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Sample records for dual functional lithium

  1. A trilayer separator with dual function for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Rensheng; Fang, Ruopian; Wen, Lei; Shi, Ying; Wang, Shaogang; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we propose a trilayer graphene/polypropylene/Al2O3 (GPA) separator with dual function for high performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Graphene is coated on one side of polypropylene (PP) separator, which functions as a conductive layer and an electrolyte reservoir that allows for rapid electron and ion transport. Then Al2O3 particles are coated on the other side to further enhance thermal stability and safety of the graphene coated polypropylene (GCP) separator, which are touched with lithium metal anode in the Li-S battery. The GPA separator shows good thermal stability after heating at 157 °C for 10 min while both GCP and PP separators showing an obvious shrinkage about 10%. The initial discharge specific capacity of Li-S coin cell with a GPA separator could reach 1067.7 mAh g-1 at 0.2C. After 100 discharge/charge cycles, it can still deliver a reversible capacity of as high as 804.4 mAh g-1 with 75% capacity retention. The pouch cells further confirm that the trilayer design has great promise towards practical applications.

  2. State of charge modeling of lithium-ion batteries using dual exponential functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ting-Jung; Lee, Kung-Yen; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chen, Jau-Horng; Chiu, Wei-Li; Huang, Chih-Fang; Wu, Shuen-De

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model is developed by fitting the discharging curve of LiFePO4 batteries and used to investigate the relationship between the state of charge and the closed-circuit voltage. The proposed mathematical model consists of dual exponential terms and a constant term which can fit the characteristics of dual equivalent RC circuits closely, representing a LiFePO4 battery. One exponential term presents the stable discharging behavior and the other one presents the unstable discharging behavior and the constant term presents the cut-off voltage.

  3. Improved synthesis of a highly fluorinated boronic ester as dual functional additive for lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.; Zhang, Z.; Schlueter, J. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K.

    2011-02-01

    The electrolyte additive 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (PFPTFBB, 1) was found to have a reversible redox potential at 4.43 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. This compound can function as an overcharge protection additive as well as anion receptor for lithium-ion batteries. It has drawn a great deal of interest from industry, but its use in relatively large quantities is limited by the production challenges of tetrafluorocatechol (TFC, 3), which is the key starting chemical for the synthesis of PFPTFBB. As part of a continuous effort in our research toward improving the safety of lithium-ion batteries, we have performed the synthesis of TFC and optimized its synthesis process. The X-ray single-crystal structures of TFC and the intermediate product 5,6,7,8-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzodioxane (4) during the process of PFPTFBB synthesis are reported for the first time. Also presented is the lithium ion cell performance of PFPTFBB as redox shuttle in various electrolyte systems.

  4. Dual function conducting polymer diodes

    DOEpatents

    Heeger, Alan J.; Yu, Gang

    1996-01-01

    Dual function diodes based on conjugated organic polymer active layers are disclosed. When positively biased the diodes function as light emitters. When negatively biased they are highly efficient photodiodes. Methods of preparation and use of these diodes in displays and input/output devices are also disclosed.

  5. Dual-Functionalized Theranostic Nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Mo, Alexander H; Zhang, Chen; Landon, Preston B; Janetanakit, Woraphong; Hwang, Michael T; Santacruz Gomez, Karla; Colburn, David A; Dossou, Samuel M; Lu, Tianyi; Cao, Yue; Sant, Vrinda; Sud, Paul L; Akkiraju, Siddhartha; Shubayev, Veronica I; Glinsky, Gennadi; Lal, Ratnesh

    2016-06-15

    Nanocarriers with the ability to spatially organize chemically distinct multiple bioactive moieties will have wide combinatory therapeutic and diagnostic (theranostic) applications. We have designed dual-functionalized, 100 nm to 1 μm sized scalable nanocarriers comprising a silica golf ball with amine or quaternary ammonium functional groups located in its pits and hydroxyl groups located on its nonpit surface. These functionalized golf balls selectively captured 10-40 nm charged gold nanoparticles (GNPs) into their pits. The selective capture of GNPs in the golf ball pits is visualized by scanning electron microscopy. ζ potential measurements and analytical modeling indicate that the GNP capture involves its proximity to and the electric charge on the surface of the golf balls. Potential applications of these dual-functionalized carriers include distinct attachment of multiple agents for multifunctional theranostic applications, selective scavenging, and clearance of harmful substances. PMID:27144808

  6. Dual protection of sulfur by carbon nanospheres and graphene sheets for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Wen, Yanfen; Ye, Delai; Yu, Hua; Sun, Bing; Wang, Guoxiu; Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Wang, Lianzhou

    2014-04-25

    Well-confined elemental sulfur was implanted into a stacked block of carbon nanospheres and graphene sheets through a simple solution process to create a new type of composite cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. Transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping analysis confirm that the as-prepared composite material consists of graphene-wrapped carbon nanospheres with sulfur uniformly distributed in between, where the carbon nanospheres act as the sulfur carriers. With this structural design, the graphene contributes to direct coverage of sulfur to inhibit the mobility of polysulfides, whereas the carbon nanospheres undertake the role of carrying the sulfur into the carbon network. This composite achieves a high loading of sulfur (64.2 wt %) and gives a stable electrochemical performance with a maximum discharge capacity of 1394 mAh g(-1) at a current rate of 0.1 C as well as excellent rate capability at 1 C and 2 C. The improved electrochemical properties of this composite material are attributed to the dual functions of the carbon components, which effectively restrain the sulfur inside the carbon nano-network for use in lithium-sulfur rechargeable batteries. PMID:24692070

  7. A dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode for a highly rechargeable lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Xu, Yang-Hai; Luo, Zhong-Kuan; Pang, Yan; Wu, Qi-Xing; Liang, Chun-Sheng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Xiang-hua

    2014-12-01

    Cathode structure plays a vital role in lithium-air battery for that it can provide space for discharged products accommodation and free path for oxygen, e- and Li+ transport. However, pore blockage, cathode passivation and degradation all result in low discharge rates and poor cycling capability. To get rid of these predicaments, a novel highly conductive dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode is fabricated to construct a lithium-air battery, which exhibits 18 to 525 cycles in the LiTFSI/sulfolane electrolyte at a current density varying from 1.00 mA cm-2 to 0.05 mA cm-2, accompanied by a high energy efficiency of 78.32%. We postulate that the essence lies in that the as-prepared air cathode inventively create a suitable tri-phase boundary reaction zone, facilitating oxygen and Li+ diffusion in two independant pore channels, thus realizing a relative higher discharge rate capability, lower pore blockage and cathode passivation. Further, pore structure, carbon loading, rate capability, discharge depth and the air's effect are exploited and coordinated, targeting for a high power and reversible lithium-air battery. Such nano-porous carbon aerogel air cathode of novel dual pore structure and material design is expected to be an attractive alternative for lithium-air batteries and other lithium based batteries.

  8. Enhanced charging capability of lithium metal batteries based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-lithium bis(oxalato)borate dual-salt electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Chen, Xilin; Mei, Donghai; Bowden, Mark E.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries with conventional LiPF6-carbonate electrolytes have been reported to fail quickly at charging current densities of about 1.0 mA cm-2 and above. In this work, we demonstrate the rapid charging capability of Li||LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells can be enabled by a dual-salt electrolyte of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) in a carbonate solvent mixture. The cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte significantly outperform those using the LiPF6 electrolyte at high charging current densities. At the charging current density of 1.50 mA cm-2, the Li||NCA cells with the dual-salt electrolyte can still deliver a discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 80% after 100 cycles. The Li||NCA cells with the LiPF6 electrolyte start to show fast capacity fading after the 30th cycle and only exhibit a low capacity of 25 mAh g-1 and a low retention of 15% after 100 cycles. The reasons for the good chargeability and cycling stability of the cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte can be attributed to the good film-formation ability of the electrolyte on the Li metal anode and the highly conductive nature of the sulfur-rich interphase layer.

  9. Unraveling Executive Functioning in Dual Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Duijkers, Judith C. L. M.; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.

    2016-01-01

    In mental health, the term dual-diagnosis is used for the co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) with another mental disorder. These co-occurring disorders can have a shared cause, and can cause/intensify each other’s expression. Forming a threat to health and society, dual-diagnosis is associated with relapses in addiction-related behavior and a destructive lifestyle. This is due to a persistent failure to control impulses and the maintaining of inadequate self-regulatory behavior in daily life. Thus, several aspects of executive functioning like inhibitory, shifting and updating processes seem impaired in dual-diagnosis. Executive (dys-)function is currently even seen as a shared underlying key component of most mental disorders. However, the number of studies on diverse aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is limited. In the present review, a systematic overview of various aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is presented, striving for a prototypical profile of patients with dual-diagnosis. Looking at empirical results, inhibitory and shifting processes appear to be impaired for SUD combined with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or cluster B personality disorders. Studies involving updating process tasks for dual-diagnosis were limited. More research that zooms in to the full diversity of these executive functions is needed in order to strengthen these findings. Detailed insight in the profile of strengths and weaknesses that underlies one’s behavior and is related to diagnostic classifications, can lead to tailor-made assessment and indications for treatment, pointing out which aspects need attention and/or training in one’s self-regulative abilities. PMID:27445939

  10. Unraveling Executive Functioning in Dual Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Duijkers, Judith C L M; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-01-01

    In mental health, the term dual-diagnosis is used for the co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) with another mental disorder. These co-occurring disorders can have a shared cause, and can cause/intensify each other's expression. Forming a threat to health and society, dual-diagnosis is associated with relapses in addiction-related behavior and a destructive lifestyle. This is due to a persistent failure to control impulses and the maintaining of inadequate self-regulatory behavior in daily life. Thus, several aspects of executive functioning like inhibitory, shifting and updating processes seem impaired in dual-diagnosis. Executive (dys-)function is currently even seen as a shared underlying key component of most mental disorders. However, the number of studies on diverse aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is limited. In the present review, a systematic overview of various aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is presented, striving for a prototypical profile of patients with dual-diagnosis. Looking at empirical results, inhibitory and shifting processes appear to be impaired for SUD combined with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or cluster B personality disorders. Studies involving updating process tasks for dual-diagnosis were limited. More research that zooms in to the full diversity of these executive functions is needed in order to strengthen these findings. Detailed insight in the profile of strengths and weaknesses that underlies one's behavior and is related to diagnostic classifications, can lead to tailor-made assessment and indications for treatment, pointing out which aspects need attention and/or training in one's self-regulative abilities. PMID:27445939

  11. The Dual Gap Function for Variational Inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianzhong Wan Changyu; Xiu Naihua

    2003-08-15

    In this paper we further study the dual gap function G, which was introduced by Marcotte and Zhu, for the variational inequality problem (VIP). We characterize the directional derivative and subdifferential of G. Based on these, we get a better understanding of the concepts of a global error bound, weak sharpness, and minimum principle sufficiency property for the pseudo-monotone.

  12. Dual effect of lithium on NFAT5 activity in kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Küper, Christoph; Beck, Franz-Xaver; Neuhofer, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium salts are used widely for treatment of bipolar and other mental disorders. Lithium therapy is accompanied frequently by renal side effects, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still poorly understood. In the present study we examined the effect of lithium on the activity of the osmosensitive transcriptional activator nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5, also known as TonEBP), which plays a key role in renal cellular osmoprotection and urinary concentrating ability. Interestingly, we found different effects of lithium on NFAT5 activity, depending on medium osmolality and incubation time. When cells were exposed to lithium for a relative short period (24 h), NFAT5 activity was significantly increased, especially under isosmotic conditions, resulting in an enhanced expression of the NFAT5 target gene heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Further analysis revealed that the increase of NFAT5 activity depended primarily on an enhanced activity of the c-terminal transactivation domain (TAD), while NFAT5 protein abundance was largely unaffected. Enhanced activity of the TAD is probably mediated by lithium-induced inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), which is in accordance with previous studies. When cells were exposed to lithium for a longer period (96 h), cellular NFAT5 activity and subsequently expression of HSP70 significantly decreased under hyperosmotic conditions, due to diminished NFAT5 protein abundance, also resulting from GSK-3β inhibition. Taken together, our results provide evidence that lithium has opposing effects on NFAT5 activity, depending on environmental osmolality and exposure duration. The potential impacts of these observations on the diverse effects of lithium on kidney function are discussed. PMID:26441681

  13. Dual effect of lithium on NFAT5 activity in kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Küper, Christoph; Beck, Franz-Xaver; Neuhofer, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium salts are used widely for treatment of bipolar and other mental disorders. Lithium therapy is accompanied frequently by renal side effects, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still poorly understood. In the present study we examined the effect of lithium on the activity of the osmosensitive transcriptional activator nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5, also known as TonEBP), which plays a key role in renal cellular osmoprotection and urinary concentrating ability. Interestingly, we found different effects of lithium on NFAT5 activity, depending on medium osmolality and incubation time. When cells were exposed to lithium for a relative short period (24 h), NFAT5 activity was significantly increased, especially under isosmotic conditions, resulting in an enhanced expression of the NFAT5 target gene heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Further analysis revealed that the increase of NFAT5 activity depended primarily on an enhanced activity of the c-terminal transactivation domain (TAD), while NFAT5 protein abundance was largely unaffected. Enhanced activity of the TAD is probably mediated by lithium-induced inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), which is in accordance with previous studies. When cells were exposed to lithium for a longer period (96 h), cellular NFAT5 activity and subsequently expression of HSP70 significantly decreased under hyperosmotic conditions, due to diminished NFAT5 protein abundance, also resulting from GSK-3β inhibition. Taken together, our results provide evidence that lithium has opposing effects on NFAT5 activity, depending on environmental osmolality and exposure duration. The potential impacts of these observations on the diverse effects of lithium on kidney function are discussed. PMID:26441681

  14. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  15. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  16. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  17. Concentrated dual-salt electrolytes for improving the cycling stability of lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, Liu; Qiang, Ma; Zheng, Fang; Jie, Ma; Yong-Sheng, Hu; Zhi-Bin, Zhou; Hong, Li; Xue-Jie, Huang; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable Li batteries, due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh/g), low density (0.534 g/cm3), and low negative electrochemical potential (‑3.040 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, the concentrated electrolytes with dual salts, composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] (LiFSI) and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] (LiTFSI) were studied. In this dual-salt system, the capacity retention can even be maintained at 95.7% after 100 cycles in Li|LiFePO4 cells. A Li|Li cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 600 h, and a Li|Cu cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 200 cycles with a high average Coulombi efficiency of 99%. These results show that the concentrated dual-salt electrolytes exhibit superior electrochemical performance and would be a promising candidate for application in rechargeable Li batteries. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51222210, 51472268, 51421002, and 11234013) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010300).

  18. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  19. Externally triggered dual function of complex microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qiangying; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2013-10-22

    By introducing UV-sensitive chemical groups causing different potential response as building blocks, fabricated LbL capsules can be endowed with dual UV-responsive properties in specific layers. One block is responsible for fast capsule sealing and the other for longer term capsule swelling and rupture. Therefore, the multifunction of these capsules could be activated selectively when exposed to external UV light with suitable wavelengths. In this work, dual-functional complex microcapsules (PDADMAC/PAZO)4-(DAR/Nafion)2 containing both diazonium and aozbenzene groups were proposed as clear examples to realize a time-dependent UV response for successive encapsulation and release. Upon exposure to UV light, the DAR/Nafion layers underwent a rapid in situ cross-linking and hence to seal the capsule shells through diazonium-related photolysis. Then further gradual shell swelling was followed by realignment of azobenzene molecules in PDADMAC/PAZO layers. Fluorescent polymers were consequently studied as cargo substances. Results indicated that continuous UV light triggered rapid cargo encapsulation over minutes time scale and gradual release with continuous irradiation over hours. PMID:24083649

  20. Toward the design of high voltage magnesium-lithium hybrid batteries using dual-salt electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yingwen; Choi, Daiwon; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2016-04-01

    We report a design of high voltage magnesium-lithium (Mg-Li) hybrid batteries through rational control of the electrolyte chemistry, electrode materials and cell architecture. Prototype devices with a structure of Mg-Li/LiFePO4 (LFP) and Mg-Li/LiMn2O4 (LMO) have been investigated. A Mg-Li/LFP cell using a dual-salt electrolyte 0.2 M [Mg2Cl2(DME)4][AlCl4]2 and 1.0 M LiTFSI exhibits voltages higher than 2.5 V (vs. Mg) and a high specific energy density of 246 W h kg(-1) under conditions that are amenable for practical applications. The successful demonstrations reported here could be a significant step forward for practical hybrid batteries. PMID:26959513

  1. Safety Analysis of the US Dual Coolant Liquid Lead-Lithium ITER Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad; Reyes, Susana; Sawan, Mohamed; Wong, Clement

    2006-07-01

    The US is proposing a prototype of a dual coolant liquid lead-lithium (DCLL) DEMO blanket concept for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM). Because safety considerations are an integral part of the design process to ensure that this TBM does not adversely impact the safety of ITER, a safety assessment has been conducted for this TBM and its ancillary systems as requested by the ITER project. Four events were selected by the ITER International Team (IT) to address specific reactor safety concerns, such as VV pressurization, confinement building pressure build-up, TBM decay heat removal capability, tritium and activation products release from the TBM system, and hydrogen and heat production from chemical reactions. This paper summarizes the results of this safety assessment conducted with the MELCOR computer code.

  2. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  3. Dual functional selenium-substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Jin; Liu, Yonghui; Qiu, Zhiye; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) doped with trace elements has attracted much attention recently owing to its excellent biological functions. Herein, we use a facile co-precipitation method to incorporate selenium into HA by adding sodium selenite during synthesis. The obtained selenium-substituted HA products are needle-like nanoparticles which have  size and crystallinity that are similar to those of the pure HA nanoparticles (HANs) when the selenium content is low. HANs are found to have the ability to induce the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, and the anti-tumour effects are enhanced after incorporation of selenium. Meanwhile, the nanoparticles can also support the growth of bone marrow stem cells. Furthermore, the flow cytometric results indicate that the apoptosis induction of osteosarcoma cells is caused by the increased reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. These results show that the selenium-substituted HANs are potentially promising bone graft materials in osteosarcoma treatment due to their dual functions of supporting normal cell growth and inducing tumour cell apoptosis. PMID:23741613

  4. Ionic conductivity of dual-phase polymer electrolytes comprised of NBR/SBR latex films swollen with lithium salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Morihiko; Ichino, Toshihiro; Rutt, J.S.; Nishi, Shiro . NTT Interdisciplinary Research Lab.)

    1994-08-01

    Dual-phase polymer electrolytes (DPE) with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical strength were prepared by swelling poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) rubber (NBR) and poly(styrene-co-butadiene) rubber (SBR) mixed latex films with lithium salt solutions (e.g., 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-butyrolactone). The latex films retain particle morphology in the solid state. The NBR phase (formed from fused NBR latex particles) is polar and is impregnated selectively with polar lithium salt solutions, yielding ion-conductive channels, whereas the SBR phase (formed from fused SBR latex particles) is nonpolar and is not impregnated, providing a mechanically supportive matrix. The ionic conductivity of the DPE increased dramatically with increasing content of lithium salt solution, and higher amounts of solution were imbibed with increasing content of NBR relative to SBR. Several factors which affect the ionic conductivity of this system were examined, and the highest ionic conductivity (>10[sup [minus]3] S/cm) was obtained when either an NBR/SBR 70/30 (w/w) or a 50/50 (w/w) latex film was saturated with 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-BL solution or 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-BL/DME solution. Ion-conductive behavior changed critically with increasing lithium salt solution uptake. At low levels of lithium salt solution uptake, evidence suggested that ionic conductivity of the absorbed lithium salt solution was strongly influenced by the presence of the NBR in the ion-conductive channel, but at higher levels, the effects of the NBR were reduced and free'' lithium salt solution was present.

  5. A dual coaxial nanocable sulfur composite for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Yuan, Lixia; Yi, Ziqi; Liu, Yang; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have great potential for some high energy applications such as in electric vehicles and smart grids due to their high capacity, natural abundance, low cost and environmental friendliness. But they suffer from rapid capacity decay and poor rate capability. The problems are mainly related to the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfides in the electrolyte, and to the poor conductivity of sulfur and the discharge products. In this work, we propose a novel dual coaxial nanocable sulfur composite fabricated with multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNT), nitrogen-doped porous carbon (NPC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), i.e. MWCNTs@S/NPC@PEG nanocable, as a cathode material for Li-S batteries. In such a coaxial structure, the middle N-doped carbon with hierarchical porous structure provides a nanosized capsule to contain and hold the sulfur particles; the inner MWCNTs and the outer PEG layer can further ensure the fast electronic transport and prevent the dissolution of the polysulfides into the electrolyte, respectively. The as-designed MWCNT@S/NPC@PEG composite shows good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The capacity is retained at 527 mA h g(-1) at 1 C after 100 cycles, and 791 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and 551 mA h g(-1) at 2 C after 50 cycles. Especially, the high-rate capability is outstanding with 400 mA h g(-1) at 5 C. PMID:24336973

  6. Dual-carbon enhanced silicon-based composite as superior anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Dai-Huo; Wang, Ying-Ying; Hou, Bao-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Rong-Shun; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-03-01

    Dual-carbon enhanced Si-based composite (Si/C/G) has been prepared via employing the widely distributed, low-cost and environmentally friendly Diatomite mineral as silicon raw material. The preparation processes are very simple, non-toxic and easy to scale up. Electrochemical tests as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) demonstrate that this Si/C/G composite exhibits much improved Li-storage properties in terms of superior high-rate capabilities and excellent cycle stability compared to the pristine Si material as well as both single-carbon modified composites. Specifically for the Si/C/G composite, it can still deliver a high specific capacity of about 470 mAh g-1 at an ultrahigh current density of 5 A g-1, and exhibit a high capacity of 938 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with excellent capacity retention in the following 300 cycles. The significantly enhanced Li-storage properties should be attributed to the co-existence of both highly conductive graphite and amorphous carbon in the Si/C/G composite. While the former can enhance the electrical conductivity of the obtained composite, the latter acts as the adhesives to connect the porous Si particulates and conductive graphite flakes to form robust and stable conductive network.

  7. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium ... Lithium is also sometimes used to treat depression, schizophrenia (a mental ... emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge ...

  8. Lithium niobate single-crystal and photo-functional device

    DOEpatents

    Gopalan, Venkatraman; Mitchell, Terrence E.; Kitamura, Kenji; Furukawa, Yasunori

    2001-01-01

    Provided are lithium niobate single-crystal that requires a low voltage of not larger than 10 kV/nm for its ferroelectric polarization inversion and of which the polarization can be periodically inverted with accuracy even at such a low voltage, and a photo-functional device comprising the crystal. The crystal has a molar fraction of Li.sub.2 O/(Nb.sub.2 O.sub.5 +Li.sub.2 O) of falling between 0.49 and 0.52. The photo-functional device can convert a laser ray being incident thereon.

  9. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Functional electrolyte solvents include compounds having at least one aromatic ring with 2, 3, 4 or 5 substituents, at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted methoxy group, at least one of which is a tert-butyl group and at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted polyether or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) group bonded through oxygen to the aromatic ring, are provided.

  10. Response functions of semiconducting lithium indium diselenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukosi, Eric; Chvala, Ondrej; Stowe, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a computational investigation that determined the gamma-ray and neutron response functions of a new semiconducting material, 6LiInSe2, which is very sensitive to thermal neutrons. Both MCNP6 simulations and custom post-processing/simulation techniques were used to determine various detection properties of LISe. The computational study included consideration of energetic electron escape, the contribution from the activation of 115In and subsequent decay of 116In, triton and alpha particle escape from the 6Li reaction pathway, and the effect of incomplete charge collection when detecting neutrons via the 6Li reaction pathway. The result of neutron detection with incomplete charge collection was compared to experimental results and showed general agreement, where holes exhibit a lower mobility-lifetime product than electrons, as expected for compound semiconductors.

  11. Revisiting Surface Modification of Graphite: Dual-Layer Coating for High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Gyujin; Ryu, Jaegeon; Ko, Seunghee; Bang, Byoung Man; Choi, Sinho; Shin, Myoungsoo; Lee, Sang-Young; Park, Soojin

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of electrode active materials has garnered considerable attention as a facile way to meet stringent requirements of advanced lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrated a new coating strategy based on dual layers comprising antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles and carbon. The ATO nanoparticles are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and act as electronically conductive/electrochemically active materials. The as-synthesized ATO nanoparticles are introduced on natural graphite along with citric acid used as a carbon precursor. After carbonization, the carbon/ATO-decorated natural graphite (c/ATO-NG) is produced. In the (carbon/ATO) dual-layer coating, the ATO nanoparticles coupled with the carbon layer exhibit unprecedented synergistic effects. The resultant c/ATO-NG anode materials display significant improvements in capacity (530 mA h g(-1) ), cycling retention (capacity retention of 98.1 % after 50 cycles at a rate of C/5), and low electrode swelling (volume expansion of 38 % after 100 cycles) which outperform that of typical graphite materials. Furthermore, a full-cell consisting of a c/ATO-NG anode and an LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode presents excellent cycle retention (capacity retention of >80 % after 100 cycles). We envision that the dual-layer coating concept proposed herein opens a new route toward high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27027583

  12. A dual coaxial nanocable sulfur composite for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Yuan, Lixia; Yi, Ziqi; Liu, Yang; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have great potential for some high energy applications such as in electric vehicles and smart grids due to their high capacity, natural abundance, low cost and environmental friendliness. But they suffer from rapid capacity decay and poor rate capability. The problems are mainly related to the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfides in the electrolyte, and to the poor conductivity of sulfur and the discharge products. In this work, we propose a novel dual coaxial nanocable sulfur composite fabricated with multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNT), nitrogen-doped porous carbon (NPC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), i.e. MWCNTs@S/NPC@PEG nanocable, as a cathode material for Li-S batteries. In such a coaxial structure, the middle N-doped carbon with hierarchical porous structure provides a nanosized capsule to contain and hold the sulfur particles; the inner MWCNTs and the outer PEG layer can further ensure the fast electronic transport and prevent the dissolution of the polysulfides into the electrolyte, respectively. The as-designed MWCNT@S/NPC@PEG composite shows good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The capacity is retained at 527 mA h g-1 at 1 C after 100 cycles, and 791 mA h g-1 at 0.5 C and 551 mA h g-1 at 2 C after 50 cycles. Especially, the high-rate capability is outstanding with 400 mA h g-1 at 5 C.Lithium-sulfur batteries have great potential for some high energy applications such as in electric vehicles and smart grids due to their high capacity, natural abundance, low cost and environmental friendliness. But they suffer from rapid capacity decay and poor rate capability. The problems are mainly related to the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfides in the electrolyte, and to the poor conductivity of sulfur and the discharge products. In this work, we propose a novel dual coaxial nanocable sulfur composite fabricated with multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNT), nitrogen-doped porous carbon (NPC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG

  13. Dual lithium insertion and conversion mechanisms in a titanium-based mixed-anion nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Dambournet, Damien; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J; Gerald, Rex E; Penin, Nicolas; Labrugere, Christine; Demourgues, Alain; Tressaud, Alain; Amine, Khalil

    2011-08-31

    The electrochemical reaction of lithium with a vacancy-containing titanium hydroxyfluoride was studied. On the basis of pair distribution function analysis, NMR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we propose that the material undergoes partitioning upon initial discharge to form a nanostructured composite containing crystalline Li(x)TiO(2), surrounded by a Ti(0) and LiF layer. The Ti(0) is reoxidized upon reversible charging to an amorphous TiF(3) phase via a conversion reaction. The crystalline Li(x)TiO(2) is involved in an insertion reaction. The resulting composite electrode, Ti(0)-LiF/Li(x)TiO(2) ⇔ TiF(3)/ Li(y)TiO(2), allows reaction of more than one Li per Ti, providing a route to higher capacities while improving the energy efficiency compared to pure conversion chemistries. PMID:21809881

  14. A dual-spatially-confined reservoir by packing micropores within dense graphene for long-life lithium/sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongfei; Yang, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaomin; He, Yu-Shi; Ye, Fangmin; Liu, Meinan; Zhang, Yuegang

    2016-01-01

    In lithium/sulfur batteries, micropores could bring about strong interactions with polysulfides, but could not alleviate the partial polysulfide overflowing outside because of the volume expansion of the lithiated sulfur. A dual-spatially-confined reservoir for sulfur by wrapping microporous carbon with dense graphene, micro@meso-porous DSC (dual-spatial carbon), is synthesized to solve this issue. Such a structure is prepared through two distinctive methods: graphene promoted in situ hydrothermal carbonization of organics to grow micropores on itself, and liquid mediated drying of graphene hydrogel to form mesoporous graphene frameworks. In contrast to previously reported hierarchical carbon/S, the inner micropores are mainly responsible for loading sulfur, which could help confine its particle size, thus increasing the electrical/ionic conductivity and the utilization of sulfur, and restrain lithium polysulfide dissolution because of strong interaction with pore walls; while the outer mesopores act as another reservoir to stabilize the overflowed polysulfide and to enhance the Li+ transport. The S-micro@meso-porous DSC cathode exhibits better discharge capacity and cycling performance than S-microporous AC and S-micro@macro-porous DSC, i.e., 59% and 37% higher capacity remaining at 0.5 C than the latter two, respectively.In lithium/sulfur batteries, micropores could bring about strong interactions with polysulfides, but could not alleviate the partial polysulfide overflowing outside because of the volume expansion of the lithiated sulfur. A dual-spatially-confined reservoir for sulfur by wrapping microporous carbon with dense graphene, micro@meso-porous DSC (dual-spatial carbon), is synthesized to solve this issue. Such a structure is prepared through two distinctive methods: graphene promoted in situ hydrothermal carbonization of organics to grow micropores on itself, and liquid mediated drying of graphene hydrogel to form mesoporous graphene frameworks. In

  15. A dual strategy for improving lithium storage performance, a case of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xia; Xiao, Ying; Hu, Changwen; Cao, Minhua

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoellipse with180–230 nm (edge length) and 140–170 nm (edge width) has been synthesize and tested as anode material for LIBs. The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoellipse electrode with sodium alginate (SA) binder exhibits greatly enhanced performance for lithium storage. - Highlights: • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoellipses were fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method with glycine. • The elliptical α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SA electrode exhibits enhanced lithium storage performance. • The reason for the enhanced performance of elliptical α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SA was investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, we developed a dual strategy, the nanostructure engineering of active material and the proper choice of binder, to achieve excellent lithium storage performance of transition metal oxides. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoellipses with a mean size of 180–230 nm (edge length) and 140–170 nm (edge width) were fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method in the presence of glycine. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoellipse electrode with sodium alginate (SA) binder exhibits greatly enhanced performance for lithium storage. The capacity could be retained as high as 1164 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} for over 60 cycles. Even cycled at high current densities of 2000–5000 mA g{sup −1}, high capacities of 443–628 mA h g{sup −1} can be achieved, whereas the electrode with the conventional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder suffers from rapid capacity decay under the same test conditions.

