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Sample records for dual species implanter

  1. Dual Species NMR Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Joshua; Korver, Anna; Thrasher, Daniel; Walker, Thad

    2016-05-01

    We present progress towards a dual species nuclear magnetic oscillator using synchronous spin exchange optical pumping. By applying the bias field as a sequence of alkali 2 π pulses, we generate alkali polarization transverse to the bias field. The alkali polarization is then modulated at the noble gas resonance so that through spin exchange collisions the noble gas becomes polarized. This novel method of NMR suppresses the alkali field frequency shift by at least a factor of 2500 as compared to longitudinal NMR. We will present details of the apparatus and measurements of dual species co-magnetometry using this method. Research supported by the NSF and Northrop-Grumman Corp.

  2. Dual-Species Ultracold Neutral Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, Daniel; Erikson, Alex; Bergeson, Scott

    2015-05-01

    We present the design and characterization of a dual species Ca/Yb 2D/3D MOT. This setup allows us to create a mixed calcium and ytterbium ultracold neutral plasma to study transport mechanisms in a strongly coupled environment. This system is an analogue to electron-ion transport, that is not readily understood in dense plasmas. We report on the creation and optimization of the dual species trap and preliminary results for separate calcium and ytterbium plasma. These results demonstrate a robust method for trapping a large number of atoms in the trap and creating a dual-species plasma. This work supported in part by the NSF (Grant No. PHY-0969856) and the Air Force (Grant No. FA9950-12-1-0308).

  3. Dual-Energy CT for Evaluation of Intra- and Extracapsular Silicone Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Glazebrook, Katrina N.; Leng, Shuai; Jacobson, Steven R.; McCollough, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicone implants are commonly used for both breast augmentation and breast reconstruction. With aging of the implant, the silicone envelope may become weak or may rupture. The technique of choice for evaluation of implant integrity is breast MRI; however this may be contraindicated in some patients or the cost may be prohibitive. Dual-energy CT allows determination of density and atomic number of tissue and can provide material composition information. We present a case of extracapsular implant rupture with MRI and dual-energy CT imaging and surgical correlation. PMID:26942031

  4. Dual-Energy CT for Evaluation of Intra- and Extracapsular Silicone Implant Rupture.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Katrina N; Leng, Shuai; Jacobson, Steven R; McCollough, Cynthia M

    2016-01-01

    Silicone implants are commonly used for both breast augmentation and breast reconstruction. With aging of the implant, the silicone envelope may become weak or may rupture. The technique of choice for evaluation of implant integrity is breast MRI; however this may be contraindicated in some patients or the cost may be prohibitive. Dual-energy CT allows determination of density and atomic number of tissue and can provide material composition information. We present a case of extracapsular implant rupture with MRI and dual-energy CT imaging and surgical correlation. PMID:26942031

  5. Comparison of migration behavior between single and dual lag screw implants for intertrochanteric fracture fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kouvidis, George K; Sommers, Mark B; Giannoudis, Peter V; Katonis, Pavlos G; Bottlang, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Lag screw cut-out failure following fixation of unstable intertrochanteric fractures in osteoporotic bone remains an unsolved challenge. This study tested if resistance to cut-out failure can be improved by using a dual lag screw implant in place of a single lag screw implant. Migration behavior and cut-out resistance of a single and a dual lag screw implant were comparatively evaluated in surrogate specimens using an established laboratory model of hip screw cut-out failure. Methods Five dual lag screw implants (Endovis, Citieffe) and five single lag screw implants (DHS, Synthes) were tested in the Hip Implant Performance Simulator (HIPS) of the Legacy Biomechanics Laboratory. This model simulated osteoporotic bone, an unstable fracture, and biaxial rocking motion representative of hip loading during normal gait. All constructs were loaded up to 20,000 cycles of 1.45 kN peak magnitude under biaxial rocking motion. The migration kinematics was continuously monitored with 6-degrees of freedom motion tracking system and the number of cycles to implant cut-out was recorded. Results The dual lag screw implant exhibited significantly less migration and sustained more loading cycles in comparison to the DHS single lag screw. All DHS constructs failed before 20,000 cycles, on average at 6,638 ± 2,837 cycles either by cut-out or permanent screw bending. At failure, DHS constructs exhibited 10.8 ± 2.3° varus collapse and 15.5 ± 9.5° rotation around the lag screw axis. Four out of five dual screws constructs sustained 20,000 loading cycles. One dual screw specimens sustained cut-out by medial migration of the distal screw after 10,054 cycles. At test end, varus collapse and neck rotation in dual screws implants advanced to 3.7 ± 1.7° and 1.6 ± 1.0°, respectively. Conclusion The single and double lag screw implants demonstrated a significantly different migration resistance in surrogate specimens under gait loading simulation with the HIPS model. In this

  6. Intraoperative implant rod three-dimensional geometry measured by dual camera system during scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Salmingo, Remel Alingalan; Tadano, Shigeru; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu

    2016-05-12

    Treatment for severe scoliosis is usually attained when the scoliotic spine is deformed and fixed by implant rods. Investigation of the intraoperative changes of implant rod shape in three-dimensions is necessary to understand the biomechanics of scoliosis correction, establish consensus of the treatment, and achieve the optimal outcome. The objective of this study was to measure the intraoperative three-dimensional geometry and deformation of implant rod during scoliosis corrective surgery.A pair of images was obtained intraoperatively by the dual camera system before rotation and after rotation of rods during scoliosis surgery. The three-dimensional implant rod geometry before implantation was measured directly by the surgeon and after surgery using a CT scanner. The images of rods were reconstructed in three-dimensions using quintic polynomial functions. The implant rod deformation was evaluated using the angle between the two three-dimensional tangent vectors measured at the ends of the implant rod.The implant rods at the concave side were significantly deformed during surgery. The highest rod deformation was found after the rotation of rods. The implant curvature regained after the surgical treatment.Careful intraoperative rod maneuver is important to achieve a safe clinical outcome because the intraoperative forces could be higher than the postoperative forces. Continuous scoliosis correction was observed as indicated by the regain of the implant rod curvature after surgery. PMID:27175467

  7. Effect of dual ion implantation of calcium and phosphorus on the properties of titanium.

    PubMed

    Krupa, D; Baszkiewicz, J; Kozubowski, J A; Barcz, A; Sobczak, J W; Biliński, A; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M; Rajchel, B

    2005-06-01

    This study is concerned with the effect of dual implantation of calcium and phosphorus upon the structure, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium. The ions were implanted in sequence, first Ca and then P, both at a dose of 10(17) ions/cm2 at a beam energy of 25 keV. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the implanted layer. The chemical composition of the implanted layer was examined by XPS and SIMS. The corrosion resistance was determined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at a temperature of 37 degrees C. The biocompatibility tests were performed in vitro in a culture of human-derived bone cells (HDBC) in contact with the tested materials. The viability of the cells was determined by an XTT assay and their activity by the measurements of the alkaline phosphatase activity in contact with implanted and non-implanted titanium samples. The in vitro examinations confirmed that, under the conditions prevailing during the experiments, the biocompatibility of Ca + P ion-implanted titanium was satisfactory. TEM results show that the surface layer formed by the Ca + P implantation is amorphous. The corrosion resistance of titanium, examined by the electrochemical methods, appeared to be increased after the Ca + P ion implantation. PMID:15603780

  8. Three-dimensional guidance system for implant insertion: Part II. Dual axes table--problem solving.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A; Kruger, B

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional guidance system for implant insertion is a technique for placing a radiopaque vertical orientation pin over the crest of the alveolar ridge on the stone cast during fabrication of the radiographic guide. The cross-sectional and panoramic reformatted images were reproduced on a Polaroid or 35-mm print. The true vertical orientation pin facilitates (1) identification and the exact planned location of each implant in the reformatted images of the CT scan, (2) establishment of the internal starting point for the osteotomy on a photographic print, (3) optimum implant orientation, and (4) measurement of the angulation between the true vertical orientation line and optimum implant orientation. With the aid of a newly developed dual-axes base and transfer of the internal starting point of each implant to the stone cast, the buccolingual and mesiodistal implant inclinations for each implant were transferred to a surgical guide in the form of surgical steel drill guide tubes. The resulting pilot osteotomy transfers to the alveolar bone the exact starting point and the buccolingual and mesiodistal inclination for each implant. The technique provides a three-dimensional guidance system for implant insertion that is extremely accurate and yet practical. PMID:10709472

  9. Contact of dual mobility implants: effects of cup wear and inclination.

    PubMed

    Uddin, M S

    2015-01-01

    Cup wear and inclination on the pelvic bone are significant factors, which change the contact of the articulating surfaces, thus, impacting the long-term performance of hip implants. This paper presents a finite element (FE) analysis of the contact of the dual mobility implants under the influence of cup wear and inclination. A 3D FE model of the implant was developed with the application of equivalent physiological loading and boundary conditions. Effects of cup inclination angle ranging from 45° to 60° and the wear depth ranging from 0 to 2.46 mm equivalent to up to 30 years of the implant's life on the contact pressure and von Mises stress were investigated. Simulation results show that the contact pressure and von Mises stress decrease significantly with a modest wear depth and remains quite in-sensitive to the cup inclination angle and wear depth up to 1.64 mm. With wear depth further up to 2.46 mm, the cup thickness (i.e. cup thinning on worn region) may be more predominant than increasing of contact area between the cup and the head. The wear on the inner surface of the cup is found to rule out the overall contact pressure and stress in the implant. Furthermore, individual and combined effects of both important parameters are analysed and discussed with respect to available clinical/laboratory studies. PMID:25023708

  10. Experimental results of a dual-beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. H. Cui, B. Q.; Ma, R. G.; Ma, Y. J.; Tang, B.; Huang, Q. H.; Jiang, W. S.; Zheng, Y. N.

    2014-02-15

    A dual beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter aimed to produce 200 keV H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} beams simultaneously has been developed. Not suitable to use the analyzing magnet, the purity of beam extracted from the source becomes important to the performance of implanter. The performance of ion source was measured. The results of experiments show that the materials of inlet tube of ion source, the time of arc ionization in ion source, and the amount of gas flow have significant influence on the purity of beam. The measures by using copper as inlet tube material, long time of arc ionization, and increasing the inlet of gas flow could effectively reduce the impurity of beam. And the method using the gas mass flow controller to adjust the proportion of H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} is feasible.

  11. Reduction of implantation shadowing effect by dual-wavelength exposure photo process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yiming; Chou, Dyiann; Lee, Sang Yun; Roche, William R.; Sturtevant, John L.

    2003-06-01

    As transistor engineering continues to well below 100 nm length devices, ion implantation process tolerances are making these formerly "non-critical" lithography levels more and more difficult. In order to minimize the channeling effect and to obtain a controllable profile of dopant, an angled implantation is often required. However, a shadow area of resist pattern is always accompanied with an angled implantation. This shadowing effect consumes silicon real estate, and reduces the line edge placement (LEP) tolerances. Therefore, methodologies to reduce the shadowing effect in angled implantation become a critical consideration not only for device engineering but also for photolithography. Based on the model analysis, simulation and experiments, this paper presents an effective novel process utilizing dual-wavelength exposure (DWE) to reduce the shadowing effect. The DWE process is realized by two consecutive exposures for an I-line resist with a DUV stepper/scanner and an I-line stepper. The process leverages the high absorption coefficient of novalak-DNQ resist at 248 nm, and results in a tunable post-develop resist thickness to minimize the shadowing effect. It is effective in satisfying the junction requirements and also is helpful in minimizing the number of photoresists in a manufacturing fab. A repeatable resist profile and an excellent CD uniformity across wafer also indicated that the DWE is a potentially manufacturable process.

  12. Ion enhanced deposition by dual titanium and acetylene plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Z. M.; Tian, X. B.; Chu, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) offers a non-line-of-sight fabrication method for various types of thin films on steels to improve the surface properties. In this work, titanium films were first deposited on 9Cr18 (AISI440) stainless bearing steel by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIII-D) using a titanium vacuum arc plasma source. Afterwards, carbon implantation and carbon film deposition were performed by acetylene (C2H2) plasma immersion ion implantation. Multiple-layered structures with superior properties were produced by conducting Ti MePIII-D + C2H2 PIII successively. The composition and structure of the films were investigated employing Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the mixing for Ti and C atoms is much better when the target bias is higher during Ti MePIII-D. A top diamond-like carbon layer and a titanium oxycarbide layer are formed on the 9Cr18 steel surface. The wear test results indicate that this dual PIII-D method can significantly enhance the wear properties and decrease the surface friction coefficient of 9Cr18 steel.

  13. Miniaturized differentially fed dual-band implantable antenna: Design, realization, and in vitro test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wen; Guo, Yong-Xin

    2015-10-01

    A differentially fed dual-band implantable antenna is designed in this paper, with an additional shorting strip to achieve a size reduction. The antenna has been simulated by using one-layer and multilayer tissue models and a human anatomical model. The prototype model is fabricated and in vitro demonstrated with skin-mimicking phantoms, which experimentally achieves impedance bandwidths of 32 MHz at 401-406 MHz Medical Device Radiocommunications Service band and 151 MHz at 2.4-2.48 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical band. Radiation characteristic has been evaluated in Computer Simulation Technology (CST) human voxel model.

  14. Towards Testing General Relativity with a dual species interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Hartwig, Jonas; Tiarks, Daniel; Velte, Ulrich; Ganske, Sven; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2012-06-01

    We report on our work directed towards a dual species matter-wave interferometer for performing a differential measurement of the acceleration of free falling ^87Rb and ^39K atoms to test Einstein's equivalence principle (universality of free fall). Based on minimal Standard Model Extension calculations this combination of test masses is more sensitive to composition based equivalence principle violating effects than, e.g. ^85Rb-^87Rb. During free fall, a Mach-Zehnder type interferometry sequence employing stimulated Raman transitions is applied synchronously for both species, achieving high common noise rejection. With an expected single shot resolution of 5x10-8g the apparatus will allow for studying systematics at the 10-9g level after 100 s integration time. Post-correction methods for high vibrational noise environments are investigated. To assure well defined starting conditions the two species will be trapped in an optical dipole trap. The properties of this trap at 2 μm allow for fast and efficient laser cooling, use of evaporative and sympathetic cooling techniques is possible. We will show the enviromental noise limited performance of the single species Rb gravimeter and the progress of the implementation of the K gravimeter.

  15. Evaluation of dual-tip micromanometers during 21-day implantation in goats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reister, C. A.; Koenig, S. C.; Schaub, J. D.; Ewert, D. L.; Swope, R. D.; Latham, R. D.; Fanton, J. W.; Convertino, V. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Investigative research efforts using a cardiovascular model required the determination of central circulatory haemodynamic and arterial system parameters for the evaluation of cardiovascular performance. These calculations required continuous beat-to-beat measurement of pressure within the four chambers of the heart and great vessels. Sensitivity and offset drift, longevity, and sources of error for eight 3F dual-tipped micromanometers were determined during 21 days of implantation in goats. Subjects were instrumented with pairs of chronically implanted fluid-filled access catheters in the left and right ventricles, through which dual-tipped (test) micromanometers were chronically inserted and single-tip (standard) micromanometers were acutely inserted. Acutely inserted sensors were calibrated daily and measured pressures were compared in vivo to the chronically inserted sensors. Comparison of the pre- and post-gain calibration of the chronically inserted sensors showed a mean sensitivity drift of 1.0 +/- 0.4% (99% confidence, n = 9 sensors) and mean offset drift of 5.0 +/- 1.5 mmHg (99% confidence, n = 9 sensors). Potential sources of error for these drifts were identified, and included measurement system inaccuracies, temperature drift, hydrostatic column gradients, and dynamic pressure changes. Based upon these findings, we determined that these micromanometers may be chronically inserted in high-pressure chambers for up to 17 days with an acceptable error, but should be limited to acute (hours) insertions in low-pressure applications.

  16. Synergetic effects of dual-beam implantation on the microstructural development in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, F.; Borodin, V. A.; Ruault, M.-O.; Oliviero, E.; Kirk, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    We report a synergy effect on the microstructural development of silicon specimens as a result of dual-beam high temperature irradiation/implantation. In situ transmission electron microscopy experiments using two different experimental setups have been used, where the primary 50 keV Co+ ion implantation beam was supplemented with either a 300 keV electron beam or a 500 keV Si+ ion beam. In both cases, the secondary beam intensity was such that both beams created comparable overall primary damage. Completely different microstructural response has been found in these two cases. An intensive electron irradiation was found to sharply accelerate the evolution of dislocation structure, only weakly affecting the disilicide kinetics. On the contrary, the Si ion beam weakly affected the kinetics of either dislocation loops or coherent CoSi2 precipitates, but drastically increased the number density of thermodynamically unstable semicoherent precipitates. Possible microstructural reasons for the observed effects and the implications for both dislocation loop and cobalt disilicide nucleation mechanisms in high-temperature implanted TEM samples are discussed and supported by detailed molecular dynamics calculations of annealing of cascade remnants produced by the energetic silicon recoils.

  17. Indications for dual-chamber (DDD) pacing in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients.

    PubMed

    Santini, M; Ansalone, G; Auriti, A; Magris, B; Pandozi, C; Altamura, G

    1996-09-12

    New technologic development of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) keeps up with the exponential increase of their use for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The first-generation ICD with limited shock capability alone could be considered adequate in most cardiac arrest victims, but it was not suitable for sudden death prevention in all high-risk patients with cardiac disease. The second-generation ICD was comprised of hybrid pacemaker-defibrillator systems that provided on-demand ventricular antibradycardia pacing. The third-generation devices include additional functions, such as antitachycardia pacing for ventricular tachycardia (VT) reversion and low-energy ventricular cardioversion, in addition to ventricular defibrillation and single-chamber ventricular demand pacing. In the near future, advanced dual-chamber atrioventricular (AV) pacing and defibrillating systems will also be available. The dual chamber ICD will allow atrial inhibited/dual-chamber (AAI/DDD) rate-responsive pacing, simultaneous atrial and ventricular sensing to optimize the arrhythmia identification, and ICD shock delivery in the proper arrhythmia-related chamber. Clinical benefits of these devices compared with their cost and complexity will require careful evaluation. PMID:8820847

  18. Simultaneous dual-species matter-wave accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Zahzam, Nassim; Bonnin, Alexis

    Light pulse atom interferometers have proven to be very high performance sensors with the development in recent decades of cold atom gravimeters, gravity gradiometers, and gyroscopes. These sensors seem very promising for spatial applications like gravity field mapping, detecting gravitational waves or testing the weak equivalence principle (WEP). In the context of testing the WEP, some projects under development (QWEP, STE-QUEST, ICE, QUANTUS) aim to measure the acceleration of two different atomic species. To date, a single-atom-based ground test of the WEP was carried out by alternatively handling both isotopes of rubidium. This method, providing a non simultaneous differential measurement, exhibits a sensitivity limited by vibration noise. Special attention must thus be paid to develop atom interferometers which will simultaneously interrogate two different atomic species in order to take full advantage of a differential measurement and to achieve the targeted sensitivity and accuracy. In this paper, we report the realization of a matter-wave interferometer based on Raman transitions which simultaneously interrogates two different atomic species ((87) Rb and (85) Rb). The simultaneous aspect of our experiment presents encouraging preliminary results for future dual-species atom interferometry projects and seems very promising by taking advantage of a differential acceleration measurement. Indeed, the resolution of our differential accelerometer remains lower than 3.9 × 10(-8) g even with vibration levels up to 1 × 10(-3) g thanks to common-mode vibration noise rejection. An atom-based test of the weak equivalence principle has also been carried out leading to a differential free fall measurement between both isotopes of Delta g/g = (1.2 ± 3.2) × 10(-7) .

  19. Reactive Carbonyl Species In Vivo: Generation and Dual Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Semchyshyn, Halyna M.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive carbonyls are widespread species in living organisms and mainly known for their damaging effects. The most abundant reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are derived from oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Chemical modification of proteins, nucleic acids, and aminophospholipids by RCS results in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. In addition to their direct toxicity, modification of biomolecules by RCS gives rise to a multitude of adducts and cross links that are increasingly implicated in aging and pathology of a wide range of human diseases. Understanding of the relationship between metabolism of RCS and the development of pathological disorders and diseases may help to develop effective approaches to prevent a number of disorders and diseases. On the other hand, constant persistence of RCS in cells suggests that they perform some useful role in living organisms. The most beneficial effects of RCS are their establishment as regulators of cell signal transduction and gene expression. Since RCS can modulate different biological processes, new tools are required to decipher the precise mechanisms underlying dual effects of RCS. PMID:24634611

  20. Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide filmsdeposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

    2006-11-08

    Amorphous and partially crystalline WO3 thin films wereprepared by reactive dual magnetron sputtering and successively implantedby erbium ions with a fluence in the range from 7.7 x 1014 to 5 x 1015ions/cm2. The electrical and optical properties were studied as afunction of the film deposition parameters and the ion fluence. Ionimplantation caused a strong decrease of the resistivity, a moderatedecrease of the index of refraction and a moderate increase of theextinction coefficient in the visible and near infrared, while theoptical band gap remained almost unchanged. These effects could belargely ascribed to ion-induced oxygen deficiency. When annealed in air,the already low resistivities of the implanted samples decreased furtherup to 70oC, whereas oxidation, and hence a strong increase of theresistivity, was observed at higher annealing temperatures.

  1. Implantation of a dual chamber pacing and sensing single pass defibrillation lead.

    PubMed

    Gradaus, R; Block, M; Dorszewski, A; Schriever, C; Hammel, D; Scheld, H H; Borggrefe, M; Breithardt, G; Böcker, D

    2001-04-01

    Dual-chamber ICDs are increasingly used to avoid inappropriate shocks due to supraventricular tachycardias. Additionally, many ICD patients will probably benefit from dual chamber pacing. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the intraoperative performance and short-term follow-up of an innovative single pass right ventricular defibrillation lead capable of bipolar sensing and pacing in the right atrium and ventricle. Implantation of this single pass right ventricular defibrillation lead was successful in all 13 patients (age 63 +/- 8 years; LVEF 0.44 +/- 0.16; New York Heart Association [NYHA] 2.4 +/- 0.4, previous open heart surgery in all patients). The operation time was 79 +/- 29 minutes, the fluoroscopy time 4.7 +/- 3.1 minutes. No perioperative complications occurred. The intraoperative atrial sensing was 1.7 +/- 0.5 mV, the atrial pacing threshold product was 0.20 +/- 0.14 V/ms (range 0.03-0.50 V/ms). The defibrillation threshold was 8.8 +/- 2.7 J. At prehospital discharge and at 1-month and 3-month follow-up, atrial sensing was 1.9 +/- 0.9, 2.1 +/- 0.5, and 2.7 +/- 0.6 mV, respectively, (P = NS, P < 0.05, P < 0.05 to implant, respectively), the mean atrial threshold product 0.79, 1.65, and 1.29 V/ms, respectively. In two patients, an intermittent exit block occurred in different body postures. All spontaneous and induced ventricular arrhythmias were detected and terminated appropriately. Thus, in a highly selected patient group, atrial and ventricular sensing and pacing with a single lead is possible under consideration of an atrial pacing dysfunction in 17% of patients. PMID:11341077

  2. Dual effects of different selenium species on wheat.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, B; Llugany, M; Palacios, O; Valiente, M

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its derivative products account for a major source of dietary intake of selenium (Se) in humans and animals, because of its essentiality due to its presence in vital enzymes. Se antioxidant role has resulted in the popularity of agronomic biofortification practises in Se deficient areas. Controlling Se uptake, metabolism, translocation and accumulation in plants will be important to decrease healthy risk of toxicity and deficiency and to help selecting adequate methods for biofortification. Selenate and selenite are the two main inorganic Se forms available in soil and in most of the studies are given separately. That study reveals that both Se species behave differently but combined the prevalent pattern is that of selenite; so it is taken up faster and it seems that interferes with selenate uptake and transport. Selenium has dual effects on wheat plants; at low concentrations it acts as growth stimulant whereas at high concentrations it reduces root elongation and biomass production and alters uptake and translocation of several essential nutrients. PMID:25208508

  3. Initial experience with implantation of novel dual layer flow-diverter device FRED.

    PubMed

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Sagan, Leszek; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rać, Monika

    2013-09-01

    Flow-diverting stents can help treat complex and wide-necked cerebral aneurysms. The aim of the study was to evaluate initial experiences related to the safety and effectiveness of eight aneurysms treated with a new dual layer coverage designed flow-diverter device. In 2012 Fred flow-diverter devices were used to treat 8 unruptured wide neck (dome-neck ratio ≤ 1.5) and sidewall aneurysms in 6 patients. All aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation on the internal carotid artery (ICA). In 4 larger aneurysms (> 10 mm) one 3D coil in association with Fred was used to reduce potential incidence of postoperative subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Dual antiplatelet therapy was administered before the procedure and continued for 3 months after it. Clinical parameters, aneurysm features and 3-month follow-up angiograms are presented. All 6 patients with 8 aneurysms were successfully stented with the Fred flow-diverter device and were discharged in generally good condition on dual-antiplatelet therapy. No complications were related to the procedure. In 5 cases digital subtraction angiography (DSA) control examination was performed after 3 months, showing complete occlusion of the aneurysms with patency of the parent artery. In 1 case thrombosis of the Fred occurred but without any clinical consequences because of cross-flow from the other side. Use of the Fred flow-diverter device was efficacious in all 8 treated cerebral aneurysms. The system seems to be promising as a flow diverter with certain characteristics, which allow for easy delivery and implantation. Further clinical evaluation with a larger group of patients is needed. PMID:24130644

  4. Initial experience with implantation of novel dual layer flow-diverter device FRED

    PubMed Central

    Sagan, Leszek; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rać, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Flow-diverting stents can help treat complex and wide-necked cerebral aneurysms. The aim of the study was to evaluate initial experiences related to the safety and effectiveness of eight aneurysms treated with a new dual layer coverage designed flow-diverter device. In 2012 Fred flow-diverter devices were used to treat 8 unruptured wide neck (dome-neck ratio ≤ 1.5) and sidewall aneurysms in 6 patients. All aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation on the internal carotid artery (ICA). In 4 larger aneurysms (> 10 mm) one 3D coil in association with Fred was used to reduce potential incidence of postoperative subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Dual antiplatelet therapy was administered before the procedure and continued for 3 months after it. Clinical parameters, aneurysm features and 3-month follow-up angiograms are presented. All 6 patients with 8 aneurysms were successfully stented with the Fred flow-diverter device and were discharged in generally good condition on dual-antiplatelet therapy. No complications were related to the procedure. In 5 cases digital subtraction angiography (DSA) control examination was performed after 3 months, showing complete occlusion of the aneurysms with patency of the parent artery. In 1 case thrombosis of the Fred occurred but without any clinical consequences because of cross-flow from the other side. Use of the Fred flow-diverter device was efficacious in all 8 treated cerebral aneurysms. The system seems to be promising as a flow diverter with certain characteristics, which allow for easy delivery and implantation. Further clinical evaluation with a larger group of patients is needed. PMID:24130644

  5. Laboratory Apparatus Generates Dual-Species Cold Atomic Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert; Klipstein, William; Kohel, James; Maleki, Lute; Lundblad, Nathan; Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; Aveline, Dave; Yu, Nan; Enzer, Daphna

    2004-01-01

    A laser cooling apparatus that generates a cold beam of rubidium and cesium atoms at low pressure has been constructed as one of several intermediate products of a continuing program of research on laser cooling and atomic physics. Laser-cooled atomic beams, which can have temperatures as low as a microkelvin, have been used in diverse applications that include measurements of fundamental constants, atomic clocks that realize the international standard unit of time, atom-wave interferometers, and experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation. The present apparatus is a prototype of one being evaluated for use in a proposed microgravitational experiment called the Quantum Interferometric Test of Equivalence (QuITE). In this experiment, interferometric measurements of cesium and rubidium atoms in free fall would be part of a test of Einstein s equivalence principle. The present apparatus and its anticipated successors may also be useful in other experiments, in both microgravity and normal Earth gravity, in which there are requirements for dual-species atomic beams, low temperatures, and low pressures. The apparatus includes a pyramidal magneto-optical trap in which the illumination is provided by multiple lasers tuned to frequencies characteristic of the two atomic species. The inlet to the apparatus is located in a vacuum chamber that contains rubidium and cesium atoms at a low pressure; the beam leaving through the outlet of the apparatus is used to transfer the atoms to a higher-vacuum (lower-pressure) chamber in which measurements are performed. The pyramidal magneto-optical trap is designed so that the laser cooling forces in one direction are unbalanced, resulting in a continuous cold beam of atoms that leak out of the trap (see figure). The radiant intensity (number of atoms per unit time per unit solid angle) of the apparatus is the greatest of any other source of the same type reported to date. In addition, this is the first such apparatus capable of producing

  6. Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Schubert, Christian; Krutzik, Markus; Bote, Lluis Gesa; Gaaloul, Naceur; Hartwig, Jonas; Ahlers, Holger; Herr, Waldemar; Posso-Trujillo, Katerine; Rudolph, Jan; Seidel, Stephan; Wendrich, Thijs; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Sven; Kubelka-Lange, André; Milke, Alexander; Rievers, Benny; Rocco, Emanuele; Hinton, Andrew; Bongs, Kai; Oswald, Markus; Franz, Matthias; Hauth, Matthias; Peters, Achim; Bawamia, Ahmad; Wicht, Andreas; Battelier, Baptiste; Bertoldi, Andrea; Bouyer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud; Massonnet, Didier; Lévèque, Thomas; Wenzlawski, Andre; Hellmig, Ortwin; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus; von Klitzing, Wolf; Chaloner, Chris; Summers, David; Ireland, Philip; Mateos, Ignacio; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Tino, Guglielmo M.; Williams, Michael; Trenkel, Christian; Gerardi, Domenico; Chwalla, Michael; Burkhardt, Johannes; Johann, Ulrich; Heske, Astrid; Wille, Eric; Gehler, Martin; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Gürlebeck, Norman; Braxmaier, Claus; Rasel, Ernst

    2015-06-01

    Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species 85Rb/87Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry, the detection unit, the vacuum system for 10-11 mbar ultra-high vacuum generation, and the high-suppression factor magnetic shielding as well as the thermal control system. The laser system is based on a hybrid approach using fiber-based telecom components and high-power laser diode technology and includes all laser sources for 2D-MOT, 3D-MOT, ODT, interferometry and detection. Manipulation and switching of the laser beams is carried out on an optical bench using Zerodur bonding technology. The instrument consists of 9 units with an overall mass of 221 kg, an average power consumption of 608 W (814 W peak), and a volume of 470 liters which would well fit on a satellite to be launched with a Soyuz rocket, as system studies have shown.

