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Sample records for dss-induced experimental colitis

  1. β7-Integrin exacerbates experimental DSS-induced colitis in mice by directing inflammatory monocytes into the colon

    PubMed Central

    Schippers, A; Muschaweck, M; Clahsen, T; Tautorat, S; Grieb, L; Tenbrock, K; Gaßler, N; Wagner, N

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is pivotal for the initiation and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and controlled by the specificity and interactions of chemokines and adhesion molecules. Interactions of the adhesion molecules α4β7-integrin and mucosal addressin cell-adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) promote the accumulation of pathogenic T-cell populations in the inflamed intestine. We aimed to elucidate the significance of β7-integrin expression on innate immune cells for the pathogenesis of IBD. We demonstrate that β7-integrin deficiency protects recombination-activating gene-2 (RAG-2)-deficient mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and coincides with decreased numbers of colonic effector monocytes. We also show that β7-integrin is expressed on most CD11b+CD64lowLy6C+ bone marrow progenitors and contributes to colonic recruitment of these proinflammatory monocytes. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CD115+ wild-type (WT) monocytes partially restored the susceptibility of RAG-2/β7-integrin double-deficient mice to DSS-induced colitis, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of β7-integrin-expressing monocytes for the development of DSS colitis. We also reveal that genetic ablation of MAdCAM-1 ameliorates experimental colitis in RAG-2-deficient mice as well. In summary, we demonstrate a previously unknown role of α4β7-integrin–MAdCAM-1 interactions as drivers of colitis by directing inflammatory monocytes into the colon. PMID:26349655

  2. Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice via reducing IL-6/STAT3 and IL-23/IL-17

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Lin, Lian-Jie; Lin, Yan; Sang, Li-Xuan; Jiang, Min; Zheng, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice. 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, Ginaton group, Ginaton treatment group, and DSS group. After 7 days administration, mice were sacrificed and colons were collected for H-E staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot. By observing clinical disease activity and histological damage, we assessed the effect of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice and observed the effect of Ginaton on normal mice. We also explored the specific mechanism of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice through examining the expression of inflammatory related mediators (gp130, STAT3, p-STAT3, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). Ginaton-treated DSS mice showed significant improvement over untreated DSS mice. Specifically, Ginaton improved clinical disease activity (DAI score, weight closs, colon shortening, and bloody stool) and histological damage, and reduced the expression of inflammatory-related mediators (p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). In addition, clinical disease activity, histological damage, the expression of inflammatory related mediators (STAT3, p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-t) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23) in mice of Ginaton group were similar to normal control group. In conclusion, Ginaton ameliorates DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice by reducing IL-17 production, which is at least partly involved in inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and IL-23/IL-17 axis. Moreover, Ginaton itself does not cause inflammatory change in normal mice. These results support that Ginaton can be as a potential clinical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). PMID:26770316

  3. Grim19 Attenuates DSS Induced Colitis in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Lee, Han Hee; Lee, Bo-In; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    DSS induced colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, which destabilizes the gut and induces an uncontrolled immune response. Although DSS induced colitis is generally thought to develop as a result of an abnormally active intestinal immune system, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Gene associated with retinoid interferon induced mortality (Grim) 19 is an endogenous specific inhibitor of STAT3, which regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the influence of GRIM19 in a DSS induced colitis mouse model. We hypothesized that Grim19 would ameliorate DSS induced colitis by altering STAT3 activity and intestinal inflammation. Grim19 ameliorated DSS induced colitis severity and protected intestinal tissue. The expression of STAT3 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α in colon and lymph nodes was decreased significantly by Grim19. Moreover, DSS induced colitis progression in a Grim19 transgenic mouse line was inhibited in association with a reduction in STAT3 and IL-17 expression. These results suggest that Grim19 attenuates DSS induced colitis by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response mediated by STAT3 activation. PMID:27258062

  4. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:27293323

  5. The Role of CXCR3 in DSS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Belal; Yeung, Amanda W. S.; van Vreden, Caryn; King, Nicholas J. C.; Bao, Shisan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of disorders that are characterized by chronic, uncontrolled inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Although the aetiopathogenesis is poorly understood, it is widely believed that IBD stems from a dysregulated immune response towards otherwise harmless commensal bacteria. Chemokines induce and enhance inflammation through their involvement in cellular trafficking. Reducing or limiting the influx of these proinflammatory cells has previously been demonstrated to attenuate inflammation. CXCR3, a chemokine receptor in the CXC family that binds to CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, is strongly overexpressed in the intestinal mucosa of IBD patients. We hypothesised that CXCR3 KO mice would have impaired cellular trafficking, thereby reducing the inflammatory insult by proinflammatory cell and attenuating the course of colitis. To investigate the role of CXCR3 in the progression of colitis, the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was investigated in CXCR3−/− mice over 9 days. This study demonstrated attenuated DSS-induced colitis in CXCR3−/− mice at both the macroscopic and microscopic level. Reduced colitis correlated with lower recruitment of neutrophils (p = 0.0018), as well as decreased production of IL-6 (p<0.0001), TNF (p = 0.0038), and IFN-γ (p = 0.0478). Overall, our results suggest that CXCR3 plays an important role in recruiting proinflammatory cells to the colon during colitis and that CXCR3 may be a therapeutic target to reduce the influx of proinflammatory cells in the inflamed colon. PMID:24992040

  6. Exosomes released by granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Ke; Tian, Xinyu; Ma, Jie; Ma, Bin; Xu, Huaxi; Lu, Liwei; Wang, Shengjun

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been described in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but their role in the disease remains controversial. We sought to define the effect of granulocytic MDSC-derived exosomes (G-MDSC exo) in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis. G-MDSC exo-treated mice showed greater resistance to colitis, as reflected by lower disease activity index, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration damage. There was a decrease in the proportion of Th1 cells and an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) from G-MDSC exo-treated colitis mice. Moreover, lower serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in G-MDSC exo-treated colitis mice. Interestingly, inhibition of arginase (Arg)-1 activity in G-MDSC exo partially abrogated the spontaneous improvement of colitis. In addition, G-MDSC exo could suppress CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in vitro and inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and these abilities were associated with Arg-1 activity. Moreover, G-MDSC exo promoted the expansion of Tregs in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that G-MDSC exo attenuate DSS-induced colitis through inhibiting Th1 cells proliferation and promoting Tregs expansion. PMID:26885611

  7. Enterococcus durans TN-3 Induces Regulatory T Cells and Suppresses the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Toshihiro; Ohno, Masashi; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Shimada, Takashi; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Andoh, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Probiotic properties of Enterococcus strains have been reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effects of Enterococcus (E.) durans TN-3 on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. Methods BALB/c mice were fed with 4.0% DSS in normal chow. Administration of TN-3 (10mg/day) was initiated 7days before the start of DSS feeding. Mucosal cytokine expression was analyzed by real time-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The lymphocyte subpopulation were analyzed by flow cytometry. The gut microbiota profile was analyzed by a terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (T-RFLP). Results The disease activity index and histological colitis score were significantly lower in the DSS plus TN-3 group than in the DSS group. The mucosal mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A and IFN-γ) decreased significantly in the DSS plus TN-3 group as compared to the DSS group. The proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the mucosa increased significantly in the DSS plus TN-3 group as compared to the DSS group. Both fecal butyrate levels and the diversity of fecal microbial community were significantly higher in the TN-3 plus DSS group than in the DSS group. Conclusions E. durans TN-3 exerted an inhibitory effect on the development of DSS colitis. This action might be mediated by the induction of Treg cells and the restoration of the diversity of the gut microbiota. PMID:27438072

  8. Tanshinone IIA Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium- (DSS-) Induced Colitis in Mice by Modulation of Neutrophil Infiltration and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowei; He, Haiyue; Huang, Tingting; Lei, Zhen; Liu, Fuquan; An, Guangyu; Wen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of intestinal inflammation. However, conventional neutrophil-targeted therapies can impair normal host defense. Tanshinone IIA has been recently revealed to act directly on neutrophils. Hence, we aimed at investigating whether Tanshinone IIA can protect against experimental colitis through modulation of neutrophils. We induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) orally, and meanwhile, we treated mice daily with Tanshinone IIA intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was evaluated by calculating disease activity index (DAI) and histological parameters. Neutrophil infiltration and activation in the colons of mice were measured. Moreover, whether Tanshinone IIA has direct effects on neutrophil migration and activation was determined in vitro. Our data showed that Tanshinone IIA significantly ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice, evidenced by the reduced DAI and improved colonic inflammation. In addition, Tanshinone IIA decreased neutrophil infiltration of intestinal mucosa and activation and reduced colonic inflammatory cytokines in DSS-treated mice. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA was demonstrated to significantly suppress neutrophil migration and activation. These results provide compelling evidence that Tanshinone IIA has a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice, which is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of neutrophils. PMID:26881040

  9. Halofuginone reduces the inflammatory responses of DSS-induced colitis through metabolic reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Mu, Huai-Xue; Zhao, Ling; Du, Jun; Yang, Depo; Wang, Dongmei; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Lin, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-21

    Hypoxia and inflammation have been identified as the hallmarks of colitis, intertwined with metabolism. Here, we report that halofuginone (HF), an antiparasitic drug, attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, as represented by attenuating the disease activity index, inhibiting colonic shortening, ameliorating colonic lesions and histological signs of damage, reducing colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in colon tissue. Intriguingly, the hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1α) and tumor necrosis factor alpha were also suppressed by HF treatment in colon tissues, exhibiting a tissue-specific effect. To further reveal the metabolic signatures upon HF treatment, mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis of the small molecular metabolites in liver, spleen and colon tissues was performed. As a result, we found that HF treatment counteracted the levels of acylcarnitines, including palmitoyl-l-carnitine, isobutyrylcarnitine, vaccenylcarnitine, and myristoylcarnitine, in colon tissues with DSS induction, but no significant change in the levels of acylcarnitines was observed in liver or spleen tissues. The metabolic signatures may indicate that incomplete fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the colon could be restored upon HF treatment as the tissue-specific metabolic characterization. Taken together, our findings uncovered that the HF potentiated anti-inflammatory effect in DSS-induced colitis in mice and its underlying mechanisms could be associated with the inhibition of HIF-1α and reduced levels of acylcarnitines, suggesting that both the inhibition of HIF-1α and the counteraction of incomplete FAO might be useful in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27197570

  10. Paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via a TLR4-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Eryun; Sun, Aning; Ding, Lili; Wei, Xiaohui; Chou, Guixin; Mani, Sridhar; Wang, Zhengtao

    2013-01-01

    Paeonia lactiflora Pall is one of the most well-known herbs in China, Korea, and Japan for more than 1,200 years. Paeoniflorin, the major bioactive component of peony root, has recently been reported to have anticolitic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. The present study was to explore the possible mechanism of paeoniflorin in attenuating dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Pre- and coadministration of paeoniflorin significantly reduced the severity of colitis and resulted in downregulation of several inflammatory parameters in the colon, including the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and the mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators (MCP-1, Cox2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17). The decline in the activation of NF-κB p65, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK correlated with a decrease in mucosal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR2 or TLR5 expression. In accordance with the in vivo results, paeoniflorin downregulated TLR4 expression, blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, and reduced the production of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Transient transfection assay performed in LPS-stimulated human colon cancer HT-29 cells indicated that paeoniflorin inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. TLR4 knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrated a requirement for TLR4 in paeoniflorin-mediated downregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Thus, for the first time, the present study indicates that paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via decreasing the expression of TLR4 and suppressing the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways. PMID:24232001

  11. Allicin Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Ulcerative Colitis in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Ismail, Salmiah; Saadatdoust, Zeinab; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of allicin (10 mg/kg body weight, orally) in an experimental murine model of UC by administering 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water to BALB/c mice. DSS-induced mice presented reduced body weight, which was improved by allicin administration. We noted increases in CD68 expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and Malonaldehyde (MDA) and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-17, and decrease in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in DSS-induced mice. However, allicin treatment significantly decreased CD68, MPO, MDA, and proinflammatory cytokines and increased the enzymic antioxidants significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, allicin was capable of reducing the activation and nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby preventing degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB and inducing inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB-p65 in the colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that allicin exerts clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated through the suppression of the NF-κB and IL-6/p-STAT3(Y705) pathways. PMID:26075036

  12. Allicin Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Ulcerative Colitis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Salmiah; Saadatdoust, Zeinab; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of allicin (10 mg/kg body weight, orally) in an experimental murine model of UC by administering 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water to BALB/c mice. DSS-induced mice presented reduced body weight, which was improved by allicin administration. We noted increases in CD68 expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and Malonaldehyde (MDA) and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-17, and decrease in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in DSS-induced mice. However, allicin treatment significantly decreased CD68, MPO, MDA, and proinflammatory cytokines and increased the enzymic antioxidants significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, allicin was capable of reducing the activation and nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby preventing degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB and inducing inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB-p65 in the colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that allicin exerts clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated through the suppression of the NF-κB and IL-6/p-STAT3Y705 pathways. PMID:26075036

  13. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in DSS-induced acute colitis.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Jingjing; Kou, Jinhua; Liu, Weijian; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao

    2016-01-01

    Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. However, the effect of alpinetin on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of alpinetin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In vivo, DSS-induced mice colitis model was established by giving mice drinking water containing 5% (w/v) DSS for 7 days. Alpinetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered once a day by intraperitoneal injection 3 days before DSS treatment. In vitro, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated monocytic THP-1 macrophages were treated with alpinetin and stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that alpinetin significantly attenuated diarrhea, colonic shortening, histological injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) production in mice. In vitro, alpinetin markedly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that alpinetin had protective effects on DSS-induced colitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for colitis treatment. PMID:27321991

  14. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in DSS-induced acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Jingjing; Kou, Jinhua; Liu, Weijian; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao

    2016-01-01

    Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. However, the effect of alpinetin on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of alpinetin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In vivo, DSS-induced mice colitis model was established by giving mice drinking water containing 5% (w/v) DSS for 7 days. Alpinetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered once a day by intraperitoneal injection 3 days before DSS treatment. In vitro, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated monocytic THP-1 macrophages were treated with alpinetin and stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that alpinetin significantly attenuated diarrhea, colonic shortening, histological injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) production in mice. In vitro, alpinetin markedly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that alpinetin had protective effects on DSS-induced colitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for colitis treatment. PMID:27321991

  15. Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Ameliorates DSS-Induced Colitis through Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ping; Shao, Bo-Zong; Xu, Zhe-Qi; Wei, Wei; Han, Bin-Ze; Chen, Xiong-Wen; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) ameliorates inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether activation of CB2R could suppress the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice, LPS/DSS challenge for 24 h increased the expression of the components of NLRP3 inflammasome NLRP3, Casp-1 p20/Casp-1 p45 ratio, proIL-1β and IL-1β and also enhanced autophagy (LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin-1 and SQSTM1). Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with HU 308, a selective CB2R agonist, attenuated LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but further enhanced autophagy. In comparison with wild-type (WT) control, peritoneal macrophages from CB2R knockout (KO) mice had more robust NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuated autophagy upon LPS/DSS challenge. Knockdown autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) with a siRNA in peritoneal macrophages attenuated the inhibitory effects of HU 308 on LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vitro. In vivo, HU308 treatment attenuated DSS-induced colitis mice associated with reduced colon inflammation and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in wild-type mice. In CB2R KO mice, DSS-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were more pronounced than those in WT control. Finally, we demonstrated that AMPK-mTOR-P70S6K signaling pathway was involved in this CB2R-mediated process. We conclude that activation of CB2R ameliorates DSS-induced colitis through enhancing autophagy that may inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. PMID:27611972

  16. Gadolinium chloride improves the course of TNBS and DSS-induced colitis through protecting against colonic mucosal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chao; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yanbo; Chen, Feixue; Liu, Jun; Li, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory macrophages in colonic mucosa are the leading drivers of the pathology associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we examined whether gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a macrophage selective inhibitor, would improve the course of 2,4,6-trinitro benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and the potential mechanisms were investigated. By giving GdCl3 to colitis mice through intravenous or intrarectal route, we found that GdCl3 markedly ameliorated the colitis severity, including less weight loss, decreased disease activity index scores, and improved mucosal damage. To investigate the potential mechanisms, flow-cytometric analysis was performed to detect the proportion of mucosal macrophages in colon. The results showed that GdCl3 had no macrophage depletion effect in colonic mucosa, but significantly suppressed TNBS and DSS-induced TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 secretions. Also, Western blotting analysis indicated that NF-κB p65 expression was significantly attenuated in the mucosa in colitis mice with GdCl3 treatment. Then, the anti-inflammatory activity of GdCl3 was confirmed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells that GdCl3 might down-regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, intervention with mucosal inflammatory macrophages may be a promising therapeutic target in IBD. PMID:25146101

  17. Bifidobacterium longum CCM 7952 Promotes Epithelial Barrier Function and Prevents Acute DSS-Induced Colitis in Strictly Strain-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomas; Zakostelska, Zuzana; Drab, Vladimir; Spanova, Alena; Rittich, Bohuslav; Kozakova, Hana; Schabussova, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced microbial diversity has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and probiotic bacteria have been proposed for its prevention and/or treatment. Nevertheless, comparative studies of strains of the same subspecies for specific health benefits are scarce. Here we compared two Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains for their capacity to prevent experimental colitis. Methods Immunomodulatory properties of nine probiotic bifidobacteria were assessed by stimulation of murine splenocytes. The immune responses to B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 (Bl 7952) and CCDM 372 (Bl 372) were further characterized by stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell, HEK293/TLR2 or HEK293/NOD2 cells. A mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was used to compare their beneficial effects in vivo. Results The nine bifidobacteria exhibited strain-specific abilities to induce cytokine production. Bl 372 induced higher levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in spleen and dendritic cell cultures compared to Bl 7952. Both strains engaged TLR2 and contain ligands for NOD2. In a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, reduced clinical symptoms and preserved expression of tight junction proteins. Importantly, Bl 7952 improved intestinal barrier function as demonstrated by reduced FITC-dextran levels in serum. Conclusions We have shown that Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, protected mice from the development of experimental colitis. Our data suggest that although some immunomodulatory properties might be widespread among the genus Bifidobacterium, others may be rare and characteristic only for a specific strain. Therefore, careful selection might be crucial in providing beneficial outcome in clinical trials with probiotics in IBD. PMID:26218526

  18. 4-Hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist alleviates the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Keiko; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Iseki, Mioko; Nakachi, Yutaka; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Yamanoue, Yu; Itoh, Toshimasa; Nishii, Yasuho; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2008-03-14

    (5E,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-4-Hydroxy-5,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (4-OHDHA) is a potential agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and antidiabetic agent as has been previously reported. As PPAR{gamma} agonists may also have anti-inflammatory functions, in this study, we investigated whether 4-OHDHA has an inhibitory effect on expression of inflammatory genes in vitro and whether 4-OHDHA could relieve the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. 4-OHDHA inhibited production of nitric oxide and expression of a subset of inflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2/iNOS) and interleukin 6 (Il6) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. In addition, 4-OHDHA-treated mice when compared to control mice not receiving treatment recovered better from the weight loss caused by DSS-induced colitis. Changes in disease activity index (DAI) of 4-OHDHA-treated mice were also more favorable than for control mice and were comparable with mice treated with a typical anti-inflammatory-drug, 5-aminosalichylic acid (5-ASA). These results suggest that 4-OHDHA has potentially clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated by suppression of inflammatory gene expression.

  19. Perilla frutescens extract ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Urushima, Hayato; Nishimura, Junichi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects have been reported in Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PE), which is a plant of the genus belonging to the Lamiaceae family. We examined the effect of PE on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Preliminarily, PE was safely administered for 7 wk without any adverse effects. In the preventive protocol, mice were fed 1.5% DSS solution dissolved in distilled water (control group) or 0.54% PE solution (PE group) ad libitum for 7 days. In the therapeutic protocol, distilled water or 0.54% PE solution was given for 10 days just after administration of 1.5% DSS for 5 days. PE intake significantly improved body weight loss. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-10 were significantly lower in the PE group than in the control group. In the therapeutic protocol, mice in the PE group showed significantly higher body weight and lower histological colitis scores compared with mice in the control group on day 15. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TGF-β was significantly higher in the PE group than in the control group. In distal colon mRNA expression, TNF-α, and IL-17A were significantly downregulated. In vitro analyses of biologically active ingredients, such as luteolin, apigenin, and rosmarinic acid, in PE were performed. Luteolin suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17A. Apigenin also suppressed secretion of IL-17A and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Rosmarinic acid increased the regulatory T cell population. We conclude that PE might be useful in treatment and prevention of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:25359539

  20. Effect of acute and chronic DSS induced colitis on plasma eicosanoid and oxylipin levels in the rat.

    PubMed

    Willenberg, Ina; Ostermann, Annika I; Giovannini, Samoa; Kershaw, Olivia; von Keutz, Anne; Steinberg, Pablo; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-07-01

    Eicosanoids and oxylipins are potent lipid mediators involved in the regulation of inflammation. In order to evaluate their role and suitability as biomarkers in colitis, we analyzed their systemic levels in the acute and chronic phase of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis. Male Fischer 344 rats were treated in three cycles with 4% DSS in the drinking water (4 days followed by 10 days recovery) and blood was drawn 3 days prior to the first DSS treatment and on days 4, 11, 32 and 39. Histopathological evaluation of the colon tissue after 42 days showed that the animals developed a mild to severe chronic colitis. Consistently, prostaglandin levels were massively (twofold) elevated in the colonic tissue. LC-MS based targeted metabolomics was used to determine plasma oxylipin levels at the different time points. In the acute phase of inflammation directly after DSS treatment, epoxy-fatty acid (FA), dihydroxy-FA and hydroxy-FA plasma concentrations were uniformly elevated. With each treatment cycle the increase in these oxylipin levels was more pronounced. Our data suggest that in the acute phase of colitis release of polyunsaturated FAs from membranes in the inflamed tissue is reflected by a uniform increase of oylipins formed in different branches of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, during the recovery phases the systemic oxylipin pattern is not or only moderately altered and does not allow to evaluate the onset of chronic inflammation in the colon. PMID:25908302

  1. B-vitamin deficiency is protective against DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Benight, Nancy M; Stoll, Barbara; Chacko, Shaji; da Silva, Vanessa R; Marini, Juan C; Gregory, Jesse F; Stabler, Sally P; Burrin, Douglas G

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Homocysteine (Hcys) is a thrombogenic amino acid produced from methionine (Met), and its increase in patients with IBD indicates a disruption of Met metabolism; however, the role of Hcys and Met metabolism in IBD is not well understood. We hypothesized that disrupted Met metabolism from a B-vitamin-deficient diet would exacerbate experimental colitis. Mice were fed a B(6)-B(12)-deficient or control diet for 2 wk and then treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis. We monitored disease activity during DSS treatment and collected plasma and tissue for analysis of inflammatory tissue injury and Met metabolites. We also quantified Met cycle activity by measurements of in vivo Met kinetics using [1-(13)C-methyl-(2)H(3)]methionine infusion in similarly treated mice. Unexpectedly, we found that mice given the B-vitamin-deficient diet had improved clinical outcomes, including increased survival, weight maintenance, and reduced disease scores. We also found lower histological disease activity and proinflammatory gene expression (TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the colon in deficient-diet mice. Metabolomic analysis showed evidence that these effects were associated with deficient B(6), as markers of B(12) function were only mildly altered. In vivo methionine kinetics corroborated these results, showing that the deficient diet suppressed transsulfuration but increased remethylation. Our findings suggest that disrupted Met metabolism attributable to B(6) deficiency reduces the inflammatory response and disease activity in DSS-challenged mice. These results warrant further human clinical studies to determine whether B(6) deficiency and elevated Hcys in patients with IBD contribute to disease pathobiology. PMID:21596995

  2. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E.; Terrazas, César A.; Reyes, Jose L.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I.; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E.; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins. PMID:26090422

  3. Oat β-glucan ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Lin, Qinlu; Yang, Tao; Zeng, Linna; Shi, Limin; Chen, Yaya; Luo, Feijun

    2015-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a major inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract through chronic or relapsing immune system activation. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential protective effect of oat β-glucan (βG) against colitis induced by DSS in mice. Eighty mice were randomly divided into the control group (no DSS, no βG), DSS group (DSS only), DSS + L-βG group (DSS plus 500 mg per kg βG), and DSS + H-βG group (DSS plus 1000 mg per kg βG). Compared with the DSS group, administration of βG significantly reduced clinical symptoms with less weight loss, diarrhea and shortening of the colon, the severity of colitis was significantly inhibited as evidenced by the reduced disease activity index (DAI) and degree of histological damage in colon. Moreover, treatment with βG not only decreased myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, but also inhibited mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS. This suggests that oat βG in diet might exhibit an anti-inflammatory function against colitis through inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory factors. PMID:26292622

  4. Serotonin-Exacerbated DSS-Induced Colitis Is Associated with Increase in MMP-3 and MMP-9 Expression in the Mouse Colon

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Feng, Dandan; Jiang, Yalin; Jin, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background. 5-HT enhances dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis and is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play roles in the process of intestinal inflammation. Aims. To examine whether 5-HT induces MMPs expression in mouse colon to enhance DSS-induced colitis. Materials and Methods. C57BL/6J (B6) mice were treated with either low-dose (1.0 mg/kg) or high-dose (2.0 mg/kg) 5-HT by enema, low-dose (1.0%) or high-dose (2.5%) DSS, or combined low-dose (1.0%) DSS and (1.0 mg/kg) 5-HT. Mouse colitis was analyzed. MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) mRNA were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in mouse colon and in human Caco-2 cells and neutrophils. MMP-3 and MMP-9 protein levels were quantified from immunohistochemistry (IHC) images of mouse colons. Results. 5-HT exacerbated DSS-induced colitis, low-dose 5-HT induces both MMP-3 and MMP-9, and high-dose 5-HT only increased MMP-3 mRNA expression in mouse colon. Mouse colon MMP-3 and MMP-9 protein levels were also elevated by 5-HT treatment. The MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA levels were increased in the inflamed colon. 5-HT induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 mRNA expression in Caco-2 and human neutrophils, respectively, in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 expression in mouse colon; these elevated MMPs may contribute to DSS-induced colitis. PMID:27478308

  5. Mice overexpressing β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase I are resistant to TNF-induced inflammation and DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Vanhooren, Valerie; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Dewaele, Sylviane; Van Hamme, Evelien; Haigh, Jody J; Hochepied, Tino; Libert, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is an essential post-translational modification, which determines the function of proteins and important processes such as inflammation. β-1,4-galactosyltransferase I (βGalT1) is a key enzyme involved in the addition of galactose moieties to glycoproteins. Intestinal mucins are glycoproteins that protect the gut barrier against invading pathogens and determine the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Proper glycosylation of mucus is important in this regard. By using ubiquitously expressing βGalT1 transgenic mice, we found that this enzyme led to strong galactosylation of mucus proteins, isolated from the gut of mice. This galactosylation was associated with a drastic change in composition of gut microbiota, as TG mice had a significantly higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. TG mice were strongly protected against TNF-induced systemic inflammation and lethality. Moreover, βGalT1 transgenic mice were protected in a model of DSS-induced colitis, at the level of clinical score, loss of body weight, colon length and gut permeability. These studies put βGalT1 forward as an essential protective player in exacerbated intestinal inflammation. Optimal galactosylation of N-glycans of mucus proteins, determining the bacterial composition of the gut, is a likely mechanism of this function. PMID:24339869

  6. Mice Overexpressing β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase I Are Resistant to TNF-Induced Inflammation and DSS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Vanhooren, Valerie; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E.; Dewaele, Sylviane; Van Hamme, Evelien; Haigh, Jody J.; Hochepied, Tino; Libert, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is an essential post-translational modification, which determines the function of proteins and important processes such as inflammation. β-1,4-galactosyltransferase I (βGalT1) is a key enzyme involved in the addition of galactose moieties to glycoproteins. Intestinal mucins are glycoproteins that protect the gut barrier against invading pathogens and determine the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Proper glycosylation of mucus is important in this regard. By using ubiquitously expressing βGalT1 transgenic mice, we found that this enzyme led to strong galactosylation of mucus proteins, isolated from the gut of mice. This galactosylation was associated with a drastic change in composition of gut microbiota, as TG mice had a significantly higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. TG mice were strongly protected against TNF-induced systemic inflammation and lethality. Moreover, βGalT1 transgenic mice were protected in a model of DSS-induced colitis, at the level of clinical score, loss of body weight, colon length and gut permeability. These studies put βGalT1 forward as an essential protective player in exacerbated intestinal inflammation. Optimal galactosylation of N-glycans of mucus proteins, determining the bacterial composition of the gut, is a likely mechanism of this function. PMID:24339869

  7. Bilirubin prevents acute DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and suppressing upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Stephen D; Vogel, Megan E; Kindel, Tammy L; Smith, Darcey L H; Idelman, Gila; Avissar, Uri; Kakarlapudi, Ganesh; Masnovi, Michelle E

    2015-11-15

    Bilirubin is thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration and by suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). As VCAM-1 and iNOS are important mediators of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, while simultaneously receiving intraperitoneal injections of bilirubin (30 mg/kg) or potassium phosphate vehicle. Disease activity was monitored, peripheral blood counts and serum nitrate levels were determined, and intestinal specimens were analyzed for histological injury, leukocyte infiltration, and iNOS expression. The effect of bilirubin on IL-5 production by HSB-2 cells and on Jurkat cell transendothelial migration also was determined. DSS-treated mice that simultaneously received bilirubin lost less body weight, had lower serum nitrate levels, and exhibited reduced disease severity than vehicle-treated animals. Concordantly, histopathological analyses revealed that bilirubin-treated mice manifested significantly less colonic injury, including reduced infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and diminished iNOS expression. Bilirubin administration also was associated with decreased eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia. Bilirubin prevented Jurkat migration but did not alter IL-5 production. In conclusion, bilirubin prevents DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium and by suppressing iNOS expression. PMID:26381705

  8. Neutralization of IL-6 and TNF-α ameliorates intestinal permeability in DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-Tao; Yan, Wei-Hui; Cao, Yi; Yan, Jun-Kai; Cai, Wei

    2016-07-01

    The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been implicated as important mediators of the inflammatory reaction in patients with intestinal inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the roles of these cytokines on mucosal barrier function in a mouse model of acute colitis with using anti-cytokine strategies. Mice received 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water for 7days showed morphological alteration of mucosa and increase of intestinal permeability. Administration of IL-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or TNF-α mAb significantly attenuated intestinal permeability. IL-6 mAb and TNF-α mAb treatment also effectively suppressed the expression of claudin-2 and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Taken together, we indicated that anti-IL-6 and anti-TNF-α therapy prevent intestinal permeability induced by intestinal inflammation. PMID:27155817

  9. Budesonide-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers reduce inflammation in murine DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Beloqui, Ana; Coco, Régis; Alhouayek, Mireille; Solinís, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia; Muccioli, Giulio G; Préat, Véronique

    2013-10-01

    The challenge for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the delivery of the drug to the site of inflammation. Because nanoparticles have the ability to accumulate in inflamed regions, the aim of the present study was to evaluate nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) as nanoparticulate drug delivery systems for the treatment of IBD. Budesonide (BDS) was chosen as a candidate anti-inflammatory drug. BDS-loaded NLCs (BDS-NLC) produced by high-pressure homogenization had a size of 200 nm and a negative zeta potential. BDS-NLCs reduced the TNF-α secretion by activated macrophages (J774 cells). BDS-NLCs were more active in a murine model of dextran sulfate-induced colitis when compared with Blank-NLCs or a BDS suspension: BDS-NLCs decreased neutrophil infiltration, decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in the colon and improved the histological scores of the colons. These data suggest that NLCs could be a promising alternative to polymeric nanoparticles as a targeted drug delivery system for IBD treatment. PMID:23694806

  10. MAG-EPA reduces severity of DSS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Morin, Caroline; Blier, Pierre U; Fortin, Samuel

    2016-05-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease characterized by diffuse inflammation of the intestinal mucosa of the large bowel. Omega-3 (ω3) fatty acid supplementation has been associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines involved in UC pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the preventive and therapeutic potential of eicosapentaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-EPA) in an in vivo rats model of UC induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). DSS rats were untreated or treated per os with MAG-EPA. Morphological, histological, and biochemical analyses were performed following MAG-EPA administrations. Morphological and histological analyses revealed that MAG-EPA pretreatment (12 days pre-DSS) and treatment (6 days post-DSS) exhibited strong activity in reducing severity of disease in DSS rats. Following MAG-EPA administrations, tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were markedly lower compared with rats treated only with DSS. MAG-EPA per os administration decrease neutrophil infiltration in colon tissues, as depicted by myelohyperoxidase activity. Results also revealed a reduced activation of NF-κB pathways correlated with a decreased expression of COX-2 in colon homogenates derived from MAG-EPA-pretreated and treated rats. Tension measurements performed on colon tissues revealed that contractile responses to methacholine and relaxing effect induced by sodium nitroprusside were largely increased following MAG-EPA treatment. The combined treatment of MAG-EPA and vitamin E displayed an antagonistic effect on anti-inflammatory properties of MAG-EPA in DSS rats. PMID:27012773

  11. Oral administration of fermented wild ginseng ameliorates DSS-induced acute colitis by inhibiting NF-κB signaling and protects intestinal epithelial barrier

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Myeong A; Woo, Jong Kyu; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Yeong Su; Choi, Seungho; Jang, Young Saeng; Lee, Taek Hwan; Jung, Kyung Hoon; Kang, Dong Kyu; Hurh, Byung Seok; Kim, Dae Eung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Seung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been widely used for therapeutic and preventive purposes for thousands of years. However, orally administered ginseng has very low bioavailability and absorption in the intestine. Therefore, fermented ginseng was developed to enhance the beneficial effects of ginseng in the intestine. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of fermented wild ginseng (FWG). We found that FWG significantly alleviated the severity of colitis in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, and decreased expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in colonic tissue. Moreover, we observed that FWG suppressed the infiltration of macrophages in DSS-induced colitis. FWG also attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing the translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus. Our data indicate that FWG contains anti-inflammatory activity via NF-κB inactivation and could be useful for treating colitis. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(7): 419-425] PMID:25936779

  12. Ethanol Extract of Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Mice with Acute DSS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Antrodia camphorata (AC) grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CBR suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 from lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CBR inhibited the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-(COX-)2 proteins, and it activated p38-MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression was reduced in CBR-treated RAW264.7 cells. In concert with in vitro data, CBR suppressed the levels of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS-)induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the colon tissue. CBR treatment inhibited activated p38-MAPK, ERK, and NF-κB proteins in the colon tissue of DSS-induced mice. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in DSS+CBR-treated mice. The disease activity index and histological scores were significantly lower in CBR-treated mice (500 mg/kg/day) than in DSS-treated mice (P < 0.05 versus DSS). This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity of CBR in DSS-induced acute colitis. These results suggest that CBR is a promising, potential agent for preventing acute colitis through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and its upstream signaling molecules, including MAPKs. PMID:23818935

  13. Lactobacillus curvatus WiKim38 isolated from kimchi induces IL-10 production in dendritic cells and alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung-Gang; Noh, Eui-Jeong; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Green; Choi, Joo-Hee; Lee, Mo-Eun; Song, Jung-Hee; Chang, Ji-Yoon; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Probiotics such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have healthpromoting effects by immune modulation. In the present study, we examined the immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus curvatus WiKim38, which was newly isolated from baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi. The ability of L. curvatus WiKim38 to induce cytokine production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying L. curvatus Wikim38-mediated IL-10 production, Western blot analyses and inhibitor assays were performed. Moreover, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of L. curvatus WiKim38 were examined in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. L. curvatus WiKim38 induced significantly higher levels of IL-10 in BMDCs compared with that induced by LPS. NF-κB and ERK were activated by L. curvatus WiKim38, and an inhibitor assay revealed that these pathways were required for L. curvatus WiKim38-induced production of IL-10 in BMDCs. An in vivo experiment showed that oral administration of L. curvatus WiKim38 increased the survival rate of mice with DSS-induced colitis and improved clinical signs and histopathological severity in colon tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that L. curvatus Wikim38 may have health-promoting effects via immune modulation, and may thus be applicable for therapy of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:27350616

  14. Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) Induces Colitis in Mice by Forming Nano-Lipocomplexes with Medium-Chain-Length Fatty Acids in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Laroui, Hamed; Ingersoll, Sarah A.; Liu, Hong Chun; Baker, Mark T.; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Charania, Moiz A.; Laroui, Famina; Yan, Yutao; Sitaraman, Shanthi V.; Merlin, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), primarily ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are inflammatory disorders caused by multiple factors. Research on IBD has often used the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. DSS induces in vivo but not in vitro intestinal inflammation. In addition, no DSS-associated molecule (free glucose, sodium sulfate solution, free dextran) induces in vitro or in vivo intestinal inflammation. We find that DSS but not dextran associated molecules established linkages with medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), such as dodecanoate, that are present in the colonic lumen. DSS complexed to MCFAs forms nanometer-sized vesicles ∼200 nm in diameter that can fuse with colonocyte membranes. The arrival of nanometer-sized DSS/MCFA vesicles in the cytoplasm may activate intestinal inflammatory signaling pathways. We also show that the inflammatory activity of DSS is mediated by the dextran moieties. The deleterious effect of DSS is localized principally in the distal colon, therefore it will be important to chemically modify DSS to develop materials beneficial to the colon without affecting colon-targeting specificity. PMID:22427817