  16. Synergistically Enhanced Polysulfide Chemisorption Using a Flexible Hybrid Separator with N and S Dual-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Coating for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balach, Juan; Singh, Harish K; Gomoll, Selina; Jaumann, Tony; Klose, Markus; Oswald, Steffen; Richter, Manuel; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2016-06-15

    Because of the outstanding high theoretical specific energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as a promising candidate for post lithium-ion battery systems eligible to meet the forthcoming market requirements. However, its commercialization on large scale is thwarted by fast capacity fading caused by the Achilles' heel of Li-S systems: the polysulfide shuttle. Here, we merge the physical features of carbon-coated separators and the unique chemical properties of N and S codoped mesoporous carbon to create a functional hybrid separator with superior polysulfide affinity and electrochemical benefits. DFT calculations revealed that carbon materials with N and S codoping possess a strong binding energy to high-order polysulfide species, which is essential to keep the active material in the cathode side. As a result of the synergistic effect of N, S dual-doping, an advanced Li-S cell with high specific capacity and ultralow capacity degradation of 0.041% per cycle is achieved. Pushing our simple-designed and scalable cathode to a highly increased sulfur loading of 5.4 mg cm(-2), the Li-S cell with the functional hybrid separator can deliver a remarkable areal capacity of 5.9 mAh cm(-2), which is highly favorable for practical applications. PMID:27225061

  17. Computational SN 2-Type Mechanism for the Difluoromethylation of Lithium Enolate with Fluoroform through Bimetallic C-F Bond Dual Activation.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuya; Harris, Travis V; Hatanaka, Miho; Morokuma, Keiji; Mikami, Koichi

    2016-06-20

    The reaction mechanism for difluoromethylation of lithium enolates with fluoroform was analyzed computationally (DFT calculations with the artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method and solvation model based on density (SMD) solvation model (THF)), showing an SN 2-type carbon-carbon bond formation; the "bimetallic" lithium enolate and lithium trifluoromethyl carbenoid exert the C-F bond "dual" activation, in contrast to the monometallic butterfly-shaped carbenoid in the Simmons-Smith reaction. Lithium enolates, generated by the reaction of 2 equiv. of lithium hexamethyldisilazide (rather than 1 or 3 equiv.) with the cheap difluoromethylating species fluoroform, are the most useful alkali metal intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important α-difluoromethylated carbonyl products. PMID:26992061

  18. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a ... antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain.

  19. An online model-based method for state of energy estimation of lithium-ion batteries using dual filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai; Wei, Jingwen; Zhang, Chenbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The state-of-energy of lithium-ion batteries is an important evaluation index for energy storage systems in electric vehicles and smart grids. To improve the battery state-of-energy estimation accuracy and reliability, an online model-based estimation approach is proposed against uncertain dynamic load currents and environment temperatures. Firstly, a three-dimensional response surface open-circuit-voltage model is built up to improve the battery state-of-energy estimation accuracy, taking various temperatures into account. Secondly, a total-available-energy-capacity model that involves temperatures and discharge rates is reconstructed to improve the accuracy of the battery model. An extended-Kalman-filter and particle-filter based dual filters algorithm is then developed to establish an online model-based estimator for the battery state-of-energy. The extended-Kalman-filter is employed to update parameters of the battery model using real-time battery current and voltage at each sampling interval, while the particle-filter is applied to estimate the battery state-of-energy. Finally, the proposed approach is verified by experiments conducted on a LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery under different operating currents and temperatures. Experimental results indicate that the battery model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy, and the estimates of the dual filters converge to the real state-of-energy within an error of ±4%.

  20. A dual-spatially-confined reservoir by packing micropores within dense graphene for long-life lithium/sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongfei; Yang, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaomin; He, Yu-Shi; Ye, Fangmin; Liu, Meinan; Zhang, Yuegang

    2016-01-28

    In lithium/sulfur batteries, micropores could bring about strong interactions with polysulfides, but could not alleviate the partial polysulfide overflowing outside because of the volume expansion of the lithiated sulfur. A dual-spatially-confined reservoir for sulfur by wrapping microporous carbon with dense graphene, micro@meso-porous DSC (dual-spatial carbon), is synthesized to solve this issue. Such a structure is prepared through two distinctive methods: graphene promoted in situ hydrothermal carbonization of organics to grow micropores on itself, and liquid mediated drying of graphene hydrogel to form mesoporous graphene frameworks. In contrast to previously reported hierarchical carbon/S, the inner micropores are mainly responsible for loading sulfur, which could help confine its particle size, thus increasing the electrical/ionic conductivity and the utilization of sulfur, and restrain lithium polysulfide dissolution because of strong interaction with pore walls; while the outer mesopores act as another reservoir to stabilize the overflowed polysulfide and to enhance the Li(+) transport. The S-micro@meso-porous DSC cathode exhibits better discharge capacity and cycling performance than S-microporous AC and S-micro@macro-porous DSC, i.e., 59% and 37% higher capacity remaining at 0.5 C than the latter two, respectively. PMID:26754080

  1. Highly sensitive analysis of boron and lithium in aqueous solution using dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyoung; Han, Sol-Chan; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Yun, Jong-Il

    2011-12-15

    We have applied a dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) to sensitively detect concentrations of boron and lithium in aqueous solution. Sequential laser pulses from two separate Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers at 532 nm wavelength have been employed to generate laser-induced plasma on a water jet. For achieving sensitive elemental detection, the optimal timing between two laser pulses was investigated. The optimum time delay between two laser pulses for the B atomic emission lines was found to be less than 3 μs and approximately 10 μs for the Li atomic emission line. Under these optimized conditions, the detection limit was attained in the range of 0.8 ppm for boron and 0.8 ppb for lithium. In particular, the sensitivity for detecting boron by excitation of laminar liquid jet was found to be excellent by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared with 80 ppm reported in the literature. These sensitivities of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy are very practical for the online elemental analysis of boric acid and lithium hydroxide serving as neutron absorber and pH controller in the primary coolant water of pressurized water reactors, respectively. PMID:22054422

  2. Functionalized graphene for high performance lithium ion capacitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Shin, Weon Ho; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Jin, Jae Kyu; Kim, Junhyung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2012-12-01

    Lithium ion capacitors (LICs) have recently drawn considerable attention because they utilize the advantages of supercapacitors (high power) and lithium ion batteries (high energy). However, the energy densities of conventional LICs, which consist of a pair of graphite and activated carbon electrodes, are limited by the small capacities of the activated carbon cathodes. To overcome this limitation, we have engaged urea-reduced graphene oxide. The amide functional groups generated during the urea reduction facilitate the enolization processes for reversible Li binding, which improves the specific capacity by 37 % compared to those of conventional systems such as activated carbon and hydrazine-reduced graphene oxide. Utilizing the increased Li binding capability, when evaluated based on the mass of the active materials on both sides, the LICs based on urea-reduced graphene oxide deliver a specific energy density of approximately 106 Wh kg(total) (-1) and a specific power density of approximately 4200 W kg(total) (-1) with perfect capacity retention up to 1000 cycles. These values are far superior to those of previously reported LICs and supercapacitors, which suggests that appropriately treated graphene can be a promising electrode material for LICs. PMID:23112143

  3. Dual Function Positions: A View from the Trenches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paster, Amy L.

    Following an overview of the Pennsylvania State University Libraries, this paper discusses the role of dual function librarians. The duties and responsibilities of a RISD (Reference and Instructional Services Division) cataloger are listed, and problems of terminology, evaluation, divided loyalties, and inflated expectations are addressed.…

  4. Monitoring: a dual-function coping style.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Shoshana; Orgler-Shoob, Michal

    2006-04-01

    Monitoring (Miller, 1991) is defined as a cognitive coping style characterized by the tendency to seek information about threats. This study found that information seeking in stressful situations is perceived by individuals as related to the emotion-focused more than the problem-focused function of coping and that there is considerable variance among individuals in the perceived functions of information seeking and the relationships among information-seeking reactions and their perceived functions. Information-seeking preferences in a natural stressful situation (a final course examination) were predicted by individual differences in perceived functions of information seeking rather than by generalized behavioral coping styles (monitoring). The results were interpreted in relation to the cognitive-affective system theory (Mischel & Shoda, 1995), and implications for the measurement of coping dispositions were discussed. PMID:16529583

  5. Dual effectiveness of lithium salt in controlling both delayed ettringite formation and ASR in concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Ekolu, S.O. . E-mail: stephen.ekolu@wits.ac.za; Thomas, M.D.A.; Hooton, R.D.

    2007-06-15

    The influence of lithium nitrate on expansions due to delayed ettringite formation (DEF) and alkali-silica reaction (ASR) has been investigated. Effects of the lithium salt were examined in heat-cured mortars and concretes containing one or both damage mechanisms. The mortars and concretes made using reactive and/or non-reactive aggregates were subjected to heat treatment consisting of a hydration delay period of 4 h at 23 deg. C followed by steam-curing at 95 deg. C and then stored in limewater. Results showed that the lithium salt admixture was able to reduce the occurrence of deleterious expansion due to delayed ettringite formation in addition to controlling alkali-silica reaction in cementitious systems containing one or both mechanisms. In concretes made using non-reactive limestone aggregates, incorporation of lithium nitrate in a proportion of 0.74 M ratio of Li to (Na + K) was found to control delayed ettringite formation during the one-year period of this study. By analyzing the leaching properties of lithium and other alkalis from mortars during storage, it was found that a substantial amount of lithium was retained in the cementitious system in a slightly soluble form, and is expected to be responsible for reducing DEF.

  6. Dual-function fluorescent probe for cancer imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongjing; Wang, Ran; Zhou, Ying; Shu, Chang; Song, Fengjuan; Zhong, Wenying

    2016-05-01

    To date, several fluorescent probes modified by a single targeting agent have been explored. However, studies on the preparation of dual-function quantum dot (QD) fluorescent probes with dual-targeting action and a therapeutic effect are rare. Here, a dual-targeting CdTe/CdS QD fluorescent probe with a bovine serum albumin-glycyrrhetinic acid conjugate and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid was successfully prepared that could induce the apoptosis of liver cancer cells and showed enhanced targeting in in vitro cell imaging. Therefore, the as-prepared fluorescent probe in this work is an efficient diagnostic tool for the simultaneous detection of liver cancer and breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26387677

  7. Colored dual-functional photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jae Yong; Xu, Ting; Park, Hui Joon; Guo, L. Jay

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we review our recent efforts on multi-functional photovoltaic (PV) cells that can produce desired reflective, transmissive, or neutral colors, by controlling light interaction with semiconductors and electrode structures in a desired manner. The PV cells integrated with plasmonic color filtering schemes using subwavelength gratings, and other approaches exploiting photonic resonances in an optical nanocavity consisting of highly absorbing semiconductor media are described. For further enhancement of optical and electrical performance characteristics of the multi-functional PV cells, possible difficulties and the outlook for future work are discussed.

  8. Polymeric blends for sensor and actuation dual functionality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The invention described herein supplies a new class of electroactive polymeric blend materials which offer both sensing and actuation dual functionality. The blend comprises two components, one component having a sensing capability and the other component having an actuating capability. These components should be co-processable and coexisting in a phase separated blend system. Specifically, the materials are blends of a sensing component selected from the group consisting of ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and photoelectric polymers and an actuating component that responds to an electric field in terms of dimensional change. Said actuating component includes, but is not limited to, electrostrictive graft elastomers, dielectric electroactive elastomers, liquid crystal electroactive elastomers and field responsive polymeric gels. The sensor functionality and actuation functionality are designed by tailoring the relative fraction of the two components. The temperature dependence of the piezoelectric response and the mechanical toughness of the dual functional blends are also tailored by the composition adjustment.

  9. Dual-Size Silicon Nanocrystal-Embedded SiO(x) Nanocomposite as a High-Capacity Lithium Storage Material.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Yoo, Hyundong; Lee, Jaewoo; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-07-28

    SiOx-based materials attracted a great deal of attention as high-capacity Li(+) storage materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high reversible capacity and good cycle performance. However, these materials still suffer from low initial Coulombic efficiency as well as high production cost, which are associated with the complicated synthesis process. Here, we propose a dual-size Si nanocrystal-embedded SiOx nanocomposite as a high-capacity Li(+) storage material prepared via cost-effective sol-gel reaction of triethoxysilane with commercially available Si nanoparticles. In the proposed nanocomposite, dual-size Si nanocrystals are incorporated into the amorphous SiOx matrix, providing a high capacity (1914 mAh g(-1)) with a notably improved initial efficiency (73.6%) and stable cycle performance over 100 cycles. The highly robust electrochemical and mechanical properties of the dual-size Si nanocrystal-embedded SiOx nanocomposite presented here are mainly attributed to its peculiar nanoarchitecture. This study represents one of the most promising routes for advancing SiOx-based Li(+) storage materials for practical use. PMID:26132999

  10. Dual-template ordered mesoporous carbon/Fe2O3 nanowires as lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junkai; Sun, Chuan-Fu; Gillette, Eleanor; Gui, Zhe; Wang, YuHuang; Lee, Sang Bok

    2016-07-14

    Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) are ideal host materials that can provide the desirable electrical conductivity and ion accessibility for high-capacity oxide electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To this end, however, it is imperative to establish the correlations among material morphology, pore structure and electrochemical performance. Here, we fabricate an ordered mesoporous carbon nanowire (OMCNW)/Fe2O3 composite utilizing a novel soft-hard dual-template approach. The structure and electrochemical performance of OMCNW/Fe2O3 were systematically compared with single-templated OMC/Fe2O3 and carbon nanowire/Fe2O3 composites. This dual-template strategy presents synergetic effects combining the advantages of both soft and hard single-template methods. The resulting OMCNW/Fe2O3 composite enables a high pore volume, high structural stability, enhanced electrical conductivity and Li(+) accessibility. These features collectively enable excellent electrochemical cyclability (1200 cycles) and a reversible Li(+) storage capacity as high as 819 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1). Our findings highlight the synergistic benefits of the dual-template approach to heterogeneous composites for high performance electrochemical energy storage materials. PMID:27304986

  11. Highly Cyclable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Dual-Type Sulfur Cathode and a Lithiated Si/SiOx Nanosphere Anode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Kyu; Oh, Seung-Min; Park, Eunjun; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu; Belharouak, Ilias; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-05-13

    Lithium-sulfur batteries could become an excellent alternative to replace the currently used lithium-ion batteries due to their higher energy density and lower production cost; however, commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries has so far been limited due to the cyclability problems associated with both the sulfur cathode and the lithium-metal anode. Herein, we demonstrate a highly reliable lithium-sulfur battery showing cycle performance comparable to that of lithium-ion batteries; our design uses a highly reversible dual-type sulfur cathode (solid sulfur electrode and polysulfide catholyte) and a lithiated Si/SiOx nanosphere anode. Our lithium-sulfur cell shows superior battery performance in terms of high specific capacity, excellent charge-discharge efficiency, and remarkable cycle life, delivering a specific capacity of ∼750 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles (85% of the initial capacity). These promising behaviors may arise from a synergistic effect of the enhanced electrochemical performance of the newly designed anode and the optimized layout of the cathode. PMID:25844807

  12. Effect of lithium maintenance therapy on thyroid and parathyroid function.

    PubMed Central

    Kusalic, M; Engelsmann, F

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess changes induced by lithium maintenance therapy on the incidence of thyroid, parathyroid and ion alterations. These were evaluated with respect to the duration of lithium therapy, age, sex, and family history (whether or not the patient had a first-degree relative with thyroid disease). DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Affective Disorders Clinic at St. Mary's Hospital, Montreal. PATIENTS: One hundred and one patients (28 men and 73 women) with bipolar disorder receiving lithium maintenance therapy ranging from 1 year's to 32 years' duration. The control group consisted of 82 patients with no psychiatric or endocrinological diagnoses from the hospital's out-patient clinics. OUTCOME MEASURES: Laboratory analyses of calcium, magnesium and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels performed before beginning lithium therapy and at biannual follow-up. RESULTS: Hypothyroidism developed in 40 patients, excluding 8 patients who were hypothyroid at baseline. All patients having first-degree relatives affected by thyroid illness had accelerated onset of hypothyroidism (3.7 years after onset of lithium therapy) compared with patients without a family history (8.6 years after onset of lithium therapy). Women over 60 years of age were more often affected by hypothyroidism than women under 60 years of age (34.6% versus 31.9%). Magnesium levels in patients on lithium treatment were unchanged from baseline levels. After lithium treatment, calcium levels were higher than either baseline levels or control levels. Thus, lithium treatment counteracted the decrease in plasma calcium levels associated with aging. CONCLUSIONS: Familial thyroid illness is a risk factor for hypothyroidism and hypercalcemia during lithium therapy. PMID:10354657

  13. A novel nano-sulfur/polypyrrole/graphene nanocomposite cathode with a dual-layered structure for lithium rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Konarov, Aishuak; Gosselink, Denise; Soboleski, Hayden Greentree; Chen, P.

    2013-11-01

    A method for synthesizing nano-sulfur/polypyrrole/graphene nanosheet (nano-S/PPy/GNS) ternary composite with a dual-layered structure is described. By taking advantage of both capillary force driven self-assembly of polypyrrole on graphene nanosheets and adhesion ability of polypyrrole to sulfur, we develop a stable and ordered nano-S/PPy/GNS composite cathode for lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The high dispersion of nanoscopic sulfur on the surface of PPy/GNS composite and good electrical conductivity of GNS seems to benefit the sulfur utilization and the reactivity of the composite. Furthermore, PPy plays an important role in retarding diffusion of polysulfides out of the electrode. The resulting nano-S/PPy/GNS composite cathode delivers a high initial capacity of 1415.7 mAh g-1, remaining a reversible capacity of 641.5 mAh g-1 after 40 cycles at 0.1 C rate.

  14. Integrated process and dual-function catalyst for olefin epoxidation

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Bing; Rueter, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a dual-functional catalyst composition and an integrated process for production of olefin epoxides including propylene oxide by catalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen with olefin feeds such as propylene. The epoxides and hydrogen peroxide are preferably produced simultaneously in situ. The dual-functional catalyst comprises noble metal crystallites with dimensions on the nanometer scale (on the order of <1 nm to 10 nm), specially dispersed on titanium silicalite substrate particles. The dual functional catalyst catalyzes both the direct reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide intermediate on the noble metal catalyst surface and the reaction of the hydrogen peroxide intermediate with the propylene feed to generate propylene oxide product. Combining both these functions in a single catalyst provides a very efficient integrated process operable below the flammability limits of hydrogen and highly selective for the production of hydrogen peroxide to produce olefin oxides such as propylene oxide without formation of undesired co-products.

  15. Dual-Functional Antifogging/Antimicrobial Polymer Coating.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Ma, Li; Millians, William; Wu, Tiehang; Ming, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Dual-functional antifogging/antimicrobial polymer coatings were prepared by forming a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN) of partially quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) and polymerized ethylene glycol dimethacrylate network. The excellent antifogging behavior of the smooth coating was mainly attributed to the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance of the partially quaternized copolymer, while the covalently bonded, hydrophobic quaternary ammonium compound (5 mol % in the copolymer) rendered the coating strongly antimicrobial, as demonstrated by the total kill against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial action of the SIPN coating was based on contact killing, without leaching of bactericidal species, as revealed by a zone-of-inhibition test. This type of dual-functional coating may find unique applications where both antimicrobial and antifogging properties are desired. PMID:26977525

  16. Orbifold E-functions of dual invertible polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Wolfgang; Gusein-Zade, Sabir M.; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    An invertible polynomial is a weighted homogeneous polynomial with the number of monomials coinciding with the number of variables and such that the weights of the variables and the quasi-degree are well defined. In the framework of the search for mirror symmetric orbifold Landau-Ginzburg models, P. Berglund and M. Henningson considered a pair (f , G) consisting of an invertible polynomial f and an abelian group G of its symmetries together with a dual pair (f ˜ , G ˜) . We consider the so-called orbifold E-function of such a pair (f , G) which is a generating function for the exponents of the monodromy action on an orbifold version of the mixed Hodge structure on the Milnor fibre of f. We prove that the orbifold E-functions of Berglund-Henningson dual pairs coincide up to a sign depending on the number of variables and a simple change of variables. The proof is based on a relation between monomials (say, elements of a monomial basis of the Milnor algebra of an invertible polynomial) and elements of the whole symmetry group of the dual polynomial.

  17. Lithium adsorption on graphite from density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Felipe; Romero, Aldo H; Ancilotto, Francesco; Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi

    2006-08-01

    The structural, energetic, and electronic properties of the Li/graphite system are studied through density functional theory (DFT) calculations using both the local spin density approximation (LSDA), and the gradient-corrected Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) approximation to the exchange-correlation energy. The calculations were performed using plane waves basis, and the electron-core interactions are described using pseudopotentials. We consider a disperse phase of the adsorbate comprising one Li atom for each 16 graphite surface cells, in a slab geometry. The close contact between the Li nucleus and the graphene plane results in a relatively large binding energy (larger than 1.1 eV). A detailed analysis of the electronic charge distribution, density difference distribution, and band structures indicates that one valence electron is entirely transferred from the atom to the surface, which gives rise to a strong interaction between the resulting lithium ion and the cloud of pi electrons in the substrate. We show that it is possible to explain the differences in the binding of Li, Na, and K adatoms on graphite considering the properties of the corresponding cation/aromatic complexes. PMID:16869593

  18. Dual-template ordered mesoporous carbon/Fe2O3 nanowires as lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junkai; Sun, Chuan-Fu; Gillette, Eleanor; Gui, Zhe; Wang, Yuhuang; Lee, Sang Bok

    2016-06-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) are ideal host materials that can provide the desirable electrical conductivity and ion accessibility for high-capacity oxide electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To this end, however, it is imperative to establish the correlations among material morphology, pore structure and electrochemical performance. Here, we fabricate an ordered mesoporous carbon nanowire (OMCNW)/Fe2O3 composite utilizing a novel soft-hard dual-template approach. The structure and electrochemical performance of OMCNW/Fe2O3 were systematically compared with single-templated OMC/Fe2O3 and carbon nanowire/Fe2O3 composites. This dual-template strategy presents synergetic effects combining the advantages of both soft and hard single-template methods. The resulting OMCNW/Fe2O3 composite enables a high pore volume, high structural stability, enhanced electrical conductivity and Li+ accessibility. These features collectively enable excellent electrochemical cyclability (1200 cycles) and a reversible Li+ storage capacity as high as 819 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. Our findings highlight the synergistic benefits of the dual-template approach to heterogeneous composites for high performance electrochemical energy storage materials.Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) are ideal host materials that can provide the desirable electrical conductivity and ion accessibility for high-capacity oxide electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To this end, however, it is imperative to establish the correlations among material morphology, pore structure and electrochemical performance. Here, we fabricate an ordered mesoporous carbon nanowire (OMCNW)/Fe2O3 composite utilizing a novel soft-hard dual-template approach. The structure and electrochemical performance of OMCNW/Fe2O3 were systematically compared with single-templated OMC/Fe2O3 and carbon nanowire/Fe2O3 composites. This dual-template strategy presents synergetic effects combining the

  19. Dual-Functionalized Nanostructured Biointerfaces by Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presentation of biologically active molecules at interfaces has made it possible to investigate the responses of cells to individual molecules in their matrix at a given density and spacing. However, more sophisticated methods are needed to create model surfaces that present more than one molecule in a controlled manner in order to mimic at least partially the complexity given in natural environments. Herein, we present dual-functionalized surfaces combining quasi-hexagonally arranged gold nanoparticles with defined spacings and a newly developed PEG-alkyne coating to functionalize the glass in the intermediate space. The PEG-alkyne coating provides an inert background for cell interactions but can be modified orthogonally to the gold nanoparticles with numerous azides, including spectroscopically active molecules, peptides, and biotin at controlled densities by the copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne click reaction. The simultaneous presentation of cRGD on the gold nanoparticles with 100 nm spacing and synergy peptide PHSRN in the space between has a striking effect on REF cell adhesion; cells adhere, spread, and form mature focal adhesions on the dual-functionalized surfaces, whereas cells cannot adhere on either monofunctional surface. Combining these orthogonal functionalization methods creates a new platform to study precisely the crosstalk and synergy between different signaling molecules and clustering effects in ligand–receptor interactions. PMID:24856250

  20. Dual-functionalized nanostructured biointerfaces by click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Franziska C; Boehm, Heike; Spatz, Joachim P; Wegner, Seraphine V

    2014-06-17

    The presentation of biologically active molecules at interfaces has made it possible to investigate the responses of cells to individual molecules in their matrix at a given density and spacing. However, more sophisticated methods are needed to create model surfaces that present more than one molecule in a controlled manner in order to mimic at least partially the complexity given in natural environments. Herein, we present dual-functionalized surfaces combining quasi-hexagonally arranged gold nanoparticles with defined spacings and a newly developed PEG-alkyne coating to functionalize the glass in the intermediate space. The PEG-alkyne coating provides an inert background for cell interactions but can be modified orthogonally to the gold nanoparticles with numerous azides, including spectroscopically active molecules, peptides, and biotin at controlled densities by the copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne click reaction. The simultaneous presentation of cRGD on the gold nanoparticles with 100 nm spacing and synergy peptide PHSRN in the space between has a striking effect on REF cell adhesion; cells adhere, spread, and form mature focal adhesions on the dual-functionalized surfaces, whereas cells cannot adhere on either monofunctional surface. Combining these orthogonal functionalization methods creates a new platform to study precisely the crosstalk and synergy between different signaling molecules and clustering effects in ligand-receptor interactions. PMID:24856250

  1. Are Structural Changes Induced by Lithium in the HIV Brain Accompanied by Changes in Functional Connectivity?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christoph; Lehmann, Thomas; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Leistritz, Lutz; Schifitto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Lithium therapy has been shown to affect imaging measures of brain function and microstructure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with cognitive impairment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to explore whether changes in brain microstructure also entail changes in functional connectivity. Functional MRI data of seven cognitively impaired HIV infected individuals enrolled in an open-label lithium study were included in the connectivity analysis. Seven regions of interest (ROI) were defined based on previously observed lithium induced microstructural changes measured by Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC), based on time-variant multivariate autoregressive models, was used to quantify the degree of connectivity between the selected ROIs. Statistical analyses using a linear mixed model showed significant differences in the average node strength between pre and post lithium therapy conditions. Specifically, we found that lithium treatment in this population induced changes suggestive of increased strength in functional connectivity. Therefore, by exploiting the information about the strength of functional interactions provided by gPDC we can quantify the connectivity changes observed in relation to a given intervention. Furthermore, in conditions where the intervention is associated with clinical changes, we suggest that this methodology could enable an interpretation of such changes in the context of disease or treatment induced modulations in functional networks. PMID:26436895

  2. Functional binders for reversible lithium intercalation into graphite in propylene carbonate and ionic liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komaba, Shinichi; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Ozeki, Tomoaki; Okushi, Koji; Yui, Hiroharu; Konno, Kozo; Katayama, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA), and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), which have oxygen species as functional groups, were utilized as a binder for graphite electrodes, and the electrochemical reversibility of lithium intercalation was examined in PC medium and ionic liquid electrolyte, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide dissolved in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (BMP-TFSA). Columbic efficiency of 75-80% with more than 300 mAh g -1 was achieved upon first reduction/oxidation cycle in both electrolytes using these binding polymers, which were significantly improved in comparison to a conventional PVdF binder (less than 45% of columbic efficiency for the first cycle). For the graphite-PVdF electrode, co-intercalation and/or decomposition of PC molecules solvating to Li ions were observed by the electrochemical reduction, resulting in the cracking of graphite particles. In contrast, the co-intercalation and decomposition of PC molecules and BMP cations for the first reduction process were completely suppressed for the graphite electrodes prepared with the polymers containing oxygen atoms. It was proposed that the selective permeability of lithium ions was attained by the uniform coating of the graphite particles with PAA, PMA, and PVA polymers, because the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged lithium ions and negatively charged oxygen atom in the polymer should modulate the desolvation process of lithium ions during the lithium intercalation into graphite, showing the similar functions like artificial solid-electrolyte interphase.

  3. Dual-Language Education for Low-Income Children: Preliminary Evidence of Benefits for Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is an initial examination of possible enhancement of executive function through a dual-language (50:50) education model. The ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 120 children from Grades K, 2, and 4 consisted of approximately equal numbers of children enrolled in dual-language and traditional classrooms. Dual-language…

  4. Improvement of Cycling Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries by Using Magnesium Oxide as a Functional Additive for Trapping Lithium Polysulfide.

    PubMed

    Ponraj, Rubha; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Ahn, Jun Hwan; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-02-17

    Trapping lithium polysulfides formed in the sulfur positive electrode of lithium-sulfur batteries is one of the promising approaches to overcome the issues related to polysulfide dissolution. In this work, we demonstrate that intrinsically hydrophilic magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles having surface hydroxyl groups can be used as effective additives to trap lithium polysulfides in the positive electrode. MgO nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the surface of the active sulfur, and the addition of MgO into the sulfur electrode resulted in an increase in capacity retention of the lithium-sulfur cell compared to a cell with pristine sulfur electrode. The improvement in cycling stability was attributed to the strong chemical interactions between MgO and lithium polysulfide species, which suppressed the shuttling effect of lithium polysulfides and enhanced the utilization of the sulfur active material. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first demonstration of MgO as an effective functional additive to trap lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur cells. PMID:26808673

  5. Incredible RNA: Dual Functions of Coding and Noncoding

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jin-Wu; Choi, Seo-Won; You, Bo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Since the RNA world hypothesis was proposed, a large number of regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many species, ranging from microorganisms to mammals. During the characterization of these newly discovered RNAs, RNAs having both coding and noncoding functions were discovered, and these were considered bifunctional RNAs. The recent use of computational and high-throughput experimental approaches has revealed increasing evidence of various sources of bifunctional RNAs, such as protein-coding mRNAs with a noncoding isoform and long ncRNAs bearing a small open reading frame. Therefore, the genomic diversity of Janus-faced RNA molecules that have dual characteristics of coding and noncoding indicates that the functional roles of RNAs have to be revisited in cells on a genome-wide scale. Such studies would allow us to further understand the complex gene-regulatory network in cells. In this review, we discuss three major genomic sources of bifunctional RNAs and present a handful of examples of bifunctional RNA along with their functional roles. PMID:27137091

  6. Incredible RNA: Dual Functions of Coding and Noncoding.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jin-Wu; Choi, Seo-Won; You, Bo-Hyun

    2016-05-31

    Since the RNA world hypothesis was proposed, a large number of regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many species, ranging from microorganisms to mammals. During the characterization of these newly discovered RNAs, RNAs having both coding and noncoding functions were discovered, and these were considered bifunctional RNAs. The recent use of computational and high-throughput experimental approaches has revealed increasing evidence of various sources of bifunctional RNAs, such as protein-coding mRNAs with a noncoding isoform and long ncRNAs bearing a small open reading frame. Therefore, the genomic diversity of Janus-faced RNA molecules that have dual characteristics of coding and noncoding indicates that the functional roles of RNAs have to be revisited in cells on a genome-wide scale. Such studies would allow us to further understand the complex gene-regulatory network in cells. In this review, we discuss three major genomic sources of bifunctional RNAs and present a handful of examples of bifunctional RNA along with their functional roles. PMID:27137091

  7. Dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline composites improving the capacity and cycle performance of lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yanling; Wei, Pan; Fan, Meiqiang; Chen, Da; Chen, Haichao; Ju, QiangJian; Tian, Guanglei; Shu, Kangying

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline (hPANI/S/PANI) composite was prepared by successively depositing PANI, S, and PANI on the surface of a template silicon sphere. The electrochemical properties of this composite were evaluated using a lithium plate as an anode in lithium/sulfur cells. The hPANI/S/PANI composite showed a discharge capacity of 572.2 mAh g-1 after 214 cycles at 0.1 C, and the Coulombic efficiency was above 87% in the whole charge/discharge cycle. The improved cycle property of the hPANI/S/PANI composite can be ascribed to the fine sulfur particles homogeneously deposited on the PANI surface and sprawled inside the two PANI layers during the charge/discharge cycle. This behavior stabilized the nanostructure of sulfur and enhanced its conductivity.