  7. Comparison and Combination of Dual-Energy- and Iterative-Based Metal Artefact Reduction on Hip Prosthesis and Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Malte N.; Schabel, Christoph; Thomas, Christoph; Raupach, Rainer; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bamberg, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare and combine dual-energy based and iterative metal artefact reduction on hip prosthesis and dental implants in CT. Material and Methods A total of 46 patients (women:50%,mean age:63±15years) with dental implants or hip prostheses (n = 30/20) were included and examined with a second-generation Dual Source Scanner. 120kV equivalent mixed-images were derived from reconstructions of the 100/Sn140kV source images using no metal artefact reduction (NOMAR) and iterative metal artefact reduction (IMAR). We then generated monoenergetic extrapolations at 130keV from source images without IMAR (DEMAR) or from source images with IMAR, (IMAR+DEMAR). The degree of metal artefact was quantified for NOMAR, IMAR, DEMAR and IMAR+DEMAR using a Fourier-based method and subjectively rated on a five point Likert scale by two independent readers. Results In subjects with hip prosthesis, DEMAR and IMAR resulted in significantly reduced artefacts compared to standard reconstructions (33% vs. 56%; for DEMAR and IMAR; respectively, p<0.005), but the degree of artefact reduction was significantly higher for IMAR (all p<0.005). In contrast, in subjects with dental implants only IMAR showed a significant reduction of artefacts whereas DEMAR did not (71%, vs. 8% p<0.01 and p = 0.1; respectively). Furthermore, the combination of IMAR with DEMAR resulted in additionally reduced artefacts (Hip prosthesis: 47%, dental implants 18%; both p<0.0001). Conclusion IMAR allows for significantly higher reduction of metal artefacts caused by hip prostheses and dental implants, compared to a dual energy based method. The combination of DE-source images with IMAR and subsequent monoenergetic extrapolation provides an incremental benefit compared to both single methods. PMID:26600188

  8. Production and characterization of a dual species magneto-optical trap of cesium and ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, S. L.; Butler, K. L.; Freytag, R.; Hopkins, S. A.; Hinds, E. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Cornish, S. L.

    2016-02-01

    We describe an apparatus designed to trap and cool a Yb and Cs mixture. The apparatus consists of a dual species effusive oven source, dual species Zeeman slower, magneto-optical traps in a single ultra-high vacuum science chamber, and the associated laser systems. The dual species Zeeman slower is used to load sequentially the two species into their respective traps. Its design is flexible and may be adapted for other experiments with different mixtures of atomic species. The apparatus provides excellent optical access and can apply large magnetic bias fields to the trapped atoms. The apparatus regularly produces 108 Cs atoms at 13.3 μK in an optical molasses, and 109 174Y b atoms cooled to 22 μK in a narrowband magneto-optical trap.

  9. Production and characterization of a dual species magneto-optical trap of cesium and ytterbium.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S L; Butler, K L; Freytag, R; Hopkins, S A; Hinds, E A; Tarbutt, M R; Cornish, S L

    2016-02-01

    We describe an apparatus designed to trap and cool a Yb and Cs mixture. The apparatus consists of a dual species effusive oven source, dual species Zeeman slower, magneto-optical traps in a single ultra-high vacuum science chamber, and the associated laser systems. The dual species Zeeman slower is used to load sequentially the two species into their respective traps. Its design is flexible and may be adapted for other experiments with different mixtures of atomic species. The apparatus provides excellent optical access and can apply large magnetic bias fields to the trapped atoms. The apparatus regularly produces 10(8) Cs atoms at 13.3 μK in an optical molasses, and 10(9) (174)Y b atoms cooled to 22 μK in a narrowband magneto-optical trap. PMID:26931832

  10. Moving Toward Focal Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Dual-Isotope Permanent Seed Implants as a Possible Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Todor, Dorin A.; Barani, Igor J.; Lin, Peck-Sun; Anscher, Mitchell S.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of single- and dual-isotope prostate seed implants to escalate biologically effective dose (BED) to foci of disease while reducing prescription dose to the prostate. Methods and Materials: Nine plans, using {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 131}Cs alone and in combination were created retrospectively for 2 patients. Ultrasound and MRI/MRS datasets were used for treatment planning. Voxel-by-voxel BED was calculated for single- and dual-isotope plans. Equivalent uniform BED (EUBED) was used to compare plans. The MRS-positive planning target volumes (PTV{sub i}) were delineated along with PTV (prostate + 5 mm), rectum, and urethra. Single-isotope implants, prescribed to conventional doses, were generated to achieve good PTV coverage. The PTV{sub i} were prospectively used to generate implants using mixtures of isotopes. For mixed-radioisotope implants, we also explored the impact on EUBED of lowering prescription doses by 15%. Results: The EUBED of PTV{sub i} in the setting of primary {sup 125}I implant increased 20-66% when {sup 103}Pd and {sup 131}Cs were used compared with {sup 125}I boost. Decreasing prescription dose by 15% in mixed-isotope implants results in a potential 10% reduction in urethral EUBED with preservation of PTV coverage while still boosting PTV{sub i} (up to 80%). When radiobiologic parameters corresponding to more-aggressive disease are assigned to foci, faster-decaying isotopes used in mixed implants have the potential to preserve the equivalent biological effect of mono-isotope implants considering less-aggressive disease distributed in the entire prostate. Conclusions: This is a hypothesis-generating study proposing a treatment paradigm that could be the middle ground between whole-gland irradiation and focal-only treatment. The use of two isotopes concurrent with decreasing the minimal peripheral dose is shown to increase EUBED of selected subvolumes while preserving the therapeutic effect at the level of the

  11. Effect of implanted species on thermal evolution of ion-induced defects in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Azarov, A. Yu.; Rauwel, P.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.; Hallén, A.; Du, X. L.

    2014-02-21

    Implanted atoms can affect the evolution of ion-induced defects in radiation hard materials exhibiting a high dynamic annealing and these processes are poorly understood. Here, we study the thermal evolution of structural defects in wurtzite ZnO samples implanted at room temperature with a wide range of ion species (from {sup 11}B to {sup 209}Bi) to ion doses up to 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. The structural disorder was characterized by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, while secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to monitor the behavior of both the implanted elements and residual impurities, such as Li. The results show that the damage formation and its thermal evolution strongly depend on the ion species. In particular, for F implanted samples, a strong out-diffusion of the implanted ions results in an efficient crystal recovery already at 600 °C, while co-implantation with B (via BF{sub 2}) ions suppresses both the F out-diffusion and the lattice recovery at such low temperatures. The damage produced by heavy ions (such as Cd, Au, and Bi) exhibits a two-stage annealing behavior where efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters occurs at temperatures ∼500 °C, while the second stage is characterized by a gradual and partial annealing of extended defects. These defects can persist even after treatment at 900 °C. In contrast, the defects produced by light and medium mass ions (O, B, and Zn) exhibit a more gradual annealing with increasing temperature without distinct stages. In addition, effects of the implanted species may lead to a nontrivial defect evolution during the annealing, with N, Ag, and Er as prime examples. In general, the obtained results are interpreted in terms of formation of different dopant-defect complexes and their thermal stability.

  12. Effect of implanted species on thermal evolution of ion-induced defects in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarov, A. Yu.; Hallén, A.; Du, X. L.; Rauwel, P.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.

    2014-02-01

    Implanted atoms can affect the evolution of ion-induced defects in radiation hard materials exhibiting a high dynamic annealing and these processes are poorly understood. Here, we study the thermal evolution of structural defects in wurtzite ZnO samples implanted at room temperature with a wide range of ion species (from 11B to 209Bi) to ion doses up to 2 × 1016 cm-2. The structural disorder was characterized by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, while secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to monitor the behavior of both the implanted elements and residual impurities, such as Li. The results show that the damage formation and its thermal evolution strongly depend on the ion species. In particular, for F implanted samples, a strong out-diffusion of the implanted ions results in an efficient crystal recovery already at 600 °C, while co-implantation with B (via BF2) ions suppresses both the F out-diffusion and the lattice recovery at such low temperatures. The damage produced by heavy ions (such as Cd, Au, and Bi) exhibits a two-stage annealing behavior where efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters occurs at temperatures ˜500 °C, while the second stage is characterized by a gradual and partial annealing of extended defects. These defects can persist even after treatment at 900 °C. In contrast, the defects produced by light and medium mass ions (O, B, and Zn) exhibit a more gradual annealing with increasing temperature without distinct stages. In addition, effects of the implanted species may lead to a nontrivial defect evolution during the annealing, with N, Ag, and Er as prime examples. In general, the obtained results are interpreted in terms of formation of different dopant-defect complexes and their thermal stability.

  13. Dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Is it useful in patient with permanent atrial fibrillation?

    PubMed

    Porres-Aracama, José M; Cerezuela, José Luis; García-Urra, Francisco; Luque-Lezcano, Oscar; Herrero, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    In patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implant indication, a single-chamber device is the choice because AF does not provide interesting information for the treatment. It is very unusual to find patients with permanent AF that coexist with atrial tachycardia with various degree of Atrioventricular block. PMID:27525075

  14. Formation and behavior of ceramic layer by ion-deposited Ti coating using FMEVAD and Ti and C dual-implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonghe, Zhang; Yuguang, Wu; Yenwen, Zhang

    2001-12-01

    Compact Ti coating is deposited on H13 by new deposition equipment of filter metal vacuum arc deposition (FMEVAD) to increase resistance of corrosion and wear. In order to improve coating properties, some of the samples are implanted subsequently by C and Ti dual-implantation using metal vacuum vapor arc (MEVVA) ion implantor. It is found that the corrosion resistance and pitting corrosion improved extremely, the corrosion peak current density Jp of Ti coating on H13 steels decreases obviously. The pitting corrosion breakdown potential is 100 mV higher than that of H13 steel. After C and Ti dual-ion implantation, nanometer columned structures with size of 10-30 nm in diameter are presented and embedded in the coating films. Due to the new phase formation (TiC) and structure change, the coating resistance of wear and corrosion are further improved. The Jp of implanted Ti coating is ˜100 times lower than the deposited Ti coating. The wear resistance of the implanted Ti coating and Ti + C dual-implanted Ti coating improved obviously compared with the Ti coating.

  15. Dual species entanglement of Rb and Cs qubits with Rydberg blockade for crosstalk free qubit measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kevin; Yu, Zhaoning; Ebert, Matthew; Sun, Yuan; Saffman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    One of the outstanding challenges facing neutral atom qubit approaches to quantum computation is suppression of crosstalk between proximal qubits due to scattered light that is generated during optical pumping and measurement operations. We have recently proposed a dual species approach to solving this challenge whereby computational qubits encoded in Cs atoms are entangled with Rb atoms via an interspecies Rydberg interaction. The quantum state of a Cs atom can then be readout by measuring the state of a Rb atom. The difference in resonant wavelengths of the two species effectively suppresses crosstalk. We will present progress towards experimental demonstration of dual species entanglement using Rb and Cs atoms cotrapped in a single beam optical trap. Work supported by the ARL CDQI.

  16. Optical activation behavior of ion implanted acceptor species in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Skromme, B.J.; Martinez, G.L.

    2000-07-01

    Ion implantation is used to investigate the spectroscopic properties of Mg, Be, and C acceptors in GaN. Activation of these species is studied using low temperature photoluminescence (PL). Low dose implants into high quality undoped hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) material are used in conjunction with high temperature (1300 C) rapid thermal anneals to obtain high quality spectra. Dramatic, dose-dependent evidence of Mg acceptor activation is observed without any co-implants, including a strong, sharp neutral Mg acceptor-bound exciton and strong donor-acceptor pair peaks. Variable temperature measurements reveal a band-to-acceptor transition, whose energy yields an optical binding energy of 224 meV. Be and C implants yield only slight evidence of shallow acceptor-related features and produce dose-correlated 2.2 eV PL, attributed to residual implantation damage. Their poor optical activation is tentatively attributed to insufficient vacancy production by these lighter ions. Clear evidence is obtained for donor-Zn acceptor pair and acceptor-bound exciton peaks in Zn-doped HVPE material.

  17. Factors associated with implantation of single- versus dual-chamber pacemakers in 1992.

    PubMed

    Daley, W R

    1998-08-01

    Characteristics of hospitalized patients receiving initial pacemaker implantation were determined using a multistate inpatient discharge database. Analysis revealed a significant association of pacemaker type with patient age and income level, even after controlling for diagnostic factors. PMID:9708676

  18. Implantation phaeohyphomycosis caused by a non-sporulating Chaetomium species.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, M J; Fata, A; Naseri, A; Keisari, M Saradeghi; Farahyar, S; Ganjbakhsh, M; Ziaee, M; Dolatabadi, S; de Hoog, G S

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old Iranian woman with a phaeohyphomycotic cyst (approximately 3×2.5cm in size) on the right lateral side of the neck. She had dysphagia and hoarseness, without any pain. She complained about discharge of black liquid on the skin and irritation. Histological examination of biopsy fragments from the lesions showed septate, branched brown hyphae. The fungus was cultured, but sporulation remained absent from 4- week-old cultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), malt extract agar (MEA), potato dextrose agar (PDA), and water agar with sterile filter paper. Identification with the genus Chaetomium was achieved by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the small subunit (SSU) domains of the rDNA gene and comparison with sequences held at GenBank and at the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS). Sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene reveals this strain as belonging to the genus Chaetomium. The sequence of ITS did not fully match with any sequence of available ex-type strains of Chaetomium, Thielavia, Madurella and Papulaspora and hence might belong to an undescribed species. However, without diagnostic morphological features the taxon cannot be introduced as a novel member of the genus Chaetomium. After local excision of the cyst and antifungal therapy with ketoconazole (200mg twice a day), the lesion regressed and healed completely. PMID:24246716

  19. Cross-species transcriptomic approach reveals genes in hamster implantation sites.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Herington, Jennifer; Galindo, Cristi L; Ding, Tianbing; Brown, Naoko; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C

    2014-12-01

    The mouse model has greatly contributed to understanding molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of progesterone (P4) plus estrogen (E)-dependent blastocyst implantation process. However, little is known about contributory molecular mechanisms of the P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation process that occurs in species such as hamsters, guineapigs, rabbits, pigs, rhesus monkeys, and perhaps humans. We used the hamster as a model of P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation and carried out cross-species microarray (CSM) analyses to reveal differentially expressed genes at the blastocyst implantation site (BIS), in order to advance the understanding of molecular mechanisms of implantation. Upregulation of 112 genes and downregulation of 77 genes at the BIS were identified using a mouse microarray platform, while use of the human microarray revealed 62 up- and 38 down-regulated genes at the BIS. Excitingly, a sizable number of genes (30 up- and 11 down-regulated genes) were identified as a shared pool by both CSMs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization validated the expression patterns of several up- and down-regulated genes identified by both CSMs at the hamster and mouse BIS to demonstrate the merit of CSM findings across species, in addition to revealing genes specific to hamsters. Functional annotation analysis found that genes involved in the spliceosome, proteasome, and ubiquination pathways are enriched at the hamster BIS, while genes associated with tight junction, SAPK/JNK signaling, and PPARα/RXRα signalings are repressed at the BIS. Overall, this study provides a pool of genes and evidence of their participation in up- and down-regulated cellular functions/pathways at the hamster BIS. PMID:25252651

  20. Dual-Component Intramedullary Implant Versus Kirschner Wire for Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Fusion: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jay, Richard M; Malay, D Scot; Landsman, Adam S; Jennato, Nathan; Huish, James; Younger, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We undertook a multicenter, parallel treatment arm, randomized controlled trial to compare the outcomes after surgery for the treatment of lesser digital hammertoe using either a Kirschner wire or a 2-piece intramedullary, stainless steel implant for fixation of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Our primary aim was to compare the incidence of arthrodesis and complications, and our secondary aim was to compare the subjective foot-related outcomes measured using the Bristol Foot Score and the Foot Function Index, stratified by fixation group. We hypothesized that the use of the dual-component implant would result in greater patient satisfaction, a greater incidence of radiographic arthrodesis, and fewer complications after hammertoe repair. The overall mean age of the participants was 58.72 ± 13.48 (range 18 to 84) years, their mean body mass index was 30.14 ± 6.55 (range 20.7 to 46.98) kg/m(2), and no statistically significant differences in the demographic variables were present between the treatment groups at baseline or during the follow-up period. Of the 91 participants, 46 (50.55%) were randomly allocated to the Kirschner wire group and 45 (49.45%) to the intramedullary implant group. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 fixation groups in the incidence of complications; however, the 2-piece intramedullary implant group was associated with a greater mean Bristol Foot Score and Foot Function Index score and a greater incidence of fusion. PMID:27180101

  1. Designer Dual Therapy Nanolayered Implant Coatings Eradicate Biofilms and Accelerate Bone Tissue Repair.

    PubMed

    Min, Jouha; Choi, Ki Young; Dreaden, Erik C; Padera, Robert F; Braatz, Richard D; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T

    2016-04-26

    Infections associated with orthopedic implants cause increased morbidity and significant healthcare cost. A prolonged and expensive two-stage procedure requiring two surgical steps and a 6-8 week period of joint immobilization exists as today's gold standard for the revision arthroplasty of an infected prosthesis. Because infection is much more common in implant replacement surgeries, these issues greatly impact long-term patient care for a continually growing part of the population. Here, we demonstrate that a single-stage revision using prostheses coated with self-assembled, hydrolytically degradable multilayers that sequentially deliver the antibiotic (gentamicin) and the osteoinductive growth factor (BMP-2) in a time-staggered manner enables both eradication of established biofilms and complete and rapid bone tissue repair around the implant in rats with induced osteomyelitis. The nanolayered construct allows precise independent control of release kinetics and loading for each therapeutic agent in an infected implant environment. Antibiotics contained in top layers can be tuned to provide a rapid release at early times sufficient to eliminate infection, followed by sustained release for several weeks, and the underlying BMP-2 component enables a long-term sustained release of BMP-2, which induced more significant and mechanically competent bone formation than a short-term burst release. The successful growth factor-mediated osteointegration of the multilayered implants with the host tissue improved bone-implant interfacial strength 15-fold when compared with the uncoated one. These findings demonstrate the potential of this layered release strategy to introduce a durable next-generation implant solution, ultimately an important step forward to future large animal models toward the clinic. PMID:26923427

  2. Thiazolidinedione-8 Alters Symbiotic Relationship in C. albicans-S. mutans Dual Species Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Mark; Ginsburg, Isaac; Al-Quntar, Abed; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    The small molecule, thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8) was shown to impair biofilm formation of various microbial pathogens, including the fungus Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Previously, we have evaluated the specific molecular mode of S-8 action against C. albicans biofilm-associated pathogenicity. In this study we investigated the influence of S-8 on dual species, C. albicans-S. mutans biofilm. We show that in the presence of S-8 a reduction of the co-species biofilm formation occurred with a major effect on C. albicans. Biofilm biomass and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were significantly reduced by S-8. Moreover, the agent caused oxidative stress associated with a strong induction of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide uptake inhibition by a mixed biofilm. In addition, S-8 altered symbiotic relationship between these species by a complex mechanism. Streptococcal genes associated with quorum sensing (QS) (comDE and luxS), EPS production (gtfBCD and gbpB), as well as genes related to protection against oxidative stress (nox and sodA) were markedly upregulated by S-8. In contrast, fungal genes related to hyphae formation (hwp1), adhesion (als3), hydrophobicity (csh1), and oxidative stress response (sod1, sod2, and cat1) were downregulated in the presence of S-8. In addition, ywp1 gene associated with yeast form of C. albicans was induced by S-8, which is correlated with appearance of mostly yeast cells in S-8 treated dual species biofilms. We concluded that S-8 disturbs symbiotic balance between C. albicans and S. mutans in dual species biofilm. PMID:26904013

  3. Thiazolidinedione-8 Alters Symbiotic Relationship in C. albicans-S. mutans Dual Species Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Mark; Ginsburg, Isaac; Al-Quntar, Abed; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    The small molecule, thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8) was shown to impair biofilm formation of various microbial pathogens, including the fungus Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Previously, we have evaluated the specific molecular mode of S-8 action against C. albicans biofilm-associated pathogenicity. In this study we investigated the influence of S-8 on dual species, C. albicans-S. mutans biofilm. We show that in the presence of S-8 a reduction of the co-species biofilm formation occurred with a major effect on C. albicans. Biofilm biomass and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were significantly reduced by S-8. Moreover, the agent caused oxidative stress associated with a strong induction of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide uptake inhibition by a mixed biofilm. In addition, S-8 altered symbiotic relationship between these species by a complex mechanism. Streptococcal genes associated with quorum sensing (QS) (comDE and luxS), EPS production (gtfBCD and gbpB), as well as genes related to protection against oxidative stress (nox and sodA) were markedly upregulated by S-8. In contrast, fungal genes related to hyphae formation (hwp1), adhesion (als3), hydrophobicity (csh1), and oxidative stress response (sod1, sod2, and cat1) were downregulated in the presence of S-8. In addition, ywp1 gene associated with yeast form of C. albicans was induced by S-8, which is correlated with appearance of mostly yeast cells in S-8 treated dual species biofilms. We concluded that S-8 disturbs symbiotic balance between C. albicans and S. mutans in dual species biofilm. PMID:26904013

  4. Rapid evaluation of the durability of cortical neural implants using accelerated aging with reactive oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takmakov, Pavel; Ruda, Kiersten; Phillips, K. Scott; Isayeva, Irada S.; Krauthamer, Victor; Welle, Cristin G.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. A challenge for implementing high bandwidth cortical brain-machine interface devices in patients is the limited functional lifespan of implanted recording electrodes. Development of implant technology currently requires extensive non-clinical testing to demonstrate device performance. However, testing the durability of the implants in vivo is time-consuming and expensive. Validated in vitro methodologies may reduce the need for extensive testing in animal models. Approach. Here we describe an in vitro platform for rapid evaluation of implant stability. We designed a reactive accelerated aging (RAA) protocol that employs elevated temperature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to create a harsh aging environment. Commercially available microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were placed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide at 87 °C for a period of 7 days. We monitored changes to the implants with scanning electron microscopy and broad spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (1 Hz-1 MHz) and correlated the physical changes with impedance data to identify markers associated with implant failure. Main results. RAA produced a diverse range of effects on the structural integrity and electrochemical properties of electrodes. Temperature and ROS appeared to have different effects on structural elements, with increased temperature causing insulation loss from the electrode microwires, and ROS concentration correlating with tungsten metal dissolution. All array types experienced impedance declines, consistent with published literature showing chronic (>30 days) declines in array impedance in vivo. Impedance change was greatest at frequencies <10 Hz, and smallest at frequencies 1 kHz and above. Though electrode performance is traditionally characterized by impedance at 1 kHz, our results indicate that an impedance change at 1 kHz is not a reliable predictive marker of implant degradation or failure. Significance. ROS, which are known to be present in vivo, can create

  5. Dual Behavior of Iodine Species in Condensation of Anilines and Vinyl Ethers Affording 2-Methylquinolines.

    PubMed

    Le, Song Thi; Yasuoka, Chisa; Asahara, Haruyasu; Nishiwaki, Nagatoshi

    2016-01-01

    A metal-free, mild and efficient method for the synthesis of 2-methylquinolines was successfully developed by condensation of anilines with vinyl ethers in the presence of catalytic amount of iodine. Modification of both pyridine and benzene moieties was easily achieved by changing only the vinyl ether and aniline. In this reaction, the iodine species was revealed to show dual behavior; molecular iodine serves as an oxidant, while its reduced form, hydrogen iodide, activates the vinyl ether. The redox reaction between these iodine species enables the use of a catalytic amount of iodine in this synthetic method. PMID:27347919

  6. Studies on the surface modification of TiN coatings using MEVVA ion implantation with selected metallic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, L. P.; Purushotham, K. P.; Manory, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in the performance of TiN coatings can be achieved using surface modification techniques such as ion implantation. In the present study, physical vapor deposited (PVD) TiN coatings were implanted with Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and W using the metal evaporation vacuum arc (MEVVA) technique at a constant nominal dose of 4 × 1016 ions cm-2 for all species. The samples were characterized before and after implantation, using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. Friction and wear studies were performed under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc CSEM Tribometer at 1 N load and 450 m sliding distance. A reduction in the grain size and surface roughness was observed after implantation with all five species. Little variation was observed in the residual stress values for all implanted TiN coatings, except for W implanted TiN which showed a pronounced increase in compressive residual stress. Mo-implanted samples showed a lower coefficient of friction and higher resistance to breakdown during the initial stages of testing than as-received samples. Significant reduction in wear rate was observed after implanting with Zr and Mo ions compared with unimplanted TiN. The presence of the Ti2N phase was observed with Cr implantation.

  7. 3D printed bioceramics for dual antibiotic delivery to treat implant-associated bone infection.