  15. Effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Myoung-Gyu; Park, Mi-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Colitis is a serious health problem, and chronic obesity is associated with the progression of colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet (HFD, 45%) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 2% w/v)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Body weight, colon length, and colon weight-to-length ratio, were measured directly. Serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were determined using commercial kits. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were detected using a commercial ELISA kit. Histological study was performed using a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining assay. Colonic mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by RT-PCR assay. RESULTS Body weight and obesity-related biomarkers (TG, TC, LDL, HDL, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin) were regulated and obesity was prevented in NRM treated mice. NRM significantly suppressed colon shortening and reduced colon weight-to-length ratio in HFD+DSS induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice (P < 0.05). Histological observations suggested that NRM reduced edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by HFD and DSS. In addition, NRM decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and inhibited the mRNA expressions of these cytokines, and iNOS and COX-2 in colon mucosa (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The results suggest that NRM has an anti-inflammatory effect against HFD and DSS-induced colitis in mice, and that these effects are due to the amelioration of HFD and/or DSS-induced inflammatory reactions. PMID:26634051

  16. The ANXA1 released from intestinal epithelial cells alleviate DSS-induced colitis by improving NKG2A expression of Natural Killer cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Z; Zuo, D; Yang, J; Fan, H

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises when intestinal immune homeostasis is broken, the maintenance of such homeostasis is principally controlled by cross talk between commensal bacteria, mucosal immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IECs can prevent the contact between luminal bacteria with immune cells through the formation of a physical barrier and the expression of antimicrobial peptides to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. During Colitis the IECs can express increased ANXA1, which is important for regeneration of intestinal mucosa and function as a potent anti-inflammatory protein. Natural Killer (NK) cells can also suppress the progression of colitis. It is uncertain about the effect of the cross-talk between injured IECs and recruited NK cells during colitis. In this study, the expression of ANXA1 in IECS from DSS treated mice was increased, and more NK cells were recruited to intestinal mucosa. In addition, the expression of NKG2A was upregulated when co-cultured with NK cells. The results further proved that overexpression of NKG2A in NK cells was important for inhibiting the recruitment and activity of neutrophils to alleviate DSS-induced colitis. Here, we provide a new anti-inflammation mechanism about ANXA1 secreted from injured IECs, where ANXA1 can stimulate the expression of NKG2A in NK cells that affect the recruitment and activity of neutrophils necessary for pathology of colitis. PMID:27435504

  17. Chloroform fraction of Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung epidermis suppresses LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages and DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Lee, Kyoung-Goo; Cho, Young-Wuk; An, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Dae Sik; Jeong, Jin-Cheol; Kwon, Oh-Keun; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the antiinflammatory effects of the chloroform fraction of the peel of 'Jayoung' (CFPJ), a color-fleshed potato, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. CFPJ inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcription level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing the translocation of NF-κB depending on degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α). Furthermore, CFPJ attenuated the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases3/6 (MKK3/6) and of p38. In colitis model, CFPJ significantly reduced the severity of colitis and the productions and protein levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in colonic tissue. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CFPJ are associated with the suppression of NF-κB and p38 activation in macrophages, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of colitis. PMID:24184733

  18. Examination of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Xenobiotic-Inducing Potential of Broccoli Extract and Various Essential Oils during a Mild DSS-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Nicole Michaela; Mueller, Andreas Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Phytogenic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our study aimed to evaluate possible protective and curative effects of broccoli extract (BE) and of the essential oils of turmeric (Cuo), thyme (To), and rosemary (Ro) in a rat model with a mild dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Therefore Wistar rats were fed a diet without an additive (Con) or diets with the addition of BE, Cuo, To, and Ro during the whole experiment. Pretreatment with Ro, Cuo, and To increased the expression of the tight junction protein Cldn3. All additives reduced mRNA of VCAM-1 which plays a crucial role in the first state of inflammatory response. Only Ro pretreatment affected the expression of the antioxidant enzymes HO1, GPx2, and of glutathione-S-transferases. All additives counteracted the DSS-induced rise in COX2 and VCAM-1 expression. Colonic IL-10 was increased by Cuo, To, and Ro. During the recovery phase DSS pretreatment increased NFκB, VCAM-1, and MCP-1: This response was counter-regulated by all additives. We conclude that the phytogenic additives tested have a promising anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and a particular role in the prevention of IBD. PMID:23533793

  19. Examination of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Xenobiotic-Inducing Potential of Broccoli Extract and Various Essential Oils during a Mild DSS-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole Michaela; Mueller, Andreas Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Phytogenic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our study aimed to evaluate possible protective and curative effects of broccoli extract (BE) and of the essential oils of turmeric (Cuo), thyme (To), and rosemary (Ro) in a rat model with a mild dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Therefore Wistar rats were fed a diet without an additive (Con) or diets with the addition of BE, Cuo, To, and Ro during the whole experiment. Pretreatment with Ro, Cuo, and To increased the expression of the tight junction protein Cldn3. All additives reduced mRNA of VCAM-1 which plays a crucial role in the first state of inflammatory response. Only Ro pretreatment affected the expression of the antioxidant enzymes HO1, GPx2, and of glutathione-S-transferases. All additives counteracted the DSS-induced rise in COX2 and VCAM-1 expression. Colonic IL-10 was increased by Cuo, To, and Ro. During the recovery phase DSS pretreatment increased NF κ B, VCAM-1, and MCP-1: This response was counter-regulated by all additives. We conclude that the phytogenic additives tested have a promising anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and a particular role in the prevention of IBD. PMID:23533793

  20. Ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans attenuates dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs. PMID:23841050

  1. Lactobacillus casei secreting alpha-MSH induces the therapeutic effect on DSS-induced acute colitis in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sun-Woo; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Jie-Youn; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2008-12-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha- MSH) has anti-inflammatory property by downregulating the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Because alpha-MSH elicits the anti-inflammatory effect in various inflammatory disease models, we examined the therapeutic effect of oral administration of recombinant Lactobacillus casei, which secretes alpha-MSH (L. casei-alpha-MSH), on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. Thus, we constructed the alpha-MSH-secreting Lactobacillus casei by the basic plasmid, pLUAT-ss, which was composed of a PldhUTLS promoter and alpha-amylase signal sequence from Streptococcus bovis strain. Acute colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. To investigate the effect of L. casei-alpha-MSH on the colitis, L. casei or L. casei-alpha-MSH was orally administered for 7 days and their effects on body weight, mortality rate, cytokine production, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were observed. Administration of L. casei-alpha-MSH reduced the symptom of acute colitis as assessed by body weight loss (DSS alone: 14.45+/-0. 2 g; L. casei-alpha- MSH: 18.2+/-0.12 g), colitis score (DSS alone: 3.6+/-0.4; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 1.4+/-0.6), MPO activity (DSS alone: 42.7+/-4.5 U/g; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 10.25+/-0.5 U/g), survival rate, and histological damage compared with the DSS alone mice. L. casei-alpha-MSH-administered entire colon showed reduced in vitro production of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activation. The alpha-MSH-secreting recombinant L. casei showed significant anti-inflammatory effects in the murine model of acute colitis and suggests a potential therapeutic role for this agent in clinical inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:19131702

  2. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    EL-SALHY, MAGDY; UMEZAWA, KAZUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS-G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecyl thiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS-Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti-inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the clinical manifestation of

  3. Severity of DSS-induced colitis is reduced in Ido1-deficient mice with down-regulation of TLR-MyD88-NF-kB transcriptional networks.

    PubMed

    Shon, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Young-Kwan; Shin, Ji Hee; Choi, Eun Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2015-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3 -dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catalyzes L-tryptophan to kynurenine in the first and rate-limiting step of tryptophan metabolism. IDO1 is expressed widely throughout the body, with especially high expression in colonic intestinal tissues. To examine the role of IDO1 in the colon, transcriptome analysis was performed in both Ido1(-/-) and Ido1(+/+) mice. Gene set enrichment analysis identified the Inflammatory Response as the most significant category modulated by the absence of IDO1. This observation prompted us to further investigate the function of IDO1 in the development of tissue inflammation. By using DSS-induced experimental colitis mice models, we found that the disease in Ido1(-/-) mice was less severe than in Ido1(+/+) mice. Pharmacological inhibition of IDO1 by L-1MT attenuated the severity of DSS-colitis as well. Transcriptome analyses revealed that pathways involving TLR and NF-kB signaling were significantly down-regulated by the absence of IDO1. Furthermore, dramatic changes in TLR and NF-kB signaling resulted in substantial changes in the expression of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Numbers of inflammatory cells in colon and peripheral blood were reduced in IDO1 deficiency. These findings suggest that IDO1 plays important roles in producing inflammatory responses and modulating transcriptional networks during the development of colitis. PMID:26610689

  4. GL-V9, a new synthetic flavonoid derivative, ameliorates DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 expression via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Sun, Yang; Ding, Youxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Wenjun; Huang, Shaoliang; Li, Zhiyu; Kong, Lingyi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-09-22

    GL-V9, a new synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to possess anti-cancer properties in our previous studies. Uncontrolled overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in oxidative damage of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of GL-V9 against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. GL-V9 also inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities. Moreover, GL-V9 inhibited ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, but enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity. GL-V9 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production in serum and colon as well. Mechanically, GL-V9 could increase Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a to suppress DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress. Furthermore, GL-V9 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and ROS production and increased the antioxidant defenses in the mouse macrophage cells RAW264.7 by promoting Trx-1 expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway, suggesting that GL-V9 might be a potential effective drug for colitis. PMID:26327408

  5. GL-V9, a new synthetic flavonoid derivative, ameliorates DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 expression via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Youxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Wenjun; Huang, Shaoliang; Li, Zhiyu; Kong, Lingyi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-01-01

    GL-V9, a new synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to possess anti-cancer properties in our previous studies. Uncontrolled overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in oxidative damage of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of GL-V9 against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. GL-V9 also inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities. Moreover, GL-V9 inhibited ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, but enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity. GL-V9 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production in serum and colon as well. Mechanically, GL-V9 could increase Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a to suppress DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress. Furthermore, GL-V9 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and ROS production and increased the antioxidant defenses in the mouse macrophage cells RAW264.7 by promoting Trx-1 expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway, suggesting that GL-V9 might be a potential effective drug for colitis. PMID:26327408

  6. Lactobacillus GG-fermented milk prevents DSS-induced colitis and regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Yan, Fang; He, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Fermented milk is considered one of the best sources for efficient consumption of probiotic strains by hosts to promote good health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of orally administering LGG-fermented milk (LGG milk) on intestinal inflammation and injury and to study the mechanisms of LGG milk's action. Methods LGG milk and non-LGG-fermented milk (non-LGG milk) were administered through gavage to mice before and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Inflammatory/injury score and colon length were assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells were treated with the soluble fraction of LGG milk to detect its effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its down stream target, Akt activation, cytokine-induced apoptosis, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced disruption of tight junctions. Results LGG milk treatment significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic inflammation and injury, and colon shortening in mice, compared to that in non-LGG milk-treated and untreated mice. The soluble fraction of LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, stimulated activation of EGFR and Akt in a concentration-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced apoptosis, and attenuated H2O2-induced disruption of tight junction complex in the intestinal epithelial cells. These effects of LGG milk were blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor. LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, contained two soluble proteins, p40 and p75, which have been reported to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells through activation of EGFR. Depletion of p40 and p75 from LGG milk abolished the effects of LGG milk on prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis and H2O2-induced disruption of tight junctions. Conclusions These results suggest that LGG milk may regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis and potentially prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases through activation of EGFR by LGG-derived proteins. PMID:23468308

  7. Accelerated dysbiosis of gut microbiota during aggravation of DSS-induced colitis by a butyrate-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianpeng; Wu, Yanqiu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Guojun; Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Chenhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria (BPB) are potential probiotic candidates for inflammatory bowel diseases as they are often depleted in the diseased gut microbiota. However, here we found that augmentation of a human-derived butyrate-producing strain, Anaerostipes hadrus BPB5, significantly aggravated colitis in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-treated mice while exerted no detrimental effect in healthy mice. We explored how the interaction between BPB5 and gut microbiota may contribute to this differential impact on the hosts. Butyrate production and severity of colitis were assessed in both healthy and DSS-treated mice, and gut microbiota structural changes were analysed using high-throughput sequencing. BPB5-inoculated healthy mice showed no signs of colitis, but increased butyrate content in the gut. In DSS-treated mice, BPB5 augmentation did not increase butyrate content, but induced significantly more severe disease activity index and much higher mortality. BPB5 didn't induce significant changes of gut microbiota in healthy hosts, but expedited the structural shifts 3 days earlier toward the disease phase in BPB5-augmented than DSS-treated animals. The differential response of gut microbiota in healthy and DSS-treated mice to the same potentially beneficial bacterium with drastically different health consequences suggest that animals with dysbiotic gut microbiota should also be employed for the safety assessment of probiotic candidates. PMID:27264309

  8. Accelerated dysbiosis of gut microbiota during aggravation of DSS-induced colitis by a butyrate-producing bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianpeng; Wu, Yanqiu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Guojun; Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Chenhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria (BPB) are potential probiotic candidates for inflammatory bowel diseases as they are often depleted in the diseased gut microbiota. However, here we found that augmentation of a human-derived butyrate-producing strain, Anaerostipes hadrus BPB5, significantly aggravated colitis in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-treated mice while exerted no detrimental effect in healthy mice. We explored how the interaction between BPB5 and gut microbiota may contribute to this differential impact on the hosts. Butyrate production and severity of colitis were assessed in both healthy and DSS-treated mice, and gut microbiota structural changes were analysed using high-throughput sequencing. BPB5-inoculated healthy mice showed no signs of colitis, but increased butyrate content in the gut. In DSS-treated mice, BPB5 augmentation did not increase butyrate content, but induced significantly more severe disease activity index and much higher mortality. BPB5 didn’t induce significant changes of gut microbiota in healthy hosts, but expedited the structural shifts 3 days earlier toward the disease phase in BPB5-augmented than DSS-treated animals. The differential response of gut microbiota in healthy and DSS-treated mice to the same potentially beneficial bacterium with drastically different health consequences suggest that animals with dysbiotic gut microbiota should also be employed for the safety assessment of probiotic candidates. PMID:27264309

  9. Effect of particle size on their accumulation in an inflammatory lesion in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ayaka; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yu; Tange, Kota; Nakai, Yuta; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Takeda, Hiroshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Akita, Hidetaka

    2016-07-25

    Taking advantage of the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect is a promising approach for delivering macromolecules or nanoparticles to tumors. Recent studies revealed that this strategy is also applicable for targeting other pathological lesions (i.e. inflammatory disease). In the present study, we report the optimal size of a nanoparticle for allowing the higher accumulation of a particle in an inflammatory lesion using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. As a nanoparticle platform, we utilized a SS-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like material (ssPalm), that can be used to produce particles in a variety of sizes ranging from 50nm to 180nm while using the same lipid composition. In healthy mice, particle accumulation remained low regardless of size. In contrast, the accumulation in inflammatory colon tissue was enhanced depending on the progress of the inflammation. In this situation, the apparent uptake clearance accumulation of a mid-sized particle (113nm on average) was higher than that for smaller and larger (54nm and 183nm in average, respectively) ones. Therefore, controlling particle size is an important parameter for the extensive targeting of inflammatory lesion. PMID:27231121

  10. Helicobacter pylori DNA decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine production by dendritic cells and attenuates DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Jay; Owyang, Stephanie Y.; Takeuchi, Tomomi; Cole, Tyler; Zhang, Min; Liu, Maochang; Erb-Downward, John; Rubenstein, Joel H.; Kao, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Recently there has been emerging epidemiological data to suggest Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may protect against certain chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism for the observed inverse association between H. pylori and IBD has not been described. Methods The frequency of immunoregulatory (IRS) to immunostimulatory (ISS) sequences within the genome of various bacteria was calculated using MacVector software. The induction of type I IFN and IL-12 responses by DNA-pulsed murine bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) was analyzed by cytokine production. The effect of H. pylori DNA on E. coli DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12 was assessed. The in vivo significance of H. pylori DNA suppression was assessed in a DSS-model of colitis. The systemic levels of type I IFN were assessed in H. pylori-colonized and non-colonized patients. Results We showed that H. pylori DNA has a significantly elevated IRS:ISS ratio. In vitro experiments revealed the inability of H. pylori DNA to stimulate type I IFN or IL-12 production from mouse BMDCs or human pDCs. Additionally, H. pylori DNA was able to suppress E. coli-DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12. Administration of H. pylori DNA prior to the induction of DSS colitis significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis as compared to E. coli DNA or vehicle control in both an acute and chronic model. Finally, the systemic levels of type I IFN were found to be lower in H. pylori-colonized patients versus non-colonized controls. Conclusions Overall, our study indicates that H pylori DNA has the ability to down-regulate pro-inflammatory responses from DCs and this may in part explain the inverse association between H. pylori and IBD. PMID:21471567

  11. An entirely automated method to score DSS-induced colitis in mice by digital image analysis of pathology slides.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Cleopatra; Jeet, Surinder; Beyer, Joseph; Guerrero, Steve; Lesch, Justin; Wang, Xiaoting; Devoss, Jason; Diehl, Lauri

    2013-05-01

    The DSS (dextran sulfate sodium) model of colitis is a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. Microscopic symptoms include loss of crypt cells from the gut lining and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the colon. An experienced pathologist requires several hours per study to score histological changes in selected regions of the mouse gut. In order to increase the efficiency of scoring, Definiens Developer software was used to devise an entirely automated method to quantify histological changes in the whole H&E slide. When the algorithm was applied to slides from historical drug-discovery studies, automated scores classified 88% of drug candidates in the same way as pathologists' scores. In addition, another automated image analysis method was developed to quantify colon-infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells in immunohistochemical stains of serial sections of the H&E slides. The timing of neutrophil and macrophage infiltration had the highest correlation to pathological changes, whereas T and B cell infiltration occurred later. Thus, automated image analysis enables quantitative comparisons between tissue morphology changes and cell-infiltration dynamics. PMID:23580198

  12. Deficient Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Leads to Severe Chronic DSS-Induced Colitis in Ncf1/p47phox-Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Sousa, Tiago; Ladeirinha, Ana Filipa; Santiago, Ana Raquel; Carvalheiro, Helena; Raposo, Bruno; Alarcão, Ana; Cabrita, António; Holmdahl, Rikard; Carvalho, Lina; Souto-Carneiro, M. Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Background Colitis is a common clinical complication in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired oxidative burst. Existing experimental data from NADPH-oxidase knockout mice propose contradictory roles for the involvement of reactive oxygen species in colitis chronicity and severity. Since genetically controlled mice with a point-mutation in the Ncf1 gene are susceptible to chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, we tested whether they presented increased predisposition to develop chronic colitis. Methods Colitis was induced in Ncf1-mutant and wild-type mice by a 1st 7-days cycle of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), intercalated by a 7-days resting period followed by a 2nd 7-days DSS-cycle. Cytokines were quantified locally in the colon inflammatory infiltrates and in the serum. Leukocyte infiltration and morphological alterations of the colon mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Clinical scores demonstrated a more severe colitis in Ncf1-mutant mice than controls, with no recovery during the resting period and a severe chronic colitis after the 2nd cycle, confirmed by histopathology and presence of infiltrating neutrophils, macrophages, plasmocytes and lymphocytes in the colon. Severe colitis was mediated by increased local expression of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A) and phosphorylation of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Serological cytokine titers of those inflammatory cytokines were more elevated in Ncf1-mutant than control mice, and were accompanied by systemic changes in functional subsets of monocytes, CD4+T and B cells. Conclusion This suggests that an ineffective oxidative burst leads to severe chronic colitis through local accumulation of peroxynitrites, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes and systemic immune deregulation similar to CGD. PMID:24873968

  13. Monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis ameliorates proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis via NF-κB inactivation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Park, Hee-Juhn; Cho, Young-Wuk; Baek, Nam-In; Jang, Daesik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of monotropein in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Monotropein was found to inhibit the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Treatment with monotropein decreased the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Consistent with these findings, monotropein also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α), and consequently the translocations of NF-κB. In the DSS-induced colitis model, monotropein reduced disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and inflammation-related protein expressions by suppressing NF-κB activation in colon mucosa. Taken together, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of monotropein are mainly related to the inhibition of the expressions of inflammatory mediators via NF-κB inactivation, and support its possible therapeutic role in colitis. PMID:23261679

  14. Preventive and therapeutic effects of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis by regulation of antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Ji-Hong; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Eun Ok; Um, Byung-Hun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory disorder caused by hyperactivation of effector immune cells that produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. The aims of our study were to determine whether orally administered blueberry extract (BE) could attenuate or prevent the development of experimental colitis in mice and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Female Balb/C mice (n=7) were randomized into groups differing in treatment conditions (prevention and treatment) and dose of BE (50 mg/kg body weight). Acute ulcerative colitis was induced by oral administration of 3% dextran sodium sulfate for 7 days in drinking water. Colonic mucosal injury was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, biochemical and histopathological examinations. BE significantly decreased disease activity index and improved the macroscopic and histological score of colons when compared to the colitis group (P<.05). BE markedly attenuated myeloperoxidase accumulation (colitis group 54.97±2.78 nmol/mg, treatment group 30.78±1.33 nmol/mg) and malondialdehyde in colon and prostaglandin E2 level in serum while increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase (colitis group 11.94±1.16 U/ml, BE treatment group 16.49±0.39 U/ml) compared with the colitis group (P<.05). mRNA levels of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase cytokines were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that BE attenuates the expression of COX-2 and IL-1β in colonic tissue. Moreover, BE reduced the nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) by immunofluorescence analysis. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effect of BE at colorectal sites is a result of a number of mechanisms: antioxidation, down-regulation of the expression of inflammatory mediators and inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. PMID:26878787

  15. Boehmeria nivea Attenuates the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun Ju; Sung, Mi Jeong; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2014-01-01

    We examined the therapeutic effect of an ethanol extract derived from Boehmeria nivea (Linn.) Gaudich in a mouse model of experimental colitis. Treatment with 70% ethanol extract derived from B. nivea (EBN) at a dose of 100, 200, or 500 mg/(kg·d) improved colon shortening, body weight, the disease activity index (DAI), and histopathological score of DSS-induced colitis mice. DSS significantly increased the levels of cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 in colon tissue relative to that of the untreated control group. EBN administered at 100, 200, or 500 mg/(kg·d) reduced COX-2 levels in the DSS-treated mice. In addition, EBN decreased the DSS-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Taken together, these data suggest that B. nivea extract is effective in preventing colitis. PMID:25045208

  16. Increased colonic apelin production in rodents with experimental colitis and in humans with IBD.

    PubMed

    Han, Song; Wang, Guiyun; Qiu, Suimin; de la Motte, Carol; Wang, Hui-Qun; Gomez, Guillermo; Englander, Ella W; Greeley, George H

    2007-08-16

    Apelin and its receptor, the APJ receptor, are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of sodium dextran sulfate (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in rats and mice and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans on intestinal apelin production, and the influence of exogenous apelin on colonic epithelial cell proliferation in mice. In rodents with experimental colitis, colonic apelin mRNA levels were elevated during the inflammatory reaction as well as during the tissue repair phase that ensues after DSS withdrawal. Fluctuations in colonic apelin expression were paralleled by similar changes in apelin immunostaining. Apelin immunostaining was increased in the surface epithelium, in epithelial cells along the length of the tubular gland and in the stem cell region at the gland base. In ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease patients, apelin immunostaining revealed a pattern of increased intestinal apelin content similar to that observed in rodents with experimental colitis. Administration of synthetic apelin to mice during the recovery phase of DSS-induced colitis stimulated colonic epithelial cell proliferation significantly. Our observations that colonic apelin production is increased during and after DSS exposure indicate that apelin plays multiple roles during the different stages of colitis. Additionally, the stimulatory action of exogenous apelin on colonic epithelial proliferation suggests that the increased apelin production during intestinal recovery stage may contribute to the repair of the intestinal epithelium in experimental rodent models of colitis and in IBD patients. PMID:17391779

  17. Minocycline attenuates experimental colitis in mice by blocking expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.-Y.; Chu, H.-C.; Lin, Y.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Hsieh, T.-Y.; Chang, W.-K.; Chao, Y.-C.; Liao, C.-L.

    2009-05-15

    In addition to its antimicrobial activity, minocycline exerts anti-inflammatory effects in several disease models. However, whether minocycline affects the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease has not been determined. We investigated the effects of minocycline on experimental colitis and its underlying mechanisms. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in mice by treatment with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of minocycline on colonic injury was assessed clinically and histologically. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of mice with minocycline significantly diminished mortality rate and attenuated the severity of DSS-induced acute colitis. Mechanistically, minocycline administration suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitrotyrosine production, inhibited proinflammatory cytokine expression, repressed the elevated mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 3, 9, and 13, diminished the apoptotic index in colonic tissues, and inhibited nitric oxide production in the serum of mice with DSS-induced acute colitis. In DSS-induced chronic colitis, minocycline treatment also reduced body weight loss, improved colonic histology, and blocked expression of iNOS, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs from colonic tissues. Similarly, minocycline could ameliorate the severity of TNBS-induced acute colitis in mice by decreasing mortality rate and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine expression in colonic tissues. These results demonstrate that minocycline protects mice against DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, probably via inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression in intestinal tissues. Therefore, minocycline is a potential remedy for human inflammatory bowel diseases.

  18. Effect of a Ropy Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain Orally Administered on DSS-Induced Colitis Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Vezza, Teresa; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Margolles, Abelardo; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gálvez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bifidobacteria, particularly Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, are used in the functional food industry as promising probiotics with purported beneficial effects. We used three isogenic strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis, with different EPS producing phenotypes (mucoid-ropy and non-ropy), in order to determine their capability to survive the murine gastrointestinal tract transit, as well as to evaluate their role in improving clinical outcomes in a chemically-induced colitis model. The three strains were able to survive in the intestinal tract of C57BL/6J mice during the course of the intervention study. Furthermore, the disease activity index (DAI) of the animal group treated with the ropy strain was significantly lower than of the DAI of the placebo group at the end of the treatment. However, no significant differences were found among the three strains. The analysis of several immune parameters, such as TNFα and IL-10 quantified in blood plasma and lymphocyte populations enumerated in mesenteric nodes, showed some significant variations among the four experimental animal groups. Remarkably, a higher capability of the ropy strain to increase regulatory T-cells in mesenteric lymphoid nodes was demonstrated, suggesting a higher ability of this strain to regulate inflammatory responses at mucosal level. Our data indicate that strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis producing EPS that confer a mucoid-ropy phenotype could represent promising candidates to perform further studies targeting intestinal inflammatory processes. PMID:27375589

  19. Effects of Guchang Capsule on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoshan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Hong; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Guchang capsule (GC) is a Chinese materia medica standardized product extracted from 15 Chinese traditional medical herbs and it has been clinically used in the treatment of intestinal disease. In this study, in order to extend the research of GC in intestinal disease, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects of GC on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced murine experimental colitis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. GC treatment attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced the mortality. Moreover, GC treatment prevented DSS-induced colonic pathological damage; meanwhile it inhibited proinflammatory cytokines production in colon tissues. In vitro, GC significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in macrophage cells, and the expressions of several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) which were reported in regulating NF-κB signaling pathway were obviously affected by adding GC into culture medium. In conclusion, our data suggested that administration of GC exhibits therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis partially through regulating the expression of NF-κB related lncRNAs in infiltrating immune cells. PMID:27313642

  20. Oral Bifidobacterium longum expressing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone to fight experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pijin; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhaobing; Huang, Junli; Gong, Yahui; Sun, Hanxiao

    2016-07-01

    The oral delivery of peptides is a highly attractive treatment approach. However, the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract limits its application. Here, we utilize Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to orally deliver a potent anti-inflammatory but short duration peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) against experimental colitis. The aim of our study was to facilitate the efficient oral delivery of α-MSH. We designed a vector of pBDMSH and used it to construct a Bifidobacterium longum expressing α-MSH. We then determined the bioactivity of recombinant Bifidobacterium in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory models of HT-29 cells. Finally, we used Bifidobacterium expressing α-MSH against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis mice. Results based on the myeloperoxidase activity, the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 and the histological injury of colon tissue reveal recombinant Bifidobacterium was efficient in attenuating DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, suggesting an alternative way to use Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to deliver α-MSH for DSS-induced ulcerative colitis therapy. PMID:26673899

  1. Screening of an anti-inflammatory peptide from Hydrophis cyanocinctus and analysis of its activities and mechanism in DSS-induced acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zengjie; Jiang, Hailong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Ma, Xingyuan; Lu, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Snake has been used for centuries as a traditional Chinese medicine, especially for therapeutic treatment for inflammatory diseases; however, its mechanisms of action and active constituents remain controversial. In our study, a tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) selective binding peptide, Hydrostatin-SN1 (H-SN1), which was screened from a Hydrophis cyanocinctus venom gland T7 phage display library, was shown to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. As a TNFR1 antagonist, it reduced cytotoxicity mediated by TNF-α in L929 fibroblasts and effectively inhibited the combination between TNF-α with TNFR1 in surface plasmon resonance analysis. H-SN1 was also shown to suppress TNFR1–associated signaling pathways as it minimized TNF-α-induced NF-кB and MAPK activation in HEK293 embryonic kidney and HT29 adenocarcinoma cell lines. We next determined the effect of H-SN1 in vivo using a murine model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate, demonstrating that H-SN1 lowered the clinical parameters of acute colitis including the disease activity index and histologic scores. H-SN1 also inhibited TNF/TNFR1 downstream targets at both mRNA and protein levels. These results indicate that H-SN1 might represent a suitable candidate for use in the treatment of TNF-α-associated inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27158082

  2. R-Spondins Are Expressed by the Intestinal Stroma and are Differentially Regulated during Citrobacter rodentium- and DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eugene; Yousefi, Mitra; Gruenheid, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    The R-spondin family of proteins has recently been described as secreted enhancers of β-catenin activation through the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We previously reported that Rspo2 is a major determinant of susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-mediated colitis in mice and recent genome-wide association studies have revealed RSPO3 as a candidate Crohn’s disease-specific inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility gene in humans. However, there is little information on the endogenous expression and cellular source of R-spondins in the colon at steady state and during intestinal inflammation. RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to assess the expression of R-spondins at steady state and in two mouse models of colonic inflammation. The cellular source of R-spondins was assessed in specific colonic cell populations isolated by cell sorting. Data mining from publicly available datasets was used to assess the expression of R-spondins in the human colon. At steady state, colonic expression of R-spondins was found to be exclusive to non-epithelial CD45- lamina propria cells, and Rspo3/RSPO3 was the most highly expressed R-spondin in both mouse and human colon. R-spondin expression was found to be highly dynamic and differentially regulated during C. rodentium infection and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, with notably high levels of Rspo3 expression during DSS colitis, and high levels of Rspo2 expression during C. rodentium infection, specifically in susceptible mice. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that in the colon, R-spondins are expressed by subepithelial stromal cells, and that Rspo3/RSPO3 is the family member most implicated in colonic homeostasis. The differential regulation of the R-spondins in different models of intestinal inflammation indicate they respond to specific pathogenic and inflammatory signals that differ in the two models and provides further evidence that this family of proteins plays a key role in linking intestinal

  3. Dietary olive oil supplemented with fish oil, rich in EPA and DHA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, attenuates colonic inflammation in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Camuesco, Desirée; Gálvez, Julio; Nieto, Ana; Comalada, Mònica; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Concha, Angel; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies proposed a protective role of the dietary intake of (n-3) PUFA in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but almost no studies have been performed using olive oil. The aims of the present study were to test the beneficial effects of an olive oil-based diet with or without fish oil, rich in (n-3) PUFA, in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of rat colitis and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their potential beneficial effects, with special attention to the production of some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, such as leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO). Rats were fed the different diets for 2 wk before colitis induction and thereafter until colonic evaluation 15 d later. Colitic rats fed the olive oil-based diet had a lower colonic inflammatory response than those fed the soybean oil diet, and this beneficial effect was increased by the dietary incorporation of (n-3) PUFA. A restoration of colonic glutathione levels and lower colonic NO synthase expression occurred in all colitic rats fed an olive oil diet compared with the control colitic group that consumed the soybean oil diet. However, (n-3) PUFA incorporation into an olive oil diet significantly decreased colonic TNFalpha and LTB(4) levels compared with colitic rats that were not supplemented with fish oil. These results affirm the benefits of an olive oil diet in the management of IBD, which are further enhanced by the addition of (n-3) PUFA. PMID:15795419

  4. MD-1 deficiency attenuates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis through modulating the function of colonic lamina propria dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huaqin; Zhang, Guqin; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Shang, Jian; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Available evidence suggests that both dysregulated innate and adaptive immune pathways contribute to the aberrant intestinal inflammatory response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Myeloid Differentiation 1 (MD-1), also known as Lymphocyte Antigen 86 (Ly86), a secreted protein interacting with radioprotective 105 (RP105), plays an important role in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Previous studies showed that MD-1 may be involved in the (patho) physiological regulation of the innate immune system and inflammation. In this study, we reported for the first time that MD-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in both human IBD patients and DSS-treated WT mice. We showed that MD-1(-/-) mice were less susceptible to the development of colitis than WT controls as demonstrated by significantly reduced weight loss, disease activity index, colon histological scores, cellular infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators. In addition, mucosal barrier function seemed to be intact in response to the loss of MD-1. Finally, lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) from the colon of MD-1(-/-) mice after DSS exposure not only decreased in number but also significantly down-regulated the expression of surface maturation co-stimulatory molecules MHC-II, CD40 and CD86 compared with those from WT mice. Taken together, our results reveal that MD-1 deficiency is of critical importance in down-regulating induction and progression of DSS colitis, thereby suggesting that MD-1 might be a target for future interventional therapies of IBD. PMID:27209086

  5. A potential role for regulatory T-cells in the amelioration of DSS induced colitis by dietary non-digestible polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Anita; Belle, Fabiën N; Bastiaans, Jacqueline; de Graaff, Priscilla; Garssen, Johan; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, Arjan P

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The interaction between a disturbed microbial composition, the intestinal mucosal barrier and the mucosal immune system plays an important role in IBD and its chronicity. It has been indicated that due to the altered microbial composition the balance between T regulatory cells (Treg) and T helper cells (Th) 17 is disturbed, leading to an inflammatory state. The present study shows that oral intake of a specific multi fibre mix (MF), designed to match the fibre content of a healthy diet, counteracts IBD-like intestinal inflammation and weight loss in dextran sodium sulphate treated mice. This reduction in inflammation might be brought about, at least in part, by the MF-induced decrease in inflammatory cytokines, increase in IL-10 and the relative increase in Treg cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Moreover, the Treg percentage in the MLN correlates with the percentage of tolerogenic lamina propria derived CD103+RALDH+dendritic cells in the MLN, suggesting that these play a role in the observed effects. In children with CD exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a widely used safe and effective therapy. Optimizing enteral nutritional concepts with the tested fibre mix, know to modulate the gut microbiota composition, SCFA production and inflammatory status (as indicated by the present study) could possibly further improve efficacy in inducing remission. PMID:25498760

  6. Targeted 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase adoptive gene therapy ameliorates dss-induced colitis without causing hypercalcemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Baylink, David J; Walter, Michael H; Lau, Kin-Hing William; Meng, Xianmei; Wang, Jun; Cherkas, Andriy; Tang, Xiaolei; Qin, Xuezhong

    2015-02-01

    Systemic 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment ameliorating murine inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) could not be applied to patients because of hypercalcemia. We tested the hypothesis that increasing 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis locally by targeting delivery of the 1α-hydroxylase gene (CYP27B1) to the inflamed bowel would ameliorate IBD without causing hypercalcemia. Our targeting strategy is the use of CD11b(+)/Gr1(+) monocytes as the cell vehicle and a macrophage-specific promoter (Mac1) to control CYP27B1 expression. The CD11b(+)/Gr1(+) monocytes migrated initially to inflamed colon and some healthy tissues in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis mice; however, only the migration of monocytes to the inflamed colon was sustained. Adoptive transfer of Gr1(+) monocytes did not cause hepatic injury. Infusion of Mac1-CYP27B1-modified monocytes increased body weight gain, survival, and colon length, and expedited mucosal regeneration. Expression of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-17a and interferon (IFN)-α) was decreased, while expression of protective Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) was increased, by the treatment. This therapy also enhanced tight junction gene expression in the colon. No hypercalcemia occurred following this therapy. In conclusion, we have for the first time obtained proof-of-principle evidence for a novel monocyte-based adoptive CYP27B1 gene therapy using a mouse IBD model. This strategy could be developed into a novel therapy for IBD and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:25327179