  8. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  9. Thyroid function and ultrasonically determined thyroid size in patients receiving long-term lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Perrild, H; Hegedüs, L; Baastrup, P C; Kayser, L; Kastberg, S

    1990-11-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 100 manic-depressive patients. Goiter was more common in patients treated with lithium for 1-5 years (44%) or more than 10 years (50%) than in patients who never received lithium (16%). Smoking contributed significantly to thyroid size and goiter. In nonsmoking patients, ultrasonically determined thyroid volume was significantly related to treatment duration. The mechanism behind this increased thyroid volume is unclear, as most patients had normal serum thyrotropin levels and no thyroid autoimmunity. Subclinical or overt hypothyroidism was found in 4% and 21% of patients treated for 1-5 and more than 10 years, respectively. Since few hypothyroid patients had autoimmunity or goiter, lithium may affect the thyroid gland directly. PMID:2221166

  10. Dual-wavelength green laser with a 4.5 THz frequency difference based on self-frequency- doubling in Nd3+ -doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Rico, M L; Capmany, J

    2008-05-01

    We report a dual-wavelength continuous-wave laser at 542.4 and 546.8 nm based on an Nd(3+)-doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Two fundamental infrared (IR) wavelengths at 1084.8 and 1093.6 nm are simultaneously oscillated and self-frequency-doubled to green. The aperiodic domain distribution patterned in the crystal allows for quasi-phase matched self-frequency-doubling of both IR fundamentals while avoiding their sum-frequency mixing. PMID:18451969

  11. Functional Analysis of Dual-Specificity Protein Phosphatases in Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Amand, Mathieu; Erpicum, Charlotte; Gilles, Christine; Noël, Agnès; Rahmouni, Souad

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic perspectives targeting angiogenesis in cancer stimulated an intense investigation of the mechanisms triggering and governing angiogenic processes. Several publications have highlighted the importance of typical dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs) or MKPs in endothelial cells and their role in controlling different biological functions implicated in angiogenesis such as migration, proliferation, apoptosis, tubulogenesis, and cell adhesion. However, among atypical DSPs, the only one investigated in angiogenesis was DUSP3. We recently identified this DSP as a new key player in endothelial cells and angiogenesis. In this chapter we provide with detailed protocols and models used to investigate the role of DUSP3 in endothelial cells and angiogenesis. We start the chapter with an overview of the role of several DSPs in angiogenesis. We continue with providing a full description of a highly efficient transfection protocol to deplete DUSP3 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We next describe the major assays used to investigate different processes involved in angiogenesis such as tube formation assay, proliferation assay and spheroids sprouting assay. We finish the chapter by validating our results in DUSP3-knockout mice using in vivo angiogenesis assays such as Matrigel plug and Lewis lung carcinoma cell subcutaneous xenograft model followed by anti-CD31 immunofluorescence and ex vivo aortic ring assay. All methods described can be adapted to other phosphatases and signaling molecules. PMID:27514814

  12. Dual Functionalized Bacteriophage Qβ as a Photocaged Drug Carrier.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Na; Chen, Luxi; Lee, Jiyong; Gassensmith, Jeremiah J

    2016-09-01

    Proteinatious nanoparticles are emerging as promising materials in biomedical research owing to their many unique properties and our interest focuses on integrating environmental responsivity into these systems. In this work, the use of a virus-like particle (VLP) derived from bacteriophage Qβ as a photocaged drug delivery system is investigated. Ideally, a photocaged nanoparticle platform should be harmless and inert without activation by light yet, upon photoirradiation, should cause cell death. Approximately 530 photocleavable doxorubicin complexes are installed initially onto the surface of Qβ by CuAAC reaction for photocaging therapy; however, aggregation and precipitation are found to cause cell death at higher concentrations. In order to improve solution stability, thiol-dibromomaleimide chemistry has been developed to orthogonally modify the VLP. This chemistry provides a robust method of incorporating additional functionality at the disulfides on Qβ, which was used to increase the stability and solubility of the drug-loaded VLPs. As a result, the dual functionalied VLPs with polyethylene glycol and photocaged doxorubicin show not only negligible cytotoxicity before photoactivation but also highly controllable photorelease and cell killing power. PMID:27351167

  13. Power spectra and autocorrelation functions for surface diffusion of lithium on tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gładyszewski, L.

    1989-04-01

    The surface ionization of lithium on polycrystalline tungsten and ionic thermal desorption are studied by a method based on the Li + ion current noise arising from the fluctuation of the work function as a result of random fluctuations of the Li adsorbate density. The activation energy for surface diffusion and energy of desorption for Li atoms have been determined by measuring the time correlation function of the local ion thermoemission current fluctuations.

  14. Ether-functionalized ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Yushi; Shiotsuki, Taishi; Mizuno, Fuminori; Higashi, Shougo; Takechi, Kensuke; Asaoka, Takahiko; Nishikoori, Hidetaka; Iba, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    Ionic liquids composed of N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium (DEME), N-methyl-N-methoxyethylpiperidinium (PP1.1o2) cations functionalized with ethers, N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium (PP13), and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (P14) cations and the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (TFSA) anion are investigated for application as electrolytes in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. The PP13-TFSA, P14-TFSA and DEME-TFSA ionic liquids have high oxygen radical stability. A comparison of the lithium supply capacity measured using pulse-gradient spin-echo NMR for 7Li nuclei and the oxygen supply capacity measured using electrochemical methods indicates that the oxygen supply is the rate-limiting step for the generation of lithium-oxygen compounds (LiOx) in these ionic liquids with supporting electrolytes. The DEME-TFSA system has the highest LiOx generation activity among the ionic liquid systems examined. We demonstrate the improved performance (output power, discharge-charge capacity and coulombic efficiency) of a Li-O2 battery using the DEME-TFSA system compared with that using the PP13-TFSA system. The improvements observed for the DEME-TFSA system are attributed to the high LiOx generation properties and lithium ion supply.

  15. Dual Function of Phosphoubiquitin in E3 Activation of Parkin.

    PubMed

    Walinda, Erik; Morimoto, Daichi; Sugase, Kenji; Shirakawa, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding parkin, an auto-inhibited E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in the clearance of damaged mitochondria, are the most common cause of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. The mechanism regulating parkin activation remains poorly understood. Here we show, by using isothermal titration calorimetry, solution NMR, and fluorescence spectroscopy, that parkin can bind ubiquitin and phosphomimetic ubiquitin by recognizing the canonical hydrophobic patch and C terminus of ubiquitin. The affinity of parkin for both phosphomimetic and unmodified ubiquitin is markedly enhanced upon removal of the ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain of parkin. This suggests that the agonistic binding of ubiquitin to parkin in trans is counterbalanced by the antagonistic activity of the parkin UBL domain in cis Intriguingly, UBL binding is enthalpy-driven, whereas ubiquitin binding is driven by an increase in the total entropy of the system. These thermodynamic differences are explained by different chemistry in the ubiquitin- and UBL-binding pockets of parkin and, as shown by molecular dynamics simulations, are not a consequence of changes in protein conformational entropy. Indeed, comparison of conformational fluctuations reveals that the RING1-IBR element becomes considerably more rigid upon complex formation. A model of parkin activation is proposed in which E2∼Ub binding triggers large scale diffusional motion of the RING2 domain toward the ubiquitin-stabilized RING1-IBR assembly to complete formation of the active parkin-E2∼Ub transfer complex. Thus, ubiquitin plays a dual role in parkin activation by competing with the inhibitory UBL domain and stabilizing the active form of parkin. PMID:27284007

  16. Functional Organosulfide Electrolyte Promotes an Alternate Reaction Pathway to Achieve High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuru; Dai, Fang; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yue; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-18

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently received great attention because they promise to provide energy density far beyond current lithium ion batteries. Typically, Li-S batteries operate by conversion of sulfur to reversibly form different soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates and insoluble lithium sulfides through multistep redox reactions. Herein, we report a functional electrolyte system incorporating dimethyl disulfide as a co-solvent that enables a new electrochemical reduction pathway for sulfur cathodes. This pathway uses soluble dimethyl polysulfides and lithium organosulfides as intermediates and products, which can boost cell capacity and lead to improved discharge-charge reversibility and cycling performance of sulfur cathodes. This electrolyte system can potentially enable Li-S batteries to achieve high energy density. PMID:26918660

  17. Application of quality function deployment to the design of a lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbleib, L.; Wormington, P.; Cieslak, W.; Street, H.

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is the tool we have selected to aid in the design, development and subsequent commercial manufacture of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride 'D' cell for use in weapons applications. QFD is a structured methodology used to help assure that customer needs and expectations will be satisfied throughout the product life cycle. In this paper, we will describe our application of QFD, some of the lessons learned, and what we expect to be the final product of this QFD exercise.

  18. Application of Quality Function Deployment to the design of a lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Halbleib, L.; Wormington, P.; Cieslak, W.; Street, H.

    1992-12-31

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is the tool we have selected to aid in the design, development and subsequent commercial manufacture of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride ``D`` cell for use in weapons applications. QFD is a structured methodology used to help assure that customer needs and expectations will be satisfied throughout the product life cycle. In this paper, we will describe our application of QFD, some of the lessons learned, and what we expect to be the final product of this QFD exercise.

  19. Application of Quality Function Deployment to the design of a lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Halbleib, L.; Wormington, P.; Cieslak, W.; Street, H.

    1992-01-01

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is the tool we have selected to aid in the design, development and subsequent commercial manufacture of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride D'' cell for use in weapons applications. QFD is a structured methodology used to help assure that customer needs and expectations will be satisfied throughout the product life cycle. In this paper, we will describe our application of QFD, some of the lessons learned, and what we expect to be the final product of this QFD exercise.

  20. Dual photo-functionalized amphiphile for photo-reversible liquid crystal alignments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Yoon; Lee, Sang-A; Park, Minwook; Jeong, Kwang-Un

    2015-01-01

    Without the conventional polymer-based liquid crystal (LC) alignment process, a newly synthesized dual photo-functionalized amphiphile (abbreviated as ADMA1 ) was successfully applied as a robust photo-reversible LC alignment layer by self-assembly and photo-polymerization. The LC alignment layer constructed by directly adding dual photo-functionalized amphiphiles into LC media significantly cuts the manufacturing cost as well as opens new doors for the fabrication of novel electro-optical devices. PMID:25418844

  1. Kidney, thyroid and other organ functions after 40 years or more of lithium therapy: a case series of five patients

    PubMed Central

    Permoda-Osip, Agnieszka; Abramowicz, Maria; Kraszewska, Agnieszka; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Chlopocka-Wozniak, Maria; Rybakowski, Janusz K.

    2016-01-01

    We present the cases of five patients (two men aged 64 years and 79 years) and three women (aged 64 years, 65 years and 75 years) who have received lithium treatment for 40–45 years, with particular regard to kidney and thyroid functions, hypercalcaemia and cognition, in the context of disease course and overall functioning. Lithium was initiated in the early phase of the illness (in three patients within the first 2 years). In four patients, lithium concentration was between 0.60 and 0.65 mmol/l and in one patient, between 0.7 and 0.8 mmol/l. Four were very good lithium responders. One man had stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and the other stage 2/3 chronic kidney disease. All three women had asymptomatic stage 2 chronic kidney disease. One woman had severe thyroid dysfunction (Hashimoto’s disease) with extremely high levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies and was receiving thyroxine. Serum calcium levels were normal or borderline in all five patients, and most cognitive functions were comparable to healthy persons of similar gender, age and years of education. All the patients were professionally active until 55–65 years and their family and social functioning were satisfactory. It was concluded that, in good lithium responders, ultra-long-term treatment with lithium enables good professional and psychosocial functioning, and the possible somatic side effects are manageable. PMID:27536347

  2. Kidney, thyroid and other organ functions after 40 years or more of lithium therapy: a case series of five patients.

    PubMed

    Permoda-Osip, Agnieszka; Abramowicz, Maria; Kraszewska, Agnieszka; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Chlopocka-Wozniak, Maria; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-08-01

    We present the cases of five patients (two men aged 64 years and 79 years) and three women (aged 64 years, 65 years and 75 years) who have received lithium treatment for 40-45 years, with particular regard to kidney and thyroid functions, hypercalcaemia and cognition, in the context of disease course and overall functioning. Lithium was initiated in the early phase of the illness (in three patients within the first 2 years). In four patients, lithium concentration was between 0.60 and 0.65 mmol/l and in one patient, between 0.7 and 0.8 mmol/l. Four were very good lithium responders. One man had stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and the other stage 2/3 chronic kidney disease. All three women had asymptomatic stage 2 chronic kidney disease. One woman had severe thyroid dysfunction (Hashimoto's disease) with extremely high levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies and was receiving thyroxine. Serum calcium levels were normal or borderline in all five patients, and most cognitive functions were comparable to healthy persons of similar gender, age and years of education. All the patients were professionally active until 55-65 years and their family and social functioning were satisfactory. It was concluded that, in good lithium responders, ultra-long-term treatment with lithium enables good professional and psychosocial functioning, and the possible somatic side effects are manageable. PMID:27536347

  3. Three-body loss in lithium from functional renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Floerchinger, S.; Schmidt, R.; Wetterich, C.

    2009-05-15

    We use functional-integral methods for an estimate of the three-body loss in a three-component {sup 6}Li ultracold atom gas. We advocate a simple picture where the loss proceeds by the formation of a three-atom bound trimer state, the trion. In turn, the effective amplitude for the trion formation from three atoms is estimated from a simple effective boson exchange process. The energy gap of the trion and other key quantities for the loss coefficient are computed in a functional renormalization-group framework.

  4. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abed N; Shnaider, Alla; Osher, Yamima; Wang, Dana; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, R H

    2015-12-01

    Reports of toxic effects on the kidney of lithium treatment emerged very soon after lithium therapy was introduced. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is usually self-limiting or not clinically dangerous. Some reports of irreversible chronic kidney disease and renal failure were difficult to attribute to lithium treatment since chronic kidney disease and renal failure exist in the population at large. In recent years, large-scale epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that lithium treatment elevates the risk of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. Most patients do not experience renal side effects. The most common side effect of polyuria only weakly predicts increasing creatinine or reduced kidney function. Among those patients who do experience decrease in creatinine clearance, some may require continuation of lithium treatment even as their creatinine increases. Other patients may be able to switch to a different mood stabilizer medication, but kidney function may continue to deteriorate even after lithium cessation. Most, but not all, evidence today recommends using a lower lithium plasma level target for long-term maintenance and thereby reducing risks of severe nephrotoxicity. PMID:26043842

  5. Interaction of Panax quinquefolius Saponin and Dual Antiplatelets on Vascular Endothelial Function in Rats with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baojun; Liu, Yue; Shang, Qinghua; Zhang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jiangang; Shi, Dazhuo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the interaction of Panax quinquefolius saponin (PQS) and dual antiplatelets (aspirin and clopidogrel) on antiplatelet activity and vascular endothelial function in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly designed into sham group, model group, dual antiplatelet group, and PQS plus dual antiplatelet group. AMI rats were induced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and dual antiplatelet agents and additional PQS to dual antiplatelets were intragastrically administered for 28 days, respectively. The ventricular cavity area and cardiac transverse area ratio in PQS + dual antiplatelet group showed a decreased tendency. PAgT(%) decreased significantly in both dual antiplatelet group and PQS + dual antiplatelet group. TXB2 concentration significantly decreased in dual antiplatelet and PQS + dual antiplatelet groups, whereas 6-keto-PGF1α concentration significantly increased in PQS + dual antiplatelet group. Rats in PQS + dual antiplatelet group demonstrated a significant decrease in plasma ET-1 concentration and an increase in serum NO concentration compared with dual antiplatelet group. The combination therapy of PQS and dual antiplatelets showed some beneficial effects on vascular endothelial function and ventricular remodeling in rats with AMI. PMID:26090462

  6. FeOx and Si nano-dots as dual Li-storage centers bonded with graphene for high performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinlong; Zheng, Jiaxin; Hu, Lin; Tan, Rui; Wang, Kai; Mu, Shichun; Pan, Feng

    2015-09-14

    A novel design based on both FeOx and Si nano-dots bonded with graphene (FeOx·Si@GNS) as dual lithium-storage centers is reported. They show high performance as anode materials for Li-ion batteries with a remarkable reversible capacity of 1160 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1), fast charging/discharging rate, and long cycling life (e.g., a capacity retention of 81.7% at 2.0 A g(-1) after 600 cycles). The origin of these high performances comes from the key factors of the high theoretical specific capacity of FeOx and Si, the shorter Li-ion diffusion distance of both nano-dot structures, fast electron conductivity, and the strain relaxation due to volume variations of both nano-dots bonded with graphene nanosheets during cycles. PMID:26245491

  7. The Role of Control Functions in Mentalizing: Dual-Task Studies of Theory of Mind and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Phillips, Louise H.; Conway, Claire A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicting evidence has arisen from correlational studies regarding the role of executive control functions in Theory of Mind. The current study used dual-task manipulations of executive functions (inhibition, updating and switching) to investigate the role of these control functions in mental state and non-mental state tasks. The "Eyes"…

  8. Strong tendency of homeotropic alignment and anisotropic lithium ion conductivity of sulfonate functionalized zwitterionic imidazolium ionic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rondla, Rohini; Lin, Joseph C Y; Yang, C T; Lin, Ivan J B

    2013-09-17

    Here, we report the first attempt to investigate the liquid crystal (LC) behavior of SO3(-) functionalized imidazolium zwitterionic (SO3(-)ImZI) salts, which display homeotropic alignment on a glass slide without the aid of any aligning approach. Doping lithium salt to ImZI salts lowers the melting temperatures and raises the clearing temperatures substantially to form room temperature ImZILCs. Excellent anisotropic lithium ion conductivity is achieved; which is strengthened by their tendency for homeotropic alignment. PMID:24010889

  9. FeOx and Si nano-dots as dual Li-storage centers bonded with graphene for high performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinlong; Zheng, Jiaxin; Hu, Lin; Tan, Rui; Wang, Kai; Mu, Shichun; Pan, Feng

    2015-08-01

    A novel design based on both FeOx and Si nano-dots bonded with graphene (FeOx.Si@GNS) as dual lithium-storage centers is reported. They show high performance as anode materials for Li-ion batteries with a remarkable reversible capacity of 1160 mA h g-1 at 0.2 A g-1, fast charging/discharging rate, and long cycling life (e.g., a capacity retention of 81.7% at 2.0 A g-1 after 600 cycles). The origin of these high performances comes from the key factors of the high theoretical specific capacity of FeOx and Si, the shorter Li-ion diffusion distance of both nano-dot structures, fast electron conductivity, and the strain relaxation due to volume variations of both nano-dots bonded with graphene nanosheets during cycles.A novel design based on both FeOx and Si nano-dots bonded with graphene (FeOx.Si@GNS) as dual lithium-storage centers is reported. They show high performance as anode materials for Li-ion batteries with a remarkable reversible capacity of 1160 mA h g-1 at 0.2 A g-1, fast charging/discharging rate, and long cycling life (e.g., a capacity retention of 81.7% at 2.0 A g-1 after 600 cycles). The origin of these high performances comes from the key factors of the high theoretical specific capacity of FeOx and Si, the shorter Li-ion diffusion distance of both nano-dot structures, fast electron conductivity, and the strain relaxation due to volume variations of both nano-dots bonded with graphene nanosheets during cycles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03311j

  10. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication. PMID:23948626

  11. Electronic transport properties of one dimensional lithium nanowire using density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Anil; Kumar, Arun; Chandel, Surjeet; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-05-15

    Single nanowire electrode devices are a unique platform for studying as energy storage devices. Lithium nanowire is of much importance in lithium ion batteries and therefore has received a great deal of attention in past few years. In this paper we investigated structural and electronic transport properties of Li nanowire using density functional theory (DFT) with SIESTA code. Electronic transport properties of Li nanowire are investigated theoretically. The calculations are performed in two steps: first an optimized geometry for Li nanowire is obtained using DFT calculations, and then the transport relations are obtained using NEGF approach. SIESTA and TranSIESTA simulation codes are used in the calculations correspondingly. The electrodes are chosen to be the same as the central region where transport is studied, eliminating current quantization effects due to contacts and focusing the electronic transport study to the intrinsic structure of the material. By varying chemical potential in the electrode regions, an I-V curve is traced which is in agreement with the predicted behavior. Agreement of bulk properties of Li with experimental values make the study of electronic and transport properties in lithium nanowires interesting because they are promising candidates as bridging pieces in nanoelectronics. Transmission coefficient and V-I characteristic of Li nano wire indicates that Li nanowire can be used as an electrode device.

  12. Renal function in 153 manic-depressive patients treated with lithium for more than five years.

    PubMed

    Løkkegaard, H; Andersen, N F; Henriksen, E; Bartels, P D; Brahm, M; Baastrup, P C; Jørgensen, H E; Larsen, M; Munck, O; Rasmussen, K

    1985-04-01

    Renal function was examined in 153 manic-depressive patients treated with lithium for more than 5 years, mean 10 years. No significant change was detectable in plasma creatinine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased slightly, but significantly, and not until after 17 years of treatment did the regression line reach the lower confidence limit in the reference material. GFR was generally only moderately decreased. Renal concentrating capacity was significantly reduced during the whole investigation period and did not change with time. GFR was independent of the dosage pattern. The diuresis did not differ markedly in patients given one or three daily doses. In a two-dose group predominantly treated with slow-release tablets, the diuresis was somewhat higher in 75% of the patients but much higher for the rest of the group. Since the prophylactic effect of lithium was the same in the one-dose group (mean dosage 21 mmol/day) as in the two-dose and three-dose groups (mean dosage 27-28 mmol/day), our data indicate that generally employed lithium doses may be reduced somewhat without loss of prophylactic efficacy. PMID:4003100

  13. Electronic transport properties of one dimensional lithium nanowire using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Anil; Kumar, Arun; Chandel, Surjeet; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    Single nanowire electrode devices are a unique platform for studying as energy storage devices. Lithium nanowire is of much importance in lithium ion batteries and therefore has received a great deal of attention in past few years. In this paper we investigated structural and electronic transport properties of Li nanowire using density functional theory (DFT) with SIESTA code. Electronic transport properties of Li nanowire are investigated theoretically. The calculations are performed in two steps: first an optimized geometry for Li nanowire is obtained using DFT calculations, and then the transport relations are obtained using NEGF approach. SIESTA and TranSIESTA simulation codes are used in the calculations correspondingly. The electrodes are chosen to be the same as the central region where transport is studied, eliminating current quantization effects due to contacts and focusing the electronic transport study to the intrinsic structure of the material. By varying chemical potential in the electrode regions, an I-V curve is traced which is in agreement with the predicted behavior. Agreement of bulk properties of Li with experimental values make the study of electronic and transport properties in lithium nanowires interesting because they are promising candidates as bridging pieces in nanoelectronics. Transmission coefficient and V-I characteristic of Li nano wire indicates that Li nanowire can be used as an electrode device.

  14. Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, P.K. )

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5} -3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta} -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular {Delta}5 -3{beta}-HSD, 17 {beta}-HSD activities and gametogenesis.

  15. Lithium accelerates functional motor recovery by improving remyelination of regenerating axons following ventral root avulsion and reimplantation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chao-Fan; Wong, Wai-Man; Li, Wen; Wu, Wutian; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) often involves the complete or partial avulsion of one or more of the cervical nerve roots, which leads to permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. Reimplantation surgery has been attempted as a clinical treatment for brachial plexus root avulsion but has failed to achieve complete functional recovery. Lithium is a mood stabilizer drug that is used to treat bipolar disorder; however, its effects on spinal cord or peripheral nerve injuries have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lithium can improve functional motor recovery after ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in a rat model of BPI. The results showed that systemic treatment with a clinical dose of lithium promoted motor neuron outgrowth and increased the efficiency of motor unit regeneration through enhanced remyelination. An analysis of myelin-associated genes showed that the effects of lithium started during the early phase of remyelination and persisted through the late stage of the process. Efficient remyelination of the regenerated axons in the lithium-treated rats led to an earlier functional recovery. Therefore, we demonstrated that lithium might be a potential clinical treatment for BPI in combination with reimplantation surgery. PMID:27185485

  16. Enhancing lithium-sulphur battery performance by strongly binding the discharge products on amino-functionalized reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Dong, Yanfeng; Li, Hongjiang; Zhao, Zongbin; Bin Wu, Hao; Hao, Ce; Liu, Shaohong; Qiu, Jieshan; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2014-09-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries are one very appealing power source with high energy density. But their practical use is still hindered by several issues including short lifespan, low efficiency and safety concern from the lithium anode. Polysulphide dissolution and insulating nature of sulphur are generally considered responsible for the capacity degradation. However, the detachment of discharge products, that is, highly polar lithium sulphides, from nonpolar carbon matrix (for example, graphene) has been rarely studied as one critical factor. Here we report the strongly covalent stabilization of sulphur and its discharge products on amino-functionalized reduced graphene oxide that enables stable capacity retention of 80% for 350 cycles with high capacities and excellent high-rate response up to 4 C. The present study demonstrates a feasible and effective strategy to solve the long-term cycling difficulty for lithium-sulphur batteries and also helps to understand the capacity decay mechanism involved.

  17. Estimation of bone Calcium-to-Phosphorous mass ratio using dual-energy nonlinear polynomial functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulou, P.; Koukou, V.; Martini, N.; Michail, C.; Kounadi, E.; Kandarakis, I.; Nikiforidis, G.; Fountos, G.

    2015-09-01

    In this study an analytical approximation of dual-energy inverse functions is presented for the estimation of the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, which is a crucial parameter in bone health. Bone quality could be examined by the X-ray dual-energy method (XDEM), in terms of bone tissue material properties. Low- and high-energy, log- intensity measurements were combined by using a nonlinear function, to cancel out the soft tissue structures and generate the dual energy bone Ca/P mass ratio. The dual-energy simulated data were obtained using variable Ca and PO4 thicknesses on a fixed total tissue thickness. The XDEM simulations were based on a bone phantom. Inverse fitting functions with least-squares estimation were used to obtain the fitting coefficients and to calculate the thickness of each material. The examined inverse mapping functions were linear, quadratic, and cubic. For every thickness, the nonlinear quadratic function provided the optimal fitting accuracy while requiring relative few terms. The dual-energy method, simulated in this work could be used to quantify bone Ca/P mass ratio with photon-counting detectors.

  18. Density Functional Investigation of the Thermodynamic Stability of Lithium Oxide Bulk Crystalline Structures as a Function of Oxygen Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Kah Chun; Curtiss, Larry A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.

    2011-12-01

    Density functional theory is used together with classical statistical mechanical analyses to investigate the thermodynamic stability of bulk crystalline LiO2, Li2 O, and Li2O2 as a function of the oxygen environment. The results indicate that lithium peroxide (Li2O2(s)) and superoxide (LiO2(s)) are likely to be stable only under O2-rich conditions with high oxygen partial pressures (PΟ2), whereas Li2O is the most stable at ambient conditions. Additionally, the trends in the density functional calculated equilibrium potential for an ideal reversible Li-O2 couple can be described by an analytical equation as a function of pressure and temperature. As part of this work, we have also calculated the structure and thermodynamics for lithium superoxide. It is found to be stable with respect to lattice vibrations, with an O-O stretching vibration mode very similar to that of the isolated LiO2 molecule and to the O2 - ion radical.

  19. Density functional study of lithium vacancy in Li4SiO4: Trapping of tritium and helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yanli; Lu, Tiecheng; Gao, Tao; Xiang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Qinghua; Yu, Xiaohe; Gong, Yichao; Yang, Mao

    2015-12-01

    Li4SiO4 is a solid breeder material that has important applications in future fusion reactors. The interaction of tritium/helium with lithium vacancy is investigated implementing pseudopotential plane wave method within density functional theory. Models of all types of lithium vacancies and vacancy-tritium/helium defect complexes are created. Possible tritium trap sites in lithium vacancies are examined and the formation energies, vacancy-tritium/helium interaction energies and electronic structures of the defects are calculated. The results indicate that the tritium atom trapped in the lithium vacancy bonds with one of the surrounding oxygen atoms. The formation energies of the vacancy-tritium complexes are in the range of 0.41-1.28 eV under oxygen-rich condition. The interaction energy calculation shows the lithium vacancy has strong tritium trapping capabilities. Moreover, the vacancy-helium complex formation energies are in the range of 1.97-3.43 eV under O-rich condition. The vacancy-helium interaction is relatively weaker, suggesting the helium atom may escape the lithium vacancy more easily.

  20. Scattering equations and virtuous kinematic numerators and dual-trace functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naculich, Stephen G.

    2014-07-01

    Inspired by recent developments on scattering equations, we present a constructive procedure for computing symmetric, amplitude-encoded, BCJ numerators for n-point gauge-theory amplitudes, thus satisfying the three virtues identified by Broedel and Carrasco. We also develop a constructive procedure for computing symmetric, amplitude-encoded dual-trace functions τ for n-point amplitudes. These can be used to obtain symmetric kinematic numerators that automatically satisfy color-kinematic duality. The S n symmetry of n-point gravity amplitudes formed from these symmetric dual-trace functions is completely manifest. Explicit expressions for four- and five-point amplitudes are presented.