    PubMed

    Inzana, J A; Trombetta, R P; Schwarz, E M; Kates, S L; Awad, H A

    2015-01-01

    Surgical implant-associated bone infections (osteomyelitis) have severe clinical and socioeconomic consequences. Treatment of chronic bone infections often involves antibiotics given systemically and locally to the affected site in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. Given the high antibiotic concentrations required to affect bacteria in biofilm, local delivery is important to achieve high doses at the infection site. PMMA is not suitable to locally-deliver some biofilm-specific antibiotics, including rifampin, due to interference with PMMA polymerisation. To examine the efficacy of localised, combinational antibiotic delivery compared to PMMA standards, we fabricated rifampin- and vancomycin-laden calcium phosphate scaffolds (CPS) by three-dimensional (3D) printing to treat an implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus bone infection in a murine model. All vancomycin- and rifampin-laden CPS treatments significantly reduced the bacterial burden compared with vancomycin-laden PMMA. The bones were bacteria culture negative in 50 % of the mice that received sustained release vancomycin- and rifampin-laden CPS. In contrast, 100 % of the bones treated with vancomycin monotherapy using PMMA or CPS were culture positive. Yet, the monotherapy CPS significantly reduced the bacterial metabolic load following revision compared to PMMA. Biofilm persisted on the fixation hardware, but the infection-induced bone destruction was significantly reduced by local rifampin delivery. These data demonstrate that, despite the challenging implant-retaining infection model, co-delivery of rifampin and vancomycin from 3D printed CPS, which is not possible with PMMA, significantly improved the outcomes of implant-associated osteomyelitis. However, biofilm persistence on the fixation hardware reaffirms the importance of implant exchange or other biofilm eradication strategies to complement local antibiotics. PMID:26535494

  8. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p < 0.001) than non-albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. PMID:27020154

  9. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  10. Clinical, Echocardiographic, and Electrocardiographic Predictors of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation after Dual-Chamber Pacemaker Implantation: An Integrated Scoring Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min Soo; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Minsu; Lee, Ji Hyun; Hwang, You Mi; Jo, Uk; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF) predictors after dual-chamber pacemaker (PM) implantation remain unclear. We sought to determine these predictors and establish an integrated scoring model. Data were retrospectively reviewed for 649 patients (63.8 ± 12.3 years, 48.6% male, mean CHA2DS2–VASC score 2.7 ± 2.0) undergoing dual-chamber PM implantation. PeAF was defined as documented AF on two consecutive electrocardiograms acquired ≥7 days apart. During a 7.1-year median follow-up (interquartile range 4.5–10.1 years), 67 (10.3%) patients had PeAF. Multivariable analysis showed the following independent predictors of future PeAF: ischemic stroke or transient ischemic accident history (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–3.50, p = 0.040), atrial fibrillation/flutter history (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.01–3.20, p = 0.046), sinus node disease (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.16–4.35, p = 0.016), left atrial enlargement (>45 mm, HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.26–3.63, p = 0.005), and time in automatic mode switching >1% at first follow-up interrogation (HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.51–4.42, p < 0.001). An integrated scoring model combining these predictors showed good discrimination performance at the seven-year follow-up. (C-statistic 0.716, 95% CI 0.629–0.802, p < 0.001). Significantly greater seven-year PeAF incidences were seen in patients with higher scores (2–5) than in those with lower scores (0–1) (22.8% ± 3.8% vs. 5.3% ± 1.7%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, an integrated scoring model combining clinical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic characteristics is useful for predicting future PeAF in patients with a dual-chamber PM. PMID:27479069

  11. Relationship between reactive oxygen species and autophagy in dormant mouse blastocysts during delayed implantation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyejin; Choi, Soyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Under estrogen deficiency, blastocysts cannot initiate implantation and enter dormancy. Dormant blastocysts live longer in utero than normal blastocysts, and autophagy has been suggested as a mechanism underlying the sustained survival of dormant blastocysts during delayed implantation. Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway and a central component of the integrated stress response. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced within cells during normal metabolism, but their levels increase dramatically under stressful conditions. We investigated whether heightened autophagy in dormant blastocysts is associated with the increased oxidative stress under the unfavorable condition of delayed implantation. Methods To visualize ROS production, day 8 (short-term dormancy) and day 20 (long-term dormancy) dormant blastocysts were loaded with 1-µM 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA). To block autophagic activation, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and wortmannin were used in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Results We observed that ROS production was not significantly affected by the status of dormancy; in other words, both dormant and activated blastocysts showed high levels of ROS. However, ROS production was higher in the dormant blastocysts of the long-term dormancy group than in those of the short-term group. The addition of wortmannin to dormant blastocysts in vitro and 3-MA injection in vivo significantly increased ROS production in the short-term dormant blastocysts. In the long-term dormant blastocysts, ROS levels were not significantly affected by the treatment of the autophagy inhibitor. Conclusion During delayed implantation, heightened autophagy in dormant blastocysts may be operative as a potential mechanism to reduce oxidative stress. Further, ROS may be one of the potential causes of compromised developmental competence of long-term dormant blastocysts after implantation. PMID:25309857

  12. Clinical Impact of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Use in Patients Following Everolimus-eluting Stent Implantation: Insights from the SEEDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yao-Jun; Zhao, Ye-Lin; Xu, Bo; Han, Ya-Ling; Li, Bao; Liu, Qiang; Su, Xi; Pang, Si; Lu, Shu-Zheng; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Yue-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have suggested that use of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following new generation drug-eluting stent implantation may increase costs and potential bleeding events. This study aimed to investigate the association of DAPT status with clinical safety in patients undergoing everolimus-eluting stent (EES) implantation in the SEEDS study (A Registry to Evaluate Safety and Effectiveness of Everolimus Drug-eluting Stent for Coronary Revascularization) at 2-year follow-up. Methods: The SEEDS study is a prospective, multicenter study, where patients (n = 1900) with small vessel, long lesion, or multi-vessel diseases underwent EES implantation. Detailed DAPT status was collected at baseline, 6-month, 1- and 2-year. DAPT interruption was defined as any interruption of aspirin and/or clopidogrel more than 14 days. The net adverse clinical events (NACE, a composite endpoint of all-cause death, all myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST), and major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium II-V)) were investigated according to the DAPT status at 2-year follow-up. Results: DAPT was used in 97.8% of patients at 6 months, 69.5% at 12 months and 35.4% at 2 years. It was observed that the incidence of NACE was low (8.1%) at 2 years follow-up, especially its components of all-cause death (0.9%), stroke (1.1%), and definite/probable ST (0.7%). DAPT was not an independent predictor of composite endpoint of all-cause death/MI/stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.693, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.096–4.980, P = 0.715) and NACE (HR: 1.041, 95% CI: 0.145–7.454, P = 0.968). Of 73 patients who had DAPT interruption, no patient had ST at 12-month, and only 1 patient experienced ST between 1- and 2-year (1.4%). There was a high frequency of major bleeding events (53/65, 82.5%) occurred in patients receiving DAPT treatment. Conclusions: Prolonged DAPT use was not associated with improved clinical safety. The study

  13. An adaptable dual species effusive source and Zeeman slower design demonstrated with Rb and Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, William; Gunton, Will; Semczuk, Mariusz; Dare, Kahan; Madison, Kirk W.

    2016-04-01

    We present a dual-species effusive source and Zeeman slower designed to produce slow atomic beams of two elements with a large mass difference and with very different oven temperature requirements. We demonstrate this design for the case of 6Li and 85Rb and achieve magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading rates equivalent to that reported in prior work on dual species (Rb+Li) Zeeman slowers operating at the same oven temperatures. Key design choices, including thermally separating the effusive sources and using a segmented coil design to enable computer control of the magnetic field profile, ensure that the apparatus can be easily modified to slow other atomic species. By performing the final slowing using the quadrupole magnetic field of the MOT, we are able to shorten our Zeeman slower length making for a more compact system without compromising performance. We outline the construction and analyze the emission properties of our effusive sources. We also verify the performance of the source and slower, and we observe sequential loading rates of 12 × 108 atoms/s for a Rb oven temperature of 140 °C and 1.1 × 108 atoms/s for a Li reservoir at 460 °C, corresponding to reservoir lifetimes for continuous operation of 10 and 4 years, respectively.

  14. An adaptable dual species effusive source and Zeeman slower design demonstrated with Rb and Li.

    PubMed

    Bowden, William; Gunton, Will; Semczuk, Mariusz; Dare, Kahan; Madison, Kirk W

    2016-04-01

    We present a dual-species effusive source and Zeeman slower designed to produce slow atomic beams of two elements with a large mass difference and with very different oven temperature requirements. We demonstrate this design for the case of (6)Li and (85)Rb and achieve magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading rates equivalent to that reported in prior work on dual species (Rb+Li) Zeeman slowers operating at the same oven temperatures. Key design choices, including thermally separating the effusive sources and using a segmented coil design to enable computer control of the magnetic field profile, ensure that the apparatus can be easily modified to slow other atomic species. By performing the final slowing using the quadrupole magnetic field of the MOT, we are able to shorten our Zeeman slower length making for a more compact system without compromising performance. We outline the construction and analyze the emission properties of our effusive sources. We also verify the performance of the source and slower, and we observe sequential loading rates of 12 × 10(8) atoms/s for a Rb oven temperature of 140 °C and 1.1 × 10(8) atoms/s for a Li reservoir at 460 °C, corresponding to reservoir lifetimes for continuous operation of 10 and 4 years, respectively. PMID:27131658

  15. Effect of simultaneous helium implantation on the microstructure evolution of Inconel X-750 superalloy during dual-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizian, P.; Zhang, H. K.; Yao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on investigation into the effect of helium implantation on microstructure evolution in Inconel X-750 superalloy during dual-beam (Ni+/He+) irradiation. The 1 MeV Ni+ ions with the damage rate of 10-3 dpa/s as well as 15 keV He+ ions using rate of 200 appm/dpa were simultaneously employed to irradiate specimens at 400 °C to different doses. Microstructure characterization has been conducted using high-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM results show that simultaneous helium injection has significant influence on irradiation-induced microstructural changes. The disordering of γ‧ (Ni3 (Al, Ti)) precipitates shows noticeable delay in dose level compared to mono heavy ion irradiation, which is attributed to the effect of helium on promoting the dynamic reordering process. In contrast to previous studies on single-beam ion irradiation, in which no cavities were reported even at high doses, very small (2-5 nm) cavities were detected after irradiation to 5 dpa, which proved that helium plays crucial role in cavity formation. TEM characterization also indicates that the helium implantation affects the development of dislocation loops during irradiation. Large 1/3 <1 1 1> Frank loops in the size of 10-20 nm developed during irradiation at 400 °C, whereas similar big loops detected at higher irradiation temperature (500 °C) during sole ion irradiation. This implies that the effect of helium on trapping the vacancies can help to develop the interstitial Frank loops at lower irradiation temperatures.

  16. The use of a dual PEDOT and RGD-functionalized alginate hydrogel coating to provide sustained drug delivery and improved cochlear implant function

    PubMed Central

    Chikar, JA; Hendricks, JL; Richardson-Burns, SM; Raphael, Y; Pfingst, BE; Martin, DC

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implants provide hearing by electrically stimulating the auditory nerve. Implant function can be hindered by device design variables, including electrode size and electrode-to-nerve distance, and cochlear environment variables, including the degeneration of the auditory nerve following hair cell loss. We have developed a dual component cochlear implant coating to improve both the electrical function of the implant and the biological stability of the inner ear, thereby facilitating the long-term perception of sound through a cochlear implant. This coating is a combination of an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-functionalized alginate hydrogel and the conducting polymer poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Both in vitro and in vivo assays on the effects of these electrode coatings demonstrated improvements in device performance. We found that the coating reduced electrode impedance, improved charge delivery, and locally released significant levels of a trophic factor into cochlear fluids. This coating is non-cytotoxic, clinically relevant, and has the potential to significantly improve the cochlear implant user’s experience. PMID:22182748

  17. Dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    McCarron, D. J.; Cho, H. W.; Jenkin, D. L.; Koeppinger, M. P.; Cornish, S. L.

    2011-07-15

    We report the formation of a dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs in the same trapping potential. Our method exploits the efficient sympathetic cooling of {sup 133}Cs via elastic collisions with {sup 87}Rb, initially in a magnetic quadrupole trap and subsequently in a levitated optical trap. The two condensates each contain up to 2x10{sup 4} atoms and exhibit a striking phase separation, revealing the mixture to be immiscible due to strong repulsive interspecies interactions. Sacrificing all the {sup 87}Rb during the cooling, we create single-species {sup 133}Cs condensates of up to 6x10{sup 4} atoms.

  18. A Search for Nonstandard Neutron Spin Interactions using Dual Species Xenon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James; Fu, Changbo; Yan, Haiyang; Smith, Erick; Snow, Mike; Walker, Thad

    2012-06-01

    NMR measurements using polarized noble gases can constrain possible exotic spin-dependent interactions involving nucleons. A differential measurement insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations can be performed using a mixture of two polarized species with different ratios of nucleon spin to magnetic moment. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) (developed to evaluate dual species xenon vapor cells for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope) to search for NMR frequency shifts of xenon-129 and xenon-131 when a non-magnetic zirconia rod is modulated near the NMR cell. We simultaneously excited both Xe isotopes and detected free-induction-decay transients. In combination with theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum, the measurements put a new upper bound on possible monopole-dipole interactions of the neutron for ranges around 1mm. This work is supported by the NGC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) funding, the Department of Energy, and the NSF.

  19. Efficacy and safety of 12 versus 48 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after implantation of a drug-eluting stent: the OPTImal DUAL antiplatelet therapy (OPTIDUAL) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and thienopyridine is required after placement of coronary drug-eluting stents (DES) to prevent thrombotic complications. Current clinical guidelines recommend at least 6 to 12 months of treatment after a DES implantation, but it may be beneficial to apply dual antiplatelet therapy for a longer duration. Methods/design The optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (OPTIDUAL) study aims to compare the benefits and risks of dual antiplatelet therapy applied for either 12 or 48 months. We will examine the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DES for the treatment of coronary lesions. The OPTIDUAL study is an open-label multicenter, randomized, national trial that will include 1,966 patients treated with DES. All patients will be treated with dual antiplatelet therapy for 12 months (+/− 3). Then, patients with no MACCE or major bleeding will be randomized to receive either 36 additional months of clopidogrel plus aspirin or aspirin only. The primary end-point is the combination of death from all causes, myocardial infarction, stroke and major bleeding. The secondary end points include the individual components of the primary end-point, stent thrombosis, repeat revascularization of the treated vessel and minor bleeding. Discussion This randomized trial is designed to assess the benefits and safety of 12 versus 48 months of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients that receive a DES. We aim to determine whether substantial prolongation of clopidogrel (a thienopyridine) after DES implantation offers an advantage over its discontinuation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00822536 PMID:23433461

  20. Testing the Universality of Free Fall with a Dual-Species Atom Interferometer on Ste-Quest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutzik, Markus; Peters, Achim

    2014-01-01

    The Space-Time Explorer and Quantum Equivalence Space Test (STEQUEST) satellite mission is devoted to testing several aspects of General Relativity using an atomic clock and a differential dual-species atom interferometer in space. The latter aims at performing a quantum test of the Einstein equivalence principle in the perigee phase of a highly elliptical Earth orbit by probing the universality of free fall with coherent matter waves. In this paper, we give a brief summary on the mission and the prospects for the dual-species atom interferometer.

  1. A 2D MOT design optimized for dual-species 6 Li-7 Li experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yanping; Evans, Jesse; Wright, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    We have built a 2D MOT optimized for simultaneous capture and cooling of 6 Li and 7 Li. The design includes a vapor source located very close to the capture region, which reduces depletion of the low-velocity part of the oven flux. The source is angled so that the most probable longitudinal velocity of captured atoms is near optimal for transferring to a 3D MOT, even without a push beam. Because 6 Li D2 repump light can impede capture and cooling of 7 Li, we have characterized the system performance with 6 Li repumped on both the D1 and D2 transitions. This design provides ample cold atom flux to load a dual-species 3D MOT for quantum degenerate gas experiments.

  2. Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation: Meta-analysis of large randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Tsoi, Man-Fung; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Wong, Ian Chi-Kei; Kumana, Cyrus Rustam; Tse, Hung-Fat; Cheung, Bernard Man-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Patients receive dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for 6–12 months after drug-eluting stents (DES) implantation. The efficacy and safety of prolonged DAPT has been questioned. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis on randomised trials comparing different DAPT durations. Literature was searched on trials comparing different DAPT durations. For inclusion, reports must report frequency of cardiovascular and bleeding events. Ten trials were included. Compared to 12 months, DAPT beyond 12 months was associated with fewer myocardial infarctions (OR 0.58 95%CI: 0.40–0.84) and stent thrombosis (OR 0.35 95%CI: 0.20–0.62), but more major bleeds (OR 1.60 95%CI: 1.22–2.11) and all-cause (OR 1.30 95%CI: 1.02–1.66) mortality. There was no significant alteration in risk of stroke (OR 0.93 95%CI: 0.66–1.31) or cardiac (OR 1.12 95%CI: 0.73–1.71) mortality. Compared to less than 12 months DAPT, 12 months DAPT did not reduce risk of myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, strokes, cardiac or all-cause mortality, but increased the risk of major bleeds (OR 1.60 95%CI: 1.22–2.11). DAPT beyond 12 months reduce risk of myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis, but there is substantial increase in major bleeding risk and all-cause mortality which need to be addressed. DAPT beyond 12 months does not appear to alter the risk of stroke. PMID:26278959

  3. The dual-zone therapeutic concept of managing immediate implant placement and provisional restoration in anterior extraction sockets.

    PubMed

    Chu, Stephen J; Salama, Maurice A; Salama, Henry; Garber, David A; Saito, Hanae; Sarnachiaro, Guido O; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in implant designs have helped advance successful immediate anterior implant placement into fresh extraction sockets. Clinical techniques described in this case enable practitioners to achieve predictable esthetic success using a method that limits the amount of buccal contour change of the extraction site ridge and potentially enhances the thickness of the peri-implant soft tissues coronal to the implant-abutment interface. This approach involves atraumatic tooth removal without flap elevation, and placing a bone graft into the residual gap around an immediate fresh-socket anterior implant with a screw-retained provisional restoration acting as a prosthetic socket seal device. PMID:22908601

  4. Multi-species trace gas analysis with dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jágerská, Jana; Tuzson, Béla; Looser, Herbert; Jouy, Pierre; Hugi, Andreas; Mangold, Markus; Soltic, Patrik; Faist, Jérôme; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous detection of multiple gas species using mid-IR laser spectroscopy is highly appealing for a large variety of applications ranging from air quality monitoring, medical breath analysis to industrial process control. However, state-of-the-art distributed-feedback (DFB) mid-IR lasers are usually tunable only within a narrow spectral range, which generally leads to one-laser-one-compound measurement strategy. Thus, multi-species detection involves several lasers and elaborate beam combining solutions [1]. This makes them bulky, costly, and highly sensitive to optical alignment, which limits their field deployment. In this paper, we explore an alternative measurement concept based on a dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser (DW-QCL) [2]. Such a laser can emit at two spectrally distinct wavelengths using a succession of two DFB gratings with different periodicities and a common waveguide to produce one output beam. The laser design was optimized for NOx measurements and correspondingly emits single-mode at 5.26 and 6.25 μm. Electrical separation of the respective laser sections makes it possible to address each wavelength independently. Thereby, it is possible to detect NO and NO2 species with one laser using the same optical path, without any beam combining optics, i.e. in a compact and cost-efficient single-path optical setup. Operated in a time-division multiplexed mode, the spectrometer reaches detection limits at 100 s averaging of 0.5 and 1.5 ppb for NO2 and NO, respectively. The performance of the system was validated against the well-established chemiluminescence detection while measuring the NOx emissions on an automotive test-bench, as well as monitoring the pollution at a suburban site. [1] B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, 'Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,' Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 927-936 (2013

  5. Attainment of dual-band edge work function by using a single metal gate and single high-k dielectric via ion implantation for HP CMOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiuxia; Xu, G.; Zhou, H.; Zhu, H.; Liu, J.; Wang, Y.; Li, J.; Xiang, J.; Liang, Q.; Wu, H.; Zhong, J.; Xu, M.; Xu, W.; Ma, X.; Wang, X.; Tong, X.; Chen, D.; Yan, J.; Zhao, C.; Ye, T.

    2016-01-01

    Attainment of dual band-edge effective work functions by using a single metal gate and single high k gate dielectric via P/BF2 implantation into a TiN metal gate for HP HKMG CMOS device applications are investigated under a gate-last process flow for the first time. The flat band voltage (VFB) modulations of about -750 mV/570 mV for N-/P-type MOS device with P/BF2 implanted TiN/HfO2/ILSiO2 gate stack are obtained respectively in the experiment range. Suitable low threshold voltages of CMOSFETs are gotten while simultaneously shrinking the EOT. The effects of P/BF2 ion implantation energy, dose and TiN gate thickness on the properties of implanted TiN/HfO2/ILSiO2 gate stack are studied, the possible mechanisms are discussed. This technique has been successfully integrated into the fabrications of aggressively scaled HP HKMG CMOSFETs and 32 CMOS frequency dividers under a gate-last process flow.

  6. Successful treatment of bleeding large duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumour in a patient under dual antiplatelet therapy after recent drug-eluting coronary stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Keita; Fujikawa, Takahisa; Kuramitsu, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 69-year-old man who started dual antiplatelet therapy (APT) with aspirin and clopidogrel after recent implantation of drug-eluting coronary stent and developed massive bleeding due to large duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). Following endoscopic haemostasis and discontinuation of dual APT, neoadjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib was started under continuation of ‘single’ APT with aspirin. A good chemotherapeutic response was achieved without recurrence of bleeding, and subsequent less invasive surgical resection of the tumour was performed, while preoperative single APT was continued for prevention of stent thrombosis. The patient recovered well without any thromboembolic or bleeding events. Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy and subsequent less invasive surgery under continuation of APT is one of the preferred approaches for patients with duodenal GIST with severe thromboembolic comorbidities, as in the current case. PMID:24777088

  7. Synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals by subsequent implantation of Zn and O species

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.; Tewell, C.R.; Schulze, R.K.; Nastasi, M.; Hamby, D.W.; Lucca, D.A.; Jung, H.S.; Hong, K.S.

    2005-05-02

    We report the preparation of ZnO nanocrystals embedded in a SiO{sub 2} matrix formed using sequential zinc and oxygen ion implantations. The optical absorption spectra and photoemission spectra of zinc implanted and zinc/oxygen coimplanted silica show that the first zinc implantation produces zinc clusters and that the subsequent oxygen implantation following the zinc implantation rearranges the distribution of zinc and oxygen ions at an atomic level. While thermal annealing of Zn only implanted silica leads to the formation of Zn nanocrystals, thermal annealing of zinc/oxygen coimplanted silica promotes the growth of ZnO nanocrystals. The absorption and photoluminescence spectra show that ZnO nanocrystals form in an amorphous SiO{sub 2} matrix and that their systematic change as a function of annealing temperature corresponds to the typical correlation between the increase of particle size and a redshift in near-band-edge emission.

  8. A versatile dual-species Zeeman slower for caesium and ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, S. A.; Butler, K.; Guttridge, A.; Kemp, S.; Freytag, R.; Hinds, E. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Cornish, S. L.

    2016-04-01

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a versatile dual-species Zeeman slower for both Cs and Yb, which is easily adaptable for use with other alkali metals and alkaline earths. With the aid of analytic models and numerical simulation of decelerator action, we highlight several real-world problems affecting the performance of a slower and discuss effective solutions. To capture Yb into a magneto-optical trap (MOT), we use the broad 1S0 to 1P1 transition at 399 nm for the slower and the narrow 1S0 to 3P1 intercombination line at 556 nm for the MOT. The Cs MOT and slower both use the D2 line (62S1/2 to 62P3/2) at 852 nm. The slower can be switched between loading Yb or Cs in under 0.1 s. We demonstrate that within a few seconds the Zeeman slower loads more than 109 Yb atoms and 108 Cs atoms into their respective MOTs. These are ideal starting numbers for further experiments on ultracold mixtures and molecules.

  9. A versatile dual-species Zeeman slower for caesium and ytterbium.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, S A; Butler, K; Guttridge, A; Kemp, S; Freytag, R; Hinds, E A; Tarbutt, M R; Cornish, S L

    2016-04-01

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a versatile dual-species Zeeman slower for both Cs and Yb, which is easily adaptable for use with other alkali metals and alkaline earths. With the aid of analytic models and numerical simulation of decelerator action, we highlight several real-world problems affecting the performance of a slower and discuss effective solutions. To capture Yb into a magneto-optical trap (MOT), we use the broad (1)S0 to (1)P1 transition at 399 nm for the slower and the narrow (1)S0 to (3)P1 intercombination line at 556 nm for the MOT. The Cs MOT and slower both use the D2 line (6(2)S1/2 to 6(2)P3/2) at 852 nm. The slower can be switched between loading Yb or Cs in under 0.1 s. We demonstrate that within a few seconds the Zeeman slower loads more than 10(9) Yb atoms and 10(8) Cs atoms into their respective MOTs. These are ideal starting numbers for further experiments on ultracold mixtures and molecules. PMID:27131656

  10. Correlative methods for dual-species quantum tests of the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, B.; Antoni-Micollier, L.; Chichet, L.; Battelier, B.; Gominet, P.-A.; Bertoldi, A.; Bouyer, P.; Landragin, A.

    2015-08-01

    Matter-wave interferometers utilizing different isotopes or chemical elements intrinsically have different sensitivities, and the analysis tools available until now are insufficient for accurately estimating the atomic phase difference under many experimental conditions. In this work, we describe and demonstrate two new methods for extracting the differential phase between dual-species atom interferometers for precise tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP). The first method is a generalized Bayesian analysis, which uses knowledge of the system noise to estimate the differential phase based on a statistical model. The second method utilizes a mechanical accelerometer to reconstruct single-sensor interference fringes based on measurements of the vibration-induced phase. An improved ellipse-fitting algorithm is also implemented as a third method for comparison. These analysis tools are investigated using both numerical simulations and experimental data from simultaneous 87Rb and 39K interferometers, and both new techniques are shown to produce bias-free estimates of the differential phase. We also report observations of phase correlations between atom interferometers composed of different chemical species. This correlation enables us to reject common-mode vibration noise by a factor of 730, and to make preliminary tests of the WEP with a sensitivity of 1.6× {10}-6 per measurement with an interrogation time of T = 10 ms. We study the level of vibration rejection by varying the temporal overlap between interferometers in a symmetric timing sequence. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the new analysis methods for future applications of differential atom interferometry.

  11. Synergistic effects of dual Zn/Ag ion implantation in osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability of titanium.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guodong; Qin, Hui; Cao, Huiliang; Qian, Shi; Zhao, Yaochao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2014-09-01

    Zinc (Zn) and silver (Ag) are co-implanted into titanium by plasma immersion ion implantation. A Zn containing film with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) possessing a wide size distribution is formed on the surface and the corrosion resistance is improved due to the micro-galvanic couples formed by the implanted Zn and Ag. Not only are the initial adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs observed from the Zn/Ag implanted Ti in vitro, but also bacteria killing is achieved both in vitro and in vivo. Electrochemical polarization and ion release measurements suggest that the excellent osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability of the Zn/Ag co-implanted titanium are related to the synergistic effect resulting from the long-range interactions of the released Zn ions and short-range interactions of the embedded Ag NPs. The Zn/Ag co-implanted titanium offers both excellent osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability and has large potential in orthopedic and dental implants. PMID:24947228

  12. Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sztajer, Helena; Szafranski, Szymon P; Tomasch, Jürgen; Reck, Michael; Nimtz, Manfred; Rohde, Manfred; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Polymicrobial biofilms are of large medical importance, but relatively little is known about the role of interspecies interactions for their physiology and virulence. Here, we studied two human pathogens co-occuring in the oral cavity, the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans and the caries-promoting bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Dual-species biofilms reached higher biomass and cell numbers than mono-species biofilms, and the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) by S. mutans was strongly suppressed, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and transcriptome analysis. To detect interkingdom communication, C. albicans was co-cultivated with a strain of S. mutans carrying a transcriptional fusion between a green fluorescent protein-encoding gene and the promoter for sigX, the alternative sigma factor of S. mutans, which is induced by quorum sensing signals. Strong induction of sigX was observed in dual-species biofilms, but not in single-species biofilms. Conditioned media from mixed biofilms but not from C. albicans or S. mutans cultivated alone activated sigX in the reporter strain. Deletion of comS encoding the synthesis of the sigX-inducing peptide precursor abolished this activity, whereas deletion of comC encoding the competence-stimulating peptide precursor had no effect. Transcriptome analysis of S. mutans confirmed induction of comS, sigX, bacteriocins and the downstream late competence genes, including fratricins, in dual-species biofilms. We show here for the first time the stimulation of the complete quorum sensing system of S. mutans by a species from another kingdom, namely the fungus C. albicans, resulting in fundamentally changed virulence properties of the caries pathogen. PMID:24824668

  13. Over Troubled Water: An Outbreak of Infection Due to a New Species of Mycobacterium following Implant-Based Breast Surgery.