  7. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitor C75 Ameliorates Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Shingo; Yang, Weng-Lang; Aziz, Monowar; Kameoka, Shingo; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities of lipid metabolism through overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), which catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids, are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C75 is a synthetic α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone compound that inhibits FASN activity. We hypothesized that C75 treatment could effectively reduce the severity of experimental colitis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 d. C75 (5 mg/kg body weight) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (vehicle) was administered intraperitoneally from d 2 to 6. Clinical parameters were monitored daily. Mice were euthanized on d 8 for histological evaluation and measurements of colon length, chemokine, cytokine and inflammatory mediator expression. C75 significantly reduced body weight loss from 23% to 15% on d 8, compared with the vehicle group. The fecal bleeding, diarrhea and colon histological damage scores in the C75-treated group were significantly lower than scores in the vehicle animals. Colon shortening was significantly improved after C75 treatment. C75 protected colon tissues from DSS-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activity. Macrophage inflammatory protein 2, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, myeloperoxidase activity and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6) in the colon were significantly downregulated in the C75-treated group, compared with the vehicle group. Treatment with C75 in colitis mice inhibited the elevation of FASN, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression as well as IκB degradation in colon tissues. C75 administration alleviates the severity of colon damage and inhibits the activation of inflammatory pathways in DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inhibition of FASN may represent an attractive therapeutic potential for treating IBD. PMID:24306512

  8. 3-(2-Oxo-2-phenylethylidene)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4(11bH)-one (compound 1), a novel potent Nrf2/ARE inducer, protects against DSS-induced colitis via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajing; Wang, Hong; Qian, Chen; Tang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Xiuting; You, Qidong; Hu, Rong

    2016-02-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome is a key component of the inflammatory process and its dysregulation contributes to IBD for its ability to induce IL-1β release. Previously, we reported that a novel small molecular activator of Nrf2, 3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethylidene)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino-[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4(11bH)-one (compound 1) can prevent the development of colorectal adenomas in AOM-DSS models. Here we further investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of compound 1 in DSS-induced colitis in C57BL/6 and NLRP3(-/-) mice, and revealed the possible modulation by compound 1 of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β release from macrophages. In C57BL/6 mice, oral administration of compound 1 significantly attenuated DSS-induced colonic pathological damage, remarkably inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and IL-1β secretion in colons. In contrast, mice deficient for NLRP3 were less sensitive to DSS-induced acute colitis, and compound 1 treatment exerted no protective effect on DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in NLRP3(-/-) mice. The protective effect of compound 1 may be attributed to its inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and Nrf2 activation in colons. Furthermore, compound 1, as a small molecular activator of Nrf2, significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in both THP-1 derived macrophages and bone-marrow derived macrophages, as indicated by reduced expression of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1, and lowered IL-1β secretion. Finally, compound 1-induced NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition is through blocking NLRP3 priming step and dependent on Nrf2 activation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that compound 1 might be a potential agent for the treatment of IBD by targeting Nrf2 and NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:26588861

  9. CXCR4 Antagonist AMD3100 Modulates Claudin Expression and Intestinal Barrier Function in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xian-Ming; Wang, Fang-Yu; Zhou, Ju; Hu, Kai-Feng; Li, Su-Wen; Zou, Bing-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by local inflammation and impaired epithelial barrier. Previous studies demonstrated that CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonists could reduce colonic inflammation and mucosal damage in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Whether CXCR4 antagonist has action on intestinal barrier and the possible mechanism, is largely undefined. In the present study, the experimental colitis was induced by administration of 5% DSS for 7 days, and CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 was administered intraperitoneally once daily during the study period. For in vitro study, HT-29/B6 colonic cells were treated with cytokines or AMD3100 for 24 h until assay. DSS-induced colitis was characterized by morphologic changes in mice. In AMD3100-treated mice, epithelial destruction, inflammatory infiltration, and submucosal edema were markedly reduced, and the disease activity index was also significantly decreased. Increased intestinal permeability in DSS-induced colitis was also significantly reduced by AMD3100. The expressions of colonic claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-5, claudin-7 and claudin-8 were markedly decreased after DSS administration, whereas colonic claudin-2 expression was significantly decreased. Treatment with AMD3100 prevented all these changes. However, AMD3100 had no influence on claudin-3, claudin-5, claudin-7 and claudin-8 expression in HT-29/B6 cells. Cytokines as TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ increased apoptosis and monolayer permeability, inhibited the wound-healing and the claudin-3, claudin-7 and claudin-8 expression in HT-29/B6 cells. We suggest that AMD3100 acted on colonic claudin expression and intestinal barrier function, at least partly, in a cytokine-dependent pathway. PMID:22073304

  10. Mice deficient in Muc4 are resistant to experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Rachagani, S; Sheinin, Y; Smith, L M; Gurumurthy, C B; Roy, H K; Batra, S K

    2016-05-19

    MUC4, a large transmembrane mucin normally expressed in the small and large intestine, is differentially expressed during inflammatory and malignant conditions of the colon. However, the expression pattern and the role of MUC4 in colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC) are inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the role of Muc4 during inflammatory and malignant conditions of the colon. Here, we generated Muc4(-/-) mice and addressed its role in colitis and colitis-associated CRC using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and azoxymethane (AOM)-DSS experimental models, respectively. Muc4(-/-) mice were viable, fertile with no apparent defects. Muc4(-/-) mice displayed increased resistance to DSS-induced colitis compared with wild-type (WT) littermates that was evaluated by survival rate, body weight loss, diarrhea and fecal blood score, and histological score. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is, CD3(+) lymphocytes and F4/80(+) macrophages was observed in the inflamed mucosa along with reduction in the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and anti-microbial genes Lysozyme M and SLPI in the colon of Muc4(-/-) mice compared with WT littermates. Compensatory upregulation of Muc2 and Muc3 mucins under basal and DSS treatment conditions partly explains the resistance observed in Muc4(-/-) mice. Accordingly, Muc4(-/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor burden compared with WT mice assessed in a colitis-induced tumor model using AOM/DSS. An increased percentage of Ki67(+) nuclei was observed in the tumors from WT compared with Muc4(-/-) mice suggesting Muc4 to be critical in intestinal cell proliferation during tumorigenesis. Taken together, we conclusively demonstrate for the first time the role of Muc4 in driving intestinal inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis using a novel Muc4(-/-) mouse model. PMID:26364605

  11. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Mohebali, Nooshin; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA. PMID:26251571

  12. Dietary α-mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen fruit, exacerbates experimental colitis and promotes dysbiosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Berman-Booty, Lisa D.; Galley, Jeffrey D.; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Mace, Thomas; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Bailey, Michael T.; Clinton, Steven K.; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Failla, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. α-Mangostin (α-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, exerts anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in vitro. We evaluated the impact of dietary α-MG on murine experimental colitis and on the gut microbiota of healthy mice. Methods and results Colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Mice were fed control diet or diet with α-MG (0.1%). α-MG exacerbated the pathology of DSS-induced colitis. Mice fed diet with α-MG had greater colonic inflammation and injury, as well as greater infiltration of CD3+ and F4/80+ cells, and colonic myeloperoxidase, than controls. Serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-6, and serum amyloid A were also greater in α-MG-fed animals than in controls. The colonic and cecal microbiota of healthy mice fed α-MG but no DSS shifted to an increased abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, a profile similar to that found in human UC. Conclusion α-MG exacerbated colonic pathology during DSS-induced colitis. These effects may be associated with an induction of intestinal dysbiosis by α-MG. Our results suggest that the use of α-MG-containing supplements by patients with UC may have unintentional risk. PMID:24668769

  13. Investigation of pulmonary involvement in inflammatory bowel disease in an experimental model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Bunyamin; Songur, Yıldıran; Songur, Necla; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Senol, Altug; Ciris, I. Metin; Sutcu, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may also involve various extra-intestinal organs. Clinical studies have found asymptomatic/symptomatic pulmonary involvement in 1% to 6% of patients with IBD. The present study histopathologically investigated pulmonary involvement in an experimental model of colitis in order to demonstrate pulmonary tissue involvement in IBD and to expose potential etiological factors. It also explored the relation between inflammation and tissue concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Methods: The study comprised 24 male Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Acute colitis was induced in two separate groups using either the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) method, while the other two groups were used as controls for each model of colitis. Wallace scoring was used for macroscopic assessment of colitis, and the lungs were histopathologically examined. Concentrations of VEGF and TNF-α in pulmonary tissue were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: The number of animals that had alveolar hemorrhage was significantly higher in the TNBS-induced colitis and DSS-induced colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.015 and p = 0.015, respectively). VEGF and TNF-α concentrations in pulmonary tissues were significantly increased in both the TNBS colitis and DSS colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively; and p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that significant and serious histopathological changes directly associated with colitis occur in the lungs in IBD. PMID:27539446

  14. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract ameliorates intestinal inflammation through MAPKs/NF-κB signaling in a murine model of acute experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Medicherla, Kanakaraju; Ketkar, Avanee; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Sudhakar, Godi; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-07-13

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-colitis effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) by using both in vitro LPS-activated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental murine colitis and suggested the underlying possible mechanisms. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was performed to identify the major components present in the RE. The clinical signs, biochemistry, immunoblot, ELISA and histology in colon tissues were assessed in order to elucidate the beneficial effect of RE. RE suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and the expressions of inflammatory proteins in macrophages. Administration of RE (50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) also significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced murine colitis, as assessed by the clinical symptoms, colon length and histology. RE administration prevented the DSS-induced activation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs, attenuated IκBα phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB (p65). RE also suppressed the COX-2 and iNOS expressions, decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines and the myeloperoxidase activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation revealed that RE administration alleviated mucosal damage and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by DSS in the colon tissue. Hence, RE could be used as a new preventive and therapeutic food ingredient or as a dietary supplement for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27349640

  15. Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Dai, Weiqi; Mao, Yuqing; Li, Sainan; Wang, Jingjie; Li, Huanqing; Guo, Chuanyong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-02-27

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods and results: Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 2.5% DSS. Saline or 25, 125, 250 μg/kg ghrelin was administrated intraperitoneally (IP) to mice 1 day before colitis induction and on days 4, 5, and 6 after DSS administration. IP injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-lys{sup 3}]-GHRP-6, was performed immediately prior to ghrelin injection. Ghrelin (125 or 250 μg/kg) could reduce the disease activity index, histological score, and myeloperoxidase activities in experimental colitis, and also prevented shortening of the colon. Ghrelin could prevent the reduction of transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction expression, and bolstered tight junction structural integrity and regulated cytokine secretion. Ultimately, ghrelin inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory κB-α, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 activation. Conclusions: Ghrelin prevented the breakdown of intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis. The protective effects of ghrelin on intestinal barrier function were mediated by its receptor GHSR-1a. The inhibition of NF-κB activation might be part of the mechanism underlying the effects of ghrelin that protect against barrier dysfunction. - Highlights: • Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis. • The effect of ghrelin is mediated by GHSR-1a. • Inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  16. Methyl deficient diet aggravates experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; George, Amandine; Coste, Florence; Bressenot, Aude; Bossenmeyer-Pourie, Carine; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Xia, Bing; Namour, Bernard; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) result from complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Low blood levels of vitamin B12 and folate and genetic variants of related target enzymes are associated with IBD risk, in population studies. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated the effects of a methyl-deficient diet (MDD, folate, vitamin B12 and choline) in an experimental model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), in rat pups from dams subjected to the MDD during gestation and lactation. Four groups were considered (n = 12-16 per group): C DSS(-) (control/DSS(-)), D DSS(-) (deficient/DSS(-)), C DSS(+) (control/DSS(+)) and D DSS(+) (deficient/DSS(+)). Changes in apoptosis, oxidant stress and pro-inflammatory pathways were studied within colonic mucosa. In rat pups, the MDD produced a decreased plasma concentration of vitamin B12 and folate and an increased homocysteine (7.8 ± 0.9 versus 22.6 ± 1.2 μmol/l, P < 0.001). The DSS-induced colitis was dramatically more severe in the D DSS(+) group compared with each other group, with no change in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but decreased expression of caspase-3 and Bax, and increased Bcl-2 levels. The mRNA levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and protein levels of p38, cytosolic phospolipase A2 and cyclooxygenase 2 were significantly increased in the D DSS(+) pups and were accompanied by a decrease in the protein level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)3, a negative regulator of TNF-α. MDD may cause an overexpression of pro-inflammatory pathways, indicating an aggravating effect of folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency in experimental IBD. These findings suggest paying attention to vitamin B12 and folate deficits, frequently reported in IBD patients. PMID:21199330

  17. Oroxyloside prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Ding, Youxiang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Kong, Lingyi; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Zhao, Li

    2016-04-15

    Oroxyloside, as a metabolite of oroxylin A, may harbor various beneficial bioactivities which have rarely been reported in the previous studies. Here we established the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis and evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of oroxyloside in vivo. As a result, oroxyloside attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. Furthermore, oroxyloside inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities as well. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon was also significantly reduced by oroxyloside. We unraveled the underlying mechanisms that oroxyloside inhibited NF-κB pathway by activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) to attenuate DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of oroxyloside in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Oroxyloside decreased several LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW264.7 and BMDM. We also found that oroxyloside inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway via activating PPARγ in RAW 264.7 and BMDM. Docking study showed that oroxyloside could bind with PPARγ. GW9662, the inhibitor of PPARγ, and PPARγ siRNA transfection blocked the effect of oroxyloside on PPARγ activation. Our study suggested that oroxyloside prevented DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation. Therefore, oroxyloside may be a promising and effective agent for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:26947454

  18. Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 protein treatment attenuates experimentally-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Vishal; Amdare, Nitin; Yadav, Ravi Shankar; Tarnekar, Aaditya; Goswami, Kalyan; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2015-11-01

    Helminths are known to modulate host's immunity by suppressing host protective pro-inflammatory responses. Such immunomodulatory effects have been experimentally shown to have therapeutic implications in immune mediated disorders. In the present study, we have explored a filarial protein i.e. Brugia malayi recombinant abundant larval transcript 2 (rBmALT2) for its therapeutic effect in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis in mouse model. The immunomodulatory activity of rBmALT-2 was initially confirmed by demonstrating that it suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide synthesis and down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro by peritoneal exudate cells of mice. Treatment with rBmALT2 reduced severity of colitis associated with significant reduction in weight loss, disease activity, colon damage, mucosal edema and histopathological score including myeloperoxidase activity in colon tissues. rBmALT2 was comparatively more effective in attenuation of colitis when used in the preventive mode than when used for curative purpose. The therapeutic effect of rBmALT2 was found to be associated with downregulation of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17 and upregulation of IL-10 cytokines. These results provide strong experimental evidence that BmALT2 could be a potential alternative therapeutic agent in colitis. PMID:26669016

  19. Experimental Colitis Is Attenuated by Cardioprotective Diet Supplementation That Reduces Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Mucosal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Citalán Madrid, Alí Francisco; García Ponce, Alexander; Silva Olivares, Angelica; Shibayama, Mineko; Betanzos, Abigail; Del Valle Mondragón, Leonardo; Nava, Porfirio; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are multifactorial, relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the etiology is still poorly understood but involves altered immune responses, epithelial dysfunction, environmental factors, and nutrition. Recently, we have shown that the diet supplement corabion has cardioprotective effects due to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are also prominent risk factors in IBD, we speculated that corabion also has beneficial effects on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male mice by administration of 3.5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for a period of 3 or 7 days with or without daily gavage feeding of corabion consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. We found that corabion administration attenuated DSS-induced colon shortening, tissue damage, and disease activity index during the onset of colitis. Mechanistically, these effects could be explained by reduced neutrophil recruitment, oxidative stress, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and internalization of the junctional proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin leading to less edema formation. Thus, corabion may be a useful diet supplement for the management of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders such as IBD. PMID:26881044

  20. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits experimental colitis and colitis-propelled carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gkouskou, K K; Ioannou, M; Pavlopoulos, G A; Georgila, K; Siganou, A; Nikolaidis, G; Kanellis, D C; Moore, S; Papadakis, K A; Kardassis, D; Iliopoulos, I; McDyer, F A; Drakos, E; Eliopoulos, A G

    2016-05-12

    In both humans with long-standing ulcerative colitis and mouse models of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC), tumors develop predominantly in the distal part of the large intestine but the biological basis of this intriguing pathology remains unknown. Herein we report intrinsic differences in gene expression between proximal and distal colon in the mouse, which are augmented during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)/azoxymethane (AOM)-induced CAC. Functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes identified discrete biological pathways operating in proximal vs distal intestine and revealed a cluster of genes involved in lipid metabolism to be associated with the disease-resistant proximal colon. Guided by this finding, we have further interrogated the expression and function of one of these genes, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), a major component of high-density lipoprotein. We show that ApoA-I is expressed at higher levels in the proximal compared with the distal part of the colon and its ablation in mice results in exaggerated DSS-induced colitis and disruption of epithelial architecture in larger areas of the large intestine. Conversely, treatment with an ApoA-I mimetic peptide ameliorated the phenotypic, histopathological and inflammatory manifestations of the disease. Genetic interference with ApoA-I levels in vivo impacted on the number, size and distribution of AOM/DSS-induced colon tumors. Mechanistically, ApoA-I was found to modulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-κB activation in response to the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide with concomitant impairment in the production of the pathogenic cytokine interleukin-6. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel protective role for ApoA-I in colitis and CAC and unravel an unprecedented link between lipid metabolic processes and intestinal pathologies. PMID:26279300

  1. Effects of ketanserin on experimental colitis in mice and macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, JUNHUA; SHAO, LIMEI; SHEN, JIAQING; JIANG, WEILIANG; FENG, YUN; ZHENG, PING; LIU, FEI

    2016-01-01

    Ketanserin is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)-2A receptor (5-HT2AR) antagonist. Studies have suggested that ketanserin exerts anti-inflammatory effects independent of the baroreflex; however, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of ketanserin in colitis and the possible underlying mechanisms. The expression of 5-HT2AR was assessed in the colon tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The therapeutic potential of ketanserin was investigated in the mice with colitis. In the colon tissue samples from the patients with IBD, a high expression level of 5-HT2AR was observed. Treatment with ketanserin attenuated the progression of experimental colitis in the mice, as indicated by body weight assessment, colon length, histological scores and cytokine release. The colonic macrophages from the ketanserin-treated mice with colitis exhibited a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines, with M2 polarization and impaired migration. The knockdown of 5-HT2AR using siRNA partly abolished the inhibitory effects of ketanserin on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMDMs), thus demonstrating that the inhibitory effects of ketanserin on the production of inflammatory cytokines are partly dependent on 5-HT2AR. Ketanserin also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in BMDMs. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrate that ketanserin alleviates colitis. Its anti-inflammatory effects may be due to the promotion of the anti-inflammatory function of macrophages through 5-HT2AR/NF-κB. PMID:26865503

  2. Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

  3. Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, improves experimental colitis in mice with multiple targets against activated T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xing-Xin; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong; Gu, Yan-Hong; Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2012-09-15

    In the present paper, we aimed to examine the novel effects of cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, on murine experimental colitis. Cerebroside D significantly reduced the weight loss, mortality rate and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of colitis induced by dexran sulfate sodium. This compound also decreased the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β in intestinal tissue of mice with experimental colitis in a concentration-dependent manner, accompanied with markedly increased serum level of IL-10. Cerebroside D inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T cells activated by concanavalin A or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 antibodies. The compound did not show an effect on naive lymphocytes but prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. Moreover, the treatment of cerebroside D led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspase 3, 9, 12 and PARP. These results showed multiple effects of cerebroside D against activated T cells for a novel approach to treatment of colonic inflammation. Highlights: ► Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, alleviated DSS induced colitis. ► The mechanism of the compound involved multiple effects against activated T cells. ► It regulated cytokine profiles in mice with experimental colitis. ► It prevented T cells from entering S and G2/M phases during activation. ► It led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspases and PARP.

  4. Non-Hematopoietic β-Arrestin1 Confers Protection Against Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehyung; Lee, Eunhee; Arrollo, David; Lucas, Peter C; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2016-05-01

    β-Arrestins are multifunctional scaffolding proteins that modulate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-dependent and -independent cell signaling pathways in various types of cells. We recently demonstrated that β-arrestin1 (β-arr1) deficiency strikingly attenuates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Since DSS-induced colitis is in part dependent on gut epithelial injury, we examined the role of β-arr1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) using a colon epithelial cell line, SW480 cells. Surprisingly, we found that knockdown of β-arr1 in SW480 cells enhanced epithelial cell death via a caspase-3-dependent process. To understand the in vivo relevance and potential cell type-specific role of β-arr1 in colitis development, we generated bone marrow chimeras with β-arr1 deficiency in either the hematopoietic or non-hematopoietic compartment. Reconstituted chimeric mice were then subjected to DSS-induced colitis. Similar to our previous findings, β-arr1 deficiency in the hematopoietic compartment protected mice from DSS-induced colitis. However, consistent with the role of β-arr1 in epithelial apoptosis in vitro, non-hematopoietic β-arr1 deficiency led to an exacerbated colitis phenotype. To further understand signaling mechanisms, we examined the effect of β-arr1 on TNF-α-mediated NFκB and MAPK pathways. Our results demonstrate that β-arr1 has a critical role in modulating ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways mediated by TNF-α in IECs. Together, our results show that β-arr1-dependent signaling in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells differentially regulates colitis pathogenesis and further demonstrates that β-arr1 in epithelial cells inhibits TNF-α-induced cell death pathways. PMID:26479868

  5. The glucocorticoid budesonide has protective and deleterious effects in experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ocón, Borja; Aranda, Carlos J; Gámez-Belmonte, Reyes; Suárez, María Dolores; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín

    2016-09-15

    Glucocorticoids are widely used for the management of inflammatory bowel disease, albeit with known limitations for long-term use and relevant adverse effects. In turn, they have harmful effects in experimental colitis. We aimed to explore the mechanism and possible implications of this phenomenon. Regular and microbiota depleted C57BL/6 mice were exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis and treated with budesonide. Colonic inflammation and animal status were compared. In vitro epithelial models of wound healing were used to confirm the effects of glucocorticoids. Budesonide was also tested in lymphocyte transfer colitis. Budesonide (1-60μg/day) exerted substantial colonic antiinflammatory effects in DSS colitis. At the same time, it aggravated body weight loss, increased rectal bleeding, and induced general deterioration of animal status, bacterial translocation and endotoxemia. As a result, there was an associated increase in parameters of sepsis, such as plasma NOx, IL-1β, IL-6, lung myeloperoxidase and iNOS, as well as significant hypothermia. Budesonide also enhanced DSS induced colonic damage in microbiota depleted mice. These effects were correlated with antiproliferative effects at the epithelial level, which are expected to impair wound healing. In contrast, budesonide had significant but greatly diminished deleterious effects in noncolitic mice or in mice with lymphocyte transfer colitis. We conclude that budesonide weakens mucosal barrier function by interfering with epithelial dynamics and dampening the immune response in the context of significant mucosal injury, causing sepsis. This may be a contributing factor, at least in part, limiting clinical usefulness of corticoids in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27431777

  6. Treatment of experimental ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, L B; Lychkova, A E; Knyazev, O V

    2012-10-01

    The effects of infliximab, an anticytokine drug, on the course of inflammatory process was studied on the model of ulcerative colitis induced by injection of picrylsulfonic acid. Infliximab prevented the development of toxic dilatation and a drop of bioelectric activity of smooth muscles via maintenance of activity of the intramural nervous system neurons. PMID:23113311

  7. Prevention of Chronic Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulphate Sodium (DSS) in Mice Treated with FR91

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Valter R. M.; Etcheverría, Ignacio; Carrera, Iván; Cacabelos, Ramón; Chacón, Antonio R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main treatments currently used in humans to fight cancer is chemotherapy. A huge number of compounds with antitumor activity are present in nature, and many of their derivatives are produced by microorganisms. However, the search for new drugs still represents a main objective for cancer therapy, due to drug toxicity and resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. In animal models, a short-time oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induces colitis, which exhibits several clinical and histological features similar to ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the pathogenic factors responsible for DSS-induced colitis and the subsequent colon cancer also remain unclear. We investigated the effect of FR91, a standardized lysate of microbial cells belonging to the Bacillus genus which has been previously shown to have significant immunomodulatory effects, against intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice during 5 weeks by oral administration 2% (DSS). Morphological changes in the colonic mucosa were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry methods. Adenocarcinoma and cryptal cells of the dysplastic epithelium showed cathenin-β, MLH1, APC, and p53 expression, together with increased production of IFN-γ. In our model, the optimal dose response was the 20% FR91 concentration, where no histological alterations or mild DSS-induced lesions were observed. These results indicate that FR91 may act as a chemopreventive agent against inflammation in mice DSS-induced colitis. PMID:22619498

  8. Melatonin improves experimental colitis with sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    PARK, YOUNG-SOOK; CHUNG, SOOK-HEE; LEE, SEONG-KYU; KIM, JA-HYUN; KIM, JUN-BONG; KIM, TAE-KYUN; KIM, DONG-SHIN; BAIK, HAING-WOON

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an epidemic phenomenon in modern countries, and its harmful effects are well known. SD acts as an aggravating factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Melatonin is a sleep-related neurohormone, also known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the effects of melatonin on colitis have been poorly characterized. Thus, in this study, we assessed the measurable effects of SD on experimental colitis and the protective effects of melatonin. For this purpose, male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (n=24) were used; the mice were divided into 4 experimental groups as follows: the control, colitis, colitis with SD and colitis with SD and melatonin groups. Colitis was induced by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for 6 days. The mice were sleep-deprived for 3 days. Changes in body weight, histological analyses of colon tissues and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes were evaluated. SD aggravated inflammation and these effects were reversed by melatonin in the mice with colitis. In addition, weight loss in the mice with colitis with SD was significantly reduced by the injection of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin led to high survival rates in the mice, in spite of colitis with SD. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the serum of mice were significantly increased by SD and reduced by melatonin treatment. The melatonin-treated group showed a histological improvement of inflammation. Upon gene analysis, the expression of the inflammatory genes, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and calmodulin 3 (CALM3), was increased by SD, and the levels decreased following treatment with melatonin. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) genes was

  9. Adsorbents as antiendotoxin agents in experimental colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, K R; Anderson, N H; McCaigue, M D; Erwin, P J; Halliday, M I; Rowlands, B J

    1993-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa protects the body from a large reservoir of intraluminal pathogenic bacteria and endotoxins. This mucosal barrier is disrupted by the inflammation and ulceration of inflammatory bowel disease and may permit the absorption of toxic bacterial products. Systemic endotoxaemia has been demonstrated in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and correlates with the extent and activity of disease. In this study the efficacy of absorbents as antiendotoxin agents in a hapten induced rat model of colitis is investigated. Induction of colitis was associated with systemic endotoxaemia. Enteral administration of terra fullonica and kaolin, but not of charcoal, significantly reduced systemic endotoxaemia (terra fullonica 4.2 (1.40) pg/ml; kaolin 5.29 (1.86) pg/ml; charcoal 32.7 (16.6) pg/ml; water 39.8 (12.6) pg/ml). Data expressed as mean (SE). With increasing severity of colitis, there was a decreasing ability of adsorbent therapy (terra fullonica) to control systemic endotoxaemia. Enteral administration of adsorbents controls gut derived systemic endotoxaemia in experimental colitis in animals and may be a useful antiendotoxin treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:8432452

  10. Evaluation of a new type of nano-sized carbon monoxide donor on treating mice with experimentally induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Saori; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Yuri; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Yamasaki, Keishi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hiromi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2016-07-28

    Low concentrations of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) have been reported to be useful for the treatment of various disorders related to inflammation and oxidative stress. However, a number of obstacles make it difficult to use CO in vivo. Among these are, at high concentrations, it is toxic and the fact that it is difficult to control its delivery in the body. Hemoglobin-encapsulated liposomes, Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbV), have the potential for use as a new type of nano-sized CO donor, referred to as CO-bound HbV (CO-HbV). In this study, we investigated the potential of CO-HbV as a CO donor in terms of toxicity and therapeutic efficacy using an experimental colitis model. Toxicological assessments of CO-HbV showed no severe adverse effects including death, and clinical laboratory tests and histopathological changes remained normal for 28days after the administration of doses up to 1400mgHb/kg. We then evaluated the therapeutic efficacies of CO-HbV on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model mice. A single administration of CO-HbV at 3days from beginning of the DSS treatment dramatically improved colitis symptoms, colonic histopathological changes and the duration of survival compared to both saline and HbV administration. In addition, the therapeutic effects of CO-HbV on colitis can be attributed to a decreased level of neutrophil infiltration, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative injuries. Interestingly, it appears that an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine production contributes, in part, to therapeutic effects of CO-HbV in the treatment of colitis. These safety and efficacy profiles of CO-HbV suggest that it has the potential for use as a drug for treating, not only colitis but also a variety of other disorders associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:27173944

  11. Ceramide-CD300f binding suppresses experimental colitis by inhibiting ATP-mediated mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Matsukawa, Toshihiro; Izawa, Kumi; Isobe, Masamichi; Takahashi, Mariko; Maehara, Akie; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Kaitani, Ayako; Okumura, Ko; Teshima, Takanori; Kitamura, Toshio; Kitaura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Extracellular ATP mediates mast cell-dependent intestinal inflammation via P2X7 purinoceptors. We have previously shown that CD300f (also called the leucocyte mono-immunoglobulin-like receptor 3 (LMIR3)) suppresses immunoglobulin E-dependent and mast cell-dependent allergic responses by binding to ceramide. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of ceramide–LMIR3 interaction in the development of IBD. Design The dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model was used in wild-type (WT), LMIR3−/−, mast cell-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh, KitW-sh/W-shLMIR3−/− or KitW-sh/W-sh mice engrafted with WT or LMIR3−/− bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). The severity of colitis was determined by clinical and histological criteria. Lamina propria cell populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Production of chemical mediators from lamina propria cells was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Production of chemical mediators from ATP-stimulated BMMCs in the presence or absence of ceramide was measured by ELISA. The severity of DSS-induced colitis was assessed in mice given either an Fc fusion protein containing an extracellular domain of LMIR3, and anticeramide antibody, or ceramide liposomes. Results LMIR3 deficiency exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in mice. KitW-sh/W-sh mice harbouring LMIR3−/− mast cells exhibited more severe colitis than those harbouring WT mast cells. Ceramide–LMIR3 interaction inhibited ATP-stimulated activation of BMMCs. DSS-induced colitis was aggravated by disrupting the ceramide–LMIR3 interaction, whereas it was suppressed by treating with ceramide liposomes. Conclusions LMIR3-deficient colonic mast cells were pivotal in the exacerbation of DSS-induced colitis in LMIR3−/− mice. Ceramide liposomes attenuated DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting ATP-mediated activation of colonic mast cells through ceraimide–LMIR3 binding. PMID:25673319

  12. Disruption of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 5 Exacerbates Murine Experimental Colitis via Regulating T Helper Cell-Mediated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jian; Li, Lixia; Wang, Xiaobing; Pan, Huaqin; Liu, Shi; He, Ruohang; Li, Jin; Zhao, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) is a key mediator of TNF receptor superfamily members and is important in both T helper (Th) cell immunity and the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. To clarify TRAF5's influence on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), we investigated TRAF5 deficiency's effect on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Colitis was induced in TRAF5 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates by administering 3% DSS orally for 7 days. The mice were then sacrificed, and their colons were removed. Our data suggested that KO mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. TRAF5 deficiency significantly enhanced IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17a mRNA and protein levels in the colons of DSS-fed mice, and the mRNA expression of T-bet and GATA-3 was also markedly elevated. However, ROR-α and ROR-γt mRNA levels did not differ between DSS-induced KO and WT mice. Flow cytometry showed increased frequencies of Th2 and IFN-γ/IL-17a-coproducing CD4+ T cells in the colons of DSS-induced KO mice. Additionally, TRAF5 deficiency significantly enhanced the activation of NF-κB in CD4+ T cells after DSS administration. These results indicated that TRAF5 deficiency significantly aggravated DSS-induced colitis, most likely by regulating Th cell-mediated inflammation. PMID:27110068

  13. Comparison of experimental mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Youn; Cho, Kyung-Ah; Kang, Jihee Lee; Kim, Kwang Ho; Woo, So-Youn

    2014-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial and involves immunological, environmental and genetic factors. Although there are no animal models that effectively mimic human IBD, experimental models allow us to analyze the mechanisms of chronic intestinal inflammation. IBD can be induced in mice by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or by a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)‑ethanol enema, which evoke immune responses and colitis. In this study, in order to compare the mechanisms of inflammatory response in mice, 3 distinct models of IBD were established: 2% TNBS-induced acute colitis, 4% DSS-induced acute colitis and 2% DSS-induced chronic colitis. In addition, to evaluate the effects of TNBS on inflammasome activation, we used caspase-1 knockout (KO) mice. Changes in both body weight and survival became prominent after day 1 in the 2% TNBS‑induced colitis model, and after day 5 in the 4% DSS-induced colitis model. The TNBS- and DSS-treated mice, but not the caspase-1 KO mice, showed a massive bowel edema and disruption of epithelial cells. The level of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was increased in all tested tissues of the TNBS- and DSS-treated groups, apart from the basal membrane (BM) in the DSS-induced colitis groups and the lamina propria (LP) in the DSS-induced chronic colitis group. We further analyzed different subsets of CD4(+) T cells in LP and found that the levels of interferon (IFN)γ‑secreting (IFNγ(+)), IL-17‑secreting (IL-17(+)), but not those of IL-4-secreting (IL-4(+)) T cells increased upon treatment with TNBS or DSS. In addition, discrepancies between the histopathologies of wild-type and caspase-1 KO mice indicated that the pathogenesis of IBD may be associated with the inflammasome pathway responses mediated by caspase‑1 in TNBS‑induced colitis. PMID:24285285

  14. Experimental colitis in mice is attenuated by changes in the levels of endocannabinoid metabolites induced by selective inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Sałaga, M; Mokrowiecka, A; Zakrzewski, P K; Cygankiewicz, A; Leishman, E; Sobczak, M; Zatorski, H; Małecka-Panas, E; Kordek, R; Storr, M; Krajewska, W M; Bradshaw, H B; Fichna, J

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Pharmacological treatment and/or maintenance of remission in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is currently one of the biggest challenge in the field of gastroenterology. Available therapies are mostly limited to overcoming the symptoms, but not the cause of the disease. Recently, the endocannabinoid system has been proposed as a novel target in the treatment of IBD. Here we aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory action of the novel fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor PF-3845 and its effect on the endocannabinoid and related lipid metabolism during the course of experimental colitis. Methods We used two models of experimental colitis in mice (TNBS- and DSS-induced) and additionally, we employed LC/MS/MS spectrometry to determine the changes in biolipid levels in the mouse colon during inflammation. Results We showed that the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 reduced experimental TNBS-induced colitis in mice and its anti-inflammatory action is associated with altering the levels of selected biolipids (arachidonic and oleic acid derivatives, prostaglandins and biolipids containing glycine in the mouse colon). Conclusions We show that FAAH is a promising pharmacological target and the FAAH-dependent biolipids play a major role in colitis. Our results highlight and promote therapeutic strategy based on targeting FAAH-dependent metabolic pathways in order to alleviate intestinal inflammation. PMID:24530133

  15. Fumigaclavine C ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine experimental colitis via NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenjie; Hu, Shasha; Elgehama, Ahmed; Shao, Fenli; Ren, Ren; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Xinlei; Tan, Renxiang; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Jiao, Ruihua

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of Fumigaclavine C, a fungal metabolite, on murine experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and its possible mechanism were examined in vivo and vitro. Oral administration of Fumigaclavine C dose-dependently attenuated the loss of body weight and shortening of colon length induced by DSS. The disease activity index, histopathologic scores of musco was also significantly reduced by Fumigaclavine C treatment. Protein and mRNA levels of DSS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in colon, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17A, were markedly suppressed by Fumigaclavine C. At the same time, decreased activation of caspase-1 in peritoneal macrophages was detected in Fumigaclavine C -treated mice which suggested that the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was suppressed. Furthermore, in the LPS plus ATP cell model, we found that Fumigaclavine C dose-dependent inhibited IL-1β release and caspase-1 activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate the ability of Fumigaclavine C to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and give some evidence for its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26320672

  16. Panax notoginseng attenuates experimental colitis in AOM/DSS mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yu, Chunhao; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyu; Matin, Adiba; Wang, Yunwei; Li, Ping; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease are at a high risk of developing colorectal cancer. To assess the anti-cancer potential of botanicals, in this study, we evaluated the effects of Panax notoginseng on azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. One week after A/J mice received AOM, the animals received DSS for 8 days, or were supplemented with P. notoginseng extract, at 30 or 90 mg/kg. DSS-induced colitis was scored with the disease activity index (DAI). The severity of the inflammatory lesions was evaluated by a colon tissue histological assessment. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also explored. We observed that the effects of P. notoginseng on the reduction of colon inflammation, expressed in DAI score, were in a dose-related manner (P < 0.01). P. notoginseng inhibited the reduction of the colon length and the loss of bodyweight in dose-related manner (all P < 0.05). The histological assessment of the colitis and inflammatory related immunohistochemical data also supported the pharmacological observations. Our data suggest that P. notoginseng is a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24142591