  1. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: charge carriers and interactions derived by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Angenendt, Knut; Johansson, Patrik

    2011-06-23

    The solvation of lithium salts in ionic liquids (ILs) leads to the creation of a lithium ion carrying species quite different from those found in traditional nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes. The most striking differences are that these species are composed only of ions and in general negatively charged. In many IL-based electrolytes, the dominant species are triplets, and the charge, stability, and size of the triplets have a large impact on the total ion conductivity, the lithium ion mobility, and also the lithium ion delivery at the electrode. As an inherent advantage, the triplets can be altered by selecting lithium salts and ionic liquids with different anions. Thus, within certain limits, the lithium ion carrying species can even be tailored toward distinct important properties for battery application. Here, we show by DFT calculations that the resulting charge carrying species from combinations of ionic liquids and lithium salts and also some resulting electrolyte properties can be predicted. PMID:21591707

  2. Work function reduction using 8-hydroxyquinolinolato-lithium for efficient inverted devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soohyung; Yi, Yeonjin; Cho, Sang Wan; Lee, Hyunbok

    2016-05-01

    The work function reduction of various transparent conducting materials with 8-hydroxyquinolinolato-lithium (Liq) was investigated using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. The work function of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and indium tin oxide (ITO), was significantly reduced by 1.00, 1.08 and 0.50 eV by depositing a 3.5 nm-thick Liq layer. This originates from the interface dipole having its negative pole pointed toward each electrode. These work function reductions would enhance electron injection or extraction in inverted organic electronic devices. However, the high electron injection barriers from electrodes to Liq itself were observed (2.43-2.53 eV), and thus an ultrathin Liq layer should be used for efficient electron injection through tunneling mechanism.

  3. Scalable Functionalized Graphene Nano-platelets as Tunable Cathodes for High-performance Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Lim, Hee-Dae; Kim, Sung-Wook; Hong, Jihyun; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Dae-chul; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Sungjin; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-01-01

    High-performance and cost-effective rechargeable batteries are key to the success of electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage systems. Extensive research has focused on the development of (i) new high-energy electrodes that can store more lithium or (ii) high-power nano-structured electrodes hybridized with carbonaceous materials. However, the current status of lithium batteries based on redox reactions of heavy transition metals still remains far below the demands required for the proposed applications. Herein, we present a novel approach using tunable functional groups on graphene nano-platelets as redox centers. The electrode can deliver high capacity of ~250 mAh g−1, power of ~20 kW kg−1 in an acceptable cathode voltage range, and provide excellent cyclability up to thousands of repeated charge/discharge cycles. The simple, mass-scalable synthetic route for the functionalized graphene nano-platelets proposed in this work suggests that the graphene cathode can be a promising new class of electrode. PMID:23514953

  4. Functional separator consisted of polyimide nonwoven fabrics and polyethylene coating layer for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chuan; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Shaohua; He, Xinyi; Yang, Pingting; Wu, Dezhi; Sun, Daoheng; Zhao, Jinbao

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a composite membrane with nonwoven polyimide (PI) membrane as structural support and polyethylene (PE) particles coating layer as a thermal shutdown layer, is fabricated as the separator for lithium-ion battery. Different from PI nonwoven membrane, the PE coating PI nonwoven composite membrane (PE-PI-S) not only shows excellent thermal shutdown function, similar to traditional multilayer PP/PE/PP separator, but also exhibits much higher thermal stability, better wettability to the polar electrolyte and lower internal resistance than the PP/PE/PP separator. The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of PE-PI-S increase from 58%, 0.84 mS cm-1 to 400%, 1.34 mS cm-1, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal shutdown function of PE-PI-S can be controlled widely in the temperature range from 120 °C to more than 200 °C while the multilayer PP/PE/PP separator only with a shutdown temperature range from 130 °C to 160 °C. Lithium ion battery with PE-PI-S nonwoven separator also shows excellent stable cycling and good rate performance.

  5. Binding and Diffusion of Lithium in Graphite: Quantum Monte Carlo Benchmarks and Validation of van der Waals Density Functional Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesh, P.; Kim, Jeongnim; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Kent, Paul R. C.

    2014-11-03

    In highly accurate diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) studies of the adsorption and diffusion of atomic lithium in AA-stacked graphite are compared with van der Waals-including density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Predicted QMC lattice constants for pure AA graphite agree with experiment. Pure AA-stacked graphite is shown to challenge many van der Waals methods even when they are accurate for conventional AB graphite. Moreover, the highest overall DFT accuracy, considering pure AA-stacked graphite as well as lithium binding and diffusion, is obtained by the self-consistent van der Waals functional vdW-DF2, although errors in binding energies remain. Empirical approaches based on point charges such as DFT-D are inaccurate unless the local charge transfer is assessed. Our results demonstrate that the lithium carbon system requires a simultaneous highly accurate description of both charge transfer and van der Waals interactions, favoring self-consistent approaches.

  6. Binding and Diffusion of Lithium in Graphite: Quantum Monte Carlo Benchmarks and Validation of van der Waals Density Functional Methods.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, P; Kim, Jeongnim; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Reboredo, Fernando A; Kent, Paul R C

    2014-12-01

    Highly accurate diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) studies of the adsorption and diffusion of atomic lithium in AA-stacked graphite are compared with van der Waals-including density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Predicted QMC lattice constants for pure AA graphite agree with experiment. Pure AA-stacked graphite is shown to challenge many van der Waals methods even when they are accurate for conventional AB graphite. Highest overall DFT accuracy, considering pure AA-stacked graphite as well as lithium binding and diffusion, is obtained by the self-consistent van der Waals functional vdW-DF2, although errors in binding energies remain. Empirical approaches based on point charges such as DFT-D are inaccurate unless the local charge transfer is assessed. The results demonstrate that the lithium-carbon system requires a simultaneous highly accurate description of both charge transfer and van der Waals interactions, favoring self-consistent approaches. PMID:26583215

  7. Shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator with improved thermal and electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkwon; Lee, Won-Yeol; Kim, Ki Jae; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2016-02-01

    A shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator (SFNS) with improved thermal and electrochemical stabilities is prepared by a simple dip coating method for use in lithium-ion battery (LiB) applications. The SFNS shows thermal stability at 200 °C, while providing shutdown functionality at approximately 140 °C, similar to commercial porous polyethylene separators. The surface-coated polymer prevents leakage current problems and in addition, shows air permeability values similar to that of bare nonwoven separators, while maintaining a thickness of about 20 μm, which is a desired attribute of effective separators for LiBs. The SFNS also shows increased electrolyte uptake and higher conductivity, compared to a bare polyethylene separator. Therefore, a cell with the SFNS exhibits higher discharge capacity and better cycle property than that with a porous polyethylene separator. These results suggest that SFNS is an effective separator for high-performance LiBs.

  8. 3D dual-confined sulfur encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets and wrapped with graphene aerogels as a cathode for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yang; Li, Jianyang; Gao, Xianfeng; Wen, Zhenhai; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-01

    Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, including a large reversible capacity of 1328 mA h g-1 in the first cycle, excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 647 mA h g-1 at 0.2 C after 300 cycles) with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency, and a high rate capability of 512 mA h g-1 at 8 C for 30 cycles, which is among the best reported rate capabilities.Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior

  9. An enzyme-responsive controlled release system based on a dual-functional peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Burger, S; O'Connor, A J; Ong, L; Karas, J A; Gras, S L

    2016-04-14

    A new controlled release system was developed by loading a dual-functional peptide (DFP) on a mesoporous silica material. One-pot synthesis produced a DFP that was stimuli responsive, releasing a therapeutic peptide by protease cleavage. The design provides new steps towards smart biomaterials. PMID:26998533

  10. TRICHLOROETHYLENE SORPTION AND OXIDATION USING A DUAL FUNCTION SORBENT/CATALYST IN A FALLING FURNACE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dual function medium (Cr-ZSM-5), capable of physisorbing trichloroethylene (TCE) at ambient temperature and catalytically oxidizing it at elevated temperature (-350 degrees C) was utilized in a novel continuous falling furnace reactor system to store and periodically destroy t...

  11. Executive Function Development and Early Mathematics: Examination of Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Hattie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the convergent validity between a third-party rating scale of executive function (EF) and a task-performance measurement of EF; examined the effects of age, gender, and dual language experience on preschool children's EF skills (inhibition, working memory (WM), and shifting) and on early mathematical skills; and investigated…

  12. Photoionization microscopy of the lithium atom: Wave-function imaging of quasibound and continuum Stark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S.; Harb, M. M.; Ollagnier, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Barillot, T.; Lépine, F.; Bordas, C.

    2016-07-01

    Photoionization of an atom in the presence of a uniform static electric field provides the unique opportunity to expand and visualize the atomic wave function at a macroscopic scale. In a number of seminal publications dating back to the 1980s, Fabrikant, Demkov, Kondratovich, and Ostrovsky showed that this goal could be achieved by projecting slow (meV) photoionized electrons onto a position-sensitive detector and underlined the distinction between continuum and resonant contributions. The uncovering of resonant signatures was achieved fairly recently in experiments on the nonhydrogenic lithium atoms [Cohen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 183001 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.183001. The purpose of the present article is the general description of these findings, with emphasis on the various manifestations of resonant character. From this point of view, lithium has been chosen as an illustrative example between the two limiting cases of hydrogen, where resonance effects are more easily identified, and heavy atoms like xenon, where resonant effects were not observed.

  13. Exposure to Lithium and Cesium Through Drinking Water and Thyroid Function During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Florencia; Bottai, Matteo; Casimiro, Esperanza; Palm, Brita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired thyroid function is a common side effect of lithium medication. Recent data indicate that lithium exposure through drinking water, although providing much lower doses than the medication, may also affect thyroid hormone levels. However, the effects in susceptible groups like pregnant women are not known. Methods: In a population-based mother–child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n = 194), an area with varying concentrations of lithium in the drinking water, we assessed lithium exposure repeatedly during pregnancy by measuring the concentrations in blood using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The markers of thyroid function included thyrotropin (TSH), free/total thyroxine (fT4/T4), free/total triiodothyronine (fT3/T3), thyroglobulin, and transthyretin in serum, sampled at the same time. Multiple potential confounders, including exposure to arsenic, cesium, and boron (elevated in water) as well as selenium and iodine (essential for thyroid function) were considered. Results: The lithium concentrations in blood [median 25 μg/L (0.0036 mmol/L); range 1.9–145 μg/L (0.000027–0.021 mmol/L)] correlated significantly with those in urine and drinking water (rs = 0.84, p < 0.001, and rs = 0.40, p < 0.001, respectively). Using linear quantile regression models, we found a positive association between blood lithium (log2 transformed) and TSH concentrations, particularly in the lowest percentiles of TSH (B = 0.20 mIU/L, [95% confidence interval 0.048–0.35] at the fifth percentile). We also found inverse associations of blood lithium with transthyretin, particularly at the highest percentiles, as well as with fT3 and T3, with less obvious variation across percentiles. Unexpectedly, blood cesium concentrations (median 111 μg/L, range 2.5–711 μg/L) were also inversely associated with fT3 and T3, particularly at the highest T3 percentiles, but not with TSH or transthyretin. Arsenic and boron

  14. The synergistic effect of inert oxide and metal fluoride dual coatings on advanced cathode materials for lithium ion battery applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangjin; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Park, Jun-Ho; Hong, Suk-Gi

    2016-06-21

    The effect of Al2O3/LiF dual coatings on the electrochemical performance of over-lithiated layered oxide (OLO) has been investigated. A uniform coating of Al2O3 and LiF is obtained on the surface of the layered pristine material. The OLO with a dual Al2O3/LiF coating with a ratio of 1 : 1.5 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. An initial discharge capacity of 265.66 mA h g(-1) is obtained at a C-rate of 0.1C. This capacity is approximately 15 mA h g(-1) higher than that of pristine OLO. The capacity retention (92.8% at the 50th cycle) is also comparable to that of pristine OLO (91.4% at the 50th cycle). Coating the cathode with a dual layer comprising Al2O3 and LiF leads to improved charging and discharging kinetics, and prevents direct contact between the cathode and the electrolyte. PMID:27233109

  15. Dual-mode imaging of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ronald X; Huang, Kun; Qin, Ruogu; Huang, Jiwei; Xu, Jeff S; Ding, Liya; Gnyawali, Urmila S; Gordillo, Gayle M; Gnyawali, Surya C; Sen, Chandan K

    2010-01-01

    Accurate assessment of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and vascular function is important for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of many health disorders such as chronic wounds. We report the development of a dual-mode imaging system for non-invasive and non-contact imaging of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and vascular function. The imaging system integrated an infrared camera, a CCD camera, a liquid crystal tunable filter and a high intensity fiber light source. A Labview interface was programmed for equipment control, synchronization, image acquisition, processing, and visualization. Multispectral images captured by the CCD camera were used to reconstruct the tissue oxygenation map. Dynamic thermographic images captured by the infrared camera were used to reconstruct the vascular function map. Cutaneous tissue oxygenation and vascular function images were co-registered through fiduciary markers. The performance characteristics of the dual-mode image system were tested in humans. PMID:21178967

  16. Chemistry of carbon nanomaterials: Uses of lithium nanotube salts in organic syntheses and functionalization of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Jayanta

    The effective utilization of carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphite, has been hindered due to difficulties (poor solubility, poly-dispersity) in processing. Therefore, a high degree of sidewall functionalization, either covalent or non-covalent, is often required to overcome these difficulties as the functionalized nanomaterials exhibit better solubility (either in organic solvents or in water), dispersity, manipulation, and processibility. This thesis presents a series of convenient and efficient organic synthetic routes to functionalize carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanotube salts, prepared by treating SWNTs with lithium in liquid ammonia, react readily with aryl halides to yield aryl-functionalized SWNTs. These arylated SWNTs are soluble in methanol and water upon treatment with oleum. Similarly, SWNTs can be covalently functionalized by different heteroatoms (nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur). Using the reductive alkylation approach, a synthetic scheme is designed to prepare long chain carboxylic acid functionalized SWNTs [SWNTs-(RCOOH)] that can react with (1) amine-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains to yield water-soluble biocompatible PEGylated SWNTs that are likely to be useful in a variety of biomedical applications; (2) polyethyleneimine (PEI) to prepare a SWNTs-PEI based adsorbent material that shows a four-fold improvement in the adsorption capacity of carbon dioxide over commonly used materials, making it useful for regenerable carbon dioxide removal in spaceflight; (3) chemically modified SWNTs-(RCOOH) to permit covalent bonding to the nylon matrix, thus allowing the formation of nylon 6,10 and nylon 6,10/SWNTs-(RCOOH) nanocomposites. Furthermore, we find that the lithium salts of carbon nanotubes serve as a source of electrons to induce polymerization of simple alkenes and alkynes onto the surface of carbon nanotubes. In the presence of sulfide/disulfide bonds, SWNT salts can initiate the single electron

  17. Increased Stability Toward Oxygen Reduction Products for Lithium-Air Batteries with Oligoether-Functionalized Silane Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Lu, Jun; Assary, Rajeev S.; Du, Peng; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Sun, Yang-Kook; Qin, Yan; Lau, Kah Chun; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Redfern, Paul C.; Iddir, Hakim; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2011-12-29

    The successful development of Li-air batteries would significantly increase the possibility of extending the range of electric vehicles. There is much evidence that typical organic carbonate based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries form lithium carbonates from reaction with oxygen reduction products during discharge in lithium-air cells so more stable electrolytes need to be found. This combined experimental and computational study of an electrolyte based on a tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane (1NM3) provides evidence that the ethers are more stable toward oxygen reduction discharge species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR experiments show that only lithium oxides and no carbonates are formed when 1NM3 electrolyte is used. In contrast XPS shows that propylene carbonate (PC) in the same cell configuration decomposes to form lithium carbonates during discharge. Density functional calculations of probable decomposition reaction pathways involving solvated oxygen reduction species confirm that oligoether substituted silanes, as well as other ethers, are more stable to the oxygen reduction products than propylene carbonate. These results indicate that the choice of electrolyte plays a key role in the performance of Li-air batteries.

  18. Increased stability toward oxygen reduction products for lithium-air batteries with oligoether-functionalized silane electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Lu, J.; Assary, R. S.; Du, P.; Wang, H-H.; Sun, Y-K.; Qin, Y.; Lau, K. C.; Greeley, J.; Redfern, P. C.; Iddir, H.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of Li-air batteries would significantly increase the possibility of extending the range of electric vehicles. There is much evidence that typical organic carbonate based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries form lithium carbonates from reaction with oxygen reduction products during discharge in lithium-air cells so more stable electrolytes need to be found. This combined experimental and computational study of an electrolyte based on a tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane (1NM3) provides evidence that the ethers are more stable toward oxygen reduction discharge species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR experiments show that only lithium oxides and no carbonates are formed when 1NM3 electrolyte is used. In contrast XPS shows that propylene carbonate (PC) in the same cell configuration decomposes to form lithium carbonates during discharge. Density functional calculations of probable decomposition reaction pathways involving solvated oxygen reduction species confirm that oligoether substituted silanes, as well as other ethers, are more stable to the oxygen reduction products than propylene carbonate. These results indicate that the choice of electrolyte plays a key role in the performance of Li-air batteries.

  19. Toward practical application of functional conductive polymer binder for a high-energy lithium-ion battery design.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Zhihui; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Meng; Shi, Feifei; Song, Xiangyun; Zheng, Ziyan; Zhou, Xin; Fu, Yanbao; Abdelbast, Guerfi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Zhi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zaghib, Karim; Liu, Gao

    2014-11-12

    Silicon alloys have the highest specific capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the drastic volume change inherent in their use causes formidable challenges toward achieving stable cycling performance. Large quantities of binders and conductive additives are typically necessary to maintain good cell performance. In this report, only 2% (by weight) functional conductive polymer binder without any conductive additives was successfully used with a micron-size silicon monoxide (SiO) anode material, demonstrating stable and high gravimetric capacity (>1000 mAh/g) for ∼500 cycles and more than 90% capacity retention. Prelithiation of this anode using stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) improves the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of a SiO/NMC full cell from ∼48% to ∼90%. The combination enables good capacity retention of more than 80% after 100 cycles at C/3 in a lithium-ion full cell. PMID:25314674

  20. 3D dual-confined sulfur encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets and wrapped with graphene aerogels as a cathode for advanced lithium sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Li, Jianyang; Gao, Xianfeng; Wen, Zhenhai; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-21

    Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, including a large reversible capacity of 1328 mA h g(-1) in the first cycle, excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 647 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 300 cycles) with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency, and a high rate capability of 512 mA h g(-1) at 8 C for 30 cycles, which is among the best reported rate capabilities. PMID:27029963

  1. Biocompatibility of ferroelectric lithium niobate and the influence of polarization charge on osteoblast proliferation and function.

    PubMed

    Carville, N Craig; Collins, Liam; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Lukasz, Bart I; McKayed, Katey K; Simpson, Jeremy C; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the influence of substrate surface charge on in vitro osteoblast cell proliferation on ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) crystal surfaces is investigated. LN has a spontaneous polarization along the z-axis and is thus characterized by positive and negative bound polarization charge at the +z and -z surfaces. Biocompatibility of LN was demonstrated via culturing and fluorescence imaging of MC3T3 osteoblast cells for up to 11 days. The cells showed enhanced proliferation rates and improved osteoblast function through mineral formation on the positively and negatively charged LN surfaces compared to electrostatically neutral x-cut LN and a glass cover slip control. These results highlight the potential of LN as a template for investigating the role of charge on cellular processes. PMID:25504748

  2. Modification Of The Electron Energy Distribution Function During Lithium Experiments On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, M A; Gray, T K; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; McLean, A; Sabbagh, S A; Soukanovskii, V; Stotler, D P

    2011-06-03

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has recently studied the use of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD). Divertor Langmuir probes have also been installed for making measurements of the local plasma conditions. A non-local probe interpretation method is used to supplement the classical probe interpretation and obtain measurements of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which show the occurrence of a hot-electron component. Analysis is made of two discharges within a sequence that exhibited changes in plasma fueling efficiency. It is found that the local electron temperature increases and that this increase is most strongly correlated with the energy contained within the hot-electron population. Preliminary interpretative modeling indicates that kinetic effects are likely in the NSTX.

  3. An indecent proposal: the dual functions of indirect speech.

    PubMed

    Chakroff, Aleksandr; Thomas, Kyle A; Haque, Omar S; Young, Liane

    2015-01-01

    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be "a way to take care of things without all the paperwork." Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. PMID:25079674

  4. Dual yolk-shell structure of carbon and silica-coated silicon for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, L. Y.; Li, H. Z.; Liu, J.; Sun, Z. Q.; Tang, S. S.; Lei, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon batteries have attracted much attention in recent years due to their high theoretical capacity, although a rapid capacity fade is normally observed, attributed mainly to volume expansion during lithiation. Here, we report for the first time successful synthesis of Si/void/SiO2/void/C nanostructures. The synthesis strategy only involves selective etching of SiO2 in Si/SiO2/C structures with hydrofluoric acid solution. Compared with reported results, such novel structures include a hard SiO2-coated layer, a conductive carbon-coated layer, and two internal void spaces. In the structures, the carbon can enhance conductivity, the SiO2 layer has mechanically strong qualities, and the two internal void spaces can confine and accommodate volume expansion of silicon during lithiation. Therefore, these specially designed dual yolk-shell structures exhibit a stable and high capacity of 956 mA h g−1 after 430 cycles with capacity retention of 83%, while the capacity of Si/C core-shell structures rapidly decreases in the first ten cycles under the same experimental conditions. The novel dual yolk-shell structures developed for Si can also be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes. PMID:26039972

  5. Solid state NMR and pair distribution function studies of silicon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Baris

    The universally used negative electrode material in a LIB is carbon, because of its moderate capacity (372 mAhg-1 for graphite), cyclability and high rate capability. However, new, low cost, safe electrode materials with higher capacities are still urgently required for both portable and transportation applications. Silicon anodes are particularly attractive alternatives to carbon with extremely high gravimetric energy densities (3572 mAhg-1). Compared to graphite, silicon has a massive volumetric capacity of 8322 mAhcm-3 (calculated based on the original volume of silicon) which is approximately ten times that graphite. At room temperature, upon electrochemical lithiation, silicon undergoes a crystalline to amorphous phase transition forming a lithiated amorphous silicide phase. Unfortunately, due to the amorphous nature of the lithiated silicides, it is not possible to monitor all the structural changes that occur during lithium insertion/removal with conventional methods such as diffraction. The short range order of the amorphous materials remains unknown, preventing attempts to optimize performance based on electrochemical-structure correlations. In this work, a combination of local structure probes, ex-situ 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray data was applied to investigate the changes in short range order that occur during the initial charge and discharge cycles. The distinct electrochemical profiles observed subsequent to the 1 st discharge have been shown to be associated with the formation of distinct amorphous lithiated silicide structures. A (de)lithiation model consisting of four different mechanisms, each being valid for regions of the charge or discharge process is proposed to explain the hysteresis and the steps in the electrochemical profile observed during lithiation and delithiation of Si. A spontaneous reaction of the fully lithiated lithium silicide with the electrolyte is directly

  6. Complex extraordinary dielectric function of Mg-doped lithium niobate crystals at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, K. A.; Kitaeva, G. Kh.; Kovalev, S. P.; Germansky, S. A.; Buryakov, A. M.; Tuchak, A. N.; Penin, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    We study the dispersion of the extraordinary dielectric function real and imaginary parts in the wide terahertz-frequency range of the lowest polariton branch for bulk LiNbO3 and Mg:LiNbO3 crystals. At frequencies 0.1-2.5 THz, both dispersion parts are measured by means of standard time-domain terahertz spectroscopy, and at higher frequencies up to 5.5 THz, the dielectric function real part is determined using a common scheme of spontaneous parametric down-conversion under near-forward Raman scattering by phonon polaritons. A special approach is applied for measuring of the dielectric function imaginary part at frequencies 1-3 THz, based on the analysis of visibility of three-wave second-order interference under spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The generalized approximate expressions are obtained for complex dielectric function dispersion within the lower polariton branches of LiNbO3 and Mg:LiNbO3. It is shown that the well-known decrease in terahertz-wave absorption of lithium niobate crystals under Mg-doping is caused by changes in the defect structure and reduction of coupling of the terahertz-frequency polaritons with Debye relaxational mode.

  7. Dual Nerve Transfers for Restoration of Shoulder Function After Brachial Plexus Avulsion Injury.

    PubMed

    Chu, Bin; Wang, Huan; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yudong; Hu, Shaonan

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of shoulder function restoration by dual nerve transfers, spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve and 2 intercostal nerves to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve, in patients with shoulder paralysis that resulted from brachial plexus avulsion injury. It was a retrospective analysis to assess the impact of a variety of factors on reanimation of shoulder functions with dual nerve transfers. A total of 19 patients were included in this study. Most of these patients sustained avulsions of C5, C6, and C7 nerve roots (16 patients). Three of them had avulsions of C5 and C6 roots only. Through a posterior approach, direct coaptation of the intercostal nerves and the anterior branch of the axillary nerve was performed, along with accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve. Satisfactory shoulder function recovery (93.83° of shoulder abduction and 54.00° of external rotation on average) was achieved after a 62-month follow-up. This dual nerve transfer procedure provided us with a reliable and effective method for shoulder function reconstruction after brachial plexus root avulsion, especially C5/C6/C7 avulsion. The level of evidence is therapeutic IV. PMID:26835823

  8. Dual hybrid strategy towards achieving high capacity and long-life lithium storage of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose a facile and efficient strategy for mitigating capacity fading of ZnO by co-hybridization of cobalt (Co) and N-doped carbon (C-N). The ZnO-based hybrid (ZnO/Co/C-N) is prepared by calcining metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) under a vacuum condition. In view of the unique microstructure of MOFs used in our case, the resultant hybrid displays a three dimensional (3D) spherical morphology with abundant pore structure. The electrochemical tests indicate that the ZnO/Co/C-N nanospheres exhibit excellent cycling stability, high specific capacity, and good rate capability. This work proposes a facile strategy for the synthesis of nanomaterials with unique microstructure, desired composition and high surface area, endowing an excellent lithium storage performance. The current route is convenient and cost-effective, and therefore it is highly promising for scaled-up production. Moreover, the method we adopted may be extended to synthesize other porous nanomaterials with desired composition.

  9. Fast Fabrication of Flexible Functional Circuits Based on Liquid Metal Dual-Trans Printing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Yang; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2015-11-25

    A dual-trans method to print the first functional liquid-metal circuit layout on poly(vinyl chloride) film, and then transfer it into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate through freeze phase transition processing for the fabrication of a flexible electronic device. A programmable soft electronic band and a temperature-sensing module wirelessly communicate with a mobile phone, demonstrating the efficiency and capability of the method. PMID:26414428

  10. Lithium ion solvation by ethylene carbonates in lithium-ion battery electrolytes, revisited by density functional theory with the hybrid solvation model and free energy correction in solution.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Lansac, Yves; Lee, Hochun; Hong, Seung-Tae; Jang, Yun Hee

    2016-09-14

    Complex formation between lithium (Li(+)) ions and electrolyte molecules would affect the ionic conductivity through the electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We hence revisit the solvation number of Li(+) in the most commonly used ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte. The solvation number n of Li(+)(EC)n in the first solvation shell of Li(+) is estimated on the basis of the free energy calculated by the density functional theory combined with a hybrid solvation model where the explicit solvation shell of Li(+) is immersed in a free volume of an implicit bulk solvent. This new hybrid solvation (implicit and explicit) model predicts the most probable solvation number (n = 4) and solvation free energy (-91.3 kcal mol(-1)) of Li(+) in a good agreement with those predicted by calculations employing simpler solvation models (either implicit or explicit). The desolvation (n = 2) of Li(0)(EC)n upon reduction near anodes is also well described with this new hybrid model. PMID:27506245

  11. Dual representation for the generating functional of the Feynman path-integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-09-01

    The generating functional for scalar theories admits a representation which is dual with respect to the one introduced by Schwinger, interchanging the role of the free and interacting terms. It maps $\\int V(\\delta_J)$ and $J\\Delta J$ to $\\delta_{\\phi_c}\\Delta\\delta_{\\phi_c}$ and $\\int V(\\phi_c)$, respectively, with $\\phi_c=\\int J\\Delta$ and $\\Delta$ the Feynman propagator. Comparing the Schwinger representation with its dual version one gets a little known relation that we prove to be a particular case of a more general operatorial relation. We then derive a new representation of the generating functional $T[\\phi_c]=W[J]$ expressed in terms of covariant derivatives acting on 1 $$ T[\\phi_c] = {N\\over N_0} \\exp(-U_0[\\phi_c])\\exp\\Big(-\\int V({\\cal D}_{\\phi_c}^-)\\Big) \\cdot 1 $$ where ${\\cal D}_{\\phi}^{\\pm}(x)=\\mp\\Delta{\\delta\\over\\delta\\phi}(x)+\\phi(x)$. The dual representation, which is deeply related to the Hermite polynomials, is the key to express the generating functional associated to a sum of potentials in terms of factorized generating functionals. This is applied to renormalization, leading to a factorization of the counterterms of the interaction. We investigate the structure of the functional generator for normal ordered potentials and derive an infinite set of relations in the case of the potential ${\\lambda\\over n!}:\\phi^n:$. Such relations are explicitly derived by using the Fa\\`a di Bruno formula. This also yields the explicit expression of the generating functional of connected Green's functions.