    PubMed

    Scheflan, Michael; Wixtrom, Roger N

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterial infection is a rare complication associated with breast surgery using implants. Over the course of 5 months, one center experienced 12 such cases, 10 of which were linked to a single surgeon. Most presented 3 to 6 weeks postoperatively with clear serous drainage from the incision, minimal local redness, no fever or other systemic signs of infection, and negative standard bacterial cultures. Patients were given empiric broad-spectrum oral antibiotic therapy. In eight cases, implants were removed and exchanged for new devices after irrigation of the pocket with antibiotics; these patients nonetheless experienced recurrent infection, which led to explantation (without immediate exchange for new implants). The last two patients proceeded straight to explantation. Because mycobacteria grow in water, the water supply and air-conditioning system were initially suspected as the source, and both were disinfected. However, this did not stop the outbreak. Eventually, the source was traced to a new species of mycobacteria isolated from a garden hot tub. These bacteria had then been unwittingly transferred to patients during surgery. A Triclosan-containing shampoo effectively ended the outbreak. This series is unique in several respects: the novelty of the pathogen, the heavy colonization of the surgeon, and the mechanism of transmission (the first occurrence of human-to-human mycobacterial transfer published in the plastic surgery literature). Surgeons who perform breast surgery with implants should be aware of the possibility of mycobacterial infection. Proactive culturing of the organism, use of antibiotics, and reoperation are essential to good outcomes. PMID:26710012

  14. Intractable intraoperative bleeding requiring platelet transfusion during emergent cholecystectomy in a patient with dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting coronary stent implantation (with video)

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Takahisa; Noda, Tomohiro; Tada, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Akira

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 76-year-old man, receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticlopidine for the past 6 years after implantation of drug-eluting coronary stent, developed a severe hypochondriac pain. After diagnosing severe acute cholecystitis by an enhanced CT, emergent laparotomy under continuation of DAPT was attempted. During the operation, intractable bleeding from the adhesiolysed liver surface was encountered, which required platelet transfusion. Subtotal cholecystectomy with abdominal drainage was performed, and the patient recovered without any postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic complications. Like the present case, the final decision should be made to perform platelet transfusion when life-threatening DAPT-induced intraoperative bleeding occurs during an emergent surgery, despite the elevated risk of stent thrombosis. PMID:23536626

  15. Dual Language versus English-Only Support for Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael; Dickson, Hanna; Cantu, Amy; Wickesberg, Jennifer; Gifford, René H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a critical need to understand better speech and language development in bilingual children learning two spoken languages who use cochlear implants (CIs) and hearing aids (HAs). The paucity of knowledge in this area poses a significant barrier to providing maximal communicative outcomes to a growing number of children who have…

  16. Impact of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy with Proton Pump Inhibitors on the Outcome of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Macaione, Francesca; Montaina, Carla; Evola, Salvatore; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may reduce the effectiveness of clopidogrel, than H2 antagonist (anti-H2) in order to determine rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (re-ACS), target vessel revascularization (TVR) and cardiac death. This case-control study included 176 patients with ACS undergoing angioplasty (PCI) with drug-eluting stent implantation. The population was divided into two groups: PPI group (n = 121) consisting of patients receiving at discharge dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) plus PPI and anti-H2 group (n = 55), consisting of patients receiving at discharge DAT + H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA). In a followup of 36 months the prevalence of ACS event (P = 0.014), TVR (P = 0.031) was higher in the PPI group than in the anti-H2 group; instead there was no statistically significant difference between groups for death. The variables independently associated with ACS were the diabetes, omeprazole, and esomeprazole; instead the variables independently associated with TVR were only omeprazole. Our data shows that the use of omeprazole and esomeprazole, with clopidogrel, is associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes after PCI with drug-eluting stent implantation. PMID:22792485

  17. The Dual Function of Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen Species in Bioenergetics and Cell Death: The Role of ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kaludercic, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) targeting mitochondria are major causative factors in disease pathogenesis. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) is a mega-channel modulated by calcium and ROS/RNS modifications and it has been described to play a crucial role in many pathophysiological events since prolonged channel opening causes cell death. The recent identification that dimers of ATP synthase form the PTP and the fact that posttranslational modifications caused by ROS/RNS also affect cellular bioenergetics through the modulation of ATP synthase catalysis reveal a dual function of these modifications in the cells. Here, we describe mitochondria as a major site of production and as a target of ROS/RNS and discuss the pathophysiological conditions in which oxidative and nitrosative modifications modulate the catalytic and pore-forming activities of ATP synthase. PMID:27034734

  18. Transcatheter leadless pacemaker implantation in a patient with a transvenous dual-chamber pacemaker already in place.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Pasi P; Nammas, Wail; Paana, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    An 83-year-old lady had a DDDR pacemaker inserted in 1997 for symptomatic atrioventricular block. She underwent battery replacement in 2008. In 2010, she developed atrial fibrillation; the pacemaker was switched to VVIR mode. During the last 2years, ventricular lead threshold increased progressively. In December 2015, she presented for elective battery replacement. After successful battery replacement, the ventricular lead threshold remained high; therefore, we implanted a leadless transcatheter pacemaker, via femoral vein access, using a dedicated catheter delivery system. Electrical measurements at this stage revealed a pacing threshold of 0.28V at 0.24msec, and an impedance of 650Ω. PMID:27323664

  19. Three-Dimensional Optical Frequency Domain Imaging Evaluation of Novel Dual-Layered Carotid Stent Implantation for Vulnerable Carotid Plaque.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Seigo; Fujii, Kenichi; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Sugiura, Yuri; Saito, Shin; Ando, Yukio; Yoshimura, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    Plaque prolapse through the cell stent has been suggested as one of the major causes of postprocedural distal embolization after carotid artery stenting. A CASPER stent (Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) is the latest-generation stent having the dual layers and expected to reduce the risk of embolization. A 76-year-old male asymptomatic patient with high-grade stenosis in the left internal carotid artery received carotid artery stenting. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated very high intensity signals on T1-weighted images. After a predilatation, a CASPER stent, which has a dual-layer design construction with an inner nitinol micromesh woven onto an external closed-cell stent, was deployed followed by postdilatation. Postprocedural optical frequency domain imaging revealed good apposition of the outer stent to the vascular wall and no significant prolapse of plaque materials between the struts of the inner micromesh. No ischemic lesions were identified on MRI and no abnormal neurological findings were noted after stenting. PMID:26725127

  20. Efficacy and safety of low-dose clopidogrel after 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy for patients having drug-eluting stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiao-Dong; Long, Ming; Li, Cui-Ling; Hu, Cheng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Background To prevent stent thrombosis (ST) after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DESs) in patients with coronary heart disease, 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is recommended. However, the optimal long-term antiplatelet regimen is not clear for the patients who have completed the 12-month DAPT. Methods We reviewed the data of 755 consecutive patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) three years ago and completed 12-month DAPT. They were divided into three groups according to the antiplatelet medication they had used for two years after 12-month DAPT [low-dose clopidogrel (Talcom®, 25mg/d), clopidogrel (Plavix®, 75mg/d) and aspirin (100 mg/d)]. The efficacy (a composite incidence of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization) and safety (incidences of bleeding, gastrointestinal trouble and drug discontinuation) were compared among the three groups. Results The rates of multi-vessel lesions, prior MI, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in the clopidogrel (75 mg/day) group than in the other two groups (P>0.05 for both comparisons). There was no significant difference in the overall composite incidence of cardiac death, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization in the three groups at three years after PCI. The rates of bleeding (especially minor bleeding), gastrointestinal trouble, drug discontinuation and any blood transfusion were markedly lower in the low-dose clopidogrel (25 mg/d) group than in the other two treatment groups (P<0.05). Conclusions The 25-mg maintenance dose of clopidogrel after 12-month DAPT may be more preferable to Chinese patients who have undergone DES implantation, because of its lower cost but no less efficacy and safety. PMID:24822103

  1. Characterization of neutral species densities in dual frequency capacitively coupled photoresist ash plasmas by optical emission actinometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsley, M. A.; Bent, S. F.; Fuller, N. C. M.; Dalton, T.

    2006-10-01

    Reactive neutral species densities for various conditions in dual frequency capacitively coupled discharges of Ar /O2, Ar /N2, and Ar /H2 were determined using optical emission spectroscopy, Kr actinometry, and modeling. The reactive neutral species probed in this work include O, O2, N, N2, H, and H2. Densities are reported as a function of pressure (5-60mTorr), percent Ar in the feed gas (1%-86%), source power (50-800W), and bias power (0W, 200W). It was found that increasing the pressure from 5to60mTorr resulted in order of magnitude increases in atomic species densities for all ash chemistries. At 30mTorr, percent dissociation is relatively low (⩽15%) for all species. Also, at 30mTorr, the addition of Ar resulted in a small decrease in N and H densities, but an order of magnitude increase in O density. Based on modeling, it is proposed that the increase in O density is due to an increasing contribution of Penning dissociation with increasing Ar density. Only the source power contributed significantly to O and N radical densities, but 200W bias power generated a significant H radical density above that generated via the source power. Details of these results are discussed in comparison with theory and literature.

  2. Dual-Pump CARS Temperature and Species Concentration Measurements in a Supersonic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Byrne, S.; Danehy, P. M.; Tedder, S. A.; Cutler, A. D.

    2007-01-01

    The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) method was used to measure temperature and the mole fractions of N2 and O2 in a supersonic combustor. Experiments were conducted in NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility. In this facility, H2 and oxygen-enriched air burn to increase the enthalpy of the simulated air test gas. This gas is expanded through a Mach 2 nozzle and into a combustor model consisting of a short constant-area section followed by a small rearward-facing step and another constant-area section. At the end of this straight section, H2 fuel is injected at Mach 2 and at a 30 angle with respect to the freestream. One wall of the duct then expands at a 3 angle for over 1 meter. The ensuing combustion is probed optically through ports in the side of the combustor. Dual-pump CARS measurements were performed at the facility nozzle exit and at four planes downstream of fuel injection. Maps are presented of the mean temperature, as well as N2 and O2 mean mole fraction fields. Correlations between fluctuations of the different measured parameters are also presented.

  3. Test of Equivalence Principle at 10(-8) Level by a Dual-Species Double-Diffraction Raman Atom Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Long, Shitong; Tang, Biao; Chen, Xi; Gao, Fen; Peng, Wencui; Duan, Weitao; Zhong, Jiaqi; Xiong, Zongyuan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Yuanzhong; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2015-07-01

    We report an improved test of the weak equivalence principle by using a simultaneous 85Rb-87Rb dual-species atom interferometer. We propose and implement a four-wave double-diffraction Raman transition scheme for the interferometer, and demonstrate its ability in suppressing common-mode phase noise of Raman lasers after their frequencies and intensity ratios are optimized. The statistical uncertainty of the experimental data for Eötvös parameter η is 0.8×10(-8) at 3200 s. With various systematic errors corrected, the final value is η=(2.8±3.0)×10(-8). The major uncertainty is attributed to the Coriolis effect. PMID:26182096

  4. Wax, sex and the origin of species: Dual roles of insect cuticular hydrocarbons in adaptation and mating

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Henry; Carroll, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in traits that affect both ecological divergence and mating signals could lead to reproductive isolation and the formation of new species. Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are potential examples of such dual traits. They form a waxy layer on the cuticle of the insect to maintain water balance and prevent desiccation, while also acting as signaling molecules in mate recognition and chemical communication. Because the synthesis of these hydrocarbons in insect oenocytes occurs through a common biochemical pathway, natural or sexual selection on one role may affect the other. In this review, we explore how ecological divergence in insect CHCs can lead to divergence in mating signals and reproductive isolation. We suggest that the evolution of insect CHCs may be ripe models for understanding ecological speciation. PMID:25988392

  5. Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Major Species Concentration in a Hydrocarbon-Fueled Dual Mode Scramjet Using WIDECARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Emanuela Carolina Angela

    Width increased dual-pump enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (WIDECARS) measurements were conducted in a McKenna air-ethylene premixed burner, at nominal equivalence ratio range between 0.55 and 2.50 to provide quantitative measurements of six major combustion species (C2H 4, N2, O2, H2, CO, CO2) concentration and temperature simultaneously. The purpose of this test was to investigate the uncertainties in the experimental and spectral modeling methods in preparation for an subsequent scramjet C2H4/air combustion test at the University of Virginia-Aerospace Research Laboratory. A broadband Pyrromethene (PM) PM597 and PM650 dye laser mixture and optical cavity were studied and optimized to excite the Raman shift of all the target species. Two hundred single shot recorded spectra were processed, theoretically fitted and then compared to computational models, to verify where chemical equilibrium or adiabatic condition occurred, providing experimental flame location and formation, species concentrations, temperature, and heat losses inputs to computational kinetic models. The Stark effect, temperature, and concentration errors are discussed. Subsequently, WIDECARS measurements of a premixed air-ethylene flame were successfully acquired in a direct connect small-scale dual-mode scramjet combustor, at University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility (UVaSCF). A nominal Mach 5 flight condition was simulated (stagnation pressure p0 = 300 kPa, temperature T0 = 1200 K, equivalence ratio range ER = 0.3 -- 0.4). The purpose of this test was to provide quantitative measurements of the six major combustion species concentration and temperature. Point-wise measurements were taken by mapping four two-dimensional orthogonal planes (before, within, and two planes after the cavity flame holder) with respect to the combustor freestream direction. Two hundred single shot recorded spectra were processed and theoretically fitted. Mean flow and standard deviation are

  6. Real-time spectrum estimation–based dual-channel speech-enhancement algorithm for cochlear implant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improvement of the cochlear implant (CI) front-end signal acquisition is needed to increase speech recognition in noisy environments. To suppress the directional noise, we introduce a speech-enhancement algorithm based on microphone array beamforming and spectral estimation. The experimental results indicate that this method is robust to directional mobile noise and strongly enhances the desired speech, thereby improving the performance of CI devices in a noisy environment. Methods The spectrum estimation and the array beamforming methods were combined to suppress the ambient noise. The directivity coefficient was estimated in the noise-only intervals, and was updated to fit for the mobile noise. Results The proposed algorithm was realized in the CI speech strategy. For actual parameters, we use Maxflat filter to obtain fractional sampling points and cepstrum method to differentiate the desired speech frame and the noise frame. The broadband adjustment coefficients were added to compensate the energy loss in the low frequency band. Discussions The approximation of the directivity coefficient is tested and the errors are discussed. We also analyze the algorithm constraint for noise estimation and distortion in CI processing. The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed and further be compared with other prevalent methods. Conclusions The hardware platform was constructed for the experiments. The speech-enhancement results showed that our algorithm can suppresses the non-stationary noise with high SNR. Excellent performance of the proposed algorithm was obtained in the speech enhancement experiments and mobile testing. And signal distortion results indicate that this algorithm is robust with high SNR improvement and low speech distortion. PMID:23006896

  7. Fabrication and Implantation of Miniature Dual-element Strain Gages for Measuring In Vivo Gastrointestinal Contractions in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gregory M.; Swartz, Emily M.; McLean, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Indeed, gastrointestinal (GI) motility in health and disease remains an area of productive research with over 1,400 published animal studies in just the last 5 years. Numerous techniques have been developed for quantifying smooth muscle activity of the stomach, small intestine, and colon. In vitro and ex vivo techniques offer powerful tools for mechanistic studies of GI function, but outside the context of the integrated systems inherent to an intact organism. Typically, measuring in vivo smooth muscle contractions of the stomach has involved an anesthetized preparation coupled with the introduction of a surgically placed pressure sensor, a static pressure load such as a mildly inflated balloon or by distending the stomach with fluid under barostatically-controlled feedback. Yet many of these approaches present unique disadvantages regarding both the interpretation of results as well as applicability for in vivo use in conscious experimental animal models. The use of dual element strain gages that have been affixed to the serosal surface of the GI tract has offered numerous experimental advantages, which may continue to outweigh the disadvantages. Since these gages are not commercially available, this video presentation provides a detailed, step-by-step guide to the fabrication of the current design of these gages. The strain gage described in this protocol is a design for recording gastric motility in rats. This design has been modified for recording smooth muscle activity along the entire GI tract and requires only subtle variation in the overall fabrication. Representative data from the entire GI tract are included as well as discussion of analysis methods, data interpretation and presentation. PMID:25285858

  8. Fabrication and implantation of miniature dual-element strain gages for measuring in vivo gastrointestinal contractions in rodents.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory M; Swartz, Emily M; McLean, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Indeed, gastrointestinal (GI) motility in health and disease remains an area of productive research with over 1,400 published animal studies in just the last 5 years. Numerous techniques have been developed for quantifying smooth muscle activity of the stomach, small intestine, and colon. In vitro and ex vivo techniques offer powerful tools for mechanistic studies of GI function, but outside the context of the integrated systems inherent to an intact organism. Typically, measuring in vivo smooth muscle contractions of the stomach has involved an anesthetized preparation coupled with the introduction of a surgically placed pressure sensor, a static pressure load such as a mildly inflated balloon or by distending the stomach with fluid under barostatically-controlled feedback. Yet many of these approaches present unique disadvantages regarding both the interpretation of results as well as applicability for in vivo use in conscious experimental animal models. The use of dual element strain gages that have been affixed to the serosal surface of the GI tract has offered numerous experimental advantages, which may continue to outweigh the disadvantages. Since these gages are not commercially available, this video presentation provides a detailed, step-by-step guide to the fabrication of the current design of these gages. The strain gage described in this protocol is a design for recording gastric motility in rats. This design has been modified for recording smooth muscle activity along the entire GI tract and requires only subtle variation in the overall fabrication. Representative data from the entire GI tract are included as well as discussion of analysis methods, data interpretation and presentation. PMID:25285858

  9. Dual-Pump CARS Thermometry and Species Concentration Measurements in a Supersonic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OByrne, Sean; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2004-01-01

    The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method was used to measure temperature and the absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor. Experiments were conducted in NASA Langley Research Center's Direct Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility. In this facility, hydrogen and air bum to increase the enthalpy of the test gas; O2 is then added to simulate air. This gas is expanded through a Mach 2 nozzle and into a combustor model consisting of a short constant-area section followed by a small rearward facing step and another constant area section. At the end of this straight section H2 fuel is then injected at Mach 2 and at 30 deg. angle with respect to the freestream. One wall of the duct then expands at a 3 deg. angle for over 1 meter. The ensuing combustion is monitored optically through ports in the side of the combustor. CARS measurements were performed at the nozzle exit and at four different planes downstream fuel injection. Maps were obtained of the mean temperature, as well as quantitative N2 and O2 and qualitative H2 mean mole fraction fields. Correlations between fluctuations of the different measured parameters are presented for one of the planes of data.

  10. Short-term evaluation of visible implant alpha tags in juveniles of three fish species under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Turek, K C; Pegg, M A; Pope, K L

    2014-04-01

    Visible implant alpha (VI alpha) tag-induced changes in mortality and condition, as well as tag retention and readability, were examined during a 4-week period for juveniles of three fish species: tiger muskellunge Esox masquinongy × Esox lucius (91 ± 7 mm total length, L(T), mean ± s.d.), Snake River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki behnkei (84 ± 8 mm) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (85 ± 5 mm). Mortality and condition did not differ between tagged fish and control fish for any species and overall tag retention rates were high (92% for E. masquinongy × E. lucius, 91% for O. c. behnkei and 100% for O. mykiss). Short-term readability of VI alpha tags was low in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius and juvenile O. c. behnkei. Therefore, it is not recommend to use VI alpha tags in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius or juvenile O. c. behnkei for periods >2 weeks, but VI alpha tags seem to be suitable for juvenile O. mykiss for a period of at least 4 weeks. PMID:24689672

  11. A dual-species microbial model for studying the dynamics between oral streptococci and periodontal pathogens during biofilm development on titanium surfaces by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Manti, Anita; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Campana, Raffaella; Dominici, Sabrina; Ciacci, Caterina; Federici, Sara; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco B L; Papa, Stefano; Baffone, Wally

    2016-06-01

    The association of the pioneer organisms Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 or Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 with secondary colonizers Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586 or Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 during biofilm development on titanium surfaces was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM) using specific polyclonal antibodies. ELISA and FCM were employed, revealing high antibody sensitivity and specificity. Biofilm formation of four dual-species combinations was analyzed by crystal violet staining, while the association between streptococci and periodontal pathogens was assessed using FCM. Dual-species association between S. oralis and P. gingivalis or F. nucleatum showed a proportional decrease in S. oralis during biofilm development, with a concomitant increase in P. gingivalis or F. nucleatum. This trend was not observed in either of the dual-species associations of S. mutans with the periodontal pathogens. Our dual-species microbial model, which employed FCM, proved to be useful in the study of partnerships between bacteria in oral associations, showing that the presence of primary colonizers is required for the establishment of secondary colonizers in biofilms. The proposed experimental approach is technically simple to prepare and analyze, and also proved to be reproducible; hence, it is well-suited for investigating the development and dynamics of oral communities. PMID:27032997

  12. BV and non-BV associated Gardnerella vaginalis establish similar synergistic interactions with other BV-associated microorganisms in dual-species biofilms.

    PubMed

    Castro, Joana; Cerca, Nuno

    2015-12-01

    Dual-species biofilm formation between Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with or without bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other 24 BV-associated microorganisms support that the key difference in virulence potential between BV-negative and BV-positive G. vaginalis strains seems not to be related with biofilm maturation. PMID:26505928

  13. Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Over 6 Months Increases the Risk of Bleeding after Biodegradable Polymer-Coated Sirolimus Eluting Stents Implantation: Insights from the CREATE Study

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEI; LI, YI; JING, QUAN-MIN; WANG, XIAO-ZENG; MA, YING-YAN; WANG, GENG; XU, BO; GAO, RUN-LIN; HAN, YA-LING

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation remains controversial. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of optimal DAPT duration on bleeding events between 6 and 12 months after biodegradable polymer-coated DES implantation. The secondary aim is to determine the predictors and prognostic implications of bleeding. Methods This study is a post hoc analysis of the Multi-Center Registry of EXCEL Biodegradable Polymer Drug Eluting Stents (CREATE) study population. A total of 2,040 patients surviving at 6 months were studied, including 1,639 (80.3%) who had received 6-month DAPT and 401 (19.7%) who had received DAPT greater than 6 months. Bleeding events were defined according to the bleeding academic research consortium (BARC) definitions as described previously and were classified as major/minor (BARC 2–5) and minimal (BARC 1). A left censored method with a landmark at 6 months was used to determine the incidence, predictors, and impact of bleeding on clinical prognosis between 6 and 12 months. Results At 1-year follow-up, patients who received prolonged DAPT longer than 6 months had a significantly higher incidence of overall (3.0% vs. 5.5%, P = 0.021) and major/minor bleeding (1.1% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.050) compared to the patients who received 6-month DAPT. Multivariate analysis showed that being elderly (OR = 1.882, 95% CI: 1.109–3.193, P = 0.019), having diabetes (OR = 1.735, 95% CI: 1.020–2.952, P = 0.042), having a history of coronary artery disease (OR = 2.163, 95% CI: 1.097–4.266, P = 0.026), and duration of DAPT longer than 6 months (OR = 1.814, 95% CI: 1.064–3.091, P = 0.029) were independent predictors of bleeding. Patients with bleeding events had a significantly higher incidence of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and stent thrombosis. Conclusions Prolonged DAPT (greater than 6 months) after biodegradable polymer-coated DES

  14. Quantum transport of two-species Dirac fermions in dual-gated three-dimensional topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Chen, Yong P

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are a novel class of quantum matter with a gapped insulating bulk, yet gapless spin-helical Dirac fermion conducting surface states. Here, we report local and non-local electrical and magneto transport measurements in dual-gated BiSbTeSe2 thin film topological insulator devices, with conduction dominated by the spatially separated top and bottom surfaces, each hosting a single species of Dirac fermions with independent gate control over the carrier type and density. We observe many intriguing quantum transport phenomena in such a fully tunable two-species topological Dirac gas, including a zero-magnetic-field minimum conductivity close to twice the conductance quantum at the double Dirac point, a series of ambipolar two-component half-integer Dirac quantum Hall states and an electron-hole total filling factor zero state (with a zero-Hall plateau), exhibiting dissipationless (chiral) and dissipative (non-chiral) edge conduction, respectively. Such a system paves the way to explore rich physics, ranging from topological magnetoelectric effects to exciton condensation. PMID:27142344

  15. Quantum transport of two-species Dirac fermions in dual-gated three-dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yang; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Chen, Yong P.

    Topological insulators (TI) are a novel class of quantum matter with a gapped insulating bulk yet gapless spin helical Dirac fermion conducting surface states. Here, we report local and non-local electrical and magneto transport measurements in dual-gated BiSbTeSe2 thin film TI devices, with conduction dominated by the spatially separated top and bottom surfaces, each hosting a single species of Dirac fermions with independent gate control over the carrier type and density. We observe many intriguing quantum transport phenomena in such a fully-tunable two-species topological Dirac gas, including a zero-magnetic-field minimum conductivity of 4e2 / h at the double Dirac point, a series of ambipolar two-component ''half-integer'' Dirac quantum Hall states and an electron-hole total filling factor ν=0 state (with a zero-Hall plateau), exhibiting dissipationless (chiral) and dissipative (non-chiral) edge conduction respectively. Such a system paves the way to explore rich physics ranging from topological magnetoelectric effects to exciton condensation. DARPA MESO program.

  16. Quantum transport of two-species Dirac fermions in dual-gated three-dimensional topological insulators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Yang; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Chen, Yong P.

    2016-05-04

    Topological insulators are a novel class of quantum matter with a gapped insulating bulk, yet gapless spin-helical Dirac fermion conducting surface states. Here, we report local and non-local electrical and magneto transport measurements in dual-gated BiSbTeSe2 thin film topological insulator devices, with conduction dominated by the spatially separated top and bottom surfaces, each hosting a single species of Dirac fermions with independent gate control over the carrier type and density. We observe many intriguing quantum transport phenomena in such a fully tunable two-species topological Dirac gas, including a zero-magnetic-field minimum conductivity close to twice the conductance quantum at the doublemore » Dirac point, a series of ambipolar two-component half-integer Dirac quantum Hall states and an electron-hole total filling factor zero state (with a zero-Hall plateau), exhibiting dissipationless (chiral) and dissipative (non-chiral) edge conduction, respectively. As a result, such a system paves the way to explore rich physics, ranging from topological magnetoelectric effects to exciton condensation.« less

  17. Quantum transport of two-species Dirac fermions in dual-gated three-dimensional topological insulators

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Chen, Yong P.

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are a novel class of quantum matter with a gapped insulating bulk, yet gapless spin-helical Dirac fermion conducting surface states. Here, we report local and non-local electrical and magneto transport measurements in dual-gated BiSbTeSe2 thin film topological insulator devices, with conduction dominated by the spatially separated top and bottom surfaces, each hosting a single species of Dirac fermions with independent gate control over the carrier type and density. We observe many intriguing quantum transport phenomena in such a fully tunable two-species topological Dirac gas, including a zero-magnetic-field minimum conductivity close to twice the conductance quantum at the double Dirac point, a series of ambipolar two-component half-integer Dirac quantum Hall states and an electron-hole total filling factor zero state (with a zero-Hall plateau), exhibiting dissipationless (chiral) and dissipative (non-chiral) edge conduction, respectively. Such a system paves the way to explore rich physics, ranging from topological magnetoelectric effects to exciton condensation. PMID:27142344

  18. Measuring inorganic nitrate species with short time resolution from an aircraft platform by dual-channel ozone chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Roger L.; Valente, Ralph J.; Meagher, James F.

    1998-09-01

    A measurement technique for determining nitrate (the sum of nitric acid and particulate nitrate) with a few seconds time resolution in plumes is needed to resolve within-plume features. A technique using dual ozone-chemiluminescent NO detectors with a selective nitrate scrubber in one sampling train is promising if used with an appropriate sampling inlet, and if nitrate is the desired analyte. We report the design of, and preliminary results from a dual channel ozone-chemiluminescent system, each channel containing a gold-CO catalyzed converter which reduces all odd nitrogen species (NOy) quantitatively to NO; one channel also contains a nylon filter to remove nitrate from the air stream prior to the converter (this signal is termed NOy*). This system was deployed successfully in a Bell 205 helicopter during the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study Nashville Ozone Study. The converters were mounted forward near the air intake, and zero air and calibration gases admitted simultaneously to both channels during flight operations. The difference signal between the two channels (NOy-NOy*) indicated apparent nitrate levels in the sampled air with a time resolution of <5 s and a limit of detection of about 1 ppbv. Nitrate levels observed with this system in plumes and background air during the Nashville Ozone Study were highly correlated with ozone and varied from below detection limits to ≈20 ppbv. Nitrate levels were also highly correlated with the calculated difference between NOy and the sum of NO and NO2 (NOz). Higher nitrate levels as a fraction of NOz were found in power plant plumes (≥60%) compared with urban plumes (≈50%) and background air, consistent with apparently lower ozone production efficiencies in power plant plumes vis-à-vis urban plumes.

  19. As + and Ga + implantation and the formation of buried GaAs layers in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madakson, Peter; Ganin, Eti; Karasinski, J.

    1990-05-01

    A buried layer of GaAs was formed in single-crystal silicon by dual implantation of extremely high doses of As+ plus Ga+ at 200 keV, followed by furnace annealing. The layer consists of polycrystalline grains with random orientation. Rapid thermal annealing, in the presence of oxygen, does not result in the formation of GaAs. Instead, Ga and As migrate to the surface to form an oxidized layer, which is separated from the underlying silicon by a thin layer of SiO2. Analysis of the samples with single implants of Ga+ or As+ indicates the oxides formed to be Ga2O3 and As2O2. Samples implanted with As+ alone have essentially dislocation loops after annealing, while those implanted with only Ga+ have mostly microtwins and precipitates. Up to 88% Ga and 62% As from the single implants and 31% As and Ga from the dual implants are lost during annealing. This is probably due to the migration of the implanted species to the surface and the subsequent formation of volatile oxides. However, such outward migration does not result in redistribution or broadening of the implanted species.

  20. Dual Positive Regulation of Embryo Implantation by Endocrine and Immune Systems--Step-by-Step Maternal Recognition of the Developing Embryo.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshihiko; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Saito, Shigeru; Daikoku, Takiko; Shigeta, Minoru; Kanzaki, Hideharu; Mori, Takahide

    2016-03-01

    In humans, HCG secreted from the implanting embryo stimulates progesterone production of the corpus luteum to maintain embryo implantation. Along with this endocrine system, current evidence suggests that the maternal immune system positively contributes to the embryo implantation. In mice, immune cells that have been sensitized with seminal fluid and then the developing embryo induce endometrial differentiation and promote embryo implantation. After hatching, HCG activates regulatory T and B cells through LH/HCG receptors and then stimulates uterine NK cells and monocytes through sugar chain receptors, to promote and maintain pregnancy. In accordance with the above, the intrauterine administration of HCG-treated PBMC was demonstrated to improve implantation rates in women with repeated implantation failures. These findings suggest that the maternal immune system undergoes functional changes by recognizing the developing embryos in a stepwise manner even from a pre-fertilization stage and facilitates embryo implantation in cooperation with the endocrine system. PMID:26755274

  1. Elimination of carbon vacancies in 4H-SiC epi-layers by near-surface ion implantation: Influence of the ion species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayedh, H. M.; Hallén, A.; Svensson, B. G.

    2015-11-01

    The carbon vacancy (VC) is a prevailing point defect in high-purity 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, and it plays a decisive role in controlling the charge carrier lifetime. One concept of reducing the VC-concentration is based on carbon self-ion implantation in a near surface layer followed by thermal annealing. This leads to injection of carbon interstitials (Ci's) and annihilation of VC's in the epi-layer "bulk". Here, we show that the excess of C atoms introduced by the self-ion implantation plays a negligible role in the VC annihilation. Actually, employing normalized implantation conditions with respect to displaced C atoms, other heavier ions like Al and Si are found to be more efficient in annihilating VC's. Concentrations of VC below ˜2 × 1011 cm-3 can be reached already after annealing at 1400 °C, as monitored by deep-level transient spectroscopy. This corresponds to a reduction in the VC-concentration by about a factor of 40 relative to the as-grown state of the epi-layers studied. The negligible role of the implanted species itself can be understood from simulation results showing that the concentration of displaced C atoms exceeds the concentration of implanted species by two to three orders of magnitude. The higher efficiency for Al and Si ions is attributed to the generation of collision cascades with a sufficiently high energy density to promote Ci-clustering and reduce dynamic defect annealing. These Ci-related clusters will subsequently dissolve during the post-implant annealing giving rise to enhanced Ci injection. However, at annealing temperatures above 1500 °C, thermodynamic equilibrium conditions start to apply for the VC-concentration, which limit the net effect of the Ci injection, and a competition between the two processes occurs.