  17. Long-Term Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Murine Chronic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Oh, Sun-Hee; Jang, Hui Won; Kwon, Ji-Hee; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Chung Hee; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have shown beneficial effects in experimental colitis models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the long-term effects of BM-MSCs, particularly in mice with chronic colitis. Methods Chronic colitis was induced by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in a series of three cycles. BM-MSCs were injected intravenously into DSS-treated mice three times during the first cycle. On day 33, the therapeutic effects were evaluated with clinicopathologic profiles and histological scoring. Inflammatory mediators were measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Systemic infusion of BM-MSCs ameliorated the severity of colitis, and body weight restoration was significantly promoted in the BM-MSC-treated mice. In addition, BM-MSC treatment showed a sustained beneficial effect throughout the three cycles. Microscopic examination revealed that the mice treated with BM-MSCs had fewer inflammatory infiltrates, a lesser extent of inflammation, and less crypt structure damage compared with mice with DSS-induced colitis. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels of interleukin-10 were significantly increased in the inflamed colons of BM-MSC-treated mice compared with DSS-induced colitis mice. Conclusions Systemic infusion of BM-MSCs at the onset of disease exerted preventive and rapid recovery effects, with long-term immunosuppressive action in mice with repeated DSS-induced chronic colitis. PMID:27114436

  18. An experimental model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium from acute progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6: correlation between conditions of mice and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Niloofar; Molaei, Mahsa; Mosaffa, Nariman; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Anissian, Ali; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To induce acute colitis progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6 mice by dextran sulfate sodium. Background: Murine models are essential tools to understand IBD pathogenesis. Among different types of chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most common model of IBD, due to its simplicity. Patients and methods: Male C57BL/6 mice 6–8 weeks old, were collected and matched by age with controls. C57BL/6 mice treated with 2 cycles of 3.5% DSS for 4 days and 4 days of pure water between each cycle. After that, mice were sacrificed and the entire colon was removed. Small sections of the colon were fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and sectioned with a microtome. Sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin to analyses the degree of inflammation. Results: After the first cycle oral administration of DSS, mice with severe and visible rectal bleeding and diarrhea entered into the acute phase. After day 4-5, bleeding and diarrhea were improved and mice entered into the chronic phase with peak levels of weight loss. Macroscopically, the inflammation was predominantly located in the distal colon. Microscopically, examination of the distal colon sections showed a decrease number of goblet cells, loss of crypts, signs of surface epithelial regeneration and moderate to severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: In order to achieve an experimental colitis model, our protocol is recommended for future therapies in IBD experimental modeling. PMID:26744614

  19. A lipidomics investigation into the intervention of celastrol in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renping; Gu, Xueqin; Dai, Weiquan; Ye, Jun; Lu, Feng; Chai, Yifeng; Fan, Guorong; Gonzalez, Frank J; Duan, Gengli; Qi, Yunpeng

    2016-04-26

    Celastrol is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, the efficacy of celastrol against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mice was established and the mechanism was investigated using lipidomics. Celastrol treatment significantly alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice, as revealed by the body weight, colon length, scores of rectal bleeding and diarrhea, serum TNF-α level, and histological analysis results. Lipidomics analysis based on UPLC/MS revealed characteristic changes in the metabolic profiles of the colitis mice, with altered levels of lipid markers associated with IBD, including LPC18 : 0, LPC18 : 1, LPC18 : 2, sphingomyelin (SM), and increased LPC18 : 0/LPC18 : 1 and LPC18 : 0/LPC18 : 2 ratios. For the celastrol-treated colitis mice, however, levels of the above lipid markers were restored, together with recovered saturated LPC/unsaturated LPC ratios. Accordingly, using GC-MS analysis, increased stearic acid (C18 : 0)/oleic acid (C18 : 1) and stearic acid (C18 : 0)/linoleic acid (C18 : 2) ratios were observed in colitis mice, which were later recovered after celastrol treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the liver expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1), the key enzyme controlling the desaturation of saturated fatty acid, was dramatically inhibited in IBD mice, and was obviously recovered after celastrol treatment. These results suggest that the increased saturated LPC/unsaturated LPC (and saturated fatty acid/unsaturated fatty acid) ratios associated with SCD1 down-regulation could be regarded as biomarkers of colitis, and celastrol alleviates DSS-induced colitis partially via up-regulation of SCD1, restoring the altered balance between stearic acid- and oleic acid-derived lipid species, which plays an important role in alleviating colitis. In all, this study provided the scientific basis for further

  20. Attenuation of experimental colitis in glutathione peroxidase 1 and catalase double knockout mice through enhancing regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Ran; Lee, Anbok; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Lim, Woosung; Lee, Hyeon Kook; Moon, Byung-In; Seoh, Ju-Young

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the progression of inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Meanwhile, several studies suggested the protective role of ROS in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and it was recently reported that dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was attenuated in mice with an elevated level of ROS due to deficiency of peroxiredoxin II. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical in the prevention of IBD and Treg function was reported to be closely associated with ROS level, but it has been investigated only in lowered levels of ROS so far. In the present study, in order to clarify the relationship between ROS level and Treg function, and their role in the pathogenesis of IBD, we investigated mice with an elevated level of ROS due to deficiency of both glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 and catalase (Cat) for the susceptibility of DSS-induced colitis in association with Treg function. The results showed that DSS-induced colitis was attenuated and Tregs were hyperfunctional in GPx1-/- × Cat-/- mice. In vivo administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) aggravated DSS-induced colitis and decreased Treg function to the level comparable to WT mice. Attenuated Th17 cell differentiation from naïve CD4+ cells as well as impaired production of IL-6 and IL-17A by splenocytes upon stimulation suggested anti-inflammatory tendency of GPx1-/- × Cat-/- mice. Suppression of Stat3 activation in association with enhancement of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and FoxP3 expression might be involved in the immunosuppressive mechanism of GPx1-/- × Cat-/- mice. Taken together, it is implied that ROS level is critical in the regulation of Treg function, and IBD may be attenuated in appropriately elevated levels of ROS. PMID:24743300

  1. Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 ameliorates experimental colitis by modulating intestinal permeability, the inflammatory response and clinical signs in a faecal transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Souza, Éricka L; Elian, Samir D; Paula, Laís M; Garcia, Cristiana C; Vieira, Angélica T; Teixeira, Mauro M; Arantes, Rosa M; Nicoli, Jacques R; Martins, Flaviano S

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a group of inflammatory conditions of the gut that include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Probiotics are live micro-organisms that may be used as adjuvant therapy for patients with IBD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic ingestion of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) in a murine model of colitis. For induction of colitis, mice were given a 3.5 % dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution for 7 days in drinking water. EcN administration to mice subjected to DSS-induced colitis resulted in significant reduction in clinical and histopathological signs of disease and preservation of intestinal permeability. We observed reduced inflammation, as assessed by reduced levels of neutrophils, eosinophils, chemokines and cytokines. We observed an increase in the number of regulatory T-cells in Peyer's patches. Germ-free mice received faecal content from control or EcN-treated mice and were then subjected to DSS-induced colitis. We observed protection from colitis in animals that were colonized with faecal content from EcN-treated mice. These results suggest that preventative oral administration of EcN or faecal microbiota transplantation with EcN-containing microbiota ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by modifying inflammatory responsiveness to DSS. PMID:26758971

  2. Intestinal epithelial vitamin D receptor signaling inhibits experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weicheng; Chen, Yunzi; Golan, Maya Aharoni; Annunziata, Maria L.; Du, Jie; Dougherty, Urszula; Kong, Juan; Musch, Mark; Huang, Yong; Pekow, Joel; Zheng, Changqing; Bissonnette, Marc; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Li, Yan Chun

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of vitamin D on colitis have been previously documented. Global vitamin D receptor (VDR) deletion exaggerates colitis, but the relative anticolitic contribution of epithelial and nonepithelial VDR signaling is unknown. Here, we showed that colonic epithelial VDR expression was substantially reduced in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Moreover, targeted expression of human VDR (hVDR) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) protected mice from developing colitis. In experimental colitis models induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, dextran sulfate sodium, or CD4+CD45RBhi T cell transfer, transgenic mice expressing hVDR in IECs were highly resistant to colitis, as manifested by marked reductions in clinical colitis scores, colonic histological damage, and colonic inflammation compared with WT mice. Reconstitution of Vdr-deficient IECs with the hVDR transgene completely rescued Vdr-null mice from severe colitis and death, even though the mice still maintained a hyperresponsive Vdr-deficient immune system. Mechanistically, VDR signaling attenuated PUMA induction in IECs by blocking NF-κB activation, leading to a reduction in IEC apoptosis. Together, these results demonstrate that gut epithelial VDR signaling inhibits colitis by protecting the mucosal epithelial barrier, and this anticolitic activity is independent of nonepithelial immune VDR actions. PMID:23945234

  3. Suppression of NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages is responsible for the amelioration of experimental murine colitis by the natural compound fraxinellone

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Ouyang, Zi-Jun; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Gong; Guo, Wen-Jie; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xu-Dong; Sun, Yang Xu, Qiang

    2014-11-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects millions of people worldwide. Although the etiology of this disease is uncertain, accumulating evidence indicates a key role for the activated mucosal immune system. In the present study, we examined the effects of the natural compound fraxinellone on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, an animal model that mimics IBD. Treatment with fraxinellone significantly reduced weight loss and diarrhea in mice and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. In addition, the activities of myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase were markedly suppressed, while the levels of glutathione were increased in colitis tissues following fraxinellone treatment. This compound also decreased the colonic levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects of fraxinellone in mice with experimental colitis were attributed to its inhibition of CD11b{sup +} macrophage infiltration. The mRNA levels of macrophage-related molecules in the colon, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), were also markedly inhibited following fraxinellone treatment. The results from in vitro assays showed that fraxinellone significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), IL-1β and IL-18 as well as the activity of iNOS in both THP-1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. The mechanisms responsible for these effects were attributed to the inhibitory role of fraxinellone in NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Overall, our results support fraxinellone as a novel drug candidate in the treatment of colonic inflammation. - Highlights: • Fraxinellone, a lactone compound, alleviated DSS induced colitis. • The effects of fraxinellone were attributed to its inhibition on

  4. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis.

    PubMed

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0(DSS)), or non-supplemented tap water (F0(Ctrl)) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0(DSS) males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0(DSS) mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0(Ctrl) males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  5. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis

    PubMed Central

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0DSS), or non-supplemented tap water (F0Ctrl) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0DSS males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0DSS mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0Ctrl males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  6. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis alters stress-associated behaviour and neuropeptide gene expression in the amygdala-hippocampus network of mice

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Hassan, Ahmed Mostafa; Farzi, Aitak; Jain, Piyush; Schuligoi, Rufina; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress causes disease exacerbation and relapses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Since studies on stress processing during visceral inflammation are lacking, we investigated the effects of experimental colitis as well as psychological stress on neurochemical and neuroendocrine changes as well as behaviour in mice. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS) were used as mouse models of colitis and mild psychological stress, respectively. We measured WAS-associated behaviour, gene expression and proinflammatory cytokine levels within the amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus as well as plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in male C57BL/6N mice. Animals with DSS-induced colitis presented with prolonged immobility during the WAS session, which was associated with brain region-dependent alterations of neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptor Y1, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor gene expression. Furthermore, the combination of DSS and WAS increased interleukin-6 and growth regulated oncogene-α levels in the brain. Altered gut-brain signalling in the course of DSS-induced colitis is thought to cause the observed distinct gene expression changes in the limbic system and the aberrant molecular and behavioural stress responses. These findings provide new insights into the effects of stress during IBD. PMID:26066467

  7. RNase-L deficiency exacerbates experimental colitis and colitis-associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Long, Tiha M.; ArindamChakrabarti; Ezelle, Heather J.; E. Brennan-Laun, Sarah; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polyakova, Irina; H. Silverman, Robert; Hassel, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The endoribonuclease RNase-L is a type-I interferon (IFN)-regulatedcomponent of the innate immune response that functions in antiviral, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. RNase-L produces RNA agonists of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), sensors of cytosolic pathogen-associated RNAs that induce cytokines including IFNβ. IFNβ and RLR signaling mediate protective responses against experimental colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis. Therefore, we investigated a role for RNase-L in murine colitis and CAC and its association with RLR signaling in response to bacterial RNA. Methods Colitis was induced in wild type (WT) and RNase-L-deficient mice (RNase-L−/−) by administration of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). CAC was induced by DSS and azoxymethane (AOM). Histological analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed on colon tissue to analyze immune cell infiltration and tissue damage following induction of colitis. Expression of cytokines was measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Results DSS-treated RNase-L−/− mice exhibited a significantly higher clinical score, delayed leukocyte infiltration, reduced expression of IFNβ, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-18at early times post-DSS exposure and increased mortalityas compared to WT mice. DSS/AOM-treated RNase-L−/−mice displayed an increased tumor burden. Bacterial RNA triggeredIFNβproductionin an RNase-L-dependent manner and provided a potential mechanism by whichRNase-L contributes to the GI immune response to microbiota and protects against experimental colitis and CAC. Conclusions RNase-L promotes the innate immune response to intestinal damage and ameliorates murine colitis and CAC. The RNase-L-dependent production of IFNβ stimulated by bacterial RNA may be a mechanism to protectagainst GI inflammatory disease. PMID:23567782

  8. Probiotic bacteria lactobacillus and bifidobacterium attenuate inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Toumi, R; Soufli, I; Rafa, H; Belkhelfa, M; Biad, A; Touil-Boukoffa, C

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) arises from a dysregulated mucosal immune response to the enteric microbiota in the gut of a genetically susceptible individual. No definitive therapies are available for this inflammatory disorder. Therefore it became imperative to develop new strategies for treating this disease. Probiotics have emerged as a potential new therapeutic strategy for IBD, however their exact mechanisms of action is still poorly defined. In this study, we address the potential effect of a probiotic cocktail (Ultrabiotique®) composed of four live bacterial strains (L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, B. lactis and B.breve) to promote recovery from acute colitis. Probiotic was given to mice by oral gavage after the onset of colitis and the establishment of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal injury. Clinical parameters were monitored daily, histological scores of colitis and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were determined. In addition, TLR4, NF-κB and iNOS colonic expression were examined. Probiotic treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms and histological scores. NO and IFN-γ production in plasma were decreased by probiotic. These results were associated with reduced TLR4, iNOS and NF-кB expression in colonic tissue. In conclusion, probiotic exerted anti-inflammatory effects and contributed to a rapid recovery of DSS-induced acute colitis. PMID:25572742

  9. Repeated predictable stress causes resilience against colitis-induced behavioral changes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ahmed M.; Jain, Piyush; Reichmann, Florian; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Farzi, Aitak; Schuligoi, Rufina; Holzer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water avoidance stress, WAS) and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2% in drinking water) decreased locomotion and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced behavioral disturbances in the open field and SI tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY), a rise in the hypothalamic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:25414650

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Action of Angiotensin 1-7 in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Khajah, Maitham A.; Fateel, Maryam M.; Ananthalakshmi, Kethireddy V.; Luqmani, Yunus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence to support a role for angiotensin (Ang) 1–7 in reducing the activity of inflammatory signaling molecules such as MAPK, PKC and SRC. Enhanced angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression has been observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) suggesting a role in its pathogenesis, prompting this study. Methods The colonic expression/activity profile of ACE2, Ang 1–7, MAS1-receptor (MAS1-R), MAPK family and Akt were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence. The effect of either exogenous administration of Ang 1–7 or pharmacological inhibition of its function (by A779 treatment) was determined using the mouse dextran sulfate sodium model. Results Enhanced colonic expression of ACE2, Ang1-7 and MAS1-R was observed post-colitis induction. Daily Ang 1–7 treatment (0.01–0.06 mg/kg) resulted in significant amelioration of DSS-induced colitis. In contrast, daily administration of A779 significantly worsened features of colitis. Colitis-associated phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and Akt was reduced by Ang 1–7 treatment. Conclusion Our results indicate important anti-inflammatory actions of Ang 1–7 in the pathogenesis of IBD, which may provide a future therapeutic strategy to control the disease progression. PMID:26963721

  11. Changes in the Expression and Distribution of Claudins, Increased Epithelial Apoptosis, and a Mannan-Binding Lectin-Associated Immune Response Lead to Barrier Dysfunction in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Rat Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bosi; Zhou, Shuping; Lu, Youke; Liu, Jiong; Jin, Xinxin; Wan, Haijun; Wang, Fangyu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims This animal study aimed to define the underlying cellular mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction. Methods Rats were fed 4% with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce experimental colitis. We analyzed the sugars in 24-hour urine output by high pressure liquid chromatography. The expression of claudins, mannan-binding lectin (MBL), and MBL-associated serine proteases 2 (MASP-2) were detected in the colonic mucosa by immunohistochemistry; and apoptotic cells in the colonic epithelium were detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling method assay. Results The lactulose and sucralose excretion levels in the urine of rats with DSS-induced colitis were significantly higher than those in the control rats. Mannitol excretion was lower and lactulose/mannitol ratios and sucralose/mannitol ratios were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (p<0.05). Compared with the controls, the expression of sealing claudins (claudin 3, claudin 5, and claudin 8) was significantly decreased, but that of claudin 1 was increased. The expression of pore-forming claudin 2 was upregulated and claudin 7 was downregulated in DSS-induced colitis. The epithelial apoptotic ratio was 2.8%±1.2% in controls and was significantly increased to 7.2%±1.2% in DSS-induced colitis. The expression of MBL and MASP-2 in the intestinal mucosa showed intense staining in controls, whereas there was weak staining in the rats with colitis. Conclusions There was increased intestinal permeability in DSS-induced colitis. Changes in the expression and distribution of claudins, increased epithelial apoptosis, and the MASP-2-induced immune response impaired the intestinal epithelium and contributed to high intestinal permeability. PMID:25717051

  12. Lactococcus lactis carrying the pValac DNA expression vector coding for IL-10 reduces inflammation in a murine model of experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are intestinal disorders characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Interleukin-10 is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines involved in the intestinal immune system and because of its role in downregulating inflammatory cascades, its potential for IBD therapy is under study. We previously presented the development of an invasive strain of Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) producing Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA) which was capable of delivering, directly to host cells, a eukaryotic DNA expression vector coding for IL-10 of Mus musculus (pValac:il-10) and diminish inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of intestinal inflammation. As a new therapeutic strategy against IBD, the aim of this work was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two L. lactis strains (the same invasive strain evaluated previously and the wild-type strain) carrying the therapeutic pValac:il-10 plasmid in the prevention of inflammation in a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced mouse model. Results Results obtained showed that not only delivery of the pValac:il-10 plasmid by the invasive strain L. lactis MG1363 FnBPA+, but also by the wild-type strain L. lactis MG1363, was effective at diminishing intestinal inflammation (lower inflammation scores and higher IL-10 levels in the intestinal tissues, accompanied by decrease of IL-6) in the DSS-induced IBD mouse model. Conclusions Administration of both L. lactis strains carrying the pValac:il-10 plasmid was effective at diminishing inflammation in this murine model of experimental colitis, showing their potential for therapeutic intervention of IBD. PMID:25106058

  13. PPARα-UGT axis activation represses intestinal FXR-FGF15 feedback signalling and exacerbates experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xueyan; Cao, Lijuan; Jiang, Changtao; Xie, Yang; Cheng, Xuefang; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Qi, Yunpeng; Sun, Lu; Shah, Yatrik M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids play a pivotal role in the pathological development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism of bile acid dysregulation in IBD remains unanswered. Here we show that intestinal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) signalling is an important determinant of bile acid homeostasis. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis leads to accumulation of bile acids in inflamed colon tissues via activation of the intestinal peroxisome PPARα-UGTs pathway. UGTs accelerate the metabolic elimination of bile acids, and thereby decrease their intracellular levels in the small intestine. Reduced intracellular bile acids results in repressed farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-FGF15 signalling, leading to upregulation of hepatic CYP7A1, thus promoting the de novo bile acid synthesis. Both knockout of PPARα and treatment with recombinant FGF19 markedly attenuate DSS-induced colitis. Thus, we propose that intestinal PPARα-UGTs and downstream FXR-FGF15 signalling play vital roles in control of bile acid homeostasis and the pathological development of colitis. PMID:25183423

  14. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis. PMID:27058552

  15. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103(-)CD11c⁺ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103⁺CD11c⁺ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis. PMID:27058552

  16. IL-9 antibody injection suppresses the inflammation in colitis mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Aping; Yang, Hang; Qi, Haili; Cui, Jing; Hua, Wei; Li, Can; Pang, Zhigang; Zheng, Wei; Cui, Guanglin

    2015-12-25

    Diverse T help (Th) cells play a crucial role in the processing and maintaining of chronic inflammation as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Th9, a novel subset of Th cells that primarily produces interleukin (IL)-9, has recently been associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells in inflamed tissues of human and experimental mouse UC, and examined the therapeutic efficiency of anti Th9 cytokine IL-9 in the experimental mouse UC. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells labelled by transcriptional factor PU.1 in both human and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced mouse colitis biopsies. The results showed that increased PU.1 positive Th9 cells were mainly located in the lamina propria in relative with the controls, intraepithelial Th9 cells can also be observed but at low density. Double IHCs revealed that most of PU.1 positive cells were CD3 positive lymphocytes in human UC specimens. Anti-IL-9 antibody injection for 2 weeks reduced the severity of inflammation in DSS induced colitis mice. Our results suggest that The Th9/IL-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of UC. PMID:26603936

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ is downregulated in ulcerative colitis and is involved in experimental colitis-associated neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    DOU, XIAOTAN; XIAO, JUNHUA; JIN, ZILIANG; ZHENG, PING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to also identify the association between PPAR-γ and the clinical features of patients with IBD. An azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) animal model of colitis-associated neoplasia was established to investigate the protective effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and to explore the changes in the expression of PPAR-γ during this process. A total of 66 specimens of colorectal tissue obtained from biopsy performed on IBD patients and 30 healthy control individuals were immunohistochemically stained for PPAR-γ. An AOM/DSS animal model of colitis-associated neoplasia was then established. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted and it was found that, compared with the control group and patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the expression of PPAR-γ in the intestinal tissue of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) was significantly decreased (P=0.027 and 0.046, respectively). The expression of PPAR-γ was found to be negatively associated with the disease activity of UC and was not associated with the severity of disease, site of lesions or CD characteristics. Administration of 5-ASA decreased the colitis and tumor burden of colons. The expression level of PPAR-γ in the intestinal tissue was also increased in the AOM/DSS/5-ASA group compared with AOM/DSS group (P<0.001). PPAR-γ is an important factor in the pathogenesis of UC and colitis-associated cancer. The present study found that 5-ASA significantly alleviates the colitis and tumor burden in a mouse model of AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated neoplasia, and promotes the expression of PPAR-γ in the intestinal tract. PMID:26622660

  18. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates experimental colitis in mice: Relevance of NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables. Although studies indicate that fisetin has an anti-inflammatory property, little is known about its effects on intestinal inflammation. The present study investigated the effects of the fisetin on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis, an animal model that resembles human inflammatory bowel disease. Fisetin treatment to DSS-exposed mice significantly reduced the severity of colitis and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. Moreover, fisetin reduced the levels of myeloperoxidase activity, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the expressions of COX-2 and iNOS in the colon tissues. Further studies revealed that fisetin suppressed the activation of NF-κB (p65) by inhibiting IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding activity and attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and the p38, but not ERK and JNK MAPKs in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. In addition, DSS-induced decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly restored by oral fisetin. Furthermore, the results from in vitro studies showed that fisetin significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine and mediator release and suppressed the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα with subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that fisetin exerts anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of Akt, p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. Thus, fisetin may be a promising candidate as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26878795

  19. Effect of cyclosporine in a murine model of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Banić, Marko; Anić, Branimir; Brkić, Tomislav; Ljubicić, Neven; Plesko, Sanja; Dohoczky, Csaba; Erceg, Damir; Petrovecki, Mladen; Stipancić, Igor; Rotkvić, Ivo

    2002-06-01

    The use of immunosuppressive therapy may be associated with significant toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) in murine model of experimental colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in NMRI mice using an enema of 0.2% solution of dinitrofluorobenzene, combined with skin sensitization. After inducing colitis, experimental groups of animals were treated with CsA (1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracolonically (i.c.), and control groups were treated with phosphate-buffered saline intraperitoneally or intracolonically, respectively. Colonic inflammatory changes were assessed using a histopathologic score of 0-30, and pooled whole blood samples were processed with monoclonal antibodies for cyclosporine concentration. In addition, two groups of animals with experimental colitis were treated intraperitoneally or intracolonically with 3 mg/kg/day of CsA, and the colons were also taken for immunohistochemistry for CD25. CsA diminished the extent of colitis in groups treated with 3, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally or intracolonically, and in groups treated with 1 and 50 mg/kg intracolonically (P < 0.05). The effect of intracolonic application of CsA was not related to whole blood cyclosporine concentrations. In addition, the effect of CsA at 3 mg/kg, applied intraperitoneally or intracolonically was, in part, expressed in decreasing the numbers of CD25+ cells within colonic mucosa/submucosa (P < 0.05). In conclusions, the results of this study indicate the possibility of intracolonic application of cyclosporine in order to widen the therapeutic window for effective, but possibly toxic drug, such as cyclosporine. PMID:12064814

  20. Soluble CD83 ameliorates experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, J; Kreiser, S; Döbbeler, M; Nicolette, C; DeBenedette, M A; Tcherepanova, I Y; Ostalecki, C; Pommer, A J; Becker, C; Günther, C; Zinser, E; Mak, T W; Steinkasserer, A; Lechmann, M

    2014-07-01

    The physiological balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes is dysregulated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) as in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Conventional therapy uses anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive corticosteroids to treat acute-phase symptoms. However, low remission rate and strong side effects of these therapies are not satisfying. Thus, there is a high medical need for new therapeutic strategies. Soluble CD83, the extracellular domain of the transmembrane CD83 molecule, has been reported to have interesting therapeutic and immunosuppressive properties by suppressing dendritic cell (DC)-mediated T-cell activation and inducing tolerogenic DCs. However, the expression and function of CD83 in IBD is still unknown. Here, we show that CD83 expression is upregulated by different leukocyte populations in a chemical-induced murine colitis model. Furthermore, in this study the potential of sCD83 to modulate colitis using an experimental murine colitis model was investigated. Strikingly, sCD83 ameliorated the clinical disease symptoms, drastically reduced mortality, and strongly decreased inflammatory cytokine expression in mesenteric lymph nodes and colon. The infiltration of macrophages and granulocytes into colonic tissues was vigorously inhibited. Mechanistically, we could show that sCD83-induced expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase is essential for its protective effects. PMID:24424524

  1. Pregnane X receptor activation ameliorates DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease via inhibition of NF-kappaB target gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shah, Yatrik M; Ma, Xiaochao; Morimura, Keiichirou; Kim, Insook; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2007-04-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) expression was shown to be protective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism by which PXR provides protection remains unclear. Wild-type and Pxr-null mice were treated with the PXR agonist pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile or vehicle and administered 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water to induce IBD. Typical clinical symptoms were evaluated on a daily basis. In vivo intestinal permeability assays and proinflammatory cytokine analysis were performed. PXR agonist-treated mice were protected from DSS-induced colitis compared with vehicle-treated mice, as defined by body weight loss, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, colon length, and histology. Pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile did not decrease the severity of IBD in Pxr-null mice. PXR agonist treatment did not increase epithelial barrier function but did decrease mRNA expression of several NF-kappaB target genes in a PXR-dependent manner. The present study clearly demonstrates a protective role for PXR agonist in DSS-induced IBD. The data suggest that PXR-mediated repression of NF-kappaB target genes in the colon is a critical mechanism by which PXR activation decreases the susceptibility of mice to DSS-induced IBD. PMID:17170021

  2. Dietary Supplementation with a Low Dose of Polyphenol-Rich Grape Pomace Extract Prevents Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Boussenna, Ahlem; Joubert-Zakeyh, Juliette; Fraisse, Didier; Pereira, Bruno; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Texier, Odile; Felgines, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from several epidemiological and experimental studies points to a beneficial role of dietary polyphenols in inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of dietary supplementation with various amounts of a polyphenol-rich grape pomace extract (GPE) on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Rats were fed 21 days on a semisynthetic diet enriched with GPE (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%), and acute colitis was induced by DSS (40 g/L in the drinking water) administration during the last 7 days. The low GPE content in the diet (0.1%) attenuated clinical signs and colon shortening and limited DSS-induced histological lesions. GPE 0.1% also attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity and improved superoxide dismutase activity. Higher amounts of GPE in the diet induced only weak and nonsignificant protective effects. These results suggest that consumption of a low amount of polyphenol-rich GPE helps protect against colitis development. PMID:27355494

  3. Suppression of NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages is responsible for the amelioration of experimental murine colitis by the natural compound fraxinellone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Ouyang, Zi-Jun; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Gong; Guo, Wen-Jie; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xu-Dong; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-13

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects millions of people worldwide. Although the etiology of this disease is uncertain, accumulating evidence indicates a key role for the activated mucosal immune system. In the present study, we examined the effects of the natural compound fraxinellone on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, an animal model that mimics IBD. Treatment with fraxinellone significantly reduced weight loss and diarrhea in mice and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. In addition, the activities of myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase were markedly suppressed, while the levels of glutathione were increased in colitis tissues following fraxinellone treatment. This compound also decreased the colonic levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects of fraxinellone in mice with experimental colitis were attributed to its inhibition of CD11b(+) macrophage infiltration. The mRNA levels of macrophage-related molecules in the colon, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), were also markedly inhibited following fraxinellone treatment. The results from in vitro assays showed that fraxinellone significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), IL-1β and IL-18 as well as the activity of iNOS in both THP-1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. The mechanisms responsible for these effects were attributed to the inhibitory role of fraxinellone in NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Overall, our results support fraxinellone as a novel drug candidate in the treatment of colonic inflammation. PMID:25448682

  4. Altered response to hydrogen sulphide during experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Steidle, J; Würner, L; Diener, M

    2012-09-10

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2) S) is produced in the intestine by sulphate-reducing bacteria and during metabolism of L-cysteine within the mucosa. This gasotransmitter induces anion secretion by stimulating enteric neurons and by a direct effect on epithelial cells. As H(2) S is discussed to exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions, we aimed to investigate the role of H(2) S during experimental colitis by comparing the effects of blockade of H(2) S-forming endogenous enzymes with the effect of a S-reduced diet to diminish microbial production of H(2) S. Rectal application of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce chronic colitis. The level of inflammation was assessed macroscopically and histologically. In Ussing chamber experiments, colonic specimens from TNBS-treated animals exhibited a higher tissue conductance, that is, a higher epithelial permeability, and a slightly reduced basal short-circuit current (a measure of net ion transport) in relation to non-inflamed control tissue. Analgetic treatment with flupirtine, a central antinociceptive analgetic, did not interfere with the induction of the inflammatory response so that all animals were treated with flupirtine to reduce pain and distress during the development of colitis. The secretory response evoked by an exogenous H(2) S donor, NaHS, was significantly decreased after induction of colitis, whereas the response to Ca(2+) - or cAMP-dependent secretagogues was unaltered. This downregulation was not observed in the colitis group fed on a S-reduced diet. The decreased NaHS response indicates a desensitization of the tissue by inflammation, which might be explained by an upregulation of colonic H(2) S production as described in some models of inflammation. PMID:22963333

  5. PGRN protects against colitis progression in mice in an IL-10 and TNFR2 dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fanhua; Zhang, Yuying; Jian, Jinlong; Mundra, Jyoti Joshi; Tian, Qingyun; Lin, Jiqiang; Lafaille, Juan Jose; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Weiming; Yu, Xiuping; Liu, Chuan-Ju

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the role and regulation of progranulin (PGRN) in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)−, picrylsulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced, bone marrow chimera and CD4+CD45Rbhi T cell transfer colitis model were established and analyzed in wild-type and several genetically-modified mice, including PGRN, IL-10 and TNFR2 deficient mice. Elevated levels of PGRN were found in colitis samples from human IBD patients and mouse colitis models in comparison to the corresponding controls. PGRN-deficient mice became highly susceptible to DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, whereas recombinant PGRN ameliorated the pathology and reduced the histological score in both DSS and TNBS colitis models. In addition, hematopoietic-derived PGRN was critical for protection against DSS-induced colitis, and lack of PGRN signaling in CD4+ T cells also exacerbated experimental colitis. PGRN-mediated protective effect in colitis was compromised in the absence of IL-10 signaling. In addition, PGRN's effect was also largely lost in the TNFR2-deficient colitis model. Collectively, these findings not only provide the new insight into PGRN's anti-inflammatory action in vivo, but may also present PGRN and its derivatives as novel biological agent for treating IBD. PMID:25387791

  6. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF−κB, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-β secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy. PMID:26565726

  7. Octreotide effectively decreases mucosal damage in experimental colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Eliakim, R; Karmeli, F; Okon, E; Rachmilewitz, D

    1993-01-01

    The effect of octreotide, a synthetic analogue of somatostatin, on the modulation of the acetic acid model of experimental colitis was examined. Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of 2 ml of 5% acetic acid. The inflammatory response elicited by the acetic acid resulted in increased colonic synthesis of platelet activating factor, leukotriene B4 and decreased mucosal somatostatin levels. Subcutaneous administration of octreotide (10 micrograms/rat) 1 hour before or immediately after damage induction, as well as 1 and 23 hours after acetic acid application, resulted in a significant reduction in mucosal damage. The protective effect was accompanied by a significant reduction in platelet activating factor activity, leukotriene B4, and vasoactive intestinal peptide concentrations. There were no significant changes in mucosal leukotriene C4 and calcitonin gene related peptide levels. This study shows that acetic acid induced colitis is pharmacologically manipulated by octreotide. The mechanism of action of octreotide has not yet been fully determined. The potential use of octreotide in treating active inflammatory bowel disease remains to be evaluated. Images Figure 5 PMID:8381760

  8. Activation of μ Opioid Receptors Modulates Inflammation in Acute Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, L.; Huynh, J.; Duraffourd, C.; Jaramillo, I.; Vegezzi, G.; Saccani, F; Boschetti, E.; Brecha, N.C.; De Giorgio, R.; Sternini, C

    2015-01-01

    Background μ opioid receptors (μORs) are expressed by neurons and inflammatory cells and mediate immune response. We tested whether activation of peripheral μORs ameliorates the acute and delayed phase of colitis. Methods C57BL/6J mice were treated with 3% dextran sodium sulfate in water, 5 days (DSS) with or without the peripherally-acting μOR agonist, [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin (DAMGO) or with DAMGO+μOR antagonist at day 2–5, then euthanized. Other mice received DSS followed by water for 4 weeks, or DSS with DAMGO starting at day 2 of DSS for 2 or 3 weeks followed by water, then euthanized at 4 weeks. Disease activity index (DAI), histological damage, and myeloperoxidase assay (MPO), as index of neutrophil infiltration, were evaluated. Cytokines and μOR mRNAs were measured with RT-PCR, and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-xL, and caspase 3 and 7 with Western blot. Key Results DSS induced acute colitis with elevated DAI, tissue damage, apoptosis and increased MPO, cytokines, μOR mRNA and NF-kB. DAMGO significantly reduced DAI, inflammatory indexes, cytokines, and caspases, and NF-kB, and upregulated Bcl-xL, effects prevented by μOR antagonist. In DSS mice plus 4 weeks of water, DAI, NF-kB and μOR were normal, whereas MPO, histological damage and cytokines were still elevated; DAMGO did not reduce inflammation, and did not upregulate Bcl-xL. Conclusions & Inferences μOR activation ameliorated the acute but not the delayed phase of DSS colitis by reducing cytokines, likely through activation of the antiapoptotic factor, Bcl-xL, and suppression of NF- kB, a potentiator of inflammation. PMID:25690069

  9. Preventive and Therapeutic Euphol Treatment Attenuates Experimental Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Allisson F.; Marcon, Rodrigo; Schmidt, Éder C.; Bouzon, Zenilda L.; Pianowski, Luiz F.; Calixto, João B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The tetracyclic triterpene euphol is the main constituent found in the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli. This plant is widely known in Brazilian traditional medicine for its use in the treatment of several kinds of cancer, including leukaemia, prostate and breast cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of euphol on experimental models of colitis and the underlying mechanisms involved in its action. Methodology/Principal Findings Colitis was induced in mice either with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of euphol (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) on colonic injury was assessed. Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by immunohistochemistry, enzyme-Linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Preventive and therapeutic oral administration of euphol attenuated both DSS- and TNBS-induced acute colitis as observed by a significant reduction of the disease activity index (DAI), histological/microscopic damage score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colonic tissue. Likewise, euphol treatment also inhibited colon tissue levels and expression of IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, MCP-1, MIP-2, TNF-α and IL-6, while reducing NOS2, VEGF and Ki67 expression in colonic tissue. This action seems to be likely associated with inhibition of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, euphol decreased LPS-induced MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ, but increased IL-10 secretion from bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. Of note, euphol, at the same schedule of treatment, markedly inhibited both selectin (P- and E-selectin) and integrin (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and LFA-1) expression in colonic tissue. Conclusions/Significance Together, these results clearly demonstrated that orally-administered euphol, both preventive or therapeutic treatment were effective in reducing the severity of colitis in two models of chemically-induced mouse colitis and suggest this plant