  12. Study on novel functional materials carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) improve high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Xiang, Pan; Wang, Daxiong; Zhou, Zhenwen; Wang, Feijun; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Jianquan

    2014-09-22

    Novel cellulose derivative CMC-Li was synthesized by cotton as raw material. The mechanism of the CMC-Li modified electrode materials by electrospinning was reported. CMC-Li/lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) composite fiber coated with LFP and CMC-Li nanofibers was successfully obtained by electrospinning. Then, CMC-Li/LFP nano-composite fiber was carbonized under nitrogen at a high temperature formed CNF/LFP/Li (CLL) composite nanofibers as cathode material. It can increase the contents of Li+, and improving the diffusion efficiency and specific capacity. The battery with CLL as cathode material retained close to 100% of initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 168 mAh g(-1), which was nearly the theoretical specific capacity of LFP. The cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were characterizing material performance. The batteries have good electrochemical property, outstanding pollution-free, excellent stability. PMID:24906737

  13. Synergistic Ultrathin Functional Polymer-Coated Carbon Nanotube Interlayer for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Hyun; Seo, Jihoon; Choi, Junghyun; Shin, Donghyeok; Carter, Marcus; Jeon, Yeryung; Wang, Chengwei; Hu, Liangbing; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-08-10

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been intensively investigated as a next-generation rechargeable battery due to their high energy density of 2600 W·h kg(-1) and low cost. However, the systemic issues of Li-S batteries, such as the polysulfide shuttling effect and low Coulombic efficiency, hinder the practical use in commercial rechargeable batteries. The introduction of a conductive interlayer between the sulfur cathode and separator is a promising approach that has shown the dramatic improvements in Li-S batteries. The previous interlayer work mainly focused on the physical confinement of polysulfides within the cathode part, without considering the further entrapment of the dissolved polysulfides. Here, we designed an ultrathin poly(acrylic acid) coated single-walled carbon nanotube (PAA-SWNT) film as a synergic functional interlayer to address the issues mentioned above. The designed interlayer not only lowers the charge transfer resistance by the support of the upper current collector but also localizes the dissolved polysulfides within the cathode part by the aid of a physical blocking and chemical bonding. With the synergic combination of PAA and SWNT, the sulfur cathode with a PAA-SWNT interlayer maintained higher capacity retention over 200 cycles and achieved better rate retention than the sulfur cathode with a SWNT interlayer. The proposed approach of combining a functional polymer and conductive support material can provide an optimiztic strategy to overcome the fundamental challenges underlying in Li-S batteries. PMID:27437758

  14. Multi-functional angiographic OFDI using frequency-multiplexed dual-beam illumination.

    PubMed

    Kim, SunHee; Park, Taejin; Jang, Sun-Joo; Nam, Ahhyun S; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2015-04-01

    Detection of blood flow inside the tissue sample can be achieved by measuring the local change of complex signal over time in angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT). In conventional angiographic OCT, the transverse displacement of the imaging beam during the time interval between a pair of OCT signal measurements must be significantly reduced to minimize the noise due to the beam scanning-induced phase decorrelation at the expense of the imaging speed. Recent introduction of dual-beam scan method either using polarization encoding or two identical imaging systems in spectral-domain (SD) OCT scheme shows potential for high-sensitivity vasculature imaging without suffering from spurious phase noise caused by the beam scanning-induced spatial decorrelation. In this paper, we present multi-functional angiographic optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) using frequency-multiplexed dual-beam illumination. This frequency multiplexing scheme, utilizing unique features of OFDI, provides spatially separated dual imaging beams occupying distinct electrical frequency bands that can be demultiplexed in the frequency domain processing. We demonstrate the 3D multi-functional imaging of the normal mouse skin in the dorsal skin fold chamber visualizing distinct layer structures from the intensity imaging, information about mechanical integrity from the polarization-sensitive imaging, and depth-resolved microvasculature from the angiographic imaging that are simultaneously acquired and automatically co-registered. PMID:25968731

  15. Multi-functional angiographic OFDI using frequency-multiplexed dual-beam illumination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SunHee; Park, Taejin; Jang, Sun-Joo; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2015-01-01

    Detection of blood flow inside the tissue sample can be achieved by measuring the local change of complex signal over time in angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT). In conventional angiographic OCT, the transverse displacement of the imaging beam during the time interval between a pair of OCT signal measurements must be significantly reduced to minimize the noise due to the beam scanning-induced phase decorrelation at the expense of the imaging speed. Recent introduction of dual-beam scan method either using polarization encoding or two identical imaging systems in spectral-domain (SD) OCT scheme shows potential for high-sensitivity vasculature imaging without suffering from spurious phase noise caused by the beam scanning-induced spatial decorrelation. In this paper, we present multi-functional angiographic optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) using frequency-multiplexed dual-beam illumination. This frequency multiplexing scheme, utilizing unique features of OFDI, provides spatially separated dual imaging beams occupying distinct electrical frequency bands that can be demultiplexed in the frequency domain processing. We demonstrate the 3D multi-functional imaging of the normal mouse skin in the dorsal skin fold chamber visualizing distinct layer structures from the intensity imaging, information about mechanical integrity from the polarization-sensitive imaging, and depth-resolved microvasculature from the angiographic imaging that are simultaneously acquired and automatically co-registered. PMID:25968731

  16. Use of two-step grafting to fabricate dual-functional films and site-specific functionalized scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jing Zhong; Cork, Jorja; Cooper-White, Justin; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

    2015-02-10

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a widely utilized bioresorbable polymer in tissue engineering applications. However, the absence of intrinsic functional groups in the polymer backbone necessitates the incorporation of functional chemistries to enable the further addition of bioactive molecules to PCL-based surfaces and scaffolds. The current study aimed to incorporate two different functional groups, amine and carboxylate, first on two-dimensional (2D) spin-coated PCL films and, thereafter, throughout all surfaces within three-dimensional (3D) porous PCL-based scaffolds, produced using the thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method, but in a spatially separated manner. Specifically, gamma irradiation induced grafting of acrylic acid (AA) and 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride (AEMA) onto PCL was performed in selected solvents and the resulting substrates were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle measurements to determine the surface free energy. Results demonstrated that stepwise graft copolymerization of AEMA and AA allows the fabrication of dual-functional surfaces, with chemistry depending on the order of grafting of the two monomers. In addition, 3D scaffolds could be decorated exclusively with carboxylate groups in the interior, while the outer surface displayed dual-functionality. This simple surface modification methodology, with the ability to create spatially separated surface functional groups throughout 3D porous scaffolds post their fabrication, has the potential to be applied to many current and future scaffold systems being investigated in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:25598325

  17. Dual-transmitter neurons: Functional implications of co-release and co-transmission

    PubMed Central

    Vaaga, Christopher E; Borisovska, Maria; Westbrook, Gary L

    2014-01-01

    Co-transmission, the ability of a neuron to release multiple transmitters, has long been recognized in selected circuits. However, the release of multiple primary neurotransmitters from a single neuron is only beginning to be appreciated. Here we consider recent examples of co-transmission as well as co-release – the packaging of multiple neurotransmitters into a single vesicle. The properties associated with each mode of release greatly enhance the possible action of such neurons within circuits. The functional importance of dual- (or multi-) transmitter neurons extends beyond actions on postsynaptic receptors, due in part to differential spatial and temporal profiles of each neurotransmitter. Recent evidence also suggests that the dual-transmitter phenotype can be dynamically regulated during development and following injury or disease. PMID:24816154

  18. Dual Functional Peptide-Driven Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Glioma-Targeting and Drug Codelivery.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yuyang; Jiang, Xutao; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Yifei; Ma, Haojun; Guo, Yubo; Zhang, Yujie; An, Sai; Li, Jianfeng; Liu, Lisha; Wu, Yinhao; Liang, Jianying; Jiang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Compared with peripheral tumors, glioma is very difficult to treat, not only because it has general features of tumor but also because the therapy has been restricted by the brain-blood barrier (BBB). The two main features of tumor growth are angiogenesis and proliferation of tumor cells. RNA interference (RNAi) can downregulate VEGF overexpression to inhibit tumor neovascularization. Meanwhile, doxorubicin (DOX) has been used for cytotoxic chemotherapy to kill tumor cells. Thus, combining RNAi and chemotherapy has been regarded as a potential strategy for cancer treatment. However, the BBB limits the shVEGF-DOX codelivery system to direct into glioma. Here, a smart drug delivery system modified with a dual functional peptide was established, which could target to transferrin receptor (TfR) overexpressing on both the BBB and glioma. It showed that the dual-targeting delivery system had high tumor targeting efficiency in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27058780

  19. Accessing Elaborated 2,1-Borazaronaphthalene Cores Using Photoredox/Nickel Dual-Catalytic Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Jouffroy, Matthieu; Davies, Geraint H M; Molander, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    A highly effective method for derivatizing 2,1-borazaronaphthalene cores using ammonium alkylbis(catecholato)silicates via photoredox/nickel dual catalysis is reported. By forging Csp(3)-Csp(2) bonds via this approach, alkyl fragments with various functional groups can be introduced to the azaborine core, affording previously inaccessible heterocyclic isosteres in good to excellent yields. The base-free, room-temperature conditions outlined allow sensitive functional group tolerance, even permitting the cross-coupling of unprotected primary and secondary amines. PMID:26986819

  20. The Theory of Propellers I : Determination of the Circulation Function and the Mass Coefficient for Dual-Rotating Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore

    1944-01-01

    Values of the circulation function have been obtained for dual-rotating propellers. Numerical values are given for four, eight, and twelve-blade dual-rotating propellers and for advance ratios from 2 to about 6. In addition, the circulation function has been determine for single-rotating propellers for the higher values of the advance ratio. The mass coefficient, another quantity of significance in propeller theory, has been introduced.

  1. An investigation of functionalized electrolyte using succinonitrile additive for high voltage lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Liu, Fan; Chen, Yan; Ye, Yusheng; Huang, Yongxin; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

    2016-02-01

    Succinonitrile (SN) has been used as functional additive to improve the thermal stability and broaden the oxidation electrochemical window of commercial electrolyte 1 M LiPF6/EC/DEC (1:1, by volume) for high-voltage LIBs (cathode: Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2, anode: Li). 1 wt % SN-based electrolyte showed a wide electrochemical oxidation window of 5.4 V vs Li+/Li and excellent thermal stability demonstrated by thermogravimetry (TG) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as theoretical analysis according to molecular orbital theory. The LNMO (Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2) battery with 1 wt % SN-based electrolyte showed better cyclability and capacity retention when charged to higher cut-off voltage. The improved battery performance is mainly attributed to the formation of uniform cathode electrolyte interface (CEI) formed by interfacial reactions between the LNMO cathode and electrolyte. The outcome of this work and the continuous research on this subject can generate critical knowledge for designing thermal stability electrolytes for large format lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Ether and siloxane functionalized ionic liquids and their mixtures as electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Santosh N; Tiwari, Aarti; Nagaiah, Tharamani C; Mandal, Debaprasad

    2016-06-28

    The present study deals with an investigation of two novel imidazolium ionic liquids bearing ether-ether (1O2O2-Im-2O1) or ether-siloxane (1O2O2-Im-1SiOSi) functionalities with TFSI anion and their mixtures with propylene carbonate as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The electrochemical stability and conductivity of these novel ILs were analyzed by electrochemical studies, such as cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and impedance measurements. The applicability of these ILs as electrolytes in Li-ion batteries was studied in the presence of a high concentration of LiTFSI (1 mol kg(-1) electrolyte) and the ether-ether IL was shown to possess a high electrochemical stability window (ESW) of 5.9 V and good conductivity of 2.2 mS cm(-1). The electrochemical stability and conductivity were further complimented by self-diffusion of different ions using pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR, viscosity and thermal properties like TGA and DSC analysis. More importantly, we explored the effect of temperature on the electrochemical stability and conductivity of these ILs by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. PMID:27004982

  3. Quinone Derivatives for Lithium-Ion Batteries: First-Principles Density Functional Theory Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seung Soon; Kim, Ki Chul; Liu, Tianyuan; Lee, Seung Woo

    The Li binding thermodynamics and redox potentials of seven different quinone derivatives are investigated as positive electrode candidates for lithium-ion batteries. First, using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the interactions between the quinone derivatives and Li ions, it is found that Li ions are dominantly bound with carbonyl groups of the molecules. Second, it is revealed that the redox chemistry of the quinone derivatives can be tuned by the modification of their chemical structures. Further DFT-based investigations on the redox potentials of the Li-bound quinone derivatives provide an insight on the change in their redox chemistry during the discharging processes. The redox potential and charge capacity are improved by modifying the quinone derivatives with electron-withdrawing carboxylic groups. Through this study, it is also found that the cathodic activity of a quinone derivative during the discharging processes strongly relies on the solvation free energy effect as well as the number of available carbonyl groups for further Li binding. To the best of our knowledge, the changes in the redox potential of the redox-active molecules during the discharging processes is reported for the first time.

  4. Evaluation of sperm mitochondrial function using rh123/PI dual fluorescent staining in asthenospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia☆

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tiejun; Liu, Xiang; Ding, Shangshu; Xing, Junping

    2010-01-01

    Objective The recent advent of flow cytometry (FCM), coupled with fluorescent dyes, has been successfully applied to assess mitochondrial function. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and clinical significance of detecting sperm mitochondrial function and to evaluate sperm mitochondrial function by using Rhodamine 123/propidium (Rh123/PI) dual fluorescent staining and FCM in asthenospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia. Methods Twenty-five fertile men (with normal sperm parameters) and 230 infertile patients were examined. Fifty-five patients of the above 230 patients were selected for idiopathic infertility samples and were divided into two groups: asthenospermia (n = 30) and oligoasthenozoospermia (n = 25). Rh123/PI dual fluorescent staining and FCM were carried out to examine sperm mitochondrial function. Results Significant differences were found between the normal and abnormal semen samples (P < 0.05) when Rh123+/PI−, Rh123−/PI+ and Rh123−/PI− sperm were examined by FCM, but there was no significant difference between the asthenospermia (P = 0.469) and oligoasthenozoospermia group (P = 0.950) when Rh123+/PI− and Rh123−/PI+ sperm were then examined; however, a significant difference was found between the 2 groups (P = 0.003) when Rh123−/PI− sperm were examined. There was no correlation between Rh123−/PI− sperm and semen parameters in the normal group, but there was a significant negative correlation between the sperm concentration and Rh123−/PI− sperm in asthenospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia patients (r = -0.509, -0.660; P = 0.018, 0.038). Conclusion Rh123/PI dual fluorescent staining and FCM can provide reliable information to assess the quality of sperm and reveal differences in mitochondrial membrane potential in asthenospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia. PMID:23554656

  5. Double-Chambered Ferritin Platform: Dual-Function Payloads of Cytotoxic Peptides and Fluorescent Protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoun; Kim, Gwang Seob; Seo, Junyoung; Gowri Rangaswamy, Gunassekaran; So, In-Seop; Park, Rang-Woon; Lee, Byung-Heon; Kim, In-San

    2016-01-11

    Ferritin cage nanoparticles are promising platforms for targeted delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents. One of the main advantages of cage nanoparticles is the ability to display multiple functionalities through genetic modification so as to achieve desired therapeutic or diagnostic functions. Ferritin complexes formed from short ferritin (sFt) lacking the fifth helix can accommodate dual peptide and protein functionalities on N- and C-terminal sites in sFt monomers. The resulting double-chambered NanoCage (DCNC) offers the potential of dual activities; these activities are augmented by the avidity of the ligands, which do not impede each other's function. Here we demonstrated proof-of-concept of DCNCs, loading the tumor-targeting proapoptotic peptide CGKRK(KLAKLAK)2 onto the N-terminal chamber and green fluorescent protein (GFP) onto the C-terminal chamber. The resulting KLAK-sFt-GFP DCNCs were internalized into the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 and induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that DCNCs containing various combinations of peptides and proteins could be applied as therapeutics in different diseases. PMID:26646195

  6. Dual functions of a melanin-based ornament in the common yellowthroat

    PubMed Central

    Tarof, Scott A; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A

    2005-01-01

    Melanin-based ornaments often function as signals in male–male competition, whereas carotenoid-based ornaments appear to be important in female mate choice. This difference in function is thought to occur because carotenoid pigments are more costly to produce than melanins and are thus more reliable indicators of male quality. We examined the role of melanin- and carotenoid-based ornaments in male–male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic passerine. Males display a black facial mask produced by melanin pigmentation and a bright yellow bib (throat, breast and belly) produced by carotenoid pigmentation. In controlled aviary experiments, mask size was the best predictor of both male–male competition and female mate choice, and, therefore, mask size may be regarded as an ornament of dual function. These dual functions may help to maintain the reliability of mask size as an indicator of male quality, despite the potentially low cost of production. The size of the bib was unrelated to male–male competition or female choice, but there was a tendency for females to prefer males with more colourful bibs. We propose that the black mask is important in competition for territories with other males and for attracting females. Our results highlight the need for more studies of the mechanisms of sexual selection in species with ornaments composed of different pigment types. PMID:16024373

  7. An intrinsically disordered domain has a dual function coupled to compartment-dependent redox control.

    PubMed

    Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Cefaro, Chiara; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Gajda, Karolina; Felli, Isabella C; Gallo, Angelo; Pavelkova, Anna; Kallergi, Emmanouela; Andreadaki, Maria; Katrakili, Nitsa; Pozidis, Charalambos; Tokatlidis, Kostas

    2013-02-01

    The functional role of unstructured protein domains is an emerging field in the frame of intrinsically disordered proteins. The involvement of intrinsically disordered domains (IDDs) in protein targeting and biogenesis processes in mitochondria is so far not known. Here, we have characterized the structural/dynamic and functional properties of an IDD of the sulfhydryl oxidase ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) located in the intermembrane space of mitochondria. At variance to the unfolded-to-folded structural transition of several intrinsically disordered proteins, neither substrate recognition events nor redox switch of its shuttle cysteine pair is linked to any such structural change. However, this unstructured domain performs a dual function in two cellular compartments: it acts (i) as a mitochondrial targeting signal in the cytosol and (ii) as a crucial recognition site in the disulfide relay system of intermembrane space. This domain provides an exciting new paradigm for IDDs ensuring two distinct functions that are linked to intracellular organelle targeting. PMID:23207295

  8. A novel method to measure the ambient aerosol phase function based on dual ccd-camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yuxuan; Zhao, Chunsheng; Tao, Jiangchuan; Kuang, Ye; Zhao, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol scattering phase function is a measure of the light intensity scattered from particles as a function of scattering angles. It's important for understanding the aerosol climate effects and remote sensing inversion analysis. In this study, a novel method to measure the ambient aerosol phase function is developed based on a dual charge-coupled device(ccd) camera laser detective system. An integrating nephelometer is used to correct the inversion result. The instrument was validated by both field and laboratory measurements of atmospheric aerosols. A Mie theory model was used with the measurements of particle number size distribution and mass concentration of black carbon to simulate the aerosol phase function for comparison with the values from the instrument. The comparison shows a great consistency.

  9. Chemical engineering of adamantane by lithium functionalization: A first-principles density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Ahmad; Khazaei, Mohammad; Venkataramanan, Natarajan Sathiyamoorthy; Lee, Hoonkyung; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory, we investigated the hydrogen storage capacity of Li-functionalized adamantane. We showed that if one of the acidic hydrogen atoms of adamantane is replaced by Li/Li+, the resulting complex is activated and ready to adsorb hydrogen molecules at a high gravimetric weight percent of around ~7.0%. Due to polarization of hydrogen molecules under the induced electric field generated by positively charged Li/Li+, they are adsorbed on ADM.Li/Li+ complexes with an average binding energy of ~-0.15 eV/H2, desirable for hydrogen storage applications. We also examined the possibility of the replacement of a larger number of acidic hydrogen atoms of adamantane by Li/Li+ and the possibility of aggregations of formed complexes in experiments. The stability of the proposed structures was investigated by calculating vibrational spectra and doing MD simulations.

  10. Binding and Diffusion of Lithium in Graphite: Quantum Monte Carlo Benchmarks and Validation of van der Waals Density Functional Methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ganesh, P.; Kim, Jeongnim; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Kent, Paul R. C.

    2014-11-03

    In highly accurate diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) studies of the adsorption and diffusion of atomic lithium in AA-stacked graphite are compared with van der Waals-including density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Predicted QMC lattice constants for pure AA graphite agree with experiment. Pure AA-stacked graphite is shown to challenge many van der Waals methods even when they are accurate for conventional AB graphite. Moreover, the highest overall DFT accuracy, considering pure AA-stacked graphite as well as lithium binding and diffusion, is obtained by the self-consistent van der Waals functional vdW-DF2, although errors in binding energies remain. Empirical approaches based onmore » point charges such as DFT-D are inaccurate unless the local charge transfer is assessed. Our results demonstrate that the lithium carbon system requires a simultaneous highly accurate description of both charge transfer and van der Waals interactions, favoring self-consistent approaches.« less

  11. Lithium-ion polymer cells assembled with a reactive composite separator containing vinyl-functionalized SiO2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Won-Kyung; Koo, Sang Man; Kim, Dong-Won

    2015-11-01

    Vinyl-functionalized SiO2 particles of different sizes are synthesized and coated onto both sides of a polyethylene separator to prepare a reactive composite separator for lithium-ion polymer cells. The SiO2-coated composite separators exhibit excellent thermal stability due to the presence of heat-resistant silica particles. By using these reactive composite separators and a gel electrolyte precursor, lithium-ion polymer cells composed of a graphite negative electrode and a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 positive electrode are assembled by in-situ chemical cross-linking, and their cycling performance is evaluated. The cells assembled with a reactive composite separator exhibit superior cycling performance to cell prepared with a conventional polyethylene separator due to the strong interfacial adhesion between the electrodes and separator, as well as suppression of deleterious reactions during cycling.

  12. The effects on dynamic balance of dual-tasking using smartphone functions.

    PubMed

    Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare dynamic balance with respect to completing a single task while not using smartrphone function and completing two task while using different smartphone functions, therby preventing falls or injuries resulting from completion of dual tasks. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 36 healthy males and females. The experiment was conducted for five situations: a Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was performed (1) during single-tasking without a smartphone and during dual-tasking with a smartphone, (2) when listening to music using a smartphone, (3) when sending message using a smartphone, (4) when surfing the web using a smartphone, and (5) when playing a game using a smartphone. The condition were the same for all five experimentes. Random selection was done to prevent learing. All experiments were conducted three times, and the averaged values were used for analysis. The SEBT was performed in three directions: anterior, posterolateral, and posterormedial. In consideration the differences in leg length of the subjects, their actual leg length were measured to be used as percentages. Their leg length was measured from the anterior superior iliac spine of the femur to the medial malleolus. [Results] Compared with single task not done using a smartphone, dynamic balance statistically significantly changed for dual tasks done using a smartphone in all three directions. Dynamic balance decreased in all three directions when playing games, sending messages, web surfing, and listening to music. [Conclusion] Completing two tasks using a smartphone reduced cognitive ability, decreasing dynamic balance. Therefore, performing a single task rather than using the diverse functions of a smartphone while walking or working is considered a factor that can prevent falls and injuries. PMID:25729208

  13. The effects on dynamic balance of dual-tasking using smartphone functions

    PubMed Central

    Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare dynamic balance with respect to completing a single task while not using smartrphone function and completing two task while using different smartphone functions, therby preventing falls or injuries resulting from completion of dual tasks. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 36 healthy males and females. The experiment was conducted for five situations: a Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was performed (1) during single-tasking without a smartphone and during dual-tasking with a smartphone, (2) when listening to music using a smartphone, (3) when sending message using a smartphone, (4) when surfing the web using a smartphone, and (5) when playing a game using a smartphone. The condition were the same for all five experimentes. Random selection was done to prevent learing. All experiments were conducted three times, and the averaged values were used for analysis. The SEBT was performed in three directions: anterior, posterolateral, and posterormedial. In consideration the differences in leg length of the subjects, their actual leg length were measured to be used as percentages. Their leg length was measured from the anterior superior iliac spine of the femur to the medial malleolus. [Results] Compared with single task not done using a smartphone, dynamic balance statistically significantly changed for dual tasks done using a smartphone in all three directions. Dynamic balance decreased in all three directions when playing games, sending messages, web surfing, and listening to music. [Conclusion] Completing two tasks using a smartphone reduced cognitive ability, decreasing dynamic balance. Therefore, performing a single task rather than using the diverse functions of a smartphone while walking or working is considered a factor that can prevent falls and injuries. PMID:25729208

  14. High-sensitivity high-resolution dual-function signal and time digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwana, Saad; Gupta, Deepnarayan; Kirichenko, Alex F.; Oku, Takayuki; Otani, Chiko; Sato, Hiromi; Shimizu, Hirohiko M.

    2002-03-01

    We have developed a dual-function high sensitivity/high-resolution digitizer. It consists of a superconducting digital integrated circuit, which can operate both as a time-to-digital converter (TDC) and a flux counting analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The TDC has a 30 ps multihit time resolution. The ADC has been designed with a superconducting quantum interference device based detector for a 1 μA full scale range. This digitizer is extremely useful in many applications, e.g., for time-of-flight measurements, or as a radiation resistant, low-noise, low-power ADC for detector readout.

  15. The Dual Role of Oxygen Functions in Coal Pretreatment and Liquefaction: Crosslinking and Cleavage Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Serio; Erik Kroo; Sylvie Charpenay; Peter Solomon

    1993-09-30

    The overall objective of this project was to elucidate and model the dual role of oxygen functions in thermal pretreatment and liquefaction of low rank coals through the application of analytical techniques and theoretical models. The project was an integrated study of model polymers representative of coal structures, raw coals of primarily low rank, and selectively modified coals in order to provide specific information relevant to the reactions of real coals. The investigations included liquefaction experiments in microautoclave reactors, along with extensive analysis of intermediate solid, liquid and gaseous products. Attempts were made to incorporate the results of experiments on the different systems into a liquefaction model.

  16. Electrostatic performance improvement of dual material cylindrical gate MOSFET using work-function modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Biswajit; Dash, Sidhartha; Mishra, Guru Prasad

    2016-09-01

    In a continuous effort to increase the DC and RF figure-of-merits (FOMs), multigate MOSFETs have evolved from classical planar device into a gate all around structure. The unique design with accuracy in device performance has made it a cutting edge device to overcome the scaling and performance barrier of the present VLSI technology. The fabrication process of a surface channel device with proper threshold voltage (Vth) directly depends upon the work-function of the gate electrode. By keeping it in mind, a metal gate with linearly modulated work-function (5-4.2 ev) along the z-axis in a cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET is introduced. This work demonstrates the potential benefits of work-function modulation based dual material cylindrical gate MOSFET (WMDMCG) in terms of DC performance characteristics. The present model provides improved DC performance as compared to conventional dual material cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET (DMCG) and the results obtained are validated with TCAD device simulator from Synopsys.

  17. High angular momentum states of lithium atom, studied with symmetry-projected explicitly correlated Gaussian lobe functions

    SciTech Connect

    Strasburger, Krzysztof

    2014-07-28

    Method of construction of wave functions approximating eigenfunctions of the L{sup ^2} operator is proposed for high angular momentum states of few-electron atoms. Basis functions are explicitly correlated Gaussian lobes, projected onto irreducible representations of finite point groups. Variational calculations have been carried out for the lowest states of lithium atom, with quantum number L in the range from 1 to 8. Nonrelativistic energies accurate to several dozens of nanohartree have been obtained. For 2{sup 2}P, 3{sup 2}D, and 4{sup 2}F states they agree well with the reference results. Transition frequencies have been computed and compared with available experimental data.

  18. Combining the pair distribution function and computational methods to understand lithium insertion in Brookite (TiO2).

    PubMed

    Dambournet, Damien; Chapman, Karena W; Koudriachova, Marina V; Chupas, Peter J; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2011-07-01

    X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) methods and first-principles calculations have been combined to probe the structure of electrochemically lithiated TiO(2) Brookite. Traditional powder diffraction studies suggest that Brookite amorphizes upon lithium insertion, with the Bragg reflections disappearing. However, PDF analysis indicates that the TiO(2) framework connectivity is maintained throughout lithium intercalation, with expansions along the a and b axes. The Li(+) ions within the framework are poorly observed in the X-ray PDF, which is dominated by contributions from the more strongly scattering Ti and O atoms. First-principles calculations were used to identify energetically favorable Li(+) sites within the Brookite lattice and to develop a complete structural model of the lithiated material. This model replicates the local structure and decreased intermediate range order observed in the PDF data. The analysis suggests that local structural distortions of the TiO(2) lattice accommodate lithium in five-coordinate sites. This structural model is consistent with the observed electrochemical behavior. PMID:21627151

  19. Combining pair distribution function and computational methods to understand lithium insertion in brookite (TiO{sub 2}).

    SciTech Connect

    Dambournet, D.; Chapman, K. W.; Koudriachova, M. V.; Chupas, P. J.; Belharouak, I.; Amine, K.

    2011-07-04

    X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) methods and first-principles calculations have been combined to probe the structure of electrochemically lithiated TiO{sub 2} Brookite. Traditional powder diffraction studies suggest that Brookite amorphizes upon lithium insertion, with the Bragg reflections disappearing. However, PDF analysis indicates that the TiO{sub 2} framework connectivity is maintained throughout lithium intercalation, with expansions along the a and b axes. The Li{sup +} ions within the framework are poorly observed in the X-ray PDF, which is dominated by contributions from the more strongly scattering Ti and O atoms. First-principles calculations were used to identify energetically favorable Li{sup +} sites within the Brookite lattice and to develop a complete structural model of the lithiated material. This model replicates the local structure and decreased intermediate range order observed in the PDF data. The analysis suggests that local structural distortions of the TiO{sub 2} lattice accommodate lithium in five-coordinate sites. This structural model is consistent with the observed electrochemical behavior.