  2. Multi-species prostate implant treatment plans incorporating {sup 192}Ir and {sup 125}I using a Greedy Heuristic based 3D optimization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Chaswal, V.; Yoo, S.; Thomadsen, B. R.; Henderson, D. L.

    2007-02-15

    The goals of interstitial implant brachytherapy include delivery of the target dose in a uniform manner while sparing sensitive structures, and minimizing the number of needles and sources. We investigated the use of a multi-species source arrangement ({sup 192}Ir with {sup 125}I) for treatment in interstitial prostate brachytherapy. The algorithm utilizes an 'adjoint ratio', which provides a means of ranking source positions and is the criterion for the Greedy Heuristic optimization. Three cases were compared, each using 0.4 mCi {sup 125}I seeds: case I is the base case using {sup 125}I alone, case II uses 0.12 mCi {sup 192}Ir seeds mixed with {sup 125}I, and case III uses 0.25 mCi {sup 192}Ir mixed with {sup 125}I. Both multi-species cases result in lower exposure of the urethra and central prostate region. Compared with the base case, the exposure to the rectum and normal tissue increases by a significant amount for case III as compared with the increase in case II, signifying the effect of slower dose falloff rate of higher energy gammas of {sup 192}Ir in the tissue. The number of seeds and needles decreases in both multi-species cases, with case III requiring fewer seeds and needles than case II. Further, the effect of {sup 192}Ir on uniformity was investigated using the 0.12 mCi {sup 192}Ir seeds in multi-species implants. An increase in uniformity was observed with an increase in the number of 0.12 mCi {sup 192}Ir seeds implanted. The effects of prostate size on the evaluation parameters for multi-species implants were investigated using 0.12 mCi {sup 192}Ir and 0.4 mCi {sup 125}I, and an acceptable treatment plan with increased uniformity was obtained.

  3. Dual and Opposing Roles of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in Defense-Associated Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianfeng; Wang, Wenming; Bittner, Florian; Schmidt, Nadine; Berkey, Robert; Zhang, Lingli; King, Harlan; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Jiayue; Wen, Yinqiang; Tan, Liqiang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Qiong; Deng, Ziniu; Xiong, Xingyao; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2016-05-01

    While plants produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) for stress signaling and pathogen defense, they need to remove excessive ROS induced during stress responses in order to minimize oxidative damage. How can plants fine-tune this balance and meet such conflicting needs? Here, we show that XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE1 (XDH1) in Arabidopsis thaliana appears to play spatially opposite roles to serve this purpose. Through a large-scale genetic screen, we identified three missense mutations in XDH1 that impair XDH1's enzymatic functions and consequently affect the powdery mildew resistance mediated by RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8 (RPW8) in epidermal cells and formation of xanthine-enriched autofluorescent objects in mesophyll cells. Further analyses revealed that in leaf epidermal cells, XDH1 likely functions as an oxidase, along with the NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF, to generate superoxide, which is dismutated into H2O2 The resulting enrichment of H2O2 in the fungal haustorial complex within infected epidermal cells helps to constrain the haustorium, thereby contributing to RPW8-dependent and RPW8-independent powdery mildew resistance. By contrast, in leaf mesophyll cells, XDH1 carries out xanthine dehydrogenase activity to produce uric acid in local and systemic tissues to scavenge H2O2 from stressed chloroplasts, thereby protecting plants from stress-induced oxidative damage. Thus, XDH1 plays spatially specified dual and opposing roles in modulation of ROS metabolism during defense responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:27152019

  4. Simultaneous Separation of Negatively and Positively Charged Species in Dynamic Field Gradient Focusing Using a Dual Polarity Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey M.; Huang, Zheng; Ivory, Cornelius F.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic field gradient focusing (DFGF) utilizes an electric field gradient established by a computer-controlled electrode array to separate and concentrate charged analytes at unique axial positions. Traditionally, DFGF has been restricted to the analysis of negatively charged species due to limitations in the software of our voltage controller. This paper introduces a new voltage controller capable of operating under normal polarity (positive potentials applied to the electrode array) and reversed polarity (negative potentials applied to the electrode array) for the separation of negatively and positively charged analytes, respectively. The experiments conducted under normal polarity and reversed polarity illustrate the utility of the new controller to perform reproducible DFGF separations (elution times showing less than 1% run-to-run variation) over a wide pH range (3.08 to 8.5) regardless of the protein charge. A dual polarity experiment is then shown in which the separation channel has been divided into normal polarity and reversed polarity regions. This simultaneous separation of negatively charged R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) and positively charged cytochrome c (CYTC) within the same DFGF apparatus is shown. PMID:19722517

  5. MHC genes and parasitism in Carassius gibelio, a diploid-triploid fish species with dual reproduction strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gibel carp is a fish species with dual reproduction modes, gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, coexisting in mixed diploid-polyploid populations. Following the Red Queen (RQ) assumption, asexual organisms are, due to their low genetic diversity, targets for parasite adaptation. Because MHC polymorphism is maintained by selection from parasites and sexual selection, MHC genes are considered as a suitable candidate for testing the RQ hypothesis. In this study, we investigated MHC variability and the selection pressure acting on MHC genes in sexual diploids and asexual triploids. In addition, we tested whether the asexual form of gibel carp suffers from higher parasite loads than the sexual form. Results At the population level, genotype and allelic diversity of MHC were reduced in gynogenetic triploids when compared to sexual diploids. Different patterns in positively selected sites (PSS) between gynogens and sexual gibel carp were also found. A weak difference in parasite species richness was found between sexual fish and gynogens. However, two common clones of gynogens were significantly more parasitized than sexual diploids or other gynogens with rare MHC genotypes. At the individual level, the higher number of alleles was not associated with higher parasitism in either sexual diploids or gynogens. Conclusions The differences in MHC diversity between gynogenetic triploids and sexual diploids are in accordance with the hypothesis of sexually-mediated selection increasing MHC diversity and fulfil a prerequisite of the Red Queen hypothesis. The different patterns in PSS between gynogens and sexual gibel carp also suggest the potential role of sexual selection and supports parasite-mediated selection maintaining MHC diversity. We showed that the most common MHC genotypes of gynogenetic triploids are the target of parasite selection. Our results suggest that the MHC genotype in gibel carp is more important than allelic number for immunocompetence. PMID

  6. Co-Culture with Listeria monocytogenes within a Dual-Species Biofilm Community Strongly Increases Resistance of Pseudomonas putida to Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Giaouris, Efstathios; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Doulgeraki, Agapi; Nychas, George-John

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a phenomenon occurring almost wherever microorganisms and surfaces exist in close proximity. This study aimed to evaluate the possible influence of bacterial interactions on the ability of Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas putida to develop a dual-species biofilm community on stainless steel (SS), as well as on the subsequent resistance of their sessile cells to benzalkonium chloride (BC) used in inadequate (sub-lethal) concentration (50 ppm). The possible progressive adaptability of mixed-culture biofilms to BC was also investigated. To accomplish these, 3 strains per species were left to develop mixed-culture biofilms on SS coupons, incubated in daily renewable growth medium for a total period of 10 days, under either mono- or dual-species conditions. Each day, biofilm cells were exposed to disinfection treatment. Results revealed that the simultaneous presence of L. monocytogenes strongly increased the resistance of P. putida biofilm cells to BC, while culture conditions (mono-/dual-species) did not seem to significantly influence the resistance of L. monocytogenes biofilm cells. BC mainly killed L. monocytogenes cells when this was applied against the dual-species sessile community during the whole incubation period, despite the fact that from the 2nd day this community was mainly composed (>90%) of P. putida cells. No obvious adaptation to BC was observed in either L. monocytogenes or P. putida biofilm cells. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the different strains behaved differently with regard to biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance. Such knowledge on the physiological behavior of mixed-culture biofilms could provide the information necessary to control their formation. PMID:24130873

  7. Spatial Organization of Dual-Species Bacterial Aggregates on Leaf Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Monier, J.-M.; Lindow, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial organization of cells within bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces was determined for pair-wise mixtures of three different bacterial species commonly found on leaves, Pseudomonas syringae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Cells were coinoculated onto bean plants and allowed to grow under moist conditions, and the resulting aggregates were examined in situ by epifluorescence microscopy. Each bacterial strain could be localized because it expressed either the green or the cyan fluorescent protein constitutively, and the viability of individual cells was assessed by propidium iodide staining. Each pair of bacterial strains that was coinoculated onto leaves formed mixed aggregates. The degree of segregation of cells in mixed aggregates differed between the different coinoculated pairs of strains and was higher in mixtures of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R and mixtures of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R than in mixtures of two isogenic strains of P. agglomerans 299R. The fractions of the total cell population that were dead in mixed and monospecific aggregates of a gfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R and a cfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R, or of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R, were similar. However, the proportion of dead cells in mixed aggregates of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R was significantly higher (13.2% ± 8.2%) than that in monospecific aggregates of these two strains (1.6% ± 0.7%), and it increased over time. While dead cells in such mixed aggregates were preferentially found at the interface between clusters of cells of these strains, cells of these two strains located at the interface did not exhibit equal probabilities of mortality. After 9 days of incubation, about 77% of the P. agglomerans 299R cells located at the interface were dead, while only about 24% of the P. syringae B728a cells were dead. The relevance of our results to understanding bacterial interactions

  8. An atypical presentation of an extremely late stent thrombosis after more than 7 years (2634 days) of DES implantation in a patient without obvious risk factors on regular dual antiplatelet therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Pritesh; Agrawal, Navin; Vasavada, Apurva; Vinchurkar, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Very late stent thrombosis is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention in the era of dual antiplatelet therapy. The risk factors for stent thrombosis are drug default, age, diabetes, renal dysfunction, left ventricular dysfunction, smoking or procedure-related factors and complications. We are describing the case of a 55-year-old non-smoker patient without the conventional risk factors for stent thrombosis maintaining good compliance with dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) drugs in standard doses. The patient had a history of having received a Cypher stent more than 7 years (2634 days) ago in the left circumflex artery for the management of in-stent restenosis of a bare metal stent implanted previously. He was referred with acute stent thrombosis with an atypical presentation of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction having unexplainable spontaneous resolution of electrocardiographic changes. The patient was successfully managed with newer generation drug-eluting stents reimplantation. The presence of acute onset of symptoms and thrombus containing soft lesion as documented during intervention supported the diagnosis of acute stent thrombosis. To the best of our knowledge this case is one of the longest duration of presentation with acute stent thrombosis after stent implantation ever reported in literature and is also unique in its unusual mode of presentation. PMID:25028419

  9. Reaction of three species of whales Balaenoptera physalus, Megaptera novaeangliae, and Balaenoptera edeni to implanted radio tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, William A.

    1981-06-01

    Radio tags were implanted in Balaenoptera physalus (finback) and Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback) during June 1978 in Prince William Sound, Alaska and during October and November 1979 Balaenoptera edeni were tagged with the same system near Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela. There was little visible response to the implantation of the whale tag, but there was reaction to the maneuvering of the boat and to sudden underwater sounds. There was no evidence that the whales recognized the tagging boat.

  10. Sputter deposition of MgxAlyOz thin films in a dual-magnetron device: a multi-species Monte Carlo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupov, M.; Saraiva, M.; Depla, D.; Bogaerts, A.

    2012-07-01

    A multi-species Monte Carlo (MC) model, combined with an analytical surface model, has been developed in order to investigate the general plasma processes occurring during the sputter deposition of complex oxide films in a dual-magnetron sputter deposition system. The important plasma species, such as electrons, Ar+ ions, fast Ar atoms and sputtered metal atoms (i.e. Mg and Al atoms) are described with the so-called multi-species MC model, whereas the deposition of MgxAlyOz films is treated by an analytical surface model. Target-substrate distances for both magnetrons in the dual-magnetron setup are varied for the purpose of growing stoichiometric complex oxide thin films. The metal atoms are sputtered from pure metallic targets, whereas the oxygen flux is only directed toward the substrate and is high enough to obtain fully oxidized thin films but low enough to avoid target poisoning. The calculations correspond to typical experimental conditions applied to grow these complex oxide films. In this paper, some calculation results are shown, such as the densities of various plasma species, their fluxes toward the targets and substrate, the deposition rates, as well as the film stoichiometry. Moreover, some results of the combined model are compared with experimental observations. Note that this is the first complete model, which can be applied for large and complicated magnetron reactor geometries, such as dual-magnetron configurations. With this model, we are able to describe all important plasma species as well as the deposition process. It can also be used to predict film stoichiometries of complex oxide films on the substrate.

  11. Elimination of carbon vacancies in 4H-SiC epi-layers by near-surface ion implantation: Influence of the ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Ayedh, H. M.; Svensson, B. G.

    2015-11-07

    The carbon vacancy (V{sub C}) is a prevailing point defect in high-purity 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, and it plays a decisive role in controlling the charge carrier lifetime. One concept of reducing the V{sub C}-concentration is based on carbon self-ion implantation in a near surface layer followed by thermal annealing. This leads to injection of carbon interstitials (C{sub i}'s) and annihilation of V{sub C}'s in the epi-layer “bulk”. Here, we show that the excess of C atoms introduced by the self-ion implantation plays a negligible role in the V{sub C} annihilation. Actually, employing normalized implantation conditions with respect to displaced C atoms, other heavier ions like Al and Si are found to be more efficient in annihilating V{sub C}'s. Concentrations of V{sub C} below ∼2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} can be reached already after annealing at 1400 °C, as monitored by deep-level transient spectroscopy. This corresponds to a reduction in the V{sub C}-concentration by about a factor of 40 relative to the as-grown state of the epi-layers studied. The negligible role of the implanted species itself can be understood from simulation results showing that the concentration of displaced C atoms exceeds the concentration of implanted species by two to three orders of magnitude. The higher efficiency for Al and Si ions is attributed to the generation of collision cascades with a sufficiently high energy density to promote C{sub i}-clustering and reduce dynamic defect annealing. These C{sub i}-related clusters will subsequently dissolve during the post-implant annealing giving rise to enhanced C{sub i} injection. However, at annealing temperatures above 1500 °C, thermodynamic equilibrium conditions start to apply for the V{sub C}-concentration, which limit the net effect of the C{sub i} injection, and a competition between the two processes occurs.

  12. Differential biofilm formation and chemical disinfection resistance of sessile cells of Listeria monocytogenes strains under monospecies and dual-species (with Salmonella enterica) conditions.

    PubMed

    Kostaki, Maria; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Braxou, Elli; Nychas, George-John; Giaouris, Efstathios

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible influence of bacterial intra- and interspecies interactions on the ability of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to develop mixed-culture biofilms on an abiotic substratum, as well as on the subsequent resistance of sessile cells to chemical disinfection. Initially, three strains from each species were selected and left to attach and form biofilms on stainless steel (SS) coupons incubated at 15°C for 144 h, in periodically renewable tryptone soy broth (TSB), under either monoculture or mixed-culture (mono-/dual-species) conditions. Following biofilm formation, mixed-culture sessile communities were subjected to 6-min disinfection treatments with (i) benzalkonium chloride (50 ppm), (ii) sodium hypochlorite (10 ppm), (iii) peracetic acid (10 ppm), and (iv) a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (5 ppm) and peracetic acid (5 ppm). Results revealed that both species reached similar biofilm counts (ca. 10(5) CFU cm(-2)) and that, in general, interspecies interactions did not have any significant effect either on the biofilm-forming ability (as this was assessed by agar plating enumeration of the mechanically detached biofilm bacteria) or on the antimicrobial resistance of each individual species. Interestingly, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis clearly showed that the three L. monocytogenes strains did not contribute at the same level either to the formation of mixed-culture sessile communities (mono-/dual species) or to their antimicrobial recalcitrance. Additionally, the simultaneous existence inside the biofilm structure of S. enterica cells seemed to influence the occurrence and resistance pattern of L. monocytogenes strains. In sum, this study highlights the impact of microbial interactions taking place inside a mixed-culture sessile community on both its population dynamics and disinfection resistance. PMID:22307304

  13. Differential Biofilm Formation and Chemical Disinfection Resistance of Sessile Cells of Listeria monocytogenes Strains under Monospecies and Dual-Species (with Salmonella enterica) Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kostaki, Maria; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Braxou, Elli; Nychas, George-John

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible influence of bacterial intra- and interspecies interactions on the ability of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to develop mixed-culture biofilms on an abiotic substratum, as well as on the subsequent resistance of sessile cells to chemical disinfection. Initially, three strains from each species were selected and left to attach and form biofilms on stainless steel (SS) coupons incubated at 15°C for 144 h, in periodically renewable tryptone soy broth (TSB), under either monoculture or mixed-culture (mono-/dual-species) conditions. Following biofilm formation, mixed-culture sessile communities were subjected to 6-min disinfection treatments with (i) benzalkonium chloride (50 ppm), (ii) sodium hypochlorite (10 ppm), (iii) peracetic acid (10 ppm), and (iv) a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (5 ppm) and peracetic acid (5 ppm). Results revealed that both species reached similar biofilm counts (ca. 105 CFU cm−2) and that, in general, interspecies interactions did not have any significant effect either on the biofilm-forming ability (as this was assessed by agar plating enumeration of the mechanically detached biofilm bacteria) or on the antimicrobial resistance of each individual species. Interestingly, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis clearly showed that the three L. monocytogenes strains did not contribute at the same level either to the formation of mixed-culture sessile communities (mono-/dual species) or to their antimicrobial recalcitrance. Additionally, the simultaneous existence inside the biofilm structure of S. enterica cells seemed to influence the occurrence and resistance pattern of L. monocytogenes strains. In sum, this study highlights the impact of microbial interactions taking place inside a mixed-culture sessile community on both its population dynamics and disinfection resistance. PMID:22307304

  14. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  15. Effects of tiflucarbine as a dual protein kinase C/calmodulin antagonist on proliferation of human keratinocytes and release of reactive oxygen species from human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, L; Fruchtmann, R; Bonnekoh, B; Schmidt, B H; Traber, J; Mahrle, G; Müller-Peddinghaus, R; van Rooijen, L A

    1991-01-01

    Various studies have suggested that calmodulin (CaM) is involved in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Protein kinase C (PKC) is also accepted as playing a regulatory role in cell proliferation as well as in inflammatory processes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the known CaM antagonist tiflucarbine (BAY/TVX P 4495) on two cellular systems related to the major clinical symptoms of psoriasis: proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes (HaCa T cell line) and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Tiflucarbine inhibited both cellular responses in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, tiflucarbine directly affected PKC, and may thus be considered to be a dual PKC/CaM antagonist with putative antipsoriatic activity. The effects of tiflucarbine on the different parameters were compared with those of the structurally unrelated dual PKC/CaM inhibitor W-7 and those of the potent PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The potencies of all three compounds were found to be in the same range as their PKC-inhibiting potency. Our data indicate that PKC, rather than CaM, may play a regulatory role in the release of ROS as well as in keratinocyte proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of PKC in general might have a therapeutic benefit in psoriasis. PMID:1801655

  16. Total Hip Arthroplasty Dislocations Are More Complex Than They Appear: A Case Report of Intraprosthetic Dislocation of an Anatomic Dual-Mobility Implant After Closed Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Bradford S.; De Martino, Ivan; Sculco, Thomas; Sculco, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Total hip arthroplasty is a successful operation for the treatment of hip pain. One of the common complications of hip arthroplasty is dislocation. While reduction of standard prosthetic dislocations is highly successful, new prostheses add the potential for new complications. Case Report: We present the case of a patient who experienced intraprosthetic dislocation of an anatomic dual-mobility total hip prosthesis after a closed hip reduction and include the prereduction and postreduction radiographic findings. Conclusion: Emergency department physicians should be aware of intraprosthetic dislocation. This complication can be easily missed because the metal/ceramic femoral head appears to be reduced in the acetabulum. PMID:27303232

  17. Recurrent Colonization of Successively Implanted Tracheoesophageal Vocal Prostheses by a Member of the Fusarium solani Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Honraet, K.; De Vos, M. M.; Summerbell, R. C.; van Kempen, I.; De Saeger, S.; Vermeersch, H.; Van Peteghem, C.; Nelis, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Tracheoesophageal vocal prostheses (TVP) in laryngectomized patients commonly deteriorate due to overgrowth by yeasts, particularly Candida species. We describe the first case of colonization of such devices by a member of the Fusarium solani species complex in a patient with a history of glottal carcinoma. Three isolates, from three prostheses, were found morphologically consistent with the traditional picture of F. solani. Ribosomal sequence analysis showed that the isolates belonged to a distinct, as yet apparently unnamed phylogenetic species within the F. solani species complex. This species, one of two distinct genetic types (genotype 2) traditionally considered part of the plant-pathogenic subtaxon Fusarium solani f. sp. radicicola, has not previously been identified as an agent of human or animal disease, although it is closely related to a known etiologic agent of mycetoma, an Acremonium-like species recently renamed Fusarium falciforme. Sequence and multisatellite M13 polymorphism analysis revealed no distinctions among the case isolates. Production of cyclosporine was detected for all three case isolates. PMID:15695678

  18. Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in Patients With and Without Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Lavie, Carl J; Sharma, Samin K; Garg, Akash; Vallakati, Ajay; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Marmur, Jonathan D

    2016-08-01

    In this systemic review we evaluated the efficacy and safety of long duration dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) (L-DAPT) compared with short duration DAPT (S-DAPT) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in patients who presented with or without acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We identified 8 randomized controlled trials in which 30,975 patients were randomized to S-DAPT versus L-DAPT (12,421 ACS and 18,554 non-ACS). Short duration dual anti-platelet therapy was associated with an increase in target vessel revascularization (TVR) in ACS patients, but the difference was not significant for non-ACS patients (odds ratio [OR] 5.04 [95% CI, 1.28-19.76], and OR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.51-1.55], respectively). The risk of cardiac mortality was not significantly different with S-DAPT and L-DAPT for ACS (OR, 1.69 [95% CI, 0.82-3.50]) and non-ACS patients (OR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.57-1.37]). For all cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis, most of the events were derived from the DAPT study, thus a meta-analysis was not performed for these end points. Based on our review of the literature, we conclude that S-DAPT was associated with higher rates of stent thrombosis and myocardial infarction, and non-significant differences in all-cause mortality, with no significant interactions according to ACS vs non-ACS. However, in non-ACS patients, the benefit-risk profile favored S-DAPT, with lower all-cause mortality, whereas the trends were reversed in ACS. Additional studies are required to determine if the benefit-risk profile of S-DAPT vs L-DAPT varies according to clinical syndrome. PMID:27492914

  19. The Dual Challenges of Generality and Specificity When Developing Environmental DNA Markers for Species and Subspecies of Oncorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Taylor M; Carim, Kellie J; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is a powerful tool for detecting invasive and native aquatic species. Often, species of conservation interest co-occur with other, closely related taxa. Here, we developed qPCR (quantitative PCR) markers which distinguish westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewsi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri), and rainbow trout (O. mykiss), which are of conservation interest both as native species and as invasive species across each other's native ranges. We found that local polymorphisms within westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout posed a challenge to designing assays that are generally applicable across the range of these widely-distributed species. Further, poorly-resolved taxonomies of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. utah) prevented design of an assay that distinguishes these recognized taxa. The issues of intraspecific polymorphism and unresolved taxonomy for eDNA assay design addressed in this study are likely to be general problems for closely-related taxa. Prior to field application, we recommend that future studies sample populations and test assays more broadly than has been typical of published eDNA assays to date. PMID:26536367

  20. The Dual Challenges of Generality and Specificity When Developing Environmental DNA Markers for Species and Subspecies of Oncorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Taylor M.; Carim, Kellie J.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is a powerful tool for detecting invasive and native aquatic species. Often, species of conservation interest co-occur with other, closely related taxa. Here, we developed qPCR (quantitative PCR) markers which distinguish westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewsi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri), and rainbow trout (O. mykiss), which are of conservation interest both as native species and as invasive species across each other’s native ranges. We found that local polymorphisms within westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout posed a challenge to designing assays that are generally applicable across the range of these widely-distributed species. Further, poorly-resolved taxonomies of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. utah) prevented design of an assay that distinguishes these recognized taxa. The issues of intraspecific polymorphism and unresolved taxonomy for eDNA assay design addressed in this study are likely to be general problems for closely-related taxa. Prior to field application, we recommend that future studies sample populations and test assays more broadly than has been typical of published eDNA assays to date. PMID:26536367

  1. Dual-pump vibrational/rotational femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and species measurements.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Chloe E; Miller, Joseph D; Meyer, Terrence R

    2014-12-01

    A method for simultaneous ro-vibrational and pure-rotational hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs/ps CARS) is presented for multi-species detection and improved temperature sensitivity from room temperature to flame conditions. N₂/CH₄ vibrational and N₂/O₂/H₂ rotational Raman coherences are excited simultaneously using fs pump pulses at 660 and 798 nm, respectively, and a common fs Stokes pulse at 798 nm. A fourth narrowband 798 nm ps pulse probes all coherence states at a time delay that minimizes nonresonant background and the effects of collisions. The transition strength is concentration dependent, while the distribution among observed transitions is related to temperature through the Boltzmann distribution. The broadband excitation pulses and multiplexed signal are demonstrated for accurate thermometry from 298 to 2400 K and concentration measurements of four key combustion species. PMID:25490633

  2. A novel pressed porous silicon-polycaprolactone composite as a dual-purpose implant for the delivery of cells and drugs to the eye.

    PubMed

    Irani, Yazad D; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Mengjia; Klebe, Sonja; McInnes, Steven J; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Coffer, Jeffery L; Williams, Keryn A

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunction of corneal epithelial stem cells can result in painful and blinding disease of the ocular surface. In such cases, treatment may involve transfer of growth factor and normal adult stem cells to the ocular surface. Our purpose was to develop an implantable scaffold for the delivery of drugs and cells to the ocular surface. We examined the potential of novel composite biomaterials fabricated from electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibres into which nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) microparticles of varying sizes (150-250 μm or <40 μm) had been pressed. The PCL fabric provided a flexible support for mammalian cells, whereas the embedded pSi provided a substantial surface area for efficient delivery of adsorbed drugs and growth factors. Measurements of tensile strength of these composites revealed that the pSi did not strongly influence the mechanical properties of the polymer microfiber component for the Si loadings evaluated. Human lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04) attached to the composite materials, and exhibited enhanced attachment and growth when the materials were coated with foetal bovine serum. To examine the ability of the materials to deliver a small-drug payload, pSi microparticles were loaded with fluorescein diacetate prior to cell attachment. After 6 hours (h), cells exhibited intracellular fluorescence, indicative of transfer of the fluorescein diacetate into viable cells and its subsequent enzymatic conversion to fluorescein. To investigate loading of large-molecule biologics, murine BALB/c 3T3 cells, responsive to epidermal growth factor, insulin and transferrin, were seeded on composite materials. The cells showed significantly more proliferation at 48 h when seeded on composites loaded with these biologics, than on unloaded composites. No cell proliferation was observed on PCL alone, indicating the biologics had loaded into the pSi microparticles. Drug release, measured by ELISA for insulin, indicated a burst followed by a slower

  3. A Dual Role of Graphene Oxide Sheet Deposition on Titanate Nanowire Scaffolds for Osteo-implantation: Mechanical Hardener and Surface Activity Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenjun; Hou, Lijuan; Li, Tingting; Gong, Ziqiang; Huang, Huandi; Wang, Ge; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold biomaterials with open pores and channels are favourable for cell growth and tissue regeneration, however the inherent poor mechanical strength and low surface activity limit their applications as load-bearing bone grafts with satisfactory osseointegration. In this study, macro-porous graphene oxide (GO) modified titanate nanowire scaffolds with desirable surface chemistry and tunable mechanical properties were prepared through a simple hydrothermal process followed by electrochemical deposition of GO nanosheets. The interconnected and porous structure of the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds provides a large surface area for cellular attachment and migration and displays a high compressive strength of approximately 81.1 MPa and a tunable Young’s modulus over the range of 12.4–41.0 GPa, which satisfies site-specific requirements for implantation. Surface chemistry of the scaffolds was modulated by the introduction of GO, which endows the scaffolds flexibility in attaching and patterning bioactive groups (such as -OH, -COOH and -NH2). In vitro cell culture tests suggest that the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds act as a promising biomaterial candidate, in particular the one terminated with -OH groups, which demonstrates improved cell viability, and proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic activities. PMID:26687002

  4. A Dual Role of Graphene Oxide Sheet Deposition on Titanate Nanowire Scaffolds for Osteo-implantation: Mechanical Hardener and Surface Activity Regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenjun; Hou, Lijuan; Li, Tingting; Gong, Ziqiang; Huang, Huandi; Wang, Ge; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    Scaffold biomaterials with open pores and channels are favourable for cell growth and tissue regeneration, however the inherent poor mechanical strength and low surface activity limit their applications as load-bearing bone grafts with satisfactory osseointegration. In this study, macro-porous graphene oxide (GO) modified titanate nanowire scaffolds with desirable surface chemistry and tunable mechanical properties were prepared through a simple hydrothermal process followed by electrochemical deposition of GO nanosheets. The interconnected and porous structure of the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds provides a large surface area for cellular attachment and migration and displays a high compressive strength of approximately 81.1 MPa and a tunable Young’s modulus over the range of 12.4-41.0 GPa, which satisfies site-specific requirements for implantation. Surface chemistry of the scaffolds was modulated by the introduction of GO, which endows the scaffolds flexibility in attaching and patterning bioactive groups (such as -OH, -COOH and -NH2). In vitro cell culture tests suggest that the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds act as a promising biomaterial candidate, in particular the one terminated with -OH groups, which demonstrates improved cell viability, and proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic activities.