  10. A Picrorhiza kurroa Derivative, Picroliv, Attenuates the Development of Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, De-Kui; Yu, Jian-Jie; Li, Yu-Min; Wei, Li-Na; Yu, Yi; Feng, Yan-Hu; Wang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Background. Free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Picroliv, a Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of picroliv on experimental model of UC in mice. Materials and Methods. Picroliv was administrated orally by gavage to mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and histology score were observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and SOD, MDA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the expression of cytokine mRNAs was studied by real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and also ELISA. The expression of NF-κB p65 was observed by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. Results. A significant improvement was observed in DAI and histological score in mice treated with picroliv, and incerased MPO activity, MDA concentrations, and the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65 in mice with DSS-induced colitis were significantly reduced while decreased SOD level increased following administration of picroliv. Conclusion. The administration of picroliv leads to an amelioration of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting administration of picroliv may provide a therapeutic approach for UC. PMID:23125487

  11. Dextran sulfate sodium administered orally is depolymerized in the stomach and induces cell cycle arrest plus apoptosis in the colon in early mouse colitis.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshio; Bamba, Tadao; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Kanauchi, Osamu; Ban, Hiromitsu; Bamba, Shigeki; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms responsible for human inflammatory bowel disease remain poorly understood. The pathogenic factors for dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, one of the experimental animal colitis models, also remain unknown. Furthermore, detailed studies on DSS metabolism in the gut lumen have not been reported. Therefore, we investigated DSS metabolism in the mouse gut lumen and report the mechanisms which induce colitis. DSS was labeled with 2-aminopyridine (pyridylamino-DSS, PA-DSS). PA-DSS was administered orally to male BALB/cA Jcl mice. The metabolites and histological findings were observed using HPLC and light or fluorescence microscopy. PA-DSS with Mr 5000 was depolymerized rapidly in the gastric lumen, and the depolymerized PA-DSS was absorbed in the small intestine. Therefore, the majority of the PA-DSS in the cecal contents returned to Mr 5000 PA-DSS, escaping absorption in the small intestine. Mr 5000 DSS induced severe colitis, and immunostaining using an anti-mouse Ki-67 antibody and the TUNEL assay showed that DSS arrested the cell cycle at the G0 phase and induced apoptosis of the colonic epithelium. Mr 2500 PA-DSS, however, induced these same effects weakly. During these processes, we observed that the epithelial cells can depolymerize DSS themselves. An in vitro study using Caco-2 cells also showed similar effects. Mr 5000 DSS was depolymerized in the gut lumen and epithelial cells. Therefore, the molecular mass distribution of the DSS differed between each part in the lumen. As an early stage event, DSS induced colitis through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis according to its molecular mass. PMID:22895560

  12. Oral administration of Parabacteroides distasonis antigens attenuates experimental murine colitis through modulation of immunity and microbiota composition

    PubMed Central

    Kverka, M; Zakostelska, Z; Klimesova, K; Sokol, D; Hudcovic, T; Hrncir, T; Rossmann, P; Mrazek, J; Kopecny, J; Verdu, E F; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H

    2011-01-01

    Commensal bacteria have been shown to modulate the host mucosal immune system. Here, we report that oral treatment of BALB/c mice with components from the commensal, Parabacteroides distasonis, significantly reduces the severity of intestinal inflammation in murine models of acute and chronic colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). The membranous fraction of P. distasonis (mPd) prevented DSS-induced increases in several proinflammatory cytokines, increased mPd-specific serum antibodies and stabilized the intestinal microbial ecology. The anti-colitic effect of oral mPd was not observed in severe combined immunodeficient mice and probably involved induction of specific antibody responses and stabilization of the intestinal microbiota. Our results suggest that specific bacterial components derived from the commensal bacterium, P. distasonis, may be useful in the development of new therapeutic strategies for chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21087444

  13. Different Effects of Three Selected Lactobacillus Strains in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Wei, Hongyun; Lu, Fanggen; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Deliang; Gu, Li; Ouyang, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the changes of different Lactobacillus species in ulcerative colitis patients and to further assess the therapeutic effects of selected Lactobacillus strains on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice. Methods Forty-five active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 45 population-based healthy controls were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and real-time PCR were performed for qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively, of the Lactobacillus species in UC patients. Three Lactobacillus strains from three species were selected to assess the therapeutic effects on experimental colitis. Sixty 8-week-old BALB/c mice were divided into six groups. The five groups that had received DSS were administered normal saline, mesalazine, L. fermentum CCTCC M206110 strain, L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 strain, or L. plantarum NCIMB8826 strain. We assessed the severity of colitis based on disease activity index (DAI), body weight loss, colon length, and histologic damage. Results The detection rate of four of the 11 Lactobacillus species decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the detection rate of two of the 11 Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05) in UC patients. Relative quantitative analysis revealed that eight Lactobacillus species declined significantly in UC patients (P < 0.05), while three Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05). The CCTCC M206110 treatment group had less weight loss and colon length shortening, lower DAI scores, and lower histologic scores (P < 0.05), while the CCTCC M206119 treatment group had greater weight loss and colon length shortening, higher histologic scores, and more severe inflammatory infiltration (P < 0.05). NCIMB8826 improved weight loss and colon length shortening (P < 0.05) with no significant influence on DAI and histologic damage in the colitis model. Conclusions Administration of an L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 supplement aggravated

  14. B-vitamin deficiency is protective against DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Homocysteine (Hcys) is a thrombogenic amino acid produced from methionine (Met) and its increase in IBD patients indicates a disruption of Met metabolism, yet the role of Hcys and Met metabolism in IBD is not well und...

  15. Preventative oral methylthioadenosine is anti-inflammatory and reduces DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a precursor of the methionine salvage pathway and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in various models of acute and chronic inflammation. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of MTA in models of intestinal inflammation are not defined. We hypothesiz...

  16. Loss of Dok-1 and Dok-2 in mice causes severe experimental colitis accompanied by reduced expression of IL-17A and IL-22.

    PubMed

    Waseda, Masazumi; Arimura, Sumimasa; Shimura, Eri; Nakae, Susumu; Yamanashi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate immune responses and mucosal barrier functions are required for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Defects in this defense system may lead to inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Downstream of tyrosine kinases 1 (Dok-1) and its closest homolog, Dok-2, are preferentially expressed in immune cells, and play essential roles in the negative regulation of multiple signaling pathways in both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the function of these proteins in intestinal homeostasis remained unclear. Here we show that Dok-1/-2 double knockout (DKO) mice were highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared with Dok-1 or Dok-2 single KO and wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice exhibited increased colonic tissue damage accompanied by reduced proliferation of the epithelial cells relative to WT controls, suggesting that Dok-1/-2 DKO mice have defects in the repair of intestinal epithelial lesions. In addition, the levels of the Th17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-22, which have protective roles in DSS-induced colitis, were reduced in DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice compared with WT mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Dok-1 and Dok-2 negatively regulate intestinal inflammation, apparently through the induction of IL-17A and IL-22 expression. PMID:27450811

  17. Carboxypeptidase E Modulates Intestinal Immune Homeostasis and Protects against Experimental Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, René; Schröder, Torsten; Schlichting, Heidi; Hirose, Misa; Lemcke, Susanne; Klinger, Antje; König, Peter; Karsten, Christian M.; Büning, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Fellermann, Klaus; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Sina, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) produce neuropeptides, which are crucially involved in the maintenance of the intestinal barrier. Hence, EEC dysfunction is suggested to be involved in the complex pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is characterized by decreased intestinal barrier function. However, the underlying mechanisms for EEC dysfunction are not clear and suitable models for a better understanding are lacking. Here, we demonstrate that Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) is specifically expressed in EEC of the murine colon and ileum and that its deficiency is associated with reduced intestinal levels of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Peptide YY (PYY), which are both produced by EEC. Moreover, cpe−/− mice exhibit an aggravated course of DSS-induced chronic colitis compared to wildtype littermates. In addition, we observed elevated mucosal IL-6 and KC transcript levels already at baseline conditions in cpe−/− mice. Moreover, supernatants obtained from isolated intestinal crypts of cpe−/− mice lead to increased IL-6 and KC expression in MODE-K cells in the presence of LPS. This effect was reversible by co-administration of recombinant NPY, suggesting a CPE mediated immunosuppressive effect in the intestines by influencing the processing of specific neuropeptides. In this context, the chemotaxis of bone marrow derived macrophages towards respective supernatants was enhanced. In conclusion, our data point to an anti-inflammatory role of CPE in the intestine by influencing local cytokine levels and thus regulating the migration of myeloid immune cells into the mucosa. These findings highlight the importance of EEC for intestinal homeostasis and propose EEC as potential therapeutic targets in IBD. PMID:25051500

  18. Carboxypeptidase E modulates intestinal immune homeostasis and protects against experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bär, Florian; Föh, Bandik; Pagel, René; Schröder, Torsten; Schlichting, Heidi; Hirose, Misa; Lemcke, Susanne; Klinger, Antje; König, Peter; Karsten, Christian M; Büning, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Fellermann, Klaus; Ibrahim, Saleh M; Sina, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) produce neuropeptides, which are crucially involved in the maintenance of the intestinal barrier. Hence, EEC dysfunction is suggested to be involved in the complex pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is characterized by decreased intestinal barrier function. However, the underlying mechanisms for EEC dysfunction are not clear and suitable models for a better understanding are lacking. Here, we demonstrate that Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) is specifically expressed in EEC of the murine colon and ileum and that its deficiency is associated with reduced intestinal levels of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Peptide YY (PYY), which are both produced by EEC. Moreover, cpe-/- mice exhibit an aggravated course of DSS-induced chronic colitis compared to wildtype littermates. In addition, we observed elevated mucosal IL-6 and KC transcript levels already at baseline conditions in cpe-/- mice. Moreover, supernatants obtained from isolated intestinal crypts of cpe-/- mice lead to increased IL-6 and KC expression in MODE-K cells in the presence of LPS. This effect was reversible by co-administration of recombinant NPY, suggesting a CPE mediated immunosuppressive effect in the intestines by influencing the processing of specific neuropeptides. In this context, the chemotaxis of bone marrow derived macrophages towards respective supernatants was enhanced. In conclusion, our data point to an anti-inflammatory role of CPE in the intestine by influencing local cytokine levels and thus regulating the migration of myeloid immune cells into the mucosa. These findings highlight the importance of EEC for intestinal homeostasis and propose EEC as potential therapeutic targets in IBD. PMID:25051500

  19. Oral administration of geraniol ameliorates acute experimental murine colitis by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Medicherla, Kanakaraju; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Sudhakar, Godi; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is associated with a considerable reduction in the quality of life of patients. The use of phyto-ingredients is becoming an increasingly attractive approach for the management of colitis. Geraniol is a monoterpene with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of geraniol as a complementary and alternative medicine against dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Disease activity indices (DAI) comprising body weight loss, presence of occult blood and stool consistency were assessed for evaluation of colitis symptoms. Intestinal damage was assessed by evaluating colon length and its histology. Pre-treatment with geraniol significantly reduced the DAI score, improved stool consistency (without occult blood) and increased the colon length. The amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and the activity of myeloperoxidase in colon tissue were significantly decreased in geraniol pre-treated mice. Western blot analyses revealed that geraniol interfered with NF-κB signaling by inhibiting NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding, and IκBα phosphorylation, degradation and subsequent increase in nuclear translocation. Moreover, the expressions of downstream target pro-inflammatory enzymes such as iNOS and COX-2 were significantly reduced by geraniol. Pre-treatment with geraniol also restored the DSS-induced decline in antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and attenuated the increase in lipid peroxidation marker, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitrative stress marker, nitrites in colon tissue. Thus, our results suggest that geraniol is a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26190278

  20. Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins Protect Mice from Experimental Colitis by Promoting Normal Gut Flora and Preventing Induction of Interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sukumar; Jing, Xuefang; Park, Shin Yong; Wang, Shiyong; Li, Xinna; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY There are multiple mechanisms of maintaining tolerance in the gut that protect the intestine from excessive inflammatory response to intestinal microorganisms. We report here that all four mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs or Pglyrps) protect the host from colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Pglyrp1−/−, Pglyrp2−/−, Pglyrp3−/−, and Pglyrp4−/− mice are all more sensitive than wild type (WT) mice to DSS-induced colitis due to changes to more inflammatory gut microflora, higher production of interferon-γ and interferon-inducible genes, and increase in NK cells in the colon upon initial exposure to DSS, which leads to severe hyperplasia of the lamina propria, loss of epithelial cells, and ulceration in the colon. Thus in WT mice PGRPs protect the colon from early inflammatory response and loss of the barrier function of intestinal epithelium by promoting normal bacterial flora and by preventing damaging production of interferon-γ by NK cells in response to injury. PMID:20709292

  1. The effect of methylsulfonylmethane on the experimental colitis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Amirshahrokhi, K.; Bohlooli, S.; Chinifroush, M.M.

    2011-06-15

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), naturally occurring in green plants, fruits and vegetables, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. MSM is an organosulfur compound and a normal oxidative metabolite of dimethyl sulfoxide. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of MSM in a rat model of experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 1 ml of 5% of acetic acid. Rats were treated with MSM (400 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days. Animals were euthanized and distal colon evaluated histologically and biochemically. Tissue samples were used to measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta}) levels. Results showed that MSM decreased macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage scores caused by administration of acetic acid. MSM treatment also significantly reduced colonic levels of MDA, MPO and IL-1{beta}, while increased the levels of GSH and CAT compared with acetic acid-induced colitis group. It seems that MSM as a natural product may have a protective effect in an experimental ulcerative colitis. - Research Highlights: > Methylsulfonylmethane occurs naturally in some green plants, fruits and vegetables. > Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. > We evaluated the effects of MSM in a rat model of experimental ulcerative colitis. > MSM has protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rat.

  2. Protective Effect of Dietary Lily Bulb on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17. The fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in the DSS group compared with that in the control group, but it was recovered by lily bulb intake. Cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly higher in the DSS group than in the control group. Dietary lily bulb potentiated the increase in cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and the ALP activity caused by DSS treatment. These results indicate that lily bulb attenuates DSS-induced colitis by modulating colonic microflora, organic acids, mucins, and ALP activity in HF diet-fed rats. PMID:27465728

  3. Eosinophil-mediated signalling attenuates inflammatory responses in experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Joanne C; McNamee, Eóin N; Fillon, Sophie A; Hosford, Lindsay; Harris, Rachel; Fernando, Shahan D; Jedlicka, Paul; Iwamoto, Ryo; Jacobsen, Elizabeth; Protheroe, Cheryl; Eltzschig, Holger K; Colgan, Sean P; Arita, Makoto; Lee, James J; Furuta, Glenn T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eosinophils reside in the colonic mucosa and increase significantly during disease. Although a number of studies have suggested that eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of GI inflammation, the expanding scope of eosinophil-mediated activities indicate that they also regulate local immune responses and modulate tissue inflammation. We sought to define the impact of eosinophils that respond to acute phases of colitis in mice. Design Acute colitis was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or oxazolone to C57BL/6J (control) or eosinophil deficient (PHIL) mice. Eosinophils were also depleted from mice using antibodies against interleukin (IL)-5 or by grafting bone marrow from PHIL mice into control mice. Colon tissues were collected and analysed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and reverse transcription PCR; lipids were analysed by mass spectroscopy. Results Eosinophil-deficient mice developed significantly more severe colitis, and their colon tissues contained a greater number of neutrophils, than controls. This compensatory increase in neutrophils was accompanied by increased levels of the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, which attract neutrophils. Lipidomic analyses of colonic tissue from eosinophil-deficient mice identified a deficiency in the docosahexaenoic acid-derived anti-inflammatory mediator 10, 17- dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (diHDoHE), namely protectin D1 (PD1). Administration of an exogenous PD1-isomer (10S, 17S-DiHDoHE) reduced the severity of colitis in eosinophil-deficient mice. The PD1-isomer also attenuated neutrophil infiltration and reduced levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and inducible NO-synthase in colons of mice. Finally, in vitro assays identified a direct inhibitory effect of PD1-isomer on neutrophil transepithelial migration. Conclusions Eosinophils exert a protective effect in acute mouse colitis, via production of anti-inflammatory lipid

  4. Preventive Effects of Spirogyra neglecta and a Polysaccharide Extract against Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Taya, Sirinya; Kakehashi, Anna; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan; Gi, Min; Ishii, Naomi; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) results from colonic epithelial barrier defects and impaired mucosal immune responses. In this study, we aimed to investigate the modifying effects of a Spirogyra neglecta extract (SNE), a polysaccharide extract (PE) and a chloroform fraction (CF) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to determine the mechanisms. To induce colitis, ICR mice received 3% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. Seven days preceding the DSS treatment, oral administration of SNE, PE and CF at doses of 50, 25 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight (low dose), 200, 100 and 1 mg/kg body weight (high dose) and vehicle was started and continued for 14 days. Histologic findings showed that DSS-induced damage of colonic epithelial structure and inflammation was attenuated in mice pre-treated with SNE, PE and CF. Furthermore, SNE and PE significantly protected colonic epithelial cells from DSS-induced cell cycle arrest, while SNE, PE and CF significantly diminished apoptosis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that SNE and PE might ameliorate DSS-induced colitis by inducing antioxidant enzymes, restoring impaired mitochondria function, and regulating inflammatory cytokines, proliferation and apoptosis. These results suggest that SNE and PE could prevent DSS-induced colitis in ICR mice by protection against and/or aiding recovery from damage to the colonic epithelium, reducing ROS and maintaining normal mitochondrial function and apoptosis. PMID:27221924

  5. The zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, triggers metabotropic calcium signalling in colonocytes and regulates occludin recovery in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Sunuwar, Laxmi; Medini, Michal; Cohen, Limor; Sekler, Israel; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Impaired epithelial barrier function is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as colitis, contributing to diarrhoea and perpetuating inflammation. We show that the zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, triggers intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in colonocytes thereby inducing occludin expression. Moreover, ZnR/GPR39 is essential for epithelial barrier recovery in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) ulcerative colitis model. Loss of ZnR/GPR39 results in increased susceptibility to DSS-induced inflammation, owing to low expression of the tight junction protein occludin and impaired epithelial barrier. Recovery of wild-type (WT) mice from the DSS insult was faster than that of ZnR/GPR39 knockout (KO) mice. Enhanced recovery of the epithelial layer and increased crypt regeneration were observed in WT mice compared with ZnR/GPR39 KO, suggesting that ZnR/GPR39 is promoting epithelial barrier integrity following DSS insult. Indeed, cell proliferation and apical expression of occludin, following the DSS-induced epithelial erosion, were increased in WT tissue but not in ZnR/GPR39 KO tissue. Importantly, survival following DSS treatment was higher in WT mice compared with ZnR/GPR39 KO mice. Our results support a direct role for ZnR/GPR39 in promoting epithelial renewal and barrier function following DSS treatment, thereby affecting the severity of the disease. We suggest ZnR/GPR39 as a novel therapeutic target that can improve epithelial barrier function in colitis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377730

  6. Colonization of C57BL/6 Mice by a Potential Probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum Strain under Germ-Free and Specific Pathogen-Free Conditions and during Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Verena; Radulovic, Katarina; Riedel, Christian U.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of at least some probiotics are restricted to live, metabolically active bacteria at their site of action. Colonization of and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract is thus contributing to the beneficial effects of these strains. In the present study, colonization of an anti-inflammatory Bifidobacterium bifidum strain was studied in C57BL/6J mice under germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions as well as during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. B. bifidum S17/pMGC was unable to stably colonize C57BL/6J mice under SPF conditions. Mono-association of GF mice by three doses on consecutive days led to long-term, stable detection of up to 109 colony forming units (CFU) of B. bifidum S17/pMGC per g feces. This stable population was rapidly outcompeted upon transfer of mono-associated animals to SPF conditions. A B. animalis strain was isolated from the microbiota of these re-conventionalized mice. This B. animalis strain displayed significantly higher adhesion to murine CMT–93 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) than to human Caco–2 IECs (p = 0.018). Conversely, B. bifidum S17/pMGC, i.e., a strain of human origin, adhered at significantly higher levels to human compared to murine IECs (p < 0.001). Disturbance of the gut ecology and induction of colitis by DSS-treatment did not promote colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by B. bifidum S17/pMGC. Despite its poor colonization of the mouse GIT, B. bifidum S17/pMGC displayed a protective effect on DSS-induced colitis when administered as viable bacteria but not as UV-inactivated preparation. Collectively, these results suggest a selective disadvantage of B. bifidum S17/pMGC in the competition with the normal murine microbiota and an anti-inflammatory effect that requires live, metabolically active bacteria. PMID:26439388

  7. Encenicline, an α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Partial Agonist, Reduces Immune Cell Infiltration in the Colon and Improves Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Salaga, M; Blomster, L V; Piechota-Polańczyk, A; Zielińska, M; Jacenik, D; Cygankiewicz, A I; Krajewska, W M; Mikkelsen, J D; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The α7 pentamer nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a target in transduction of anti-inflammatory signals from the central nervous system to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of the novel α7 nAChR partial agonist encenicline and to determine the mechanism underlying its activity. Anti-inflammatory activity of encenicline was evaluated using trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced models of colitis. Macroscopic score, ulcer score, colon length and thickness, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were recorded. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to measure the infiltration of immune cells in the colon. Furthermore, we employed flow cytometry to determine the effect of encenicline on frequencies of FoxP3(+) and interleukin (IL)-17A(+) T cells in the mouse colon. Encenicline attenuated TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis in mice via α7 nAChRs, as indicated by significantly reduced macroscopic parameters and MPO activity. Treatment with encenicline significantly reduced the infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and B cells in the colon of TNBS-treated animals, as indicated by IHC. In the TNBS model encenicline reduced the frequency of FoxP3(+) IL-17A(+) T cells in the colon. In the DSS-model treatment encenicline increased the frequency of FoxP3(+) T cells and reduced IL-17A(+) T cells. Stimulation of α7 nAChR with partial agonist encenicline alleviates colitis via alteration of the number and/or activation status of the immune cells in the gut, emphasizing a potential role of α7 nAChRs as a target for anticolitic drugs. PMID:26462538

  8. Effect of venlafaxine on experimental colitis in normal and reserpinised depressed rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Rabbani, Mohammad; Fattahian, Ehsan; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Psychological disorders such as depression have more prevalence in inflammatory bowel disease patients and can exacerbate the clinical course of the disease, so anti-depressant therapy may have a potential to positively impact the disease course. On the other hand several antidepressant drugs have shown anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Thus, this study aimed to explore the beneficial effects of venlafaxine on experimental colitis in normal and reserpinised depressed rats. Acetic acid colitis was induced in both reserpinised and non-reserpinised rats. Reserpinised groups received reserpine at dose of 6 mg/kg i.p.1 h prior to colitis induction and then treated with venlafaxine at doses of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg given i.p. 2 h after induction of colitis and daily for 4 consecutive days. Non-reserpinised groups treated with 10, 20, 40 mg/kg venlafaxine i.p. 2 h after the induction of colitis and daily for 4 successive days. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was used as reference drug. Colonic inflammation was evaluated using macroscopic, histological and myeloperoxidase activity measurements. Results showed that reserpine at dose of 6 mg/kg exacerbated the colitis damage. Compared to acetic acid control, venlafaxine at dose of 40 mg/kg as well as dexamethasone significantly improved colitis parameters in both reserpinised and non-reserpinised animals. Venlafaxine reduced inflammatory injury in this animal model of induced ulcerative colitis. These effects are probably mediated first through depressive behavioral changes that could be mediated through the brain-gut axis and second for the anti-inflammatory effect of the drug. PMID:26600857

  9. Crucial role of macrophage selenoproteins in experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Naveen; Kudva, Avinash K.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Chiaro, Christopher; Kennett, Mary J.; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Carlson, Bradley A.; Cantorna, Margherita T.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that involves macrophages. Given the inverse link between selenium (Se) status and IBD-induced inflammation, our objective was to demonstrate that selenoproteins in macrophages were essential to suppress pro-inflammatory mediators, in part, by the modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. Acute colitis was induced using 4% DSS in wild type mice maintained on Se-deficient (<0.01 ppm Se), Se-adequate (0.1 ppm; sodium selenite), and two supraphysiological levels in the form of Se-supplemented (0.4 ppm; sodium selenite) and high Se (1.0 ppm; sodium selenite) diets. Transfer RNASec (tRNA[sec]) knockout mice (Trspfl/flLysMCre) were used to examine the role of selenoproteins in macrophages on disease progression and severity using histopathological evaluation, expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes, and modulation of prostaglandin (PG) metabolites in urine and plasma. While Se-deficient and Se-adequate mice showed increased colitis and exhibited poor survival, Se supplementation at 0.4 and 1.0 ppm increased survival of mice and decreased colitis-associated inflammation with an up-regulation of expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes. Metabolomic profiling of urine suggested increased oxidation of PGE2 at supraphysiological levels of Se that also correlated well with Se-dependent upregulation of 15-hydroxy-PG dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) in macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition of 15-PGDH, lack of selenoprotein expression in macrophages, and depletion of infiltrating macrophages indicated that macrophage-specific selenoproteins and upregulation of 15-PGDH expression were key for Se-dependent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects. Selenoproteins in macrophages protect mice from DSS-colitis by enhancing 15-PGDH-dependent oxidation of PGE2 to alleviate inflammation, suggesting a therapeutic role for Se in IBD. PMID:25187657

  10. β-Arrestin-1 deficiency protects mice from experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehyung; Lee, Eunhee; Irwin, Regina; Lucas, Peter C; McCabe, Laura R; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2013-04-01

    β-Arrestins are intracellular scaffolding proteins that modulate specific cell signaling pathways. Recent studies, in both cell culture and in vivo models, have demonstrated an important role for β-arrestin-1 in inflammation. However, the role of β-arrestin-1 in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not known. Our goal was to investigate the role of β-arrestin-1 in IBD using mouse models of colitis. To this end, we subjected wild-type (WT) and β-arrestin-1 knockout (β-arr-1(-/-)) mice to colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or dextran sulfate sodium and examined the clinical signs, gross pathology, and histopathology of the colon, as well as inflammatory components. The β-arr-1(-/-) mice displayed significantly attenuated colitis, compared with WT mice, in both models. Consistent with the phenotypic observations, histological examination of the colon revealed attenuated disease pathology in the β-arr-1(-/-) mice. Our results further demonstrate that β-arr-1(-/-) mice are deficient in IL-6 expression in the colon, but have higher expression of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 family of cytokines. Our results also demonstrate diminished ERK and NFκB pathways in the colons of β-arr-1(-/-) mice, compared with WT mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that decreased IL-6 production and enhanced IL-10 and IL-22 production in β-arrestin-1-deficient mice likely lead to attenuated gut inflammation. PMID:23395087

  11. Probiotics increase T regulatory cells and reduce severity of experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Zuo, Zhi-Qin; Pan, Qi-Hong; Ao, Mei-Ying; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Hong-Ning; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of probiotics on regulating T regulatory cells and reducing the severity of experimental colitis in mice. METHODS: Forty C57/BL mice were randomly divided into four groups. Colitis was induced in the mice using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). After 10-d treatment with Bifico capsules (combined bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and enterococcus), body weight, colonic weight, colonic weight index, length of colon, and histological scores were evaluated. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cell in mesenteric lymph nodes were measured by flow cytometry, and cytokines in colonic tissue homogenates were analyzed by a cytometric bead array. RESULTS: The colonic weight index and the colonic weight of colitis mice treated with Bifico were lower than that of TNBS-induced mice without treatment. However, colonic length and percent of body weight amplification were higher than in TNBS-induced mice without treatment. Compared with TNBS-induced mice without treatment, the level of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes, the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in colonic tissues from colitis mice treated with Bifico were upregulated, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ were downregulated. CONCLUSION: Probiotics effectively treat experimental colitis by increasing CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cell and regulating the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the colonic mucosa. PMID:23430765

  12. Salmon cartilage proteoglycan suppresses mouse experimental colitis through induction of Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsui, Toshihito; Sashinami, Hiroshi; Sato, Fuyuki; Kijima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Yoh; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Yoshihara, Shuichi; Hakamada, Ken-Ichi; Nakane, Akio

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses IL-10{sup -/-} cell transfer-induced colitis progression. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses Th1- and Th17-related factors in colitis mice. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan enhances Foxp3 expression. -- Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex glycohydrates which are widely distributed in extracellular matrix (ECM). PGs are involved in the construction of ECM, cell proliferation and differentiation. ECM components are involved in transduction of proinflammatory responses, but it is still unknown whether PGs are involved in inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of PG extracted from salmon cartilage on the progression of experimental colitis-induced in severe combined immunodeficiency mice by cell transfer from interleukin-10 (IL-10){sup -/-} mice. IL-10{sup -/-} cell-transferred mice showed weight loss, colon shortening and histological appearance of mild colitis. Daily oral administration of PG attenuated the clinical progression of colitis in a dose-dependent manner. Colitis-induced mice showed the elevated expression of IFN-{gamma}, IL-12, TNF-{alpha}, IL-21, IL-23p19, IL-6, IL-17A and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor {gamma}t (ROR{gamma}t) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) and oral administration of PG suppressed the expression of these factors. Conversely, expression of Foxp3 that induces CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells in LPMCs was enhanced by PG administration. These findings suggested that salmon PG attenuated the progression of colitis due to suppression of inflammatory response by enhancement of regulatory T cell induction.

  13. Tauroursodeoxycholate improves 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced experimental acute ulcerative colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; He, Jiao; Suo, Yuan; Zheng, Zongwei; Wang, Jingjing; Lv, Le; Huo, Chuanchuan; Wang, Ziye; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic nonspecific inflammatory disease of unknown cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of tauroursodeoxycholate in 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis in mice. After the induction of colitis for 24h, the mice were administrated orally with tauroursodeoxycholate (20, 40 and 60mg/kg) and sulfasalazine (500mg/kg) by gavage for 7 consecutive days. The inhibition effects were evaluated by the body of weight change, survival rate, macroscopical and histological evaluations. Besides, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in colon tissue were also determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with different doses of tauroursodeoxycholate (20, 40 and 60mg/kg) significantly improved the body weight change, decreased the macroscopic and histopathological scores. Compared with the model group, the accumulation of MPO activity, the colonic tissue levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α were significantly reduced in the tauroursodeoxycholate treated groups. Moreover, tauroursodeoxycholate assuaged the symptoms of colitis. These results suggested that tauroursodeoxycholate has an anti-inflammatory effect in TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. PMID:27179450

  14. The Matricellular Protein CCN1 Promotes Mucosal Healing in Murine Colitis through IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jacob S.; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lau, Lester F.

    2015-01-01

    The matricellular protein CCN1 (CYR61) is known to function in wound healing and is upregulated in colons of patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, yet its specific role in colitis is unknown. Here we have used Ccn1dm/dm knockin mice expressing a CCN1 mutant unable to bind integrins α6β1 and αMβ2 as a model to probe CCN1 function in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Ccn1dm/dm mice exhibited high mortality, impaired mucosal healing, and diminished IL-6 expression during the repair phase of DSS-induced colitis compared to wild type mice, despite having comparable severity of initial inflammation and tissue injury. CCN1 induced IL-6 expression in macrophages through integrin αMβ2 and in fibroblasts through α6β1, and IL-6 promoted intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation. Administration of purified CCN1 protein fully rescued Ccn1dm/dm mice from DSS-induced mortality, restored IEC proliferation and enhanced mucosal healing, whereas delivery of IL-6 partially rectified these defects. CCN1 therapy accelerated mucosal healing and recovery from DSS-induced colitis even in wild type mice. These findings reveal a critical role for CCN1 in restoring mucosal homeostasis after intestinal injury in part through integrin-mediated induction of IL-6 expression, and suggest a therapeutic potential for activating the CCN1/IL-6 axis for treating inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25807183

  15. The acetylome regulators Hdac1 and Hdac2 differently modulate intestinal epithelial cell dependent homeostatic responses in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Naomie; Gagné, Julie Moore; Blais, Mylène; Gendron, Fernand-Pierre; Boudreau, François; Asselin, Claude

    2014-04-01

    Histone deacetylases (Hdac) remove acetyl groups from proteins, influencing global and specific gene expression. Hdacs control inflammation, as shown by Hdac inhibitor-dependent protection from dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis. Although tissue-specific Hdac knockouts show redundant and specific functions, little is known of their intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) role. We have shown previously that dual Hdac1/Hdac2 IEC-specific loss disrupts cell proliferation and determination, with decreased secretory cell numbers and altered barrier function. We thus investigated how compound Hdac1/Hdac2 or Hdac2 IEC-specific deficiency alters the inflammatory response. Floxed Hdac1 and Hdac2 and villin-Cre mice were interbred. Compound Hdac1/Hdac2 IEC-deficient mice showed chronic basal inflammation, with increased basal disease activity index (DAI) and deregulated Reg gene colonic expression. DSS-treated dual Hdac1/Hdac2 IEC-deficient mice displayed increased DAI, histological score, intestinal permeability, and inflammatory gene expression. In contrast to double knockouts, Hdac2 IEC-specific loss did not affect IEC determination and growth, nor result in chronic inflammation. However, Hdac2 disruption protected against DSS colitis, as shown by decreased DAI, intestinal permeability and caspase-3 cleavage. Hdac2 IEC-specific deficient mice displayed increased expression of IEC gene subsets, such as colonic antimicrobial Reg3b and Reg3g mRNAs, and decreased expression of immune cell function-related genes. Our data show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 are essential IEC homeostasis regulators. IEC-specific Hdac1 and Hdac2 may act as epigenetic sensors and transmitters of environmental cues and regulate IEC-mediated mucosal homeostatic and inflammatory responses. Different levels of IEC Hdac activity may lead to positive or negative outcomes on intestinal homeostasis during inflammation. PMID:24525021

  16. Lactobacillus casei prevents the development of dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis in Toll-like receptor 4 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y W; Choi, J H; Oh, T-Y; Eun, C S; Han, D S

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics, defined as live or attenuated bacteria or bacterial products, confer a significant health benefit to the host. Recently, they have been shown to be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of probiotics on the development of experimental colitis using Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) mutant (lps-/lps-) mice. TLR-4(lps-/lps-) and wild-type (WT) mice were given 2.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water to induce colitis with or without Lactobacillus casei pretreatment. Clinical and histological activity of DSS-colitis was attenuated markedly both in TLR-4(lps-/lps-) and WT mice pretreated with L. casei. Interestingly, histological activity was less severe in TLR-4(lps-/lps-) mice than in WT mice. The levels of myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin (IL)-12p40 were attenuated in pretreated TLR-4(lps-/lps-) mice after DSS administration. By contrast, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and IL-10 mRNA and protein expressions were increased markedly in pretreated TLR-4(lps-/lps-) mice. The current results suggest that L. casei has a preventive effect in the development of acute DSS-induced colitis and its action depends largely upon TLR-4 status. L. casei modulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and down-regulates neutrophilic infiltration in the case of incomplete TLR-4 complex signalling. PMID:18005362

  17. The effect of methylsulfonylmethane on the experimental colitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Amirshahrokhi, K; Bohlooli, S; Chinifroush, M M

    2011-06-15

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), naturally occurring in green plants, fruits and vegetables, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. MSM is an organosulfur compound and a normal oxidative metabolite of dimethyl sulfoxide. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of MSM in a rat model of experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 1 ml of 5% of acetic acid. Rats were treated with MSM (400 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days. Animals were euthanized and distal colon evaluated histologically and biochemically. Tissue samples were used to measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels. Results showed that MSM decreased macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage scores caused by administration of acetic acid. MSM treatment also significantly reduced colonic levels of MDA, MPO and IL-1β, while increased the levels of GSH and CAT compared with acetic acid-induced colitis group. It seems that MSM as a natural product may have a protective effect in an experimental ulcerative colitis. PMID:21463646

  18. mTOR Inhibition Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing T Cell Proliferation and Balancing TH1/TH17/Treg Profile