  20. Dual functional sensing mechanism in SnO₂-ZnO core-shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Woo; Katoch, Akash; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sang Sub

    2014-06-11

    We report a dual functional sensing mechanism for ultrasensitive chemoresistive sensors based on SnO2-ZnO core-shell nanowires (C-S NWs) for detection of trace amounts of reducing gases. C-S NWs were synthesized by a two-step process, in which core SnO2 nanowires were first prepared by vapor-liquid-solid growth and ZnO shell layers were subsequently deposited by atomic layer deposition. The radial modulation of the electron-depleted shell layer was accomplished by controlling its thickness. The sensing capabilities of C-S NWs were investigated in terms of CO, which is a typical reducing gas. At an optimized shell thickness, C-S NWs showed the best CO sensing ability, which was quite superior to that of pure SnO2 nanowires without a shell. The dual functional sensing mechanism is proposed as the sensing mechanism in these nanowires and is based on the combination of the radial modulation effect of the electron-depleted shell and the electric field smearing effect. PMID:24836937

  1. A dual change model of life satisfaction and functioning for individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Melissa; Pahwa, Rohini; Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S

    2012-08-01

    Despite the notion that increases in functioning should be associated with increases in life satisfaction in schizophrenia, research has often found no association between the two. Dual change models of global and domain-specific life satisfaction and functioning were examined in 145 individuals with schizophrenia receiving community-based services over 12 months. Functioning and satisfaction were measured using the Role Functioning Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Data were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Improvement in global life satisfaction was associated with improvement in overall functioning over time. Satisfaction with living situation also improved as independent functioning improved. Work satisfaction did not improve as work functioning improved. Although social functioning improved, satisfaction with social relationships did not. The link between overall functioning and global life satisfaction provides support for a recovery-based orientation to community based psychosocial rehabilitation services. When examining sub-domains, the link between outcomes and subjective experience suggests a more complex picture than previously found. These findings are crucial to interventions and programs aimed at improving functioning and the subjective experiences of consumers recovering from mental illness. Interventions that show improvements in functional outcomes can assume that they will show concurrent improvements in global life satisfaction as well and in satisfaction with independent living. Interventions geared toward improving social functioning will need to consider the complexity of social relationships and how they affect satisfaction associated with personal relationships. Interventions geared towards improving work functioning will need to consider how the quality and level of work affect satisfaction with employment. PMID:22591780

  2. A dual physiological character for sexual function: libido and sexual pheromones.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G

    2009-12-01

    Human sexual response is a complex function involving many cerebral, spinal and peripheral aspects; the last are relatively known and benefit from good pharmacological control, as in the case of erectile dysfunction. Spinal cord sexual reflexes also have a good theoretical and experimental description. There is minimal understanding of the cerebral sexual processes (libido, sexual arousal, orgasm). The initial perspective was that the cerebral areas implied in sexuality exert descending stimulatory and inhibitory influences on spinal cord sexual centres/reflexes. This was a wrong supposition, which inhibited progress in this subject, with a considerable impact on a subject's individual and social life. A new approach to sexual function arises from the idea that simple neurological structures can support only simple functions, while a more complex function requires correspondingly complex anatomical structures. For this reason the spinal cord would not be able to realise the integration of multiple (spinal and psychosensorial) stimuli into a unique and coherent ejaculation response. Consequently, all mechanisms implied in human sexuality would be cerebral processes, ejaculation reflexes ascending in evolution to the cerebral level. This new evolutionary concept was developed after 2001 in five distinct articles on the cerebral duality of sexual arousal, sexual hormones, ejaculation and serotonergic receptors. During this period other published results suggested a possible cerebral duality for sexual pheromones and libido in humans. All these dual physiological aspects are integrated in this review into one neurophysiological model, thus trying to further develop the new concepts of sexual function and perhaps relational behaviour. In conclusion, ejaculation is a dual cerebral process with arousal sensation (hormonally modulated) and libido perception (pheromonally modulated) as the afferent part. Two neurophysiological axes could exist in both men and women. In this

  3. Upper-Extremity Dual-Task Function: An Innovative Method to Assess Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Najafi, Bijan; Reiman, Eric M.; Mager, Reine M.; Veldhuizen, Jaimeson K.; O’Connor, Kathy; Zamrini, Edward; Mohler, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in orchestrating simultaneous tasks (i.e., dual-tasking) have been associated with cognitive impairments in older adults. Gait tests have been commonly used as the motor task component for dual-task assessments; however, many older adults have mobility impairments or there is a lack of space in busy clinical settings. We assessed an upper-extremity function (UEF) test as an alternative motor task to study the dual-task motor performance in older adults. Methods: Older adults (≥65 years) were recruited, and cognitive ability was measured using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA). Participants performed repetitive elbow flexion with their maximum pace, once single-task, and once while counting backward by one (dual-task). Single- and dual-task gait tests were also performed with normal speed. Three-dimensional kinematics was measured both from upper-extremity and lower-extremity using wearable sensors to determine UEF and gait parameters. Parameters were compared between the cognitively impaired and healthy groups using analysis of variance tests, while controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Correlations between UEF and gait parameters for dual-task and dual-task cost were assessed using linear regression models. Results: Sixty-seven older adults were recruited (age = 83 ± 10 years). Based on MoCA, 10 (15%) were cognitively impaired. While no significant differences were observed in the single-task condition, within the dual-task condition, the cognitively impaired group showed significantly less arm flexion speed (62%, d = 1.51, p = 0.02) and range of motion (27%, d = 0.93, p = 0.04), and higher speed variability (88%, d = 1.82, p < 0.0001) compared to the cognitively intact group, when adjusted with age, gender, and BMI. Significant correlations were observed between UEF speed parameters and gait stride velocity for dual-task condition (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001) and dual-task cost (r = 0.28, p = 0.03). Conclusion: We

  4. The dual roles of functional groups in the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Li, Qin

    2016-03-01

    The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp3 carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found that the functional groups on GQDs play dual roles in the overall emission: (1) they enable π* --> n and σ* --> n transitions, resulting in a molecular type of PL, spectrally invariable with change of particle size or excitation energy; (2) similar to defects and sp3 carbon, functional groups also induce structural deformation to the aromatic core, leading to mid-gap states or, in other words, energy traps, causing π* --> mid-gap states --> π transitions. Therefore, functional groups contribute to both the blue edge and the red shoulder of GQDs' PL spectra. The new insights on the role of functional groups in PL of fluorescent nanocarbons will enable better designs of this new class of materials.The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp3 carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found

  5. AMDE-1 Is a Dual Function Chemical for Autophagy Activation and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Yang, Zuolong; Vollmer, Laura L.; Gao, Ying; Fu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Cui; Chen, Xiaoyun; Liu, Peiqing; Vogt, Andreas; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is the process by which cytosolic components and organelles are delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Autophagy plays important roles in cellular homeostasis and disease pathogenesis. Small chemical molecules that can modulate autophagy activity may have pharmacological value for treating diseases. Using a GFP-LC3-based high content screening assay we identified a novel chemical that is able to modulate autophagy at both initiation and degradation levels. This molecule, termed as Autophagy Modulator with Dual Effect-1 (AMDE-1), triggered autophagy in an Atg5-dependent manner, recruiting Atg16 to the pre-autophagosomal site and causing LC3 lipidation. AMDE-1 induced autophagy through the activation of AMPK, which inactivated mTORC1 and activated ULK1. AMDE-1did not affect MAP kinase, JNK or oxidative stress signaling for autophagy induction. Surprisingly, treatment with AMDE-1 resulted in impairment in autophagic flux and inhibition of long-lived protein degradation. This inhibition was correlated with a reduction in lysosomal degradation capacity but not with autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Further analysis indicated that AMDE-1 caused a reduction in lysosome acidity and lysosomal proteolytic activity, suggesting that it suppressed general lysosome function. AMDE-1 thus also impaired endocytosis-mediated EGF receptor degradation. The dual effects of AMDE-1 on autophagy induction and lysosomal degradation suggested that its net effect would likely lead to autophagic stress and lysosome dysfunction, and therefore cell death. Indeed, AMDE-1 triggered necroptosis and was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer cells. In conclusion, this study identified a new class of autophagy modulators with dual effects, which can be explored for potential uses in cancer therapy. PMID:25894744

  6. A multi functional binder with lithium ion conductive polymer and polysulfide absorbents to improve cycleability of lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaoran; Cai, Wenlong; Liu, Binhong; Li, Zhoupeng

    2015-10-01

    A Li-S battery with enhanced cycleability is developed using a multi-functional binder with cation-conductive polymer and polysulfide absorbents. The binder is composed of Li+-Nafion, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and nano silica. Macroporous carbon (MPC) is employed for sulfur retention in cathode. The multi-functional binder regulates tetrasulfide movement only in MPC pores during lithiation and delithiation cycling. The resultant Li-S battery shows excellent performance in discharge capacity and rate cycleability. The sulfur lithiation capacity reaches 1373 mAh g-1 at 0.2C (0.335 A g-1 of S) and 470 mAh g-1 at 5C (8.375 A g-1 of S). A rate capacity as high as 809 mAh g-1 has been achieved after 300 cycles at 1C charge-discharge rate. The Li-S battery showed very low capacity degradation rate of 0.08% per cycle at 1C rate.

  7. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    PubMed

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. PMID:25289704

  8. Pristine graphdiyne-hybridized photocatalysts using graphene oxide as a dual-functional coupling reagent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhu, Mingshan; Chen, Penglei; Li, Yongjun; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yuliang; Liu, Minghua

    2015-01-14

    Advanced functional hybrids based on carbon materials (CMs) represent one of the main achievements of scientific communities. To achieve the hybridization, pristine CMs have to be chemically modified, or surfactants, which are nonfunctional for the performances of the hybrids, have to be employed as a cross-linkage. The construction of pristine CM-based hybrids using dual-functional coupling reagents, which work not only as a glue for hybridization but also as a functional component for enhanced performance, is strongly desired. Here, we report that pristine graphdiyne (GD), a recently synthesized new carbon allotrope, can be facilely hybridized with Ag/AgBr using graphene oxide (GO) as a cross-linkage. We demonstrate that compared to Ag/AgBr, Ag/AgBr/GO, and Ag/AgBr/GD, our Ag/AgBr/GO/GD exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic performance toward the degradation of methyl orange (MO) pollutant under visible light irradiation. In our Ag/AgBr/GO/GD, GO serves not only as a glue for a successful hybridization, but also as a functional component for enhanced catalytic performance. Beyond GD, our work likely paves a new avenue for the fabrication of advanced functional hybrids based on pristine carbon allotropes, wherein desired functions or properties might be achieved by choosing desired CMs and desired hybridized components. PMID:25418916

  9. Dual Phase Li4Ti5O12–TiO2 Nanowire Arrays As Integrated Anodes For High-rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jin; Chabot, Victor; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Xingcheng; Chen, Zhongwei

    2014-08-19

    Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is well known as a zero strain material inherently, which provides excellent long cycle stability as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries. However, the low specific capacity (175 mA h g-1) limits it to power batteries although the low electrical conductivity is another intrinsic issue need to be solved. In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange route to synthesize the self-supported dual-phase Li4Ti5O12–TiO2 nanowire arrays to further improve its capacity as well as rate capability. The ratio of Li4Ti5O12 to TiO2 in the dual phase Li4Ti5O12–TiO2 nanowire is around 2:1. The introduction of TiO2 into Li4Ti5O12 increases the specific capacity. More importantly, by interface design, it creates a dual-phase nanostructure with high grain boundary density that facilitates both electron and Li ion transport. Compared with phase-pure nanowire Li4Ti5O12 and TiO2 nanaowire arrays, the dual-phase nanowire electrode yielded superior rate capability (135.5 at 5 C, 129.4 at 10 C, 120.2 at 20 C and 115.5 mA h g-1 at 30 C). In-situ transmission electron microscope clearly shows the near zero deformation of the dual phase structure, which explains its excellent cycle stability.

  10. Establishing dual electrogenerated chemiluminescence and multicolor electrochromism in functional ionic transition-metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Puodziukynaite, Egle; Oberst, Justin L; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2012-01-18

    A combination of electrochromism and electroluminescence in functional materials could lead to single-layer dual electrochromic/electroluminescent (EC/EL) display devices, capable of simultaneous operation in emissive and reflective modes. Whereas such next generation displays could provide optimal visibility in any ambient lighting situation, materials available that exhibit such characteristics in the active layer are limited due to the required intrinsic multifunctionality (i.e., redox activity, electroluminescence, electrochromism, and ion conductivity) and to date can only be achieved via the rational design of ionic transition-metal complexes. Reported herein is the synthesis and characterization of a new family of acrylate-containing ruthenium (tris)bipyridine-based coordination complexes with multifunctional characteristics. Potential use of the presented compounds in EC/EL devices is established, as they are applied as cross-linked electrochromic films and electrochemiluminescent layers in light-emitting electrochemical cell devices. Electrochromic switching of the polymeric networks between yellow, orange, green, brown and transmissive states is demonstrated, and electrochemiluminescent devices based on the complexes synthesized show red-orange to deep red emission with λ(max) ranging from 680 to 722 nm and luminance up to 135 cd/m(2). Additionally, a dual EC/EL device prototype is presented where light emission and multicolor electrochromism occur from the same pixel comprised of a single active layer, demonstrating a true combination of these properties in ionic transition-metal complexes. PMID:22239285

  11. Establishing Dual Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence and Multicolor Electrochromism in Functional Ionic Transition-Metal Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Puodziukynaite, Egle; Oberst, Justin L.; Dyer, Aubrey L.; Reynolds, John R.

    2011-12-29

    A combination of electrochromism and electroluminescence in functional materials could lead to single-layer dual electrochromic/electroluminescent (EC/EL) display devices, capable of simultaneous operation in emissive and reflective modes. Whereas such next generation displays could provide optimal visibility in any ambient lighting situation, materials available that exhibit such characteristics in the active layer are limited due to the required intrinsic multifunctionality (i.e., redox activity, electroluminescence, electrochromism, and ion conductivity) and to date can only be achieved via the rational design of ionic transition-metal complexes. Reported herein is the synthesis and characterization of a new family of acrylate-containing ruthenium (tris)bipyridine-based coordination complexes with multifunctional characteristics. Potential use of the presented compounds in EC/EL devices is established, as they are applied as cross-linked electrochromic films and electrochemiluminescent layers in light-emitting electrochemical cell devices. Electrochromic switching of the polymeric networks between yellow, orange, green, brown and transmissive states is demonstrated, and electrochemiluminescent devices based on the complexes synthesized show red-orange to deep red emission with λmax ranging from 680 to 722 nm and luminance up to 135 cd/m². Additionally, a dual EC/EL device prototype is presented where light emission and multicolor electrochromism occur from the same pixel comprised of a single active layer, demonstrating a true combination of these properties in ionic transition-metal complexes.

  12. Establishing Dual Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence and Multi-Color Electrochromism in Functional Ionic Transition Metal Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Puodziukynaite, Egle; Oberst, Justin L.; Dyer, Aubrey L.; Reynolds, John R.

    2012-01-18

    A combination of electrochromism and electroluminescence in functional materials could lead to single-layer dual electrochromic/electroluminescent (EC/EL) display devices, capable of simultaneous operation in emissive and reflective modes. Whereas such next generation displays could provide optimal visibility in any ambient lighting situation, materials available that exhibit such characteristics in the active layer are limited due to the required intrinsic multifunctionality (i.e., redox activity, electroluminescence, electrochromism, and ion conductivity) and to date can only be achieved via the rational design of ionic transition-metal complexes. Reported herein is the synthesis and characterization of a new family of acrylate-containing ruthenium (tris)bipyridine-based coordination complexes with multifunctional characteristics. Potential use of the presented compounds in EC/EL devices is established, as they are applied as cross-linked electrochromic films and electrochemiluminescent layers in light-emitting electrochemical cell devices. Electrochromic switching of the polymeric networks between yellow, orange, green, brown and transmissive states is demonstrated, and electrochemiluminescent devices based on the complexes synthesized show red-orange to deep red emission with λ{sub max} ranging from 680 to 722 nm and luminance up to 135 cd/m{sup 2}. Additionally, a dual EC/EL device prototype is presented where light emission and multicolor electrochromism occur from the same pixel comprised of a single active layer, demonstrating a true combination of these properties in ionic transition-metal complexes.

  13. Enzyme-guided plasmonic biosensor based on dual-functional nanohybrid for sensitive detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Lida; Tang, Longhua; Lin, Lei; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2015-08-15

    Rapid and sensitive methodologies for the detection of protein are in urgent requirement for clinic diagnostics. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metal nanostructures has the potential to circumvent this problem due to its sensitive optical properties and strong electromagnetic near-field enhancements. In this work, an enzyme mediated plasmonic biosensor on the basis of a dual-functional nanohybrid was developed for the detection of thrombin. By utilizing LSPR-responsive nanohybrid and anaptamer-enzyme conjugated reporting probe, the sensing platform brings enhanced signal, stability as well as simplicity. Enzymatic reaction catalyzed the reduction of Au(3+) to Au° in situ, further leading to the rapid crystal growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The LSPR absorbance band and color changed company with the nanoparticle generation, which can be real-time monitoring by UV-visible spectrophotometer and naked eye. Nanohybrid constructed by gold and magnetic nanoparticles acts as a dual functional plasmonic unit, which not only plays the role of signal production, but also endows the sensor with the function of magnetic separation. Simultaneously, the introduction of enzyme effectively regulates the programming crystal growth of AuNPs. In addition, enzyme also serves as signal amplifier owing to its high catalysis efficiency. The response of the plasmonic sensor varies linearly with the logarithmic thrombin concentration up to 10nM with a limit of detection of 200 pM. The as-proposed strategy shows good analytical performance for thrombin determination. This simple, disposable method is promising in developing universal platforms for protein monitoring, drug discovery and point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:25845332

  14. Functional outcome of Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with dual plates

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G Thiruvengita; Kumar, T Suresh; Kumar, R Krishna; Murthy, Ganapathy K; Sundaram, Nandkumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dual plate fixation in comminuted bicondylar tibial plateau fractures remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation, specifically through compromised soft tissues, has historically been associated with major wound complications. Alternate methods of treatment have been described, each with its own merits and demerits. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the functional outcome of lateral and medial plate fixation of Schatzker type V and VI fractures through an anterolateral approach, and a medial minimally invasive approach or a posteromedial approach. Materials and Methods: We treated 46 tibial plateau fractures Schatzker type V and VI with lateral and medial plates through an anterolateral approach and a medial minimal invasive approach over an 8 years period. Six patients were lost to followup. Radiographs in two planes were taken in all cases. Immediate postoperative radiographs were assessed for quality of reduction and fixation. The functional outcome was evaluated according to the Oxford Knee Score criteria on followup. Results: Forty patients (33 men and 7 women) who completed the followup were included in the study. There were 20 Schatzker type V fractures and 20 Schatzker type VI fractures. The mean duration of followup was 4 years (range 1-8 years). All patients had a satisfactory articular reduction defined as ≤2 mm step-off or gap as assessed on followup. All patients had a good coronal and sagittal plane alignment, and articular width as assessed on supine X-rays of the knee in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral views. The functional outcome, as assessed by the Oxford Knee Score, was excellent in 30 patients and good in 10 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity and employment. There were no instances of deep infection. Conclusions: Dual plate fixation of severe bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is an excellent treatment option as it provides rigid fixation and allows early knee

  15. Dual-functional bio-derived nanoparticulates for apoptotic antitumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Wang, Yazhe; Opoku-Damoah, Yaw; Wang, Cheng; Shen, Lingjia; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    The application of bio-derived nanoparticulates has gained a remarkable degree of interest as a promising sustained-release, site-targeted and completely biodegradable delivery system for chemotherapeutics. We hereby introduce a dual-functionalized biomimetic nanovector, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-anchored recombinant high density lipoproteins (cp-rHDL), which affords high payload and improved targeting of gambogic acid (GA), a therapeutic agent for apoptotic antitumor therapy. GA-loaded cp-rHDL nanoparticles (cp-rHDL/GA) consisted of hydrophobic core modulating GA, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) for attractive integrating and tumor-homing, and lipophilic anchored R6H4 (RRRRRRHHHH, a pH-responsive CPP) offering a pH-controlled penetrating potential. Upon stepwise incubation with apo A-I and R6H4, cp-rHDL/GA presented several merits, including desirable physicochemical properties, superior biostability, and favorable buffering capacity resulting in proton sponge effect. Synergistic intracellular mechanism for scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-mediated direct transmembrane delivery, and pH-responsive R6H4 associated endocytotic pathway with rapid endo-lysosomal escape was also observed. This tailored cp-rHDL/GA displayed remarkable cytotoxicity and apoptotic effect via triggering p53 pathway, and provided approximately 5-fold increase in IC50 compared to free GA. Moreover, this rational biomimetic therapeutic strategy attained superior tumor accumulation and significant inhibition of tumor growth in HepG2 xenograft tumor animal models without measurable adverse effect. Results of this study demonstrated that bio-derived cp-rHDL/GA presents pH-responsive penetrating potential and efficient cellular internalization. This dual-functionalization model will open an avenue for exploration of multi-functional bio-derived drug delivery, thereby rendering potential broad applications in apoptotic anticancer therapy. PMID:26344366

  16. The dual roles of functional groups in the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S; Zhao, Dongyuan; Li, Qin

    2016-04-14

    The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp(3) carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found that the functional groups on GQDs play dual roles in the overall emission: (1) they enable π* → n and σ* → n transitions, resulting in a molecular type of PL, spectrally invariable with change of particle size or excitation energy; (2) similar to defects and sp(3) carbon, functional groups also induce structural deformation to the aromatic core, leading to mid-gap states or, in other words, energy traps, causing π* → mid-gap states → π transitions. Therefore, functional groups contribute to both the blue edge and the red shoulder of GQDs' PL spectra. The new insights on the role of functional groups in PL of fluorescent nanocarbons will enable better designs of this new class of materials. PMID:26731007

  17. Density functional theory screening of gas-treatment strategies for stabilization of high energy-density lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Stephan L.; Morgan, Benjamin J.; Passerini, Stefano; Teobaldi, Gilberto

    2015-11-01

    To explore the potential of molecular gas treatment of freshly cut lithium foils in non-electrolyte-based passivation of high-energy-density Li anodes, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to study the decomposition of molecular gases on metallic lithium surfaces. By combining DFT geometry optimization and Molecular Dynamics, the effects of atmospheric (N2, O2, CO2) and hazardous (F2, SO2) gas decomposition on Li(bcc) (100), (110), and (111) surfaces on relative surface energies, work functions, and emerging electronic and elastic properties are investigated. The simulations suggest that exposure to different molecular gases can be used to induce and control reconstructions of the metal Li surface and substantial changes (up to over 1 eV) in the work function of the passivated system. Contrary to the other considered gases, which form metallic adlayers, SO2 treatment emerges as the most effective in creating an insulating passivation layer for dosages ≤1 mono-layer. The substantial Li → adsorbate charge transfer and adlayer relaxation produce marked elastic stiffening of the interface, with the smallest change shown by nitrogen-treated adlayers.

  18. Dual role of betel leaf extract on thyroid function in male mice.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Kar, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of betel leaf extract (0.10, 0.40, 0.80 and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) on the alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in male Swiss mice. Administration of betel leaf extract exhibited a dual role, depending on the different doses. While the lowest dose decreased thyroxine (T4) and increased serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, reverse effects were observed at two higher doses. Higher doses also increased LPO with a concomitant decrease in SOD and CAT activities. However, with the lowest dose most of these effects were reversed. These findings suggest that betel leaf can be both stimulatory and inhibitory to thyroid function, particularly for T3 generation and lipid peroxidation in male mice, depending on the amount consumed. PMID:9990660

  19. Regulation of Beta-Cell Function and Mass by the Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase.

    PubMed

    Oetjen, Elke

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most rapidly increasing diseases worldwide, whereby approximately 90-95% of patients suffer from type 2 diabetes. Considering its micro- and macrovascular complications like blindness and myocardial infarction, a reliable anti-diabetic treatment is needed. Maintaining the function and the mass of the insulin producing beta-cells despite elevated levels of beta-cell-toxic prediabetic signals represents a desirable mechanism of action of anti-diabetic drugs. The dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) inhibits the action of two transcription factors within the beta-cell, thereby interfering with insulin secretion and production and the conservation of beta-cell mass. Furthermore, DLK action is regulated by prediabetic signals. Hence, the inhibition of this kinase might protect beta-cells against beta-cell-toxic prediabetic signals and prevent the development of diabetes. DLK might thus present a novel drug target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:27100796

  20. Dual Functional Small Molecule Probes as Fluorophore and Ligand for Misfolding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueli; Ran, Chongzhao

    2013-03-01

    Misfolding of a protein is a destructive process for variety of diseases that include neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, mad cow disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontal temporal dementia (FTD), and other non-CNS diseases such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, and lysosomal storage diseases. Formation of various misfunctional large assembles of the misfolded protein is the primary consequence. To detect the formation of the aggregated species is very important for not only basic mechanism research but also very crucial for diagnosis of the diseases. In this review, we updated references related to the new development of the dual functional fluorescent small molecule probes for detecting the aggregated proteins in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24363605

  1. Dual Functional Small Molecule Probes as Fluorophore and Ligand for Misfolding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueli; Ran, Chongzhao

    2013-01-01

    Misfolding of a protein is a destructive process for variety of diseases that include neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, mad cow disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontal temporal dementia (FTD), and other non-CNS diseases such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, and lysosomal storage diseases. Formation of various misfunctional large assembles of the misfolded protein is the primary consequence. To detect the formation of the aggregated species is very important for not only basic mechanism research but also very crucial for diagnosis of the diseases. In this review, we updated references related to the new development of the dual functional fluorescent small molecule probes for detecting the aggregated proteins in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24363605

  2. Preparation of self-cleaning surfaces with a dual functionality of superhydrophobicity and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Ji; Yoon, Hye Soo; Kim, Dae Han; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Young Dok

    2014-11-01

    Thin film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was deposited on SiO2 nanoparticles by chemical vapor deposition, and SiO2 became completely hydrophobic after PDMS coating. Mixtures of TiO2 and PDMS-coated SiO2 nanoparticles with various relative ratios were prepared, and distributed on glass surfaces, and water contact angles and photocatalytic activities of these surfaces were studied. Samples consisting of TiO2 and PDMS-coated SiO2 with a ratio of 7:3 showed a highly stable superhydrophobicity under UV irradiation with a water contact angle of 165° and UV-driven photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue and phenol in aqueous solution. Our process can be exploited for fabricating self-cleaning surfaces with dual functionality of superhydrophobicity and photocatalytic activity at the same time.

  3. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  4. Measurement of the Ion Distribution Function in a Dual Frequency Plasma Etch Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; Moore, Nathaniel; Pribyl, Patrick; Kushner, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The ion energy distribution function, (IEDF) was measured in detail in an industrial etch tool. The plasma was made with an ICP source (440 kHz, 500 W) and two independently controlled bias sources. The Si wafer was placed on a ceramic electrostatic chuck with an embedded capacitor plate. The first source ran at 2.2 MHz (600 Vpp and 2500 W) with a maximum sheath potential drop of 650 V or 2000V. The second source ran at 19 MHz with Vpp of 600 V. The principal diagnostic was Laser Induced Fluorescence on Argon using 611.49 nm light from a tunable dye laser with ions responding to Doppler shifted light. Using cylindrical lens combinations the laser light was transformed into a sheet 15 cm wide and 0.5 cm thick. The beam could be transverse or parallel to the normal of the wafer. The glowing ions (at 461 nm) were photographed by a CCD camera with 400 micron resolution. The laser was phase locked to the 2.2 MHz rf and the IDDF measured as a function of radial position, height above the wafer and at 8 phases. With Vpp = 600 V the highest energy ions observed were 500 eV, 1.2 mm above the wafer. These observations as well as the angular distribution agreed well with a computer simulation. In the dual frequency case when the potential of the wafer was most negative wrt the bulk plasma the IEDF structure 0.8 mm above the wafer was well fitted by 4 Gaussians. The ion flux to the wafer was far more uniform in the dual frequency case. This research supported by the NSF and DOE.

  5. Bethe logarithm for the lithium atom from exponentially correlated Gaussian functions

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2003-10-01

    The calculation of Bethe logarithm for the ground state of the lithium atom is presented. The Bethe logarithm is the main QED effect coming from the electron self-interaction, which has not been obtained yet. Both results for the infinite nuclear mass, ln k{sub 0}=5.178 17(3), and the mass polarization correction, {delta}ln k{sub 0}=0.114(3), significantly improve the hitherto theoretical values for the lithium ground-state energy. They allow from one side to test the theory against precise measurements of transition frequencies and from the other side, to improve the accuracy of determination of the difference in the square of nuclear charge radii from the isotope-shift measurements. The applied calculational method is based on the well adapted explicitly correlated Gaussian basis set and can be extended to other few-electron atoms and molecules.

  6. Dual transcriptional activator and repressor roles of TBX20 regulate adult cardiac structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Sakabe, Noboru J.; Aneas, Ivy; Shen, Tao; Shokri, Leila; Park, Soo-Young; Bulyk, Martha L.; Evans, Sylvia M.; Nobrega, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing requirement in adult heart for transcription factors with key roles in cardiac development is not well understood. We recently demonstrated that TBX20, a transcriptional regulator required for cardiac development, has key roles in the maintenance of functional and structural phenotypes in adult mouse heart. Conditional ablation of Tbx20 in adult cardiomyocytes leads to a rapid onset and progression of heart failure, with prominent conduction and contractility phenotypes that lead to death. Here we describe a more comprehensive molecular characterization of the functions of TBX20 in adult mouse heart. Coupling genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcriptome analyses (RNA-Seq), we identified a subset of genes that change expression in Tbx20 adult cardiomyocyte-specific knockout hearts which are direct downstream targets of TBX20. This analysis revealed a dual role for TBX20 as both a transcriptional activator and a repressor, and that each of these functions regulates genes with very specialized and distinct molecular roles. We also show how TBX20 binds to its targets genome-wide in a context-dependent manner, using various cohorts of co-factors to either promote or repress distinct genetic programs within adult heart. Our integrative approach has uncovered several novel aspects of TBX20 and T-box protein function within adult heart. Sequencing data accession number (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo): GSE30943. PMID:22328084

  7. A dual physiological character for sexual function: the role of serotonergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G

    2008-03-01

    Anatomically, sexual reflexes are mixed (somatic-autonomic) circuits, represented by emission (sympathetic centre and somatic afferents), expulsion (parasympathetic centre and somatic efferents) and erection (parasympathetic centre and somatic afferents). Physiologically, ejaculation has a dual autonomic mediation, consisting of two distinct and opposite autonomic centres (emission and expulsion), both with a positive contribution to the respective function. Experimentally, serotonin (5HT) has two distinct, opposite and positive effects on sexual function, with 5HT-(1A) agonists decreasing intravaginal ejaculatory latency and erection, and 5HT-(2C) agonists increasing both erection and ejaculatory latency. In this review I assume that 5HT modulates sexual reflexes, establishing a functional connection between the involved somatic and autonomic structures. The 5HT-(1A) receptors are assumed to make the connection between somatic pathways and sympathetic centres while the 5HT-(2C) receptors could establish the connection between somatic pathways and parasympathetic centres. Further studies will develop the cerebral sexual duality, explaining the implication of psychological factors in sexual function and the role of sexuality in psychosocial behaviour. PMID:17922864

  8. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior and Functional Communication Training in Three Adults with a Dual Diagnosis of a Significant Intellectual Disability and a Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chezan, Laura Claudia

    2012-01-01

    I conducted two studies. First, I examined the applicability of discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) for identifying the function of problem behavior in three adults with a dual diagnosis of a significant intellectual disability and a mental illness. Results indicated clear patterns of problem behavior for each participant. Second, I used a…

  9. Effects of Nanosized Lithium Carbonate Particles on the Functional Activity of Macrophages During Development of Hepatocarcinoma 29.