  5. A study of chitosan hydrogel with embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded by ibuprofen as a dual stimuli-responsive drug release system for surface coating of titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengkun; Liu, Hongyu; Deng, Hongbing; Xiao, Ling; Qin, Caiqin; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the complex pH and electro responsive system made of chitosan hydrogel with embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was evaluated as a tunable drug release system. As a model drug, ibuprofen (IB) was used; its adsorption in MSNs was evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). In order to prepare the complex drug release system, the loaded particles IB-MSNs were dispersed in chitosan solution and then the complex IB-MSNs/chitosan film of 2mm thickness was deposited as a hydrogel on the titanium electrode. The codeposition of components was performed under a negative biasing of the titanium electrode at -0.75 mA/cm2 current density during 30 min. The IB release from the IB-MSNs/chitosan hydrogel film was studied as dependent on pH of the release media and electrical conditions applied to the titanium plate. When incubating the complex hydrogel film in buffers with different pH, the IB release followed a near zero-order profile, though its kinetics varied. Compared to the spontaneous IB release from the hydrogel in 0.9% NaCl solution (at 0 V), the application of negative biases to the coated titanium plate had profound effluences on the release behavior. The release was retarded when -1.0 V was applied, but a faster kinetics was observed at -5.0 V. These results imply that a rapid, mild and facile electrical process for covering titanium implants by complex IB-MSNs/chitosan hydrogel films can be used for controlled drug delivery applications. PMID:25456989

  6. Dual-pump CARS temperature and major species concentration measurements in counter-flow methane flames using narrowband pump and broadband Stokes lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Thariyan, Mathew P.; Ananthanarayanan, Vijaykumar; Bhuiyan, Aizaz H.; Naik, Sameer V.; Gore, Jay P.; Lucht, Robert P.

    2010-07-15

    Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to measure temperature and species profiles in representative non-premixed and partially-premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flames. A new laser system has been developed to generate a tunable single-frequency beam for the second pump beam in the dual-pump N{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} CARS process. The second harmonic output ({proportional_to}532 nm) from an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser is used as one of the narrowband pump beams. The second single-longitudinal-mode pump beam centered near 561 nm is generated using an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator, consisting of two non-linear {beta}-BBO crystals, pumped using the third harmonic output ({proportional_to}355 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser. A broadband dye laser (BBDL), pumped using the second harmonic output of an unseeded Nd:YAG laser, is employed to produce the Stokes beam centered near 607 nm with full-width-at-half-maximum of {proportional_to}250 cm{sup -1}. The three beams are focused between two opposing nozzles of a counter-flow burner facility to measure temperature and major species concentrations in a variety of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} non-premixed and partially-premixed flames stabilized at a global strain rate of 20 s{sup -1} at atmospheric-pressure. For the non-premixed flames, excellent agreement is observed between the measured profiles of temperature and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} concentration ratios with those calculated using an opposed-flow flame code with detailed chemistry and molecular transport submodels. For partially-premixed flames, with the rich side premixing level beyond the stable premixed flame limit, the calculations overestimate the distance between the premixed and the non-premixed flamefronts. Consequently, the calculated temperatures near the rich, premixed flame are higher than those measured. Accurate prediction of the distance between the premixed and the non-premixed flames provides an interesting challenge for

  7. One-year outcome of a prospective trial stopping dual antiplatelet therapy at 3 months after everolimus-eluting cobalt-chromium stent implantation: ShortT and OPtimal duration of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy after everolimus-eluting cobalt-chromium stent (STOPDAPT) trial.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Erika; Shiomi, Hiroki; Furukawa, Yutaka; Abe, Mitsuru; Nakao, Koichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kawai, Kazuya; Yunoki, Kei; Shimizu, Shogo; Akao, Masaharu; Miki, Shinji; Yamamoto, Masashi; Okada, Hisayuki; Hoshino, Kozo; Kadota, Kazushige; Morino, Yoshihiro; Igarashi, Keiichi; Tanabe, Kengo; Kozuma, Ken; Kimura, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    There has been no previous prospective study evaluating dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration shorter than 6 months after cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES) implantation. STOPDAPT trial is a prospective multi-center single-arm study evaluating 3-month DAPT duration after CoCr-EES implantation. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, definite stent thrombosis (ST) and TIMI major/minor bleeding at 1 year. Between September 2012 and October 2013, a total of 1525 patients were enrolled from 58 Japanese centers, with complete 1-year follow-up in 1519 patients (99.6 %). Thienopyridine was discontinued within 4 months in 1444 patients (94.7 %). The event rates beyond 3 months were very low (cardiovascular death: 0.5 %, MI: 0.1 %, ST: 0 %, stroke: 0.7 %, and TIMI major/minor bleeding: 0.8 %). Cumulative 1-year incidence of the primary endpoint was 2.8 % [upper 97.5 % confidence interval (CI) 3.6 %], which was lower than the pre-defined performance goal of 6.6 % (P < 0.0001). Using the CoCr-EES group in the RESET trial as a historical comparison group, where nearly 90 % of patients had continued DAPT at 1 year, cumulative incidence of the primary endpoint tended to be lower in the STOPDAPT than in the RESET (2.8 versus 4.0 %, P = 0.06) and adjusted hazard ratio was 0.64 (95 % CI 0.42-0.95, P = 0.03). The cumulative incidence of definite/probable ST was lower in the STOPDAPT than in the RESET [0 patient (0 %) versus 5 patients (0.3 %), P = 0.03]. In conclusion, stopping DAPT at 3 months in selected patients after CoCr-EES implantation was at least as safe as the prolonged DAPT regimen adopted in the historical control group. PMID:26518420

  8. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... electrodes are inserted. The electronic device at the base of the electrode array is then placed under ... FDA approval for implants The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates cochlear implant devices for both adults ...

  9. Goserelin Implant

    MedlinePlus

    Goserelin implant is used in combination with radiation therapy and other medications to treat localized prostate cancer and is ... treatment of abnormal bleeding of the uterus. Goserelin implant is in a class of medications called gonadotropin- ...

  10. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound. People who are ... of-hearing can get help from them. The implant consists of two parts. One part sits on ...

  11. Carmustine Implant

    MedlinePlus

    Carmustine implant is used along with surgery and sometimes radiation therapy to treat malignant glioma (a certain type of ... Carmustine implant comes as a small wafer that is placed in the brain by a doctor during surgery to ...

  12. Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updated Safety Information (Consumer Article) FDA Provides Updated Safety Data on Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants (Press Announcement) [ARCHIVED] Breast Implant Guidance for Industry (2006) Post Approval Studies Webpage Freedom of Information ...

  13. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... antenna. This part of the implant receives the sound, converts the sound into an electrical signal, and sends it to ... implants allow deaf people to receive and process sounds and speech. However, these devices do not restore ...

  14. Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce processing plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nancy T; Nou, Xiangwu; Bauchan, Gary R; Murphy, Charles; Lefcourt, Alan M; Shelton, Daniel R; Lo, Y Martin

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm-forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been shown to promote the incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into dual-species biofilms. In this study, interactions between E. coli O157:H7 and R. insidiosa were examined under different incubating conditions. Under static culture conditions, the incorporation of E. coli O157:H7 into biofilms with R. insidiosa was not significantly affected by either low incubating temperature (10°C) or by limited nutrient availability. Greater enhancement of E. coli O157:H7 incorporation in dual-species biofilms was observed by using a continuous culture system with limited nutrient availability. Under the continuous culture conditions used in this study, E coli O157:H7 cells showed a strong tendency of colocalizing with R. insidiosa on a glass surface at the early stage of biofilm formation. As the biofilms matured, E coli O157:H7 cells were mostly found at the bottom layer of the dual-species biofilms, suggesting an effective protection by R. insidiosa in the mature biofilms. PMID:25581186

  15. Caries arresting effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesion with S. mutans and L. acidophilus dual-species cariogenic biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Mei, May L.; Low, Kan H.; Che, Ching M.; Lo, Edward CM.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study investigated the effects of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on dentine carious lesion with cariogenic biofilm. Study Design: Thirty human dentine blocks were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus dual-species biofilm to create carious lesion. They were equally divided into test and control group to receive topical application of SDF and water. After incubation anaerobically using micro-well plate at 37oC for 7 days, the biofilms were evaluated for kinetics, morphology and viability by colony forming units (CFU), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CLSM), respectively. The carious lesion underwent crystal characteristics analysis, evaluation of the changes in chemical structure and density of collagen fibrils using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and immune-labeling. Results: The log CFU of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in the test group was significantly lower than control group. SEM and CLSM showed confluent biofilm in control group, but not in test group. XRD showed the loss of crystallinity of dentine due to the dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystal structure in test group was less than control group. FTIR showed that log [Amide I: HPO42-] for test vs. control group was 0.31±0.10 vs. 0.57±0.13 (p<0.05). The gold-labeling density in test vs. control group was 8.54±2.44/µm2 vs. 12.91±4.24/µm2 (p=0.04). Conclusions: SDF had antimicrobial activity against the cariogenic biofilms and reduced demineralization of dentine. Key words:Caries, caries arrest, dentine, silver, silver diamine fluoride, fluoride, biofilm,cariogenic. PMID:23722131

  16. Implantable Microimagers

    PubMed Central

    Ng, David C.; Tokuda, Takashi; Shiosaka, Sadao; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug-delivery systems, and defibrillators have had a tremendous impact on the quality of live for many disabled people. To date, many devices have been developed for implantation into various parts of the human body. In this paper, we focus on devices implanted in the head. In particular, we describe the technologies necessary to create implantable microimagers. Design, fabrication, and implementation issues are discussed vis-à-vis two examples of implantable microimagers; the retinal prosthesis and in vivo neuro-microimager. Testing of these devices in animals verify the use of the microimagers in the implanted state. We believe that further advancement of these devices will lead to the development of a new method for medical and scientific applications.

  17. High Productivity Implantation ''PARTIAL IMPLANT''

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao

    2008-11-03

    The patterned ion implantation 'PARTIAL IMPLANT' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is 'DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT', that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is 'RING PARTIAL IMPLANT' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.

  18. Influence of Oxygen Ion Implantation on the Damage and Annealing Kinetics of Iron-Implanted Sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, J.D.; McHargue, C.J.

    1999-11-14

    The effects of implanted oxygen on the damage accumulation in sapphire which was previously implanted with iron was studied for (0001) sapphire implanted with iron and then with oxygen. The energies were chosen to give similar projected ranges. One series was implanted with a 1:l ratio (4x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} each) and another with a ratio of 2:3 (4x10{sup 16} fe{sup +}/cm{sup 2}; 6x10{sup 16} O{sup +}/cm{sup 2}). Retained damage, X, in the Al-sublattice, was compared to that produced by implantation of iron alone. The observed disorder was less for the dual implantations suggesting that implantation of oxygen enhanced dynamic recovery during implantation. Samples were annealed for one hour at 800 and 1200 C in an oxidizing and in a reducing atmosphere. No difference was found in the kinetics of recovery in the Al-sublattice between the two dual implant conditions. However, the rate of recovery was different for each from samples implanted with iron alone.

  19. [Implant allergies].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Thomsen, M

    2010-03-01

    An increasing number of patients receive and benefit from osteosynthesis materials or artificial joint replacement. The most common complications are mechanical problems or infection. Metals like nickel, chromium and cobalt as well as bone cement components like acrylates and gentamicin are potential contact allergens which can cause intolerance reactions to implants. Eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusions, pain and implant loosening all have been described as manifestation of implant allergy. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal allergy, allergies associated with implants are rare. Diagnosis of metal implant allergy is still difficult. Thus differential diagnoses--in particular infection--have to be excluded and a combined approach of allergologic diagnostics by patch test and histopathology of peri-implant tissue is recommended. It is still unknown which conditions induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger peri-implant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy. Despite the risk of developing complications being unclear, titanium based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients and the use of metal-metal couplings in arthroplasty is not recommended for such patients. If the regular CoCr-polyethylene articulation is employed, the patient should give informed written consent. PMID:20204719

  20. Two Phages, phiIPLA-RODI and phiIPLA-C1C, Lyse Mono- and Dual-Species Staphylococcal Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana; Lavigne, Rob; García, Pilar

    2015-05-15

    Phage therapy is a promising option for fighting against staphylococcal infections. Two lytic phages, vB_SauM_phiIPLA-RODI (phiIPLA-RODI) and vB_SepM_phiIPLA-C1C (phiIPLA-C1C), belonging to the Myoviridae family and exhibiting wide host ranges, were characterized in this study. The complete genome sequences comprised 142,348 bp and 140,961 bp and contained 213 and 203 open reading frames, respectively. The gene organization was typical of Spounavirinae members, with long direct terminal repeats (LTRs), genes grouped into modules not clearly separated from each other, and several group I introns. In addition, four genes encoding tRNAs were identified in phiIPLA-RODI. Comparative DNA sequence analysis showed high similarities with two phages, GH15 and 676Z, belonging to the Twort-like virus genus (nucleotide identities of >84%); for phiIPLA-C1C, a high similarity with phage phiIBB-SEP1 was observed (identity of 80%). Challenge assays of phages phiIPLA-RODI and phiIPLA-C1C against planktonic staphylococcal cells confirmed their lytic ability, as they were able to remove 5 log units in 8 h. Exposure of biofilms to phages phiIPLA-RODI and phiIPLA-C1C reduced the amount of adhered bacteria to about 2 log units in both monospecies and dual-species biofilms, but phiIPLA-RODI turned out to be as effective as the mixture of both phages. Moreover, the frequencies of bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIMs) of Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis with resistance to phiIPLA-RODI and phiIPLA-C1C were low, at 4.05 × 10(-7) ± 2.34 × 10(-9) and 1.1 × 10(-7) ± 2.08 × 10(-9), respectively. Overall, a generally reduced fitness in the absence of phages was observed for BIMs, which showed a restored phage-sensitive phenotype in a few generations. These results confirm that lytic bacteriophages can be efficient biofilm-disrupting agents, supporting their potential as antimicrobials against staphylococcal infections. PMID:25746992

  1. Two Phages, phiIPLA-RODI and phiIPLA-C1C, Lyse Mono- and Dual-Species Staphylococcal Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana; Lavigne, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy is a promising option for fighting against staphylococcal infections. Two lytic phages, vB_SauM_phiIPLA-RODI (phiIPLA-RODI) and vB_SepM_phiIPLA-C1C (phiIPLA-C1C), belonging to the Myoviridae family and exhibiting wide host ranges, were characterized in this study. The complete genome sequences comprised 142,348 bp and 140,961 bp and contained 213 and 203 open reading frames, respectively. The gene organization was typical of Spounavirinae members, with long direct terminal repeats (LTRs), genes grouped into modules not clearly separated from each other, and several group I introns. In addition, four genes encoding tRNAs were identified in phiIPLA-RODI. Comparative DNA sequence analysis showed high similarities with two phages, GH15 and 676Z, belonging to the Twort-like virus genus (nucleotide identities of >84%); for phiIPLA-C1C, a high similarity with phage phiIBB-SEP1 was observed (identity of 80%). Challenge assays of phages phiIPLA-RODI and phiIPLA-C1C against planktonic staphylococcal cells confirmed their lytic ability, as they were able to remove 5 log units in 8 h. Exposure of biofilms to phages phiIPLA-RODI and phiIPLA-C1C reduced the amount of adhered bacteria to about 2 log units in both monospecies and dual-species biofilms, but phiIPLA-RODI turned out to be as effective as the mixture of both phages. Moreover, the frequencies of bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIMs) of Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis with resistance to phiIPLA-RODI and phiIPLA-C1C were low, at 4.05 × 10−7 ± 2.34 × 10−9 and 1.1 × 10−7 ± 2.08 × 10−9, respectively. Overall, a generally reduced fitness in the absence of phages was observed for BIMs, which showed a restored phage-sensitive phenotype in a few generations. These results confirm that lytic bacteriophages can be efficient biofilm-disrupting agents, supporting their potential as antimicrobials against staphylococcal infections. PMID:25746992

  2. Implantable telemetry for small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A series of totally implantable telemetry devices for use in measuring deep body parameters in small animals were developed. Under a collaborative agreement with NASA, several of these systems; the continuous wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, the multichannel telemetry system, and the inductively-powered dual channel cardiac pacer were evaluated in a series of ten mongrel dogs (15 to 20 kg.). These systems were used to measure ascending aortic and coronary blood flow, aortic pressure, and subcutaneous EKG.

  3. Implantable telemetry for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A series of totally implantable telemetry devices for use in measuring deep body parameters in small animals were developed. Under a collaborative agreement with NASA, several of these systems; the continuous wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, the multichannel telemetry system, and the inductively-powered dual channel cardiac pacer were evaluated in a series of ten mongrel dogs (15 to 20 kg.). These systems were used to measure ascending aortic and coronary blood flow, aortic pressure, and subcutaneous EKG.

  4. Incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dual-species biofilms with Ralstonia insidiosa, a primary colonizer for the development of heterogeneous biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of strong biofilm forming microflora could potentially enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) in harsh environment. One strain of Ralstonia insidiosa isolated from produce processing environments, previously displayed a synergistic interaction with EcO157 in dual-spec...

  5. Goserelin Implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... which the type of tissue that lines the uterus [womb] grows in other areas of the body ... with the treatment of abnormal bleeding of the uterus. Goserelin implant is in a class of medications ...

  6. Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langouche, G.; Yoshida, Y.

    In this tutorial we describe the basic principles of the ion implantation technique and we demonstrate that emission Mössbauer spectroscopy is an extremely powerful technique to investigate the atomic and electronic configuration around implanted atoms. The physics of dilute atoms in materials, the final lattice sites and their chemical state as well as diffusion phenomena can be studied. We focus on the latest developments of implantation Mössbauer spectroscopy, where three accelerator facilities, i.e., Hahn-Meitner Institute Berlin, ISOLDE-CERN and RIKEN, have intensively been used for materials research in in-beam and on-line Mössbauer experiments immediately after implantation of the nuclear probes.

  7. Dental Implants

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... facts so you can make an informed decision as to whether dental implants are right for your ... the jaw bone. It’s obviously not the same as the original connection , but functions just the same. ...

  8. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... additional visits are needed for activating, adjusting, and programming the various electrodes that have been implanted. Also, ... to the center for checkups once the final programming is made to the speech processor. Both children ...

  9. Histrelin Implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in girls usually between 2 and 8 years of age ... MRI scans (radiology techniques designed to show the images of body structures) to find the implant when ...

  10. In Vivo Assessment of Phage and Linezolid Based Implant Coatings for Treatment of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) Mediated Orthopaedic Device Related Infections.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sandeep; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises up to two-thirds of all pathogens in orthopaedic implant infections with two species respectively Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, being the predominate etiological agents isolated. Further, with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), treatment of S. aureus implant infections has become more difficult, thus representing a devastating complication. Use of local delivery system consisting of S.aureus specific phage along with linezolid (incorporated in biopolymer) allowing gradual release of the two agents at the implant site represents a new, still unexplored treatment option (against orthopaedic implant infections) that has been studied in an animal model of prosthetic joint infection. Naked wire, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coated wire and phage and /or linezolid coated K-wire were surgically implanted into the intra-medullary canal of mouse femur bone of respective groups followed by inoculation of S.aureus ATCC 43300(MRSA). Mice implanted with K-wire coated with both the agents i.e phage as well as linezolid (dual coated wires) showed maximum reduction in bacterial adherence, associated inflammation of the joint as well as faster resumption of locomotion and motor function of the limb. Also, all the coating treatments showed no emergence of resistant mutants. Use of dual coated implants incorporating lytic phage (capable of self-multiplication) as well as linezolid presents an attractive and aggressive early approach in preventing as well as treating implant associated infections caused by methicillin resistant S. aureus strains as assessed in a murine model of experimental joint infection. PMID:27333300

  11. In Vivo Assessment of Phage and Linezolid Based Implant Coatings for Treatment of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) Mediated Orthopaedic Device Related Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises up to two-thirds of all pathogens in orthopaedic implant infections with two species respectively Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, being the predominate etiological agents isolated. Further, with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), treatment of S. aureus implant infections has become more difficult, thus representing a devastating complication. Use of local delivery system consisting of S.aureus specific phage along with linezolid (incorporated in biopolymer) allowing gradual release of the two agents at the implant site represents a new, still unexplored treatment option (against orthopaedic implant infections) that has been studied in an animal model of prosthetic joint infection. Naked wire, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coated wire and phage and /or linezolid coated K-wire were surgically implanted into the intra-medullary canal of mouse femur bone of respective groups followed by inoculation of S.aureus ATCC 43300(MRSA). Mice implanted with K-wire coated with both the agents i.e phage as well as linezolid (dual coated wires) showed maximum reduction in bacterial adherence, associated inflammation of the joint as well as faster resumption of locomotion and motor function of the limb. Also, all the coating treatments showed no emergence of resistant mutants. Use of dual coated implants incorporating lytic phage (capable of self-multiplication) as well as linezolid presents an attractive and aggressive early approach in preventing as well as treating implant associated infections caused by methicillin resistant S. aureus strains as assessed in a murine model of experimental joint infection. PMID:27333300

  12. Metal Ion Sources for Ion Beam Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Ren, X. T.

    2008-11-03

    In this paper a theme touched upon the progress of metal ion sources devoted to metal ion beam implantation (MIBI) will be reviewed. A special emphasis will be given to some kinds of ion sources such as ECR, MEVVA and Cluster ion sources. A novel dual hollow cathode metal ion source named DUHOCAMIS will be introduced and discussed.

  13. Tribological properties changes of H13 steel induced by MEVVA Ta ion implantation*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianhua, Yang; Tonghe, Zhang

    2004-05-01

    The tribological properties of Ta-implanted H13 steel was studied using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. The doses of Ta and C ions implanted on H13 steel were 5×10 17 and 2×10 17 cm -2, respectively. The extraction voltages were 48 kV for Ta implantation and 30 kV for C implantation. Rutherford backscattering spectrum (RBS) was used to measure the surface composition of the samples implanted. The observation of phase induced by Ta, C implantation was carried out by grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (GXRD). The wear test of the implanted surface revealed that Ta+C dual implantation reduced the wear of the implanted steel by nearly a factor of 2. This wear mechanism of the Ta-implanted steel was compared with that of Ti implantation.

  14. Periodontal and peri-implant diseases: identical or fraternal infections?

    PubMed

    Robitaille, N; Reed, D N; Walters, J D; Kumar, P S

    2016-08-01

    Peri-implant diseases (peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis) are bacterially driven infections. Peri-implantitis leads to aggressive bone resorption and eventual loss of the implant. Traditionally, peri-implantitis was regarded as microbially similar to periodontitis, and translocation of periodontal pathogens into the peri-implant crevice was considered as a critical factor in disease causation. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that the peri-implant and periodontal ecosystems differ in many important ways. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence supporting microbial congruence and discordance in these two communities. Current evidence suggests that osseointegrated implants truly create unique microenvironments that force microbial adaptation and selection. Further studies that revisit the "microbial reservoir" hypothesis and identify species that play an etiologic role in peri-implant disease and examine their transmission from teeth are needed. PMID:26255984

  15. Microbiological aspects of human mandibular subperiosteal dental implants.

    PubMed

    Rams, Thomas E; Balkin, Burton E; Roberts, Thomas W; Molzan, Arthur K

    2013-12-01

    Clinical, microbiological, and biochemical features of human mandibular subperiosteal dental implants exhibiting peri-implantitis were compared with those experiencing long-term peri-implant health. After evaluation of clinical parameters, submucosal plaque samples were obtained from permucosal implant abutment posts exhibiting probing depths ≥5 mm and bleeding on probing in subjects with peri-implantitis (n = 3) and from posts with peri-implant health in subjects with long-term subperiosteal implant health (n = 8). The microbial specimens were transported in VMGA III and plated onto enriched Brucella blood agar and Hammond's selective medium with anaerobic incubation, and onto selective TSBV with 5% CO2 incubation. Total anaerobic viable counts and selected bacterial species were identified using established phenotypic methods and criteria. In vitro resistance to doxycycline (2 μg/mL), amoxicillin (2 μg/mL), or metronidazole (4 μg/mL) was recorded per subject when bacterial pathogen growth was noted on antibiotic-supplemented isolation plates. Interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in peri-implant crevicular fluid samples from 5 study subjects. Significantly higher Plaque Index scores, higher total anaerobic viable counts, more red complex species, and lower proportions of gram-positive facultative viridans streptococci and Actinomyces species were detected on peri-implantitis-affected subperiosteal implants as compared with subperiosteal implants with long-term peri-implant health. No in vitro resistance to the 3 test antibiotic breakpoint concentrations studied was found, except a Fusobacterium nucleatum strain resistant to doxycycline at 2 μg/mL from 1 peri-implantitis subject. Subperiosteal implants with peri-implantitis tended to yield higher peri-implant crevicular fluid IL-1β levels. The level of peri-implant supramucosal plaque control and the composition of the peri-implant submucosal microbiome may be

  16. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... outside of the body, behind the ear. A second part is surgically placed under the skin. An implant does not restore normal hearing. It can help a person understand speech. Children and adults can benefit from them. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  17. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... are sent along the auditory nerve to the brain. A deaf person does not have a functioning inner ear. A cochlear implant tries to replace the function of the inner ear by ... signals to the brain. Sound is picked up by a microphone worn ...

  18. Comparison of intraplatelet reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial damage, and platelet apoptosis after implantation of three continuous flow left ventricular assist devices: HeartMate II, Jarvik 2000, and HeartWare.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan K; Sorensen, Erik N; Feller, Erika D; Pham, Si M; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2015-01-01

    Differences in device design may have an effect on platelet damage and associated clinical complications. We aimed to compare device-specific platelet functionality in 26 heart failure patients supported with three continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices: HeartMate II (n = 8), Jarvik 2000 (n = 9), and HeartWare (n = 9). Intraplatelet reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial damage, and platelet apoptosis were compared between device types before and after the implantation at every week up to 1 month. Overall, the baseline characteristics, demographics, routine laboratory values were comparable between the three device groups. Intraplatelet ROS, mitochondrial damage, and platelet apoptosis significantly elevated in the HeartWare group in comparison with the other two device groups after implantation. The major bleeding, infections, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and right ventricular failure were found to be more common among the HeartWare group than others. Intraplatelet ROS and platelet damage levels were returned to baseline in both the HeartMate II and the Jarvik groups, whereas in HeartWare group they remained elevated. The patients with the Jarvik and the HeartMate II experienced less clinical complications and the platelet functionality is not compromised by these devices. Data from this study suggests that the continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices design may exert different effects on platelet function. PMID:25757140

  19. Bone contact around acid-etched implants: a histological and histomorphometrical evaluation of two human-retrieved implants.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Petrone, Giovanna; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano

    2003-01-01

    The surface characteristics of dental implants play an important role in their clinical success. One of the most important surface characteristics of implants is their surface topography or roughness. Many techniques for preparing dental implant surfaces are in clinical use: turning, plasma spraying, coating, abrasive blasting, acid etching, and electropolishing. The Osseotite surface is prepared by a process of thermal dual etching with hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, which results in a clean, highly detailed surface texture devoid of entrapped foreign material and impurities. This seems to enhance fibrin attachment to the implant surface during the clotting process. The authors retrieved 2 Osseotite implants after 6 months to repair damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. Histologically, both implants appeared to be surrounded by newly formed bone. No gaps or fibrous tissues were present at the interface. The mean bone-implant contact percentage was 61.3% (+/- 3.8%). PMID:12614080

  20. Strontium in the bone-implant interface.

    PubMed

    Vestermark, Marianne Toft

    2011-05-01

    Total hip replacement surgery is being performed on an increasingly large part of the population and at increasingly younger age. Because we live and stay physically active longer, and since hip replacement surgery has become quite successful, the treatment is being offered to progressively more patients. Unfortunately, about 17% of hip replacement surgeries currently involve revisions. Consequently, the longevity of both the primary and revision implant is an issue and warrants further investigation. Implants undergoing early instability or even subsidence correlate with an increased risk of aseptic loosening, subsequently requiring revision. Thus, the goal is early fixation by osseointegration of the implant. For revision implants, this is an even greater challenge since an allograft is often needed during surgery to obtain immediate stability of the implant. Bone grafts are rapidly resorbed. Thus, instability of the prosthesis may develop before new bone formation is well established and can mechanically secure the prosthesis. Strontium is a dual action drug; being both bone anabolic and anti-catabolic. In the form of strontiumranelate, it is used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Strontium may potentially improve the early osseointegration and fixation of implants. This dissertation consists of three studies investigating the effect of strontium at the bone-implant interface. The questions were firstly, what is the optimal delivery method for strontium to the interface, and secondly, can strontium exercise its dual action at the interface? The studies were performed in a cementless, experimental gap model in canine. The effects of strontium were evaluated by histomorphometrical analysis of the osseointegration and mechanical push-out test of implant fixation. Different stereological methods were used for the histomorphometrical analysis of each study. The methods used were reviewed critically and found valid. Study I compared a 5% strontium

  1. Prosthetic management of malpositioned implant using custom cast abutment

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aishwarya; Ragher, Mallikarjuna; Patil, Sanket; Chatterjee, Debopriya; Dandekeri, Savita; Prabhu, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Two cases are reported with malpositioned implants. Both the implants were placed 6–7 months back. They had osseointegrated well with the surrounding bone. However, they presented severe facial inclination. Case I was restored with custom cast abutment with an auto polymerizing acrylic gingival veneer. Case II was restored with custom cast UCLA type plastic implant abutment. Ceramic was directly fired on the custom cast abutments. The dual treatment strategy resulted in functional and esthetic restorations despite facial malposition of the implants. PMID:26538957

  2. A upconversion luminescene biosensor based on dual-signal amplification for the detection of short DNA species of c-erbB-2 oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jianming; Liu, Yingxin; Li, Li; Wen, Fadi; Wu, Fang; Han, Zhizhong; Sun, Weiming; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    High-sensitivity detection of trace amounts of c-erbB-2 oncogene was reported to be equal to or surpass the ability of CA 15-3 for early diagnosis and/or follow-up recurrent screening of breast cancer. Therefore, in the current study, by using upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), rare earth-doped NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ as the luminescent labels, a upconversion luminescent (UCL) biosensor based on dual-signal amplification of exonuclease III (ExoIII)-assisted target cycles and long-range self-assembly DNA concatamers was developed for the detection of c-erbB-2 oncogene. The proposed biosensor exhibited ultrasensitive detection with limit as low as 40 aM, which may express the potential of being used in trace analysis of c-erbB-2 oncogene and early diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:27098295

  3. Optimization of a plasma immersion ion implantation process for shallow junctions in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Ashok; Nori, Rajashree; Bhatt, Piyush; Lodha, Saurabh; Pinto, Richard Rao, Valipe Ramgopal; Jomard, François; Neumann-Spallart, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process has been developed for realizing shallow doping profiles of phosphorus and boron in silicon using an in-house built dual chamber cluster tool. High Si etch rates observed in a 5% PH{sub 3} in H{sub 2} plasma have been ascribed to high concentration of H(α) radicals. Therefore, subsequent work was carried out with 5% PH{sub 3} in He, leading to much smaller etch rates. By optical emission spectroscopy, the radical species H(α), PH*{sub 2}, and PH* have been identified. The concentration of all three species increased with pressure. Also, ion concentrations increased with pressure as evidenced by Langmuir data, with a maximum occurring at 0.12 mbar. The duty cycle of pulsed DC bias has a significant bearing on both the implantation and the etching process as it controls the leakage of positive charge collected at the surface of the silicon wafer during pulse on-time generated primarily due to secondary electron emission. The P implant process was optimized for a duty cycle of 10% or less at a pressure of 0.12 mbar with implant times as low as 30 s. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed a P dopant depth of 145 nm after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 950 °C for 5 s, resulting in a sheet resistance of 77 Ω/◻. Si n{sup +}/p diodes fabricated with phosphorus implantation using optimized PIII and RTA conditions exhibit J{sub on}/J{sub off} > 10{sup 6} with an ideality factor of nearly 1.2. Using similar conditions, shallow doping profiles of B in silicon have also been realized.