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yilin; Wang, Zhengting; Pei, Yaofei; Fan, Rong; Liu, Xiqiang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Sichang; Zhang, Tianyu; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Maochen; Tao, Ran; Zhong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects in models of experimental colitis. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this research, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AZD8055, a potent mTOR inhibitor, on T cell response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, a commonly used animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Severity of colitis is evaluated by changing of body weight, bloody stool, fecal consistency, histology evaluation and cytokine expression. We find that AZD8055 treatment attenuates DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and pathological damage of the colon. And AZD8055 treatment decreases colonic expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-1β,IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-a and increases colonic expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10. We show that AZD8055 treatment decreases the percentages of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood of mice. We also find that AZD8055 treatment significantly reduces the number of T helper 1(TH1) cells and TH17 cells and increases regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrates that AZD8055 suppresses the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the differentiation of TH1/TH17 cells and expands Treg cells in vitro. The results suggest that, in experimental colitis, AZD8055 exerts anti-inflammatory effect by regulating T helper cell polarization and proliferation. PMID:27128484

  19. Butyrate and glucose metabolism by colonocytes in experimental colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, M; Krishnan, S; Ramakrishna, B; Mathan, M; Pulimood, A; Murthy, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Impaired colonocyte metabolism of butyrate has been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Colonocyte butyrate metabolism was investigated in experimental colitis in mice.
METHODS—Colitis was induced in Swiss outbred white mice by oral administration of 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Colonocytes isolated from colitic and normal control mice were incubated with [14C]butyrate or glucose, and production of 14CO2, as well as of intermediate metabolites (acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate), was measured. The effect of different substrate concentrations on oxidation was also examined.
RESULTS—Butyrate oxidation (µmol/h per mg protein; mean (SEM)) was significantly reduced in DSS colitis, values on day 7 of DSS administration being 0.177 (0.007) compared with 0.406 (0.035) for control animals (p<0.001). Glucose oxidation (µmol/h per mg protein; mean (SEM)) on day 7 of DSS administration was significantly higher than in controls (0.06 (0.006) v 0.027 (0.004), p<0.001). Production of β-hydroxybutyrate was decreased and production of lactate increased in DSS colitis compared with controls. Increasing butyrate concentration from 10 to 80 mM enhanced oxidation in DSS colitis (0.036 (0.002) to 0.285 (0.040), p<0.001), although it continued to remain lower than in controls. Surface and crypt epithelial cells showed similar ratios of butyrate to glucose oxidation. When 1 mM DSS was added to normal colonocytes in vitro, it did not alter butyrate oxidation. The initial histological lesion of DSS administration was very patchy and involved crypt cells. Abnormal butyrate oxidation became apparent only after six days of DSS administration, at which time histological abnormalities were more widespread.
CONCLUSIONS—Colonocyte metabolism of butyrate, but not of glucose, is impaired in DSS colitis, and may be important in pathophysiology. Histological abnormalities preceded measurable defects in butyrate

  20. Antagonism of protease-activated receptor 2 protects against experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Rink-Jan; Cotterell, Adam J; Suen, Jacky; Liu, Ligong; Do, Anh T; Vesey, David A; Fairlie, David P

    2012-02-01

    Many trypsin-like serine proteases such as β-tryptase are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Inhibitors of individual proteases show limited efficacy in treating such conditions, but also probably disrupt digestive and defensive functions of proteases. Here, we investigate whether masking their common target, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), is an effective therapeutic strategy for treating acute and chronic experimental colitis in rats. A novel PAR2 antagonist (5-isoxazoyl-Cha-Ile-spiro[indene-1,4'-piperidine]; GB88) was evaluated for the blockade of intracellular calcium release in colonocytes and anti-inflammatory activity in acute (PAR2 agonist-induced) versus chronic [2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced] models of colitis in Wistar rats. Disease progression (disease activity index, weight loss, and mortality) and postmortem colonic histopathology (inflammation, bowel wall thickness, and myeloperoxidase) were measured. PAR2 and tryptase colocalization were investigated by using immunohistochemistry. GB88 was a more potent antagonist of PAR2 activation in colonocytes than another reported compound, N¹-3-methylbutyryl-N⁴-6-aminohexanoyl-piperazine (ENMD-1068) (IC₅₀ 8 μM versus 5 mM). Acute colonic inflammation induced in rats by the PAR2 agonist SLIGRL-NH₂ was inhibited by oral administration of GB88 (10 mg/kg) with markedly reduced edema, mucin depletion, PAR2 receptor internalization, and mastocytosis. Chronic TNBS-induced colitis in rats was ameliorated by GB88 (10 mg/kg/day p.o.), which reduced mortality and pathology (including colon obstruction, ulceration, wall thickness, and myeloperoxidase release) more effectively than the clinically used drug sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg/day p.o.). These disease-modifying properties for the PAR2 antagonist in both acute and chronic experimental colitis strongly support a pathogenic role for PAR2 and PAR2-activating proteases and therapeutic potential for

  1. Morphological Changes in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and Lymphocyte Subpopulation Composition in Experimental Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Postovalova, E A; Khochansky, D N; Zolotova, N A; Gao, Yu; Makarova, O V; Dobrynina, M T

    2016-04-01

    Morphological changes in the mesenteric lymph nodes of male C57Bl/6 mice and subpopulation composition of lymphocytes in these nodes were studied in experimental acute and chronic ulcerative colitis induced by sodium dextran sulfate. Acute and chronic ulcerative colitis was associated with the development of reactive changes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. These changes were of mixed type and were characterized by follicular hyperplasia and sinus reaction. The content of CD19(+) B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes decreased in acute ulcerative colitis, while the content of CD3(+)CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells increased, which presumably reflected activation of Th1 reactions. The increase in the count of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells and CD3(+)CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells was due to intensive migration of lymphocytes from the thymus and the colonic compartment of the local immune system. Chronic ulcerative colitis was associated with higher levels of CD19(+) B cells and CD3(+)CD4(+) T helper cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes, which was characteristic of adoptive immunity reactions and chronization of the inflammatory process. PMID:27165070

  2. Genetic Deletion of Klf4 in the Mouse Intestinal Epithelium Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate–induced Colitis by Modulating the NF-κB Pathway Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Amr M.; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Yang, Vincent W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in the differentiated epithelial cells lining of the intestine. Under physiological conditions, KLF4 inhibits cell proliferation. Conversely, KLF4 mediates proinflammatory signaling in macrophages and its overexpression in the esophageal epithelium activates cytokines, leading to inflammation-mediated esophageal squamous cell cancer formation in mice. Here, we tested whether KLF4 has a proinflammatory activity in experimental colitis in mice. Methods Villin-Cre;Klf4fl/fl mice with intestine-specific Klf4 deletion (Klf4ΔIS) and control mice with floxed Klf4 gene (Klf4fl/fl) were treated or not with 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 days to induce colitis. Additionally, WT mice were administered or not, nanoparticles loaded with scrambled or Klf4-siRNA, and concomitantly given DSS. Results Compared with DSS-treated Klf4fl/fl mice, DSS-treated Klf4ΔIS mice were significantly less sensitive to DSS-induced colitis. DSS treatment of Klf4fl/fl mice induced Klf4 expression in the crypt zone of the colonic epithelium. DSS-treated Klf4ΔIS mice had increased proliferation relative to DSS-treated control mice. DSS treatment induced NF-κB signaling pathway in Klf4fl/fl mice colon but not Klf4ΔIS mice. Additionally, WT mice given DSS and nanoparticle/Klf4-siRNA were less sensitive to colitis and had reduced Klf4 expression and while maintaining the proliferative response in the colonic epithelium. Conclusions Our results indicate that Klf4 is an important mediator of DSS-induced colonic inflammation by modulating NF-κB signaling pathway and could be involved in the pathogenesis and/or propagation of inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, Klf4 may represent a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24681655

  3. Curcumin represses the activity of inhibitor-κB kinase in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by S-nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Kao, Ning-Jo; Hu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Chien-Sheng; Kong, Zwe-Ling

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of curcumin using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and the potential role of curcumin in regulation of anti-inflammation through S-nitrosylation. After curcumin treatment for 6days, the body weight and disease activity index of DSS-induced mice was alleviated and the colonic length was also rescued. Western blot presented that the protein expression of iNOS can be reduced by curcumin. Consistently, mRNA level of iNOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, was also repressed. Moreover, Curcumin reduced the amount of nitrite in DSS-induced colitis but not affected total S-nitrosylation level on proteins on day 6, indicating that curcumin inhibited NO oxidation. Furthermore, the protection of S-nitrosylation on IKKβ in DSS-induced colitis for 6days by curcumin caused the repression of IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, this study verified that curcumin-mediated S-nitrosylation may be as an important regulator for anti-inflammation in DSS-induced colitis of mice. PMID:27233000

  4. Validation and optimization of experimental colitis induction in rats using 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Motavallian-Naeini, A.; Andalib, S.; Rabbani, M.; Mahzouni, P.; Afsharipour, M.; Minaiyan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is one of the most common methods for studying inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. Several factors may, however, affect its reproducibility, rate of animal mortality, and macroscopic and histopathological outcomes. Our aim was to validate the main contributing factors to this method and compare the effects of different reference drugs upon remission of resultant colon injuries. TNBS was dissolved in 0.25 ml of ethanol (50% v/v) and instilled (25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) intracolonically to the male Wistar rats. After determination of optimum dose of TNBS in male rats and assessment of this dose in female rats, they were treated with reference drugs including dexamethasone [1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 2 mg/kg, orally (p.o.)], Asacol (mesalazine, 100 mg/kg, p.o.; 150 mg/kg, enema) and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.; 20 mg/kg, enema) which started 2 h after colitis induction and continued daily for 6 consecutive days. Thereafter, macroscopic and microscopic parameters and clinical features were assessed and compared in different groups. We found that the optimum dose of TNBS for the reproducibility of colonic damage with the least mortality rate was 50 mg/kg. Amongst studied reference drugs, hydrocortisone acetate (i.p.), dexamethasone (i.p. and p.o.) and Asacol (p.o.) significantly diminished the severity of macroscopic and microscopic injuries and could be considered effective for experimental colitis studies in rats . Our findings suggest that optimization of TNBS dose is essential for induction of colitis under the laboratory conditions; and gender exerts no impact upon macroscopic and histological characteristics of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Furthermore, the enema forms of hydrocortisone and Asacol are not appropriate reference drugs. PMID:23181094

  5. Validation and optimization of experimental colitis induction in rats using 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Motavallian-Naeini, A; Andalib, S; Rabbani, M; Mahzouni, P; Afsharipour, M; Minaiyan, M

    2012-07-01

    Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is one of the most common methods for studying inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. Several factors may, however, affect its reproducibility, rate of animal mortality, and macroscopic and histopathological outcomes. Our aim was to validate the main contributing factors to this method and compare the effects of different reference drugs upon remission of resultant colon injuries. TNBS was dissolved in 0.25 ml of ethanol (50% v/v) and instilled (25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) intracolonically to the male Wistar rats. After determination of optimum dose of TNBS in male rats and assessment of this dose in female rats, they were treated with reference drugs including dexamethasone [1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 2 mg/kg, orally (p.o.)], Asacol (mesalazine, 100 mg/kg, p.o.; 150 mg/kg, enema) and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.; 20 mg/kg, enema) which started 2 h after colitis induction and continued daily for 6 consecutive days. Thereafter, macroscopic and microscopic parameters and clinical features were assessed and compared in different groups. We found that the optimum dose of TNBS for the reproducibility of colonic damage with the least mortality rate was 50 mg/kg. Amongst studied reference drugs, hydrocortisone acetate (i.p.), dexamethasone (i.p. and p.o.) and Asacol (p.o.) significantly diminished the severity of macroscopic and microscopic injuries and could be considered effective for experimental colitis studies in rats . Our findings suggest that optimization of TNBS dose is essential for induction of colitis under the laboratory conditions; and gender exerts no impact upon macroscopic and histological characteristics of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Furthermore, the enema forms of hydrocortisone and Asacol are not appropriate reference drugs. PMID:23181094

  6. Mechanism underlying the reversal of contractility dysfunction in experimental colitis by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Khan, I; Oriowo, M A

    2006-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with reduced colonic contractility and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. In this study a possible role of cyclooxygenase-2 in and the underlying mechanism of the reduced contractility were investigated in experimental colitis. The effects of meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor were examined on colonic contractility and MAP kinase p38 and ERK(1/2) expression. Colitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley male rats by intra-colonic instillation of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS; 40 mg/rat in 50 ethanol). The animals were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n=9) received meloxicam (3 mg/kg-day) gavage 1 h before and 1 day (Group 2) after induction of colitis. Group 3 (n=9) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in a similar manner and served as colitic control. The non colitic control animals received meloxicam in a similar manner. The animals were sacrificed after 5 days of treatment, colon was cleaned with PBS and colonic smooth muscle was obtained which was used in this study. Meloxicam treatment given 1 h before or 1 day after administration of colitis restored the reduced colonic contractility without affecting the sensitivity to carbachol. The levels of colonic smooth muscle IL-1beta mRNA, PGE(2), ERK(1/2), p38, malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase activity and colonic mass were increased, whereas the body weight was decreased due to TNBS. The changes except colonic muscle mass and p38 expression were reversed by meloxicam treatment. These findings indicate that restoration of reduced colonic contractility by meloxicam is mediated by ERK(1/2), and that ERK(1/2) may serve as an important anti inflammatory target for treatment of colitis. PMID:16835710

  7. Bacterial β-(1,3)-glucan prevents DSS-induced IBD by restoring the reduced population of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Ho; Park, Min; Ji, Kon-Young; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Jang, Ji-Hun; Yoon, Il-Joo; Oh, Seung-Su; Kim, Su-Man; Jeong, Yun-Hwa; Yun, Chul-Ho; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Choi, Ha-Rim; Ko, Ki-sung; Kang, Hyung-Sik

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial β-(1,3)-glucan has more advantages in terms of cost, yield and efficiency than that derived from mushrooms, plants, yeasts and fungi. We have previously developed a novel and high-yield β-(1,3)-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. R259. This study aimed to elucidate the functional mechanism and therapeutic efficacy of bacterial β-(1,3)-glucan in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Mice were orally pretreated with bacterial β-(1,3)-glucan at daily doses of 2.5 or 5mg/kg for 2 weeks. After 6 days of DSS treatment, clinical assessment of IBD severity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. In vivo cell proliferation was examined by immunohistochemistry using Ki-67 and ER-TR7 antibodies. The frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was analyzed by flow cytometry. Natural killer (NK) activity and IgA level were evaluated using NK cytotoxicity assay and ELISA.The deterioration of body weight gain, colonic architecture, disease score and histological score was recovered in DSS-induced IBD mice when pretreated with bacterial β-(1,3)-glucan. The recruitment of macrophages and the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A/F, were markedly decreased in the colon of β-(1,3)-glucan-pretreated mice. β-(1,3)-Glucan induced the recovery of Tregs in terms of their frequency in DSS-induced IBD mice. Intriguingly, β-(1,3)-glucan reversed the functional defects of NK cells and excessive IgA production in DSS-induced IBD mice.We conclude that bacterial β-(1,3)-glucan prevented the progression of DSS-induced IBD by recovering the reduction of Tregs, functional defect of NK cells and excessive IgA production. PMID:25092569

  8. Cholecalciterol cholesterol emulsion ameliorates experimental colitis via down-regulating the pyroptosis signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yangyang; Lou, Yan; Su, Han; Fu, Yu; Kong, Juan

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and its analog (paricalcitol) on experimental colitis in animals has been heavily demonstrated. However, the response to Cholecalciterol Cholesterol Emulsion (CCE), a precursor of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3, has not yet been reported. Whether pyroptosis is involved in colitic deterioration also remains unclear. Therefore, we adopted molecular biology and histology approaches to examine mechanisms by which CCE was able to regulate experimental colitis in the animal model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our data revealed that mice displayed a remarkable reduction in colonic histological scores, colonic inflammation and colonic histological damage. In addition, there was an overall improvement in general status (change in body weight, food and water intake, mental status, activity) and a 30% increase in survival rate due to the downregulation of pyroptosis following treatment with CCE. In conclusion, our data have provided evidence that CCE can attenuate the damage of experimental colitis by suppressing pyroptosis signaling. PMID:26970278

  9. Colitis Promotes Adaptation of an Intestinal Nematode: A Heligmosomoides Polygyrus Mouse Model System

    PubMed Central

    Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna; Bien, Justyna; Brodaczewska, Klaudia; Krawczak, Katarzyna; Doligalska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The precise mechanism of the very effective therapeutic effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on some autoimmune diseases is not clearly understood and is currently being intensively investigated. Treatment with living helminths has been initiated to reverse intestinal immune-mediated diseases in humans. However, little attention has been paid to the phenotype of nematodes in the IBD-affected gut and the consequences of nematode adaptation. In the present study, exposure of Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae to the changed cytokine milieu of the intestine during colitis reduced inflammation in an experimental model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)- induced colitis, but increased nematode establishment in the moderate-responder BALB/c mouse strain. We used mass spectrometry in combination with two-dimensional Western blotting to determine changes in protein expression and changes in nematode antigens recognized by IgG1 in mice with colitis. We show that nematode larvae immunogenicity is changed by colitis as soon as 6 days post-infection; IgG1 did not recognize highly conserved proteins Lev-11 (isoform 1 of tropomyosin α1 chain), actin-4 isoform or FTT-2 isoform a (14-3-3 family) protein. These results indicate that changes in the small intestine provoked by colitis directly influence the nematode proteome. The unrecognized proteins seem to be key antigenic epitopes able to induce protective immune responses. The proteome changes were associated with weak immune recognition and increased larval adaptation and worm growth, altered localization in the intestine and increased survival of males but reduced worm fecundity. In this report, the mechanisms influencing nematode survival and the consequences of changed immunogenicity that reflect the immune response at the site colonized by the parasite in mice with colitis are described. The results are relevant to the use of live parasites to ameliorate IBD. PMID:24167594

  10. Pglyrp-Regulated Gut Microflora Prevotella falsenii, Parabacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides eggerthii Enhance and Alistipes finegoldii Attenuates Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dziarski, Roman; Dowd, Scot E.; Gupta, Dipika

    2016-01-01

    Dysbiosis is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unclear which specific intestinal bacteria predispose to and which protect from IBD and how they are regulated. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrps) are antibacterial, participate in maintaining intestinal microflora, and modulate inflammatory responses. Mice deficient in any one of the four Pglyrp genes are more sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and stools from Pglyrp-deficient mice transferred to wild type (WT) germ-free mice predispose them to much more severe colitis than stools from WT mice. However, the identities of these Pglyrp-regulated bacteria that predispose Pglyrp-deficient mice to colitis or protect WT mice from colitis are not known. Here we identified significant changes in β-diversity of stool bacteria in Pglyrp-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The most consistent changes in microbiome in all Pglyrp-deficient mice were in Bacteroidales, from which we selected four species, two with increased abundance (Prevotella falsenii and Parabacteroides distasonis) and two with decreased abundance (Bacteroides eggerthii and Alistipes finegoldii). We then gavaged WT mice with stock type strains of these species to test the hypothesis that they predispose to or protect from DSS-induced colitis. P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii all enhanced DSS-induced colitis in both WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora. By contrast, A. finegoldii (which is the most abundant species in WT mice) attenuated DSS-induced colitis both in WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora, similar to the colitis protective effect of the entire normal microflora. These results identify P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii as colitis-promoting species and A. finegoldii as colitis-protective species. PMID

  11. Pglyrp-Regulated Gut Microflora Prevotella falsenii, Parabacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides eggerthii Enhance and Alistipes finegoldii Attenuates Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dziarski, Roman; Park, Shin Yong; Kashyap, Des Raj; Dowd, Scot E; Gupta, Dipika

    2016-01-01

    Dysbiosis is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unclear which specific intestinal bacteria predispose to and which protect from IBD and how they are regulated. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrps) are antibacterial, participate in maintaining intestinal microflora, and modulate inflammatory responses. Mice deficient in any one of the four Pglyrp genes are more sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and stools from Pglyrp-deficient mice transferred to wild type (WT) germ-free mice predispose them to much more severe colitis than stools from WT mice. However, the identities of these Pglyrp-regulated bacteria that predispose Pglyrp-deficient mice to colitis or protect WT mice from colitis are not known. Here we identified significant changes in β-diversity of stool bacteria in Pglyrp-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The most consistent changes in microbiome in all Pglyrp-deficient mice were in Bacteroidales, from which we selected four species, two with increased abundance (Prevotella falsenii and Parabacteroides distasonis) and two with decreased abundance (Bacteroides eggerthii and Alistipes finegoldii). We then gavaged WT mice with stock type strains of these species to test the hypothesis that they predispose to or protect from DSS-induced colitis. P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii all enhanced DSS-induced colitis in both WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora. By contrast, A. finegoldii (which is the most abundant species in WT mice) attenuated DSS-induced colitis both in WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora, similar to the colitis protective effect of the entire normal microflora. These results identify P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii as colitis-promoting species and A. finegoldii as colitis-protective species. PMID

  12. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lied, Gülen Arslan; Milde, Anne Marita; Nylund, Kim; Mujic, Maja; Grimstad, Tore; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2012-01-01

    Experimentally induced colitis is used in animals to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease. When following disease course and treatment effects, it should be possible to perform repeated measurements without harming the animals. This pilot study was performed to investigate whether transabdominal ultrasound using a clinical scanner could be used on rats to demonstrate bowel inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced by either 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days or a single dose of intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Using ultrasonography, wall thickness of distal colon, cecum, and small bowel was recorded prior to and after DSS, and prior to, 2, and 7 days after TNBS. Blood (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) and fecal samples (HemoFEC occult blood) were taken from each group on the same days as sonography. Thereafter, rats were killed and specimens for histology were taken. Wall thickness of distal colon, not of cecum or small bowel, increased significantly after 7 days of DSS, and wall thickness of both distal colon and small bowel increased on day 2 and 7 after TNBS. TNF-alpha increased after 7 days in the latter group only. There was a significant correlation between ultrasonographic measurements and combined histology score of distal colon in the DSS group. HemoFEC was also positive in accordance with sonographic and histological features. Increased intestinal wall thickness in response to both DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis was able to be visualized by transabdominal sonography. Moreover, ultrasound findings, occult blood sampling, and histological findings supported each other, indicating that ultrasonography can be used to assess inflammation in a rat experimental model. PMID:23055765

  13. Downregulation of FoxC2 Increased Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: Influence of Lymphatic Drainage Function?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Felix; Potepalov, Sergey; Shehzahdi, Romana; Bernas, Michael; Witte, Marlys; Abreo, Fleurette; Traylor, James; Orr, Wayne A.; Tsunoda, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although inflammation-induced expansion of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature (lymphangiogenesis) is known to be a crucial event in limiting inflammatory processes, through clearance of interstitial fluid and immune cells, considerably less is known about the impact of an impaired lymphatic clearance function (as seen in inflammatory bowel diseases) on this cascade. We aimed to investigate whether the impaired intestinal lymphatic drainage function observed in FoxC2(+/−) mice would influence the course of disease in a model of experimental colitis. Methods: Acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in wild-type and haploinsufficient FoxC2(+/−) mice, and survival, disease activity, colonic histopathological injury, neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. Functional and structural changes in the intestinal lymphatic vessel network were analyzed, including submucosal edema, vessel morphology, and lymphatic vessel density. Results: We found that FoxC2 downregulation in FoxC2(+/−) mice significantly increased the severity and susceptibility to experimental colitis, as displayed by lower survival rates, increased disease activity, greater histopathological injury, and elevated colonic neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration. These findings were accompanied by structural (dilated torturous lymphatic vessels) and functional (greater submucosal edema, higher immune cell burden) changes in the intestinal lymphatic vasculature. Conclusions: These results indicate that sufficient lymphatic clearance plays a crucial role in limiting the initiation and perpetuation of experimental colitis and those disturbances in the integrity of the intestinal lymphatic vessel network could intensify intestinal inflammation. Future therapies might be able to exploit these processes to restore and maintain adequate lymphatic clearance function in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25822012

  14. Adenosine Receptor Stimulation by Polydeoxyribonucleotide Improves Tissue Repair and Symptomology in Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Pallio, Giovanni; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Squadrito, Francesco; Squadrito, Giovanni; Pallio, Socrate; Anastasi, Giuseppe P; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Macrì, Antonio; Altavilla, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the adenosine receptor pathway has been demonstrated to be effective in improving tissue remodeling and blunting the inflammatory response. Active colitis is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction resulting in extensive tissue damage. Symptomatic improvement requires both control of the inflammatory process and repair and remodeling of damaged tissues. We investigated the ability of an A2A receptor agonist, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), to restore tissue structural integrity in two experimental colitis models using male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the first model, colitis was induced with a single intra-colonic instillation of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), 25 mg diluted in 0.8 ml 50% ethanol. After 6 h, animals were randomized to receive either PDRN (8 mg/kg/i.p.), or PDRN + the A2A antagonist [3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX); 10 mg/kg/i.p.], or vehicle (0.8 ml saline solution) daily. In the second model, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was dissolved in drinking water at a concentration of 8%. Control animals received standard drinking water. After 24 h animals were randomized to receive PDRN or PDRN+DMPX as described above. Rats were sacrificed 7 days after receiving DNBS or 5 days after DSS. In both experimental models of colitis, PDRN ameliorated the clinical symptoms and weight loss associated with disease as well as promoted the histological repair of damaged tissues. Moreover, PDRN reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde. All these effects were abolished by the concomitant administration of the A2A antagonist DMPX. Our study suggests that PDRN may represent a promising treatment for improving tissue repair during inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27601997

  15. Adenosine Receptor Stimulation by Polydeoxyribonucleotide Improves Tissue Repair and Symptomology in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pallio, Giovanni; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Squadrito, Francesco; Squadrito, Giovanni; Pallio, Socrate; Anastasi, Giuseppe P.; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Macrì, Antonio; Altavilla, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the adenosine receptor pathway has been demonstrated to be effective in improving tissue remodeling and blunting the inflammatory response. Active colitis is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction resulting in extensive tissue damage. Symptomatic improvement requires both control of the inflammatory process and repair and remodeling of damaged tissues. We investigated the ability of an A2A receptor agonist, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), to restore tissue structural integrity in two experimental colitis models using male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the first model, colitis was induced with a single intra-colonic instillation of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), 25 mg diluted in 0.8 ml 50% ethanol. After 6 h, animals were randomized to receive either PDRN (8 mg/kg/i.p.), or PDRN + the A2A antagonist [3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX); 10 mg/kg/i.p.], or vehicle (0.8 ml saline solution) daily. In the second model, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was dissolved in drinking water at a concentration of 8%. Control animals received standard drinking water. After 24 h animals were randomized to receive PDRN or PDRN+DMPX as described above. Rats were sacrificed 7 days after receiving DNBS or 5 days after DSS. In both experimental models of colitis, PDRN ameliorated the clinical symptoms and weight loss associated with disease as well as promoted the histological repair of damaged tissues. Moreover, PDRN reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde. All these effects were abolished by the concomitant administration of the A2A antagonist DMPX. Our study suggests that PDRN may represent a promising treatment for improving tissue repair during inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27601997

  16. Proinflammatory role of the histamine H4 receptor in dextrane sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Bastian; Rezniczek, Thomas; Seifert, Roland; Neumann, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Millions of people worldwide are suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which severely affects patients' life qualities and even life expectancies. The cause of the ailment is unknown and a profound understanding of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms is still lacking. The biogenic amine histamine is one of several inflammatory mediators, to which a pathogenetic role in IBD has been attributed. Out of the four known histamine receptors, the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) has been demonstrated to act proinflammatory in experimental models of several inflammatory diseases. In order to evaluate a potential involvement of H4R in IBD we investigated the effect of genetic or pharmacological blockade of H4R-signaling in the model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. We analysed severity and progression of clinical signs of colitis, as well as histopathologic alterations in the colons and systemic or local cytokine concentrations. Both genetic deficiency and pharmacological blockade of H4R with the selective antagonist JNJ7777120 improved clinical and histological signs of colitis and dampened the inflammatory cytokine response. Our results indicate a proinflammatory role of histamine via H4R in IBD, thus extending the current pathophysiological understanding of IBD and demonstrating the therapeutic potential of selective H4R-antagonists for patients suffering from IBD. PMID:26365468

  17. Fumigaclavine C, an fungal metabolite, improves experimental colitis in mice via downregulating Th1 cytokine production and matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Fei, Ming-Jian; Shu, Ren-Geng; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Xu, Qiang

    2005-09-01

    In the present paper, the effect of Fumigaclavine C, a fungal metabolite, on experimental colitis was examined. Fumigaclavine C, when administered intraperitoneally once a day, significantly reduced the weight loss and mortality rate of mice with experimental colitis induced by intrarectally injection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). This compound also markedly alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of colitis. Furthermore, Fumigaclavine C, given both in vivo and in vitro, showed a marked inhibition on the expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-12alpha, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha as well as MMP-9 in sacral lymph node cells, colonic patch lymphocytes and colitis tissues from the TNBS colitis mice. Meanwhile, the compound caused a dose-dependent reduction in IL-2 and IFN-gamma from the lymphocytes at the protein level and MMP-9 activity. These results suggest that Fumigaclavine C may alleviate experimental colitis mainly via down-regulating the production of Th1 cytokines and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase. PMID:16023606

  18. Butyrate enema therapy stimulates mucosal repair in experimental colitis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Butzner, J D; Parmar, R; Bell, C J; Dalal, V

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate provides energy for colonocytes, stimulates colonic fluid and electrolyte absorption and is recognised as an effective treatment for multiple types of colitis. AIM--To examine the impact of butyrate enema therapy on the clinical course, severity of inflammation, and SCFA stimulated Na+ absorption in a chronic experimental colitis. METHODS--Distal colitis was induced in rats with a trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) enema. Five days after induction, rats were divided into groups to receive: no treatment, saline enemas, or 100 mM Na-butyrate enemas daily. On day 24, colonic damage score and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated. Colon was mounted in Ussing chambers and Na+ transport and electrical activities were measured during a basal period and after stimulation with 25 mM butyrate. RESULTS--In the untreated and the saline enema treated TNBS groups, diarrhoea and extensive colonic damage were seen, associated with increased tissue MPO activities and absent butyrate stimulated Na+ absorption. In contrast, in the butyrate enema treated TNBS group, diarrhoea ceased, colonic damage score improved, and tissue MPO activity as well as butyrate stimulated Na+ absorption recovered to control values. CONCLUSION--Butyrate enema therapy stimulated colonic repair, as evidenced by clinical recovery, decreased inflammation, and restoration of SCFA stimulated electrolyte absorption. PMID:8707089

  19. Adrenal-Derived Hormones Differentially Modulate Intestinal Immunity in Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Patrícia Reis; Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angelica; Banquieri, Fernanda; Alves, Vanessa Beatriz Freitas; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Nomizo, Auro; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal glands are able to modulate immune responses through neuroimmunoendocrine interactions and cortisol secretion that could suppress exacerbated inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, here we evaluated the role of these glands in experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice subjected to adrenalectomy, with or without glucocorticoid (GC) replacement. Mice succumbed to colitis without adrenals with a higher clinical score and augmented systemic levels of IL-6 and lower LPS. Furthermore, adrenalectomy negatively modulated systemic regulatory markers. The absence of adrenals resulted in augmented tolerogenic lamina propria dendritic cells but no compensatory local production of corticosterone and decreased mucosal inflammation associated with increased IFN-γ and FasL in the intestine. To clarify the importance of GC in this scenario, GC replacement in adrenalectomized mice restored different markers to the same degree of that observed in DSS group. Finally, this is the first time that adrenal-derived hormones, especially GC, were associated with the differential local modulation of the gut infiltrate, also pointing to a relationship between adrenalectomy and the modulation of systemic regulatory markers. These findings may elucidate some neuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms that dictate colitis outcome. PMID:27403034

  20. Adrenal-Derived Hormones Differentially Modulate Intestinal Immunity in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Patrícia Reis; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angelica; Banquieri, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal glands are able to modulate immune responses through neuroimmunoendocrine interactions and cortisol secretion that could suppress exacerbated inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, here we evaluated the role of these glands in experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice subjected to adrenalectomy, with or without glucocorticoid (GC) replacement. Mice succumbed to colitis without adrenals with a higher clinical score and augmented systemic levels of IL-6 and lower LPS. Furthermore, adrenalectomy negatively modulated systemic regulatory markers. The absence of adrenals resulted in augmented tolerogenic lamina propria dendritic cells but no compensatory local production of corticosterone and decreased mucosal inflammation associated with increased IFN-γ and FasL in the intestine. To clarify the importance of GC in this scenario, GC replacement in adrenalectomized mice restored different markers to the same degree of that observed in DSS group. Finally, this is the first time that adrenal-derived hormones, especially GC, were associated with the differential local modulation of the gut infiltrate, also pointing to a relationship between adrenalectomy and the modulation of systemic regulatory markers. These findings may elucidate some neuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms that dictate colitis outcome. PMID:27403034

  1. The atypical cannabinoid O-1602 protects against experimental colitis and inhibits neutrophil recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Schicho, Rudolf; Bashashati, Mohammad; Bawa, Misha; McHugh, Douglas; Saur, Dieter; Hu, Huang-Ming; Zimmer, Andreas; Lutz, Beat; Mackie, Ken; Bradshaw, Heather B.; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Sharkey, Keith A.; Storr, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Cannabinoids are known to reduce intestinal inflammation. Atypical cannabinoids produce pharmacological effects via unidentified targets. We were interested whether the atypical cannabinoid O-1602, reportedly an agonist of the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55, reduces disease severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6N and CD1 mice. Methods DSS (2.5% and 4%) was supplied in drinking water for one week while TNBS (4 mg) was applied as a single intrarectal bolus. Results Both treatments caused severe colitis. Injection of O-1602 (5 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced macroscopic and histological colitis scores, and myeloperoxidase activity. The protective effect was still present in cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) double knockout mice and mice lacking the GPR55 gene. To investigate a potential mechanism underlying the protection by O-1602 we performed neutrophil chemotactic assays. O-1602 concentration-dependently inhibited migration of murine neutrophils to keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and the N-formyl-peptide receptor ligand WKYMVm. The inhibitory effect of O-1602 was preserved in neutrophils from CB1/CB2 double knockout and GPR55 knockout mice. No differences were seen in locomotor activity between O-1602-treated and control mice indicating lack of central sedation by this compound. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that O-1602 is protective against experimentally induced colitis and inhibits neutrophil recruitment independently of CB1, CB2 and GPR55 receptors. Thus, atypical cannabinoids represent a novel class of therapeutics that may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:21744421

  2. Antepartum Antibiotic Treatment Increases Offspring Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: A Role of the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Munyaka, Peris Mumbi; Eissa, N.; Bernstein, Charles Noah; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Postnatal maturation of the immune system is largely driven by exposure to microbes, and thus the nature of intestinal colonization may be associated with development of childhood diseases that may persist into adulthood. We investigated whether antepartum antibiotic (ATB) therapy can increase offspring susceptibility to experimental colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota. Methods Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were treated with cefazolin at 160 mg/kg body weight or with saline starting six days before due date. At 7 weeks, fecal samples were collected from male offspring after which they received 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. Disease activity index, histology, colonic IL-6, IL-1β and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. The V3-V4 region of colonic and fecal bacterial 16S rRNA was sequenced. Alpha-, beta-diversity and differences at the phylum and genus levels were determined, while functional pathways of classified bacteria were predicted. Results ATB influenced fecal bacterial composition and hence bacterial functional pathways before induction of colitis. After induction of colitis, ATB increased onset of clinical disease, histologic score, and colonic IL-6. In addition, ATB decreased fecal microbial richness, changed fecal and colon microbial composition, which was accompanied by a modification of microbial functional pathways. Also, several taxa were associated with ATB at lower taxonomical levels. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that antepartum antibiotics modulate offspring intestinal bacterial colonization and increase susceptibility to develop colonic inflammation in a murine model of colitis, and may guide future interventions to restore physiologic intestinal colonization in offspring born by antibiotic-exposed mothers. PMID:26605545

  3. Genetic deletion of IL-25 (IL-17E) confers resistance to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-25 is emerging as a key regulator of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa because of its ability to promote Th2 while suppressing Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses. We investigated the contribution of endogenous IL-25 to DSS-induced colitis in mice. Mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water ad li...

  4. Induction of Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase-1 by Immunostimulatory-DNA Limits Severity of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A; Bettonville, Ellen E; McDonald, Keely G; Metz, Richard; Prendergast, George C; Newberry, Rodney D; Stenson, William F

    2010-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses to commensal luminal bacteria. In both human IBD and in experimental models of colitis there is an increased expression of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). IDO expression has the capacity to exert antimicrobial effects and dampen adaptive immune responses. In the murine TNBS model of colitis, inhibition of this enzyme leads to worsened disease severity suggesting that IDO acts as a natural break in limiting colitis. In this investigation we show that induction of IDO-1 by a TLR-9 agonist, immunostimulatory-DNA (ISS-DNA), critically contributes to its colitis limiting capacities. ISS-DNA induces intestinal expression of IDO-1, but not the recently described paralog enzyme IDO-2. This induction occurred in both epithelial cells and in subsets of CD11c+ and CD11b+ cells of the lamina propria which also increase after ISS-ODN. Signaling required for intestinal IDO-1 induction involves interferon dependent pathways, as IDO-1 was not induced in STAT-1 knockout mice. Using both the TNBS and DSS models of colitis we show the importance of IDO-1s induction in limiting colitis severity. The clinical parameters and histologic correlates of colitis in these models were improved by administration of the TLR-9 agonist; however, when the function of IDO is inhibited, the colitis limiting effects of ISS-ODN were abrogated. These findings support the possibility that targeted induction of IDO-1 is an approach deserving further investigation as a therapeutic strategy for diseases of intestinal inflammation. PMID:20181893

  5. Enterohepatic circulation of bacterial chemotactic peptide in rats with experimental colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, C.H.; Butt, T.J.; Ferry, D.M.; Hunter, J.; Chadwick, V.S.; Broom, M.F.