    PubMed

    Konenkov, V I; Borodin, Yu I; Makarova, O P; Bgatova, N P; Rachkovskaya, L N

    2015-08-01

    The functional activity of macrophages in response to injection of nanosized lithium carbonate particles after initiation of hepatocarcinoma 29 in male CBA mice was evaluated by the production of NO, arginase activity, and absorption of zymosan granules. In intact animals, NO production by peritoneal macrophages increased by 4 times and arginase activity 3.1 times in response to a single injection of nanosized particles into the hip muscle. The level of NO production by macrophages remained high after 4 and 5 injections, while arginase activity returned to normal. The level of phagocytic peritoneal macrophages increased by 1.4 times after 5 injections of the particles. The level of NO production by macrophages gradually increased in animals with hepatocarcinoma developing in the hip muscle: by 1.6 times on day 3, 3.2 times on day 7, and by 2.6 times on day 13 in comparison with the corresponding parameters in intact animals. The increase of NO production by peritoneal macrophages after tumor process initiation was not paralleled by changes in arginase activity and absorption of zymosan granules. The results indicated that injection of nanosized lithium carbonate particles after inoculation of hepatocarcinoma 29 cells in the right hip muscle tissue was inessential for the function of peritoneal macrophages by the studied parameters. PMID:26388569

  10. Dual-head lithotripsy in synchronous mode: Acute effect on renal function and morphology in the pig

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Rajash K.; McAteer, James A.; Willis, Lynn R.; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Connors, Bret A.; Ying, Jun; Lingeman, James E.; Evan, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Lithotripters with two shock heads are now available for use in treating patients. However, little information is available by which to judge the safety of treatment with dual pulses. A study was conducted to assess the effect of dual-head lithotripsy on renal function and morphology in a pig model of shock wave (SW) injury. Methods A dual-head electrohydraulic lithotripter (Direx Duet) was used to treat the lower renal pole of anesthetized pigs with a clinical dose of SWs (2400 dual SWs; n=10) delivered in synchronous mode (i.e. both heads fired simultaneously). For comparison, pigs were treated with either 2400 SWs (n=12) or 4800 SWs (n=8) with a conventional electrohydraulic lithotripter (Dornier HM3). Results Dual SW treatment with the Duet lithotripter caused a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR, 4.1 ± 1.9 ml/min) with a trend for effective renal plasma flow (RPF, 31 ± 19 ml/min) to also fall. These changes in renal hemodynamics were comparable to decreases in GFR and RPF in response to treatment with 2400 SWs (4.8 ± 0.8 ml/min and 32 ± 10 ml/min, respectively) or 4800 SWs (5.4 ± 1.0 ml/min and 68 ± 14 ml/min, respectively) with the HM3 lithotripter. Linear association analysis showed that the functional response to dual-pulse SWs was less predictable than with conventional SWs. Morphological quantitation of kidney damage expressed as percentage of functional renal volume (FRV), showed that tissue injury with 2400 paired SWs with the Duet (0.96± 0.39% FRV, n=8) was comparable to injury produced by either 2400 single SWs (1.08±0.38% FRV, n=6), or 4800 single SWs (2.71±1.02% FRV, n=6) with the HM3. However, morphological damage appeared less consistent with the Duet (measurable in only 5 of 8 kidneys) than that observed with the HM3 (measurable in all 12 kidneys). Acoustic output and the timing of dual SWs in synchronous mode increased in variability as the electrodes aged, affecting the amplitude and targeting of focal pressures

  11. Functional Recurrent Mutations in the Human Mitochondrial Phylogeny: Dual Roles in Evolution and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Liron; Zhidkov, Ilia; Gurman, Yotam; Hawlena, Hadas; Mishmar, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Mutations frequently reoccur in the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, it is unclear whether recurrent mtDNA nodal mutations (RNMs), that is, recurrent mutations in stems of unrelated phylogenetic nodes, are functional and hence selectively constrained. To answer this question, we performed comprehensive parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of 9,868 publicly available whole human mtDNAs revealing 1,606 single nodal mutations (SNMs) and 679 RNMs. We then evaluated the potential functionality of synonymous, nonsynonymous and RNA SNMs and RNMs. For synonymous mutations, we have implemented the Codon Adaptation Index. For nonsynonymous mutations, we assessed evolutionary conservation, and employed previously described pathogenicity score assessment tools. For RNA genes’ mutations, we designed a bioinformatic tool which compiled evolutionary conservation and potential effect on RNA structure. While comparing the functionality scores of nonsynonymous and RNA SNMs and RNMs with those of disease-causing mtDNA mutations, we found significant difference (P < 0.001). However, 24 RNMs and 67 SNMs had comparable values with disease-causing mutations reflecting their potential function thus being the best candidates to participate in adaptive events of unrelated lineages. Strikingly, some functional RNMs occurred in unrelated mtDNA lineages that independently altered susceptibility to the same diseases, thus suggesting common functionality. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive analysis of selective signatures in the mtDNA not only within proteins but also within RNA genes. For the first time, we discover virtually all positively selected RNMs in our phylogeny while emphasizing their dual role in past evolutionary events and in disease today. PMID:23563965

  12. Functional recurrent mutations in the human mitochondrial phylogeny: dual roles in evolution and disease.

    PubMed

    Levin, Liron; Zhidkov, Ilia; Gurman, Yotam; Hawlena, Hadas; Mishmar, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Mutations frequently reoccur in the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, it is unclear whether recurrent mtDNA nodal mutations (RNMs), that is, recurrent mutations in stems of unrelated phylogenetic nodes, are functional and hence selectively constrained. To answer this question, we performed comprehensive parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of 9,868 publicly available whole human mtDNAs revealing 1,606 single nodal mutations (SNMs) and 679 RNMs. We then evaluated the potential functionality of synonymous, nonsynonymous and RNA SNMs and RNMs. For synonymous mutations, we have implemented the Codon Adaptation Index. For nonsynonymous mutations, we assessed evolutionary conservation, and employed previously described pathogenicity score assessment tools. For RNA genes' mutations, we designed a bioinformatic tool which compiled evolutionary conservation and potential effect on RNA structure. While comparing the functionality scores of nonsynonymous and RNA SNMs and RNMs with those of disease-causing mtDNA mutations, we found significant difference (P < 0.001). However, 24 RNMs and 67 SNMs had comparable values with disease-causing mutations reflecting their potential function thus being the best candidates to participate in adaptive events of unrelated lineages. Strikingly, some functional RNMs occurred in unrelated mtDNA lineages that independently altered susceptibility to the same diseases, thus suggesting common functionality. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive analysis of selective signatures in the mtDNA not only within proteins but also within RNA genes. For the first time, we discover virtually all positively selected RNMs in our phylogeny while emphasizing their dual role in past evolutionary events and in disease today. PMID:23563965

  13. Dual amyloid domains promote differential functioning of the chaplin proteins during Streptomyces aerial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Capstick, David S.; Jomaa, Ahmad; Hanke, Chistopher; Ortega, Joaquin; Elliot, Marie A.

    2011-01-01

    The chaplin proteins are functional amyloids found in the filamentous Streptomyces bacteria. These secreted proteins are required for the aerial development of Streptomyces coelicolor, and contribute to an intricate rodlet ultrastructure that decorates the surfaces of aerial hyphae and spores. S. coelicolor encodes eight chaplin proteins. Previous studies have revealed that only three of these proteins (ChpC, ChpE, and ChpH) are necessary for promoting aerial development, and of these three, ChpH is the primary developmental determinant. Here, we show that the model chaplin, ChpH, contains two amyloidogenic domains: one in the N terminus and one in the C terminus of the mature protein. These domains have different polymerization properties as determined using fluorescence spectroscopy, secondary structure analyses, and electron microscopy. We coupled these in vitro assays with in vivo genetic studies to probe the connection between ChpH amyloidogenesis and its biological function. Using mutational analyses, we demonstrated that both N- and C-terminal amyloid domains of ChpH were required for promoting aerial hypha formation, while the N-terminal domain was dispensable for assembly of the rodlet ultrastructure. These results suggest that there is a functional differentiation of the dual amyloid domains in the chaplin proteins. PMID:21628577

  14. Dual functions of a small regulatory subunit in the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Phillips, Charles B; Ranaghan, Matthew; Tsai, Chen-Wei; Wu, Yujiao; Williams, Carole; Miller, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, a process crucial for bioenergetics and Ca2+ signaling, is catalyzed by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. The uniporter is a multi-subunit Ca2+-activated Ca2+ channel, with the Ca2+ pore formed by the MCU protein and Ca2+-dependent activation mediated by MICU subunits. Recently, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein EMRE was identified as a uniporter subunit absolutely required for Ca2+ permeation. However, the molecular mechanism and regulatory purpose of EMRE remain largely unexplored. Here, we determine the transmembrane orientation of EMRE, and show that its known MCU-activating function is mediated by the interaction of transmembrane helices from both proteins. We also reveal a second function of EMRE: to maintain tight MICU regulation of the MCU pore, a role that requires EMRE to bind MICU1 using its conserved C-terminal polyaspartate tail. This dual functionality of EMRE ensures that all transport-competent uniporters are tightly regulated, responding appropriately to a dynamic intracellular Ca2+ landscape. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15545.001 PMID:27099988

  15. Dual role of blue luminescent MoS2 quantum dots in fluorescence resonance energy transfer phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hyun Dong; Han, Dong Ju; Choi, Jong Seob; Park, Minsu; Seo, Tae Seok

    2014-10-15

    Homogeneous blue luminescent MoS2 quantum dots are fabricated by using a lithium intercalation method from MoS2 nanoparticles, and the unique blue photoluminescence property is utilized in the Alexa Fluor 430-dsDNA-MoS2 FRET system, demonstrating the dual function of MoS2 quantum dots as a donor and an acceptor. PMID:24976217

  16. Does extending the dual-task functional exercises workout improve postural balance in individuals with ID?

    PubMed

    Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining postural balance, overcoming visual and motor coordination disorders and experiencing problems with low general fitness - typical of intellectually disabled individuals - adversely affect the performance quality of their activities of daily living (ADLs). Physical fitness and postural balance can be improved by taking part in special intervention programs. Our study was designed to test whether extending the dual-task intervention program (combining ADLs with balance exercises on unstable surfaces) from 12 to 24 weeks additionally improved postural balance in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). We also attempted to assess whether the effects of the above intervention program were still noticeable after 8 weeks of holidays, in which participants did not take any rehabilitation exercises. A total of 34 adolescents, aged 14-16 years (15.06±0.9), with moderate ID took part in our study. The experimental group (E) consisted of 17 individuals, who continued the intervention program originated 3 months earlier, and the control group (C) comprised the same number of participants. Postural balance was assessed on a stabilometric platform Alfa. Having extended the workout period by another 12 weeks, we noticed that the path length of the center of pressure (COP) covered by participants on tests with their eyes open and closed significantly shortened. After a lapse of 8 weeks from the completion of the program, the experimental group revealed a statistically significant decrease in the velocity along the medio-lateral (M/L) and anterior-posterior (A/P) axes. The remaining variables stayed at the same level and the control group did not demonstrate any statistically significant changes. Dual-task exercises, in which enhancing functional tasks of daily living is combined with a parallel stimulation of balance reactions, may improve static balance in persons with ID. PMID:25553534

  17. Thianthrene-functionalized polynorbornenes as high-voltage materials for organic cathode-based dual-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Speer, Martin E; Kolek, Martin; Jassoy, Jean Jacques; Heine, Jennifer; Winter, Martin; Bieker, Peter M; Esser, Birgit

    2015-10-25

    Thianthrene-functionalized polynorbornenes were investigated as high-voltage organic cathode materials for dual-ion cells. The polymers show reversible oxidation reactions in solution and as a solid in composite electrodes. Constant current investigations displayed a capacity of up to 66 mA h g(-1) at a high potential of 4.1 V vs. Li/Li(+). PMID:26235336

  18. Dual-Functional Nanoparticles for In Situ Sequential Detection and Imaging of ATP and H2 O2.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong; Long, Zi; Cui, Mengchao; Shao, Kang; Zhou, Kaixiang; Ouyang, Jin; Na, Na

    2016-08-01

    Within a complex biological sample, the in situ sequential detection of multiple molecules without any interference is greatly desirable. Dual-functional nanoparticles are constructed, with the enzyme-based core-shell structures, for the in situ sequential detection of ATP and H2 O2 within the same biological system. PMID:27337683

  19. Selective recognition and extraction of KBr via cooperative interactions with a urea functionalized crown ether dual-host.

    PubMed

    Akhuli, Bidyut; Ghosh, Pradyut

    2015-11-28

    Selective solid-liquid extraction of KBr is demonstrated for the first time with a crown ether based pentafluorophenyl urea functionalized dual-host receptor. (1)H-NMR and ITC studies have been carried out to illustrate the effect of cooperativity towards the recognition of alkali metal salts. PMID:26417887

  20. Two new native ß-glucosidases from Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 confer its dual function as cellobiose fermenting ethanologenic yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clavispora NRRL Y-50464, a dual functional cellobiose fermenting and ethanologenic yeast strain, is a candidate biocatalyst for lower cost lignocellulose-to-ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A ß-glucosidase BGL1 protein from this strain was recently reported an...

  1. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  2. Maintaining Gait Performance by Cortical Activation during Dual-Task Interference: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yea-Ru; Wu, Yu-Te; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, mobility requires walking while performing a cognitive or upper-extremity motor task. Although previous studies have evaluated the effects of dual tasks on gait performance, few studies have evaluated cortical activation and its association with gait disturbance during dual tasks. In this study, we simultaneously assessed gait performance and cerebral oxygenation in the bilateral prefrontal cortices (PFC), premotor cortices (PMC), and supplemental motor areas (SMA), using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, in 17 young adults performing dual tasks. Each participant was evaluated while performing normal-pace walking (NW), walking while performing a cognitive task (WCT), and walking while performing a motor task (WMT). Our results indicated that the left PFC exhibited the strongest and most sustained activation during WCT, and that NW and WMT were associated with minor increases in oxygenation levels during their initial phases. We observed increased activation in channels in the SMA and PMC during WCT and WMT. Gait data indicated that WCT and WMT both caused reductions in walking speed, but these reductions resulted from differing alterations in gait properties. WCT was associated with significant changes in cadence, stride time, and stride length, whereas WMT was associated with reductions in stride length only. During dual-task activities, increased activation of the PMC and SMA correlated with declines in gait performance, indicating a control mechanism for maintaining gait performance during dual tasks. Thus, the regulatory effects of cortical activation on gait behavior enable a second task to be performed while walking. PMID:26079605

  3. A multi writable thiophene-based selective and reversible chromogenic fluoride probe with dual -NH functionality.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Siddharth; Kumar, Ajit; Pandey, Abha; Upadhyay, K K

    2017-01-01

    A chromogenic fluoride probe bearing bis imine groups having dual -NH functionality (BSB) has been designed, synthesised and structurally characterized by its single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The BSB could visually and spectroscopically recognise F(-) with high selectivity over other anions by exhibiting intense chromogenic response (from colourless to red) for F(-) in acetonitrile solution. The UV-visible titration and (1)H NMR titration experiments indicated that the observed changes occur via a combined process including hydrogen bonding and deprotonation between the BSB and F(-). Moreover theoretical calculations at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level shed further light upon probe design strategy and the nature of interactions between BSB and F(-). The limit of detection and binding constant of BSB towards F(-) were found to be 6.9×10(-7)M and 1.42±0.069×10(8)M(-2) respectively. Finally, by using F(-)and H(+) as chemical inputs and the absorbance as output, a INHIBIT logic gate was constructed, which exhibits "Multi-write" ability without obvious degradation in its optical output. PMID:27442291

  4. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion.

    PubMed

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C

    2015-01-01

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks. PMID:25924823

  5. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-01

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.

  6. Dual Function of NAC072 in ABF3-Mediated ABA-Responsive Gene Regulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyun; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Meijuan; Yan, Youcheng; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) domain proteins play various roles in plant growth and stress responses. Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor NAC072 has been reported as a transcriptional activator in Abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive gene expression. However, the exact function of NAC072 in ABA signaling is still elusive. In this study, we present evidence for the interrelation between NAC072 and ABA-responsive element binding factor 3 (ABF3) that act as a positive regulator of ABA-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis. The transcript of NAC072 is up-regulated by ABF3 in ABA response, and NAC072 protein interacts with ABF3. Enhanced ABA sensitivity occurs in nac072 mutant plants that overexpressed ABF3. However, overexpression of NAC072 weakened the ABA sensitivity in the abf3 mutant plants, but instead of recovering the ABA sensitivity of abf3. NAC072 and ABF3 cooperate to regulate RD29A expression, but are antagonistic when regulating RD29B expression. Therefore, NAC072 displays a dual function in ABF3-mediated ABA-responsive gene regulation. PMID:27486475

  7. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-30

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.

  8. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-30

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP)more » chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.« less

  9. Lithium Redistribution in Lithium-Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrese, A; Albertus, P; Christensen, J; Newman, J

    2012-01-01

    A model of a lithium-metal battery with a CoO2 positive electrode has been modeled in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. A finite-element approach was used to incorporate an intercalation positive electrode using superposition, electrode tabbing, transport using concentrated solution theory, as well as the net movement of the lithium electrode during cycling. From this model, it has been found that movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface does occur during cycling and is affected by three factors: the cell geometry, the slope of the open-circuit-potential function of the positive electrode, and concentration gradients in both the solid and liquid phases in the cell. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.027210jes] All rights reserved.

  10. Inactivation of the dual Bmp/Wnt inhibitor Sostdc1 enhances pancreatic islet function

    PubMed Central

    Henley, Kathryn D.; Gooding, Kimberly A.; Economides, Aris N.

    2012-01-01

    Current endeavors in the type 2 diabetes (T2D) field include gaining a better understanding of extracellular signaling pathways that regulate pancreatic islet function. Recent data suggest that both Bmp and Wnt pathways are operative in pancreatic islets and play a positive role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Our laboratory found the dual Bmp and Wnt antagonist Sostdc1 to be upregulated in a mouse model of islet dysmorphogenesis and nonimmune-mediated lean diabetes. Because Bmp signaling has been proposed to enhance β-cell function, we evaluated the role of Sostdc1 in adult islet function using animals in which Sostdc1 was globally deleted. While Sostdc1-null animals exhibited no pancreas development phenotype, a subset of mutants exhibited enhanced insulin secretion and improved glucose homeostasis compared with control animals after 12-wk exposure to high-fat diet. Loss of Sostdc1 in the setting of metabolic stress results in altered expression of Bmp-responsive genes in islets but did not affect expression of Wnt target genes, suggesting that Sostdc1 primarily regulates the Bmp pathway in the murine pancreas. Furthermore, our data indicate that removal of Sostdc1 enhances the downregulation of the closely related Bmp inhibitors Ctgf and Gremlin in islets after 8-wk exposure to high-fat diet. These data imply that Sostdc1 regulates expression of these inhibitors and provide a means by which Sostdc1-null animals show enhanced insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Our studies provide insights into Bmp pathway regulation in the endocrine pancreas and reveal new avenues for improving β-cell function under metabolic stress. PMID:22829579

  11. Enhanced polysulphide redox reaction using a RuO2 nanoparticle-decorated mesoporous carbon as functional separator coating for advanced lithium-sulphur batteries.

    PubMed

    Balach, J; Jaumann, T; Mühlenhoff, S; Eckert, J; Giebeler, L

    2016-06-21

    A multi-functional RuO2 nanoparticle-embedded mesoporous carbon-coated separator is used as an electrocatalytic and adsorbing polysulphide-net to enhance the redox reaction of migrating polysulphides, to improve active material utilization and boost the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulphur batteries. PMID:27270267

  12. Dual functions of autophagy in the response of breast tumor cells to radiation

    PubMed Central

    Bristol, Molly L.; Di, Xu; Beckman, Matthew J.; Wilson, Eden N.; Henderson, Scott C.; Maiti, Aparna; Fan, Zhen; Gewirtz, David A.

    2012-01-01

    In MCF-7 breast tumor cells, ionizing radiation promoted autophagy that was cytoprotective; pharmacological or genetic interference with autophagy induced by radiation resulted in growth suppression and/or cell killing (primarily by apoptosis). The hormonally active form of vitamin D, 1,25D3, also promoted autophagy in irradiated MCF-7 cells, sensitized the cells to radiation and suppressed the proliferative recovery that occurs after radiation alone. 1,25D3 enhanced radiosensitivity and promoted autophagy in MCF-7 cells that overexpress Her-2/neu as well as in p53 mutant Hs578t breast tumor cells. In contrast, 1,25D3 failed to alter radiosensitivity or promote autophagy in the BT474 breast tumor cell line with low-level expression of the vitamin D receptor. Enhancement of MCF-7 cell sensitivity to radiation by 1,25D3 was not attenuated by a genetic block to autophagy due largely to the promotion of apoptosis via the collateral suppression of protective autophagy. However, MCF-7 cells were protected from the combination of 1,25D3 with radiation using a concentration of chloroquine that produced minimal sensitization to radiation alone. The current studies are consistent with the premise that while autophagy mediates a cytoprotective function in irradiated breast tumor cells, promotion of autophagy can also confer radiosensitivity by vitamin D (1,25D3). As both cytoprotective and cytotoxic autophagy can apparently be expressed in the same experimental system in response to radiation, this type of model could be utilized to distinguish biochemical, molecular and/or functional differences in these dual functions of autophagy. PMID:22498493

  13. Dual aptamer-functionalized silica nanoparticles for the highly sensitive detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hunho; Her, Jin; Ban, Changill

    2015-09-15

    In this study, we synthesized dual aptamer-modified silica nanoparticles that simultaneously target two types of breast cancer cells: the mucin 1 (MUC1)(+) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)(+) cell lines. Dual aptamer system enables a broad diagnosis for breast cancer in comparison with the single aptamer system. The dye-doped silica nanoparticles offer great stability with respect to photobleaching and enable the accurate quantification of breast cancer cells. The morphological and spectroscopic characteristics of the designed Dual-SiNPs were demonstrated via diverse methods such as DLS, zeta potential measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Negatively charged Dual-SiNPs with a homogeneous size distribution showed robust and strong fluorescence. In addition, Dual-SiNPs did not affect cell viability, implying that this probe might be readily available for use in an in vivo system. Through ratio optimization of the MUC1 and HER2 aptamers, the binding capacities of the Dual-SiNPs to both cell lines were maximized. Based on Dual-SiNPs, a highly sensitive quantification of breast cancer cells was performed, resulting in a detection limit of 1 cell/100 μL, which is significantly lower compared with those reported in other studies. Moreover, the developed detection platform displayed high selectivity for only the MUC1(+) and HER2(+) cell lines. It is expected that this valuable diagnostic probe will be a noteworthy platform for the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:25897882

  14. Development of dual-function ELISA for effective antigen and antibody detection against H7 avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Outbreaks in poultry involving influenza virus from H7 subtype have resulted in human infections, thus causing a major concern for public health, as well as for the poultry industry. Currently, no efficient rapid test is available for large-scale detection of either antigen or antibody of H7 avian influenza viruses. Results In the present study, a dual function ELISA was developed for the effective detection of antigen and antibody against H7 AIVs. The test was established based on antigen-capture-ELISA and epitope blocking ELISA. The two Mabs 62 and 98 which were exploited in the assay were identified to recognize two conformational neutralizing epitopes on H7 HA1. Both of the epitopes exist in all of the human H7 strains, including the recent H7N9 strain from China and > 96.6% of avian H7 strains. The dual ELISA was able to detect all of the five H7 antigens tested without any cross reaction to other influenza subtypes. The antigen detection limit was less than 1 HA unit of H7. For antibody detection, the sensitivity and specificity of the dual ELISA was evaluated and compared to HI and microneutralization using immunized animal sera to different H7 strains and different subtypes of AIVs. Results indicated that antibodies to H7 were readily detected in immunized animal sera by the dual ELISA whereas specimens with antibodies to other AIVs yielded negative results. Conclusions This is the first dual-function ELISA reported for either antigen or antibody detection against H7 AIVs. The assay was highly sensitive and 100% specific in both functions rendering it effective for H7 diagnosis. PMID:24083616

  15. High-throughput functional screening using a homemade dual-glow luciferase assay.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica M; Boyce, Frederick M

    2014-01-01

    We present a rapid and inexpensive high-throughput screening protocol to identify transcriptional regulators of alpha-synuclein, a gene associated with Parkinson's disease. 293T cells are transiently transfected with plasmids from an arrayed ORF expression library, together with luciferase reporter plasmids, in a one-gene-per-well microplate format. Firefly luciferase activity is assayed after 48 hr to determine the effects of each library gene upon alpha-synuclein transcription, normalized to expression from an internal control construct (a hCMV promoter directing Renilla luciferase). This protocol is facilitated by a bench-top robot enclosed in a biosafety cabinet, which performs aseptic liquid handling in 96-well format. Our automated transfection protocol is readily adaptable to high-throughput lentiviral library production or other functional screening protocols requiring triple-transfections of large numbers of unique library plasmids in conjunction with a common set of helper plasmids. We also present an inexpensive and validated alternative to commercially-available, dual luciferase reagents which employs PTC124, EDTA, and pyrophosphate to suppress firefly luciferase activity prior to measurement of Renilla luciferase. Using these methods, we screened 7,670 human genes and identified 68 regulators of alpha-synuclein. This protocol is easily modifiable to target other genes of interest. PMID:24962249

  16. High-throughput Functional Screening using a Homemade Dual-glow Luciferase Assay

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jessica M.; Boyce, Frederick M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a rapid and inexpensive high-throughput screening protocol to identify transcriptional regulators of alpha-synuclein, a gene associated with Parkinson's disease. 293T cells are transiently transfected with plasmids from an arrayed ORF expression library, together with luciferase reporter plasmids, in a one-gene-per-well microplate format. Firefly luciferase activity is assayed after 48 hr to determine the effects of each library gene upon alpha-synuclein transcription, normalized to expression from an internal control construct (a hCMV promoter directing Renilla luciferase). This protocol is facilitated by a bench-top robot enclosed in a biosafety cabinet, which performs aseptic liquid handling in 96-well format. Our automated transfection protocol is readily adaptable to high-throughput lentiviral library production or other functional screening protocols requiring triple-transfections of large numbers of unique library plasmids in conjunction with a common set of helper plasmids. We also present an inexpensive and validated alternative to commercially-available, dual luciferase reagents which employs PTC124, EDTA, and pyrophosphate to suppress firefly luciferase activity prior to measurement of Renilla luciferase. Using these methods, we screened 7,670 human genes and identified 68 regulators of alpha-synuclein. This protocol is easily modifiable to target other genes of interest. PMID:24962249

  17. Chemically modified inulin microparticles serving dual function as a protein antigen delivery vehicle and immunostimulatory adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Gallovic, Matthew D; Montjoy, Douglas G; Collier, Michael A; Do, Clement; Wyslouzil, Barbara E; Bachelder, Eric M; Ainslie, Kristy M

    2016-02-23

    To develop a new subunit vaccine adjuvant, we chemically modified a naturally-occurring, immunostimulatory inulin polysaccharide to produce an acid-sensitive biopolymer (acetalated inulin, Ace-IN). Various hydrophobic Ace-IN polymers were formed into microparticles (MPs) by oil-in-water emulsions followed by solvent evaporation These Ace-IN MPs possessed tunable degradation characteristics that, unlike polyesters used in FDA-approved microparticulate formulations, had only pH-neutral hydrolytic byproducts. Macrophages were passively targeted with cytocompatible Ace-IN MPs. TNF-α production by macrophages treated with Ace-IN MPs could be altered by adjusting the polymers' chemistry. Mice immunized with Ace-IN MPs encapsulating a model ovalbumin (OVA) antigen showed higher production of anti-OVA IgG antibody levels relative to soluble antigen. The antibody titers were also comparable to an alum-based formulation. This proof-of-concept establishes the potential for chemically-modified inulin MPs to simultaneously enable dual functionality as a stimuli-controlled antigen delivery vehicle and immunostimulatory adjuvant. PMID:26753184

  18. Transferrin and cell-penetrating peptide dual-functioned liposome for targeted drug delivery to glioma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chuanyi; Ma, Chunyang; Bai, Enqi; Yang, Kun; Xu, Ruxiang

    2015-01-01

    A brain drug delivery system for glioma chemotherapy based on transferrin and cell-penetrating peptide dual-functioned liposome, Tf/TAT-lip, was made and evaluated with doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug. TAT conjugated liposome (TAT-lip) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) were prepared by the thin film hydration methods (lip-DOX) and then conjugated with transferrin (Tf) to yield Tf/TAT-lip-DOX which was characterized for their various physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties. Cellular uptakes were explored in both brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) of rats and U87 cells. The blood brain barrier model in vitro was established to evaluate the trans-endothelial ability crossing the BBB. The biodistribution of each formulation was further identified. The Tf/TAT-lip-DOX presents the best anti-proliferative activity against U87 cells. The orthotropic glioma model was established for the evaluation of anti-glioma effect. In conclusion, the experimental data in vitro and in vivo indicated that the Tf/TAT-lip was a promising brain drug delivery system due to its high delivery efficiency across the BBB. PMID:25932094

  19. Dual-Function Vaccine for Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Characterization of Chimeric Exotoxin A-Pilin Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Ralf; Mrsny, Randall; Fitzgerald, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major infectious agent of concern for cystic fibrosis patients. Strategies to prevent colonization by this bacterium and/or neutralize its virulence factors are clearly needed. Here we characterize a dual-function vaccine designed to generate antibodies to reduce bacterial adherence and to neutralize the cytotoxic activity of exotoxin A. To construct the vaccine, key sequences from type IV pilin were inserted into a vector encoding a nontoxic (active-site deletion) version of exotoxin A. The chimeric protein, termed PE64Δ553pil, was expressed in Escherichia coli, refolded to a near-native conformation, and then characterized by various biochemical and immunological assays. PE64Δ553pil bound specifically to asialo-GM1, and, when injected into rabbits, produced antibodies that reduced bacterial adherence and neutralized the cell-killing activity of exotoxin A. Results support further evaluation of this chimeric protein as a vaccine to prevent Pseudomonas colonization in susceptible individuals. PMID:11598071

  20. A novel dual-functional MEMS sensor integrating both pressure and temperature units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chen; Zhaohua, Zhang; Tianling, Ren; Gujin, Miao; Changjian, Zhou; Huiwang, Lin; Litian, Liu

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel miniature dual-functional sensor integrating both pressure and temperature sensitive units on a single chip. The device wafer of SOI is used as a pizeoresistive diaphragm which features excellent consistency in thickness. The conventional anisotropic wet etching has been abandoned, while ICP etching has been employed to etch out the reference cave to minimize the area of individual device in the way that the 57.4° slope has been eliminated. As a result, the average cost of the single chip is reduced. Two PN junctions with constant ratio of the areas of depletion regions have also been integrated on the same chip to serve as a temperature sensor, and each PN junction shows high linearity over -40 to 100 °C and low power consumption. The iron implanting process for PN junction is exactly compatible with the piezoresistor, with no additional expenditure. The pressure sensitivity is 86 mV/MPa, while temperature sensitivity is 1.43 mV/°C, both complying with the design objective.