  4. Ion implantation of solar cell junctions without mass analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D.; Tonn, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a summary of an investigation to determine the feasibility of producing solar cells by means of ion implantation without the use of mass analysis. Ion implants were performed using molecular and atomic phosphorus produced by the vaporization of solid red phosphorus and ionized in an electron bombardment source. Solar cell junctions were ion implanted by mass analysis of individual molecular species and by direct unanalyzed implants from the ion source. The implant dose ranged from 10 to the 14th to 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm and the energy per implanted atom ranged from 5 KeV to 40 KeV in this study.

  5. Expression in Antennae and Reproductive Organs Suggests a Dual Role of an Odorant-Binding Protein in Two Sibling Helicoverpa Species

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya-Lan; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) mediate both perception and release of semiochemicals in insects. These proteins are the ideal targets for understanding the olfactory code of insects as well as for interfering with their communication system in order to control pest species. The two sibling Lepidopteran species Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta are two major agricultural pests. As part of our aim to characterize the OBP repertoire of these two species, here we focus our attention on a member of this family, OBP10, particularly interesting for its expression pattern. The protein is specifically expressed in the antennae of both sexes, being absent from other sensory organs. However, it is highly abundant in seminal fluid, is transferred to females during mating and is eventually found on the surface of fertilised eggs. Among the several different volatile compounds present in reproductive organs, OBP10 binds 1-dodecene, a compound reported as an insect repellent. These results have been verified in both H. armigera and H. assulta with no apparent differences between the two species. The recombinant OBP10 binds, besides 1-dodecene, some linear alcohols and several aromatic compounds. The structural similarity of OBP10 with OBP1 of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a protein reported to bind an oviposition pheromone, and its affinity with 1-dodecene suggest that OBP10 could be a carrier for oviposition deterrents, favouring spreading of the eggs in these species where cannibalism is active among larvae. PMID:22291900

  6. Nanostructure and Properties of Corrosion Resistance in C+Ti Multi-Ion-Implanted Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong-He; Wu, Yu-Guang; Liu, An-Dong; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xiao-Yan

    2003-09-01

    The corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance of C+Ti dual and C+Ti+C ternary implanted H13 steel were studied by using a multi-sweep cyclic voltammetry and a scanning electron microscope. The effects of phase formation on corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance were explored. The x-ray diffraction analysis shows that the nanometer-sized precipitate phases consist of compounds of Fe2Ti, TiC, Fe2C and Fe3C in dual implanted layer and even in ternary implanted layer. The passivation layer consists of these nanometer phases. It has been found that the corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance of dual and ternary implanted H13 steel are improved extremely. The corrosion resistance of ternary implanted layer is better than that of dual implantations and is enhanced with the increasing ion dose. When the ion dose of Ti is 6×1017/cm2 in the ternary implantation sample, the anodic peak current density is 95 times less than that of the H13 steel. The pitting corrosion potential of dual and ternary implantation samples is in the range from 55 mV to 160 mV which is much higher than that of the H13 steel. The phases against the corrosion and pitting corrosion are nanometer silkiness phases.

  7. Retrograde peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Jumshad B; Shivakumar, B; Sudarsan, Sabitha; Arun, K V; Kumar, T S S

    2010-01-01

    Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to) retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation. PMID:20922082

  8. Surface modification of sapphire by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    McHargue, C.J.

    1998-11-01

    The range of microstructures and properties of sapphire (single crystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that are produced by ion implantation are discussed with respect to the implantation parameters of ion species, fluence, irradiation temperature and the orientation of the ion beam relative to crystallographic axes. The microstructure of implanted sapphire may be crystalline with varying concentrations of defects or it may be amorphous perhaps with short-range order. At moderate to high fluences, implanted metallic ions often coalesce into pure metallic colloids and gas ions form bubbles. Many of the implanted microstructural features have been identified from studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering-channeling. The chemical, mechanical, and physical properties reflect the microstructures.

  9. Laboratory Search for a Long-Range, scalar-pseudoscalar Interaction Using Dual-Species NMR with Polarized Xe129 and Xe131 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Erick; Bulatowicz, M.; Griffith, R.; Larsen, M.; Mirijanian, J.; Pavell, J.; Fu, C. B.; Snow, W. M.; Yan, H.; Walker, T. G.

    2014-05-01

    Various theories for physics beyond the Standard Model predict the presence of new weak forces of ``mesoscopic'' range (mm- μm). One possibility is a new spin-dependent scalar-pseudoscalar interaction mediated by a spin-0 boson with a small mass. The strength of this interaction would be the product of the scalar (gs) coupling at the unpolarized vertex and the pseudoscalar (gp) coupling at the polarized vertex and is proportional to s . r where s is the spin of the source particle and r is the interaction distance. Using a test station for an NMR gyroscope at Northrop Grumman Corp., we conducted a search for this interaction by measuring NMR frequency shifts in a vapor cell containing polarized 129Xe and 131Xe as a non-magnetic zirconia rod is moved near and far from the cell. The vapor cell features a long T2 spin relaxation time for both polarized species, allowing for very precise frequency measurements and a new laboratory limit to be set on this monopole-dipole interaction between the polarized neutrons in the nuclei and unpolarized matter at distances near 1 mm. Supported by NGC IRAD funding, the Department of Energy, and NSF Grants PHY-0116146, PHY-1068712, and PHY-1306942.

  10. Progesterone and its downstream molecules as blastocyst implantation essential factors.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Koji

    2014-08-01

    This review is to update the previous review (Am J Reprod Immunol, 63, 2010 and 413) on the research on blastocyst implantation essential factors (BIEFs). Focus of the current review is on progesterone and its downstream molecules in the process of blastocyst implantation. To understand the process of implantation, we need to know where and when the BIEFs are expressed and what they do. Progress in this research area is rapid, and its update is indeed necessary. The basic concept of BIEFs is that they have dual functions, one physiological and the other immunological (J Reprod Dev, 58, 2012 and 196). As we are still exploring the mechanism of implantation, available data are incomplete and human data are few. Thus, I will use information obtained through research on animal models, in vitro studies, cell lines, and some human studies where available. The ultimate goal of the review is to understand human blastocyst implantation. PMID:24754263

  11. Dual-CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enejder, Annika; Brackmann, Christian; Burkacky, Ondrej; Åkeson, Madeleine

    2007-02-01

    We present a new Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy technique for label-free imaging of biomolecules in living cells; dual-CARS microscopy. The use of three synchronized laser pulses in a dual-pump/dualdetection configuration enables imaging of two species with different molecular vibrations simultaneously, as well as acquisition of images free of non-resonant background. We show the power of the method by imaging deuterated nonadecane slowly diffusing into a suspension of living yeast cells in medium, clearly distinguishing the medium and the lipid droplets in the cells by probing the CH II vibration from the D-nonadecane by probing the CD vibration. In addition, images of lipid stores in living C. elegans nematodes free of non-resonant background are shown. This results in a significant enhancement of the image contrast, allowing the visualization of emerging, low-density lipid stores in a dauer larva, difficult to distinguish in conventional CARS microscopy. The separation of the non-resonant background is shown to be beneficial also when monitoring molecules with weak vibrational modes. The improved sensitivity obtained is illustrated by probing the C=C vibration in polyunsaturated lipids extracted from fish. This enables the monitoring of the degree of unsaturation of lipids, a high value of which is reported in foods known to have positive effects on human health.

  12. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  13. Ventricular fibrillation induced by coagulating mode bipolar electrocautery during pacemaker implantation in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 patient.

    PubMed

    Russo, Vincenzo; Rago, Anna; DI Meo, Federica; Cioppa, Nadia Della; Papa, Andrea Antonio; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Nigro, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of ventricular fibrillation, induced by bipolar electrocautery during elective dual chamber pacemaker implantation, is reported in a patient affected by Myotonic Distrophy type 1 with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. PMID:25873784

  14. Hair implant complications.

    PubMed

    Hanke, C W; Norins, A L; Pantzer, J G; Bennett, J E

    1981-04-01

    Four men who underwent hair implantation for pattern baldness were treated for complications such as infection, foreign-body reaction, pruritus, and scarring. The complications were similar to those reported with synthetic modacrylic fiber implants that have been used for the same purpose. Although we believe this is the first article to report complications from hair implants, the illogical basis of the procedure suggests that complications will occur in many unsuspecting patients who undergo hair implantation. PMID:7009899

  15. Dual-energy precursor and nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 activator treatment additively improve redox glutathione levels and neuron survival in aging and Alzheimer mouse neurons upstream of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debolina; LeVault, Kelsey R; Brewer, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether glutathione (GSH) loss or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are more important to neuron loss, aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we stressed or boosted GSH levels in neurons isolated from aging 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those from age-matched nontransgenic (non-Tg) neurons. Here, using titrating with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCL), we observed that GSH depletion increased neuronal death of 3xTg-AD cultured neurons at increasing rates across the age span, whereas non-Tg neurons were resistant to GSH depletion until old age. Remarkably, the rate of neuron loss with ROS did not increase in old age and was the same for both genotypes, which indicates that cognitive deficits in the AD model were not caused by ROS. Therefore, we targeted for neuroprotection activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by 18 alpha glycyrrhetinic acid to stimulate GSH synthesis through GCL. This balanced stimulation of a number of redox enzymes restored the lower levels of Nrf2 and GCL seen in 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those of non-Tg neurons and promoted translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. By combining the Nrf2 activator together with the NADH precursor, nicotinamide, we increased neuron survival against amyloid beta stress in an additive manner. These stress tests and neuroprotective treatments suggest that the redox environment is more important for neuron survival than ROS. The dual neuroprotective treatment with nicotinamide and an Nrf2 inducer indicates that these age-related and AD-related changes are reversible. PMID:23954169

  16. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  17. Biomaterial and antibiotic strategies for peri-implantitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Norowski, P Andrew; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2009-02-01

    Dental implants have 89% plus survival rates at 10-15 years, but peri-implantitis or dental implant infections may be as high as 14%. Peri-implantitis can limit clinical success and impose health and financial burdens to patients and health providers. The pathogenic species associated with periodontitis (e.g., Fusobacterium ssp, A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis) are also associated with peri-implantitis. Incidence of peri-implantitis is highest within the first 12 months after implantation, and is higher in patients who smoke or have poor oral health as well as with calcium-phosphate-coated or surface-roughened implants. Biomaterial therapies using fibers, gels, and beads to deliver antibiotics have been used in the treatment of Peri-implantitis though clinical efficacy is not well documented. Guided tissue regeneration membranes (e.g., collagen, poly-lactic/glycolic acid, chitosan, ePTFE) loaded with antimicrobials have shown success in reosseointegrating infected implants in animal models but have not been proven in humans. Experimental approaches include the development of anti-bioadhesion coatings, coating surfaces with antimicrobial agents (e.g., vancomycin, Ag, Zn) or antimicrobial releasing coatings (e.g., calcium phosphate, polylactic acid, chitosan). Future strategies include the development of surfaces that become antibacterial in response to infection, and improvements in the permucosal seal. Research is still needed to identify strategies to prevent bacterial attachment and enhance normal cell/tissue attachment to implant surfaces. PMID:18698626

  18. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  19. Experimental implantation of epiretinal retina implants (EPI-RET) with an IOL-type receiver unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerding, H.; Benner, F. P.; Taneri, S.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surgical feasibility of implantation and long-term structural outcome of retina implant devices with an anterior IOL receiver, a connecting microcable and posterior segment epiretinal microcontacts. Implantation of epiretinal retina (EPI-RET) implants was performed as a one-step surgical procedure including phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy in two adult rabbits. Implants were mechanically stabilized in an anterior position by the lens capsule and in the posterior segment by microtacks with a soft contact collar. Follow-up (6 and 9 months) included regular clinical examination, anterior and posterior segment photography and finally pathohistological evaluation. Implantation was uneventful in case 1 and complicated by vitreous space haemorrhage in case 2. At the end of follow-up, the retina was partially detached in animal 1 and subtotally detached in animal 2. Common features of tissue reaction in both cases were the formation of cyclitic membranes extending around and posterior to the anterior IOL receiver. In addition to that severe proliferations developed around microcables, microcontacts and microtacks forming a tissue capsule around posterior segment foreign materials. Retinal areas in contact to implant devices presented a severe structural damage and disorganization. Results of this preliminary trial suggest that the application of epiretinal prostheses with large diameter IOL receivers may be a critical issue and can give rise to an unfavourable outcome. Further systematic investigation ought to be performed involving a larger number of animals, modified implants and perhaps other species.

  20. Dual Wavelength Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Dual wavelength lasers are discussed, covering fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics of these systems. Results on Tm:Ho:Er:YAG dual wavelength laser action (Ho at 2.1 m and Er at 2.9 m) as well as Nd:YAG (1.06 and 1.3 m) are presented as examples of such dual wavelength systems. Dual wavelength lasers are not common, but there are criteria that govern their behavior. Based on experimental studies demonstrating simultaneous dual wavelength lasing, some general conclusions regarding the successful operation of multi-wavelength lasers can be made.

  1. Radiobiological evaluation of low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaup, Courtney James

    Low dose-rate brachytherapy is a radiation therapy treatment for men with prostate cancer. While this treatment is common, the use of isotopes with varying dosimetric characteristics means that the prescription level and normal organ tolerances vary. Additionally, factors such as prostate edema, seed loss and seed migration may alter the dose distribution within the prostate. The goal of this work is to develop a radiobiological response tool based on spatial dose information which may be used to aid in treatment planning, post-implant evaluation and determination of the effects of prostate edema and seed migration. Aim 1: Evaluation of post-implant prostate edema and its dosimetric and biological effects. Aim 2: Incorporation of biological response to simplify post-implant evaluation. Aim 3: Incorporation of biological response to simplify treatment plan comparison. Aim 4: Radiobiologically based comparison of single and dual-isotope implants. Aim 5: Determine the dosimetric and radiobiological effects of seed disappearance and migration.

  2. Ion Implantation into Presolar Grains: A Theoretical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verchovsky, A. B.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.

    A numerical model for ion implantation into spherical grains in free space has been developed. It can be applied to single grains or collections of grains with known grain-size distributions. Ion-scattering effects were taken into account using results of computer simulations. Possible isotope and element fractionation of the implanted species was investigated using this model. The astrophysical significance of the model lies in the possible identification of energetically different components (such as noble gases) implanted into presolar grains (such as diamond and SiC) and in establishing implantation energies of the components.

  3. Silicone breast implant materials.

    PubMed

    Daniels, A U

    2012-01-01

    This opinion article has been written on request because of the recent public controversy over silicone breast implants produced by a now-defunct company, Poly Implant Prosthese (PIP) in France. More than 300,000 PIP devices have been implanted. The purposes of my article are to (1.) provide a general overview of silicone breast implant materials, (2.) to describe the general safety of these materials as reported to date, and (3.) to summarise current publicly available information about these aspects of the PIP prostheses. The materials covered are the silicone rubber from which the implant shells are made and the silicone gel used to fill the shell. The materials safety issues are biocompatibility (especially of the gel) and biodurability of the shell. The literature reviewed indicates that biocompatibility is not an issue with other current generation implants. However, biodurability is. A rough estimate of implant shell rupture rate is ~10+% at 10 years. Information is still emerging about the PIP implants. Initial regulatory disclosures suggest the PIP implants may have both biocompatibility and biodurability problems. They also suggest that PIP implants may have been produced using silicone materials not certified as medical grade. Governmental health and regulatory agencies are just now in the process of deciding what actions should be taken to protect patients. PMID:22826101

  4. Modification of sol-gel coatings by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirashima, Hiroshi; Adachi, Kenji; Imai, Hiroaki

    1994-10-01

    In order to densify and to improve the physical properties, TiO2 sol-gel films, about 100 nm in thickness, on silica glass or silicon wafer were implanted with Ar+ or B+ ions. The refractive index of the as-dried films increased and the IR absorption band of OH disappeared after Ar+ implantation. Dehydration and densification of sol-gel films were enhanced by Ar+ implantation. On the other hand, the refractive index and the thickness of the films hardly changed by B+ implantation. However, IR absorption bands attributed to B-O bond were observed after B+ implantation. This suggests that sol-gel films could be chemically modified by ion implantation with reactive ion species.

  5. Larynx: implants and stents

    PubMed Central

    Sittel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In the human larynx, implants a primarily used for the correction of glottis insufficiency. In a broader sense laryngeal stents may be considered as implants as well. Laryngeal implants can be differentiated into injectable and solid. The most important representatives of both groups are discussed in detail along with the respective technique of application. Laryngeal stents are primarily used perioperatively. Different types and their use are presented. PMID:22073097

  6. Implants in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rohit A.; Mitra, Dipika K.; Rodrigues, Silvia V.; Pathare, Pragalbha N.; Podar, Rajesh S.; Vijayakar, Harshad N.

    2013-01-01

    Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature. PMID:24174743

  7. Electrochemical Disinfection of Dental Implants – a Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, Dirk; Zehnder, Matthias; Stark, Wendelin J.; Imfeld, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Peri-implantitis has gained significant clinical attention in recent years. This disease is an inflammatory reaction to microorganisms around dental implants. Due to the limited accessibility, non-invasive antimicrobial strategies are of high interest. An unexpected approach to implant disinfection may evolve from electrolysis. Given the electrical conductivity of titanium implants, alkalinity or active oxidants can be generated in body fluids. We investigated the use of dental titanium implants as electrodes for the local generation of disinfectants. Our hypothesis was that electrolysis can reduce viable counts of adhering bacteria, and that this reduction should be greater if active oxidative species are generated. Methodology/Principal Findings As model systems, dental implants, covered with a mono-species biofilm of Escherichia coli C43, were placed in photographic gelatin prepared with physiological saline. Implants were treated by a continuous current of 0 - 10 mA for 15 minutes. The reduction of viable counts was investigated on cathodes and anodes. In separate experiments, the local change in pH was visualized using color indicators embedded in the gelatin. Oxidative species were qualitatively detected by potassium iodide-starch paper. The in situ generated alkaline environment around cathodic implants caused a reduction of up to 2 orders of magnitude in viable E. coli counts. On anodic implants, in contrast to cathodic counterparts, oxidative species were detected. Here, a current of merely 7.5 mA caused complete kill of the bacteria. Conclusions/Significance This laboratory study shows that electrochemical treatment may provide access to a new way to decontaminate dental implants in situ. PMID:21264247

  8. An in vivo assessment of the effects of using different implant abutment occluding materials on implant microleakage and the peri-implant microbiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, Caroline

    points were used to sample the peri-implant sulcus bacteria. All samples were then submitted to DNA purification, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequencing protocols to assess relative numbers of bacterial species. Periodontal parameters were collected at both time points. Overall, our findings support several conclusions. Different implant abutment channel occluding materials appear to have no effect on the amount of observed microleakage and the peri-implant microbiome. Evidence for microleakage was found in the present study, corroborating existing in vivo evidence. Finally, we gained several insights regarding the peri implant microbiome. Of note, the peri-implant microbiome is well described by the classical periodontal microbial complexes, but a large portion consists of bacteria not previously classified into the microbial complexes.

  9. The roles of different scale ranges of surface implant topography on the stability of the bone/implant interface.

    PubMed

    Davies, John E; Ajami, Elnaz; Moineddin, Rahim; Mendes, Vanessa C

    2013-05-01

    We sought to deconvolute the effects of sub-micron topography and microtopography on the phenomena of bone bonding and interfacial stability of endosseous implants. To address this experimentally, we implanted custom-made titanium alloy implants of varying surface topographical complexity in rat femora, for 6, 9 or 12 days. The five surfaces were polished, machined, dual acid etched, and two forms of grit blasted and acid etched; each surface type was further modified with the deposition of nanocrystals of calcium phosphate to make a total of 10 materials groups (n = 10 for each time point; total 300 implants). At sacrifice, we subjected the bone-implant interface to a mechanical disruption test. We found that even the smoothest surfaces, when modified with sub-micron scale crystals, could be bone-bonding. However, as locomotor loading through bone to the implant increased with time of healing, such interfaces failed while others, with sub-micron features superimposed on surfaces of increasing microtopographical complexity remained intact under loading. We demonstrate here that higher order, micron or coarse-micron, topography is a requirement for longer-term interfacial stability. We show that each of these topographical scale-ranges represents a scale-range seen in natural bone tissue. Thus, what emerges from an analysis of our findings is a new means by which biologically-relevant criteria can be employed to assess the importance of implant surface topography at different scale-ranges. PMID:23415644

  10. Gold bead implants.

    PubMed

    Durkes, T E

    1992-03-01

    Gold bead implantation is an experimental area of study in the acupuncture field dealing with chronic diseases. Special acupuncture techniques are required to implant the gold beads successfully in the proper location. Gold beads are used to treat degenerative joint disease, osteochondritis, osteochondritis dessicans, ventral spondylosis, and seizures. PMID:1581658

  11. Implantable, Ingestible Electronic Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    Small quartz-crystal-controlled oscillator swallowed or surgically implanted provides continuous monitoring of patient's internal temperature. Receiver placed near patient measures oscillator frequency, and temperature inferred from previously determined variation of frequency with temperature. Frequency of crystal-controlled oscillator varies with temperature. Circuit made very small and implanted or ingested to measure internal body temperature.

  12. Synthetic facial implants.

    PubMed

    Quatela, Vito C; Chow, Jen

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a range of synthetic implant materials for use in facial plastic surgery. The authors discuss alternatives to autogenous tissue transfer in terms of biocompatibility, technique, complications, controversies, and cautions. The reader is presented information about a range of synthetic implant materials such as silicone, polyester fiber, polyamide mesh, metal, polyethylene, polyacrylamide gel, hydroxyapatite, polylactic acid, collagen, and others. PMID:18063244

  13. Smoking and dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Kasat, V.; Ladda, R.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of “PubMed” was made with the key words “dental implant,” “nicotine,” “smoking,” “tobacco,” and “osseointegration.” Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in English language were selected. Smoking has its influence on general as well as oral health of an individual. Tobacco negatively affects the outcome of almost all therapeutic procedures performed in the oral cavity. The failure rate of implant osseointegration is considerably higher among smokers, and maintenance of oral hygiene around the implants and the risk of peri-implantitis are adversely affected by smoking. To increase implant survival in smokers, various protocols have been recommended. Although osseointegrated dental implants have become the state of the art for tooth replacement, they are not without limitations or complications. In this litigious era, it is extremely important that the practitioner clearly understands and is able and willing to convey the spectrum of possible complications and their frequency to the patients. PMID:24478965

  14. Batteryless implanted echosonometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    Miniature ultrasonic echosonometer implanted within laboratory animals obtains energy from RF power oscillator that is electronically transduced via induction loop to power receiving loop located just under animal's skin. Method of powering device offers significant advantages over those in which battery is part of implanted package.

  15. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

  16. Percutaneous and skeletal biocarbon implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, V.

    1977-01-01

    Review of carbon implants developed by NASA discussed four different types of implants and subsequent improvements. Improvements could be of specific interest to rehabilitation centers and similar organizations.

  17. Number of implants for mandibular implant overdentures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Yol; Kim, Ha-Young; Bryant, S. Ross

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this systematic review is to address treatment outcomes of Mandibular implant overdentures relative to implant survival rate, maintenance and complications, and patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted by a PubMed search strategy and hand-searching of relevant journals from included studies. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) and comparative clinical trial studies on mandibular implant overdentures until August, 2010 were selected. Eleven studies from 1098 studies were finally selected and data were analyzed relative to number of implants. RESULTS Six studies presented the data of the implant survival rate which ranged from 95% to 100% for 2 and 4 implant group and from 81.8% to 96.1% for 1 and 2 implant group. One study, which statistically compared implant survival rate showed no significant differences relative to the number of implants. The most common type of prosthetic maintenance and complications were replacement or reattaching of loose clips for 2 and 4 implant group, and denture repair due to the fracture around an implant for 1 and 2 implant groups. Most studies showed no significant differences in the rate of prosthetic maintenance and complication, and patient satisfaction regardless the number of implants. CONCLUSION The implant survival rate of mandibular overdentures is high regardless of the number of implants. Denture maintenance is likely not inflenced substantially by the number of implants and patient satisfaction is typically high again regardless os the number of implants. PMID:23236572

  18. Graphene for Biomedical Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas; Podila, Ramakrishna; Alexis, Frank; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Bioengineering Team; Clemson Physics Team

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we used graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms, to modify the surfaces of existing implant materials to enhance both bio- and hemo-compatibility. This novel effort meets all functional criteria for a biomedical implant coating as it is chemically inert, atomically smooth and highly durable, with the potential for greatly enhancing the effectiveness of such implants. Specifically, graphene coatings on nitinol, a widely used implant and stent material, showed that graphene coated nitinol (Gr-NiTi) supports excellent smooth muscle and endothelial cell growth leading to better cell proliferation. We further determined that the serum albumin adsorption on Gr-NiTi is greater than that of fibrinogen, an important and well understood criterion for promoting a lower thrombosis rate. These hemo-and biocompatible properties and associated charge transfer mechanisms, along with high strength, chemical inertness and durability give graphene an edge over most antithrombogenic coatings for biomedical implants and devices.

  19. [Implantable medical devices].

    PubMed

    Crickx, B; Arrault, X

    2008-01-01

    Medical devices have been individualized to include a category of implantable medical devices, "designed to be totally implanted in the human body or to replace an epithelial surface or a surface of the eye, through surgery, and remain in place after the intervention" (directive 93/42/CEE and decree of 20 April 206). Each implantable medical device has a common name and a commercial name for precise identification of the model (type/references). The users' service and the implanting physician should be clearly identified. There are a number of rules concerning health traceability to rapidly identify patients exposed to risks in which the implantable medical devices of a particular batch or series were used and to monitor the consequences. The traceability data should be preserved 10 years and the patient's medical file for 20 years. PMID:18442666

  20. Cochlear implants in children.

    PubMed

    Young, N M

    1994-04-01

    Children with such profound deafness that they are not helped by hearing aids are now candidates for cochlear implantation. This technology permits us to provide these children with a significant degree of useful hearing. The degree of improvement in speech perception and spoken language in pediatric cochlear implant recipients varies. However, the younger the children and the less time they have been completely deprived of auditory stimuli, the more likely they are to make significant progress. The evaluation of the deaf child for implantation is best done by a multidisciplinary team who understands the needs of hearing-impaired children and who can work with the family, the child, and classroom teachers, as well as other school professionals. The decision to proceed with cochlear implantation in a child is one that requires long-term commitment on the part of the family and the cochlear implant team. PMID:8039409

  1. Dual-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKitric, Eloise J.

    The impact of economic conditions on two-earner families was examined. Three family types were studied: (1) dual-career family--both the husband and wife are in the labor force but in occupations classified as professional-technical or managerial; (2) dual-earner--both the husband and wife are in the labor force; and (3) traditional family--the…

  2. The Dual Career Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtin, Lee

    1980-01-01

    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  3. Dual drive actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    A new class of electromechanical actuators is described. These dual drive actuators were developed for the NASA-JPL Galileo Spacecraft. The dual drive actuators are fully redundant and therefore have high inherent reliability. They can be used for a variety of tasks, and they can be fabricated quickly and economically.