    1988-04-01

    The association of hepatobiliary disorders with colonic inflammation is well recognized. Although the pathophysiology is obscure, increased permeation of toxic bacterial products across the inflamed gut to the portal circulation might be one mechanism. Potentially toxic metabolites include N-formylated chemotactic peptides that are produced by several species of intestinal bacteria and can be detected in colonic fluid in vivo. To investigate the metabolic fate of one of these low molecular weight proinflammatory peptides, N-formyl L-methionine L-leucine /sup 125/I-L-tyrosine was introduced into colon loops of healthy rats (n = 10) and rats with experimental colitis (n = 15) induced by rectal instillation of 15% (vol/vol) acetic acid. Gut, liver, and blood radioactivity were monitored by external gamma-counting and radioactivity in bile was measured by biliary catheter drainage into a well counter. Bile was processed by high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the amount of intact, bioactive peptide excreted over 3 h. After colonic instillation of 1 nmol of peptide, the mean (+/- SEM) biliary excretion of intact peptide was 6.4 +/- 2.0 pmol in normal rats and 49.0 +/- 20 pmol in rats with colitis (p less than 0.01). An enterohepatic circulation of synthetic N-formyl L-methionine L-leucine L-tyrosine has been demonstrated in the rat. Experimental colitis was associated with an eightfold increase in biliary excretion of this proinflammatory bacterial peptide. Proinflammatory bacterial peptides synthesized by colonic bacteria could be important in the pathophysiology of colon inflammation and its frequently associated hepatobiliary complications.

  6. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  7. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Fitton, J. Helen; Patel, Rahul P.; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore

  8. PECAM-1 (CD 31) mediates transendothelial leukocyte migration in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Rijcken, Emile; Mennigen, Rudolf B; Schaefer, Sebastian D; Laukoetter, Mike G; Anthoni, Christoph; Spiegel, Hans-Ullrich; Bruewer, Matthias; Senninger, Norbert; Krieglstein, Christian F

    2007-08-01

    Transendothelial migration of circulating leukocytes into the colonic wall is a key step in the development of the inflammatory infiltrate in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 PECAM-1 (CD31) is expressed in the tight junction area of endothelial cells, where it is supposed to support the transmigration process. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PECAM-1 in experimental IBD and to show whether blockade of PECAM-1 has therapeutic effects. Chronic colitis was induced in female BALB/c mice by cyclic oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) 3% (wt/vol). Expression of PECAM-1 was visualized by immunohistochemistry. In the treatment group animals received 1 mg/kg anti-PECAM-1 (2H8) ip daily starting on day 26. On day 30 leukocyte adhesion and migration was measured during N(2)O-isoflurane anesthesia in the distal colon by intravital microscopy. Disease activity index (DAI), histology, and MPO levels were compared with healthy and diseased controls. PECAM-1 was expressed in colitic mice. Chronic DSS colitis was characterized by a marked increase in rolling, adherent, and transmigrated leukocytes compared with healthy controls. Immunoblockade of PECAM-1 reduced leukocyte transmigration significantly and also diminished leukocyte rolling and sticking in an indirect manner. It also resulted in a significantly diminished DAI and MPO levels, as well as an amelioration of the histological inflammation score. PECAM-1 plays an important role in transendothelial leukocyte migration in DSS colitis. PECAM-1 could be a novel target for antibody-based treatment in IBD. PMID:17510197

  9. Intravenous vs intraperitoneal mesenchymal stem cells administration: What is the best route for treating experimental colitis?

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Fabiany da Costa; Schneider, Natália; Pinto, Fernanda Otesbelgue; Meyer, Fabíola Schons; Visioli, Fernanda; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Lopez, Patrícia Luciana da Costa; Passos, Eduardo Pandolfi; Cirne-Lima, Elizabeth Obino; Meurer, Luíse; Paz, Ana Helena

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted intraperitoneally and intravenously in a murine model of colitis. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 mouse adipose tissue. MSC cultures were analyzed according to morphology, cellular differentiation potential, and surface molecular markers. Experimental acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by oral administration of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water ad libitum from days 0 to 7. Colitis mice were treated with 1 × 106 MSCs via intraperitoneal or intravenous injection on days 2 and 5. The disease activity index was determined daily based on the following parameters: weight loss, stool consistency and presence of blood in the feces and anus. To compare morphological and functional differences in tissue regeneration between different MSC injection modalities, mice were euthanized on day 8, and their colons were examined for length, weight, and histopathological changes. Inflammatory responses were determined by measuring the levels of different serum cytokines using a CBA Th1/Th2/Th17 kit. Apoptotic rates were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP-biotin nick end labeling assay. RESULTS: Intravenous infusion of MSCs was more effective than intraperitoneal treatment (P < 0.001) in reducing the clinical and histopathologic severity of colitis, which includes weight loss, diarrhea and inflammation. An histological evaluation demonstrated decreased colonic inflammation based on reduced crypt loss and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. This therapeutic effect was most likely mediated by the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)]; and by the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4). Intravenous transplantation also induced high levels of IFN that lead to activation of the immunosuppressive activity of the MSCs, which did not occur with

  10. Protective effects of citicoline on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ek, Rauf Onur; Serter, Mukadder; Ergin, Kemal; Cecen, Serpil; Unsal, Cengiz; Yildiz, Yuksel; Bilgin, Mehmet D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of citicoline on the development of colitis and antioxidant parameters in rats subjected to tribenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Twenty four Wistar Albino female rats were divided into four subgroups (n=6) (control, colitis control, colitis + 50 mg/kg citicoline, colitis + 250 mg/kg citicoline). Colitis was induced using an enema of TNBS and ethanol; following which citicoline was administrated for 3 days and effects of citicoline was subsequently evaluated. Based on microscopic damage scores, there was no difference between rats of the TNBS-colitis and 50 mg/kg citicoline treated groups, whereas treatment with 250 mg/kg citicoline, caused significant reduction in colon injury compared to that observed in rats of TNBS-colitis group. In terms of the biochemical analyses, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and IL-6 levels in rats from 250 mg/kg citicoline group were significantly different from that TNBS-colitis group. The levels of MPO, MDA, GSH and IL-6 in control rats were also significantly different those of rats in the TNBS-colitis group. Citicoline may have a positive protective effect on the inflammatory bowel disease treatment process and could, therefore, be used as an adjunct therapy in colitis. These effects of citicoline may exist through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanism. PMID:24955172

  11. Protective effects of citicoline on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ek, Rauf Onur; Serter, Mukadder; Ergin, Kemal; Cecen, Serpil; Unsal, Cengiz; Yildiz, Yuksel; Bilgin, Mehmet D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of citicoline on the development of colitis and antioxidant parameters in rats subjected to tribenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Twenty four Wistar Albino female rats were divided into four subgroups (n=6) (control, colitis control, colitis + 50 mg/kg citicoline, colitis + 250 mg/kg citicoline). Colitis was induced using an enema of TNBS and ethanol; following which citicoline was administrated for 3 days and effects of citicoline was subsequently evaluated. Based on microscopic damage scores, there was no difference between rats of the TNBS-colitis and 50 mg/kg citicoline treated groups, whereas treatment with 250 mg/kg citicoline, caused significant reduction in colon injury compared to that observed in rats of TNBS-colitis group. In terms of the biochemical analyses, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and IL-6 levels in rats from 250 mg/kg citicoline group were significantly different from that TNBS-colitis group. The levels of MPO, MDA, GSH and IL-6 in control rats were also significantly different those of rats in the TNBS-colitis group. Citicoline may have a positive protective effect on the inflammatory bowel disease treatment process and could, therefore, be used as an adjunct therapy in colitis. These effects of citicoline may exist through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanism. PMID:24955172

  12. Systemic responses of mice to dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute ulcerative colitis using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fangcong; Zhang, Lulu; Hao, Fuhua; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2013-06-01

    The interplay between genetic mutation and environmental factors is believed to contribute to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While focused attention has been paid to the aforementioned research, time-specific and organ-specific metabolic changes associated with IBD are still lacking. Here, we induced acute ulcerative colitis in mice by providing water containing 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days and investigated the metabolic changes of plasma, urine, and a range of biological tissues by employing a (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics approach with complementary information on serum clinical chemistry and histopathology. We found that DSS-induced acute ulcerative colitis leads to significant elevations in the levels of amino acids in plasma and decreased levels in the membrane-related metabolites and a range of nucleotides, nucleobases, and nucleosides in the colon. In addition, acute-colitis-induced elevations in the levels of nucleotides in the liver were observed, accompanied by reduced levels of glucose. DSS-induced acute colitis also resulted in increased levels of oxidized glutathione and attenuated levels of taurine in the spleen. Furthermore, acute colitis resulted in depletion in the levels of gut microbial cometabolites in urine along with an increase in citric acid cycle intermediates. These findings suggest that DSS-induced acute colitis causes a disturbance of lipid and energy metabolism, damage to the colon and liver, a promoted antioxidative and anti-inflammatory response, and perturbed gut microbiotal communities. The information obtained here provided details of the time-dependent and holistic metabolic changes in the development of the DSS-induced acute ulcerative colitis, which could be useful in discovery of novel therapeutic targets for management of IBD. PMID:23651354

  13. Dimethyl fumarate ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine experimental colitis by activating Nrf2 and suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuting; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Ping; Du, Qianming; Tao, Lei; Ding, Yang; Wang, Yajing; Hu, Rong

    2016-07-15

    In the present study, we examined the effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis, an animal model which mimics human IBD. Oral administration of DMF dose-dependently attenuated body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage including decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities in DSS-treated mice. Increased glutathione (GSH) induced by DMF demonstrated its potential antioxidant capacity. In addition, Nrf2 and its downstream genes were markedly activated by DMF. Furthermore, protein and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were markedly suppressed by DMF. At the same time, decreased activation of caspase-1 was detected in DMF-treated mice, indicating that the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was suppressed. The in vitro study verified a negative regulation of DMF and its intestinal metabolite on NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, the inhibitory effect was found to be mostly dependent on Nrf2 which decreased mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release. Taken together, our results demonstrated the ability of DMF to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its potential use in the treatment of NLRP3-associated diseases. PMID:27184504

  14. Fab’-bearing siRNA TNFα-loaded nanoparticles targeted to colonic macrophages offer an effective therapy for experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Laroui; Emilie, Viennois; Xiao, Bo; Canup, Brandon S.; Duke, Geem; Denning, Timothy L.; Didier, Merlin

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are currently treated by systemic drugs that can have significant side effects. Thus, it would be highly desirable to target TNFα siRNA (a therapeutic molecule) to the inflamed tissue. Here, we demonstrate that TNFα siRNA can be efficiently loaded into nanoparticles (NPs) made of poly (lactic acid) poly (ethylene glycol) block copolymer (PLA-PEG), and that grafting of the Fab’ portion of the F4/80 Ab (Fab’-bearing) onto the NP surface via maleimide/thiol group-mediated covalent bonding improves the macrophage (MP)-targeting kinetics of the NPs to RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Direct binding was shown between MPs and the Fab’-bearing NPs. Next, we orally administered hydrogel (chitosan/alginate)-encapsulated Fab’-bearing TNFα-siRNA-loaded NPs to 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice and investigated the therapeutic effect on colitis. In vivo, the release of TNFα-siRNA-loaded NPs into the mouse colon attenuated colitis more efficiently when the NPs were covered with Fab’-bearing, compared to uncovered NPs. All DSS-induced parameters of colonic inflammation (e.g., weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, and Iκbα accumulation) were more attenuated Fab’-bearing NPs loaded with TNFα siRNA than without the Fab’-bearing. Grafting the Fab’-bearing onto the NPs improved the kinetics of endocytosis as well as the MP-targeting ability, as indicated by flow cytometry. Collectively, our results show that Fab’-bearing PLA-PEG NPs are powerful and efficient nanosized tools for delivering siRNAs into colonic macrophages. PMID:24810114

  15. Porcine β-defensin 2 attenuates inflammation and mucosal lesions in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Zhang, Haiwen; Xia, Xi; Xiong, Haitao; Song, Deguang; Zong, Xin; Wang, Yizhen

    2015-02-15

    Intestinal permeability plays a critical role in the etiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Defensins, including porcine β-defensin (pBD)2, are crucial antimicrobial peptides for gut protection owing to their antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of pBD2 on mucosal injury and the disruption of the epithelial barrier during the pathological process of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The effects and mechanism of pBD2 were evaluated both using a DSS-induced C57BL/6 mouse model and, in vitro, using Caco-2 and RAW264.7 cells. DSS-induced colitis was characterized by higher disease activity index, shortened colon length, elevated activities of myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, histologic evidence of inflammation, and increased expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8. pBD2 increased the expression of zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-2, claudin-1, mucin-1, and mucin-2 mRNA and proteins, and it decreased permeability to FITC-D, as well as apoptosis, in DSS-treated mice. pBD2 also decreased inflammatory infiltrates of the colon epithelium. In Caco-2 cells, pBD2 increased transepithelial electrical resistance and mucin mRNA expression, and it decreased the permeability of FITC-D while preserving the structural integrity of the tight junctions. The effects of pBD2 appeared to be through upregulation of the expression of genes associated with tight junctions and mucins, and by suppressing DSS-induced increases in inflammation, inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and apoptosis. These results show that pBD2 improves DSS-induced changes in mucosal lesions and paracellular permeability, possibly by affecting the activation of NF-κB signaling. The present study demonstrates that intrarectal administration of pBD2 may be a novel preventive option for ulcerative colitis. PMID:25601921

  16. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. PMID:26713317

  17. Astragalus polysaccharide attenuates rat experimental colitis by inducing regulatory T cells in intestinal Peyer’s patches

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Min-Fang; Xu, Rong; Yue, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Bu-Gao; Huang, Hong-Yan; Sun, Qi-Meng; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore probable mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) against experimental colitis. METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Colitis was induced with 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The rats with colitis were treated with 400 mg/kg of APS for 7 d. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by colonic weight, weight index of the colon, colonic length, and macroscopic and histological scores. The levels of regulatory T (Treg) cells in Peyer’s patches were measured by flow cytometry, and cytokines in colonic tissue homogenates were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of related orphan receptor-γt (ROR-γt), IL-23 and STAT-5a was measured by Western blot. RESULTS: After 7-d treatment with APS, the weight index of the colon, colonic weight, macroscopical and histological scores were decreased, while the colonic length was increased compared with the model group. The expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23 and ROR-γt in the colonic tissues was down-regulated, but Treg cells in Peyer’s patches, TGF-β and STAT5a in the colonic tissues were up-regulated. CONCLUSION: APS effectively ameliorates TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats, probably through restoring the number of Treg cells, and inhibiting IL-17 levels in Peyer’s patches. PMID:27003994

  18. Autophagy deficiency in myeloid cells increases susceptibility to obesity-induced diabetes and experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Youn; Kim, Jinyoung; Quan, Wenying; Lee, June-Chul; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Bae, Jin-Woo; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy, which is critical for the proper turnover of organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, affects diverse aspects of metabolism, and its dysregulation has been incriminated in various metabolic disorders. However, the role of autophagy of myeloid cells in adipose tissue inflammation and type 2 diabetes has not been addressed. We produced mice with myeloid cell-specific deletion of Atg7 (autophagy-related 7), an essential autophagy gene (Atg7 conditional knockout [cKO] mice). While Atg7 cKO mice were metabolically indistinguishable from control mice, they developed diabetes when bred to ob/w mice (Atg7 cKO-ob/ob mice), accompanied by increases in the crown-like structure, inflammatory cytokine expression and inflammasome activation in adipose tissue. Mφs (macrophages) from Atg7 cKO mice showed significantly higher interleukin 1 β release and inflammasome activation in response to a palmitic acid plus lipopolysaccharide combination. Moreover, a decrease in the NAD(+):NADH ratio and increase in intracellular ROS content after treatment with palmitic acid in combination with lipopolysaccharide were more pronounced in Mφs from Atg7 cKO mice, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction in autophagy-deficient Mφs leads to an increase in lipid-induced inflammasome and metabolic deterioration in Atg7 cKO-ob/ob mice. Atg7 cKO mice were more susceptible to experimental colitis, accompanied by increased colonic cytokine expression, T helper 1 skewing and systemic bacterial invasion. These results suggest that autophagy of Mφs is important for the control of inflammasome activation in response to metabolic or extrinsic stress, and autophagy deficiency in Mφs may contribute to the progression of metabolic syndrome associated with lipid injury and colitis. PMID:27337687

  19. Stability of Reference Genes for Messenger RNA Quantification by Real-Time PCR in Mouse Dextran Sodium Sulfate Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Eissa, Nour; Hussein, Hayam; Wang, Hongxing; Rabbi, Mohammad F.; Bernstein, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE) in DSS-experimental murine colitis. Methods Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice using DSS5% for 5 days, control group received water. RNA was extracted from inflamed and non-inflamed colon. Using RT-qPCR, comparative analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria and relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression was determined by calculating the difference in the threshold cycle. Results Colitis significantly altered the stability of mucosal RGE. Commonly used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh), β-actin (Actb), or β2-microglobulin (β2m) showed the highest variability within the inflamed and control groups. Conversely, TATA-box-binding protein (Tbp) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (Eef2) were not affected by inflammation and were the most stable genes. Normalization of colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels was dependent on the reference gene used. Depending on the genes used to normalize the data, statistical significance varied from significant when TBP / Eef2 were used to non-significant when Gapdh, Actb or β2m were used. Conclusions This study highlights the appropriate choice of RGE to ensure adequate normalization of RT-qPCR data when using this model. Suboptimal RGE may explain controversial results from published studies. We recommend using Tbp and Eef2 instead of Gapdh, Actb or β2m as reference genes. PMID:27244258

  20. Protective effect of marine mangrove Rhizophora apiculata on acetic acid induced experimental colitis by regulating anti-oxidant enzymes, inflammatory mediators and nuclear factor-kappa B subunits.

    PubMed

    V, Vinod Prabhu; C, Guruvayoorappan

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a disease that causes inflammation and ulcer in the lining of the large intestine. In this study we investigate the effect of Rhizophora apiculata (R. apiculata) on acetic acid induced colitis in mouse model. Experimental animals were randomized into four groups: normal untreated, colitis control, R. apiculata treated group and sulfasalazine treated group. R. apiculata significantly (p<0.01) decreased macroscopic score and wet weight of damaged colon compared to colitis control. This effect was confirmed biochemically by significant (p<0.01) reduction of colitis associated increase in myeloperoxidase activity. R. apiculata significantly (p<0.05) increased anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels compared to colitis control. R. apiculata significantly (p<0.01) reduced lipid peroxides (LPO), nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory mediators such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expressions compared to colitis control. R. apiculata treatment significantly (p<0.01) inhibits the translocation of NF-kB p65 and p50 subunits. Taken together these findings suggest that R. apiculata prevents acetic acid induced colitis in experimental mouse model and may serve as an excellent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent that could potentially be useful as a (natural) therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:24269623

  1. Effects of Malva sylvestris and Its Isolated Polysaccharide on Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Rezaei, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Malva sylvestris is an edible plant that is consumed as a herbal supplement for its antiulcer and colon cleansing properties in traditional Persian medicine. This study was designed to evaluate its effects on ulcerative colitis, which is a chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of acetic acid solution. Rats in different groups received aqueous, n-hexane, or ethanolic fractions of the plant before induction of colitis. Isolated polysaccharide of plant was also tested in 2 groups before and after induction of colitis. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of colitis showed that the aqueous fraction was very effective in preventing the inflammation and efficacy was lower for ethanolic and n-hexane fractions. Polysaccharide was effective in reducing signs of inflammation, especially as pretreatment. These beneficial effects provide evidences that this plant can be suggested for patients with this disease to improve their health condition or to reduce adverse effects of their medication. PMID:26045553

  2. Protective Effect of Baicalin Against Experimental Colitis via Suppression of Oxidant Stress and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Cao, Xu; Zhang, Ru; Li, Ying-xue; Xu, Zheng-lei; Zhang, Ding-guo; Wang, Li-sheng; Wang, Jian-yao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Baicalin is a bioactive ingredient extracted from the root of Scutellariae radix, which is used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC). Objective: We investigated the activity of baicalin on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rats, including the attenuation of oxidant stress and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: The severity of colitis was assessed by disease activity index. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by their corresponding kits. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to study whether experimental colitis was associated with intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis and the effect of baicalin on IEC apoptosis. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry assay were applied to determine the protein expressions. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the colon of UC rats treated with baicalin was determined by ROS assay kit. Results: Baicalin remarkably upregulated the activities of CAT, GSH-PX, and SOD and decreased the content of MDA in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. The TUNEL-positive cells in rats treated baicalin were remarkably reduced. Both Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry assay indicated that baicalin significantly decreased the expressions of transforming growth factor beta-1, Bax protein and upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein. In addition, the expressions of total and cleaved caspase-3, total and cleaved caspase-9 protein, Fas, and FasL in vitro were downregulated by the treatment with baicalin. Baicalin of different doses reduced the generation of ROS in UC rats. Conclusion: Taken together, these evidences provide scientific basics for the application of baicalin in the treatment of UC and suggest that baicalin exerts its effect via suppression of oxidant stress and

  3. Genetic and pharmacological targeting of TPL-2 kinase ameliorates experimental colitis: a potential target for the treatment of Crohn's disease?

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, M; Visekruna, A; Kühl, A; Schmidt, N; Kaufmann, S H E; Steinhoff, U

    2012-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by dysregulated immune responses against intestinal microflora leading to marked activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) with subsequent production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Besides NF-κB, the tumor progression locus 2 (TPL-2)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway also regulates inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, but its role during intestinal inflammation is incompletely understood. We analyzed the impact of TPL-2 in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis model. Despite normal activation of NF-κB, animals lacking TPL-2 developed only mild colitis with reduced synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. Further, pharmacological inhibition of the TPL-2 kinase was similarly effective in ameliorating colitis as TPL-2 deficiency without obvious side effects. Because increased TPL-2/ERK activation was seen in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) but not ulcerative colitis, our findings encourage further investigation of TPL-2 kinase as potential target for the treatment of CD patients. PMID:22157885

  4. Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2012-01-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptor induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, and reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells declined in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of mice with chronic colitis. JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-γ expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-pravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, and suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. -- Highlights: ► JWH-133, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 agonist ameliorates experimental colitis. ► JWH-133 suppressed inflammation and

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of elemental diets with different fat composition in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Papada, E; Kaliora, A C; Gioxari, A; Papalois, A; Forbes, A

    2014-04-14

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two isoenergetic elemental formulae with different fat content in the rat model of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis that mimics human inflammatory bowel disease. A total of forty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to five groups: (1) control group; (2) TNBS-induced colitis group; (3) TNBS-induced colitis group fed a long-chain TAG (LCT)-rich diet; (4) TNBS-induced colitis group fed a medium-chain TAG (MCT)-rich diet; (5) TNBS-induced colitis group fed a baseline diet and administered infliximab. Nutritional management lasted 12 d before and 4 d after rectal administration of TNBS. Subsequently, the rats were killed, and colonic tissue samples were collected for the assessment of histology, inflammation and oxidative stress. The MCT-rich diet decreased IL-6, IL-8 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, while the LCT-rich diet reduced only ICAM-1 levels and GST activity (P<0.05). Neither elemental formula affected IL-10 levels. Infliximab reduced IL-8 and ICAM-1 levels and GST activity and increased IL-10 levels (P<0.05). No significant differences were detected in oxidative stress. Histological damage scores differed significantly only between the control and the TNBS-induced colitis group. A MCT-rich formula seems to exert stronger anti-inflammatory effects than a LCT-rich formula in TNBS colitis. PMID:24229480

  6. CD98 expression modulates intestinal homeostasis, inflammation, and colitis-associated cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu; Dalmasso, Guillaume; Torkvist, Leif; Halfvarson, Jonas; Yan, Yutao; Laroui, Hamed; Shmerling, Doron; Tallone, Tiziano; D'Amato, Mauro; Sitaraman, Shanthi V; Merlin, Didier

    2011-05-01

    Expression of the transmembrane glycoprotein CD98 (encoded by SLC3A2) is increased in intestinal inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and in various carcinomas, yet its pathogenetic role remains unknown. By generating gain- and loss-of-function mouse models with genetically manipulated CD98 expression specifically in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), we explored the role of CD98 in intestinal homeostasis, inflammation, and colitis-associated tumorigenesis. IEC-specific CD98 overexpression induced gut homeostatic defects and increased inflammatory responses to DSS-induced colitis, promoting colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice. Further analysis indicated that the ability of IEC-specific CD98 overexpression to induce tumorigenesis was linked to its capacity to induce barrier dysfunction and to stimulate cell proliferation and production of proinflammatory mediators. To validate these results, we constructed mice carrying conditional floxed Slc3a2 alleles and crossed them with Villin-Cre mice such that CD98 was downregulated only in IECs. These mice exhibited attenuated inflammatory responses and resistance to both DSS-induced colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Together, our data show that intestinal CD98 expression has a crucial role in controlling homeostatic and innate immune responses in the gut. Modulation of CD98 expression in IECs therefore represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory intestinal diseases, such as IBD and colitis-associated cancer. PMID:21490400

  7. FoxP3+ T regulatory cells and immunomodulation after Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen immunization in experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hasby, Eiman A; Hasby Saad, Marwa A; Shohieb, Zeinab; El Noby, Kholoud

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effect of Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen immunization on the immunomodulation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis as an experimental model of IBD in comparison to non immunization and healthy control. The study was performed on 180 mice; 25 healthy control, 15 to identify the inflammatory peak of DSS, 25 received DSS for 7 days; 90 infected with S. mansoni cercariae to collect eggs for antigen preparation, and 25 immunized with the prepared antigen then received DSS course. Disease activity index, macroscopic & microscopic inflammatory scores, FoxP3+ T regulatory cell count, myeloperoxidase activity, and Th1/Th2 cytokine profile were compared in studied groups. Immunization induced both FoxP3+ T(regs) and Th2 cytokines to establish a state of immune homeostasis and create a quiescent steadier immune response to DSS. S. mansoni egg antigen succeeded in acting like a prophylactic helminthic therapy as it has a profitable modulatory effect on DSS-induced colitis model. PMID:25766778

  8. The effect of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) on experimental colitis in rat.

    PubMed

    Dost, Turhan; Ozkayran, Hakan; Gokalp, Filiz; Yenisey, Cigdem; Birincioglu, Mustafa

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Hypericum perforatum (HP) on the inflammatory and immune response of colonic mucosa in rat with induced inflammatory bowel disease and that on various enzyme activities in blood and bowel tissue. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into three main groups: control, third day, and seventh day of colitis. Third-day and seventh-day groups were divided into four subgroups. Colitis was induced in all groups except the control group by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The colitis group received saline; treatment groups received HP extract (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively). Glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) activities in blood were measured. Catalase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide (NO) activities were measured from tissue samples. Colonic damage was significantly reduced by HP extract. Macroscopic scoring of colonic damage significantly reduced in groups given HP extract compared with in the colitis group (P < 0.001). Blood catalase levels were reduced in the HP (150 mg/kg/day) compared with the colitis group (P < 0.01). Blood GSH levels significantly increased in groups treated with HP compared with control (P < 0.001) on the third and seventh day. Tissue GR levels reduced in the colitis and HP (50 mg/kg/day) groups compared with control (P < 0.05). Tissue MPO activity increased in the colitis and treatment groups compared with control (P < 0.007). GSH-Px levels increased in the colitis group compared with control at day 3 (P = 0.006). HP has a protective effect on TNBS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), probably due to an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanism. PMID:18754092

  9. Anti-melanin-concentrating hormone treatment attenuates chronic experimental colitis and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ziogas, Dimitrios C; Gras-Miralles, Beatriz; Mustafa, Sarah; Geiger, Brenda M; Najarian, Robert M; Nagel, Jutta M; Flier, Sarah N; Popov, Yury; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Kokkotou, Efi

    2013-05-15

    Fibrosis represents a major complication of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Treatment of IBD remains a clinical challenge despite several recent therapeutic advances. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide shown to regulate appetite and energy balance. However, accumulating evidence suggests that MCH has additional biological effects, including modulation of inflammation. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of an MCH-blocking antibody in treating established, dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis. Histological and molecular analysis of mouse tissues revealed that mice receiving anti-MCH had accelerated mucosal restitution and lower colonic expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, as well as fibrogenic genes, including COL1A1. In parallel, they spared collagen deposits seen in the untreated mice, suggesting attenuated fibrosis. These findings raised the possibility of perhaps direct effects of MCH on myofibroblasts. Indeed, in biopsies from patients with IBD, we demonstrate expression of the MCH receptor MCHR1 in α-smooth muscle actin(+) subepithelial cells. CCD-18Co cells, a primary human colonic myofibroblast cell line, were also positive for MCHR1. In these cells, MCH acted as a profibrotic modulator by potentiating the effects of IGF-1 and TGF-β on proliferation and collagen production. Thus, by virtue of combined anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, blocking MCH might represent a compelling approach for treating IBD. PMID:23538494

  10. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-α as well as NFκB and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-α secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy. PMID:26642326

  11. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-α as well as NFκB and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-α secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy. PMID:26642326

  12. Impaired Self-Renewal and Increased Colitis and Dysplastic Lesions in Colonic Mucosa of AKR1B8 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Ma, Jun; Yan, Ruilan; Ling, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoning; Yang, Wancai; Gao, John; Huang, Chenfei; Bu, Yiwen; Cao, Yu; He, Yingchun; Wan, Laxiang; Zu, Xuyu; Liu, Jianghua; Huang, Mei Chris; Stenson, William F; Liao, Duan-Fang; Cao, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ulcerative colitis (UC) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is a serious health issue, but etiopathological factors remain unclear. Aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10) is specifically expressed in the colonic epithelium, but down-regulated in colorectal cancer. This study was aimed to investigate the etiopathogenic role of AKR1B10 in UC and CAC. Experimental design UC and CAC biopsies (paraffin-embedded sections) and frozen tissues were collected to examine AKR1B10 expression. Aldo-keto reductase 1B8 (the ortholog of human AKR1B10) knockout (AKR1B8 −/−) mice were produced to estimate its role in the susceptibility and severity of chronic colitis and associated dysplastic lesions, induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) at a low dose (2%). Genome-wide Exome sequencing was used to profile DNA damage in DSS-induced colitis and tumors. Results AKR1B10 expression was markedly diminished in over 90% of UC and CAC tissues. AKR1B8 deficiency led to reduced lipid synthesis from butyrate and diminished proliferation of colonic epithelial cells. The DSS-treated AKR1B8 −/− mice demonstrated impaired injury repair of colonic epithelium and more severe bleeding, inflammation, and ulceration. These AKR1B8 −/− mice had more severe oxidative stress and DNA damage, and dysplasias were more frequent and at a higher grade in the AKR1B8 −/− mice than in wild type mice. Palpable masses were seen in the AKR1B8 −/− mice only, not in wild type. Conclusion AKR1B8 is a critical protein in the proliferation and injury repair of the colonic epithelium and in the pathogenesis of UC and CAC, being a new etiopathogenic factor of these diseases. PMID:25538260

  13. The Algal Meroterpene 11-Hydroxy-1'-O-Methylamentadione Ameloriates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zbakh, Hanaa; Talero, Elena; Avila, Javier; Alcaide, Antonio; de Los Reyes, Carolina; Zubía, Eva; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex class of immune disorders. Unfortunately, a treatment for total remission has not yet been found, while the use of natural product-based therapies has emerged as a promising intervention. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the algal meroterpene 11-hydroxy-1'-O-methylamentadione (AMT-E) in a murine model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. AMT-E was orally administered daily (1, 10, and 20 mg/kg animal) to DSS treated mice (3% w/v) for 7 days. AMT-E prevented body weight loss and colon shortening and effectively attenuated the extent of the colonic damage. Similarly, AMT-E increased mucus production and reduced myeloperoxidase activity (marker for anti-inflammatory activity). Moreover, the algal meroterpene decreased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 levels, and caused a significant reduction of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Our results demonstrate the protective effects of AMT-E on experimental colitis, provide an insight of the underlying mechanisms of this compound, and suggest that this class of marine natural products might be an interesting candidate for further studies on the prevention/treatment of IBD. PMID:27527191

  14. The Algal Meroterpene 11-Hydroxy-1′-O-Methylamentadione Ameloriates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zbakh, Hanaa; Talero, Elena; Avila, Javier; Alcaide, Antonio; de los Reyes, Carolina; Zubía, Eva; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex class of immune disorders. Unfortunately, a treatment for total remission has not yet been found, while the use of natural product-based therapies has emerged as a promising intervention. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the algal meroterpene 11-hydroxy-1′-O-methylamentadione (AMT-E) in a murine model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. AMT-E was orally administered daily (1, 10, and 20 mg/kg animal) to DSS treated mice (3% w/v) for 7 days. AMT-E prevented body weight loss and colon shortening and effectively attenuated the extent of the colonic damage. Similarly, AMT-E increased mucus production and reduced myeloperoxidase activity (marker for anti-inflammatory activity). Moreover, the algal meroterpene decreased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 levels, and caused a significant reduction of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Our results demonstrate the protective effects of AMT-E on experimental colitis, provide an insight of the underlying mechanisms of this compound, and suggest that this class of marine natural products might be an interesting candidate for further studies on the prevention/treatment of IBD. PMID:27527191

  15. Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Barrier in vivo and Plays a Protective Role During Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Naydenov, Nayden G.; Feygin, Alex; Wang, Dongdong; Kuemmerle, John F.; Harris, Gianni; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S.; Ivanov, Andrei I.