  1. Dual-Functional Nanoparticles Targeting CXCR4 and Delivering Antiangiogenic siRNA Ameliorate Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Chiang, Tsaiyu; Liu, Jia-Yu; Chern, Guann-Gen; Hsu, Fu-Fei; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Ya-Chi; Chen, Yunching

    2016-07-01

    The progression of liver fibrosis, an intrinsic response to chronic liver injury, is associated with hepatic hypoxia, angiogenesis, abnormal inflammation, and significant matrix deposition, leading to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to the complex pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, antifibrotic drug development has faced the challenge of efficiently and specifically targeting multiple pathogenic mechanisms. Therefore, CXCR4-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) were formulated to deliver siRNAs against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into fibrotic livers to block angiogenesis during the progression of liver fibrosis. AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that was incorporated into the NPs, served dual functions: it acted as a targeting moiety and suppressed the progression of fibrosis by inhibiting the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We demonstrated that CXCR4-targeted NPs could deliver VEGF siRNAs to fibrotic livers, decrease VEGF expression, suppress angiogenesis and normalize the distorted vessels in the fibrotic livers in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced mouse model. Moreover, blocking SDF-1α/CXCR4 by CXCR4-targeted NPs in combination with VEGF siRNA significantly prevented the progression of liver fibrosis in CCl4-treated mice. In conclusion, the multifunctional CXCR4-targeted NPs delivering VEGF siRNAs provide an effective antifibrotic therapeutic strategy. PMID:27224003

  2. Dual-Functional Energy-Harvesting and Vibration Control: Electromagnetic Resonant Shunt Series Tuned Mass Dampers.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lei; Cui, Wen

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel retrofittable approach for dual-functional energy-harvesting and robust vibration control by integrating the tuned mass damper (TMD) and electromagnetic shunted resonant damping. The viscous dissipative element between the TMD and primary system is replaced by an electromagnetic transducer shunted with a resonant RLC circuit. An efficient gradient based numeric method is presented for the parameter optimization in the control framework for vibration suppression and energy harvesting. A case study is performed based on the Taipei 101 TMD. It is found that by tuning the TMD resonance and circuit resonance close to that of the primary structure, the electromagnetic resonant-shunt TMD achieves the enhanced effectiveness and robustness of double-mass series TMDs, without suffering from the significantly amplified motion stroke. It is also observed that the parameters and performances optimized for vibration suppression are close to those optimized for energy harvesting, and the performance is not sensitive to the resistance of the charging circuit or electrical load. PMID:23918165

  3. Dual Functionality of Myeloperoxidase in Rotenone-Exposed Brain-Resident Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi Young; Song, Mi Jeon; Jeon, Sae-Bom; Yoon, Hee Jung; Lee, Dae Kee; Kim, In-Hoo; Suk, Kyungho; Choi, Dong-Kug; Park, Eun Jung

    2011-01-01

    Rotenone exposure has emerged as an environmental risk factor for inflammation-associated neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the harmful effects of rotenone in the brain remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that myeloperoxidase (MPO) may have a potential regulatory role in rotenone-exposed brain-resident immune cells. We show that microglia, unlike neurons, do not undergo death; instead, they exhibit distinctive activated properties under rotenone-exposed conditions. Once activated by rotenone, microglia show increased production of reactive oxygen species, particularly HOCl. Notably, MPO, an HOCl-producing enzyme that is undetectable under normal conditions, is significantly increased after exposure to rotenone. MPO-exposed glial cells also display characteristics of activated cells, producing proinflammatory cytokines and increasing their phagocytic activity. Interestingly, our studies with MPO inhibitors and MPO-knockout mice reveal that MPO deficiency potentiates, rather than inhibits, the rotenone-induced activated state of glia and promotes glial cell death. Furthermore, rotenone-triggered neuronal injury was more apparent in co-cultures with glial cells from Mpo−/− mice than in those from wild-type mice. Collectively, our data provide evidence that MPO has dual functionality under rotenone-exposed conditions, playing a critical regulatory role in modulating pathological and protective events in the brain. PMID:21704008

  4. Dual RNA-seq unveils noncoding RNA functions in host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Alexander J; Förstner, Konrad U; Amman, Fabian; Barquist, Lars; Chao, Yanjie; Schulte, Leon N; Müller, Lydia; Reinhardt, Richard; Stadler, Peter F; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-01-28

    Bacteria express many small RNAs for which the regulatory roles in pathogenesis have remained poorly understood due to a paucity of robust phenotypes in standard virulence assays. Here we use a generic 'dual RNA-seq' approach to profile RNA expression simultaneously in pathogen and host during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection and reveal the molecular impact of bacterial riboregulators. We identify a PhoP-activated small RNA, PinT, which upon bacterial internalization temporally controls the expression of both invasion-associated effectors and virulence genes required for intracellular survival. This riboregulatory activity causes pervasive changes in coding and noncoding transcripts of the host. Interspecies correlation analysis links PinT to host cell JAK-STAT signalling, and we identify infection-specific alterations in multiple long noncoding RNAs. Our study provides a paradigm for a sensitive RNA-based analysis of intracellular bacterial pathogens and their hosts without physical separation, as well as a new discovery route for hidden functions of pathogen genes. PMID:26789254

  5. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  6. Distinct functions of the dual leucine zipper kinase depending on its subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Wallbach, Manuel; Duque Escobar, Jorge; Babaeikelishomi, Rohollah; Stahnke, Marie-Jeannette; Blume, Roland; Schröder, Sabine; Kruegel, Jenny; Maedler, Kathrin; Kluth, Oliver; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Miosge, Nicolai; Oetjen, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The dual leucine zipper kinase DLK induces β-cell apoptosis by inhibiting the transcriptional activity conferred by the β-cell protective transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein CREB. This action might contribute to β-cell loss and ultimately diabetes. Within its kinase domain DLK shares high homology with the mixed lineage kinase (MLK) 3, which is activated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interleukin (IL)-1β, known prediabetic signals. In the present study, the regulation of DLK in β-cells by these cytokines was investigated. Both, TNFα and IL-1β induced the nuclear translocation of DLK. Mutations within a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) prevented basal and cytokine-induced nuclear localization of DLK and binding to the importin receptor importin α, thereby demonstrating a functional NLS within DLK. DLK NLS mutants were catalytically active as they phosphorylated their down-stream kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase to the same extent as DLK wild-type but did neither inhibit CREB-dependent gene transcription nor transcription conferred by the promoter of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-xL. In addition, the β-cell apoptosis-inducing effect of DLK was severely diminished by mutation of its NLS. In a murine model of prediabetes, enhanced nuclear DLK was found. These data demonstrate that DLK exerts distinct functions, depending on its subcellular localization and thus provide a novel level of regulating DLK action. Furthermore, the prevention of the nuclear localization of DLK as induced by prediabetic signals with consecutive suppression of β-cell apoptosis might constitute a novel target in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26776303

  7. Development and design of dual-band, multi-function remote sensing antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creticos, Justin P.

    This dissertation details the theoretical development, design, fabrication, and testing of two remote sensing antennas. The antennas operate in Ku and Ka bands and must support multiple beams, polarizations, and frequencies with a single aperture. The first antenna, developed for NASA's High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler, is a single, offset-fed reflector that supports dual-band beams incident at 30° and 40° off-nadir. The antenna uses two compact, dual-band feeds moved away from the reflector's focal point to meet the dual beam requirement. The radar is to be flown on the Global Hawk Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle which has a small payload bay requiring the feeds to be both rugged and compact. The second antenna, developed for Remote Sensing Solutions' Dual-Wavelength Precipitation Radar, is a dual-offset Gregorian reflector. The antenna supports a single, dual-band, beam with dual-polarization at each band. Additionally, the antenna has high polarization purity and matched half power beamwidths at Ku and Ka bands. The strict requirements of the antenna are met by precisely controlling feed radiation characteristics. The two antennas necessitated several advances in feed design. A foam sleeve is demonstrated as an effective method to reduce the beamwidth of a tapered dielectric rod antenna. The foam sleeve is an attractive design because it allows dual-band feeds where a corrugated horn is used to control radiation at lower frequencies and the sleeve corrected rod is used to control the upper band. By judiciously choosing sleeve material, independent control of the radiation pattern and phase center at each band is achieved allowing higher performance feeds. This dissertation also focuses on new developments in the backend design of feeds. Specifically, the use of tuning arms in the feed backend and double ridged waveguide to couple the signal into the feed allow more compact designs with greater bandwidth.

  8. The effects of dual-channel functional electrical stimulation on stance phase sagittal kinematics in patients with hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Springer, Shmuel; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Wolf, Alon; Laufer, Yocheved

    2013-04-01

    Sixteen subjects (aged 54.2 ± 14.1 years) with hemiparesis (7.9 ± 7.1 years since diagnosis) demonstrating a foot-drop and hamstrings muscle weakness were fitted with a dual-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) system activating the dorsiflexors and hamstrings muscles. Measurements of gait performance were collected after a conditioning period of 6 weeks, during which the subjects used the system throughout the day. Gait was assessed with and without the dual-channel FES system, as well as with peroneal stimulation alone. Outcomes included lower limb kinematics and the step length taken with the non-paretic leg. Results with the dual-channel FES indicate that in the subgroup of subjects who demonstrated reduced hip extension but no knee hyperextension (n = 9), hamstrings FES increased hip extension during terminal stance without affecting the knee. Similarly, in the subgroup of subjects who demonstrated knee hyperextension but no limitation in hip extension (n = 7), FES restrained knee hyperextension without having an impact on hip movement. Additionally, step length was increased in all subjects. The peroneal FES had a positive effect only on the ankle. The results suggest that dual-channel FES for the dorsiflexors and hamstrings muscles may affect lower limb control beyond that which can be attributed to peroneal stimulation alone. PMID:23231828

  9. Dual AAV therapy ameliorates exercise-induced muscle injury and functional ischemia in murine models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yadong; Yue, Yongping; Li, Liang; Hakim, Chady H.; Zhang, Keqing; Thomas, Gail D.; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) membrane delocalization contributes to the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by promoting functional muscle ischemia and exacerbating muscle injury during exercise. We have previously shown that supra-physiological expression of nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin restores normal blood flow regulation and prevents functional ischemia in transgenic mdx mice, a DMD model. A critical next issue is whether systemic dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy can restore nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin expression and mitigate muscle activity-related functional ischemia and injury. Here, we performed systemic gene transfer in mdx and mdx4cv mice using a pair of dual AAV vectors that expressed a 6 kb nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin gene. Vectors were packaged in tyrosine mutant AAV-9 and co-injected (5 × 1012 viral genome particles/vector/mouse) via the tail vein to 1-month-old dystrophin-null mice. Four months later, we observed 30–50% mini-dystrophin positive myofibers in limb muscles. Treatment ameliorated histopathology, increased muscle force and protected against eccentric contraction-induced injury. Importantly, dual AAV therapy successfully prevented chronic exercise-induced muscle force drop. Doppler hemodynamic assay further showed that therapy attenuated adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle. Our results suggest that partial transduction can still ameliorate nNOS delocalization-associated functional deficiency. Further evaluation of nNOS binding mini-dystrophin dual AAV vectors is warranted in dystrophic dogs and eventually in human patients. PMID:23681067

  10. A small synthetic molecule functions as a chloride-bicarbonate dual-transporter and induces chloride secretion in cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng-Yun; Li, Shing-To; Shen, Fang-Fang; Ko, Wing-Hung; Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Dan

    2016-05-31

    A C2 symmetric small molecule composed of l-phenylalanine and isophthalamide was found to function as a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) dual transporter and self-assemble into chloride channels. In Ussing-chamber based short-circuit current measurements, this molecule elicited chloride-dependent short-circuit current (Isc) increase in both Calu-3 cell and CFBE41o-cell (with F508del mutant CFTR) monolayers. PMID:27188496

  11. Integrating Anatomic and Functional Dual-Mode Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Design and Applicability of a Bifunctional Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Ni, Dalong; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Chen; Wu, Renhua; Liu, Jianan; Yi, Meizhi; Wang, Jing; Yao, Zhenwei; Bu, Wenbo; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-03-22

    In recent decades, extensive attention has been paid to developing anatomic and functional imaging contrast agents that could provide a wealth of complementary bioimaging information. Among them, dual-mode nanoprobes that combine anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with functional fluorescent imaging have been mostly used for separated imaging. However, the lack of a machine for simultaneous dual-mode imaging greatly limits further clinical application. One effective strategy is to rationally design MRI contrast agents that own both anatomic and functional MR imaging capability on a single MRI machine, which is highly attractive but remains a great challenge. Herein, ultrasmall NaGdF4@PLL nanodots (NDs) were developed as a novel class of MR contrast agent, which offers a high longitude relaxivity (6.42 mM(-1) s(-1)) for T1-weighted MRI and an excellent sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect for pH mapping (at +3.7 ppm). Further in vivo animal experiments show the feasibility of NaGdF4@PLL NDs as contrast agents for efficient kidney and brain tumor diagnosis and pH mapping, which will undoubtedly enhance the diagnosis accuracy and is beneficial for disease precaution and prognosis. Different from other complex dual-mode nanoprobes, the as-constructed NaGdF4@PLL NDs enable both anatomic and functional imaging on a single MR machine, which is a simple and cost-effective new approach to realize dual-mode MR imaging and holds great potential for future clinical application. PMID:26910513

  12. Effect of Dual-Function Nano-Structured Silicon Oxide Thin Film on Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, B.; Sivec, L.; Yue, G.; Jiang, C. S.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent study of using nano-structured hydrogenated silicon oxide films (nc-SiO{sub x}:H) as a dual-function layer in multi-junction solar cells. The nc-SiO{sub x}:H films were deposited using very high frequency glow discharge of a SiH{sub 4} (or Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), CO{sub 2}, PH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2} gas mixture. By optimizing deposition parameters, we obtained 'dual function' nc-SiO{sub x}:H material characterized by a conductivity suitable for use as an n layer and optical properties suitable for use as an inter-reflection layer. We tested the nc-SiO{sub x}:H by replacing the normal n-type material in the tunnel junction of a multi-junction structure. The advantage of the dual-function nc-SiO{sub x}:H layer is twofold; one is to simplify the cell structure, and the other is to reduce any optical loss associated with the inter-reflection layer. Quantum efficiency measurements show the gain in top cell current is equal to or greater than the loss in bottom cell current for a-Si:H/nc-Si:H structures. In addition, a thinner a-Si:H top cell with the nc-SiO{sub x}:H n layer improves the top-cell stability, thereby providing higher stabilized solar cell efficiency. We also used the dual-function layer between the middle and the bottom cells in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/nc-Si:H triple-junction structures. The gain in the middle cell current is {approx}1.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, leading to an initial active-area efficiency of 14.8%.

  13. Evaluation of bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride based dual functional colloidal carrier as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Kaur, Baljinder; Kant, Ravi; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Jaglan, Sundeep

    2016-04-12

    We have developed a dual function carrier using bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride, which has anticancer as well as antibacterial activity, using a ligand insertion method with a simple and easy work procedure. The complex is prepared by a simple and cost effective method using hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and palladium chloride under controlled stoichiometry. Herein, we report the aggregation (self assembly) of the metallosurfactant having palladium as a counter ion, in aqueous medium along with its binding affinity with bovine serum albumin. The palladium surfactant has exhibited excellent antimicrobial efficacy against fungus and bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria). Cytotoxicity of palladium surfactant against cancerous (Human leukemia HL-60, pancreatic MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and prostate cancer PC-3) and healthy cells (fR2 human breast epithelial cells) was also evaluated using MTT assay. The present dual functional moiety shows a low IC50 value and has potential to be used as an anticancer agent. Our dual function carrier which itself possesses antimicrobial and anticancer activity represents a simple and effective system and can also be utilized as a drug carrier in the future. PMID:26961498

  14. Fibrillin-1 directly regulates osteoclast formation and function by a dual mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Tiedemann, Kerstin; Boraschi-Diaz, Iris; Rajakumar, Irina; Kaur, Jasvir; Roughley, Peter; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Komarova, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene give rise to a number of heritable disorders, which are all characterized by various malformations of bone as well as manifestations in other tissues. However, the role of fibrillin-1 in the development and homeostasis of bone is not well understood. Here, we examined the role of fibrillin-1 in regulating osteoclast differentiation from primary bone-marrow-derived precursors and monocytic RAW 264.7 cells. The soluble N-terminal half of fibrillin-1 (rFBN1-N) strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis, whereas the C-terminal half (rFBN1-C) did not. By contrast, when rFBN1-N was immobilized on calcium phosphate, it did not affect osteoclastogenesis but modulated osteoclast resorptive activity, which was evident by a larger number of smaller resorption pits. Using a panel of recombinant sub-fragments spanning rFBN1-N, we localized an osteoclast inhibitory activity to the 63 kDa subfragment rF23 comprising the N-terminal region of fibrillin-1. Osteoclastic resorption led to the generation of small fibrillin-1 fragments that were similar to those identified in human vertebral bone extracts. rF23, but not rFBN1-N, was found to inhibit the expression of cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and Dcstamp in differentiating osteoclasts. rFBN1-N, but not rF23, exhibited interaction with RANKL. Excess RANKL rescued the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by rFBN1-N. By contrast, rF23 disrupted RANKL-induced Ca2+ signaling and activation of transcription factor NFATc1. These studies highlight a direct dual inhibitory role of N-terminal fibrillin-1 fragments in osteoclastogenesis, the sequestration of RANKL and the inhibition of NFATc1 signaling, demonstrating that osteoclastic degradation of fibrillin-1 provides a potent negative feedback that limits osteoclast formation and function. PMID:24039232

  15. Thermally Cured Dual Functional Viologen-Based All-in-One Electrochromic Devices with Panchromatic Modulation.

    PubMed

    Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Lu, Hsin-Che; Kung, Chung-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Chang, Ting-Hsiang; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2016-02-17

    Vinyl benzyl viologen (VBV) was synthesized and utilized to obtain all-in-one thermally cured electrochromic devices (ECDs). The vinyl moiety of VBV monomer could react with methyl methacrylate (MMA) to yield bulky VBV/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains and even cross-linked network without the assistance of additional cross-linker. Both the bulky VBV/PMMA chains and the resulting polymer network can hinder the aggregation of the viologens and reduce the possibility of dimerization, rendering enhanced cycling stability. Large transmittance changes (ΔT) over 60% at both 570 and 615 nm were achieved when the VBV-based ECD was switched from 0 V to a low potential bias of 0.5 V. Ultimately, the dual functional of VBV molecules, serving simultaneously as a promising electrochromic material and a cross-linker, is fully utilized in the proposed electrochromic system, making its fabrication process much easier. Negligible decays in ΔT at both wavelengths were observed for the cured ECD after being subjected to 1000 repetitive cycles, while 17.1% and 22.0% decays were noticed at 570 and 615 nm, respectively, for the noncured ECD. In addition, the low voltage-driven feature of the VBV-based ECD enables it to be incorporated with phenyl viologen (PV), further expanding the absorption range of the ECD. Panchromatic characteristic of the proposed PV/VBV-based ECD was demonstrated while exhibiting ΔT over 60% at both wavelengths. Only 5.3% and 6.9% decays, corresponding at 570 and 615 nm, respectively, were observed in the PV/VBV-based ECD after 10 000 continuous cycles at bleaching/coloring voltages of 0/0.5 V with an interval of 10 s for both bleaching and coloring processes. PMID:26807824

  16. Potts model partition functions for self-dual families of strip graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shu-Chiuan; Shrock, Robert

    2001-12-01

    We consider the q-state Potts model on families of self-dual strip graphs GD of the square lattice of width Ly and arbitrarily great length Lx, with periodic longitudinal boundary conditions. The general partition function Z and the T=0 antiferromagnetic special case P (chromatic polynomial) have the respective forms ∑ j=1 NF, Ly, λcF, Ly, j( λF, Ly, j) Lx, with F= Z, P. For arbitrary Ly, we determine (i) the general coefficient cF, Ly, j in terms of Chebyshev polynomials, (ii) the number nF( Ly, d) of terms with each type of coefficient, and (iii) the total number of terms NF, Ly, λ. We point out interesting connections between the nZ( Ly, d) and Temperley-Lieb algebras, and between the NF, Ly, λ and enumerations of directed lattice animals. Exact calculations of P are presented for 2⩽ Ly⩽4. In the limit of infinite length, we calculate the ground state degeneracy per site (exponent of the ground state entropy), W( q). Generalizing q from Z+ to C, we determine the continuous locus B in the complex q plane where W( q) is singular. We find the interesting result that for all Ly values considered, the maximal point at which B crosses the real q-axis, denoted qc, is the same, and is equal to the value for the infinite square lattice, qc=3. This is the first family of strip graphs of which we are aware that exhibits this type of universality of qc.

  17. Dual Functions, Clamp Opening and Primer-Template Recognition, Define a Key Clamp Loader Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Jin, Mi; Ceapa, Razvan; Finkelstein, Jeff; O'Donnell, Michael; Chait, Brian T.; Hingorani, Manju M.

    2010-01-01

    Clamp loader proteins catalyze assembly of circular sliding clamps on DNA to enable processive DNA replication. During the reaction, the clamp loader binds primer-template DNA and positions it in the center of a clamp to form a topological link between the two. Clamp loaders are multi-protein complexes, such as the five protein Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and human clamp loaders, and the two protein Pyrococcus furiosus and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum clamp loaders, and thus far the site(s) responsible for binding and selecting primer-template DNA as the target for clamp assembly remain unknown. To address this issue, we analyzed the interaction between the E. coli γ complex clamp loader and DNA using UV-induced protein–DNA cross-linking and mass spectrometry. The results show that the δ subunit in the γ complex makes close contact with the primer-template junction. Tryptophan 279 in the δ C-terminal domain lies near the 3′-OH primer end and may play a key role in primer-template recognition. Previous studies have shown that δ also binds and opens the β clamp (hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal domain of δ contact β. The clamp-binding and DNA-binding sites on δ appear positioned for facile entry of primer-template into the center of the clamp and exit of the template strand from the complex. A similar analysis of the S. cerevisiae RFC complex suggests that the dual functionality observed for δ in the γ complex may be true also for clamp loaders from other organisms. PMID:15364574

  18. Dual function of partitioning-defective 3 in the regulation of YAP phosphorylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Shuting; Wang, Sai; Qiao, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    Partitioning-defective 3 (Par3), a key component of the evolutionarily conserved polarity PAR complex (Par3/Par6/aPKC), controls cell polarity and contributes to cell migration, proliferation and tumor development. Emerging evidence indicates that cell polarity proteins function as upstream modulators that regulate the Hippo pathway. However, little is known about Par3’s involvement in the Hippo pathway. Here, we find Par3 and YAP dynamically co-localize in different subcellular compartments; that is, the membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, in a cell-density-dependent manner. Interestingly, Par3 knockdown promotes YAP phosphorylation, leading to a significant impairment of YAP nuclear translocation at low cell density, but not at high density, in MDCK cells. Furthermore, via its third PDZ domain, Par3 directly binds to the PDZ-binding motif of YAP. The interaction is required for regulating YAP phosphorylation and nuclear localization. Mechanistically, Par3, as a scaffold protein, associates with LATS1 and protein phosphatase 1, α subunit (PP1A) in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Par3 promotes the dephosphorylation of LATS1 and YAP, thus enhancing YAP activation and cell proliferation. Strikingly, we also find that under the condition of PP1A knockdown, Par3 expression promotes YAP hyperphosphorylation, leading to the suppression of YAP activity and its downstream targets. Par3 expression results in differential effects on YAP phosphorylation and activation in different tumor cell lines. These findings indicate that Par3 may have a dual role in regulating the activation of the Hippo pathway, in a manner possibly dependent on cellular context or cell type in response to cell–cell contact and cell polarity signals. PMID:27462467

  19. Sandwich-Type Functionalized Graphene Sheet-Sulfur Nanocomposite for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lemmon, John P.; Nie, Zimin; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun

    2011-03-30

    A sandwich structured graphene sheet-sulfur (GSS) nanocomposite was synthesized as the cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The structure has a layer of graphene stacks and a layer of sulfur nanoparticles integrated into a three-dimensional architecture. This GSS nanoscale layered composite, making use of the efficient physical and electrical contact between sulfur and the large surface area, highly conductive graphene, provides a high loading of active materials of ~70 wt%, a high tape density of ~0.92 g∙cm-3, and a high power with a reversible capacity of ~505 mAh∙g-1 (~464 mAh∙cm-3) at a current density of 1,680 mA∙g-1 (1C). When coated with a thin layer of cation exchange Nafion film, the migration of dissolved polysulfide anions from the GSS nanocomposite was effectively alleviated, leading to a good cycling stability of 75% capacity retention over 100 cycles. This sandwich-structured composite conceptually provides a new strategy for designing electrodes in energy storage applications.

  20. Inhibition of HIV Virus by Neutralizing Vhh Attached to Dual Functional Liposomes Encapsulating Dapivirine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Scarlet Xiaoyan; Michiels, Johan; Ariën, Kevin K.; New, Roger; Vanham, Guido; Roitt, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    efficacy in reducing viral replication in vitro. Thus, dual function liposomes may lead to a novel strategy for the prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS by combining the neutralizing activity of Vhh with antiviral effects of high drug concentrations.

  1. Inhibition of HIV Virus by Neutralizing Vhh Attached to Dual Functional Liposomes Encapsulating Dapivirine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Scarlet Xiaoyan; Michiels, Johan; Ariën, Kevin K; New, Roger; Vanham, Guido; Roitt, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    efficacy in reducing viral replication in vitro. Thus, dual function liposomes may lead to a novel strategy for the prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS by combining the neutralizing activity of Vhh with antiviral effects of high drug concentrations. PMID:27465600

  2. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842

  3. High-throughput design and optimization of fast lithium ion conductors by the combination of bond-valence method and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ruijuan; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2015-09-01

    Looking for solid state electrolytes with fast lithium ion conduction is an important prerequisite for developing all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. By combining the simulation techniques in different levels of accuracy, e.g. the bond-valence (BV) method and the density functional theory (DFT), a high-throughput design and optimization scheme is proposed for searching fast lithium ion conductors as candidate solid state electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The screening from more than 1000 compounds is performed through BV-based method, and the ability to predict reliable tendency of the Li+ migration energy barriers is confirmed by comparing with the results from DFT calculations. β-Li3PS4 is taken as a model system to demonstrate the application of this combination method in optimizing properties of solid electrolytes. By employing the high-throughput DFT simulations to more than 200 structures of the doping derivatives of β-Li3PS4, the effects of doping on the ionic conductivities in this material are predicted by the BV calculations. The O-doping scheme is proposed as a promising way to improve the kinetic properties of this materials, and the validity of the optimization is proved by the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations.

  4. High-throughput design and optimization of fast lithium ion conductors by the combination of bond-valence method and density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ruijuan; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2015-01-01

    Looking for solid state electrolytes with fast lithium ion conduction is an important prerequisite for developing all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. By combining the simulation techniques in different levels of accuracy, e.g. the bond-valence (BV) method and the density functional theory (DFT), a high-throughput design and optimization scheme is proposed for searching fast lithium ion conductors as candidate solid state electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The screening from more than 1000 compounds is performed through BV-based method, and the ability to predict reliable tendency of the Li+ migration energy barriers is confirmed by comparing with the results from DFT calculations. β-Li3PS4 is taken as a model system to demonstrate the application of this combination method in optimizing properties of solid electrolytes. By employing the high-throughput DFT simulations to more than 200 structures of the doping derivatives of β-Li3PS4, the effects of doping on the ionic conductivities in this material are predicted by the BV calculations. The O-doping scheme is proposed as a promising way to improve the kinetic properties of this materials, and the validity of the optimization is proved by the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations. PMID:26387639

  5. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842

  6. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-05-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures.

  7. Function, Type, and Distribution of Teacher Questions in Dual-Language Preschool Read Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gort, Mileidis; Pontier, Ryan W.; Sembiante, Sabrina F.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the nature and distribution of dual-language preschool teachers' questions across parallel Spanish- and English-medium read-aloud activities. The notions of comprehensible input (Krashen, 1985) and language output (Swain, 1985), along with a reciprocal interaction model of teaching (Cummins, 2000), guided our…

  8. Dual phase polymer gel electrolyte based on non-woven poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)–layered clay nanocomposite fibrous membranes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shubha, Nageswaran; Prasanth, Raghavan; Hoon, Hng Huey; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► P(VdF-co-HFP)–clay nanocomposite based electrospun membranes are prepared. ► The membranes are used as polymer gel electrolyte (PGE) in lithium ion batteries. ► The composite PGE shows ionic conductivity of 5.5 mS cm{sup −1} at room temperature. ► Li/PGE/LiFePO{sub 4} cell delivers initial discharge capacity of 160 mAh g{sup −1}. ► The use of prepared electrolyte significantly improved the cell performance. -- Abstract: A new approach for fabricating polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) based on electrospun poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) incorporated with layered nanoclay has been employed to enhance the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of P(VdF-co-HFP) without compromising its mechanical strength. The effect of layered nanoclay on properties of membranes has been evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface morphology of the membranes has been studied using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Polymer gel electrolytes are prepared by soaking the fibrous membrane into 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC/DEC. The electrochemical studies show that incorporation of layered nanoclay into the polymer matrix greatly enhanced the ionic conductivity and compatibility with lithium electrodes. The charge–discharge properties and cycling performance of Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells comprising nanocomposite polymer gel electrolytes have been evaluated at room temperature.

  9. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  10. Functional analysis of liverworts in dual symbiosis with Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina fungi under a simulated Palaeozoic CO2 decline.

    PubMed

    Field, Katie J; Rimington, William R; Bidartondo, Martin I; Allinson, Kate E; Beerling, David J; Cameron, Duncan D; Duckett, Jeffrey G; Leake, Jonathan R; Pressel, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Most land plants form mutualistic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the Glomeromycota, but recent studies have found that ancient plant lineages form mutualisms with Mucoromycotina fungi. Simultaneous associations with both fungal lineages have now been found in some plants, necessitating studies to understand the functional and evolutionary significance of these tripartite associations for the first time. We investigate the physiology and cytology of dual fungal symbioses in the early-diverging liverworts Allisonia and Neohodgsonia at modern and Palaeozoic-like elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations under which they are thought to have evolved. We found enhanced carbon cost to liverworts with simultaneous Mucoromycotina and Glomeromycota associations, greater nutrient gain compared with those symbiotic with only one fungal group in previous experiments and contrasting responses to atmospheric CO2 among liverwort-fungal symbioses. In liverwort-Mucoromycotina symbioses, there is increased P-for-C and N-for-C exchange efficiency at 440 p.p.m. compared with 1500 p.p.m. CO2. In liverwort-Glomeromycota symbioses, P-for-C exchange is lower at ambient CO2 compared with elevated CO2. No characteristic cytologies of dual symbiosis were identified. We provide evidence of a distinct physiological niche for plant symbioses with Mucoromycotina fungi, giving novel insight into why dual symbioses with Mucoromycotina and Glomeromycota fungi persist to the present day. PMID:26613340