  4. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  5. Implant Placement in Failed Endodontic Sites: A Review.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Dental implants may fail to osseointegrate in sites of endodontic failure. This may occur as a result colonization by various anaerobic and facultative bacterial species. If an implant is placed in a site where vegetative bacteria are residing, the implant may fail to integrate if a bacterial colonization proceeds coronally. If the implant apical cortical bone is thin or if there is an apical fenestration, the colonization may proceed through the thin or nonexistent bone through the covering mucosa, relieving inflammatory pressure to create an apical (retrograde) peri-implantitis. Enterococcus faecalis may be the prime culprit in these types of implant failures. After thorough debridement, the implant may be immediately placed after extraction of an endodontically failed tooth, and the patient treated with an appropriate antibiotic. Alternatively waiting for postextraction healing and subsequent implant placement can be done. Nevertheless, either way may allow for the formation of bacterial vegetative forms or biofilms. The implant surface may be colonized when the surface is exposed to the bacteria. Thorough debridement is crucial. Nonetheless, organisms may persist. Randomized controlled trials are needed to elucidate this issue. PMID:26550925

  6. 76 FR 4634 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Implantation and Recovery of Archival Tags for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...; Implantation and Recovery of Archival Tags for Highly Migratory Species AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Administration (NOAA) allows scientists to implant archival tags in, or affix archival tags to, selected Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (tunas, sharks, swordfish, and billfish). Archival tags collect...

  7. Flexible, Polarization-Diverse UWB Antennas for Implantable Neural Recording Systems.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Hadi; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Ameli, Reza; Rusch, Leslie A; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-02-01

    Implanted antennas for implant-to-air data communications must be composed of material compatible with biological tissues. We design single and dual-polarization antennas for wireless ultra-wideband neural recording systems using an inhomogeneous multi-layer model of the human head. Antennas made from flexible materials are more easily adapted to implantation; we investigate both flexible and rigid materials and examine performance trade-offs. The proposed antennas are designed to operate in a frequency range of 2-11 GHz (having S11 below -10 dB) covering both the 2.45 GHz (ISM) band and the 3.1-10.6 GHz UWB band. Measurements confirm simulation results showing flexible antennas have little performance degradation due to bending effects (in terms of impedance matching). Our miniaturized flexible antennas are 12 mm×12 mm and 10 mm×9 mm for single- and dual-polarizations, respectively. Finally, a comparison is made of four implantable antennas covering the 2-11 GHz range: 1) rigid, single polarization, 2) rigid, dual polarization, 3) flexible, single polarization and 4) flexible, dual polarization. In all cases a rigid antenna is used outside the body, with an appropriate polarization. Several advantages were confirmed for dual polarization antennas: 1) smaller size, 2) lower sensitivity to angular misalignments, and 3) higher fidelity. PMID:25794394

  8. Key issues in plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Faehl, R.J.; Matossian, J.N.

    1996-09-01

    Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is a scaleable, non-line-of-sight method for the surface modification of materials. In this paper, we consider three important issues that should be addressed before wide-scale commercialization of PSII: (1) implant conformality; (2) ion sources; and (3) secondary electron emission. To insure uniform implanted dose over complex shapes, the ion sheath thickness must be kept sufficiently small. This criterion places demands on ion sources and pulsed-power supplies. Another limitation to date is the availability of additional ion species beyond B, C, N, and 0. Possible solutions are the use of metal arc vaporization sources and plasma discharges in high-vapor-pressure organometallic precursors. Finally, secondary electron emission presents a potential efficiency and x-ray hazard issue since for many metallurgic applications, the emission coefficient can be as large as 20. Techniques to suppress secondary electron emission are discussed.

  9. Two stage dual gate MESFET monolithic gain control amplifier for Ka-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolov, V.; Geddes, J.; Contolatis, A.

    1987-01-01

    A monolithic two stage gain control amplifier has been developed using submicron gate length dual gate MESFETs fabricated on ion implanted material. The amplifier has a gain of 12 dB at 30 GHz with a gain control range of over 30 dB. This ion implanted monolithic IC is readily integrable with other phased array receiver functions such as low noise amplifiers and phase shifters.

  10. Dental Implant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  11. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit. PMID:17377223

  12. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678

  13. Reflections on Rodent Implantation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jeeyeon M; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2015-01-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex process involving endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, and juxtacrine modulators that span cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The quality of implantation is predictive for pregnancy success. Earlier observational studies formed the basis for genetic and molecular approaches that ensued with emerging technological advances. However, the precise sequence and details of the molecular interactions involved have yet to be defined. This review reflects briefly on aspects of our current understanding of rodent implantation as a tribute to Roger Short's lifelong contributions to the field of reproductive physiology. PMID:26450495

  14. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Oliemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was developed to offer a therapeutic solution to patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacement. The improvement in transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes is still of concern in the areas of stroke, vascular injury, heart block, paravalvular regurgitation and valve durability. Concomitantly, the progress, both technical and in terms of material advances of transcatheter valve systems, as well as in patient selection, renders transcatheter aortic valve implantation an increasingly viable treatment for more and more patients with structural heart disease. PMID:25374670

  15. The evolution of embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    McGowen, Michael R; Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Wildman, Derek E

    2014-01-01

    Embryo implantation varies widely in placental mammals. We review this variation in mammals with a special focus on two features: the depth of implantation and embryonic diapause. We discuss the two major types of implantation depth, superficial and interstitial, and map this character on a well-resolved molecular phylogenetic tree of placental mammals. We infer that relatively deep interstitial implantation has independently evolved at least eight times within placental mammals. Moreover, the superficial type of implantation represents the ancestral state for placental mammals. In addition, we review the genes involved in various phases of implantation, and suggest a future direction in investigating the molecular evolution of implantation-related genes. PMID:25023681

  16. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  17. Clinically based implant selection.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1999-01-01

    A hierarchy of implant selection is presented, based on overcoming specific clinical challenges in a variety of situations, including maximization of the esthetic, comfort, and functional potentials of therapy. PMID:10709488

  18. Breast reconstruction - implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... stages, or surgeries. During the first stage, a tissue expander is used. An implant is placed during the ... a pouch under your chest muscle. A small tissue expander is placed in the pouch. The expander is ...

  19. [Silicone breast implants].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M; Brandt, B; Breiting, V B; Christensen, L H; Thomsen, J L

    1989-12-18

    A brief review of the use of silicone breast implants, their structure, methods of implantation and complications is presented. Acute complications are rare, being mainly infection and hematoma. Long-term complications, on the contrary, are common, consisting mainly of capsular contracture around the prosthesis with subsequent pain and deformation of the breast. More rarely silicone granulomas form, and prosthesis rupture or herniation occurs. The importance of silicone leakage for these complications is discussed separately as well as the treatment of and prevention of capsular contracture and demonstration of silicone in tissue. A critical attitude towards the use of silicone breast implants, when these are used for purely cosmetic purposes, is recommended at present. New improved types of silicone breast implants are currently being tested clinically. PMID:2692262

  20. Peri-Implant Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and flossing and regular check-ups from a dental professional. Other risks factors for developing peri-implant disease include previous periodontal disease diagnosis, poor plaque control, smoking , and diabetes . It is essential to routinely ...

  1. Biocompatibility of surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Method of selecting biocompatible materials for surgical implants uses fracture mechanic relationships and surface energies of candidate materials in presence of blood plasma. Technique has been used to characterize 190 materials by parameters that reflect their biocompatibility.

  2. Risks of Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... larger and longer than these conducted so far. Breastfeeding Some women who undergo breast augmentation can successfully ... breast implant silicone shell into breast milk during breastfeeding. Although there are currently no established methods for ...

  3. Implantable microscale neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Karen C

    2007-12-01

    Implantable neural microsystems provide an interface to the nervous system, giving cellular resolution to physiological processes unattainable today with non-invasive methods. Such implantable microelectrode arrays are being developed to simultaneously sample signals at many points in the tissue, providing insight into processes such as movement control, memory formation, and perception. These electrode arrays have been microfabricated on a variety of substrates, including silicon, using both surface and bulk micromachining techniques, and more recently, polymers. Current approaches to achieving a stable long-term tissue interface focus on engineering the surface properties of the implant, including coatings that discourage protein adsorption or release bioactive molecules. The implementation of a wireless interface requires consideration of the necessary data flow, amplification, signal processing, and packaging. In future, the realization of a fully implantable neural microsystem will contribute to both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as a neuroprosthetic interface to restore motor functions in paralyzed patients. PMID:17252207

  4. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  5. Implant treatment planning: endodontic considerations.

    PubMed

    Simonian, Krikor; Frydman, Alon; Verdugo, Fernando; Roges, Rafael; Kar, Kian

    2014-12-01

    Implants are a predictable and effective method for replacing missing teeth. Some clinicians have advocated extraction and replacement of compromised but treatable teeth on the assumption that implants will outperform endodontically and/or periodontally treated teeth. However, evidence shows that conventional therapy is as effective as implant treatment. With data on implants developing complications long term and a lack of predictable treatment for peri-implantitis, retaining and restoring the natural dentition should be the first choice when possible. PMID:25928961

  6. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Leaf, G.K.

    1985-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al and Si ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail.

  7. Experimenting with microbial fuel cells for powering implanted biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Roxby, Daniel N; Nham Tran; Pak-Lam Yu; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-08-01

    Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) technology has the ability to directly convert sugar into electricity by using bacteria. Such a technology could be useful for powering implanted biomedical devices that require a surgery to replace their batteries every couple of years. In steps towards this, parameters such as electrode configuration, inoculation size, stirring of the MFC and single versus dual chamber reactor configuration were tested for their effect on MFC power output. Results indicate that a Top-Bottom electrode configuration, stirring and larger amounts of bacteria in single chamber MFCs, and smaller amounts of bacteria in dual chamber MFCs give increased power outputs. Finally, overall dual chamber MFCs give several fold larger MFC power outputs. PMID:26736845

  8. Dual Diagonalization of Reactive Transport Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, G.; Tsai, C.

    2013-12-01

    One solves a system of species transport equations in the primitive approach to reactive transport modeling. This approach is not able to decouple equilibrium reaction rates from species concentrations. This problem has been overcome with the approach to diagonalizing the reaction matrix since mid 1990's, which yields the same number of transport equations for reaction-extents. In the diagonalization approach, first, a subset of reaction- extent transport equations is solved for concentrations of components and kinetic-variables. Then, the component, kinetic-variable, and mass action equations are solved for all species concentrations. Finally, the equilibrium reaction rates are posterior computed. The difficulty in this approach is that the solution of species concentrations in the second step is a stiff problem when the concentrations of master species are small compared to those of equilibrium species. To overcome the problem of stiffness, we propose a dual diagonalization approach. Here, a second diagonalization is performed on the decomposed unit matrix to yield species concentrations, each as a linear function of reaction extents. In this dual diagonalization approach, four steps are needed to complete the modeling. First, component and kinetic-variable transport equations are solved for the concentrations of components (a subset of reaction-extents) and kinetic-variables (another subset of reaction-extents). Second, the set of mass action equations written in terms of reaction extents are solved for equilibrium-variables (yet another subset of reaction-extents). Third, species concentrations are posterior obtained by solving the set of linear equations defining reaction-extents. Fourth, equilibrium rates are posterior calculated with transport equations for equilibrium-variables. Several example problems will be used to demonstrate the efficiency of this approach. Keywords: Reactive Transport, Reaction-Extent, Component, Kinetic-Variable, Equilibrium

  9. Less-Costly Ion Implantation of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments point way toward more relaxed controls over ion-implanation dosage and uniformity in solar-cell fabrication. Data indicate cell performance, measured by output current density at fixed voltage, virtually same whether implant is particular ion species or broad-beam mixture of several species.

  10. Dual infections with different Legionella strains.

    PubMed

    Wewalka, G; Schmid, D; Harrison, T G; Uldum, S A; Lück, C

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 a case of a dual infection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 and sg 3 was identified by culture of a blood sample collected from a female Austrian patient with septic pneumonia. Subsequently all 35 European National Legionella Reference Laboratories were interviewed regarding the frequency of dual infections in legionellosis. The Reference Laboratories in Denmark, the UK and Germany reported the detection of another 14 cases of dual infections with different Legionella strains between 2002 and 2012. Among the 15 cases, there were four cases with different Legionella species, six cases with different L. pneumophila serogroups, and five cases of dual infections with L. pneumophila sg 1 with different MAb-types. The median age of the 15 cases was 56 years and the male to female ratio 1:1.14. Six of the 15 patients were receiving immunosuppressive treatment following organ transplantation (n = 3) or for underlying haematological and solid malignancies (n = 3). Five of the 15 cases died within 30 days following diagnosis. Efforts to detect dual infections with different Legionella strains will improve our ability to correctly elucidate the causative sources of infection and enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of Legionella infections. PMID:23910438

  11. Biomaterials in cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The cochlear implant (CI) represents, for almost 25 years now, the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and for postlingually deafened adults. These devices thus constitute the greatest success story in the field of ‘neurobionic’ prostheses. Their (now routine) fitting in adults, and especially in young children and even babies, places exacting demands on these implants, particularly with regard to the biocompatibility of a CI’s surface components. Furthermore, certain parts of the implant face considerable mechanical challenges, such as the need for the electrode array to be flexible and resistant to breakage, and for the implant casing to be able to withstand external forces. As these implants are in the immediate vicinity of the middle-ear mucosa and of the junction to the perilymph of the cochlea, the risk exists – at least in principle – that bacteria may spread along the electrode array into the cochlea. The wide-ranging requirements made of the CI in terms of biocompatibility and the electrode mechanism mean that there is still further scope – despite the fact that CIs are already technically highly sophisticated – for ongoing improvements to the properties of these implants and their constituent materials, thus enhancing the effectiveness of these devices. This paper will therefore discuss fundamental material aspects of CIs as well as the potential for their future development. PMID:22073103

  12. [Implantable materials (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schaldach, M

    1975-11-01

    There is a steadily increasing importance of implants used as substitutions for body functions which have been impaired due to disease, natural abrasion or accident. With the present state of the art, the limitations for the application of surgical substitutions are due to insufficient properties of biomaterials with regard to specific applications as well as to deficiencies in design and function of the implants used. The basis for the improvement and new development of implants is therefore a functionally adequate design in which the specific properties of the material are taken into account with regard to the individual requirements of the implantation site. For orthopedic implants, materials have to be developed which are to a large extent corrosion and degradation resistant, and withstand high mechanical stress. For implants in the cardiovascular system, compatibility with blood is most significant. Present research in this field is concentrated on efforts to improve the thromboresistivity of conventional polymers by different kinds of surface treatments. One possibility is to influence actively the electrochemical interactions between material and blood components, e.g. by the use of redox catalysts. PMID:1107653

  13. Novel clinical applications of dual energy computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kraśnicki, Tomasz; Podgórski, Przemysław; Guziński, Maciej; Czarnecka, Anna; Tupikowski, Krzysztof; Garcarek, Jerzy; Marek Sąsiadek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Dual energy CT (DECT) was conceived at the very beginning of the computed tomography era. However the first DECT scanner was developed in 2006. Nowadays there are three different types of DECT available: dual-source CT with 80(100) kVp and 140 kVp tubes (Siemens Medical Solution); dual-layer multi-detector scanner with acquisition 120 or 140kVp (Philips Healthcare); CT unit with one rapid kVp switching source and new detector based on gemstone scintillator materials (GE Healthcare). This article describes the physical background and principles of DECT imaging as well as applications of this innovative method in routine clinical practice (renal stone differentiation, pulmonary perfusion, neuroradiology and metallic implant imaging). The particular applications are illustrated by cases from author's material. PMID:23457140

  14. Safety of nerve conduction studies in patients with implanted cardiac devices.

    PubMed

    Schoeck, Andreas P; Mellion, Michelle L; Gilchrist, James M; Christian, Fredric V

    2007-04-01

    Patients with implanted cardiac devices and their physicians may defer important electrodiagnostic testing because of anxiety about potential negative effects on the device. To determine the safety of routine nerve conduction studies (NCS) in this population, 10 patients with permanent dual-chamber pacemakers of various types and five patients with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICD) underwent nerve stimulation at sites commonly used during NCS. The implanted cardiac device was interrogated before and after the study and there was continuous monitoring of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and atrial and ventricular electrograms. Electrical impulses generated during routine NCS were never detected by the sensing amplifier and did not affect the programmed settings of the implanted cardiac device. We conclude that routine NCS is safe in patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers with bipolar sensing configurations and defibrillators. PMID:17094099

  15. The learning curve associated with the introduction of the subcutaneous implantable defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Knops, Reinoud E.; Brouwer, Tom F.; Barr, Craig S.; Theuns, Dominic A.; Boersma, Lucas; Weiss, Raul; Neuzil, Petr; Scholten, Marcoen; Lambiase, Pier D.; Leon, Angel R.; Hood, Margaret; Jones, Paul W.; Wold, Nicholas; Grace, Andrew A.; Olde Nordkamp, Louise R.A.; Burke, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) was introduced to overcome complications related to transvenous leads. Adoption of the S-ICD requires implanters to learn a new implantation technique. The aim of this study was to assess the learning curve for S-ICD implanters with respect to implant-related complications, procedure time, and inappropriate shocks (IASs). Methods and results In a pooled cohort from two clinical S-ICD databases, the IDE Trial and the EFFORTLESS Registry, complications, IASs at 180 days follow-up and implant procedure duration were assessed. Patients were grouped in quartiles based on experience of the implanter and Kaplan–Meier estimates of complication and IAS rates were calculated. A total of 882 patients implanted in 61 centres by 107 implanters with a median of 4 implants (IQR 1,8) were analysed. There were a total of 59 patients with complications and 48 patients with IAS. The complication rate decreased significantly from 9.8% in Quartile 1 (least experience) to 5.4% in Quartile 4 (most experience) (P = 0.02) and non-significantly for IAS from 7.9 to 4.8% (P = 0.10). Multivariable analysis demonstrated a hazard ratio of 0.78 (P = 0.045) for complications and 1.01 (P = 0.958) for IAS. Dual-zone programming increased with experience of the individual implanter (P < 0.001), which reduced IAS significantly in the multivariable model (HR 0.44, P = 0.01). Procedure time decreased from 75 to 65 min (P < 0.001). The complication rate and procedure time stabilized after Quartile 2 (>13 implants). Conclusion There is a short and significant learning curve associated with physicians adopting the S-ICD. Performance stabilizes after 13 implants. PMID:26324840

  16. Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification

    DOEpatents

    Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

  17. Implant interactions with orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Celenza, Frank

    2012-09-01

    Many situations arise in which orthodontic therapy in conjunction with implant modalities is beneficial, relevant or necessary. These situations might entail orthodontic treatment preparatory to the placement of an implant, such as in the site preparation for implant placement. Traditionally, this has been somewhat well understood, but there are certain guidelines that must be adhered to as well as diagnostic steps that must be followed. Provision of adequate space for implant placement is of paramount importance, but there is also the consideration of tissue manipulation and remodeling which orthodontic therapy can achieve very predictably and orthodontists should be well versed in harnessing and employing this modality of site preparation. In this way, hopeless teeth that are slated for extraction can still be utilized by orthodontic extraction to augment tissues, both hard and soft, thereby facilitating site development. On the corollary, and representing a significant shift in treatment sequencing, there are many situations in which orthodontic mechanotherapy can be simplified, expedited, and facilitated by the placement of an implant and utilization as an integral part of the mechanotherapy. Implants have proven to provide excellent anchorage, and have resulted in a new class of anchorage known as "absolute anchorage". Implants can be harnessed as anchors both in a direct and indirect sense, depending upon the dictates of the case. Further, this has led to the development of orthodontic miniscrew systems and techniques, which can have added features such as flexibility in location and placement, as well as ease of use and removal. As orthodontic appliances evolve, the advent of aligner therapy has become mainstream and well accepted, and many of the aforementioned combined treatment modalities can and should be incorporated into this relatively new treatment modality as well. PMID:23040348

  18. Effective dopant activation by susceptor-assisted microwave annealing of low energy boron implanted and phosphorus implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhao; Vemuri, Rajitha N. P.; Alford, T. L.; David Theodore, N.; Lu, Wei; Lau, S. S.; Lanz, A.

    2013-12-28

    Rapid processing and reduced end-of-range diffusion result from susceptor-assisted microwave (MW) annealing, making this technique an efficient processing alternative for electrically activating dopants within ion-implanted semiconductors. Sheet resistance and Hall measurements provide evidence of electrical activation. Susceptor-assisted MW annealing, of ion-implanted Si, enables more effective dopant activation and at lower temperatures than required for rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Raman spectroscopy and ion channeling analyses are used to monitor the extent of ion implantation damage and recrystallization. The presence and behavior of extended defects are monitored by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. Phosphorus implanted Si samples experience effective electrical activation upon MW annealing. On the other hand, when boron implanted Si is MW annealed, the growth of extended defects results in reduced crystalline quality that hinders the electrical activation process. Further comparison of dopant diffusion resulting from MW annealing and rapid thermal annealing is performed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. MW annealed ion implanted samples show less end-of-range diffusion when compared to RTA samples. In particular, MW annealed P{sup +} implanted samples achieve no visible diffusion and equivalent electrical activation at a lower temperature and with a shorter time-duration of annealing compared to RTA. In this study, the peak temperature attained during annealing does not depend on the dopant species or dose, for susceptor-assisted MW annealing of ion-implanted Si.

  19. Imaging for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Phelps, P D; Annis, J A; Robinson, P J

    1990-07-01

    Insertion of a sound amplification device into the round window niche (extracochlear implant) or into the coils of the cochlea (intracochlear implant) can give significant benefits to some carefully selected, severely deaf patients. Imaging has an essential role in selective and pre-operative assessment. Severe otosclerosis and post-meningitic labyrinthitis ossificans are common causes of deafness in these patients and can be demonstrated by computed tomography (CT). The most suitable side for operation can be assessed. We describe our experiences with 165 patients, 69 of whom were found suitable for implants. Thin (1 mm) section CT in axial and coronal planes is the best imaging investigation of the petrous temporal bones but the place of magnetic resonance scanning to confirm that the inner ear is fluid-filled and polytomography to show a multichannel implant in the cochlea is discussed. No implants were used for congenital deformities, but some observations are made of this type of structural deformity of the inner ear. PMID:2390686

  20. Positron implantation in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, V.J.; Lynn, K.G.; Welch, D.O.

    1993-12-31

    The Monte Carlo technique for modeling positron prior to annihilation and electron implantation in semi-infinite metals is described. Particle implantation is modelled as a multistep process, a series of collisions with the atoms of the host material. In elastic collisions with neutral atoms there is no transfer of energy. The particle loses energy by several different channels, excitation of the electron gas, ionization of the ion cores, or, at low energies, by phonon excitation. These competing scattering mechanisms have been incorporated into the Monte Carlo framework and several different models are being used. Brief descriptions of these Monte Carlo schemes, as well as an analytic model for positron implantation are included. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations are presented and compared with expermental data. Problems associated with modeling positron implantation are discuss and the need for more expermental data on energy-loss in different materials is stressed. Positron implantation in multilayers of different metals is briefly described and extensions of this work to include a study of multilayers and heterostructures is suggested.

  1. The femoral route revisited: an alternative for pectoral pacing lead implantation

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Ozdemir, I.; van Gelder, B.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the implantation via the femoral vein of a dual-chamber pacing system with lumenless, catheter-delivered pacing leads in a patient in whom subclavian access on both sides was obstructed. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:42-4.) PMID:20111643

  2. Can dual chlorophyll fluorescence excitation be used to assess the variation in the content of UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in leaves of temperate tree species along a light gradient?

    PubMed

    Barthod, Sandrine; Cerovic, Zoran; Epron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The present study assesses light-induced variations in phenolic compounds in leaves of saplings of two co-occurring temperate species (Acer platanoides L., and Fraxinus excelsior L.) along a light gradient using a new non-invasive optical method (Dualex). The Dualex-derived UV absorbance of leaf epidermis (the sum of the adaxial and abaxial faces, AUV) increased significantly with increasing light in both species. AUV values were correlated with absorbance of the leaf extract at 305 nm and 375 nm (A305 and A375) in both species with similar slopes for both species. However, a large difference in intercept was observed between the two species when A305 was regressed against AUV. Similarly, AUV values were well correlated with the amount of phenolics in the leaf extracts assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, but slopes were significantly different for the two species. Thus, the UV-A epidermal transmittance, despite being a reliable indicator of the UV-screening capacity of the leaf epidermis, cannot be used for any quantitative estimate of UV-B screening capacity or of energetic requirement for leaf construction without a species-specific calibration. PMID:17404380

  3. Annealing of damage and stability of implanted ions in ZnO crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sonder, E.; Zuhr, R.A.; Valiga, R.E.

    1988-08-01

    The annealing of Bi, Cr, and Mn, implanted in ZnO, has been studied by Rutherford backscattering, ion channeling, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Implantation of approx.10/sup 16/ ions/cm/sup 2/ of any of these elements produces large concentrations of Zn interstitials, but no completely amorphous region. The temperature at which these interstitials anneal is a function of the implant species. Other defects produced by the implantation, which give rise to dechanneling and a consequent increased scattering probability in the tails of backscattering spectra, anneal at significantly higher temperature. This annealing is also a function of the implant species. Motion of the implant ions themselves does not occur when the interstitials anneal; it takes place above 700 /sup 0/C for Bi and Mn, and above 1000 /sup 0/C for Cr.

  4. Turning an organic semiconductor into a low-resistance material by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraboni, Beatrice; Scidà, Alessandra; Cosseddu, Piero; Wang, Yongqiang; Nastasi, Michael; Milita, Silvia; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2015-12-01

    We report on the effects of low energy ion implantation on thin films of pentacene, carried out to investigate the efficacy of this process in the fabrication of organic electronic devices. Two different ions, Ne and N, have been implanted and compared, to assess the effects of different reactivity within the hydrocarbon matrix. Strong modification of the electrical conductivity, stable in time, is observed following ion implantation. This effect is significantly larger for N implants (up to six orders of magnitude), which are shown to introduce stable charged species within the hydrocarbon matrix, not only damage as is the case for Ne implants. Fully operational pentacene thin film transistors have also been implanted and we show how a controlled N ion implantation process can induce stable modifications in the threshold voltage, without affecting the device performance.

  5. Carbon co-implantation for ultra-shallow P{sup +}-N junction formation

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, M.; Sultan, A.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Carbon co-implantation in silicon has been studied as an approach for achieving ultra-shallow dopant profiles. Carbon implants to a dose of 1{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} were performed in conjunction with 2 and 5 keV boron and BF{sub 2} implants. Annealed samples implanted with carbon and boron exhibited junction depths up to 250{angstrom} shallower than control samples. However, no change was observed in dopant profiles when BF{sub 2} was used as the implanted dopant species. Residual defect analysis and electrical characterization of boron implanted samples suggest that enhanced carbon levels inhibit defect dissolution mechanisms thereby degrading electrical properties of the junctions. Alternatively, carbon and BF{sub 2} implanted samples exhibit no changes in these parameters from control samples.

  6. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  7. Hydroxylapatite Otologic Implants

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Beale, B.; Johnson, R.

    2000-01-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMER) and Smith and Nephew Richards Inc. of Bartlett, TN, was initiated in March 1997. The original completion date for the Agreement was March 25, 1998. The purpose of this work is to develop and commercialize net shape forming methods for directly creating dense hydroxylapatite (HA) ceramic otologic implants. The project includes three tasks: (1) modification of existing gelcasting formulations to accommodate HA slurries; (2) demonstration of gelcasting to fabricate green HA ceramic components of a size and shape appropriate to otologic implants: and (3) sintering and evaluation of the HA components.

  8. Ion implantation in silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, G.W.

    1993-12-01

    This review examines the effects of ion implantation on the physical properties of silicate glasses, the compositional modifications that can be brought about, and the use of metal implants to form colloidal nanosize particles for increasing the nonlinear refractive index.

  9. Tungsten contamination in ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polignano, M. L.; Barbarossa, F.; Galbiati, A.; Magni, D.; Mica, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes is studied by DLTS analysis both in typical operating conditions and after contamination of the implanter by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer. Of course the contaminant concentration is orders of magnitude higher after contamination of the implanter, but in addition our data show that different mechanisms are active in a not contaminated and in a contaminated implanter. A moderate tungsten contamination is observed also in a not contaminated implanter, however in that case contamination is completely not energetic and can be effectively screened by a very thin oxide. On the contrary, the contamination due to an implantation in a previously contaminated implanter is reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide. The comparison with SRIM calculations confirms that the observed deep penetration of the contaminant cannot be explained by a plain sputtering mechanism.

  10. Current trends in dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants. PMID:24868501