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a critical regulator of intestinal mucosal barrier permeability, and the integrity of epithelial adherens junctions (AJ) and tight junctions (TJ). Non muscle myosin II (NM II) is a key cytoskeletal motor that controls actin filament architecture and dynamics. While NM II has been implicated in the regulation of epithelial junctions in vitro, little is known about its roles in the intestinal mucosa in vivo. In this study, we generated a mouse model with an intestinal epithelial-specific knockout of NM IIA heavy chain (NM IIA cKO) and examined the structure and function of normal gut barrier, and the development of experimental colitis in these animals. Unchallenged NM IIA cKO mice showed increased intestinal permeability and altered expression/localization of several AJ/TJ proteins. They did not develop spontaneous colitis, but demonstrated signs of a low-scale mucosal inflammation manifested by prolapses, lymphoid aggregates, increased cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration in the gut. NM IIA cKO animals were characterized by a more severe disruption of the gut barrier and exaggerated mucosal injury during experimentally-induced colitis. Our study provides the first evidence that NM IIA plays important roles in establishing normal intestinal barrier, and protection from mucosal inflammation in vivo. PMID:27063635

  16. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Contributes to Mucosal Repair by β-Arrestin2-Mediated Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase Signaling in Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Zheng, Fengping; Tao, Jin; Tan, Siwei; Zeng, Lixian; Peng, Xiaojie; Wu, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) possesses the ability to attenuate intestinal damage and promote mucosal repair of colitis. β-Arrestins, as the scaffolding proteins of G protein-coupled receptors or non-G protein-coupled receptors signaling, can be involved in IGF-1-mediated signaling pathways. However, the interaction of IGF-1 and β-arrestin2 in the mucosal repair of experimental colitis remains unexplored. Ulcerative colitis was induced in β-arrestin2 wild-type mice and β-arrestin2 knockout littermates by using 3% dextran sulfate sodium for 5 days, followed by regular water consumption for 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks to analyze the mucosal repair from experimental colitis. Disease activity index and histologic score analyses were performed. Apoptosis and proliferation were assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and Ki-67 staining, respectively. The expressions of β-arrestin2, phospho (p)-IGF-1R, and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were examined. Furthermore, β-arrestin2 was overexpressed or altered in HCT116 cells by transfection before IGF-1 treatment in vitro. IGF-1 and β-arrestin2 expression was up-regulated in the repairing phase of experimental colitis. Targeted deletion of β-arrestin2 delayed the repair of colitis by inhibiting cell proliferation without affecting the levels of IGF-1 and p-IGF-1R. The β-arrestin2/ERK signaling pathway was involved in IGF-1-mediated mucosal repair through promoting epithelial cell and goblet cell regeneration from experimental colitis. These results indicate that IGF-1 contributes to the mucosal repair by β-arrestin2-mediated ERK signaling in experimental colitis. PMID:26362717

  17. Extracellular vesicles derived from gut microbiota, especially Akkermansia muciniphila, protect the progression of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chil-Sung; Ban, Mingi; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jeon, Jun-Sung; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Soo-Kyung; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Roh, Tae-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Jae Gyu; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:24204633

  18. Post-Translational Loss of Renal TRPV5 Calcium Channel Expression, Ca2+ Wasting, and Bone Loss in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, V. M.; Ramalingam, R.; Larmonier, C. B.; Thurston, R. D.; Laubitz, D.; Midura-Kiela, M. T.; McFadden, R-M. T.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Kiela, P. R.; Ghishan, F. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Dysregulated Ca2+ homeostasis likely contributes to the etiology of IBD-associated loss of bone mineral density (BMD). Experimental colitis leads to decreased expression of Klotho, a protein which supports renal Ca2+ reabsorption by stabilizing TRPV5 channel on the apical membrane of distal tubule epithelial cells. Methods Colitis was induced in mice via administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) or transfer of CD4+IL10−/− and CD4+, CD45RBhi T cells. We investigated changes in bone metabolism, renal processing of Ca2+, and expression of TRPV5. Results Mice with colitis had normal serum levels of Ca2+ and parathormone. Computed tomography analysis demonstrated decreased density of cortical and trabecular bone, and there was biochemical evidence for reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption. Increased fractional urinary excretion of Ca2+ was accompanied by reduced levels of TRPV5 protein in distal convoluted tubules, with a concomitant increase in TRPV5 sialylation. In mIMCD3 cells transduced with TRPV5 adenovirus, the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon (IFN)γ, and interleukin 1β reduced levels of TRPV5 on the cell surface, leading to its degradation. Cytomix induced interaction between TRPV5 and UBR4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase; knockdown of UBR4 with small interfering RNAs prevented cytomix-induced degradation of TRPV5. The effects of cytokines on TRPV5 were not observed in cells stably transfected with membrane-bound Klotho; TRPV5 expression was preserved when colitis was induced with TNBS in transgenic mice that overexpress Klotho or in mice with T-cell transfer colitis injected with soluble recombinant Klotho. Conclusion Following induction of colitis in mice via TNBS administration or T-cell transfer, TNF and IFNγ reduce expression and activity of Klotho, which would otherwise protect TRPV5 from hyper-sialylation and cytokine-induced TRPV5 endocytosis, UBR4-dependent ubiquitination

  19. Platelet-Derived CCL5 Regulates CXC Chemokine Formation and Neutrophil Recruitment in Acute Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changhui; Zhang, Songen; Wang, Yongzhi; Zhang, Su; Luo, Lingtao; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating data suggest that platelets not only regulate thrombosis and haemostasis but also inflammatory processes. Platelets contain numerous potent pro-inflammatory compounds, including the chemokines CCL5 and CXCL4, although their role in acute colitis remains elusive. The aim of this study is to examine the role of platelets and platelet-derived chemokines in acute colitis. Acute colitis is induced in female Balb/c mice by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 5 days. Animals receive a platelet-depleting, anti-CCL5, anti-CXCL4, or a control antibody prior to DSS challenge. Colonic tissue is collected for quantification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, CXCL5, CXCL2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and CCL5 levels as well as morphological analyses. Platelet depletion reduce tissue damage and clinical disease activity index in DSS-exposed animals. Platelet depletion not only reduces levels of CXCL2 and CXCL5 but also levels of CCL5 in the inflamed colon. Immunoneutralization of CCL5 but not CXCL4 reduces tissue damage, CXC chemokine expression, and neutrophil recruitment in DSS-treated animals. These findings show that platelets play a key role in acute colitis by regulating CXC chemokine generation, neutrophil infiltration, and tissue damage in the colon. Moreover, our results suggest that platelet-derived CCL5 is an important link between platelet activation and neutrophil recruitment in acute colitis. PMID:26089223

  20. Preventive Effects of Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917 on Acute and Chronic Intestinal Inflammation in Two Different Murine Models of Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Michael; Strauch, Ulrike G.; Linde, Hans-Jörg; Watzl, Sonja; Obermeier, Florian; Göttl, Claudia; Dunger, Nadja; Grunwald, Nicole; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Rath, Heiko C.

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is as effective in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis as is treatment with mesalazine. This study aims to evaluate murine models of acute and chronic intestinal inflammation to study the antiinflammatory effect of EcN in vivo. Acute colitis was induced in mice with 2% dextran-sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water. EcN was administered from day −2 to day +7. Chronic colitis was induced by transfer of CD4+ CD62L+ T lymphocytes from BALB/c mice in SCID mice. EcN was administered three times/week from week 1 to week 8 after cell transfer. Mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cytokine secretion (of gamma interferon [IFN-γ], interleukin 5 [IL-5], IL-6, and IL-10) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histologic sections of the colon were analyzed by using a score system ranging from 0 to 4. Intestinal contents and homogenized MLN were cultured, and the number of E. coli-like colonies was determined. EcN was identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR. EcN administration to DSS-treated mice reduced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, 32,477 ± 6,377 versus 9,734 ± 1,717 [P = 0.004]; IL-6, 231 ± 35 versus 121 ± 17 [P = 0.02]) but had no effect on the mucosal inflammation. In the chronic experimental colitis of the transfer model, EcN ameliorated the intestinal inflammation (histology score, 2.7 ± 0.2 versus 1.9 ± 0.3 [P = 0.02]) and reduced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Translocation of EcN and resident E. coli into MLN was observed in the chronic colitis model but not in healthy controls. Administration of EcN ameliorated acute and chronic experimental colitis by modifying proinflammatory cytokine secretion but had no influence on the acute DSS-induced colitis. In this model, preexisting colitis was necessary for translocation of EcN and resident E. coli into MLN. PMID:15013990

  1. Deficiency of Nuclear Receptor Nur77 Aggravates Mouse Experimental Colitis by Increased NFκB Activity in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hamers, Anouk A. J.; van Dam, Laura; Teixeira Duarte, José M.; Vos, Mariska; Marinković, Goran; van Tiel, Claudia M.; Meijer, Sybren L.; van Stalborch, Anne-Marieke; Huveneers, Stephan; te Velde, Anje A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptor Nur77, also referred to as NR4A1 or TR3, plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Nur77 is crucial in regulating the T helper 1/regulatory T-cell balance, is expressed in macrophages and drives M2 macrophage polarization. In this study we aimed to define the function of Nur77 in inflammatory bowel disease. In wild-type and Nur77-/- mice, colitis development was studied in dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced models. To understand the underlying mechanism, Nur77 was overexpressed in macrophages and gut epithelial cells. Nur77 protein is expressed in colon tissues from Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis patients and colons from colitic mice in inflammatory cells and epithelium. In both mouse colitis models inflammation was increased in Nur77-/- mice. A higher neutrophil influx and enhanced IL-6, MCP-1 and KC production was observed in Nur77-deficient colons after DSS-treatment. TNBS-induced influx of T-cells and inflammatory monocytes into the colon was higher in Nur77-/- mice, along with increased expression of MCP-1, TNFα and IL-6, and decreased Foxp3 RNA expression, compared to wild-type mice. Overexpression of Nur77 in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW macrophages resulted in up-regulated IL-10 and downregulated TNFα, MIF-1 and MCP-1 mRNA expression through NFκB repression. Nur77 also strongly decreased expression of MCP-1, CXCL1, IL-8, MIP-1α and TNFα in gut epithelial Caco-2 cells. Nur77 overexpression suppresses the inflammatory status of both macrophages and gut epithelial cells and together with the in vivo mouse data this supports that Nur77 has a protective function in experimental colitis. These findings may have implications for development of novel targeted treatment strategies regarding inflammatory bowel disease and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:26241646

  2. Deficiency of Nuclear Receptor Nur77 Aggravates Mouse Experimental Colitis by Increased NFκB Activity in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hamers, Anouk A J; van Dam, Laura; Teixeira Duarte, José M; Vos, Mariska; Marinković, Goran; van Tiel, Claudia M; Meijer, Sybren L; van Stalborch, Anne-Marieke; Huveneers, Stephan; Te Velde, Anje A; de Jonge, Wouter J; de Vries, Carlie J M

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptor Nur77, also referred to as NR4A1 or TR3, plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Nur77 is crucial in regulating the T helper 1/regulatory T-cell balance, is expressed in macrophages and drives M2 macrophage polarization. In this study we aimed to define the function of Nur77 in inflammatory bowel disease. In wild-type and Nur77-/- mice, colitis development was studied in dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced models. To understand the underlying mechanism, Nur77 was overexpressed in macrophages and gut epithelial cells. Nur77 protein is expressed in colon tissues from Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis patients and colons from colitic mice in inflammatory cells and epithelium. In both mouse colitis models inflammation was increased in Nur77-/- mice. A higher neutrophil influx and enhanced IL-6, MCP-1 and KC production was observed in Nur77-deficient colons after DSS-treatment. TNBS-induced influx of T-cells and inflammatory monocytes into the colon was higher in Nur77-/- mice, along with increased expression of MCP-1, TNFα and IL-6, and decreased Foxp3 RNA expression, compared to wild-type mice. Overexpression of Nur77 in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW macrophages resulted in up-regulated IL-10 and downregulated TNFα, MIF-1 and MCP-1 mRNA expression through NFκB repression. Nur77 also strongly decreased expression of MCP-1, CXCL1, IL-8, MIP-1α and TNFα in gut epithelial Caco-2 cells. Nur77 overexpression suppresses the inflammatory status of both macrophages and gut epithelial cells and together with the in vivo mouse data this supports that Nur77 has a protective function in experimental colitis. These findings may have implications for development of novel targeted treatment strategies regarding inflammatory bowel disease and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:26241646

  3. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

  4. A new therapeutic association to manage relapsing experimental colitis: Doxycycline plus Saccharomyces boulardii.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Mesa, José; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Utrilla, Maria Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Ocete, Maria Angeles; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Galvez, Julio

    2015-07-01

    Immunomodulatory antibiotics have been proposed for the treatment of multifactorial conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics are able to attenuate intestinal inflammation, being considered as safe when chronically administered. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline, a tetracycline with immunomodulatory properties, alone and in association with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCMI-745. Doxycycline was assayed both in vitro (Caco-2 epithelial cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages) and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mouse colitis. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of the association of doxycycline and the probiotic was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a DSS model of reactivated colitis in mice. Doxycycline displayed immunomodulatory activity in vitro, reducing IL-8 production by intestinal epithelial cells and nitric oxide by macrophages. Doxycycline administration to TNBS-colitic rats (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg) ameliorated the intestinal inflammatory process, being its efficacy comparable to that previously showed by minocycline. Doxycycline treatment was also effective in reducing acute intestinal inflammation in the DSS model of mouse colitis. The association of doxycycline and S. boulardii helped managing colitis in a reactivated model of colitis, by reducing intestinal inflammation and accelerating the recovery and attenuating the relapse. This was evidenced by a reduced disease activity index, colonic tissue damage and expression of inflammatory mediators. This study confirms the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline and supports the potential use of its therapeutic association with S. boulardii for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, in which doxycycline is used to induce remission and long term probiotic administration helps to prevent the relapses. PMID:25917208

  5. The atypical chemokine receptor D6 contributes to the development of experimental colitis1

    PubMed Central

    Bordon, Yvonne; Hansell, Chris A. H.; Sester, David P; Clarke, Mairi; Mowat, Allan McI.; Nibbs, Robert J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory CC chemokines control leukocyte recruitment and function during inflammation by engaging chemokine receptors expressed on circulating leukocytes. The D6 chemokine receptor can bind several of these chemokines but appears unable to couple to signal transduction pathways or direct cell migration. Instead, D6 has been proposed to act as a chemokine scavenger, removing pro-inflammatory chemokines to dampen leukocyte responses. In this report, we have examined the role of D6 in the colon using the dextran sodium sulphate-induced model of colitis. We show that D6 is expressed in the resting colon, predominantly by stromal cells and B cells, and is up-regulated during colitis. Unexpectedly, D6-deficient mice showed reduced susceptibility to colitis and had less pronounced clinical symptoms associated with this model. D6 deletion had no impact on the level of pro-inflammatory CC chemokines released from cultured colon explants, or on the balance of leukocyte subsets recruited to the inflamed colon. However, late in colitis, inflamed D6-deficient colons showed enhanced production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IFNγ and IL-17A, and there was a marked increase in IL-17A-secreting γδ T cells in the lamina propria. Moreover, antibody-mediated neutralisation of IL-17A worsened the clinical symptoms of colitis at these later stages of the response in D6-deficient, but not wild-type, mice. Thus, D6 can contribute to the development of colitis by regulating IL-17A secretion by γδ T cells in the inflamed colon. PMID:19342683

  6. Orally Administered Enoxaparin Ameliorates Acute Colitis by Reducing Macrophage-Associated Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Randall-Demllo, Sarron; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh; Stewart, Niall; Peterson, Gregory M.; Gueven, Nuri; Patel, Rahul P.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. The currently available treatments are not effective in all patients, can be expensive and have potential to cause severe side effects. This prompts the need for new treatment modalities. Enoxaparin, a widely used antithrombotic agent, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and therefore we evaluated its therapeutic potential in a mouse model of colitis. Acute colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Mice were treated once daily with enoxaparin via oral or intraperitoneal administration and monitored for colitis activities. On termination (day 8), colons were collected for macroscopic evaluation and cytokine measurement, and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Oral but not intraperitoneal administration of enoxaparin significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis. Oral enoxaparin-treated mice retained their body weight and displayed less diarrhea and fecal blood loss compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon weight in enoxaparin-treated mice was significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and edema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice showed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and the presence of edema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral enoxaparin. Reduced number of macrophages in the colon of oral enoxaparin-treated mice was accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Oral enoxaparin significantly reduces the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis in mice and could therefore represent a novel therapeutic option for the management of ulcerative colitis. PMID:26218284

  7. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    te Velde, Anje A.; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E. M.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner. PMID:26501315

  8. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    te Velde, Anje A; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Meijer, Sybren L; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner. PMID:26501315

  9. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagib, Marwa M; Tadros, Mariane G; ElSayed, Moushira I; Khalifa, Amani E

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10mg/kg) was administered orally during 21days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5days after. Sulfasalazine (500mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PMID:23665423

  10. Gut microbiome composition and function in experimental colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission

    PubMed Central

    Rooks, Michelle G; Veiga, Patrick; Wardwell-Scott, Leslie H; Tickle, Timothy; Segata, Nicola; Michaud, Monia; Gallini, Carey Ann; Beal, Chloé; van Hylckama-Vlieg, Johan ET; Ballal, Sonia A; Morgan, Xochitl C; Glickman, Jonathan N; Gevers, Dirk; Huttenhower, Curtis; Garrett, Wendy S

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated immune responses to gut microbes are central to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gut microbial activity can fuel chronic inflammation. Examining how IBD-directed therapies influence gut microbiomes may identify microbial community features integral to mitigating disease and maintaining health. However, IBD patients often receive multiple treatments during disease flares, confounding such analyses. Preclinical models of IBD with well-defined disease courses and opportunities for controlled treatment exposures provide a valuable solution. Here, we surveyed the gut microbiome of the T-bet−/− Rag2−/− mouse model of colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission. Microbial features modified among these conditions included altered potential for carbohydrate and energy metabolism and bacterial pathogenesis, specifically cell motility and signal transduction pathways. We also observed an increased capacity for xenobiotics metabolism, including benzoate degradation, a pathway linking host adrenergic stress with enhanced bacterial virulence, and found decreased levels of fecal dopamine in active colitis. When transferred to gnotobiotic mice, gut microbiomes from mice with active disease versus treatment-induced remission elicited varying degrees of colitis. Thus, our study provides insight into specific microbial clades and pathways associated with health, active disease and treatment interventions in a mouse model of colitis. PMID:24500617

  11. Central Muscarinic Cholinergic Activation Alters Interaction between Splenic Dendritic Cell and CD4+CD25- T Cells in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is based on vagus nerve (VN) activity that regulates macrophage and dendritic cell responses in the spleen through alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR) signaling. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients present dysautonomia with decreased vagus nerve activity, dendritic cell and T cell over-activation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether central activation of the CAP alters the function of dendritic cells (DCs) and sequential CD4+/CD25−T cell activation in the context of experimental colitis. Methods The dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of experimental colitis in C57BL/6 mice was used. Central, intracerebroventricular infusion of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist McN-A-343 was used to activate CAP and vagus nerve and/or splenic nerve transection were performed. In addition, the role of α7nAChR signaling and the NF-kB pathway was studied. Serum amyloid protein (SAP)-A, colonic tissue cytokines, IL-12p70 and IL-23 in isolated splenic DCs, and cytokines levels in DC-CD4+CD25−T cell co-culture were determined. Results McN-A-343 treatment reduced colonic inflammation associated with decreased pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 colonic and splenic cytokine secretion. Splenic DCs cytokine release was modulated through α7nAChR and the NF-kB signaling pathways. Cholinergic activation resulted in decreased CD4+CD25−T cell priming. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of central cholinergic activation was abolished in mice with vagotomy or splenic neurectomy. Conclusions Suppression of splenic immune cell activation and altered interaction between DCs and T cells are important aspects of the beneficial effect of brain activation of the CAP in experimental colitis. These findings may lead to improved therapeutic strategies in the treatment of IBD. PMID:25295619

  12. Use of bacitracin in the prevention and treatment of experimentally-induced idiopathic colitis in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Staempfli, H R; Prescott, J F; Carman, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1992-01-01

    Ten healthy ponies from a single herd were found by repeated fecal culture to be free of Salmonella species and Clostridium cadaveris. In a preliminary study, four ponies administered a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg lincomycin did not develop idiopathic colitis when the drug was administered alone. Four other ponies were administered 10 mg/kg lincomycin by stomach tube together with 0.45 L of colonic content from a horse with idiopathic colitis induced earlier by lincomycin alone. Two of the four ponies were treated with 25 g oral zinc bacitracin premix (110 g/kg active ingredient) 24 h later. Forty-two hours after inoculation the two untreated ponies had severe signs of idiopathic colitis and were euthanized. Postmortem findings were typical of idiopathic colitis. The two treated ponies had milder illness but the more severely affected was also euthanized; the other was retreated at 42 h with bacitracin pre-mix and again 12 h later. Its illness and diarrhea resolved over the next 24 h. Clostridium cadaveris was isolated in large numbers from the cecum of the euthanized ponies and their cecal content contained mouse lethal and guinea pig dermonecrotic, but not cytotoxic, activity. Enterotoxins of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile could not be demonstrated. No toxin could be demonstrated in culture supernatants of C. cadaveris or in supernatants of cecal contents treated with ethanol prior to culturing in anaerobically incubated broth. No Salmonella spp. were isolated. A further two ponies were administered 10 mg/kg lincomycin orally with 0.45 L colonic content from a horse with idiopathic colitis, as described.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423060

  13. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, José L.; Fernando, Maria R.; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L.; Matisz, Chelsea E.; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  14. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, José L; Fernando, Maria R; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L; Matisz, Chelsea E; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nagib, Marwa M.; Tadros, Mariane G.; ELSayed, Moushira I.; Khalifa, Amani E.

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  16. Effectiveness of a hydroxynaphthoquinone fraction from Arnebia euchroma in rats with experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua-Ying; Zhang, Zi-Liang; Liu, Ke; Yang, Ming-Yan; Lv, Wei-Hong; Che, Xin; Xu, Hui; Song, Wei-Wei

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential effectiveness of hydroxynaphthoquinone mixture (HM) in rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of TNBS (80 mg/kg, dissolved in 50% ethanol). Rats were treated daily for 7 d with HM (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) and mesalazine 100 mg/kg 24 h after TNBS instillation. Disease progression was monitored daily by observation of clinical signs and body weight change. At the end of the experiment, macroscopic and histopathologic lesions of rats were scored, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined. We also determined inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level by ELISA, Western blotting and immunochemistry to explore the potential mechanisms of HM. RESULTS: After intracolonic instillation of TNBS, animals developed colitis associated with soft stool, diarrhea and marked colonic destruction. Administration of HM significantly attenuated clinical and histopathologic severity of TNBS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner. It abrogated body weight loss, diarrhea and inflammation, decreased macroscopic damage score, and improved histological signs, with a significant reduction of inflammatory infiltration, ulcer size and the severity of goblet cell depletion (all P < 0.05 vs TNBS alone group). HM could reduce MPO activity. In addition, it also decreased serum TNF-α level and down-regulated TNF-α expression in colonic tissue. This reduction was statistically significant when the dose of HM was 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05 vs TNBS alone group), and the effect was comparable to that of mesalazine and showed no apparent adverse effect. The underlying mechanism may be associated with TNF-α inhibition. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HM possesses favourable therapeutic action in TNBS-induced colitis, which provides direct pharmacological evidence for its clinical application. PMID:24409058

  17. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-01-01

    .05). Kefir treatment significantly reduced the DSS colitis-induced TNF-α increase (P < 0.01). No statistically significant differences were observed among groups for IL-10 and MDA levels. Colon tissue iNOS levels in the colitis group were significantly higher than those in the control and kefir-colitis groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Kefir reduces the clinical DAI and histologic colitis scores in a DSS-induced colitis model, possibly via reduction of MPO, TNF-α, and iNOS levels. PMID:26676086

  18. Hydrogen sulfide from a NaHS source attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation via inhibiting nuclear factor-κB

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Xi-shuang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), derived from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that NaHS injection markedly decreased rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and histological injury in DSS-challenged mice. NaHS (20 μmol/L) reversed DSS-induced inhibition in cell viability in Caco-2 cells and alleviated pro-inflammation cytokine expression in vivo and in vitro, indicating an anti-inflammatory function for H2S. It was also found that H2S may regulate cytokine expression by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that H2S alleviated DSS-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro and that the signal mechanism might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26984841

  19. Sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 2 promotes disruption of mucosal integrity, and contributes to ulcerative colitis in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Ching; Liang, Jie; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Avni, Dorit; Yamada, Akimitsu; Maceyka, Michael; Wolen, Aaron R; Kordula, Tomasz; Milstien, Sheldon; Takabe, Kazuaki; Oravecz, Tamas; Spiegel, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and the kinase that produces it have been implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases in mice and humans; however, little is known about the role of the 2 S1P-specific phosphohydrolase isoforms, SGPP1 and SGPP2, which catalyze dephosphorylation of S1P to sphingosine. To elucidate their functions, we generated specific knockout mice. Deletion of Sgpp2, which is mainly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, significantly reduced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis severity, whereas deletion of ubiquitously expressed Sgpp1 slightly worsened colitis. Moreover, Sgpp1 deletion enhanced expression of multifunctional proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and immune cell infiltration into the colon. Conversely, Sgpp2-null mice failed to mount a DSS-induced systemic inflammatory response. Of interest, Sgpp2 deficiency suppressed DSS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and improved mucosal barrier integrity. Furthermore, down-regulation of Sgpp2 attenuated LPS-induced paracellular permeability in cultured cells and enhanced expression of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin. Finally, in patients with ulcerative colitis, SGPP2 expression was elevated in colitis tissues relative to that in uninvolved tissues. These results indicate that induction of SGPP2 expression contributes to the pathogenesis of colitis by promoting disruption of the mucosal barrier function. SGPP2 may represent a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease.-Huang, W.-C., Liang, J., Nagahashi, M., Avni, D., Yamada, A., Maceyka, M., Wolen, A. R., Kordula, T., Milstien, S., Takabe, K., Oravecz, T., Spiegel, S. Sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 2 promotes disruption of mucosal integrity, and contributes to ulcerative colitis in mice and humans. PMID:27130484

  20. Dietary supplementation of arachidonic acid increases arachidonic acid and lipoxin A4 contents in colon, but does not affect severity or prostaglandin E2 content in murine colitis model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an essential fatty acid and a major constituent of biomembranes. It is converted into various lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). The effects of dietary ARA on colon maintenance are unclear because PGE2 has both mucosal protective and proinflammatory effects, and LXA4 has an anti-inflammatory role. Our objective is to clarify the effects of dietary ARA on an experimental murine colitis model. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed three types of ARA diet (0.075%, 0.15% or 0.305% ARA in diet), DHA diet (0.315% DHA) or control diet for 6 weeks, and were then administered dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for 7 days to induce colitis. We evaluated colitis severity, fatty acid and lipid mediator contents in colonic tissue, and the expression of genes related to lipid mediator formation. Results ARA composition of colon phospholipids was significantly elevated in an ARA dose-dependent manner. ARA, as well as DHA, did not affect colitis severity (body weight loss, colon shortening, diarrhea and hemoccult phenomena) and histological features. PGE2 contents in the colon were unchanged by dietary ARA, while LXA4 contents increased in an ARA dose-dependent manner. Gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 was unchanged, while that of 12/15-lipoxgenase (LOX) was significantly increased by dietary ARA. ARA composition did not correlate with neither colon length nor PGE2 contents, but significantly correlated with LXA4 content. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary ARA increases ARA and LXA4 contents in colon, but that it has no effect on severity and PGE2 content in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. PMID:24507383

  1. The Noncommensal Bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate (Sodium Salt)-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by Influencing Mechanisms Essential for Maintenance of the Colonic Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Hult, Lene T. Olsen; Spetalen, Signe; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Christofferesen, Trine Eker; Bengtsson, Oskar; Romarheim, Odd Helge; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of a bacterial meal has recently been shown to efficiently abolish soybean meal-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon. The objective of this study was to investigate whether inclusion of this bacterial meal in the diet could abrogate disease development in a murine model of epithelial injury and colitis and thus possibly have therapeutic potential in human inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6N mice were fed ad libitum a control diet or an experimental diet containing 254 g/kg of body weight BioProtein, a bacterial meal consisting of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), together with the heterogenic bacteria Ralstonia sp., Brevibacillus agri, and Aneurinibacillus sp. At day 8, colitis was induced by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ad libitum in the drinking water for 6 days. Symptoms of DSS treatment were less profound after prophylactic treatment with the diet containing the BioProtein. Colitis-associated parameters such as reduced body weight, colon shortening, and epithelial damage also showed significant improvement. Levels of acute-phase reactants, proteins whose plasma concentrations increase in response to inflammation, and neutrophil infiltration were reduced. On the other, increased epithelial cell proliferation and enhanced mucin 2 (Muc2) transcription indicated improved integrity of the colonic epithelial layer. BioProtein mainly consists of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) (88%). The results that we obtained when using a bacterial meal consisting of M. capsulatus (Bath) were similar to those obtained when using BioProtein in the DSS model. Our results show that a bacterial meal of the noncommensal bacterium M. capsulatus (Bath) has the potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing colonic barrier function, as judged by increased epithelial proliferation and increased Muc2 transcription. PMID:23064342

  2. The noncommensal bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) ameliorates dextran sulfate (Sodium Salt)-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by influencing mechanisms essential for maintenance of the colonic barrier function.

    PubMed

    Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Hult, Lene T Olsen; Spetalen, Signe; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Christofferesen, Trine Eker; Bengtsson, Oskar; Romarheim, Odd Helge; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of a bacterial meal has recently been shown to efficiently abolish soybean meal-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon. The objective of this study was to investigate whether inclusion of this bacterial meal in the diet could abrogate disease development in a murine model of epithelial injury and colitis and thus possibly have therapeutic potential in human inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6N mice were fed ad libitum a control diet or an experimental diet containing 254 g/kg of body weight BioProtein, a bacterial meal consisting of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), together with the heterogenic bacteria Ralstonia sp., Brevibacillus agri, and Aneurinibacillus sp. At day 8, colitis was induced by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ad libitum in the drinking water for 6 days. Symptoms of DSS treatment were less profound after prophylactic treatment with the diet containing the BioProtein. Colitis-associated parameters such as reduced body weight, colon shortening, and epithelial damage also showed significant improvement. Levels of acute-phase reactants, proteins whose plasma concentrations increase in response to inflammation, and neutrophil infiltration were reduced. On the other, increased epithelial cell proliferation and enhanced mucin 2 (Muc2) transcription indicated improved integrity of the colonic epithelial layer. BioProtein mainly consists of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) (88%). The results that we obtained when using a bacterial meal consisting of M. capsulatus (Bath) were similar to those obtained when using BioProtein in the DSS model. Our results show that a bacterial meal of the noncommensal bacterium M. capsulatus (Bath) has the potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing colonic barrier function, as judged by increased epithelial proliferation and increased Muc2 transcription. PMID:23064342

  3. Ischaemic colitis in the experimental animal. II. Role of hypovolaemia in the production of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, J G; Parks, T G

    1976-01-01

    Hypovolaemia alone did not lead to ischaemic colitis but when venesection was induced immediately after the acute ligation of the common colic artery large bowel ischaemia ensued. Similarly, hypovolaemia induced one month after two major blood vessels had been occluded led to ischaemic colitis. These findings suggest that states of low blood flow in the presence of previous arterial constriction or blockage may lead to enough reduction in mesenteric perfusion for intestinal ischaemia to develop. Using an electromagnetic flowmeter placed in the cranial mesenteric artery of the dog, it was shown that hypovolaemia may lead to 50-75% reduction in mesenteric blood flow without producing any significant change in the systemic blood pressure. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:976807

  4. Preventive effects of cranberry products on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Kim, Jonggun; Sun, Quancai; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Cheon-Seok; Lu, Tzong-Shi; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-01-15

    With the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its associated risk for development of colorectal cancer, it is of great importance to prevent and treat IBD. However, due to the complexity of etiology and potentially serious adverse effects, treatment options for IBD are relatively limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a safe food-based approach for the prevention and treatment of IBD. In this study, we tested the effects of cranberry products on preventing dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis. Our results suggest that both cranberry extract and dried cranberries-fed groups had a significantly reduced disease activity index, where dried cranberries were more effective in preventing colitis than cranberry extract. Shortening of colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase activity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines were attenuated in animals fed dried cranberries compared to the controls. The current report suggests that cranberries can be applied to prevent and reduce the symptoms of IBD. PMID:25149009

  5. Novel effects of ectoine, a bacteria-derived natural tetrahydropyrimidine, in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Wadie, Walaa; Abdallah, Dalaal M; Lentzen, Georg; Khayyal, Mohamed T

    2013-05-15

    Evidence suggests an important role of intestinal barrier dysfunction in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore stabilizing mucosal barrier function constitutes a new therapeutic approach in its management. Ectoine is a compatible solute produced by aerobic chemoheterotrophic and halophilic/halotolerant bacteria, where it acts as osmoprotectant and effective biomembrane stabilizer, protecting the producing cells from extreme environmental stress. Since this natural compound was also shown to prevent inflammatory responses associated with IBD, its potential usefulness was studied in a model of colitis. Groups of rats were treated orally with different doses of ectoine (30-300 mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (reference drug) daily for 11 days. On day 8 colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, when overt signs of lesions develop within the next 3 days. On day 12, blood was withdrawn from the retro-orbital plexus of the rats and the animals were sacrificed. The colon was excised and examined macroscopically and microscopically. Relevant parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured in serum and colon homogenates. Induction of colitis led to marked weight loss, significant histopathological changes of the colon, and variable changes in levels of myeloperoxidase, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and all inflammatory markers tested. Treatment with ectoine ameliorated the inflammatory changes in TNBS-induced colitis. This effect was associated with reduction in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, PGE2 and LTB4. The findings suggest that intestinal barrier stabilizers from natural sources could offer new therapeutic measures for the management of IBD. PMID:23453305

  6. Therapeutic effect of hydroxychloroquine on colorectal carcinogenesis in experimental murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junlin; Xie, Jiansheng; Xie, Binbin; Li, Yiran; Jiang, Liming; Sui, Xinbing; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammation in the intestine is a strong risk factor for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and various tumors. However, little is known regarding the effects of HCQ on colitis-associated tumorigenesis. In this study, mice treated with HCQ showed a significant reduction in early-stage colitis following azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) administration, as well as a remarkable inhibition of colonic tumorigenesis and tumor growth at late stages of CAC. Mechanistically, the therapeutic effects of HCQ were attributed to inhibition of inflammatory responses and production of mutagenic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in immune cells and subsequent promotion of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, we found that HCQ inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines and ROS in response to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation in macrophages. Our data presented herein may help guide the clinical use of HCQ as a prevention and treatment strategy for CAC. PMID:27288548

  7. Therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of Zhenrenyangzang decoction in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Li, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Guan, Jie; Wu, Yan-Min; Wang, Qi; Luo, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Zhenrenyangzang Decoction (ZD) has been used as a classic formula in China for the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction such as chronic gastritis. However, there is less study on its application in ulcerative colitis (UC) and the effects are not yet clearly defined. To explore the effectiveness of ZD in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced UC rats, ZD was administered orally for 8 days at a dosage of 2, 4 or 8 g/kg/day. Following drug administration, the disease activity index (DAI) and tissue damage scores were recorded. In addition, mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in colon tissues were examined by real time PCR and western blotting assay. As compared with the UC model group, ZD promoted the recovery of colitis and inhibited the colonic inflammation damage in UC rats by reducing the mRNA or protein expression of NF-κB and p38MAPK, as well as activating the production of TLR2 in colon tissues. And ZD significantly reduced the DAI and tissue damage scores. The therapeutic effect of ZD was found to be comparable to that of SASP. Our results suggested that ZD could improve colonic mucosa impairment and possesses favorable therapeutic action in TNBS-induced colitis, which provides direct pharmacological evidence for its clinical application. PMID:26629011

  8. Experimental colitis in SIV-uninfected rhesus macaques recapitulates important features of pathogenic SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xing Pei; Lucero, Carissa M.; Turkbey, Baris; Bernardo, Marcelino L.; Morcock, David R.; Deleage, Claire; Trubey, Charles M.; Smedley, Jeremy; Klatt, Nichole R.; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Kristoff, Jan; Xu, Amy; Del Prete, Gregory Q.; Keele, Brandon F.; Rao, Srinivas S.; Alvord, W. Gregory; Choyke, Peter L.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona; Estes, Jacob D.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with resulting microbial translocation is hypothesized to significantly contribute to the heightened and persistent chronic inflammation and immune activation characteristic to HIV infection. Here we employ a non-human primate model of chemically induced colitis in SIV-uninfected rhesus macaques that we developed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), to directly test this hypothesis. DSS treatment results in GI barrier damage with associated microbial translocation, inflammation and immune activation. The progression and severity of colitis are longitudinally monitored by a magnetic resonance imaging approach. DSS treatment of SIV-infected African green monkeys, a natural host species for SIV that does not manifest GI tract damage or chronic immune activation during infection, results in colitis with elevated levels of plasma SIV RNA, sCD14, LPS, CRP and mucosal CD4+ T-cell loss. Together these results support the hypothesis that GI tract damage leading to local and systemic microbial translocation, and associated immune activation, are important determinants of AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:26282376

  9. Granzyme M has a critical role in providing innate immune protection in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, F; Krasnova, Y; Putoczki, T; Miles, K; MacDonald, K P; Town, L; Shi, W; Gobe, G C; McDade, L; Mielke, L A; Tye, H; Masters, S L; Belz, G T; Huntington, N D; Radford-Smith, G; Smyth, M J

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immunoregulatory disorder, associated with a chronic and inappropriate mucosal immune response to commensal bacteria, underlying disease states such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. Granzyme M (GrzM) is a serine protease expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes, in particular natural killer (NK) cells. Granzymes are thought to be involved in triggering cell death in eukaryotic target cells; however, some evidence supports their role in inflammation. The role of GrzM in the innate immune response to mucosal inflammation has never been examined. Here, we discover that patients with UC, unlike patients with CD, display high levels of GrzM mRNA expression in the inflamed colon. By taking advantage of well-established models of experimental UC, we revealed that GrzM-deficient mice have greater levels of inflammatory indicators during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD, including increased weight loss, greater colon length reduction and more severe intestinal histopathology. The absence of GrzM expression also had effects on gut permeability, tissue cytokine/chemokine dynamics, and neutrophil infiltration during disease. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that GrzM has a critical role during early stages of inflammation in UC, and that in its absence colonic inflammation is enhanced. PMID:27441655

  10. Granzyme M has a critical role in providing innate immune protection in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, F; Krasnova, Y; Putoczki, T; Miles, K; MacDonald, K P; Town, L; Shi, W; Gobe, G C; McDade, L; Mielke, L A; Tye, H; Masters, S L; Belz, G T; Huntington, N D; Radford-Smith, G; Smyth, M J

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immunoregulatory disorder, associated with a chronic and inappropriate mucosal immune response to commensal bacteria, underlying disease states such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. Granzyme M (GrzM) is a serine protease expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes, in particular natural killer (NK) cells. Granzymes are thought to be involved in triggering cell death in eukaryotic target cells; however, some evidence supports their role in inflammation. The role of GrzM in the innate immune response to mucosal inflammation has never been examined. Here, we discover that patients with UC, unlike patients with CD, display high levels of GrzM mRNA expression in the inflamed colon. By taking advantage of well-established models of experimental UC, we revealed that GrzM-deficient mice have greater levels of inflammatory indicators during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD, including increased weight loss, greater colon length reduction and more severe intestinal histopathology. The absence of GrzM expression also had effects on gut permeability, tissue cytokine/chemokine dynamics, and neutrophil infiltration during disease. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that GrzM has a critical role during early stages of inflammation in UC, and that in its absence colonic inflammation is enhanced. PMID:27441655