole corn. Pellet quality, measured as pellet durability index, increased (quadratic effect, P < 0.001) with the inclusion of whole corn to 450 g/kg and then plateaued. Weight gain and feed intake decreased (linear effect, P < 0.001) with increasing prepelleting inclusion of whole corn. Feed per gain (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) increased as the inclusion level of whole corn increased to 300 g/kg and then plateaued with further inclusions. Relative gizzard weight (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) increased with increasing inclusion of whole corn up to 300 g/kg and then levelled off. The AME (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) increased up to 300 g/kg of whole corn inclusion and then decreased with further inclusion. Apparent ileal digestibility of DM (P < 0.001), N (linear effect, P = 0.07), and starch (linear effect, P < 0.001) increased with increasing inclusion levels of whole corn. Based on the fluorescence in situ hybridization method, a linear (P < 0.05) effect was determined for cecal microbiota numbers. Lactobacillus spp. counts increased and counts of Clostridium spp., Campylobacterium spp., and Bacteroides spp. decreased with increasing inclusion levels of whole corn. The present data showed that, despite increased gizzard weight and nutrient utilization, weight gain of broilers was poorer with prepelleting inclusion of whole corn due to reductions in the feed intake. PMID:25306459

  16. Production of raw-starch-digesting α-amylase isoform from Bacillus sp. under solid-state fermentation and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Božić, Nataša; Slavić, Marinela Šokarda; Gavrilović, Anja; Vujčić, Zoran

    2014-07-01

    α-Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of different Bacillus sp. was studied previously on different fermentation media. However, no study has been reported on the influence of selected media on expression of desired amylase isoforms such as raw-starch-digesting amylase (RSDA). In this paper, the influence of different inexpensive and available agro-resources as solid media (corn, wheat and triticale) on α-amylase isoform induction from three wild-type Bacillus sp., selected among one hundred strains tested, namely 9B, 12B and 24A was investigated. For all three strains, tested amylases were detected in the multiple forms; however, number and intensity of each form differed depending on the solid media used for growth. To determine which isoform from Bacillus sp. 12B was RSDA, the suspected isoform was purified. The optimum pH for the purified α-amylase isoform was 6.0-8.0, while the optimum temperature was 60-90 °C. Isoform was considerably thermostable and Ca(2+)-independent, and actually the only α-amylase active towards raw starch. Purification and characterization of RSDA showed that not all of the solid media tested induced RSDA. From an economic point of view, it might be significant to obtain pure isoenzyme for potential use in the raw-starch hydrolysis, since it was 5 times more efficient in raw corn starch hydrolysis than the crude amylase preparation. PMID:24385152

  17. Characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant thermostable glucoamylase from a halophilic isolate, Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 and its application in raw starch hydrolysis for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Ying; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A halophilic bacterium Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 producing extracellular glucoamylase was isolated from saline soil of Yuncheng Salt Lake, China. Enzyme production was strongly influenced by the salinity of growth medium with maximum in the presence of 5% NaCl. The glucoamylase was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 78.5 kDa. It showed broad substrate specificity and raw starch hydrolyzing activity. Analysis of hydrolysis products from soluble starch by thin-layer chromatography revealed that glucose was the sole end-product, indicating the enzyme was a true glucoamylase. Optimal enzyme activity was found to be at 70°C, pH 8.0, and 7.5% NaCl. In addition, it was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (0-100°C), pH (7.0-12.0), and NaCl concentration (0-20%), showing excellent thermostable, alkali stable, and halotolerant properties. Furthermore, it displayed high stability in the presence of hydrophobic organic solvents. The purified glucoamylase was applied for raw corn starch hydrolysis and subsequent bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield in terms of grams of ethanol produced per gram of sugar consumed was 0.365 g/g, with 71.6% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using enzymes from halophiles for further application in bioenergy production. PMID:25138675

  18. Scanning probe acoustic microscopy of extruded starch materials: direct visual evidence of starch crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongdong; Liu, Boxiang; Li, Mengxing; Wei, Min; Li, Hua; Liu, Peng; Wan, Tuo

    2013-10-15

    Scanning probe acoustic microscopy (SPAM) has been successfully used to study inorganic and keratin biomaterials. However, few studies have attempted to apply SPAM to structural study of non-keratin organic materials such as starch based materials. This study investigated hardness and surface finish to establish sample preparation method suitable for SPAM imaging and acquired clear acoustic images of extruded starch materials. Acquired acoustic images directly exhibited certain structure of starch materials and provided visual evidence of starch material components and aggregates. In addition, through correlating acoustic images with X-ray diffraction data, crystal-structural information in nano-scale was obtained and acoustic image contrast showed a linear relationship with starch amylose content in extruded starch materials. PMID:23987357

  19. Effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of maize starch and waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Siming; Liu, Youming; Liu, Ru

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch. Experimental results showed that the salting-out or structure-making ions, such as F(-) and SO4(2-), decreased the swelling power, solubility and transparency of both starches, but increased the gelatinization temperature, enthalpy, and syneresis, due to the tendency of these ions to protect the hydrogen bond links among starch molecules. On the other hand, the salting-in or structure-breaking ions, such as I(-) and SCN(-), exhibited the opposite effects. Microscopic observations confirmed such effects of salts on both starches. Furthermore, the effects of salts were more significant on waxy maize and on normal maize starch. Generally, salts could significantly influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch, following the order of the Hofmeister series. PMID:27507481

  20. Increasing the value of hominy feed as a coproduct by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Moreau, Robert A; Singh, Vijay

    2008-05-01

    Hominy feed is a low value ($83.7/metric ton) coproduct of the corn dry milling process that accounts for nearly 35% of the starting corn quantity. The average composition of hominy feed on a dry basis is 56.9% starch, 25.2% neutral detergent fiber, 11.1% protein, and 5.3% fat. Starch in hominy feed can be fermented to ethanol thus increasing its levels of protein and fat. The increase in protein and fat percentages may increase the market competitiveness and price of hominy feed. Hydrolysis and fermentation were performed on nine hominy feed samples collected from three corn dry milling plants in the USA. The original hominy feed samples and postfermentation solids were analyzed for starch, protein, fat, and fiber content. Compared to the original hominy feed, the percentage increase in protein, fat and fiber in postfermentation solids of nine samples ranged from 10.4 to 21.3, 6.78 to 10.6, and 12.6 to 28.7% (dry basis), respectively. Ethanol yields varied from 271.7 to 380.2 l/metric ton for the nine hominy feed samples. These results indicate that the value of hominy feed as an animal feedstock can potentially be increased with fermentation and can produce more profit per metric ton than currently being derived by its sale as a low protein feed ingredient. PMID:18401745